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Sample records for inactivated swine influenza

  1. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Language: English (US) Español ...

  2. Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Virus Language: English (US) Español Recommend ...

  3. A New Adjuvant Combined with Inactivated Influenza Enhances Specific CD8 T Cell Response in Mice and Decreases Symptoms in Swine Upon Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouguyon, Edwige; Goncalves, Elodie; Shevtsov, Alexander; Maisonnasse, Pauline; Remyga, Stepan; Goryushev, Oleg; Deville, Sebastien; Bertho, Nicolas; Ben Arous, Juliette

    2015-11-01

    Vaccination is the most effective way to control swine influenza virus (SIV) in the field. Classical vaccines are based on inactivated antigens formulated with an oil emulsion or a polymeric adjuvant. Standard adjuvants enhance the humoral response and orient the immune response toward a Th2 response. An important issue is that current vaccines do not protect against new strains. One approach to improve cross-protection is to enhance Th1 and cytotoxic responses. The development of adjuvants orienting the immune response of inactivated vaccines toward Th1/Cytotoxic responses would be highly beneficial. This study shows that the water in oil in water emulsion adjuvant Montanide™ ISA 201 VG allows the induction of anti-influenza CD8 T cell in mice and induces homologous protection against an H1N1 challenge in swine. Such adjuvants that induce both humoral and cell-mediated immunity could improve the protection conferred by SIV vaccines in the field.

  4. Swine influenza virus: zoonotic potential and vaccination strategies for the control of avian and swine influenzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Eileen; Janke, Bruce

    2008-02-15

    Influenza viruses are able to infect humans, swine, and avian species, and swine have long been considered a potential source of new influenza viruses that can infect humans. Swine have receptors to which both avian and mammalian influenza viruses bind, which increases the potential for viruses to exchange genetic sequences and produce new reassortant viruses in swine. A number of genetically diverse viruses are circulating in swine herds throughout the world and are a major cause of concern to the swine industry. Control of swine influenza is primarily through the vaccination of sows, to protect young pigs through maternally derived antibodies. However, influenza viruses continue to circulate in pigs after the decay of maternal antibodies, providing a continuing source of virus on a herd basis. Measures to control avian influenza in commercial poultry operations are dictated by the virulence of the virus. Detection of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus results in immediate elimination of the flock. Low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses are controlled through vaccination, which is done primarily in turkey flocks. Maintenance of the current HPAI virus-free status of poultry in the United States is through constant surveillance of poultry flocks. Although current influenza vaccines for poultry and swine are inactivated and adjuvanted, ongoing research into the development of newer vaccines, such as DNA, live-virus, or vectored vaccines, is being done. Control of influenza virus infection in poultry and swine is critical to the reduction of potential cross-species adaptation and spread of influenza viruses, which will minimize the risk of animals being the source of the next pandemic.

  5. MANAGEMENT PATIENT OF SWINE INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Gunawan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is an acute respiratory diseases caused by various influenza virus which infect the upper and lower respiratory tract and often accompanied by systemic symptoms such as fever, headache and muscle pain. Influenza spreads through the air. Swine influenza comes from swine and can cause an outbreaks in pig flocks. Even this is a kind of a rare case but the swine influenza could be transmitted to human by direct contact with infected swine or through environment that already being contaminated by swine influenza virus. There are 3 types of swine influenza virus namely H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2. Type H1N1 swine-virus had been known since 1918. Avian influenza virus infection is transmitted from one person to another through secret containing virus. Virus is binded into the mucous cells of respiratory tract before it is finally infecting the cells itself. Management patients with H1N1 influenza is based on the complications and the risk. Besides, it is also need to consider the clinical criteria of the patient. Therapy medicamentosa is applied to the patients by giving an antiviral, antibiotics and symptomatic therapy. Prevention can be done by avoid contact with infected animal or environment, having antiviral prophylaxis and vaccination.

  6. Intradermal immunization with inactivated swine influenza virus and adjuvant polydi(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)phosphazene (PCEP) induced humoral and cell-mediated immunity and reduced lung viral titres in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiri, Royford; Lai, Ken; Chaffey, Alyssa; Zhou, Yan; Pyo, Hyun-Mi; Gerdts, Volker; Wilson, Heather L; Mutwiri, George

    2018-03-14

    Swine influenza virus is endemic worldwide and it is responsible for significant economic losses to the swine industry. A vaccine that stimulates a rapid and long-lasting protective immune response to prevent this infection is highly sought. Poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)-phosphazene (PCEP) has demonstrated adjuvant activity when formulated as part of multiple vaccines in mice and pigs. In this study we examined the magnitude and type of immune response induced in pigs vaccinated via the intramuscular or intradermal routes with inactivated swine influenza virus (SIV) H1N1 vaccine formulated with PCEP. Intradermal administration of PCEP-adjuvanted inactivated SIV vaccine stimulated significant anti-SIV antibody titres, increased neutralizing antibodies, and significantly reduced lung virus load with limited reduction of gross lung lesions after challenge with virulent H1N1 relative to control animals. These results indicate that PCEP may be effective as a vaccine adjuvant against swine influenza viruses in pigs and should be considered a potential candidate adjuvant for future swine intradermal influenza vaccines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Protective efficacy of an inactivated Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza vaccine against homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 viruses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Jinyu; Yang, Dawei; Qiao, Chuanling; Xu, Huiyang; Xu, Bangfeng; Wu, Yunpu; Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Chen, Hualan

    2016-07-19

    Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EA H1N1) swine influenza viruses are prevalent in pigs in Europe and Asia, but occasionally cause human infection, which raises concern about their pandemic potential. Here, we produced a whole-virus inactivated vaccine with an EA H1N1 strain (A/swine/Guangxi/18/2011, SW/GX/18/11) and evaluated its efficacy against homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 influenza viruses in mice. A strong humoral immune response, which we measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and virus neutralization (VN), was induced in the vaccine-inoculated mice upon challenge. The inactivated SW/GX/18/11 vaccine provided complete protection against challenge with homologous SW/GX/18/11 virus in mice and provided effective protection against challenge with heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 viruses with distinctive genomic combinations. Our findings suggest that this EA H1N1 vaccine can provide protection against both homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 or H1N2 virus infection. As such, it is an excellent vaccine candidate to prevent H1N1 swine influenza. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic Reassortment Among the Influenza Viruses (Avian Influenza, Human Influenza and Swine Influenza in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus is a hazardous virus and harm to respiratory tract. The virus infect birds, pigs, horses, dogs, mammals and humans. Pigs are important hosts in ecology of the influenza virus because they have two receptors, namely NeuAc 2,3Gal and NeuAc 2,6Gal which make the pigs are sensitive to infection of influenza virus from birds and humans and genetic reassortment can be occurred. Classical swine influenza H1N1 viruses had been circulated in pigs in North America and other countries for 80 years. In 1998, triple reassortant H3N2 swine influenza viruses that contains genes of human influenza A virus (H3N2, swine influenza virus (H1N1 and avian influenza are reported as cause an outbreaks in pigs in North America. Furthermore, the circulation of triple reassortant H3N2 swine influenza virus resulting reassortant H1N1 swine influenza and reassortant H1N2 swine influenza viruses cause infection in humans. Humans who were infected by triple reassortant swine influenza A virus (H1N1 usually made direct contact with pigs. Although without any clinical symptoms, pigs that are infected by triple reassortant swine influenza A (H1N1 can transmit infection to the humans around them. In June 2009, WHO declared that pandemic influenza of reassortant H1N1 influenza A virus (novel H1N1 has reached phase 6. In Indonesia until 2009, there were 1005 people were infected by H1N1 influenza A and 5 of them died. Novel H1N1 and H5N1 viruses have been circulated in humans and pigs in Indonesia. H5N1 reassortant and H1N1 viruses or the seasonal flu may could arise because of genetic reassortment between avian influenza and humans influenza viruses that infect pigs together.

  9. Protocol: Transmission and prevention of influenza in Hutterites: Zoonotic transmission of influenza A: swine & swine workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loeb Mark

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among swine, reassortment of influenza virus genes from birds, pigs, and humans could generate influenza viruses with pandemic potential. Humans with acute infection might also be a source of infection for swine production units. This article describes the study design and methods being used to assess influenza A transmission between swine workers and pigs. We hypothesize that transmission of swine influenza viruses to humans, transmission of human influenza viruses to swine, and reassortment of human and swine influenza A viruses is occurring. The project is part of a Team Grant; all Team Grant studies include active surveillance for influenza among Hutterite swine farmers in Alberta, Canada. This project also includes non-Hutterite swine farms that are experiencing swine respiratory illness. Methods/Design Nurses conduct active surveillance for influenza-like-illness (ILI, visiting participating communally owned and operated Hutterite swine farms twice weekly. Nasopharyngeal swabs and acute and convalescent sera are obtained from persons with any two such symptoms. Swabs are tested for influenza A and B by a real time RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction at the Alberta Provincial Laboratory for Public Health (ProvLab. Test-positive participants are advised that they have influenza. The occurrence of test-positive swine workers triggers sampling (swabbing, acute and convalescent serology of the swine herd by veterinarians. Specimens obtained from swine are couriered to St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN for testing. Veterinarians and herd owners are notified if animal specimens are test-positive for influenza. If swine ILI occurs, veterinarians obtain samples from the pigs; test-positives from the animals trigger nurses to obtain specimens (swabbing, acute and convalescent serology from the swine workers. ProvLab cultures influenza virus from human specimens, freezes these cultures and

  10. Pandemic swine influenza virus: Preparedness planning | Ojogba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The novel H1N1 influenza virus that emerged in humans in Mexico in early 2009 and transmitted efficiently in the human population with global spread was declared a pandemic strain. The introduction of different avian and human influenza virus genes into swine influenza viruses often result in viruses of increased fitness ...

  11. [An overview on swine influenza viruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuai; Zhu, Wen-Fei; Shu, Yue-Long

    2013-05-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIVs) are respiratory pathogens of pigs. They cause both economic bur den in livestock-dependent industries and serious global public health concerns in humans. Because of their dual susceptibility to human and avian influenza viruses, pigs are recognized as intermediate hosts for genetic reassortment and interspecies transmission. Subtypes H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 circulate in swine populations around the world, with varied origin and genetic characteristics among different continents and regions. In this review, the role of pigs in evolution of influenza A viruses, the genetic evolution of SIVs and interspecies transmission of SIVs are described. Considering the possibility that pigs might produce novel influenza viruses causing more outbreaks and pandemics, routine epidemiological surveillance of influenza viruses in pig populations is highly recommended.

  12. History of Swine influenza viruses in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huachen; Webby, Richard; Lam, Tommy T Y; Smith, David K; Peiris, Joseph S M; Guan, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The pig is one of the main hosts of influenza A viruses and plays important roles in shaping the current influenza ecology. The occurrence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus demonstrated that pigs could independently facilitate the genesis of a pandemic influenza strain. Genetic analyses revealed that this virus was derived by reassortment between at least two parent swine influenza viruses (SIV), from the northern American triple reassortant H1N2 (TR) and European avian-like H1N1 (EA) lineages. The movement of live pigs between different continents and subsequent virus establishment are preconditions for such a reassortment event to occur. Asia, especially China, has the largest human and pig populations in the world, and seems to be the only region frequently importing pigs from other continents. Virological surveillance revealed that not only classical swine H1N1 (CS), and human-origin H3N2 viruses circulated, but all of the EA, TR and their reassortant variants were introduced into and co-circulated in pigs in this region. Understanding the long-term evolution and history of SIV in Asia would provide insights into the emergence of influenza viruses with epidemic potential in swine and humans.

  13. H1N1 influenza (Swine flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swine flu; H1N1 type A influenza ... The H1N1 virus is now considered a regular flu virus. It is one of the three viruses included in the regular (seasonal) flu vaccine . You cannot get H1N1 flu virus from ...

  14. Efficacy of Influenza Vaccination and Tamiflu? Treatment ? Comparative Studies with Eurasian Swine Influenza Viruses in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Duerrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Bauer, Katja; Vissiennon, Th?ophile; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebu...

  15. Population dynamics of swine influenza virus in finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Influenza virus infections in swine were first noticed in the US in 1918, during the human pandemic of the Spanish flu. In Europe, seroprevalences for the three most common swine influenza strains at the moment, H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2, range from 20-80% in finishing pigs at the end of the finishing

  16. The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Nicola S; Russell, Colin A; Langat, Pinky

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled...... with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the risk profile of swine influenza viruses in terms of their epizootic and pandemic potential...

  17. Influenza D Virus Infection in Feral Swine Populations, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lucas; Luo, Kaijian; Olivier, Alicia K; Cunningham, Fred L; Blackmon, Sherry; Hanson-Dorr, Katie; Sun, Hailiang; Baroch, John; Lutman, Mark W; Quade, Bianca; Epperson, William; Webby, Richard; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2018-06-01

    Influenza D virus (IDV) has been identified in domestic cattle, swine, camelid, and small ruminant populations across North America, Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa. Our study investigated seroprevalence and transmissibility of IDV in feral swine. During 2012-2013, we evaluated feral swine populations in 4 US states; of 256 swine tested, 57 (19.1%) were IDV seropositive. Among 96 archived influenza A virus-seropositive feral swine samples collected from 16 US states during 2010-2013, 41 (42.7%) were IDV seropositive. Infection studies demonstrated that IDV-inoculated feral swine shed virus 3-5 days postinoculation and seroconverted at 21 days postinoculation; 50% of in-contact naive feral swine shed virus, seroconverted, or both. Immunohistochemical staining showed viral antigen within epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, including trachea, soft palate, and lungs. Our findings suggest that feral swine might serve an important role in the ecology of IDV.

  18. Influenza Vaccination Strategies: Comparing Inactivated and Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranya Sridhar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a major respiratory pathogen causing annual outbreaks and occasional pandemics. Influenza vaccination is the major method of prophylaxis. Currently annual influenza vaccination is recommended for groups at high risk of complications from influenza infection such as pregnant women, young children, people with underlying disease and the elderly, along with occupational groups such a healthcare workers and farm workers. There are two main types of vaccines available: the parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine and the intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine. The inactivated vaccines are licensed from 6 months of age and have been used for more than 50 years with a good safety profile. Inactivated vaccines are standardized according to the presence of the viral major surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin and protection is mediated by the induction of vaccine strain specific antibody responses. In contrast, the live attenuated vaccines are licensed in Europe for children from 2–17 years of age and provide a multifaceted immune response with local and systemic antibody and T cell responses but with no clear correlate of protection. Here we discuss the immunological immune responses elicited by the two vaccines and discuss future work to better define correlates of protection.

  19. Influvac, a trivalent inactivated subunit influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Fabiano, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Influenza represents a major sanitary and socio-economic burden and vaccination is universally considered the most effective strategy for preventing the disease and its complications. Traditional influenza vaccines have been on the market since the late 1940s, with million of doses administered annually worldwide, and demonstrated a substantial efficacy and safety. The trivalent inactivated subunit vaccine has been available for more than 25 years and has been studied in healthy children, adults and the elderly and in people affected by underlying chronic medical conditions. We describe vaccine technology focusing on subunit vaccine production procedures and mode of action and provide updated information on efficacy and safety available data. A review of efficacy and safety data in healthy subjects and in high risk populations from major sponsor- and investigator-driven studies. The vaccine showed a good immunogenicity and a favorable safety profile in all target groups. In the panorama of actually available influenza vaccines, trivalent inactivated subunit vaccine represents a well-established tool for preventing flu and the associated complications.

  20. Influenza A Viruses of Human Origin in Swine, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Martha I; Schaefer, Rejane; Gava, Danielle; Cantão, Maurício Egídio; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice Reis

    2015-08-01

    The evolutionary origins of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus that caused the first outbreak of the 2009 pandemic in Mexico remain unclear, highlighting the lack of swine surveillance in Latin American countries. Although Brazil has one of the largest swine populations in the world, influenza was not thought to be endemic in Brazil's swine until the major outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in 2009. Through phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequences of influenza viruses of the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes collected in swine in Brazil during 2009-2012, we identified multiple previously uncharacterized influenza viruses of human seasonal H1N2 and H3N2 virus origin that have circulated undetected in swine for more than a decade. Viral diversity has further increased in Brazil through reassortment between co-circulating viruses, including A(H1N1)pdm09. The circulation of multiple divergent hemagglutinin lineages challenges the design of effective cross-protective vaccines and highlights the need for additional surveillance.

  1. Influenza A Viruses of Human Origin in Swine, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Rejane; Gava, Danielle; Cantão, Maurício Egídio; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice Reis

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary origins of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus that caused the first outbreak of the 2009 pandemic in Mexico remain unclear, highlighting the lack of swine surveillance in Latin American countries. Although Brazil has one of the largest swine populations in the world, influenza was not thought to be endemic in Brazil’s swine until the major outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in 2009. Through phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequences of influenza viruses of the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes collected in swine in Brazil during 2009–2012, we identified multiple previously uncharacterized influenza viruses of human seasonal H1N2 and H3N2 virus origin that have circulated undetected in swine for more than a decade. Viral diversity has further increased in Brazil through reassortment between co-circulating viruses, including A(H1N1)pdm09. The circulation of multiple divergent hemagglutinin lineages challenges the design of effective cross-protective vaccines and highlights the need for additional surveillance. PMID:26196759

  2. Two genotypes of H1N2 swine influenza viruses appeared among pigs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuantian; Zhu, Qiyun; Yang, Huanliang; Zhang, Xiumei; Qiao, Chuanling; Chen, Yan; Xin, Xiaoguang; Chen, Hualan

    2009-10-01

    H1N2 is one of the main subtypes of influenza, which circulates in swine all over the world. To investigate the prevalence and genetic of H1N2 in swine of China. Two H1N2 swine influenza viruses were isolated from Tianjin and Guangdong province of China in 2004 and 2006, respectively. The molecular evolution of eight gene segments was analyzed. A/Swine/Tianjin/1/2004 has low identity with A/Swine/Guangdong/2006; in the phylogenetic tree of PA gene, A/Swine/Guangdong/1/2006 and A/Swine/Guangxi/1/2006 along with the H1N2 swine isolates of North America formed a cluster; and A/Swine/Tianjin/2004 and A/Swine/Zhejiang/2004, along with the classical H1N1 swine isolates formed another cluster; except that NA gene of A/Swine/Tianjin/1/2004 fell into the cluster of the H3N2 human influenza virus, indicating the reassortment between H3N2 human and H1N1 swine influenza viruses. Two different genotypes of H1N2 appeared among pigs in China. A/swine/Guangdong/1/06 was probably from H1N2 swine influenza viruses of North America; while A/swine/Tianjin/1/04 maybe come from reassortments of classical H1N1 swine and H3N2 human viruses prevalent in North America.

  3. Classical Swine Fever and Avian Influenza epidemcis: Lessons learned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.; Loeffen, W.L.A.; Koch, G.

    2012-01-01

    This publication is based on a talk which was held in the course of the spring symposium „Impfen statt Keulen“ of the Akademie für Tiergesundheit (AfT) 2011 in Wiesbaden-Naurod. Experience with recent large-scale epidemics of Classical Swine Fever and Avian Influenza – among others in the

  4. Novel reassortant swine influenza viruses are circulating in Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    of the reassortant viruses comprised a HA gene similar to H1 of H1N1 avian-like swine influenza virus (SIV) and a NA gene most closely related to N2 gene of human H3N2 influenza virus that circulated in humans in the mid 1990s. The internal genes of this reassortant virus with the subtype H1avN2hu all belonged...... to the H1N1 avian-like SIV lineages. Until now this novel virus H1avN2hu has only been detected in Danish swine. The other novel reassortant virus contained the HA gene from H1N1pdm09 virus and a NA gene similar to the N2 gene of H3N2 SIV that have been circulating in European swine since the mid 1980s...

  5. Swine influenza viruses isolated in 1983, 2002 and 2009 in Sweden exemplify different lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metreveli Giorgi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Swine influenza virus isolates originating from outbreaks in Sweden from 1983, 2002 and 2009 were subjected to nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The aim of the studies was to obtain an overview on their potential relatedness as well as to provide data for broader scale studies on swine influenza epidemiology. Nonetheless, analyzing archive isolates is justified by the efforts directed to the comprehension of the appearance of pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. Interestingly, this study illustrates the evolution of swine influenza viruses in Europe, because the earliest isolate belonged to 'classical' swine H1N1, the subsequent ones to Eurasian 'avian-like' swine H1N1 and reassortant 'avian-like' swine H1N2 lineages, respectively. The latter two showed close genetic relatedness regarding their PB2, HA, NP, and NS genes, suggesting common ancestry. The study substantiates the importance of molecular surveillance for swine influenza viruses.

  6. Swine Influenza Virus Antibodies in Humans, Western Europe, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloff, Nancy A.; Kremer, Jacques R.; Charpentier, Emilie; Sausy, Aurélie; Olinger, Christophe M.; Weicherding, Pierre; Schuh, John; Van Reeth, Kristien

    2011-01-01

    Serologic studies for swine influenza viruses (SIVs) in humans with occupational exposure to swine have been reported from the Americas but not from Europe. We compared levels of neutralizing antibodies against 3 influenza viruses—pandemic (H1N1) 2009, an avian-like enzootic subtype H1N1 SIV, and a 2007–08 seasonal subtype H1N1—in 211 persons with swine contact and 224 matched controls in Luxembourg. Persons whose profession involved contact with swine had more neutralizing antibodies against SIV and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus than did the controls. Controls also had antibodies against these viruses although exposure to them was unlikely. Antibodies against SIV and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus correlated with each other but not with seasonal subtype H1N1 virus. Sequential exposure to variants of seasonal influenza (H1N1) viruses may have increased chances for serologic cross-reactivity with antigenically distinct viruses. Further studies are needed to determine the extent to which serologic responses correlate with infection. PMID:21392430

  7. Prospective surveillance for influenza. virus in Chinese swine farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin D; Ma, Mai-Juan; Wang, Guo-Lin; Bi, Zhen-Qiang; Lu, Bing; Wang, Xian-Jun; Wang, Chuang-Xin; Chen, Shan-Hui; Qian, Yan-Hua; Song, Shao-Xia; Li, Min; Zhao, Teng; Wu, Meng-Na; Borkenhagen, Laura K; Cao, Wu-Chun; Gray, Gregory C

    2018-05-16

    Pork production in China is rapidly increasing and swine production operations are expanding in size and number. However, the biosecurity measures necessary to prevent swine disease transmission, particularly influenza. viruses (IAV) that can be zoonotic, are often inadequate. Despite this risk, few studies have attempted to comprehensively study IAV ecology in swine production settings. Here, we present environmental and animal sampling data collected in the first year of an ongoing five-year prospective epidemiological study to assess IAV ecology as it relates to swine workers, their pigs, and the farm environment. From March 2015 to February 2016, we collected 396 each of environmental swab, water, bioaerosol, and fecal/slurry samples, as well as 3300 pig oral secretion samples from six farms in China. The specimens were tested with molecular assays for IAV. Of these, 46 (11.6%) environmental swab, 235 (7.1%) pig oral secretion, 23 (5.8%) water, 20 (5.1%) bioaerosol, and 19 (4.8%) fecal/slurry specimens were positive for influenza. by qRT-PCR. Risk factors for IAV detection among collected samples were identified using bivariate logistic regression. Overall, these first year data suggest that IAV is quite ubiquitous in the swine production environment and demonstrate an association between the different types of environmental sampling used. Given the mounting evidence that some of these viruses freely move between pigs and swine workers, and that mixing of these viruses can yield progeny viruses with pandemic potential, it seems imperative that routine surveillance for novel IAVs be conducted in commercial swine farms.

  8. Optimal Use of Vaccines for Control of Influenza A Virus in Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Sandbulte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S is one of the most important infectious disease agents of swine in North America. In addition to the economic burden of IAV-S to the swine industry, the zoonotic potential of IAV-S sometimes leads to serious public health concerns. Adjuvanted, inactivated vaccines have been licensed in the United States for over 20 years, and there is also widespread usage of autogenous/custom IAV-S vaccines. Vaccination induces neutralizing antibodies and protection against infection with very similar strains. However, IAV-S strains are so diverse and prone to mutation that these vaccines often have disappointing efficacy in the field. This scientific review was developed to help veterinarians and others to identify the best available IAV-S vaccine for a particular infected herd. We describe key principles of IAV-S structure and replication, protective immunity, currently available vaccines, and vaccine technologies that show promise for the future. We discuss strategies to optimize the use of available IAV-S vaccines, based on information gathered from modern diagnostics and surveillance programs. Improvements in IAV-S immunization strategies, in both the short term and long term, will benefit swine health and productivity and potentially reduce risks to public health.

  9. Influenza (flu) vaccine (Inactivated or Recombinant): What you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/flu.html CDC review information for Inactivated Influenza VIS: ...

  10. Reverse zoonosis of influenza to swine: new perspectives on the human-animal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Martha I; Vincent, Amy L

    2015-03-01

    The origins of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in swine are unknown, highlighting gaps in our understanding of influenza A virus (IAV) ecology and evolution. We review how recently strengthened influenza virus surveillance in pigs has revealed that influenza virus transmission from humans to swine is far more frequent than swine-to-human zoonosis, and is central in seeding swine globally with new viral diversity. The scale of global human-to-swine transmission represents the largest 'reverse zoonosis' of a pathogen documented to date. Overcoming the bias towards perceiving swine as sources of human viruses, rather than recipients, is key to understanding how the bidirectional nature of the human-animal interface produces influenza threats to both hosts. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Reverse zoonosis of influenza to swine: new perspectives on the human–animal interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    The origins of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in swine are unknown, highlighting gaps in our understanding of influenza A virus (IAV) ecology and evolution. We review how recently strengthened influenza virus surveillance in pigs has revealed that influenza virus transmission from humans to sw...

  12. Feral Swine in the United States Have Been Exposed to both Avian and Swine Influenza A Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brigitte E; Sun, Hailiang; Carrel, Margaret; Cunningham, Fred L; Baroch, John A; Hanson-Dorr, Katie C; Young, Sean G; Schmit, Brandon; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Lutman, Mark W; Pedersen, Kerri; Lager, Kelly; Bowman, Andrew S; Slemons, Richard D; Smith, David R; DeLiberto, Thomas; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2017-10-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) in swine can cause sporadic infections and pandemic outbreaks among humans, but how avian IAV emerges in swine is still unclear. Unlike domestic swine, feral swine are free ranging and have many opportunities for IAV exposure through contacts with various habitats and animals, including migratory waterfowl, a natural reservoir for IAVs. During the period from 2010 to 2013, 8,239 serum samples were collected from feral swine across 35 U.S. states and tested against 45 contemporary antigenic variants of avian, swine, and human IAVs; of these, 406 (4.9%) samples were IAV antibody positive. Among 294 serum samples selected for antigenic characterization, 271 cross-reacted with ≥1 tested virus, whereas the other 23 did not cross-react with any tested virus. Of the 271 IAV-positive samples, 236 cross-reacted with swine IAVs, 1 with avian IAVs, and 16 with avian and swine IAVs, indicating that feral swine had been exposed to both swine and avian IAVs but predominantly to swine IAVs. Our findings suggest that feral swine could potentially be infected with both avian and swine IAVs, generating novel IAVs by hosting and reassorting IAVs from wild birds and domestic swine and facilitating adaptation of avian IAVs to other hosts, including humans, before their spillover. Continued surveillance to monitor the distribution and antigenic diversities of IAVs in feral swine is necessary to increase our understanding of the natural history of IAVs. IMPORTANCE There are more than 5 million feral swine distributed across at least 35 states in the United States. In contrast to domestic swine, feral swine are free ranging and have unique opportunities for contact with wildlife, livestock, and their habitats. Our serological results indicate that feral swine in the United States have been exposed to influenza A viruses (IAVs) consistent with those found in both domestic swine and wild birds, with the predominant infections consisting of swine-adapted IAVs

  13. Seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine protects against 1918 Spanish influenza virus in ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influenza H1N1 pandemic of 1918 was one of the worst medical disasters in human history. Recent studies have demonstrated that the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of the 1918 virus and 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus, the latter now a component of the seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV),...

  14. Molucular Epidemiology and Evolution of Influenza Viruses Circulating within European Swine between 2009 and 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watson, S.J.; Langat, P.; Reid, S.; Lam, T.; Cotten, M.; Kelly, M.; Reeth, Van K.; Qiu, Y.; Simon, G.; Bonin, E.; Foni, E.; Chiapponi, C.; Larsen, L.; Hjulsager, C.; Markowska-Daniel, I.; Urbaniak, K.; Durrwald, R.; Schlegel, M.; Huovilainen, A.; Davidson, I.; Dan, A.; Loeffen, W.L.A.; Edwards, S.; Bublot, M.; Vila, T.; Maldonado, J.; Valls, L.; Brown, I.H.; Pybus, O.G.; Kellam, P.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence in humans of the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus, a complex reassortant virus of swine origin, highlighted the importance of worldwide influenza virus surveillance in swine. To date, large-scale surveillance studies have been reported for southern China and North America, but such data

  15. Hypothiocyanite produced by human and rat respiratory epithelial cells inactivates extracellular H1N2 influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Aaron; Pang, Lan; Hanson, Jarod; Dlugolenski, Daniel; Streich, Rebecca; Lafontaine, Eric R; Nagy, Tamás; Tripp, Ralph A; Rada, Balázs

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to study whether an extracellular, oxidative antimicrobial mechanism inherent to tracheal epithelial cells is capable of inactivating influenza H1N2 virus. Epithelial cells were isolated from tracheas of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Both primary human and rat tracheobronchial epithelial cells were differentiated in air-liquid interface cultures. A/swine/Illinois/02860/09 (swH1N2) influenza A virions were added to the apical side of airway cells for 1 h in the presence or absence of lactoperoxidase or thiocyanate. Characterization of rat epithelial cells (morphology, Duox expression) occurred via western blotting, PCR, hydrogen peroxide production measurement and histology. The number of viable virions was determined by plaque assays. Statistical difference of the results was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test. Our data show that rat tracheobronchial epithelial cells develop a differentiated, polarized monolayer with high transepithelial electrical resistance, mucin production and expression of dual oxidases. Influenza A virions are inactivated by human and rat epithelial cells via a dual oxidase-, lactoperoxidase- and thiocyanate-dependent mechanism. Differentiated air-liquid interface cultures of rat tracheal epithelial cells provide a novel model to study airway epithelium-influenza interactions. The dual oxidase/lactoperoxidase/thiocyanate extracellular oxidative system producing hypothiocyanite is a fast and potent anti-influenza mechanism inactivating H1N2 viruses prior to infection of the epithelium.

  16. Rheumatoid arthritis and Swine influenza vaccine: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basra, Gurjot; Jajoria, Praveen; Gonzalez, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common chronic inflammatory joint disease. Multiple scientific articles have documented that vaccinations for influenza, MMR, and HBV, to name a few, could be triggers of RA in genetically predisposed individuals. However, there is limited data regarding the association of swine flu vaccine (H1N1) and RA. We report the case of a Mexican American female who developed RA right after vaccination with H1N1 vaccine. Genetically, RA has consistently been associated with an epitope in the third hypervariable region of the HLA-DR β chains, known as the "shared epitope", which is found primarily in DR4 and DR1 regions. The presence of HLA-DRB1 alleles is associated with susceptibility to RA in Mexican Americans. Hence, certain individuals with the presence of the "shared epitope" may develop RA following specific vaccinations. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of RA following vaccination with the swine flu vaccine.

  17. 76 FR 79203 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Veterinary Biological Products for Swine Influenza Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Exclusive License: Veterinary Biological Products for Swine Influenza Vaccines AGENCY: National Institutes....7. The invention relates to compositions and methods of use as Veterinary Influenza Vaccines... to humans. This technology describes DNA vaccines against influenza serotypes H5N1, H1N1, H3N2, and...

  18. Interspecies Interactions and Potential Influenza A Virus Risk in Small Swine Farms in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    and swine influenza viruses : our current understanding of the zoonotic risk. Vet Res 2007, 38(2):243–260. 4. Wertheim JO: When pigs fly: the avian ...first authors. Abstract Background The recent avian influenza epidemic in Asia and the H1N1 pandemic demonstrated that influenza A viruses pose a...prime “mixing vessels” due to the dual receptivity of their trachea to human and avian strains. Additionally, avian and human influenza viruses

  19. Kaempferol ameliorates H9N2 swine influenza virus-induced acute lung injury by inactivation of TLR4/MyD88-mediated NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruihua; Ai, Xia; Duan, Yongjie; Xue, Man; He, Wenxiao; Wang, Cunlian; Xu, Tong; Xu, Mingju; Liu, Baojian; Li, Chunhong; Wang, Zhijun; Zhang, Ruihong; Wang, Guohua; Tian, Shufei; Liu, Huifeng

    2017-05-01

    Kaempferol, a very common type of dietary flavonoids, has been found to exert antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of our investigation was designed to reveal the effect of kaempferol on H9N2 influenza virus-induced inflammation in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, BALB/C mice were infected intranasally with H9N2 influenza virus with or without kaempferol treatment to induce acute lung injury (ALI) model. In vitro, MH-S cells were infected with H9N2 influenza virus with or without kaempferol treatment. In vivo, kaempferol treatment attenuated pulmonary edema, the W/D mass ratio, pulmonary capillary permeability, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and the numbers of inflammatory cells. Kaempferol reduced ROS and Malondialdehyde (MDA) production, and increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Kaempferol also reduced overproduction of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. In addition, kaempferol decreased the H9N2 viral titre. In vitro, ROS, MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 was also reduced by kaempferol. Moreover, our data showed that kaempferol significantly inhibited the upregulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), phosphorylation level of IκBα and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity, and phosphorylation level of MAPKs, both in vivo and in vitro. These results suggest that kaempferol exhibits a protective effect on H9N2 virus-induced inflammation via suppression of TLR4/MyD88-mediated NF-κB and MAPKs pathways, and kaempferol may be considered as an effective drug for the potential treatment of influenza virus-induced ALI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Rheumatoid Arthritis and Swine Influenza Vaccine: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurjot Basra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is the most common chronic inflammatory joint disease. Multiple scientific articles have documented that vaccinations for influenza, MMR, and HBV, to name a few, could be triggers of RA in genetically predisposed individuals. However, there is limited data regarding the association of swine flu vaccine (H1N1 and RA. We report the case of a Mexican American female who developed RA right after vaccination with H1N1 vaccine. Genetically, RA has consistently been associated with an epitope in the third hypervariable region of the HLA-DR chains, known as the “shared epitope”, which is found primarily in DR4 and DR1 regions. The presence of HLA-DRB1 alleles is associated with susceptibility to RA in Mexican Americans. Hence, certain individuals with the presence of the “shared epitope” may develop RA following specific vaccinations. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of RA following vaccination with the swine flu vaccine.

  1. Interaction between Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Swine Influenza Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Eileen L.; Thacker, Brad J.; Janke, Bruce H.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental respiratory model was used to investigate the interaction between Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and swine influenza virus (SIV) in the induction of pneumonia in susceptible swine. Previous studies demonstrated that M. hyopneumoniae, which produces a chronic bronchopneumonia in swine, potentiates a viral pneumonia induced by the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). In this study, pigs were inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae 21 days prior to inoculation with SIV. Clinical disease as characterized by the severity of cough and fever was evaluated daily. Percentages of lung tissue with visual lesions and microscopic lesions were assessed upon necropsy at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days following SIV inoculation. Clinical observations revealed that pigs infected with both SIV and M. hyopneumoniae coughed significantly more than pigs inoculated with a single agent. Macroscopic pneumonia on necropsy at days 3 and 7 was greatest in both SIV-infected groups, with minimal levels of pneumonia in the M. hyopneumoniae-only-infected pigs. At 14 days post-SIV inoculation, pneumonia was significantly more severe in pigs infected with both pathogens. However, by 21 days postinoculation, the level of pneumonia in the dual-infected pigs was similar to that of the M. hyopneumoniae-only-infected group, and the pneumonia in the pigs inoculated with only SIV was nearly resolved. Microscopically, there was no apparent increase in the severity of pneumonia in pigs infected with both agents compared to that of single-agent-challenged pigs. The results of this study found that while pigs infected with both agents exhibited more severe clinical disease, the relationship between the two pathogens lacked the profound potentiation found with dual infection with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV. These findings demonstrate that the relationship between mycoplasmas and viruses varies with the individual agent. PMID:11427564

  2. Swine influenza virus vaccines: to change or not to change-that's the question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Reeth, Kristien; Ma, Wenjun

    2013-01-01

    Commercial vaccines currently available against swine influenza virus (SIV) are inactivated, adjuvanted, whole virus vaccines, based on H1N1 and/or H3N2 and/or H1N2 SIVs. In keeping with the antigenic and genetic differences between SIVs circulating in Europe and the US, the vaccines for each region are produced locally and contain different strains. Even within a continent, there is no standardization of vaccine strains, and the antigen mass and adjuvants can also differ between different commercial products. Recombinant protein vaccines against SIV, vector, and DNA vaccines, and vaccines attenuated by reverse genetics have been tested in experimental studies, but they have not yet reached the market. In this review, we aim to present a critical analysis of the performance of commercial inactivated and novel generation SIV vaccines in experimental vaccination challenge studies in pigs. We pay special attention to the differences between commercial SIV vaccines and vaccination attitudes in Europe and in North America, to the issue of vaccine strain selection and changes, and to the potential advantages of novel generation vaccines over the traditional killed SIV vaccines.

  3. The first Swedish H1N2 swine influenza virus isolate represents an uncommon reassortant

    OpenAIRE

    Renström Lena HM; Isaksson Mats; Berg Mikael; Zohari Siamak; Widén Frederik; Metreveli Giorgi; Bálint Ádám; Wallgren Per; Belák Sándor; Segall Thomas; Kiss István

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The European swine influenza viruses (SIVs) show considerable diversity comprising different types of H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2 strains. The intensifying full genome sequencing efforts reveal further reassortants within these subtypes. Here we report the identification of an uncommon reassortant variant of H1N2 subtype influenza virus isolated from a pig in a multisite herd where H1N2 swine influenza was diagnosed for the first time in Sweden during the winter of 2008-2009. The majority o...

  4. Educating youth swine exhibitors on influenza A virus transmission at agricultural fairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolting, J M; Midla, J; Whittington, M S; Scheer, S D; Bowman, A S

    2018-02-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major zoonotic pathogen that threatens global public health. Novel strains of influenza A viruses pose a significant risk to public health due to their pandemic potential, and transmission of influenza A viruses from animals to humans is an important mechanism in the generation and introduction of IAVs that threaten human health. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to develop real-life training scenarios to better inform swine exhibitors of the risks they may encounter when influenza A viruses are present in swine. Educational activities were implemented in five Ohio counties where exhibition swine had historically been shedding influenza A viruses during the county fair. A total of 146 youth swine exhibitors participated in the educational programme, and an increase in the knowledge base of these youth was documented. It is expected that educating youth exhibitors about exposure to influenza A virus infections in the swine they are exhibiting will result in altered behaviours and animal husbandry practices that will improve both human and animal health. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Guinea pig model for evaluating the potential public health risk of swine and avian influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influenza viruses circulating in animals sporadically transmit to humans and pose pandemic threats. Animal models to evaluate the potential public health risk potential of these viruses are needed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the guinea pig as a mammalian model for the study of the replication and transmission characteristics of selected swine H1N1, H1N2, H3N2 and avian H9N2 influenza viruses, compared to those of pandemic (H1N1 2009 and seasonal human H1N1, H3N2 influenza viruses. The swine and avian influenza viruses investigated were restricted to the respiratory system of guinea pigs and shed at high titers in nasal tracts without prior adaptation, similar to human strains. None of the swine and avian influenza viruses showed transmissibility among guinea pigs; in contrast, pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus transmitted from infected guinea pigs to all animals and seasonal human influenza viruses could also horizontally transmit in guinea pigs. The analysis of the receptor distribution in the guinea pig respiratory tissues by lectin histochemistry indicated that both SAα2,3-Gal and SAα2,6-Gal receptors widely presented in the nasal tract and the trachea, while SAα2,3-Gal receptor was the main receptor in the lung. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that the guinea pig could serve as a useful mammalian model to evaluate the potential public health threat of swine and avian influenza viruses.

  6. Guinea pig model for evaluating the potential public health risk of swine and avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yipeng; Bi, Yuhai; Pu, Juan; Hu, Yanxin; Wang, Jingjing; Gao, Huijie; Liu, Linqing; Xu, Qi; Tan, Yuanyuan; Liu, Mengda; Guo, Xin; Yang, Hanchun; Liu, Jinhua

    2010-11-23

    The influenza viruses circulating in animals sporadically transmit to humans and pose pandemic threats. Animal models to evaluate the potential public health risk potential of these viruses are needed. We investigated the guinea pig as a mammalian model for the study of the replication and transmission characteristics of selected swine H1N1, H1N2, H3N2 and avian H9N2 influenza viruses, compared to those of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and seasonal human H1N1, H3N2 influenza viruses. The swine and avian influenza viruses investigated were restricted to the respiratory system of guinea pigs and shed at high titers in nasal tracts without prior adaptation, similar to human strains. None of the swine and avian influenza viruses showed transmissibility among guinea pigs; in contrast, pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus transmitted from infected guinea pigs to all animals and seasonal human influenza viruses could also horizontally transmit in guinea pigs. The analysis of the receptor distribution in the guinea pig respiratory tissues by lectin histochemistry indicated that both SAα2,3-Gal and SAα2,6-Gal receptors widely presented in the nasal tract and the trachea, while SAα2,3-Gal receptor was the main receptor in the lung. We propose that the guinea pig could serve as a useful mammalian model to evaluate the potential public health threat of swine and avian influenza viruses.

  7. Replication of swine and human influenza viruses in juvenile and layer turkey hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ahmed; Yassine, Hadi; Awe, Olusegun O; Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Saif, Yehia M; Lee, Chang-Won

    2013-04-12

    Since the first reported isolation of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) in turkeys in the 1980s, transmission of SIVs to turkeys was frequently documented. Recently, the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus, that was thought to be of swine origin, was detected in turkeys with a severe drop in egg production. In this study, we assessed the infectivity of different mammalian influenza viruses including swine, pandemic H1N1 and seasonal human influenza viruses in both juvenile and layer turkeys. In addition, we investigated the potential influenza virus dissemination in the semen of experimentally infected turkey toms. Results showed that all mammalian origin influenza viruses tested can infect turkeys. SIVs were detected in respiratory and digestive tracts of both juvenile and layer turkeys. Variations in replication efficiencies among SIVs were observed especially in the reproductive tract of layer turkeys. Compared to SIVs, limited replication of seasonal human H1N1 and no detectable replication of recent human-like swine H1N2, pandemic H1N1 and seasonal human H3N2 viruses was noticed. All birds seroconverted to all tested viruses regardless of their replication level. In turkey toms, we were able to detect swine H3N2 virus in semen and reproductive tract of infected toms by real-time RT-PCR although virus isolation was not successful. These data suggest that turkey hens could be affected by diverse influenza strains especially SIVs. Moreover, the differences in the replication efficiency we demonstrated among SIVs and between SIV and human influenza viruses in layer turkeys suggest a possible use of turkeys as an animal model to study host tropism and pathogenesis of influenza viruses. Our results also indicate a potential risk of venereal transmission of influenza viruses in turkeys. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Influenza A virus infection dynamics in swine farms in Belgium, France, Italy and Spain 2006-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyriakis, C.S.; Rose, N.; Foni, E.; Maldonado, J.; Loeffen, W.L.A.; Madec, F.; Simon, G.; Reeth, K.

    2013-01-01

    Avian-like H1N1 and reassortant H3N2 and H1N2 influenza A viruses with a human-like haemagglutinin have been co-circulating in swine in Europe for more than a decade. We aimed to examine the infection dynamics of the three swine influenza virus (SIV) lineages at the farm level, and to identify

  9. Live poultry market workers are susceptible to both avian and swine influenza viruses, Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jidang; Ma, Jun; White, Sarah K; Cao, Zhenpeng; Zhen, Yun; He, Shuyi; Zhu, Wanjun; Ke, Changwen; Zhang, Yongbiao; Su, Shuo; Zhang, Guihong

    2015-12-31

    Guangdong Province is recognized for dense populations of humans, pigs, poultry and pets. In order to evaluate the threat of viral infection faced by those working with animals, a cross-sectional, sero-epidemiological study was conducted in Guangdong between December 2013 and January 2014. Individuals working with swine, at poultry farms, or live poultry markets (LPM), and veterinarians, and controls not exposed to animals were enrolled in this study and 11 (4 human, 3 swine, 3 avian, and 1 canine) influenza A viruses were used in hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays (7 strains) and the cross-reactivity test (9 strains) in which 5 strains were used in both tests. Univariate analysis was performed to identify which variables were significantly associated with seropositivity. Odds ratios (OR) revealed that swine workers had a significantly higher risk of elevated antibodies against A/swine/Guangdong/L6/2009(H1N1), a classical swine virus, and A/swine/Guangdong/SS1/2012(H1N1), a Eurasian avian-like swine virus than non-exposed controls. Poultry farm workers were at a higher risk of infection with avian influenza H7N9 and H9N2. LPM workers were at a higher risk of infection with 3 subtypes of avian influenza, H5N1, H7N9, and H9N2. Interestingly, the OR also indicated that LPM workers were at risk of H1N1 swine influenza virus infection, perhaps due to the presence of pigs in the LPM. While partial confounding by cross-reactive antibodies against human viruses or vaccines cannot be ruled out, our data suggests that animal exposed people as are more likely to have antibodies against animal influenza viruses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. THE ANTIGENIC POTENCY OF EPIDEMIC INFLUENZA VIRUS FOLLOWING INACTIVATION BY ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salk, Jonas E.; Lavin, G. I.; Francis, Thomas

    1940-01-01

    A study of the antigenic potency of influenza virus inactivated by ultraviolet radiation has been made. Virus so inactivated is still capable of functioning as an immunizing agent when given to mice by the intraperitoneal route. In high concentrations inactivated virus appears to be nearly as effective as active virus but when quantitative comparisons of the immunity induced by different dilutions are made, it is seen that a hundredfold loss in immunizing capacity occurs during inactivation. Virus in suspensions prepared from the lungs of infected mice is inactivated more rapidly than virus in tissue culture medium. A standard for the comparison of vaccines of epidemic influenza virus is proposed. PMID:19871057

  11. Surveillance programs in Denmark has revealed the circulation of novel reassortant influenza A viruses in swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    2014-01-01

    avH1N1 and H3N2 which is different from the dominating European H1N2 subtype (1). The prevalence of the H1N1pdm09 virus in swine has increased since 2009 in some countries including Denmark. Here we present the results of the national passive surveillance program on influenza in swine performed from...... by the combination of the gene segments hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). In most European countries, the avian-like (av)H1N1, the 2009 pandemic variant (H1N1pdm09), H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes have constituted the dominating SIV subtypes during recent years. In Denmark, the H1N2 subtype is a reassortant between......Swine influenza is a respiratory disease caused by multiple subtypes of influenza A virus. Swine influenza virus (SIV) is enzootic in swine populations in Europe, Asia, North and South America. The influenza A virus genome consist of eight distinct gene segments and SIV subtypes are defined...

  12. Efficacy of influenza vaccination and tamiflu® treatment--comparative studies with Eurasian Swine influenza viruses in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Bauer, Katja; Vissiennon, Théophile; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebulisation with high doses of influenza virus A/swine/Potsdam/15/1981 (H1N1/1981, heterologous challenge to H1N1 vaccine strain) and A/swine/Bakum/1832/2000 (H1N2/2000, homologous challenge to H1N2 vaccine strain) in two independent trials. In each trial (i) 10 pigs were vaccinated twice with a trivalent vaccine (RESPIPORC® FLU3; 28 and 7 days before infection), (ii) another 10 pigs received 150 mg/day of Tamiflu® for 5 days starting 12 h before infection, and (iii) 12 virus-infected pigs were left unvaccinated and untreated and served as controls. Both viruses replicated efficiently in porcine respiratory organs causing influenza with fever, dyspnoea, and pneumonia. Tamiflu® treatment as well as vaccination prevented clinical signs and significantly reduced virus shedding. Whereas after homologous challenge with H1N2/2000 no infectious virus in lung and hardly any lung inflammation were detected, the virus titre was not and the lung pathology was only partially reduced in H1N1/1981, heterologous challenged pigs. Tamiflu® application did not affect these study parameters. In conclusion, all tested preventive measures provided protection against disease. Vaccination additionally prevented virus replication and histopathological changes in the lung of homologous challenged pigs.

  13. Efficacy of influenza vaccination and tamiflu® treatment--comparative studies with Eurasian Swine influenza viruses in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Duerrwald

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebulisation with high doses of influenza virus A/swine/Potsdam/15/1981 (H1N1/1981, heterologous challenge to H1N1 vaccine strain and A/swine/Bakum/1832/2000 (H1N2/2000, homologous challenge to H1N2 vaccine strain in two independent trials. In each trial (i 10 pigs were vaccinated twice with a trivalent vaccine (RESPIPORC® FLU3; 28 and 7 days before infection, (ii another 10 pigs received 150 mg/day of Tamiflu® for 5 days starting 12 h before infection, and (iii 12 virus-infected pigs were left unvaccinated and untreated and served as controls. Both viruses replicated efficiently in porcine respiratory organs causing influenza with fever, dyspnoea, and pneumonia. Tamiflu® treatment as well as vaccination prevented clinical signs and significantly reduced virus shedding. Whereas after homologous challenge with H1N2/2000 no infectious virus in lung and hardly any lung inflammation were detected, the virus titre was not and the lung pathology was only partially reduced in H1N1/1981, heterologous challenged pigs. Tamiflu® application did not affect these study parameters. In conclusion, all tested preventive measures provided protection against disease. Vaccination additionally prevented virus replication and histopathological changes in the lung of homologous challenged pigs.

  14. Efficacy of Influenza Vaccination and Tamiflu® Treatment – Comparative Studies with Eurasian Swine Influenza Viruses in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Bauer, Katja; Vissiennon, Théophile; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebulisation with high doses of influenza virus A/swine/Potsdam/15/1981 (H1N1/1981, heterologous challenge to H1N1 vaccine strain) and A/swine/Bakum/1832/2000 (H1N2/2000, homologous challenge to H1N2 vaccine strain) in two independent trials. In each trial (i) 10 pigs were vaccinated twice with a trivalent vaccine (RESPIPORC® FLU3; 28 and 7 days before infection), (ii) another 10 pigs received 150 mg/day of Tamiflu® for 5 days starting 12 h before infection, and (iii) 12 virus-infected pigs were left unvaccinated and untreated and served as controls. Both viruses replicated efficiently in porcine respiratory organs causing influenza with fever, dyspnoea, and pneumonia. Tamiflu® treatment as well as vaccination prevented clinical signs and significantly reduced virus shedding. Whereas after homologous challenge with H1N2/2000 no infectious virus in lung and hardly any lung inflammation were detected, the virus titre was not and the lung pathology was only partially reduced in H1N1/1981, heterologous challenged pigs. Tamiflu® application did not affect these study parameters. In conclusion, all tested preventive measures provided protection against disease. Vaccination additionally prevented virus replication and histopathological changes in the lung of homologous challenged pigs. PMID:23630601

  15. Assessment of zoonotic potential of four European swine influenza viruses in the ferret model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fobian, Kristina; P. Fabrizio, Thomas; Yoon, Sun-Woo

    herds and enhanced focus on risk assessment of these new viruses. In this study, four European swine influenza viruses were assessed for their zoonotic potential. Of the four viruses, two were enzootic viruses of subtype H1N2 (with avian-like H1) and H3N2 and two were new reassortants, one with avian......The reverse zoonotic events that introduced the 2009 pandemic influenza virus into swine herds have drastically increased the diversity of reassortants throughout Europe. The pandemic potential of these novel reassortments is unknown, hence necessitating enhanced surveillance of European swine...... to neuraminidase inhibitors. These findings suggest that the investigated viruses have the potential to infect humans and further underline the need for continued surveillance as well as pandemic and zoonotic assessment of new influenza reassortants....

  16. Efficacy of a pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus vaccine in pigs against the pandemic influenza virus is superior to commercially available swine influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffen, W L A; Stockhofe, N; Weesendorp, E; van Zoelen-Bos, D; Heutink, R; Quak, S; Goovaerts, D; Heldens, J G M; Maas, R; Moormann, R J; Koch, G

    2011-09-28

    In April 2009 a new influenza A/H1N1 strain, currently named "pandemic (H1N1) influenza 2009" (H1N1v), started the first official pandemic in humans since 1968. Several incursions of this virus in pig herds have also been reported from all over the world. Vaccination of pigs may be an option to reduce exposure of human contacts with infected pigs, thereby preventing cross-species transfer, but also to protect pigs themselves, should this virus cause damage in the pig population. Three swine influenza vaccines, two of them commercially available and one experimental, were therefore tested and compared for their efficacy against an H1N1v challenge. One of the commercial vaccines is based on an American classical H1N1 influenza strain, the other is based on a European avian H1N1 influenza strain. The experimental vaccine is based on reassortant virus NYMC X179A (containing the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of A/California/7/2009 (H1N1v) and the internal genes of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1)). Excretion of infectious virus was reduced by 0.5-3 log(10) by the commercial vaccines, depending on vaccine and sample type. Both vaccines were able to reduce virus replication especially in the lower respiratory tract, with less pathological lesions in vaccinated and subsequently challenged pigs than in unvaccinated controls. In pigs vaccinated with the experimental vaccine, excretion levels of infectious virus in nasal and oropharyngeal swabs, were at or below 1 log(10)TCID(50) per swab and lasted for only 1 or 2 days. An inactivated vaccine containing the HA and NA of an H1N1v is able to protect pigs from an infection with H1N1v, whereas swine influenza vaccines that are currently available are of limited efficaciousness. Whether vaccination of pigs against H1N1v will become opportune remains to be seen and will depend on future evolution of this strain in the pig population. Close monitoring of the pig population, focussing on presence and evolution of

  17. Are Swine Workers in the United States at Increased Risk of Infection with Zoonotic Influenza Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kendall P.; Olsen, Christopher W.; Setterquist, Sharon F.; Capuano, Ana W.; Donham, Kelley J.; Thacker, Eileen L.; Merchant, James A.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2006-01-01

    Background Pandemic influenza strains originate in nonhuman species. Pigs have an important role in interspecies transmission of the virus. We examined multiple swine-exposed human populations in the nation's number 1 swine-producing state for evidence of previous swine influenza virus infection. Methods We performed controlled, cross-sectional seroprevalence studies among 111 farmers, 97 meat processing workers, 65 veterinarians, and 79 control subjects using serum samples collected during the period of 2002–2004. Serum samples were tested using a hemagglutination inhibition assay against the following 6 influenza A virus isolates collected recently from pigs and humans: A/Swine/WI/238/97 (H1N1), A/Swine/WI/R33F/01 (H1N2), A/Swine/Minnesota/593/99 (H3N2), A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2), and A/Nanchang/933/95 (H3N2). Results Using multivariable proportional odds modeling, all 3 exposed study groups demonstrated markedly elevated titers against the H1N1 and H1N2 swine influenza virus isolates, compared with control subjects. Farmers had the strongest indication of exposure to swine H1N1 virus infection (odds ratio [OR], 35.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.7–161.8), followed by veterinarians (OR, 17.8; 95% CI, 3.8–82.7), and meat processing workers (OR, 6.5; 95% CI, 1.4–29.5). Similarly, farmers had the highest odds for exposure to swine H1N2 virus (OR, 13.8; 95% CI, 5.4–35.4), followed by veterinarians (OR, 9.5; 95% CI, 3.6–24.6) and meat processing workers (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.1–6.7). Conclusions Occupational exposure to pigs greatly increases workers' risk of swine influenza virus infection. Swine workers should be included in pandemic surveillance and in antiviral and immunization strategies. PMID:16323086

  18. Presence of influenza viruses in backyard poultry and swine in El Yali wetland, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Vasquez, N; Di Pillo, F; Lazo, A; Jiménez-Bluhm, P; Schultz-Cherry, S; Hamilton-West, C

    2016-11-01

    In South America little is known regarding influenza virus circulating in backyard poultry and swine populations. Backyard productive systems (BPS) that breed swine and poultry are widely distributed throughout Chile with high density in the central zone, and several BPS are located within the "El Yali" (EY) ecosystem, which is one of the most important wetlands in South America. Here, 130 different wild bird species have been described, of them, at least 22 species migrate yearly from North America for nesting. For this reason, EY is considered as a high-risk zone for avian influenza virus. This study aims to identify if backyard poultry and swine bred in the EY ecosystem have been exposed to influenza A virus and if so, to identify influenza virus subtypes. A biosecurity and handling survey was applied and samples were collected from BPS in two seasons (spring 2013 and fall 2014) for influenza seroprevalence, and in one season (fall 2014) for virus presence. Seroprevalence at BPS level was 42% (95% CI:22-49) during spring 2013 and 60% (95% CI 43-72) in fall 2014. rRT-PCR for the influenza A matrix gene indicated a viral prevalence of 27% (95% CI:14-39) at BPS level in fall 2014. Eight farms (73% of rRT-PCR positive farms) were also positive to the Elisa test at the same time. One BPS was simultaneously positive (rRT-PCR) in multiple species (poultry, swine and geese) and a H1N2 virus was identified from swine, exemplifying the risk that these BPS may pose for generation of novel influenza viruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Swine Influenza Virus (H1N2) Characterization and Transmission in Ferrets, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Vasquez, Nicolás; Karlsson, Erik A; Jimenez-Bluhm, Pedro; Meliopoulos, Victoria; Kaplan, Bryan; Marvin, Shauna; Cortez, Valerie; Freiden, Pamela; Beck, Melinda A; Hamilton-West, Christopher; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2017-02-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the influenza hemagglutinin gene (HA) has suggested that commercial pigs in Chile harbor unique human seasonal H1-like influenza viruses, but further information, including characterization of these viruses, was unavailable. We isolated influenza virus (H1N2) from a swine in a backyard production farm in Central Chile and demonstrated that the HA gene was identical to that in a previous report. Its HA and neuraminidase genes were most similar to human H1 and N2 viruses from the early 1990s and internal segments were similar to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. The virus replicated efficiently in vitro and in vivo and transmitted in ferrets by respiratory droplet. Antigenically, it was distinct from other swine viruses. Hemagglutination inhibition analysis suggested that antibody titers to the swine Chilean H1N2 virus were decreased in persons born after 1990. Further studies are needed to characterize the potential risk to humans, as well as the ecology of influenza in swine in South America.

  20. The neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza/swine flu: A selective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayana Manjunatha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The world witnessed the influenza virus during the seasonal epidemics and pandemics. The current strain of H1N1 (swine flu pandemic is believed to be the legacy of the influenza pandemic (1918-19. The influenza virus has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. In view of the recent pandemic, it would be interesting to review the neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza, specifically swine flu. Author used popular search engine ′PUBMED′ to search for published articles with different MeSH terms using Boolean operator (AND. Among these, a selective review of the published literature was done. Acute manifestations of swine flu varied from behavioral changes, fear of misdiagnosis during outbreak, neurological features like seizures, encephalopathy, encephalitis, transverse myelitis, aseptic meningitis, multiple sclerosis, and Guillian-Barre Syndrome. Among the chronic manifestations, schizophrenia, Parkinson′s disease, mood disorder, dementia, and mental retardation have been hypothesized. Further research is required to understand the etiological hypothesis of the chronic manifestations of influenza. The author urges neuroscientists around the world to make use of the current swine flu pandemic as an opportunity for further research.

  1. Influenza virus inactivated by artificial ribonucleases as a prospective killed virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, Antonina A; Goncharova, Elena P; Kovpak, Mikhail P; Vlassov, Valentin V; Zenkova, Marina A

    2012-04-19

    The inactivation of viral particles with agents causing minimal damage to the structure of surface epitopes is a well-established approach for the production of killed virus vaccines. Here, we describe new agents for the inactivation of influenza virus, artificial ribonucleases (aRNases), which are chemical compounds capable of cleaving RNA molecules. Several aRNases were identified, exhibiting significant virucidal activity against the influenza A virus and causing a minimal effect on the affinity of monoclonal antibodies for the inactivated virus. Using a murine model of the influenza virus infection, a high protective activity of the aRNase-inactivated virus as a vaccine was demonstrated. The results of the experiments demonstrate the efficacy of novel chemical agents in the preparation of vaccines against influenza and, perhaps, against other infections caused by RNA viruses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Inactivation of various influenza strains to model avian influenza (Bird Flu) with various disinfectant chemistries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberst, R. D.; Bieker, Jill Marie; Souza, Caroline Ann

    2005-12-01

    Due to the grave public health implications and economic impact possible with the emergence of the highly pathogenic avian influenza A isolate, H5N1, currently circulating in Asia we have evaluated the efficacy of various disinfectant chemistries against surrogate influenza A strains. Chemistries included in the tests were household bleach, ethanol, Virkon S{reg_sign}, and a modified version of the Sandia National Laboratories developed DF-200 (DF-200d, a diluted version of the standard DF-200 formulation). Validation efforts followed EPA guidelines for evaluating chemical disinfectants against viruses. The efficacy of the various chemistries was determined by infectivity, quantitative RNA, and qualitative protein assays. Additionally, organic challenges using combined poultry feces and litter material were included in the experiments to simulate environments in which decontamination and remediation will likely occur. In all assays, 10% bleach and Sandia DF-200d were the most efficacious treatments against two influenza A isolates (mammalian and avian) as they provided the most rapid and complete inactivation of influenza A viruses.

  3. A phylogeny-based global nomenclature system and automated annotation tool for H1 hemagglutinin genes from swine influenza A viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The H1 subtype of influenza A viruses (IAV) has been circulating in swine since the 1918 human influenza pandemic. Over time, and aided by further introductions from non-swine hosts, swine H1 have diversified into three genetic lineages. Due to limited global data, these H1 lineages were named based...

  4. The avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus has limited replication in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    A genetically and antigenically distinct H3N2 canine influenza of avian-origin was detected in March of 2015 in Chicago, Illinois. A subsequent outbreak was reported with over 1,000 dogs in the Midwest affected. The potential for canine-to-swine transmission was unknown. Experimental infection in pi...

  5. New influenza A virus reassortments have been found in Danish swine in 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    2012-01-01

    ” viruses which have been circulating in Danish pigs since it was found for the first time in 1981. ii) H1N2 reassortant viruses which comprise HA from “avian like” H1N1 and NA from swine H3N2. The reassortant H1N2 virus was discovered in Danish pig for the first time in 2003 and is now well established......In 2011 a passive surveillance for influenza A virus was conducted in Danish swine. Tested samples were clinical samples from affected pigs submitted to the Danish National Veterinary Institute for swine influenza virus detection. In total 713 samples from 276 herds were analysed and about 24......% of the samples were positive for swine influenza virus. All influenza positive samples were tested for the H1N1pdm09 virus by a real time RT-PCR assay specific for the pandemic HA gene and 26% of the samples were positive. Subtyping of 90 samples by sequencing revealed the presence of; i) H1N1 “avian like...

  6. 76 FR 81467 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Swine Influenza Vaccine, RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ...] Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Swine Influenza Vaccine, RNA AGENCY: Animal and... Vaccine, RNA. The environmental assessment, which is based on a risk analysis prepared to assess the risks...: Send your comment to Docket No. APHIS-2011-0114, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS...

  7. Mucosal Immunity and Protective Efficacy of Intranasal Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Is Improved by Chitosan Nanoparticle Delivery in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Dhakal

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Annually, swine influenza A virus (SwIAV causes severe economic loss to swine industry. Currently used inactivated SwIAV vaccines administered by intramuscular injection provide homologous protection, but limited heterologous protection against constantly evolving field viruses, attributable to the induction of inadequate levels of mucosal IgA and cellular immune responses in the respiratory tract. A novel vaccine delivery platform using mucoadhesive chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs administered through intranasal (IN route has the potential to elicit strong mucosal and systemic immune responses in pigs. In this study, we evaluated the immune responses and cross-protective efficacy of IN chitosan encapsulated inactivated SwIAV vaccine in pigs. Killed SwIAV H1N2 (δ-lineage antigens (KAg were encapsulated in chitosan polymer-based nanoparticles (CNPs-KAg. The candidate vaccine was administered twice IN as mist to nursery pigs. Vaccinates and controls were then challenged with a zoonotic and virulent heterologous SwIAV H1N1 (γ-lineage. Pigs vaccinated with CNPs-KAg exhibited an enhanced IgG serum antibody and mucosal secretory IgA antibody responses in nasal swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluids, and lung lysates that were reactive against homologous (H1N2, heterologous (H1N1, and heterosubtypic (H3N2 influenza A virus strains. Prior to challenge, an increased frequency of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation, and recall IFN-γ secretion by restimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells in CNPs-KAg compared to control KAg vaccinates were observed. In CNPs-KAg vaccinated pigs challenged with heterologous virus reduced severity of macroscopic and microscopic influenza-associated pulmonary lesions were observed. Importantly, the infectious SwIAV titers in nasal swabs [days post-challenge (DPC 4] and BAL fluid (DPC 6 were significantly (p < 0.05 reduced in CNPs-KAg vaccinates but not in KAg vaccinates when compared

  8. Mucosal Immunity and Protective Efficacy of Intranasal Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Is Improved by Chitosan Nanoparticle Delivery in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Santosh; Renu, Sankar; Ghimire, Shristi; Shaan Lakshmanappa, Yashavanth; Hogshead, Bradley T; Feliciano-Ruiz, Ninoshkaly; Lu, Fangjia; HogenEsch, Harm; Krakowka, Steven; Lee, Chang Won; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2018-01-01

    Annually, swine influenza A virus (SwIAV) causes severe economic loss to swine industry. Currently used inactivated SwIAV vaccines administered by intramuscular injection provide homologous protection, but limited heterologous protection against constantly evolving field viruses, attributable to the induction of inadequate levels of mucosal IgA and cellular immune responses in the respiratory tract. A novel vaccine delivery platform using mucoadhesive chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) administered through intranasal (IN) route has the potential to elicit strong mucosal and systemic immune responses in pigs. In this study, we evaluated the immune responses and cross-protective efficacy of IN chitosan encapsulated inactivated SwIAV vaccine in pigs. Killed SwIAV H1N2 (δ-lineage) antigens (KAg) were encapsulated in chitosan polymer-based nanoparticles (CNPs-KAg). The candidate vaccine was administered twice IN as mist to nursery pigs. Vaccinates and controls were then challenged with a zoonotic and virulent heterologous SwIAV H1N1 (γ-lineage). Pigs vaccinated with CNPs-KAg exhibited an enhanced IgG serum antibody and mucosal secretory IgA antibody responses in nasal swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids, and lung lysates that were reactive against homologous (H1N2), heterologous (H1N1), and heterosubtypic (H3N2) influenza A virus strains. Prior to challenge, an increased frequency of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation, and recall IFN-γ secretion by restimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells in CNPs-KAg compared to control KAg vaccinates were observed. In CNPs-KAg vaccinated pigs challenged with heterologous virus reduced severity of macroscopic and microscopic influenza-associated pulmonary lesions were observed. Importantly, the infectious SwIAV titers in nasal swabs [days post-challenge (DPC) 4] and BAL fluid (DPC 6) were significantly ( p  influenza nanovaccine may be an ideal candidate vaccine for use in pigs, and pig is a

  9. Cost Effectiveness of Influenza Vaccine for U.S. Children: Live Attenuated and Inactivated Influenza Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eunha; Brown, Shawn T; DePasse, Jay; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Raviotta, Jonathan M; Smith, Kenneth J; Zimmerman, Richard K

    2016-09-01

    Prior studies showed that live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is more effective than inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in children aged 2-8 years, supporting the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations in 2014 for preferential LAIV use in this age group. However, 2014-2015 U.S. effectiveness data indicated relatively poor effectiveness of both vaccines, leading CDC in 2015 to no longer prefer LAIV. An age-structured model of influenza transmission and vaccination was developed, which incorporated both direct and indirect protection induced by vaccination. Based on this model, the cost effectiveness of influenza vaccination strategies in children aged 2-8 years in the U.S. was estimated. The base case assumed a mixed vaccination strategy where 33.3% and 66.7% of vaccinated children aged 2-8 years receive LAIV and IIV, respectively. Analyses were performed in 2014-2015. Using published meta-analysis vaccine effectiveness data (83% LAIV and 64% IIV), exclusive LAIV use would be a cost-effective strategy when vaccinating children aged 2-8 years, whereas IIV would not be preferred. However, when 2014-2015 U.S. effectiveness data (0% LAIV and 15% IIV) were used, IIV was likely to be preferred. The cost effectiveness of influenza vaccination in children aged 2-8 years is highly dependent on vaccine effectiveness; the vaccine type with higher effectiveness is preferred. In general, exclusive IIV use is preferred over LAIV use, as long as vaccine effectiveness is higher for IIV than for LAIV. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel reassortant of swine influenza H1N2 virus in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, Roland; Motzke, Susann; Krumbholz, Andi; Wutzler, Peter; Herwig, Volker; Dürrwald, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    European porcine H1N2 influenza viruses arose after multiple reassortment steps involving a porcine influenza virus with avian-influenza-like internal segments and human H1N1 and H3N2 viruses in 1994. In Germany, H1N2 swine influenza viruses first appeared in 2000. Two German H1N2 swine influenza virus strains isolated from pigs with clinical symptoms of influenza are described. They were characterized by the neutralization test, haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and complete sequencing of the viral genomes. The data demonstrate that these viruses represent a novel H1N2 reassortant. The viruses showed limited neutralization by sera raised against heterologous A/sw/Bakum/1,832/00-like H1N2 viruses. Sera pools from recovered pigs showed a considerably lower HI reaction, indicative of diagnostic difficulties in using the HI test to detect these viruses with A/sw/Bakum/1,832/00-like H1N2 antigens. Genome sequencing revealed the novel combination of the human-like HAH1 gene of European porcine H1N2 influenza viruses and the NAN2 gene of European porcine H3N2 viruses.

  11. Evidence of infection with avian, human, and swine influenza viruses in pigs in Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Mokhtar R; Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Shehata, Mahmoud M; McKenzie, Pamela P; Webby, Richard J; Ali, Mohamed A; Kayali, Ghazi

    2018-02-01

    The majority of the Egyptian swine population was culled in the aftermath of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, but small-scale growing remains. We sampled pigs from piggeries and an abattoir in Cairo. We found virological evidence of infection with avian H9N2 and H5N1 viruses as well as human pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. Serological evidence suggested previous exposure to avian H5N1 and H9N2, human pandemic H1N1, and swine avian-like and human-like viruses. This raises concern about potential reassortment of influenza viruses in pigs and highlights the need for better control and prevention of influenza virus infection in pigs.

  12. Experience in applying 60Co γ-rays for careful production of inactivated influenza virus vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordheim, W.; Braeuniger, S.; Schulze, P.; Dittmann, S.; Petzold, G.; Teupel, D.; Luther, P.; Tischner, H.; Baer, M.; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung)

    1987-01-01

    Radiation doses between 12 and 13 kGy at 15-20 0 C were sufficient for mild inactivation of influenza viruses. Under these conditions the decisive surface antigens hemagglutinin and neuraminidase were treated with care, and the preparations of influenza viruses revealed good immunogenicity in the animal experiment. Morphologic alterations after application of 20 kGy could not be demonstrated in electron microscopic investigations. Doses of 9.5-9.9 kGy in combination with a very low quantity of HCHO (1:15000) is sufficient for inactivation. Reactivation of influenza viruses after treatment could not be demonstrated. (author)

  13. Swine flu (H1N1 influenza): awareness profile of visitors of swine flu screening booths in Belgaum city, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveki, R G; Halappanavar, A B; Patil, M S; Joshi, A V; Gunagi, Praveena; Halki, Sunanda B

    2012-06-01

    The 2009 flu pandemic was a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus often referred colloquially as "swine flu". The objectives of the study were: (1) To know the sociodemographic and awareness profile of visitors attending swine flu screening booths. (2) To reveal sources of information. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken among the visitors (18 years and above) attending swine flu screening booths organised within the Belgaum city during Ganesh festival from 28-08-2009 to 03-09-2009 by interviewing them using predesigned, pretested structured questionnaire on swine flu. The data was collected and analysed using SPSS software programme for windows (version 16). Chi-square test was applied. Out of 206 visitors, 132 (64.1%) were males and 107 (51.9%) were in the age group of 30-49 years; 183 (88.8%) had heard about swine flu. More than a third of the visitors (38.3%) disclosed that there was a vaccine to prevent swine flu. Majority responded that it could be transmitted by being in close proximity to pigs (49.0%) and by eating pork (51.5%). Newspaper/magazine (64.6%), television (61.7%), and public posters/pamphlets (44.2%) were common sources of information. The present study revealed that doctors/public health workers have played little role in creating awareness in the community. The improved communication between doctors and the community would help to spread correct information about the disease and the role that the community can play in controlling the spread of the disease.

  14. [Swine influenza virus: evolution mechanism and epidemic characterization--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xian; Lu, Chengping

    2009-09-01

    Pigs may play an important role in the evolution and ecology of influenza A virus. The tracheal epithelium of pigs contain both SA alpha 2,6 Gal and SA alpha 2,3 Gal receptors and can be infected with swine, human and avian viruses, therefore, pigs have been considered as an intermediate host for the adaptation of avian influenza viruses to humans or as mixing vessels for the generation of genetically reassortant viruses. Evolution patterns among swine influenza viruses including evolution of host adaptation, antigenic drift and genetic reassortment, and the latter is the main one. Unlike human influenza viruses, swine viruses have different epizootiological patterns in different areas of world, which is enzootic and geographic dependence. Currently, three predominant subtypes of influenza virus are prevalent in pig populations worldwide: H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2, and these include classical swine H1N1, avian-like H1N1, human-like H3N2, reassortant H3N2 and various genotype H1N2 viruses. In Europe, North America and China, influenza A viruses circulating in pigs are distinct in the genetic characteristics and genetic sources. Since 1979, three subtypes, avian-like H1N1, reassortant H1N2 and H3N2 viruses, have been co-circulating in European swine. Before 1998, classical H1N1 viruses were the exclusive cause of swine influenza in North America. However, after that, three triple-reassortant H1N2, H3N2 and H1N1 viruses with genes of human, swine and avian virus began to emerge in pigs. Genetically, the pandemic viruses emerging in human, so called influenza A (H1N1) viruses, contain genes from both Europe and North American SIV lineages. SIV is not the same as Europe and the United States in the prevalence and genetic background in China, mainly classical swine H1N1 and human-like H3N2 type virus. However, in recent years, SIV from Europe and North America have been introduced into Chinese pig herds, so more attention should be given on the evolutionary of SIV in China

  15. Inactivation of Viruses and Bacteriophages as Models for Swine Hepatitis E Virus in Food Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmoth, Eva; Rovira, Jordi; Rajkovic, Andreja; Corcuera, Elena; Wilches Pérez, Diego; Dergel, Irene; Ottoson, Jakob R; Widén, Frederik

    2017-03-01

    Hepatitis E virus has been recognised as a food-borne virus hazard in pork products, due to its zoonotic properties. This risk can be reduced by adequate treatment of the food to inactivate food-borne viruses. We used a spectrum of viruses and bacteriophages to evaluate the effect of three food treatments: high pressure processing (HPP), lactic acid (LA) and intense light pulse (ILP) treatments. On swine liver at 400 MPa for 10 min, HPP gave log 10 reductions of ≥4.2, ≥5.0 and 3.4 for feline calicivirus (FCV) 2280, FCV wildtype (wt) and murine norovirus 1 (MNV 1), respectively. Escherichia coli coliphage ϕX174 displayed a lower reduction of 1.1, while Escherichia coli coliphage MS2 was unaffected. For ham at 600 MPa, the corresponding reductions were 4.1, 4.4, 2.9, 1.7 and 1.3 log 10 . LA treatment at 2.2 M gave log 10 reductions in the viral spectrum of 0.29-2.1 for swine liver and 0.87-3.1 for ham, with ϕX174 and MNV 1, respectively, as the most stable microorganisms. The ILP treatment gave log 10 reductions of 1.6-2.8 for swine liver, 0.97-2.2 for ham and 1.3-2.3 for sausage, at 15-60 J cm -2 , with MS2 as the most stable microorganism. The HPP treatment gave significantly (p virus reduction on swine liver than ham for the viruses at equivalent pressure/time combinations. For ILP treatment, reductions on swine liver were significantly (p virus contamination and in advice to food producers. Conservative model indicators for the pathogenic viruses could be suggested.

  16. Genetic and antigenic characterization of influenza A virus circulating in Danish swine during the past decade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fobian, Kristina; Kirk, Isa Kristina; Breum, Solvej Østergaard

    Influenza A virus has been endemic in Danish swine for the last 30 years, with H1N1 and H1N2 being the dominating subtypes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic and antigenic evolution of the influenza viruses found in Danish swine during the last 10 years. A total of 78 samples...... to the complex epidemiology of circulating swine influenza virus in Denmark and indicates that vaccine development targeted against Danish H1N1 and H1N2 need only to include few components for the induction of cross protection against the predominant strains. The study was supported by grants from “European......-synonymous substitutions for H1, N1 and N2 were found to be in agreement with previously observed values for Eurasian swine lineages. Calculation of possible glycosylation sites in the hemagglutinin gene revealed that the H1N2 and H1N1 subtypes had three well conserved glycosylation sites in common. The results of the HI...

  17. H1N1 influenza viruses varying widely in hemagglutinin stability transmit efficiently from swine to swine and to ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Russier

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A pandemic-capable influenza virus requires a hemagglutinin (HA surface glycoprotein that is immunologically unseen by most people and is capable of supporting replication and transmission in humans. HA stabilization has been linked to 2009 pH1N1 pandemic potential in humans and H5N1 airborne transmissibility in the ferret model. Swine have served as an intermediate host for zoonotic influenza viruses, yet the evolutionary pressure exerted by this host on HA stability was unknown. For over 70 contemporary swine H1 and H3 isolates, we measured HA activation pH to range from pH 5.1 to 5.9 for H1 viruses and pH 5.3 to 5.8 for H3 viruses. Thus, contemporary swine isolates vary widely in HA stability, having values favored by both avian (pH >5.5 and human and ferret (pH ≤5.5 species. Using an early 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1 virus backbone, we generated three viruses differing by one HA residue that only altered HA stability: WT (pH 5.5, HA1-Y17H (pH 6.0, and HA2-R106K (pH 5.3. All three replicated in pigs and transmitted from pig-to-pig and pig-to-ferret. WT and R106 viruses maintained HA genotype and phenotype after transmission. Y17H (pH 6.0 acquired HA mutations that stabilized the HA protein to pH 5.8 after transmission to pigs and 5.5 after transmission to ferrets. Overall, we found swine support a broad range of HA activation pH for contact transmission and many recent swine H1N1 and H3N2 isolates have stabilized (human-like HA proteins. This constitutes a heightened pandemic risk and underscores the importance of ongoing surveillance and control efforts for swine viruses.

  18. The first Swedish H1N2 swine influenza virus isolate represents an uncommon reassortant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renström Lena HM

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The European swine influenza viruses (SIVs show considerable diversity comprising different types of H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2 strains. The intensifying full genome sequencing efforts reveal further reassortants within these subtypes. Here we report the identification of an uncommon reassortant variant of H1N2 subtype influenza virus isolated from a pig in a multisite herd where H1N2 swine influenza was diagnosed for the first time in Sweden during the winter of 2008-2009. The majority of the European H1N2 swine influenza viruses described so far possess haemagglutinin (HA of the human-like H1N2 SIV viruses and the neuraminidase (NA of either the European H1N2 or H3N2 SIV-like viruses. The Swedish isolate has an avian-like SIV HA and a H3N2 SIV-like NA, which is phylogenetically more closely related to H3N2 SIV NAs from isolates collected in the early '80s than to the NA of H3N2 origin of the H1N2 viruses isolated during the last decade, as depicted by some German strains, indicative of independent acquisition of the NA genes for these two types of reassortants. The internal genes proved to be entirely of avian-like SIV H1N1 origin. The prevalence of this SIV variant in pig populations needs to be determined, as well as the suitability of the routinely used laboratory reagents to analyze this strain. The description of this H1N2 SIV adds further information to influenza epidemiology and supports the necessity of surveillance for influenza viruses in pigs.

  19. The first Swedish H1N2 swine influenza virus isolate represents an uncommon reassortant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bálint, Adám; Metreveli, Giorgi; Widén, Frederik; Zohari, Siamak; Berg, Mikael; Isaksson, Mats; Renström, Lena Hm; Wallgren, Per; Belák, Sándor; Segall, Thomas; Kiss, István

    2009-10-28

    The European swine influenza viruses (SIVs) show considerable diversity comprising different types of H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2 strains. The intensifying full genome sequencing efforts reveal further reassortants within these subtypes. Here we report the identification of an uncommon reassortant variant of H1N2 subtype influenza virus isolated from a pig in a multisite herd where H1N2 swine influenza was diagnosed for the first time in Sweden during the winter of 2008-2009. The majority of the European H1N2 swine influenza viruses described so far possess haemagglutinin (HA) of the human-like H1N2 SIV viruses and the neuraminidase (NA) of either the European H1N2 or H3N2 SIV-like viruses. The Swedish isolate has an avian-like SIV HA and a H3N2 SIV-like NA, which is phylogenetically more closely related to H3N2 SIV NAs from isolates collected in the early '80s than to the NA of H3N2 origin of the H1N2 viruses isolated during the last decade, as depicted by some German strains, indicative of independent acquisition of the NA genes for these two types of reassortants. The internal genes proved to be entirely of avian-like SIV H1N1 origin. The prevalence of this SIV variant in pig populations needs to be determined, as well as the suitability of the routinely used laboratory reagents to analyze this strain.The description of this H1N2 SIV adds further information to influenza epidemiology and supports the necessity of surveillance for influenza viruses in pigs.

  20. AS03-adjuvanted versus non-adjuvanted inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine against seasonal influenza in elderly people: a phase 3 randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McElhaney, J.E.; Beran, J.; Devaster, J.M.; Esen, M.; Launay, O.; Leroux-Roels, G.; Ruiz-Palacios, G.M.; Essen, G.A. van; Caplanusi, A.; Claeys, C.; Durand, C.; Duval, X.; Idrissi, M. El; Falsey, A.R.; Feldman, G.; Frey, S.E.; Galtier, F.; Hwang, S.J.; Innis, B.L.; Kovac, M.; Kremsner, P.; McNeil, S.; Nowakowski, A.; Richardus, J.H.; Trofa, A.; Oostvogels, L.; Verheugt, F.W.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to compare AS03-adjuvanted inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) with non-adjuvanted TIV for seasonal influenza prevention in elderly people. METHODS: We did a randomised trial in 15 countries worldwide during the 2008-09 (year 1) and 2009-10 (year 2) influenza seasons.

  1. Adaptive evolution during the establishment of European avian-like H1N1 influenza A virus in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Udayan; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Smith, Gavin J D; Su, Yvonne C F

    2018-04-01

    An H1N1 subtype influenza A virus with all eight gene segments derived from wild birds (including mallards), ducks and chickens, caused severe disease outbreaks in swine populations in Europe beginning in 1979 and successfully adapted to form the European avian-like swine (EA-swine) influenza lineage. Genes of the EA-swine lineage that are clearly segregated from its closest avian relatives continue to circulate in swine populations globally and represent a unique opportunity to study the adaptive process of an avian-to-mammalian cross-species transmission. Here, we used a relaxed molecular clock model to test whether the EA-swine virus originated through the introduction of a single avian ancestor as an entire genome, followed by an analysis of host-specific selection pressures among different gene segments. Our data indicated independent introduction of gene segments via transmission of avian viruses into swine followed by reassortment events that occurred at least 1-4 years prior to the EA-swine outbreak. All EA-swine gene segments exhibit greater selection pressure than avian viruses, reflecting both adaptive pressures and relaxed selective constraints that are associated with host switching. Notably, we identified key amino acid mutations in the viral surface proteins (H1 and N1) that play a role in adaptation to new hosts. Following the establishment of EA-swine lineage, we observed an increased frequency of intrasubtype reassortment of segments compared to the earlier strains that has been associated with adaptive amino acid replacements, disease severity and vaccine escape. Taken together, our study provides key insights into the adaptive changes in viral genomes following the transmission of avian influenza viruses to swine and the early establishment of the EA-swine lineage.

  2. Evidence of reassortment of pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in swine in Argentina: are we facing the expansion of potential epicenters of influenza emergence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, Ariel; Rimondi, Agustina; Cappuccio, Javier; Sanguinetti, Ramon; Angel, Matthew; Ye, Jianqiang; Sutton, Troy; Dibárbora, Marina; Olivera, Valeria; Craig, Maria I.; Quiroga, Maria; Machuca, Mariana; Ferrero, Andrea; Perfumo, Carlos; Perez, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Pereda et al. (2011) Evidence of reassortment of pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in swine in Argentina: are we facing the expansion of potential epicenters of influenza emergence? Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(6), 409–412. In this report, we describe the occurrence of two novel swine influenza viruses (SIVs) in pigs in Argentina. These viruses are the result of two independent reassortment events between the H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (H1N1pdm) and human‐like SIVs, showing the constant evolution of influenza viruses at the human–swine interface and the potential health risk of H1N1pdm as it appears to be maintained in the swine population. It must be noted that because of the lack of information regarding the circulation of SIVs in South America, we cannot discard the possibility that ancestors of the H1N1pdm or other SIVs have been present in this part of the world. More importantly, these findings suggest an ever‐expanding geographic range of potential epicenters of influenza emergence with public health risks. PMID:21668680

  3. The PB2-K627E mutation attenuates H3N2 swine influenza virus in cultured cells and in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao-Qian; Ruan, Bao-Yang; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Xiu-Hui; Wang, Qi; Shan, Tong-Ling; Tong, Wu; Zhou, Yan-Jun; Li, Guo-Xin; Zheng, Hao; Tong, Guang-Zhi; Yu, Hai

    2018-04-01

    PB2-627K is an important amino acid that determines the virulence of some influenza A viruses. However, it has not been experimentally investigated in the H3N2 swine influenza virus. To explore the potential role of PB2-K627E substitution in H3N2 swine influenza virus, the growth properties and pathogenicity between H3N2 swine influenza virus and its PB2-K627E mutant were compared. For the first time, our results showed that PB2-K627E mutation attenuates H3N2 swine influenza virus in mammalian cells and in mice, suggesting that PB2-627K is required for viral replication and pathogenicity of H3N2 swine influenza virus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. H1N1 influenza ('swine 'flu') in the paediatric ICU in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schoub B. Swine flu – implications for South Africa. Communicable Diseases Surveillance. Bulletin 2009;7(3):5-7. 5. Ahrens JO, Morrow BM, Argent AC. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in critically ill children admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit, South Africa. S Afr J Crit Care 2015;31(1):4-7. 6. Cox CM, Blanton L, Dhara R, ...

  5. Identification of swine influenza virus epitopes and analysis of multiple specificities expressed by cytotoxic T cell subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Riber, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Background: Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I peptide binding and presentation are essential for antigen-specific activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and swine MHC class I molecules, also termed swine leukocyte antigens (SLA), thus play a crucial role in the process that leads...... to elimination of viruses such as swine influenza virus (SwIV). This study describes the identification of SLA-presented peptide epitopes that are targets for a swine CTL response, and further analyses multiple specificities expressed by SwIV activated CTL subsets. Findings: Four SwIV derived peptides were...

  6. Genetic and pathogenic characteristics of H1 avian and swine influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Jeong, Jipseol; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Choi, Eun-Jin; Shin, Yeun-Kyung; Lee, Hee-Soo; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the potential for cross-species transmission of influenza viruses by comparing the genetic and pathogenic characteristics of H1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) with different host origins in Korea. Antigenic and phylogenetic analyses of H1 AIVs circulating in Korea provided evidence of genetic similarity between viruses that infect domestic ducks and those that infect wild birds, although there was no relationship between avian and swine viruses. However, there were some relationships between swine and human viral genes. The replication and pathogenicity of the H1 viruses was assessed in chickens, domestic ducks and mice. Viral shedding in chickens was relatively high. Virus was recovered from both oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs up to 5-10 days post-inoculation. The titres of domestic duck viruses in chickens were much higher than those of wild-bird viruses. Both domestic duck and wild-bird viruses replicated poorly in domestic ducks. None of the swine viruses replicated in chickens or domestic ducks; however, six viruses showed relatively high titres in mice, regardless of host origin, and induced clinical signs such as ruffled fur, squatting and weight loss. Thus, although the phylogenetic and antigenic analyses showed no evidence of interspecies transmission between birds and swine, the results suggest that Korean H1 viruses have the potential to cause disease in mammals. Therefore, we should intensify continuous monitoring of avian H1 viruses in mammals and seek to prevent interspecies transmission. © 2014 The Authors.

  7. Molecular evolution of H1N1 swine influenza in Guangdong, China, 2016-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mengkai; Huang, Junming; Bu, Dexin; Yu, Zhiqing; Fu, Xinliang; Ji, Chihai; Zhou, Pei; Zhang, Guihong

    2018-06-01

    Swine are the main host of the H1N1 swine influenza virus (SIV), however, H1N1 can also infect humans and occasionally cause serious respiratory disease. To trace the evolution of the SIV in Guangdong, China, we performed an epidemic investigation during the period of 2016-2017. Nine H1N1 influenza viruses were isolated from swine nasal swabs. Antigenic analysis revealed that these viruses belonged to two distinct antigenic groups, represented by A/Swine/Guangdong/101/2016 and A/Swine/Guangdong/52/2017. Additionally, three genotypes, known as GD52/17-like, GD493/17-like and GD101/16-like, were identified by phylogenetic analysis. Importantly, the genotypes including a minimum of 4 pdm/09-origin internal genes have become prevalent in China in recent years. A total of 2966 swine serum samples were used to perform hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests, and the results showed that the seroprevalence values of SW/GD/101/16 (32.2% in 2016, 32.1% in 2017) were significantly higher than the seroprevalence values of SW/GD/52/17 (18.0% in 2016, 16.7% in 2017). Our study showed that the three reassortant genotypes of H1N1 SIV currently circulating in China are stable, but H1N1pdm09 poses challenges to human health by the introduction of internal genes into these reassortant genotypes. Strengthening SIV surveillance is therefore critical for SIV control and minimizing its potential threat to public health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Triple-reassortant swine influenza A (H1) in humans in the United States, 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Vivek; Bridges, Carolyn B; Uyeki, Timothy M; Shu, Bo; Balish, Amanda; Xu, Xiyan; Lindstrom, Stephen; Gubareva, Larisa V; Deyde, Varough; Garten, Rebecca J; Harris, Meghan; Gerber, Susan; Vagasky, Susan; Smith, Forrest; Pascoe, Neal; Martin, Karen; Dufficy, Deborah; Ritger, Kathy; Conover, Craig; Quinlisk, Patricia; Klimov, Alexander; Bresee, Joseph S; Finelli, Lyn

    2009-06-18

    Triple-reassortant swine influenza A (H1) viruses--containing genes from avian, human, and swine influenza viruses--emerged and became enzootic among pig herds in North America during the late 1990s. We report the clinical features of the first 11 sporadic cases of infection of humans with triple-reassortant swine influenza A (H1) viruses reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, occurring from December 2005 through February 2009, until just before the current epidemic of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) among humans. These data were obtained from routine national influenza surveillance reports and from joint case investigations by public and animal health agencies. The median age of the 11 patients was 10 years (range, 16 months to 48 years), and 4 had underlying health conditions. Nine of the patients had had exposure to pigs, five through direct contact and four through visits to a location where pigs were present but without contact. In another patient, human-to-human transmission was suspected. The range of the incubation period, from the last known exposure to the onset of symptoms, was 3 to 9 days. Among the 10 patients with known clinical symptoms, symptoms included fever (in 90%), cough (in 100%), headache (in 60%), and diarrhea (in 30%). Complete blood counts were available for four patients, revealing leukopenia in two, lymphopenia in one, and thrombocytopenia in another. Four patients were hospitalized, two of whom underwent invasive mechanical ventilation. Four patients received oseltamivir, and all 11 recovered from their illness. From December 2005 until just before the current human epidemic of swine-origin influenza viruses, there was sporadic infection with triple-reassortant swine influenza A (H1) viruses in persons with exposure to pigs in the United States. Although all the patients recovered, severe illness of the lower respiratory tract and unusual influenza signs such as diarrhea were observed in some patients, including

  9. Polymerase discordance in novel swine influenza H3N2v constellations is tolerated in swine but not human respiratory epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Powell

    Full Text Available Swine-origin H3N2v, a variant of H3N2 influenza virus, is a concern for novel reassortment with circulating pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1pdm09 in swine because this can lead to the emergence of a novel pandemic virus. In this study, the reassortment prevalence of H3N2v with H1N1pdm09 was determined in swine cells. Reassortants evaluated showed that the H1N1pdm09 polymerase (PA segment occurred within swine H3N2 with ∼ 80% frequency. The swine H3N2-human H1N1pdm09 PA reassortant (swH3N2-huPA showed enhanced replication in swine cells, and was the dominant gene constellation. Ferrets infected with swH3N2-huPA had increased lung pathogenicity compared to parent viruses; however, swH3N2-huPA replication in normal human bronchoepithelial cells was attenuated - a feature linked to expression of IFN-β and IFN-λ genes in human but not swine cells. These findings indicate that emergence of novel H3N2v influenza constellations require more than changes in the viral polymerase complex to overcome barriers to cross-species transmission. Additionally, these findings reveal that while the ferret model is highly informative for influenza studies, slight differences in pathogenicity may not necessarily be indicative of human outcomes after infection.

  10. Polymerase Discordance in Novel Swine Influenza H3N2v Constellations Is Tolerated in Swine but Not Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Joshua D.; Dlugolenski, Daniel; Nagy, Tamas; Gabbard, Jon; Lee, Christopher; Tompkins, Stephen M.; Tripp, Ralph A.

    2014-01-01

    Swine-origin H3N2v, a variant of H3N2 influenza virus, is a concern for novel reassortment with circulating pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1pdm09) in swine because this can lead to the emergence of a novel pandemic virus. In this study, the reassortment prevalence of H3N2v with H1N1pdm09 was determined in swine cells. Reassortants evaluated showed that the H1N1pdm09 polymerase (PA) segment occurred within swine H3N2 with ∼80% frequency. The swine H3N2-human H1N1pdm09 PA reassortant (swH3N2-huPA) showed enhanced replication in swine cells, and was the dominant gene constellation. Ferrets infected with swH3N2-huPA had increased lung pathogenicity compared to parent viruses; however, swH3N2-huPA replication in normal human bronchoepithelial cells was attenuated - a feature linked to expression of IFN-β and IFN-λ genes in human but not swine cells. These findings indicate that emergence of novel H3N2v influenza constellations require more than changes in the viral polymerase complex to overcome barriers to cross-species transmission. Additionally, these findings reveal that while the ferret model is highly informative for influenza studies, slight differences in pathogenicity may not necessarily be indicative of human outcomes after infection. PMID:25330303

  11. Influenza A (H3N2) virus in swine at agricultural fairs and transmission to humans, Michigan and Ohio, USA, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    An 18 case outbreak of variant H3N2 influenza A occurred during 2016 after exposure to influenza-infected swine at seven agricultural fairs. Sixteen cases were infected with a reassortant between 2010-2011 human seasonal H3N2 strains and viruses endemic in North American swine, a viral lineage incre...

  12. Genetic drift of HA and NA in Danish swine influenza virus from the period 2003-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fobian, Kristina; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2012-01-01

    . Currently at least three influenza A subtypes (H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2) are endemic in the Danish swine population, and since 2010 the pandemic virus (H1N1pdm09) have also frequently been detected. The focus in this study will be on H1N1 and H1N2, since the prevalence of H3N2 have declined over the past years...... will provide a more complete picture of the molecular epidemiology of the H1N1 and H1N2 swine influenza viruses in Denmark. A thorough knowledge of the antigenic drift in surface genes is very important concerning evaluation of the zoonotic potential of existing and future swine influenza virus strains......The aim of this study is to analyze; the genetic drift in hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from influenza viruses isolated from Danish swine over the past decade; the antigenic evolution and relatedness between swine influenza virus strains of the H1 subtype by antigenic cartography...

  13. Mucosal immune response in broilers following vaccination with inactivated influenza and recombinant Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucosal and systemic immunity were observed in broilers vaccinated with mannosylated chitosan adjuvated (MCA) inactivated A/Turkey/Virginia/158512/2002 (H7N2) and administered with and without recombinant Bacillus subtilis to elicit heterologous influenza strain protection. Previously, mucosal immu...

  14. Development of a dried influenza whole inactivated virus vaccine for pulmonary immunization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Audouy, Sandrine A.L.; van der Schaaf, Gieta; Hinrichs, Wouter L.J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Wilschut, Jan; Huckriede, Anke

    2011-01-01

    Stabilization and ease of administration are two ways to substantially improve the use of current vaccines. In the present study an influenza whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccine was freeze-dried or spray-freeze dried in the presence of inulin as a cryoprotectant. Only spray-freeze drying rendered

  15. The effectiveness of seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in preventing laboratory confirmed influenza hospitalisations in Auckland, New Zealand in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nikki; Pierse, Nevil; Bissielo, Ange; Huang, Q Sue; Baker, Michael G; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Kelly, Heath

    2014-06-17

    Few studies report the effectiveness of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) in preventing hospitalisation for influenza-confirmed respiratory infections. Using a prospective surveillance platform, this study reports the first such estimate from a well-defined ethnically diverse population in New Zealand (NZ). A case test-negative design was used to estimate propensity adjusted vaccine effectiveness. Patients with a severe acute respiratory infection (SARI), defined as a patient of any age requiring hospitalisation with a history of a fever or a measured temperature ≥38°C and cough and onset within the past 7 days, admitted to public hospitals in South and Central Auckland were eligible for inclusion in the study. Cases were SARI patients who tested positive for influenza, while non-cases (controls) were SARI patients who tested negative. Results were adjusted for the propensity to be vaccinated and the timing of the influenza season. The propensity and season adjusted vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated as 39% (95% CI 16;56). The VE point estimate against influenza A (H1N1) was lower than for influenza B or influenza A (H3N2) but confidence intervals were wide and overlapping. Estimated VE was 59% (95% CI 26;77) in patients aged 45-64 years but only 8% (-78;53) in those aged 65 years and above. Prospective surveillance for SARI has been successfully established in NZ. This study for the first year, the 2012 influenza season, has shown low to moderate protection by TIV against influenza positive hospitalisation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effectiveness of seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in preventing laboratory confirmed influenza hospitalisations in Auckland, New Zealand in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nikki; Pierse, Nevil; Bissielo, Ange; Huang, Q Sue; Baker, Michael; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Kelly, Heath

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies report the effectiveness of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) in preventing hospitalisation for influenza-confirmed respiratory infections. Using a prospective surveillance platform, this study reports the first such estimate from a well-defined ethnically diverse population in New Zealand (NZ). Methods A case test-negative study was used to estimate propensity adjusted vaccine effectiveness. Patients with a severe acute respiratory infection (SARI), defined as a patient of any age requiring hospitalization with a history of a fever or a measured temperature ≥38°C and cough and onset within the past 7 days, admitted to public hospitals in Central, South and East Auckland were eligible for inclusion in the study. Cases were SARI patients who tested positive for influenza, while non-cases (controls) were SARI patients who tested negative. Results were adjusted for the propensity to be vaccinated and the timing of the influenza season Results The propensity and season adjusted vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated as 37% (95% CI 18;51). The VE point estimate against influenza A (H1N1) was higher than for influenza B or influenza A (H3N2) but confidence intervals were wide and overlapping. Estimated VE was 51% (95% CI 28;67) in patients aged 18-64 years but only 6% (95% CI -51;42) in those aged 65 years and above. Conclusion Prospective surveillance for SARI has been successfully established in NZ . This study for the first year, the 2012 influenza season, has shown low to moderate protection by TIV against hospitalisation for laboratory-confirmed influenza. PMID:24768730

  17. Airborne detection and quantification of swine influenza a virus in air samples collected inside, outside and downwind from swine barns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar A Corzo

    Full Text Available Airborne transmission of influenza A virus (IAV in swine is speculated to be an important route of virus dissemination, but data are scarce. This study attempted to detect and quantify airborne IAV by virus isolation and RRT-PCR in air samples collected under field conditions. This was accomplished by collecting air samples from four acutely infected pig farms and locating air samplers inside the barns, at the external exhaust fans and downwind from the farms at distances up to 2.1 km. IAV was detected in air samples collected in 3 out of 4 farms included in the study. Isolation of IAV was possible from air samples collected inside the barn at two of the farms and in one farm from the exhausted air. Between 13% and 100% of samples collected inside the barns tested RRT-PCR positive with an average viral load of 3.20E+05 IAV RNA copies/m³ of air. Percentage of exhaust positive air samples also ranged between 13% and 100% with an average viral load of 1.79E+04 RNA copies/m³ of air. Influenza virus RNA was detected in air samples collected between 1.5 and 2.1 Km away from the farms with viral levels significantly lower at 4.65E+03 RNA copies/m³. H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes were detected in the air samples and the hemagglutinin gene sequences identified in the swine samples matched those in aerosols providing evidence that the viruses detected in the aerosols originated from the pigs in the farms under study. Overall our results indicate that pigs can be a source of IAV infectious aerosols and that these aerosols can be exhausted from pig barns and be transported downwind. The results from this study provide evidence of the risk of aerosol transmission in pigs under field conditions.

  18. Isolation and molecular characterization of an H5N1 swine influenza virus in China in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haibo; Yang, Fan; Lu, Rufeng; Xu, Lihua; Liu, Fumin; Peng, Xiuming; Wu, Nanping

    2018-03-01

    In 2015, an H5N1 influenza virus was isolated from a pig in Zhejiang Province, Eastern China. This strain was characterized by whole-genome sequencing with subsequent phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all segments from this strain belonged to clade 2.3.2 and that it had received its genes from poultry influenza viruses in China. A Glu627Lys mutation associated with pathogenicity was observed in the PB2 protein. This strain was moderately pathogenic in mice and was able to replicate without prior adaptation. These results suggest that active surveillance of swine influenza should be used as an early warning system for influenza outbreaks in mammals.

  19. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings of swine with spontaneous influenza A infection in Brazil, 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane T.N. Watanabe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Swine influenza (SI is caused by the type A swine influenza virus (SIV. It is a highly contagious disease with a rapid course and recovery. The major clinical signs and symptoms are cough, fever, anorexia and poor performance. The disease has been associated with other co-infections in many countries, but not in Brazil, where, however, the first outbreak has been reported in 2011. The main aim of this study was to characterize the histological features in association with the immunohistochemical (IHC results for influenza A (IA, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV in lung samples from 60 pigs submitted to Setor de Patologia Veterinária at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (SPV-UFRGS, Brazil, during 2009-2010. All of these lung samples had changes characterized by interstitial pneumonia with necrotizing bronchiolitis, never observed previously in the evaluation of swine lungs in our laboratory routine. Pigs in this study had showed clinical signs of a respiratory infection. Swine samples originated from Rio Grande do Sul 31 (52%, Santa Catarina 14 (23%, Paraná 11 (18%, and Mato Grosso do Sul 4 (7%. Positive anti-IA IHC labelling was observed in 45% of the cases, which were associated with necrotizing bronchiolitis, atelectasis, purulent bronchopneumonia and hyperemia. Moreover, type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, alveolar and bronchiolar polyp-like structures, bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT hyperplasia and pleuritis were the significant features in negative anti-IA IHC, which were also associated with chronic lesions. There were only two cases with positive anti-PCV2 IHC and none to PRRSV. Therefore, SIV was the predominant infectious agent in the lung samples studied. The viral antigen is often absent due to the rapid progress of SI, which may explain the negative IHC results for IA (55%; therefore, IHC should be performed at the beginning of the disease. This study

  20. New reassortant and enzootic European swine influenza 1 viruses transmits efficiently through direct contact in the ferret model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fobian, Kristina; P. Fabrizio, Thomas; Yoon, Sun-Woo

    2015-01-01

    The reverse zoonotic events that introduced the 2009 pandemic influenza virus into pigs have drastically increased the diversity of swine influenza viruses in Europe. The pandemic potential of these novel reassortments is still unclear, necessitating enhanced surveillance of European pigs...... with additional focus on risk assessment of these new viruses. In this study, four European swine influenza viruses were assessed for their zoonotic potential. Two of the four viruses were enzootic viruses of subtype H1N2 (with avian-like H1) and H3N2 and two were new reassortants, one with avian-like H1...... and human-like N2 and one with 2009 pandemic H1 and swine-like N2. All viruses replicated to high titers in nasal wash- and nasal turbinate samples from inoculated ferrets and transmitted efficiently by direct contact. Only the H3N2 virus transmitted to naïve ferrets via the airborne route. Growth kinetics...

  1. Intranasal Immunization with Pressure Inactivated Avian Influenza Elicits Cellular and Humoral Responses in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana P C Barroso

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses pose a serious global health threat, particularly in light of newly emerging strains, such as the avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9 viruses. Vaccination remains the primary method for preventing acquiring influenza or for avoiding developing serious complications related to the disease. Vaccinations based on inactivated split virus vaccines or on chemically inactivated whole virus have some important drawbacks, including changes in the immunogenic properties of the virus. To induce a greater mucosal immune response, intranasally administered vaccines are highly desired as they not only prevent disease but can also block the infection at its primary site. To avoid these drawbacks, hydrostatic pressure has been used as a potential method for viral inactivation and vaccine production. In this study, we show that hydrostatic pressure inactivates the avian influenza A H3N8 virus, while still maintaining hemagglutinin and neuraminidase functionalities. Challenged vaccinated animals showed no disease signs (ruffled fur, lethargy, weight loss, and huddling. Similarly, these animals showed less Evans Blue dye leakage and lower cell counts in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with the challenged non-vaccinated group. We found that the whole inactivated particles were capable of generating a neutralizing antibody response in serum, and IgA was also found in nasal mucosa and feces. After the vaccination and challenge we observed Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion with a prevalence of IFN-γ. Our data indicate that the animals present a satisfactory immune response after vaccination and are protected against infection. Our results may pave the way for the development of a novel pressure-based vaccine against influenza virus.

  2. Serum and mucosal immune responses to an inactivated influenza virus vaccine induced by epidermal powder immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D; Periwal, S B; Larrivee, K; Zuleger, C; Erickson, C A; Endres, R L; Payne, L G

    2001-09-01

    Both circulating and mucosal antibodies are considered important for protection against infection by influenza virus in humans and animals. However, current inactivated vaccines administered by intramuscular injection using a syringe and needle elicit primarily circulating antibodies. In this study, we report that epidermal powder immunization (EPI) via a unique powder delivery system elicits both serum and mucosal antibodies to an inactivated influenza virus vaccine. Serum antibody responses to influenza vaccine following EPI were enhanced by codelivery of cholera toxin (CT), a synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide containing immunostimulatory CpG motifs (CpG DNA), or the combination of these two adjuvants. In addition, secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) antibodies were detected in the saliva and mucosal lavages of the small intestine, trachea, and vaginal tract, although the titers were much lower than the IgG titers. The local origin of the sIgA antibodies was further shown by measuring antibodies released from cultured tracheal and small intestinal fragments and by detecting antigen-specific IgA-secreting cells in the lamina propria using ELISPOT assays. EPI with a single dose of influenza vaccine containing CT or CT and CpG DNA conferred complete protection against lethal challenges with an influenza virus isolated 30 years ago, whereas a prime and boost immunizations were required for protection in the absence of an adjuvant. The ability to elicit augmented circulating antibody and mucosal antibody responses makes EPI a promising alternative to needle injection for administering vaccines against influenza and other diseases.

  3. A novel monoclonal antibody effective against lethal challenge with swine-lineage and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The HA protein of the 2009 pandemic H1N1viruses (14 H1N1pdm) is antigenically closely related to the HA of classical North American swine H1N1 influenza viruses (cH1N1). Since 1998, through reassortment and incorporation of HA genes from human H3N2 and H1N1 influenza viruses, swine influenza strains...

  4. Characterization of influenza a outbreaks in Minnesota swine herds and measures taken to reduce the risk of zoonotic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, A; Johnson, S; Davies, P; Bender, J; Gramer, M

    2012-03-01

    Influenza A virus infections commonly cause respiratory disease in swine and can be transmitted between people and pigs, with potentially novel strains introduced into herds and spilling back into the human population. The goals of this study were to characterize influenza infections in Minnesota pigs and assess biosecurity measures used by swine workers. Veterinarians submitting influenza-positive swine samples to the University of Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory between October 2007 and April 2009 were surveyed regarding disease-related information and biosecurity procedures at each farm. Influenza-positive samples were submitted year-round, peaking in spring and fall. H1N1 was the most commonly detected subtype (56%), followed by H3N2 (14%) and H1N2 (12%). Most positive submissions were associated with illness in growing pigs (median age 8.8 weeks, IQR 5-15). Median morbidity and mortality were 25% (IQR 10-48) and 2% (IQR 0.5-3.5), respectively. Vaccination of sows and growing pigs was conducted at 71% and 7.9% of the swine farms, respectively. Specialized footwear was reported as the most common form of protective equipment used by workers. Employee vaccination for seasonal influenza was 19%. The sow vaccination rate in this study is consistent with national data, although growing pig vaccination is lower than the national average. Seasonal and age trends identified here may provide diagnostic guidance when growing pigs experience respiratory disease. Inconsistent use of protective equipment and employee vaccination at swine farms indicates the need for further discussion and research of approaches to minimize interspecies influenza transmission on swine farms. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Initial psychological responses to Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto Felix

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outbreak of the pandemic flu, Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu in early 2009, provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Previous pandemics have led to stockpiling of goods, the victimisation of particular population groups, and the cancellation of travel and the boycotting of particular foods (e.g. pork. We examined initial behavioural and attitudinal responses towards Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu" in the six days following the WHO pandemic alert level 5, and regional differences in these responses. Methods 328 respondents completed a cross-sectional Internet or paper-based questionnaire study in Malaysia (N = 180 or Europe (N = 148. Measures assessed changes in transport usage, purchase of preparatory goods for a pandemic, perceived risk groups, indicators of anxiety, assessed estimated mortality rates for seasonal flu, effectiveness of seasonal flu vaccination, and changes in pork consumption Results 26% of the respondents were 'very concerned' about being a flu victim (42% Malaysians, 5% Europeans, p Conclusion Initial responses to Influenza A show large regional differences in anxiety, with Malaysians more anxious and more likely to reduce travel and to buy masks and food. Discussions with family and friends may reinforce existing anxiety levels. Particular groups (homosexuals, prostitutes, the homeless are perceived as at greater risk, potentially leading to increased prejudice during a pandemic. Europeans underestimated mortality of seasonal flu, and require more information about the protection given by seasonal flu inoculation.

  6. Inactivation of influenza A virus H1N1 by disinfection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eun Kyo; Bae, Jung Eun; Kim, In Seop

    2010-06-01

    Because any patient, health care worker, or visitor is capable of transmitting influenza to susceptible persons within hospitals, hospital-acquired influenza has been a clinical concern. Disinfection and cleaning of medical equipment, surgical instruments, and hospital environment are important measures to prevent transmission of influenza virus from hospitals to individuals. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of disinfection processes, which can be easily operated at hospitals, in inactivating influenza A virus H1N1 (H1N1). The effects of 0.1 mol/L NaOH, 70% ethanol, 70% 1-propanol, solvent/detergent (S/D) using 0.3% tri (n-butyl)-phosphate and 1.0% Triton X-100, heat, and ethylene oxide (EO) treatments in inactivating H1N1 were determined. Inactivation of H1N1 was kinetically determined by the treatment of disinfectants to virus solution. Also, a surface test method, which involved drying an amount of virus on a surface and then applying the inactivation methods for 1 minute of contact time, was used to determine the virucidal activity. H1N1 was completely inactivated to undetectable levels in 1 minute of 70% ethanol, 70% 1-propanol, and solvent/detergent treatments in the surface tests as well as in the suspension tests. H1N1 was completely inactivated in 1 minute of 0.1 mol/L NaOH treatment in the suspension tests and also effectively inactivated in the surface tests with the log reduction factor of 3.7. H1N1 was inactivated to undetectable levels within 5 minutes, 2.5 minutes, and 1 minute of heat treatment at 70, 80, and 90 degrees C, respectively in the suspension tests. Also, H1N1 was completely inactivated by EO treatment in the surface tests. Common disinfectants, heat, and EO tested in this study were effective at inactivating H1N1. These results would be helpful in implementing effective disinfecting measures to prevent hospital-acquired infections. Copyright 2010 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc

  7. Antigenic and genetic evolution of contemporary swine H1 influenza viruses in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajao, Daniela S; Anderson, Tavis K; Kitikoon, Pravina; Stratton, Jered; Lewis, Nicola S; Vincent, Amy L

    2018-05-01

    Several lineages of influenza A viruses (IAV) currently circulate in North American pigs. Genetic diversity is further increased by transmission of IAV between swine and humans and subsequent evolution. Here, we characterized the genetic and antigenic evolution of contemporary swine H1N1 and H1N2 viruses representing clusters H1-α (1A.1), H1-β (1A.2), H1pdm (1A.3.3.2), H1-γ (1A.3.3.3), H1-δ1 (1B.2.2), and H1-δ2 (1B.2.1) currently circulating in pigs in the United States. The δ1-viruses diversified into two new genetic clades, H1-δ1a (1B.2.2.1) and H1-δ1b (1B.2.2.2), which were also antigenically distinct from the earlier H1-δ1-viruses. Further characterization revealed that a few key amino acid changes were associated with antigenic divergence in these groups. The continued genetic and antigenic evolution of contemporary H1 viruses might lead to loss of vaccine cross-protection that could lead to significant economic impact to the swine industry, and represents a challenge to public health initiatives that attempt to minimize swine-to-human IAV transmission. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Burden of pediatric influenza A virus infection post swine-flu H1N1 pandemic in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Adel; Shaheen, Malak; Kamel, Terez; El Faramay, Amel; El Rahman, Safaa Abd; Nabil, Dalia; Gouda, Mohamed

    2013-09-01

    To screen children with influenza like illness or with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infections for influenza A virus infection - post swine flu pandemic era - using rapid influenza diagnostic tests. During two years (2010 & 2011), 1 200 children with influenza like illness or acute respiratory tract infections (according to World Health Organization criteria) were recruited. Their ages ranged from 2-60 months. Nasopharyngeal aspirates specimens were collected from all children for rapid influenza A diagnostic test. Influenza A virus rapid test was positive in 47.5% of the children; the majority (89.6%) were presented with lower respiratory tract infections. Respiratory rate and temperature were significantly higher among positive rapid influenza test patients. Influenza A virus infection is still a major cause of respiratory tract infections in Egyptian children. It should be considered in all cases with cough and febrile episodes and influenza like symptoms even post swine flu pandemic. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Inability to Screen Exhibition Swine for Influenza A Virus Using Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, A S; Nolting, J M; Workman, J D; Cooper, M; Fisher, A E; Marsh, B; Forshey, T

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural fairs create an unconventional animal-human interface that has been associated with swine-to-human transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) in recent years. Early detection of IAV-infected pigs at agricultural fairs would allow veterinarians to better protect swine and human health during these swine exhibitions. This study assessed the use of swine body temperature measurement, recorded by infrared and rectal thermometers, as a practical method to detect IAV-infected swine at agricultural fairs. In our first objective, infrared thermometers were used to record the body surface temperature of 1,092 pigs at the time of IAV nasal swab collection at the end of the exhibition period of 55 agricultural fairs. IAV was recovered from 212 (19.4%) pigs, and the difference in mean infrared body temperature measurement of IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs was 0.83°C. In a second objective, snout wipes were collected from 1,948 pigs immediately prior to the unloading of the animals at a single large swine exhibition. Concurrent to the snout wipe collection, owners took the rectal temperatures of his/her pigs. In this case, 47 (2.4%) pigs tested positive for IAV before they entered the swine barn. The mean rectal temperatures differed by only 0.19°C between IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs. The low prevalence of IAV among the pigs upon entry to the fair in the second objective provides evidence that limiting intraspecies spread of IAV during the fairs will likely have significant impacts on the zoonotic transmission. However, in both objectives, the high degree of similarity in the body temperature measurements between the IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs made it impossible to set a diagnostically meaningful cut point to differentiate IAV status of the individual animals. Unfortunately, body temperature measurement cannot be used to accurately screen exhibition swine for IAV. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. The origin of the PB1 segment of swine influenza A virus subtype H1N2 determines viral pathogenicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metreveli, Giorgi; Gao, Qinshan; Mena, Ignacio; Schmolke, Mirco; Berg, Mikael; Albrecht, Randy A; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2014-08-08

    Swine appear to be a key species in the generation of novel human influenza pandemics. Previous pandemic viruses are postulated to have evolved in swine by reassortment of avian, human, and swine influenza viruses. The human pandemic influenza viruses that emerged in 1957 and 1968 as well as swine viruses circulating since 1998 encode PB1 segments derived from avian influenza viruses. Here we investigate the possible role in viral replication and virulence of the PB1 gene segments present in two swine H1N2 influenza A viruses, A/swine/Sweden/1021/2009(H1N2) (sw 1021) and A/swine/Sweden/9706/2010(H1N2) (sw 9706), where the sw 1021 virus has shown to be more pathogenic in mice. By using reverse genetics, we swapped the PB1 genes of these two viruses. Similar to the sw 9706 virus, chimeric sw 1021 virus carrying the sw 9706 PB1 gene was not virulent in mice. In contrast, replacement of the PB1 gene of the sw 9706 virus by that from sw 1021 virus resulted in increased pathogenicity. Our study demonstrated that differences in virulence of swine influenza virus subtype H1N2 are attributed at least in part to the PB1 segment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Microneedle Vaccination Elicits Superior Protection and Antibody Response over Intranasal Vaccination against Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1 in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hyung Shin

    Full Text Available Influenza is one of the critical infectious diseases globally and vaccination has been considered as the best way to prevent. In this study, immunogenicity and protection efficacy between intranasal (IN and microneedle (MN vaccination was compared using inactivated swine-origin influenza A/H1N1 virus vaccine. Mice were vaccinated by MN or IN administration with 1 μg of inactivated H1N1 virus vaccine. Antigen-specific antibody responses and hemagglutination-inhibition (HI titers were measured in all immunized sera after immunization. Five weeks after an immunization, a lethal challenge was performed to evaluate the protective efficacy. Furthermore, mice were vaccinated by IN administration with higher dosages (> 1 μg, analyzed in the same manner, and compared with 1 μg-vaccine-coated MN. Significantly higher antigen-specific antibody responses and HI titer were measured in sera in MN group than those in IN group. While 100% protection, slight weight loss, and reduced viral replication were observed in MN group, 0% survival rate were observed in IN group. As vaccine dose for IN vaccination increased, MN-immunized sera showed much higher antigen-specific antibody responses and HI titer than other IN groups. In addition, protective immunity of 1 μg-MN group was similar to those of 20- and 40 μg-IN groups. We conclude that MN vaccination showed more potential immune response and protection than IN vaccination at the same vaccine dosage.

  12. European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs: Surveillance Programs, Diagnostic Tools and Swine Influenza Virus Subtypes Identified in 14 European Countries from 2010 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Gaelle; Larsen, Lars Erik; Duerrwald, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    : avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%), human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13%) and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%), as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm) virus (10.3%). Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence....... For instance, the H3N2 subtype was not detected at all in some geographic areas whereas it was still prevalent in other parts of Europe. Interestingly, H3N2-free areas were those that exhibited highest frequencies of circulating H1N2 viruses. H1N1pdm viruses were isolated at an increasing incidence in some......Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs...

  13. Genetic analysis of human and swine influenza A viruses isolated in Northern Italy during 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapponi, C; Ebranati, E; Pariani, E; Faccini, S; Luppi, A; Baioni, L; Manfredi, R; Carta, V; Merenda, M; Affanni, P; Colucci, M E; Veronesi, L; Zehender, G; Foni, E

    2018-02-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) infection in swine plays an important role in the ecology of influenza viruses. The emergence of new IAVs comes through different mechanisms, with the genetic reassortment of genes between influenza viruses, also originating from different species, being common. We performed a genetic analysis on 179 IAV isolates from humans (n. 75) and pigs (n. 104) collected in Northern Italy between 2010 and 2015, to monitor the genetic exchange between human and swine IAVs. No cases of human infection with swine strains were noticed, but direct infections of swine with H1N1pdm09 strains were detected. Moreover, we pointed out a continuous circulation of H1N1pdm09 strains in swine populations evidenced by the introduction of internal genes of this subtype. These events contribute to generating new viral variants-possibly endowed with pandemic potential-and emphasize the importance of continuous surveillance at both animal and human level. © 2017 The Authors. Zoonoses and Public Health published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Reassortant H1N1 influenza virus vaccines protect pigs against pandemic H1N1 influenza virus and H1N2 swine influenza virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Shi, Jianzhong; Guo, Jing; Xin, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Dayan; Shu, Yuelong; Qiao, Chuanling; Chen, Hualan

    2011-09-28

    Influenza A (H1N1) virus has caused human influenza outbreaks in a worldwide pandemic since April 2009. Pigs have been found to be susceptible to this influenza virus under experimental and natural conditions, raising concern about their potential role in the pandemic spread of the virus. In this study, we generated a high-growth reassortant virus (SC/PR8) that contains the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from a novel H1N1 isolate, A/Sichuan/1/2009 (SC/09), and six internal genes from A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) virus, by genetic reassortment. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of this reassortant virus were evaluated at different doses in a challenge model using a homologous SC/09 or heterologous A/Swine/Guangdong/1/06(H1N2) virus (GD/06). Two doses of SC/PR8 virus vaccine elicited high-titer serum hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibodies specific for the 2009 H1N1 virus and conferred complete protection against challenge with either SC/09 or GD/06 virus, with reduced lung lesions and viral shedding in vaccine-inoculated animals compared with non-vaccinated control animals. These results indicated for the first time that a high-growth SC/PR8 reassortant H1N1 virus exhibits properties that are desirable to be a promising vaccine candidate for use in swine in the event of a pandemic H1N1 influenza. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The molecular determinants of antibody recognition and antigenic drift in the H3 hemagglutinin of swine influenza A virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Influenza A virus (IAV) of the H3 subtype is an important pathogen that affects both humans and swine. The main intervention strategy for preventing infection is vaccination to induce neutralizing antibodies against the surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA). However, due to antigenic drift, vaccin...

  16. Strategies for differentiating infection in vaccinated animals (DIVA) for foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever and avian influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Parida, Satya; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    2010-01-01

    for the presence of infection. This literature review describes the current knowledge on the use of DIVA diagnostic strategies for three important transboundary animal diseases: foot-and-mouth disease in cloven-hoofed animals, classical swine fever in pigs and avian influenza in poultry....

  17. Reassortant swine influenza viruses isolated in Japan contain genes from pandemic A(H1N1) 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanehira, Katsushi; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Uchida, Yuko; Hikono, Hirokazu; Saito, Takehiko

    2014-06-01

    In 2013, three reassortant swine influenza viruses (SIVs)-two H1N2 and one H3N2-were isolated from symptomatic pigs in Japan; each contained genes from the pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 virus and endemic SIVs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the two H1N2 viruses, A/swine/Gunma/1/2013 and A/swine/Ibaraki/1/2013, were reassortants that contain genes from the following three distinct lineages: (i) H1 and nucleoprotein (NP) genes derived from a classical swine H1 HA lineage uniquely circulating among Japanese SIVs; (ii) neuraminidase (NA) genes from human-like H1N2 swine viruses; and (iii) other genes from pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 viruses. The H3N2 virus, A/swine/Miyazaki/2/2013, comprised genes from two sources: (i) hemagglutinin (HA) and NA genes derived from human and human-like H3N2 swine viruses and (ii) other genes from pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis also indicated that each of the reassortants may have arisen independently in Japanese pigs. A/swine/Miyazaki/2/2013 were found to have strong antigenic reactivities with antisera generated for some seasonal human-lineage viruses isolated during or before 2003, whereas A/swine/Miyazaki/2/2013 reactivities with antisera against viruses isolated after 2004 were clearly weaker. In addition, antisera against some strains of seasonal human-lineage H1 viruses did not react with either A/swine/Gunma/1/2013 or A/swine/Ibaraki/1/2013. These findings indicate that emergence and spread of these reassortant SIVs is a potential public health risk. © 2014 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Evidence for Cross-species Influenza A Virus Transmission Within Swine Farms, China: A One Health, Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mai-Juan; Wang, Guo-Lin; Anderson, Benjamin D; Bi, Zhen-Qiang; Lu, Bing; Wang, Xian-Jun; Wang, Chuang-Xin; Chen, Shan-Hui; Qian, Yan-Hua; Song, Shao-Xia; Li, Min; Lednicky, John A; Zhao, Teng; Wu, Meng-Na; Cao, Wu-Chun; Gray, Gregory C

    2018-02-01

    Our understanding of influenza A virus transmission between humans and pigs is limited. Beginning in 2015, we used a One Health approach and serial sampling to prospectively study 299 swine workers and 100 controls, their 9000 pigs, and 6 pig farm environments in China for influenza A viruses (IAVs) using molecular, culture, and immunological techniques. Study participants were closely monitored for influenza-like illness (ILI) events. Upon enrollment, swine workers had higher serum neutralizing antibody titers against swine H1N1 and higher nasal wash total immunoglobulin A (IgA) and specific IgA titers against swine H1N1 and H3N2 viruses. Over a period of 12 months, IAVs were detected by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction in 46 of 396 (11.6%) environmental swabs, 235 of 3300 (7.1%) pig oral secretion, 23 of 396 (5.8%) water, 20 of 396 (5.1%) aerosol, and 19 of 396 (4.8%) fecal-slurry specimens. Five of 32 (15.6%) participants with ILI events had nasopharyngeal swab specimens that were positive for IAV, and 17 (53.1%) demonstrated 4-fold rises in neutralization titers against a swine virus. Reassorted Eurasian avian-lineage H1N1, A(H1N1)pdm09-like, and swine-lineage H3N2 viruses were identified in pig farms. The A(H1N1)pdm09-like H1N1 viruses identified in swine were nearly genetically identical to the human H1N1 viruses isolated from the participants with ILI. There was considerable evidence of A(H1N1)pdm09-like, swine-lineage H1N1, and swine-lineage H3N2 viruses circulating, likely reassorting, and likely crossing species within the pig farms. These data suggest that stronger surveillance for novel influenza virus emergence within swine farms is imperative. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. A randomized clinical trial of an inactivated avian influenza A (H7N7 vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B Couch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concern for a pandemic caused by a newly emerged avian influenza A virus has led to clinical trials with candidate vaccines as preparation for such an event. Most trials have involved vaccines for influenza A (H5N1, A (H7N7 or A (H9N2. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate dosage-related safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated influenza A (H7N7 vaccine in humans. DESIGN: One hundred twenty-five healthy young adults were randomized to receive two doses intramuscularly of placebo or 7.5, 15, 45 or 90 µg of HA of an inactivated subunit influenza A (H7N7 vaccine (25 per group, four weeks apart. Reactogenicity was evaluated closely for one week and for any adverse effect for six months after each dose. Serum hemagglutination-inhibiting and neutralizing antibody responses were determined four weeks after each dose and at six months. RESULTS: Reactogenicity evaluations indicated the vaccinations were well tolerated. Only one subject developed a ≥4-fold serum hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI antibody response and a final titer of ≥1:40 four weeks after dose two and only five subjects developed a neutralizing antibody rise and a final titer of ≥1:40 in tests performed at a central laboratory. Four of the five were given the 45 or 90 µg HA dosage. A more sensitive HAI assay at the study site revealed a dose-response with increasing HA dosage but only 36% in the 90 µg HA group developed a ≥4-fold rise in antibody in this test and only one of these achieved a titer of ≥1:32. CONCLUSION: This inactivated subunit influenza A (H7N7 vaccine was safe but poorly immunogenic in humans. TRIALS REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00546585.

  20. Molecular epidemiology of novel swine origin influenza virus (S-OIV from Gwalior, India, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Jyoti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The H1N1pandemic virus is a newly emergent human influenza A virus that is closely related to a number of currently circulating pig viruses in the 'classic North American' and 'Eurasian' swine influenza virus lineages and thus referred as S-OIV. Since the first reports of the virus in humans in April 2009, H1N1 virus has spread to 168 countries and overseas territories. India also witnessed severe H1N1 pandemic virus epidemic with considerable morbidity and mortality in different parts starting from May 2009. Findings The suspected swine flu outbreak from Gwalior India during October- December 2009 was confirmed through S-OIV HA gene specific RT-LAMP and real time RT-PCR. Positive samples through CDC real time and Lamp assay were further processed for isolation of the virus. Full HA gene sequencing of the H1N1 isolates of Gwalior, India revealed 99% homology with California and other circulating novel swine flu viruses. Three major changes were observed at nucleotide level, while two major amino acid shifts were observed at the position C9W and I30M corresponding to the ORF with prototype strain. The HA gene sequence phylogeny revealed the circulation of two genetically distinct lineages belonging to Clade VII and Clade I of S-OIV. Conclusions Our findings also supported the earlier report about circulation of mixed genogroups of S-OIV in India. Therefore continuous monitoring of the genetic makeup of this newly emergent virus is essential to understand its evolution within the country.

  1. Swine-origin influenza A (H3N2) virus infection in two children--Indiana and Pennsylvania, July-August 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    Influenza A viruses are endemic in many animal species, including humans, swine, and wild birds, and sporadic cases of transmission of influenza A viruses between humans and animals do occur, including human infections with avian-origin influenza A viruses (i.e., H5N1 and H7N7) and swine-origin influenza A viruses (i.e., H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2). Genetic analysis can distinguish animal origin influenza viruses from the seasonal human influenza viruses that circulate widely and cause annual epidemics. This report describes two cases of febrile respiratory illness caused by swine-origin influenza A (H3N2) viruses identified on August 19 and August 26, 2011, and the current investigations. No epidemiologic link between the two cases has been identified, and although investigations are ongoing, no additional confirmed human infections with this virus have been detected. These viruses are similar to eight other swine-origin influenza A (H3N2) viruses identified from previous human infections over the past 2 years, but are unique in that one of the eight gene segments (matrix [M] gene) is from the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus. The acquisition of the M gene in these two swine-origin influenza A (H3N2) viruses indicates that they are "reassortants" because they contain genes of the swine-origin influenza A (H3N2) virus circulating in North American pigs since 1998 and the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus that might have been transmitted to pigs from humans during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. However, reassortments of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus with other swine influenza A viruses have been reported previously in swine. Clinicians who suspect influenza virus infection in humans with recent exposure to swine should obtain a nasopharyngeal swab from the patient for timely diagnosis at a state public health laboratory and consider empiric neuraminidase inhibitor antiviral treatment to quickly limit potential human transmission.

  2. Genetic analysis and antigenic characterization of swine origin influenza viruses isolated from humans in the United States, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Bo; Garten, Rebecca; Emery, Shannon; Balish, Amanda; Cooper, Lynn; Sessions, Wendy; Deyde, Varough; Smith, Catherine; Berman, LaShondra; Klimov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Stephen; Xu, Xiyan

    2012-01-05

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) have been recognized as important pathogens for pigs and occasional human infections with swine origin influenza viruses (SOIV) have been reported. Between 1990 and 2010, a total of twenty seven human cases of SOIV infections have been identified in the United States. Six viruses isolated from 1990 to 1995 were recognized as classical SOIV (cSOIV) A(H1N1). After 1998, twenty-one SOIV recovered from human cases were characterized as triple reassortant (tr_SOIV) inheriting genes from classical swine, avian and human influenza viruses. Of those twenty-one tr_SOIV, thirteen were of A(H1N1), one of A(H1N2), and seven of A(H3N2) subtype. SOIV characterized were antigenically and genetically closely related to the subtypes of influenza viruses circulating in pigs but distinct from contemporary influenza viruses circulating in humans. The diversity of subtypes and genetic lineages in SOIV cases highlights the importance of continued surveillance at the animal-human interface. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Live Attenuated Versus Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Hutterite Children: A Cluster Randomized Blinded Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Mark; Russell, Margaret L; Manning, Vanessa; Fonseca, Kevin; Earn, David J D; Horsman, Gregory; Chokani, Khami; Vooght, Mark; Babiuk, Lorne; Schwartz, Lisa; Neupane, Binod; Singh, Pardeep; Walter, Stephen D; Pullenayegum, Eleanor

    2016-11-01

    Whether vaccinating children with intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is more effective than inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in providing both direct protection in vaccinated persons and herd protection in unvaccinated persons is uncertain. Hutterite colonies, where members live in close-knit, small rural communities in which influenza virus infection regularly occurs, offer an opportunity to address this question. To determine whether vaccinating children and adolescents with LAIV provides better community protection than IIV. A cluster randomized blinded trial conducted between October 2012 and May 2015 over 3 influenza seasons. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01653015). 52 Hutterite colonies in Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada. 1186 Canadian children and adolescents aged 36 months to 15 years who received the study vaccine and 3425 community members who did not. Children were randomly assigned according to community in a blinded manner to receive standard dosing of either trivalent LAIV or trivalent IIV. The primary outcome was reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction-confirmed influenza A or B virus in all participants (vaccinated children and persons who did not receive the study vaccine). Mean vaccine coverage among children in the LAIV group was 76.9% versus 72.3% in the IIV group. Influenza virus infection occurred at a rate of 5.3% (295 of 5560 person-years) in the LAIV group versus 5.2% (304 of 5810 person-years) in the IIV group. The hazard ratio comparing LAIV with IIV for influenza A or B virus was 1.03 (95% CI, 0.85 to 1.24). The study was conducted in Hutterite communities, which may limit generalizability. Immunizing children with LAIV does not provide better community protection against influenza than IIV. The Canadian Institutes for Health Research.

  4. Expression Dynamics of Innate Immunity in Influenza Virus-Infected Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Amadori

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The current circulating swine influenza virus (IV subtypes in Europe (H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 are associated with clinical outbreaks of disease. However, we showed that pigs could be susceptible to other IV strains that are able to cross the species barrier. In this work, we extended our investigations into whether different IV strains able to cross the species barrier might give rise to different innate immune responses that could be associated with pathological lesions. For this purpose, we used the same samples collected in a previous study of ours, in which healthy pigs had been infected with a H3N2 Swine IV and four different H3N8 IV strains circulating in different animal species. Pigs had been clinically inspected and four subjects/group were sacrificed at 3, 6, and 21 days post infection. In the present study, all groups but mock exhibited antibody responses to IV nucleoprotein protein. Pulmonary lesions and high-titered viral replication were observed in pigs infected with the swine-adapted virus. Interestingly, pigs infected with avian and seal H3N8 strains also showed moderate lesions and viral replication, whereas equine and canine IVs did not cause overt pathological signs, and replication was barely detectable. Swine IV infection induced interferon (IFN-alpha and interleukin-6 responses in bronchoalveolar fluids (BALF at day 3 post infection, as opposed to the other non-swine-adapted virus strains. However, IFN-alpha responses to the swine-adapted virus were not associated with an increase of the local, constitutive expression of IFN-alpha genes. Remarkably, the Equine strain gave rise to a Serum Amyloid A response in BALF despite little if any replication. Each virus strain could be associated with expression of cytokine genes and/or proteins after infection. These responses were observed well beyond the period of virus replication, suggesting a prolonged homeostatic imbalance of the innate immune system.

  5. Experimental infection with H1N1 European swine influenza virus protects pigs from an infection with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 human influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, Núria; Segalés, Joaquim; Córdoba, Lorena; Mussá, Tufaria; Crisci, Elisa; Martín-Valls, Gerard E; Simon-Grifé, Meritxell; Pérez-Simó, Marta; Pérez-Maíllo, Monica; Núñez, Jose I; Abad, Francesc X; Fraile, Lorenzo; Pina, Sonia; Majó, Natalia; Bensaid, Albert; Domingo, Mariano; Montoya, María

    2010-01-01

    The recent pandemic caused by human influenza virus A(H1N1) 2009 contains ancestral gene segments from North American and Eurasian swine lineages as well as from avian and human influenza lineages. The emergence of this A(H1N1) 2009 poses a potential global threat for human health and the fact that it can infect other species, like pigs, favours a possible encounter with other influenza viruses circulating in swine herds. In Europe, H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes of swine influenza virus currently have a high prevalence in commercial farms. To better assess the risk posed by the A(H1N1) 2009 in the actual situation of swine farms, we sought to analyze whether a previous infection with a circulating European avian-like swine A/Swine/Spain/53207/2004 (H1N1) influenza virus (hereafter referred to as SwH1N1) generated or not cross-protective immunity against a subsequent infection with the new human pandemic A/Catalonia/63/2009 (H1N1) influenza virus (hereafter referred to as pH1N1) 21 days apart. Pigs infected only with pH1N1 had mild to moderate pathological findings, consisting on broncho-interstitial pneumonia. However, pigs inoculated with SwH1N1 virus and subsequently infected with pH1N1 had very mild lung lesions, apparently attributed to the remaining lesions caused by SwH1N1 infection. These later pigs also exhibited boosted levels of specific antibodies. Finally, animals firstly infected with SwH1N1 virus and latter infected with pH1N1 exhibited undetectable viral RNA load in nasal swabs and lungs after challenge with pH1N1, indicating a cross-protective effect between both strains. © INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010.

  6. New reassortant and enzootic European swine influenza viruses transmit efficiently through direct contact in the ferret model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fobian, Kristina; Fabrizio, Thomas P; Yoon, Sun-Woo; Hansen, Mette Sif; Webby, Richard J; Larsen, Lars E

    2015-07-01

    The reverse zoonotic events that introduced the 2009 pandemic influenza virus into pigs have drastically increased the diversity of swine influenza viruses in Europe. The pandemic potential of these novel reassortments is still unclear, necessitating enhanced surveillance of European pigs with additional focus on risk assessment of these new viruses. In this study, four European swine influenza viruses were assessed for their zoonotic potential. Two of the four viruses were enzootic viruses of subtype H1N2 (with avian-like H1) and H3N2, and two were new reassortants, one with avian-like H1 and human-like N2 and one with 2009 pandemic H1 and swine-like N2. All viruses replicated to high titres in nasal wash and nasal turbinate samples from inoculated ferrets and transmitted efficiently by direct contact. Only the H3N2 virus transmitted to naïve ferrets via the airborne route. Growth kinetics using a differentiated human bronchial epithelial cell line showed that all four viruses were able to replicate to high titres. Further, the viruses revealed preferential binding to the 2,6-α-silalylated glycans and investigation of the antiviral susceptibility of the viruses revealed that all were sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors. These findings suggested that these viruses have the potential to infect humans and further underline the need for continued surveillance as well as biological characterization of new influenza A viruses.

  7. Swine influenza virus infection dynamics in two pig farms; results of a longitudinal assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon-Grifé Meritxell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to assess the dynamics of influenza virus infection in pigs, serological and virological follow-ups were conducted in two whole batches of pigs from two different farms (F1 and F2, from 3 weeks of age until market age. Anti-swine influenza virus (SIV antibodies (measured by ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition and nasal virus shedding (measured by RRT-PCR and isolation in embryonated chicken eggs and MDCK cells were carried out periodically. SIV isolates were subtyped and hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes were partially sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. In F1, four waves of viral circulation were detected, and globally, 62/121 pigs (51.2% were positive by RRT-PCR at least once. All F1 isolates corresponded to H1N1 subtype although hemagglutination inhibition results also revealed the presence of antibodies against H3N2. The first viral wave took place in the presence of colostral-derived antibodies. Nine pigs were positive in two non-consecutive sampling weeks, with two of the animals being positive with the same isolate. Phylogenetic analyses showed that different H1N1 variants circulated in that farm. In F2, only one isolate, H1N2, was detected and all infections were concentrated in a very short period of time, as assumed for a classic influenza outbreak. These findings led us to propose that influenza virus infection in pigs might present different patterns, from an epidemic outbreak to an endemic form with different waves of infections with a lower incidence.

  8. Enhanced Stability of Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Encapsulated in Dissolving Microneedle Patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Leonard Y; Ye, Ling; Dong, Ke; Compans, Richard W; Yang, Chinglai; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2016-04-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that encapsulation of influenza vaccine in microneedle patches increases vaccine stability during storage at elevated temperature. Whole inactivated influenza virus vaccine (A/Puerto Rico/8/34) was formulated into dissolving microneedle patches and vaccine stability was evaluated by in vitro and in vivo assays of antigenicity and immunogenicity after storage for up to 3 months at 4, 25, 37 and 45°C. While liquid vaccine completely lost potency as determined by hemagglutination (HA) activity within 1-2 weeks outside of refrigeration, vaccine in microneedle patches lost 40-50% HA activity during or shortly after fabrication, but then had no significant additional loss of activity over 3 months of storage, independent of temperature. This level of stability required reduced humidity by packaging with desiccant, but was not affected by presence of oxygen. This finding was consistent with additional stability assays, including antigenicity of the vaccine measured by ELISA, virus particle morphological structure captured by transmission electron microscopy and protective immune responses by immunization of mice in vivo. These data show that inactivated influenza vaccine encapsulated in dissolving microneedle patches has enhanced stability during extended storage at elevated temperatures.

  9. Subtyping of swine influenza viruses using a high-throughput real time PCR platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goecke, Nicole Bakkegård; Krog, Jesper Schak; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    ). The results revealed that the performance of the dynamic chip was similar to conventional real time analysis. Discussion and conclusion. Application of the chip for subtyping of swine influenza has resulted in a significant reduction in time, cost and working hours. Thereby, it is possible to offer diagnostic...... test and subsequent subtyping is performed by real time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) but several assays are needed to cover the wide range of circulating subtypes which is expensive,resource and time demanding. To mitigate these restrictions the high-throughput qPCR platform BioMark (Fluidigm) has been explored...... services with reduced price and turnover time which will facilitate choice of vaccines and by that lead to reduction of antibiotic used....

  10. Estimation by radiation inactivation of the size of functional units governing Sendai and influenza virus fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundo-Morita, K.; Gibson, S.; Lenard, J.

    1987-01-01

    The target sizes associated with fusion and hemolysis carried out by Sendai virus envelope glycoproteins were determined by radiation inactivation analysis. The target size for influenza virus mediated fusion with erythrocyte ghosts at pH 5.0 was also determined for comparison. Sendai-mediated fusion with erythrocyte ghosts at pH 7.0 was likewise inactivated exponentially with increasing radiation dose, yielding a target size of 60 +/- 6 kDa, a value consistent with the molecular weight of a single F-protein molecule. The inactivation curve for Sendai-mediated fusion with cardiolipin liposomes at pH 7.0, however, was more complex. Assuming a multiple target-single hit model, the target consisted of 2-3 units of ca. 60 kDa each. A similar target was seen if the liposome contained 10% gangliosides or if the reaction was measured at pH 5.0, suggesting that fusion occurred by the same mechanism at high and low pH. A target size of 261 +/- 48 kDa was found for Sendai-induced hemolysis, in contrast with influenza, which had a more complex target size for this activity. Sendai virus fusion thus occurs by different mechanisms depending upon the nature of the target membrane, since it is mediated by different functional units. Hemolysis is mediated by a functional unit different from that associated with erythrocyte ghost fusion or with cardiolipin liposome fusion

  11. From where did the 2009 'swine-origin' influenza A virus (H1N1 emerge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong John S

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The swine-origin influenza A (H1N1 virus that appeared in 2009 and was first found in human beings in Mexico, is a reassortant with at least three parents. Six of the genes are closest in sequence to those of H1N2 'triple-reassortant' influenza viruses isolated from pigs in North America around 1999-2000. Its other two genes are from different Eurasian 'avian-like' viruses of pigs; the NA gene is closest to H1N1 viruses isolated in Europe in 1991-1993, and the MP gene is closest to H3N2 viruses isolated in Asia in 1999-2000. The sequences of these genes do not directly reveal the immediate source of the virus as the closest were from isolates collected more than a decade before the human pandemic started. The three parents of the virus may have been assembled in one place by natural means, such as by migrating birds, however the consistent link with pig viruses suggests that human activity was involved. We discuss a published suggestion that unsampled pig herds, the intercontinental live pig trade, together with porous quarantine barriers, generated the reassortant. We contrast that suggestion with the possibility that laboratory errors involving the sharing of virus isolates and cultured cells, or perhaps vaccine production, may have been involved. Gene sequences from isolates that bridge the time and phylogenetic gap between the new virus and its parents will distinguish between these possibilities, and we suggest where they should be sought. It is important that the source of the new virus be found if we wish to avoid future pandemics rather than just trying to minimize the consequences after they have emerged. Influenza virus is a very significant zoonotic pathogen. Public confidence in influenza research, and the agribusinesses that are based on influenza's many hosts, has been eroded by several recent events involving the virus. Measures that might restore confidence include establishing a unified international administrative

  12. Appearance of reassortant European avian-origin H1 influenza A viruses of swine in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemae, N; Nguyen, P T; Le, V T; Nguyen, T N; To, T L; Nguyen, T D; Pham, V P; Vo, H V; Le, Q V T; Do, H T; Nguyen, D T; Uchida, Y; Saito, T

    2018-03-06

    Three subtypes-H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2-of influenza A viruses of swine (IAVs-S) are currently endemic in swine worldwide, but there is considerable genotypic diversity among each subtype and limited geographical distribution. Through IAVs-S monitoring in Vietnam, two H1N2 influenza A viruses were isolated from healthy pigs in Ba Ria-Vung Tau Province, Southern Vietnam, on 2 December 2016. BLAST and phylogenetic analyses revealed that their HA and NA genes were derived from those of European avian-like H1N2 IAVs-S that contained avian-origin H1 and human-like N2 genes, and were particularly closely related to those of IAVs-S circulating in the Netherlands, Germany or Denmark. In addition, the internal genes of these Vietnamese isolates were derived from human A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, suggesting that the Vietnamese H1N2 IAVs-S are reassortants between European H1N2 IAVs-S and human A(H1N1)pdm09v. The appearance of European avian-like H1N2 IAVs-S in Vietnam marks their first transmission outside Europe. Our results and statistical analyses of the number of live pigs imported into Vietnam suggest that the European avian-like H1N2 IAVs-S may have been introduced into Vietnam with their hosts through international trade. These findings highlight the importance of quarantining imported pigs to impede the introduction of new IAVs-S. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Pathogenesis of swine influenza virus (Thai isolates in weanling pigs: an experimental trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitikoon Pravina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to investigate the pathogenesis of swine influenza virus (SIV subtype H1N1 and H3N2 (Thai isolates in 22-day-old SPF pigs. Results The study found that all pigs in the infected groups developed typical signs of flu-like symptoms on 1–4 days post- infection (dpi. The H1N1-infected pigs had greater lung lesion scores than those of the H3N2-infected pigs. Histopathological lesions related to swine influenza-induced lesions consisting of epithelial cells damage, airway plugging and peribronchial and perivascular mononuclear cell infiltration were present in both infected groups. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry using nucleoprotein specific monoclonal antibodies revealed positive staining cells in lung sections of both infected groups at 2 and 4 dpi. Virus shedding was detected at 2 dpi from both infected groups as demonstrated by RT-PCR and virus isolation. Conclusion The results demonstrated that both SIV subtypes were able to induce flu-like symptoms and lung lesions in weanling pigs. However the severity of the diseases with regards to lung lesions both gross and microscopic lesions was greater in the H1N1-infected pigs. Based on phylogenetic analysis, haemagglutinin gene of subtype H1N1 from Thailand clustered with the classical H1 SIV sequences and neuraminidase gene clustered with virus of avian origin, whereas, both genes of H3N2 subtype clustered with H3N2 human-like SIV from the 1970s.

  14. The study of side-effects caused by γ-ray inactivation of influenza virus in producing an influenza virus vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migunov, A.I.; Yudin, I.V.; Bannikov, A.I.; Kuznetsov, O.K.

    1985-01-01

    Inactivation of influenza virus by 60 Co-γ-rays in producing an influenza virus vaccine leads to yellowing of the pre-- paration and a decrease in its opalescence. The change in optic properties was only observed at a dose of 5 Gy and higher with sucrose and protein stabilizer simultaneosly present in the solution. It was established that the formation of stained compounds is the result of a radiochemical interaction between intermediate products of radiolysis of these components

  15. Distribution of sialic acid receptors and influenza A viruses of avian and swine origin and in experimentally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Larsen, Lars Erik; Viuff, Birgitte M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SAalpha- 2,3)) and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6) influenza viruses...... in the upper respiratory tract. Furthermore, experimental and natural infections in pigs have been reported with influenza A virus from avian and human sources. Methods: This study investigated the receptor distribution in the entire respiratory tract of pigs using specific lectins Maackia Amurensis (MAA) I...... and AIV virus was found, and this difference was in accordance with the distribution of the SA-alpha-2,6 and SA-alpha-2,3 receptor, respectively. The results indicated that the distribution of influenza A virus receptors in pigs are similar to that of humans and therefore challenge the theory that the pig...

  16. Characterization of Viral Load, Viability and Persistence of Influenza A Virus in Air and on Surfaces of Swine Production Facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Neira

    Full Text Available Indirect transmission of influenza A virus (IAV in swine is poorly understood and information is lacking on levels of environmental exposure encountered by swine and people during outbreaks of IAV in swine barns. We characterized viral load, viability and persistence of IAV in air and on surfaces during outbreaks in swine barns. IAV was detected in pigs, air and surfaces from five confirmed outbreaks with 48% (47/98 of oral fluid, 38% (32/84 of pen railing and 43% (35/82 of indoor air samples testing positive by IAV RT-PCR. IAV was isolated from air and oral fluids yielding a mixture of subtypes (H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2. Detection of IAV RNA from air was sustained during the outbreaks with maximum levels estimated between 7 and 11 days from reported onset. Our results indicate that during outbreaks of IAV in swine, aerosols and surfaces in barns contain significant levels of IAV potentially representing an exposure hazard to both swine and people.

  17. Thermal Inactivation of avian influenza virus in poultry litter as a method to decontaminate poultry houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Christopher B; Spackman, Erica

    2017-09-15

    Removal of contaminated material from a poultry house during recovery from an avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreak is costly and labor intensive. Because AIV is not environmentally stable, heating poultry houses may provide an alternative disinfection method. The objective was to determine the time necessary to inactivate AIV in poultry litter at temperatures achievable in a poultry house. Low pathogenic (LP) AIV inactivation was evaluated between 10.0°-48.9°C, at ∼5.5°C intervals and highly pathogenic (HP) AIV inactivation was evaluated between 10.0°-43.3°C, at ∼11°C intervals. Samples were collected at numerous time points for each temperature. Virus isolation in embryonating chicken eggs was conducted to determine if viable virus was present. Each sample was also tested by real-time RT-PCR. Low pathogenicity AIV was inactivated at 1day at 26.7°C or above. At 10.0, 15.6 and 21.1°C, inactivation times increased to 2-5days. Highly pathogenic AIV followed a similar trend; the virus was inactivated after 1day at 43.3°C and 32.2°C, and required 2 and 5days for inactivation at 21.1°C and 10.0°C respectively. While low pathogenicity AIV appeared to be inactivated at a lower temperature than high pathogenicity AIV, this was not due to any difference in the strains, but due to fewer temperature points being evaluated for high pathogenicity. Endpoints for detection by real-time RT-PCR were not found even weeks after the virus was inactivated. This provides a guideline for the time required, at specific temperatures to inactivate AIV in poultry litter and likely on surfaces within the house. Heat treatment will provide an added level of safety to personnel and against further spread by eliminating infectious virus prior to cleaning a house. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Enhanced pulmonary immunization with aerosolized inactivated influenza vaccine containing delta inulin adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugappan, Senthil; Frijlink, Henderik W; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Hinrichs, Wouter L J

    2015-01-23

    Vaccination is the primary intervention to contain influenza virus spread during seasonal and pandemic outbreaks. Pulmonary vaccination is gaining increasing attention for its ability to induce both local mucosal and systemic immune responses without the need for invasive injections. However, pulmonary administration of whole inactivated influenza virus (WIV) vaccine induces a Th2 dominant systemic immune response while a more balanced Th1/Th2 vaccine response may be preferred and only induces modest nasal immunity. This study evaluated immunity elicited by pulmonary versus intramuscular (i.m.) delivery of WIV, and tested whether the immune response could be improved by co-administration of delta (δ)-inulin, a novel carbohydrate-based particulate adjuvant. After pulmonary administration both unadjuvanted and δ-inulin adjuvanted WIV induced a potent systemic immune response, inducing higher serum anti-influenza IgG titers and nasal IgA titers than i.m. administration. Moreover, the addition of δ-inulin induced a more balanced Th1/Th2 response and induced higher nasal IgA titers versus pulmonary WIV alone. Pulmonary WIV alone or with δ-inulin induced hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers>40, titers which are considered protective against influenza virus. In conclusion, in this study we have shown that δ-inulin adjuvanted WIV induces a better immune response after pulmonary administration than vaccine alone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Vaxtracker: Active on-line surveillance for adverse events following inactivated influenza vaccine in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Patrick; Moberley, Sarah; Dalton, Craig; Stephenson, Jody; Elvidge, Elissa; Butler, Michelle; Durrheim, David N

    2014-09-22

    Vaxtracker is a web based survey for active post marketing surveillance of Adverse Events Following Immunisation. It is designed to efficiently monitor vaccine safety of new vaccines by early signal detection of serious adverse events. The Vaxtracker system automates contact with the parents or carers of immunised children by email and/or sms message to their smart phone. A hyperlink on the email and text messages links to a web based survey exploring adverse events following the immunisation. The Vaxtracker concept was developed during 2011 (n=21), and piloted during the 2012 (n=200) and 2013 (n=477) influenza seasons for children receiving inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in the Hunter New England Local Health District, New South Wales, Australia. Survey results were reviewed by surveillance staff to detect any safety signals and compare adverse event frequencies among the different influenza vaccines administered. In 2012, 57% (n=113) of the 200 participants responded to the online survey and 61% (290/477) in 2013. Vaxtracker appears to be an effective method for actively monitoring adverse events following influenza vaccination in children. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. SAFETY AND EFFICIENCY OF INACTIVATED OF SUBUNIT INFLUENZA VACCINE AT MASS VACCINATION OF CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.Z. Gendon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the results of infantile mass vaccination with inactivated subunit influenza vaccine (Influvac. It shows that vaccination of 57–72% of children aged 3–17 from organized collectives residing in Mytishchi and Orekhovoczuevo districts of Moscow region was accompanied with nearly triple reduce of flu rates vs. Narofominsk and Odintsovo districts where vaccination was occasional (< 1% of children. The efficiency of the vaccination made 63,7%. Low reactogenicity of the influenza vaccine was recorded. Its convenient packing allows vaccination of large number of children in a short time. The article justifies the necessity of yearly vaccinations even in case of similarity of flu virus strain.Key words: children, mass vaccination, subunit flu vaccine, safety.

  1. Distribution of sialic acid receptors and influenza A viruses of avian and swine origin and in experimentally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Larsen, Lars Erik; Viuff, Birgitte M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SAalpha- 2,3)) and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6) influenza viruses in the up......Background: Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SAalpha- 2,3)) and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6) influenza viruses...... and AIV virus was found, and this difference was in accordance with the distribution of the SA-alpha-2,6 and SA-alpha-2,3 receptor, respectively. The results indicated that the distribution of influenza A virus receptors in pigs are similar to that of humans and therefore challenge the theory that the pig...

  2. A simple Pichia pastoris fermentation and downstream processing strategy for making recombinant pandemic Swine Origin Influenza a virus Hemagglutinin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athmaram, T N; Singh, Anil Kumar; Saraswat, Shweta; Srivastava, Saurabh; Misra, Princi; Kameswara Rao, M; Gopalan, N; Rao, P V L

    2013-02-01

    The present Influenza vaccine manufacturing process has posed a clear impediment to initiation of rapid mass vaccination against spreading pandemic influenza. New vaccine strategies are therefore needed that can accelerate the vaccine production. Pichia offers several advantages for rapid and economical bulk production of recombinant proteins and, hence, can be attractive alternative for producing an effective influenza HA based subunit vaccine. The recombinant Pichia harboring the transgene was subjected to fed-batch fermentation at 10 L scale. A simple fermentation and downstream processing strategy is developed for high-yield secretory expression of the recombinant Hemagglutinin protein of pandemic Swine Origin Influenza A virus using Pichia pastoris via fed-batch fermentation. Expression and purification were optimized and the expressed recombinant Hemagglutinin protein was verified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western blot and MALDI-TOF analysis. In this paper, we describe a fed-batch fermentation protocol for the secreted production of Swine Influenza A Hemagglutinin protein in the P. pastoris GS115 strain. We have shown that there is a clear relationship between product yield and specific growth rate. The fed-batch fermentation and downstream processing methods optimized in the present study have immense practical application for high-level production of the recombinant H1N1 HA protein in a cost effective way using P. pastoris.

  3. Development of a primer–probe energy transfer based real-time PCR for the detection of Swine influenza virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    2013-01-01

    Swine influenza virus (SIV) causes a contagious and requiring official notification disease of pigs and humans. In this study, a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay based on primer–probe energy transfer (PriProET) for the detection of SIV RNA was developed...... of the specific product amplification. The assay is specific for influenza virus with a sensitivity of detection limit of approximately 10 copies of RNA by PCR. Based on serial dilutions of SIV, the detection limit of the assay was approximately 0.003 TCID50/ml for H1N1 A/Swine/Poland/KPR9/2004 virus. The Pri...

  4. Virus survival in slurry: Analysis of the stability of foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, bovine viral diarrhoea and swine influenza viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Belsham, Graham

    2012-01-01

    of an outbreak of disease before it has been recognized. The survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus, classical swine fever virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and swine influenza virus, which belong to three different RNA virus families plus porcine parvovirus (a DNA virus) was examined under controlled...... conditions. For each RNA virus, the virus survival in farm slurry under anaerobic conditions was short (generally ≤1h) when heated (to 55°C) but each of these viruses could retain infectivity at cool temperatures (5°C) for many weeks. The porcine parvovirus survived considerably longer than each of the RNA...... viruses under all conditions tested. The implications for disease spread are discussed....

  5. Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine effective against influenza A(H3N2) variant viruses in children during the 2014/15 season, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Norio; Shinjoh, Masayoshi; Kawakami, Chiharu; Yamaguchi, Yoshio; Yoshida, Makoto; Baba, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Mayumi; Kono, Mio; Sekiguchi, Shinichiro; Kimiya, Takahisa; Mitamura, Keiko; Fujino, Motoko; Komiyama, Osamu; Yoshida, Naoko; Tsunematsu, Kenichiro; Narabayashi, Atsushi; Nakata, Yuji; Sato, Akihiro; Taguchi, Nobuhiko; Fujita, Hisayo; Toki, Machiko; Myokai, Michiko; Ookawara, Ichiro; Takahashi, Takao

    2016-01-01

    The 2014/15 influenza season in Japan was characterised by predominant influenza A(H3N2) activity; 99% of influenza A viruses detected were A(H3N2). Subclade 3C.2a viruses were the major epidemic A(H3N2) viruses, and were genetically distinct from A/New York/39/2012(H3N2) of 2014/15 vaccine strain in Japan, which was classified as clade 3C.1. We assessed vaccine effectiveness (VE) of inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in children aged 6 months to 15 years by test-negative case–control design based on influenza rapid diagnostic test. Between November 2014 and March 2015, a total of 3,752 children were enrolled: 1,633 tested positive for influenza A and 42 for influenza B, and 2,077 tested negative. Adjusted VE was 38% (95% confidence intervals (CI): 28 to 46) against influenza virus infection overall, 37% (95% CI: 27 to 45) against influenza A, and 47% (95% CI: -2 to 73) against influenza B. However, IIV was not statistically significantly effective against influenza A in infants aged 6 to 11 months or adolescents aged 13 to 15 years. VE in preventing hospitalisation for influenza A infection was 55% (95% CI: 42 to 64). Trivalent IIV that included A/New York/39/2012(H3N2) was effective against drifted influenza A(H3N2) virus, although vaccine mismatch resulted in low VE. PMID:27784529

  6. The effect of age and recent influenza vaccination history on the immunogenicity and efficacy of 2009-10 seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccination in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Ng

    Full Text Available There is some evidence that annual vaccination of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV may lead to reduced vaccine immunogenicity but evidence is lacking on whether vaccine efficacy is affected by prior vaccination history. The efficacy of one dose of TIV in children 6-8 y of age against influenza B is uncertain. We examined whether immunogenicity and efficacy of influenza vaccination in school-age children varied by age and past vaccination history.We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 2009-10 TIV. Influenza vaccination history in the two preceding years was recorded. Immunogenicity was assessed by comparison of HI titers before and one month after receipt of TIV/placebo. Subjects were followed up for 11 months with symptom diaries, and respiratory specimens were collected during acute respiratory illnesses to permit confirmation of influenza virus infections. We found that previous vaccination was associated with reduced antibody responses to TIV against seasonal A(H1N1 and A(H3N2 particularly in children 9-17 y of age, but increased antibody responses to the same lineage of influenza B virus in children 6-8 y of age. Serological responses to the influenza A vaccine viruses were high regardless of vaccination history. One dose of TIV appeared to be efficacious against confirmed influenza B in children 6-8 y of age regardless of vaccination history.Prior vaccination was associated with lower antibody titer rises following vaccination against seasonal influenza A vaccine viruses, but higher responses to influenza B among individuals primed with viruses from the same lineage in preceding years. In a year in which influenza B virus predominated, no impact of prior vaccination history was observed on vaccine efficacy against influenza B. The strains that circulated in the year of study did not allow us to study the effect of prior vaccination on vaccine efficacy against influenza A.

  7. Swine Influenza Virus PA and Neuraminidase Gene Reassortment into Human H1N1 Influenza Virus Is Associated with an Altered Pathogenic Phenotype Linked to Increased MIP-2 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugolenski, Daniel; Jones, Les; Howerth, Elizabeth; Wentworth, David; Tompkins, S Mark; Tripp, Ralph A

    2015-05-01

    Swine are susceptible to infection by both avian and human influenza viruses, and this feature is thought to contribute to novel reassortant influenza viruses. In this study, the influenza virus reassortment rate in swine and human cells was determined. Coinfection of swine cells with 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (huH1N1) and an endemic swine H1N2 (A/swine/Illinois/02860/09) virus (swH1N2) resulted in a 23% reassortment rate that was independent of α2,3- or α2,6-sialic acid distribution on the cells. The reassortants had altered pathogenic phenotypes linked to introduction of the swine virus PA and neuraminidase (NA) into huH1N1. In mice, the huH1N1 PA and NA mediated increased MIP-2 expression early postinfection, resulting in substantial pulmonary neutrophilia with enhanced lung pathology and disease. The findings support the notion that swine are a mixing vessel for influenza virus reassortants independent of sialic acid distribution. These results show the potential for continued reassortment of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus with endemic swine viruses and for reassortants to have increased pathogenicity linked to the swine virus NA and PA genes which are associated with increased pulmonary neutrophil trafficking that is related to MIP-2 expression. Influenza A viruses can change rapidly via reassortment to create a novel virus, and reassortment can result in possible pandemics. Reassortments among subtypes from avian and human viruses led to the 1957 (H2N2 subtype) and 1968 (H3N2 subtype) human influenza pandemics. Recent analyses of circulating isolates have shown that multiple genes can be recombined from human, avian, and swine influenza viruses, leading to triple reassortants. Understanding the factors that can affect influenza A virus reassortment is needed for the establishment of disease intervention strategies that may reduce or preclude pandemics. The findings from this study show that swine cells provide a mixing vessel for influenza virus reassortment

  8. Susceptibility of swine to H5 and H7 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzli, Charles; Lager, Kelly; Vincent, Amy; Gauger, Phillip; Brockmeier, Susan; Miller, Laura; Richt, Juergen A; Ma, Wenjun; Suarez, David; Swayne, David E

    2016-07-01

    The ability of pigs to become infected with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses and then generate mammalian adaptable influenza A viruses is difficult to determine. Yet, it is an important link to understanding any relationship between LPAI virus ecology and possible epidemics among swine and/or humans. Assess susceptibility of pigs to LPAI viruses found within the United States and their direct contact transmission potential. Pigs were inoculated with one of ten H5 or H7 LPAI viruses selected from seven different bird species to test infectivity, virulence, pathogenesis, and potential to transmit virus to contact pigs through histological, RRT-PCR and seroconversion data. Although pigs were susceptible to infection with each of the LPAI viruses, no clinical disease was recognized in any pig. During the acute phase of the infection, minor pulmonary lesions were found in some pigs and one or more pigs in each group were RRT-PCR-positive in the lower respiratory tract, but no virus was detected in upper respiratory tract (negative nasal swabs). Except for one group, one or more pigs in each LPAI group developed antibody. No LPAI viruses transmitted to contact pigs. LPAI strains from various bird populations within the United States are capable of infecting pigs. Although adaptability and transmission of individual strains seem unlikely, the subclinical nature of the infections demonstrates the need to improve sampling and testing methods to more accurately measure incidence of LPAI virus infection in pigs, and their potential role in human-zoonotic LPAI virus dynamics. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Identification of swine H1N2/pandemic H1N1 reassortant influenza virus in pigs, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ahmed; Khatri, Mahesh; Wang, Leyi; Saif, Yehia M; Lee, Chang-Won

    2012-07-06

    In October and November 2010, novel H1N2 reassortant influenza viruses were identified from pigs showing mild respiratory signs that included cough and depression. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis showed that the novel H1N2 reassortants possesses HA and NA genes derived from recent H1N2 swine isolates similar to those isolated from Midwest. Compared to the majority of reported reassortants, both viruses preserved human-like host restrictive and putative antigenic sites in their HA and NA genes. The four internal genes, PB2, PB1, PA, and NS were similar to the contemporary swine triple reassortant viruses' internal genes (TRIG). Interestingly, NP and M genes of the novel reassortants were derived from the 2009 pandemic H1N1. The NP and M proteins of the two isolates demonstrated one (E16G) and four (G34A, D53E, I109T, and V313I) amino acid changes in the M2 and NP proteins, respectively. Similar amino acid changes were also noticed upon incorporation of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 NP in other reassortant viruses reported in the U.S. Thus the role of those amino acids in relation to host adaptation need to be further investigated. The reassortments of pandemic H1N1 with swine influenza viruses and the potential of interspecies transmission of these reassortants from swine to other species including human indicate the importance of systematic surveillance of swine population to determine the origin, the prevalence of similar reassortants in the U.S. and their impact on both swine production and public health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Human milk lactoferrin inactivates two putative colonization factors expressed by Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, J; Hendrixson, D R; Baker, E N; Murphy, T F; St Geme, J W; Plaut, A G

    1998-10-13

    Haemophilus influenzae is a major cause of otitis media and other respiratory tract disease in children. The pathogenesis of disease begins with colonization of the upper respiratory mucosa, a process that involves evasion of local immune mechanisms and adherence to epithelial cells. Several studies have demonstrated that human milk is protective against H. influenzae colonization and disease. In the present study, we examined the effect of human milk on the H. influenzae IgA1 protease and Hap adhesin, two autotransported proteins that are presumed to facilitate colonization. Our results demonstrated that human milk lactoferrin efficiently extracted the IgA1 protease preprotein from the bacterial outer membrane. In addition, lactoferrin specifically degraded the Hap adhesin and abolished Hap-mediated adherence. Extraction of IgA1 protease and degradation of Hap were localized to the N-lobe of the bilobed lactoferrin molecule and were inhibited by serine protease inhibitors, suggesting that the lactoferrin N-lobe may contain serine protease activity. Additional experiments revealed no effect of lactoferrin on the H. influenzae P2, P5, and P6 outer-membrane proteins, which are distinguished from IgA1 protease and Hap by the lack of an N-terminal passenger domain or an extracellular linker region. These results suggest that human milk lactoferrin may attenuate the pathogenic potential of H. influenzae by selectively inactivating IgA1 protease and Hap, thereby interfering with colonization. Future studies should examine the therapeutic potential of lactoferrin, perhaps as a supplement in infant formulas.

  11. Comparison of the usefulness of the CACO-2 cell line with standard substrates for isolation of swine influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapponi, Chiara; Zanni, Irene; Garbarino, Chiara; Barigazzi, Giuseppe; Foni, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    Influenza A virus isolation is undertaken routinely in embryonated chicken eggs, but to improve virus detection various cell lines can be used. The CACO-2 cell line was compared to the MDCK cell line and embryonated chicken eggs for the isolation of H1N1, H1N2, H3N2 swine influenza A virus subtypes from clinical specimens. From 2006 to 2008, 104 influenza A samples found positive by PCR from 42 respiratory outbreaks in Italian swine farms were examined by virus isolation. Sixty swine influenza A viruses were isolated (16 H1N1, 28 H1N2 and 16 H3N2) and their growth behaviour on the different substrates was examined. 16/16 H1N1, 28/28 H1N2 and 8/16 of H3N2 viruses were isolated from the CACO-2 cell line, while 7/16 H1N1, 3/28 H1N2 and 16/16 H3N2 viruses were isolated using embryonated chicken eggs. Only 9/16 H1N1, 1/28 H1N2 and 6/16 H3N2 viruses replicated in MDCK cells. A link was found between viral hemagglutinin and the isolation rate on the various substrates. The CACO-2 line was statistically more sensitive (Fisher's exact test, pH1N2 subtypes. In contrast influenza A H3N2 virus was isolated more readily in embryonated chicken eggs than in cultured cells (Fisher's exact test, p<0.01).

  12. Characterization of a newly emerged genetic cluster of H1N1 and H1N2 swine influenza virus in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Amy L; Ma, Wenjun; Lager, Kelly M; Gramer, Marie R; Richt, Juergen A; Janke, Bruce H

    2009-10-01

    H1 influenza A viruses that were distinct from the classical swine H1 lineage were identified in pigs in Canada in 2003–2004; antigenic and genetic characterization identified the hemagglutinin (HA) as human H1 lineage. The viruses identified in Canadian pigs were human lineage in entirety or double (human–swine) reassortants. Here, we report the whole genome sequence analysis of four human-like H1 viruses isolated from U.S. swine in 2005 and 2007. All four isolates were characterized as triple reassortants with an internal gene constellation similar to contemporary U.S. swine influenza virus (SIV), with HA and neuraminidase (NA) most similar to human influenza virus lineages. A 2007 human-like H1N1 was evaluated in a pathogenesis and transmission model and compared to a 2004 reassortant H1N1 SIV isolate with swine lineage HA and NA. The 2007 isolate induced disease typical of influenza virus and was transmitted to contact pigs; however, the kinetics and magnitude differed from the 2004 H1N1 SIV. This study indicates that the human-like H1 SIV can efficiently replicate and transmit in the swine host and now co-circulates with contemporary SIVs as a distinct genetic cluster of H1 SIV.

  13. Effect of Osmotic Pressure on the Stability of Whole Inactivated Influenza Vaccine for Coating on Microneedles.

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    Hyo-Jick Choi

    Full Text Available Enveloped virus vaccines can be damaged by high osmotic strength solutions, such as those used to protect the vaccine antigen during drying, which contain high concentrations of sugars. We therefore studied shrinkage and activity loss of whole inactivated influenza virus in hyperosmotic solutions and used those findings to improve vaccine coating of microneedle patches for influenza vaccination. Using stopped-flow light scattering analysis, we found that the virus underwent an initial shrinkage on the order of 10% by volume within 5 s upon exposure to a hyperosmotic stress difference of 217 milliosmolarity. During this shrinkage, the virus envelope had very low osmotic water permeability (1 - 6×10-4 cm s-1 and high Arrhenius activation energy (Ea = 15.0 kcal mol-1, indicating that the water molecules diffused through the viral lipid membranes. After a quasi-stable state of approximately 20 s to 2 min, depending on the species and hypertonic osmotic strength difference of disaccharides, there was a second phase of viral shrinkage. At the highest osmotic strengths, this led to an undulating light scattering profile that appeared to be related to perturbation of the viral envelope resulting in loss of virus activity, as determined by in vitro hemagglutination measurements and in vivo immunogenicity studies in mice. Addition of carboxymethyl cellulose effectively prevented vaccine activity loss in vitro and in vivo, believed to be due to increasing the viscosity of concentrated sugar solution and thereby reducing osmotic stress during coating of microneedles. These results suggest that hyperosmotic solutions can cause biphasic shrinkage of whole inactivated influenza virus which can damage vaccine activity at high osmotic strength and that addition of a viscosity enhancer to the vaccine coating solution can prevent osmotically driven damage and thereby enable preparation of stable microneedle coating formulations for vaccination.

  14. CAF01 potentiates immune responses and efficacy of an inactivated influenza vaccine in ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Jean-Marie Martel

    Full Text Available Trivalent inactivated vaccines (TIV against influenza are given to 350 million people every year. Most of these are non-adjuvanted vaccines whose immunogenicity and protective efficacy are considered suboptimal. Commercially available non-adjuvanted TIV are known to elicit mainly a humoral immune response, whereas the induction of cell-mediated immune responses is negligible. Recently, a cationic liposomal adjuvant (dimethyldioctadecylammonium/trehalose 6,6'-dibehenate, CAF01 was developed. CAF01 has proven to enhance both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to a number of different experimental vaccine candidates. In this study, we compared the immune responses in ferrets to a commercially available TIV with the responses to the same vaccine mixed with the CAF01 adjuvant. Two recently circulating H1N1 viruses were used as challenge to test the vaccine efficacy. CAF01 improved the immunogenicity of the vaccine, with increased influenza-specific IgA and IgG levels. Additionally, CAF01 promoted cellular-mediated immunity as indicated by interferon-gamma expressing lymphocytes, measured by flow cytometry. CAF01 also enhanced the protection conferred by the vaccine by reducing the viral load measured in nasal washes by RT-PCR. Finally, CAF01 allowed for dose-reduction and led to higher levels of protection compared to TIV adjuvanted with a squalene emulsion. The data obtained in this human-relevant challenge model supports the potential of CAF01 in future influenza vaccines.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination in a cohort of Thai children ≤60 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittikraisak, Wanitchaya; Suntarattiwong, Piyarat; Ditsungnoen, Darunee; Pallas, Sarah E; Abimbola, Taiwo O; Klungthong, Chonticha; Fernandez, Stefan; Srisarang, Suchada; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Dawood, Fatimah S; Olsen, Sonja J; Lindblade, Kim A

    2017-01-01

    Vaccination is the best measure to prevent influenza. We conducted a cost-effectiveness evaluation of trivalent inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination, compared to no vaccination, in children ≤60 months of age participating in a prospective cohort study in Bangkok, Thailand. A static decision tree model was constructed to simulate the population of children in the cohort. Proportions of children with laboratory-confirmed influenza were derived from children followed weekly. The societal perspective and one-year analytic horizon were used for each influenza season; the model was repeated for three influenza seasons (2012-2014). Direct and indirect costs associated with influenza illness were collected and summed. Cost of the trivalent inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine (IIV3) including promotion, administration, and supervision cost was added for children who were vaccinated. Quality-adjusted life years (QALY), derived from literature, were used to quantify health outcomes. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated as the difference in the expected total costs between the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups divided by the difference in QALYs for both groups. Compared to no vaccination, IIV3 vaccination among children ≤60 months in our cohort was not cost-effective in the introductory year (2012 season; 24,450 USD/QALY gained), highly cost-effective in the 2013 season (554 USD/QALY gained), and cost-effective in the 2014 season (16,200 USD/QALY gained). The cost-effectiveness of IIV3 vaccination among children participating in the cohort study varied by influenza season, with vaccine cost and proportion of high-risk children demonstrating the greatest influence in sensitivity analyses. Vaccinating children against influenza can be economically favorable depending on the maturity of the program, influenza vaccine performance, and target population.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination in a cohort of Thai children ≤60 months of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanitchaya Kittikraisak

    Full Text Available Vaccination is the best measure to prevent influenza. We conducted a cost-effectiveness evaluation of trivalent inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination, compared to no vaccination, in children ≤60 months of age participating in a prospective cohort study in Bangkok, Thailand.A static decision tree model was constructed to simulate the population of children in the cohort. Proportions of children with laboratory-confirmed influenza were derived from children followed weekly. The societal perspective and one-year analytic horizon were used for each influenza season; the model was repeated for three influenza seasons (2012-2014. Direct and indirect costs associated with influenza illness were collected and summed. Cost of the trivalent inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine (IIV3 including promotion, administration, and supervision cost was added for children who were vaccinated. Quality-adjusted life years (QALY, derived from literature, were used to quantify health outcomes. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER was calculated as the difference in the expected total costs between the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups divided by the difference in QALYs for both groups.Compared to no vaccination, IIV3 vaccination among children ≤60 months in our cohort was not cost-effective in the introductory year (2012 season; 24,450 USD/QALY gained, highly cost-effective in the 2013 season (554 USD/QALY gained, and cost-effective in the 2014 season (16,200 USD/QALY gained.The cost-effectiveness of IIV3 vaccination among children participating in the cohort study varied by influenza season, with vaccine cost and proportion of high-risk children demonstrating the greatest influence in sensitivity analyses. Vaccinating children against influenza can be economically favorable depending on the maturity of the program, influenza vaccine performance, and target population.

  17. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs: surveillance programs, diagnostic tools and Swine influenza virus subtypes identified in 14 European countries from 2010 to 2013.

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    Gaëlle Simon

    Full Text Available Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (ESNIP3, 2010-2013 aimed to expand widely the knowledge of the epidemiology of European SIVs. ESNIP3 stimulated programs of harmonized SIV surveillance in European countries and supported the coordination of appropriate diagnostic tools and subtyping methods. Thus, an extensive virological monitoring, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs: avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%, human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13% and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%, as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm virus (10.3%. Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence. For instance, the H3N2 subtype was not detected at all in some geographic areas whereas it was still prevalent in other parts of Europe. Interestingly, H3N2-free areas were those that exhibited highest frequencies of circulating H1N2 viruses. H1N1pdm viruses were isolated at an increasing incidence in some countries from 2010 to 2013, indicating that this subtype has become established in the European pig population. Finally, 13.9% of the viruses represented reassortants between these four lineages, especially between previous enzootic SIVs and H1N1pdm. These novel viruses were detected at the same time in several countries, with increasing prevalence. Some of them might become established in pig herds, causing implications for zoonotic infections.

  18. Comparative pathogenesis of an avian H5N2 and a swine H1N1 influenza virus in pigs.

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    Annebel De Vleeschauwer

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pigs are considered intermediate hosts for the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs to humans but the basic organ pathogenesis of AIVs in pigs has been barely studied. We have used 42 four-week-old influenza naive pigs and two different inoculation routes (intranasal and intratracheal to compare the pathogenesis of a low pathogenic (LP H5N2 AIV with that of an H1N1 swine influenza virus. The respiratory tract and selected extra-respiratory tissues were examined for virus replication by titration, immunofluorescence and RT-PCR throughout the course of infection. Both viruses caused a productive infection of the entire respiratory tract and epithelial cells in the lungs were the major target. Compared to the swine virus, the AIV produced lower virus titers and fewer antigen positive cells at all levels of the respiratory tract. The respiratory part of the nasal mucosa in particular showed only rare AIV positive cells and this was associated with reduced nasal shedding of the avian compared to the swine virus. The titers and distribution of the AIV varied extremely between individual pigs and were strongly affected by the route of inoculation. Gross lung lesions and clinical signs were milder with the avian than with the swine virus, corresponding with lower viral loads in the lungs. The brainstem was the single extra-respiratory tissue found positive for virus and viral RNA with both viruses. Our data do not reject the theory of the pig as an intermediate host for AIVs, but they suggest that AIVs need to undergo genetic changes to establish full replication potential in pigs. From a biomedical perspective, experimental LP H5 AIV infection of pigs may be useful to examine heterologous protection provided by H5 vaccines or other immunization strategies, as well as for further studies on the molecular pathogenesis and neurotropism of AIVs in mammals.

  19. Protective efficacy of an inactivated vaccine against H9N2 avian influenza virus in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Qiaoyang; Shen, Weixia; Liu, Qinfang; Rong, Guangyu; Chen, Lin; Li, Xuesong; Chen, Hongjun; Yang, Jianmei; Li, Zejun

    2015-09-17

    Wild ducks play an important role in the evolution of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). Domestic ducks in China are known to carry and spread H9N2 AIVs that are thought to have contributed internal genes for the recent outbreak of zoonotic H7N9 virus. In order to protect animal and public health, an effective vaccine is urgently needed to block and prevent the spread of H9N2 virus in ducks. We developed an inactivated H9N2 vaccine (with adjuvant Montanide ISA 70VG) based on an endemic H9N2 AIV and evaluated this vaccine in ducks. The results showed that the inactivated H9N2 vaccine was able to induce a strong and fast humoral immune response in vaccinated ducks. The hemagglutination inhibition titer in the sera increased fast, and reached its peak of 12.3 log2 at 5 weeks post-vaccination in immunized birds and remained at a high level for at least 37 weeks post-vaccination. Moreover, viral shedding was completely blocked in vaccinated ducks after challenge with a homologous H9N2 AIV at both 3 and 37 weeks post-vaccination. The results of this study indicate that the inactivated H9N2 vaccine induces high and prolonged immune response in vaccinated ducks and are efficacious in protecting ducks from H9N2 infection.

  20. Risk of Febrile Seizures and Epilepsy After Vaccination With Diphtheria, Tetanus, Acellular Pertussis, Inactivated Poliovirus, and Haemophilus Influenzae Type b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yuelian; Christensen, Jakob Christensen; Hviid, Anders

    2012-01-01

    -acellular pertussis–inactivated poliovirus– Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) vaccine since September 2002. Objective To estimate the risk of febrile seizures and epilepsy after DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccination given at 3, 5, and 12 months. Design, Setting, and Participants A population-based cohort study of 378...

  1. Liposome-based cationic adjuvant CAF01 enhances the protection conferred by a commercial inactivated influenza vaccine in ferrets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Agger, Else Marie; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    Objectives: To assess the effect of CAF01 adjuvant associated to a commercial trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in the ferret model. Methods:  Ferrets were vaccinated with a range of doses of Sanofi-Pasteur's Vaxigrip with or without the CAF01 adjuvant, and challenged with either one of two H...

  2. Influenza (Flu) Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Influenza (Flu) Viruses Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook ... influenza circulate and cause illness. More Information about Flu Viruses Types of Influenza Viruses Influenza A and ...

  3. Antigenically Diverse Swine Origin H1N1 Variant Influenza Viruses Exhibit Differential Ferret Pathogenesis and Transmission Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulit-Penaloza, Joanna A; Jones, Joyce; Sun, Xiangjie; Jang, Yunho; Thor, Sharmi; Belser, Jessica A; Zanders, Natosha; Creager, Hannah M; Ridenour, Callie; Wang, Li; Stark, Thomas J; Garten, Rebecca; Chen, Li-Mei; Barnes, John; Tumpey, Terrence M; Wentworth, David E; Maines, Taronna R; Davis, C Todd

    2018-06-01

    Influenza A(H1) viruses circulating in swine represent an emerging virus threat, as zoonotic infections occur sporadically following exposure to swine. A fatal infection caused by an H1N1 variant (H1N1v) virus was detected in a patient with reported exposure to swine and who presented with pneumonia, respiratory failure, and cardiac arrest. To understand the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the virus, genome sequence analysis, antigenic characterization, and ferret pathogenesis and transmissibility experiments were performed. Antigenic analysis of the virus isolated from the fatal case, A/Ohio/09/2015, demonstrated significant antigenic drift away from the classical swine H1N1 variant viruses and H1N1 pandemic 2009 viruses. A substitution in the H1 hemagglutinin (G155E) was identified that likely impacted antigenicity, and reverse genetics was employed to understand the molecular mechanism of antibody escape. Reversion of the substitution to 155G, in a reverse genetics A/Ohio/09/2015 virus, showed that this residue was central to the loss of hemagglutination inhibition by ferret antisera raised against a prototypical H1N1 pandemic 2009 virus (A/California/07/2009), as well as gamma lineage classical swine H1N1 viruses, demonstrating the importance of this residue for antibody recognition of this H1 lineage. When analyzed in the ferret model, A/Ohio/09/2015 and another H1N1v virus, A/Iowa/39/2015, as well as A/California/07/2009, replicated efficiently in the respiratory tract of ferrets. The two H1N1v viruses transmitted efficiently among cohoused ferrets, but respiratory droplet transmission studies showed that A/California/07/2009 transmitted through the air more efficiently. Preexisting immunity to A/California/07/2009 did not fully protect ferrets from challenge with A/Ohio/09/2015. IMPORTANCE Human infections with classical swine influenza A(H1N1) viruses that circulate in pigs continue to occur in the United States following exposure to swine. To

  4. Rapid detection and subtyping of European swine influenza viruses in porcine clinical samples by haemagglutinin- and neuraminidase-specific tetra- and triplex real-time RT-PCRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henritzi, Dinah; Zhao, Na; Starick, Elke

    2016-01-01

    diagnostic methods which allow for cost-effective large-scale analysis. Methods New SIV haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) subtype- and lineage-specific multiplex real-time RT-PCRs (RT-qPCR) have been developed and validated with reference virus isolates and clinical samples. Results A diagnostic....... Swine influenza viruses (SIV) are widespread in European domestic pig populations and evolve dynamically. Knowledge regarding occurrence, spread and evolution of potentially zoonotic SIV in Europe is poorly understood. Objectives Efficient SIV surveillance programmes depend on sensitive and specific......Background A diversifying pool of mammalian-adapted influenza A viruses (IAV) with largely unknown zoonotic potential is maintained in domestic swine populations worldwide. The most recent human influenza pandemic in 2009 was caused by a virus with genes originating from IAV isolated from swine...

  5. Use of inactivated E.Coli enterotoxins to enhance respiratory mucosal adjuvanticity during vaccination in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to augment responses to respiratory vaccines in swine, various adjuvants were intranasally co-administered with an antigen to pigs. Detoxified E. coli enterotoxins LTK63 and LTR72 enhanced mucosal and systemic immunity to the model peptide, exhibiting their efficacy as mucosal adjuvants for...

  6. Two years of surveillance of influenza a virus infection in a swine herd. Results of virological, serological and pathological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Javier; Dibarbora, Marina; Lozada, Inés; Quiroga, Alejandra; Olivera, Valeria; Dángelo, Marta; Pérez, Estefanía; Barrales, Hernán; Perfumo, Carlos; Pereda, Ariel; Pérez, Daniel R

    2017-02-01

    Swine farms provide a dynamic environment for the evolution of influenza A viruses (IAVs). The present report shows the results of a surveillance effort of IAV infection in one commercial swine farm in Argentina. Two cross-sectional serological and virological studies (n=480) were carried out in 2011 and 2012. Virus shedding was detected in nasal samples from pigs from ages 7, 21 and 42-days old. More than 90% of sows and gilts but less than 40% of 21-days old piglets had antibodies against IAV. In addition, IAV was detected in 8/17 nasal swabs and 10/15 lung samples taken from necropsied pigs. A subset of these samples was further processed for virus isolation resulting in 6 viruses of the H1N2 subtype (δ2 cluster). Pathological studies revealed an association between suppurative bronchopneumonia and necrotizing bronchiolitis with IAV positive samples. Statistical analyses showed that the degree of lesions in bronchi, bronchiole, and alveoli was higher in lungs positive to IAV. The results of this study depict the relevance of continuing long-term active surveillance of IAV in swine populations to establish IAV evolution relevant to swine and humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Design and performance of the CDC real-time reverse transcriptase PCR swine flu panel for detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Bo; Wu, Kai-Hui; Emery, Shannon; Villanueva, Julie; Johnson, Roy; Guthrie, Erica; Berman, LaShondra; Warnes, Christine; Barnes, Nathelia; Klimov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Stephen

    2011-07-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) have been shown to sporadically infect humans and are infrequently identified by the Influenza Division of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after being received as unsubtypeable influenza A virus samples. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) procedures for detection and characterization of North American lineage (N. Am) SIV were developed and implemented at CDC for rapid identification of specimens from cases of suspected infections with SIV. These procedures were utilized in April 2009 for detection of human cases of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic (pdm) influenza virus infection. Based on genetic sequence data derived from the first two viruses investigated, the previously developed rRT-PCR procedures were optimized to create the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel for detection of the 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza virus. The analytical sensitivity of the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was shown to be 5 copies of RNA per reaction and 10(-1.3 - -0.7) 50% infectious doses (ID(50)) per reaction for cultured viruses. Cross-reactivity was not observed when testing human clinical specimens or cultured viruses that were positive for human seasonal A (H1N1, H3N2) and B influenza viruses. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was distributed to public health laboratories in the United States and internationally from April 2009 until June 2010. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel served as an effective tool for timely and specific detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza viruses and facilitated subsequent public health response implementation.

  8. Distribution of sialic acid receptors and influenza A virus of avian and swine origin in experimentally infected pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viuff Birgitte M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SA-alpha-2,3 and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6 influenza viruses in the upper respiratory tract. Furthermore, experimental and natural infections in pigs have been reported with influenza A virus from avian and human sources. Methods This study investigated the receptor distribution in the entire respiratory tract of pigs using specific lectins Maackia Amurensis (MAA I, and II, and Sambucus Nigra (SNA. Furthermore, the predilection sites of swine influenza virus (SIV subtypes H1N1 and H1N2 as well as avian influenza virus (AIV subtype H4N6 were investigated in the respiratory tract of experimentally infected pigs using immunohistochemical methods. Results SIV antigen was widely distributed in bronchi, but was also present in epithelial cells of the nose, trachea, bronchioles, and alveolar type I and II epithelial cells in severely affected animals. AIV was found in the lower respiratory tract, especially in alveolar type II epithelial cells and occasionally in bronchiolar epithelial cells. SA-alpha-2,6 was the predominant receptor in all areas of the respiratory tract with an average of 80-100% lining at the epithelial cells. On the contrary, the SA-alpha-2,3 was not present (0% at epithelial cells of nose, trachea, and most bronchi, but was found in small amounts in bronchioles, and in alveoli reaching an average of 20-40% at the epithelial cells. Interestingly, the receptor expression of both SA-alpha-2,3 and 2,6 was markedly diminished in influenza infected areas compared to non-infected areas. Conclusions A difference in predilection sites between SIV and AIV virus was found, and this difference was in accordance with the distribution of the SA-alpha-2,6 and SA-alpha-2,3 receptor, respectively. The results indicated

  9. [Phylogenetic analysis of human/swine/avian gene reassortant H1N2 influenza A virus isolated from a pig in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixiang; Meng, Xueqiong; Liu, Qi; Huang, Xia; Huang, Shengbin; Liu, Cuiquan; Shi, Kaichuang; Guo, Jiangang; Chen, Fangfang; Hu, Liping

    2008-04-01

    Our aim in this study was to determine the genetic characterization and probable origin of the H1N2 swine influenza virus (A/Swine/Guangxi/13/2006) (Sw/GX/13/06) from lung tissue of a pig in Guangxi province, China. Eight genes of Sw/GX/13/06 were cloned and genetically analyzed. The hemagglutinin (HA), nucleoprotein (NP), matrix (M) and non-structural (NS) genes of Sw/GX/13/06 were most closely related to genes from the classical swine H1N1 influenza virus lineage. The neuraminidase (NA) and PB1 genes were most closely related to the corresponding genes from the human influenza H3N2 virus lineage. The remaining two genes PA and PB2 polymerase genes were most closely related to the genes from avian influenza virus lineage. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Sw/GX/13/06 was a human/swine/avian H1N2 virus, and closely related to H1N2 viruses isolated from pigs in United States (1999-2001) and Korea (2002). To our knowledge, Sw/GX/13/06 was the first triple-reassortant H1N2 influenza A virus isolated from a pig in China. Whether the Sw/GX/13/06 has a potential threat to breeding farm and human health remains to be further investigated.

  10. Genetic characterization of H1N2 swine influenza virus isolated in China and its pathogenesis and inflammatory responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Nan; Cao, Jiyue; Chen, Huanchun; Jin, Meilin; Zhou, Hongbo

    2013-09-01

    In 2009, two H1N2 influenza viruses were isolated from trachea swabs of pigs in Hubei in China. We compared these sequences with the other 18 complete genome sequences of swine H1N2 isolates from China during 2004 to 2010 and undertook extensive analysis of their evolutionary patterns. Six different genotypes - two reassortants between triple reassortant (TR) H3N2 and classical swine (CS) H1N1 virus, three reassortants between TR H1N2, Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine virus and H9N2 swine virus, and one reassortant between H1N1, H3N2 human virus and CS H1N1 virus - were observed in these 20 swine H1N2 isolates. The TR H1N2 swine virus is the predominant genotype, and the two Hubei H1N2 isolates were located in this cluster. We also used a mouse model to examine the pathogenesis and inflammatory responses of the two isolates. The isolates replicated efficiently in the lung, and exhibited a strong inflammatory response, serious pathological changes and mortality in infected mice. Given the role that swine can play as putative "genetic mixing vessels" and the observed transmission of TR H1N2 in ferrets, H1N2 influenza surveillance in pigs should be increased to minimize the potential threat to public health.

  11. Triple-reassortant influenza A virus with H3 of human seasonal origin, NA of swine origin, and internal A(H1N1) pandemic 2009 genes is established in Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Michael Albin

    2017-01-01

    This report describes a triple-reassortant influenza A virus with a HA that resembles H3 of human seasonal influenza from 2004 to 2005, N2 from influenza A virus already established in swine, and the internal gene cassette from A(H1N1)pdm09 has spread in Danish pig herds. The virus has been detec...

  12. Occurrence of specific influenza antibodies in saliva and nasal secretion of monkeys (Macacus rhesus) after oral administration of influenza vaccine inactivated by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tischner, H.; Huyuh, P.L.; Phan, P.N.; Bergmann, K.C.; Hoang, T.N.; Luther, P.; Nordheim, W.; Braeuniger, S.; Waldman, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Antibodies in nasal secretion and saliva were measured in 10 Macacus rhesus wich had been immunized orally with a 60 Co-gamma-inactivated influenza vaccine. Prior to immunization monkeys had no detectable antibodies against hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase, resp. in sera or secretions. Oral immunization using intraoesophageal tubing, induced the occurrence of both antiobodies in pilocarpine-stimulated secretions within 28 days but not in sera. 6 monkeys reacted with increasing HA antibodies in nasal secretions and 10 monkeys with increasing neuraminidase antibodies. Salivary HA antibodies occurred in 8 of 10 and neuraminidase antibodies in 9 of 10 animals. In most cases antibodies occurred in both secretions simultaneously. These results demonstrate the stimulation of antibodies specific to influenza in the respiratory tract of monkeys after oral immunization with an inactivated vaccine, for the first time. (author)

  13. Novel reassortant influenza A(H1N2) virus derived from A(H1N1)pdm09 virus isolated from swine, Japan, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Miho; Takayama, Ikuyo; Kageyama, Tsutomu; Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Saitoh, Mika; Ishioka, Taisei; Yokota, Yoko; Kimura, Hirokazu; Tashiro, Masato; Kozawa, Kunihisa

    2013-12-01

    We isolated a novel influenza virus A(H1N2) strain from a pig on January 13, 2012, in Gunma Prefecture, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the strain was a novel type of double-reassortant virus derived from the swine influenza virus strains H1N1pdm09 and H1N2, which were prevalent in Gunma at that time.

  14. Influence of virus strain and antigen mass on efficacy of H5 avian influenza inactivated vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayne, D E; Beck, J R; Garcia, M; Stone, H D

    1999-06-01

    The influence of vaccine strain and antigen mass on the ability of inactivated avian influenza (AI) viruses to protect chicks from a lethal, highly pathogenic (HP) AI virus challenge was studied. Groups of 4-week-old chickens were immunized with inactivated vaccines containing one of 10 haemagglutinin subtype H5 AI viruses, one heterologous H7 AI virus or normal allantoic fluid (sham), and challenged 3 weeks later by intra-nasal inoculation with a HP H5 chicken-origin AI virus. All 10 H5 vaccines provided good protection from clinical signs and death, and produced positive serological reactions on agar gel immunodiffusion and haemagglutination inhibition tests. In experiment 1, challenge virus was recovered from the oropharynx of 80% of chickens in the H5 vaccine group. In five H5 vaccine groups, challenge virus was not recovered from the cloaca of chickens. In the other five H5 vaccine groups, the number of chickens with detection of challenge virus from the cloaca was lower than in the sham group (P turkey/Wisconsin/68 (H5N9) was the best vaccine candidate of the H5 strains tested (PD50= 0.006 μg AI antigen). These data demonstrate that chickens vaccinated with inactivated H5 whole virus AI vaccines were protected from clinical signs and death, but usage of vaccine generally did not prevent infection by the challenge virus, as indicated by recovery of virus from the oropharynx. Vaccine use reduced cloacal detection rates, and quantity of virus shed from the cloaca and oropharynx in some vaccine groups, which would potentially reduce environmental contamination and disease transmission in the field.

  15. Computer-aided assessment of pulmonary disease in novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza on CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianhua; Dwyer, Andrew J.; Summers, Ronald M.; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2011-03-01

    The 2009 pandemic is a global outbreak of novel H1N1 influenza. Radiologic images can be used to assess the presence and severity of pulmonary infection. We develop a computer-aided assessment system to analyze the CT images from Swine-Origin Influenza A virus (S-OIV) novel H1N1 cases. The technique is based on the analysis of lung texture patterns and classification using a support vector machine (SVM). Pixel-wise tissue classification is computed from the SVM value. The method was validated on four H1N1 cases and ten normal cases. We demonstrated that the technique can detect regions of pulmonary abnormality in novel H1N1 patients and differentiate these regions from visually normal lung (area under the ROC curve is 0.993). This technique can also be applied to differentiate regions infected by different pulmonary diseases.

  16. Far-UVC light applications: sterilization of MRSA on a surface and inactivation of aerosolized influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, David; Buonanno, Manuela; Shuryak, Igor; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Spotnitz, Henry M.; Brenner, David J.

    2018-02-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and influenza A virus are two of the major targets for new antimicrobial technologies. In contrast to conventional germicidal lamps emitting primarily at 254 nm, which are both carcinogenic and cataractogenic, recent work has shown the potential of far-UVC technology, mainly between 207 and 222 nm, to be an effective means of sterilization of pathogens without apparent harm to mammalian cells. This is because, due to its strong absorbance in biological materials, far-UVC light cannot penetrate even the outer (non living) layers of human skin or eye; however, because bacteria and viruses are of micrometer or smaller dimensions, far-UVC can penetrate and inactivate them. With this report, we present progress on in vitro tests to inactivate MRSA on a surface using far-UVC light from a laser delivered using an optical diffuser. Qualitative and quantitative results show that this means of far-UVC exposure is adequate to inactivate MRSA with a dose comparable to that which would be required using a conventional germicidal lamp. Also included is a report on progress on inactivation of aerosolized influenza A virus. A custom benchtop aerosol exposure chamber was constructed and used to determine the effectiveness of far- UVC. Results indicate that far-UVC efficiently inactivates airborne aerosolized viruses, with a very low dose of 2 mJ/cm2 of 222-nm light inactivating >95% of aerosolized H1N1 influenza virus. Together these studies help to further establish far-UVC technology as a promising, safe and inexpensive tool for sterilization in many environments.

  17. Two different genotypes of H1N2 swine influenza virus isolated in northern China and their pathogenicity in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Qiao, Chuanling; Xu, Chuantian; Yan, Minghua; Xin, Xiaoguang; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

    2015-02-25

    During 2006 and 2007, two swine-origin triple-reassortant influenza A (H1N2) viruses were isolated from pigs in northern China, and the antigenic characteristics of the hemagglutinin protein of the viruses were examined. Genotyping and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated different emergence patterns for the two H1N2 viruses, Sw/Hebei/10/06 and Sw/Tianjin/1/07. Sequences for the other genes encoding the internal proteins were compared with the existing data to determine their origins and establish the likely mechanisms of genetic reassortment. Sw/Hebei/10/06 is an Sw/Indiana/9K035/99-like virus, whereas Sw/Tianjin/1/07 represents a new H1N2 genotype with surface genes of classic swine and human origin and internal genes originating from the Eurasian avian-like swine H1N1 virus. Six-week-old female BALB/c mice infected with the Sw/HeB/10/06 and Sw/TJ/1/07 viruses showed an average weight loss of 12.8% and 8.1%, respectively. Healthy six-week-old pigs were inoculated intranasally with either the Sw/HeB/10/06 or Sw/TJ/1/07 virus. No considerable changes in the clinical presentation were observed post-inoculation in any of the virus-inoculated groups, and the viruses effectively replicated in the nasal cavity and lung tissue. Based on the results, it is possible that the new genotype of the swine H1N2 virus that emerged in China may become widespread in the swine population and pose a potential threat to public health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Oxygen-independent inactivation of Haemophilus influenzae transforming DNA by monochromatic radiation: action spectrum, effect of histidine and repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera-Juarez, E; Setlow, J K; Swenson, P A; Peak, M J

    1976-01-01

    The action spectrum for the oxygen-independent inactivation of native transforming DNA from Haemophilus influenzae with near-uv radiation revealed a shoulder beginning at 334 and extending to 460 nm. The presence of 0.2 M histidine during irradiation produced a small increase in inactivation at 254, 290 and 313 nm, a large increase at 334 nm and a decrease in inactivation at 365, 405, and 460 nm. Photoreactivation did not reverse the DNA damage produced at pH 7.0 at 334, 365, 405 and 460 nm, but did reactivate the DNA after irradiation at 254, 290 and 313 nm. The inactivation of DNA irradiated at 254, 290 and 313 nm was considerably greater when the transforming ability was assayed in an excision-defective mutant compared with the wild type, although DNA irradiated at 334, 365, 405 and 460 nm showed smaller differences. These results suggest that the oxygen-independent inactivation of H. influenzae DNA at pH 7 by irradiation at 334, 365, 405 and 460 nm is caused by lesions other than pyrimidine dimers.

  19. Molecular characterization of a novel reassortant H1N2 influenza virus containing genes from the 2009 pandemic human H1N1 virus in swine from eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiuming; Wu, Haibo; Xu, Lihua; Peng, Xiaorong; Cheng, Linfang; Jin, Changzhong; Xie, Tiansheng; Lu, Xiangyun; Wu, Nanping

    2016-06-01

    Pandemic outbreaks of H1N1 swine influenza virus have been reported since 2009. Reassortant H1N2 viruses that contain genes from the pandemic H1N1 virus have been isolated in Italy and the United States. However, there is limited information regarding the molecular characteristics of reassortant H1N2 swine influenza viruses in eastern China. Active influenza surveillance programs in Zhejiang Province identified a novel H1N2 influenza virus isolated from pigs displaying clinical signs of influenza virus infection. Whole-genome sequencing was performed and this strain was compared with other influenza viruses available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the novel strain contained genes from the 2009 pandemic human H1N1 and swine H3N2 viruses. BALB/c mice were infected with the isolated virus to assess its virulence in mice. While the novel H1N2 isolate replicated well in mice, it was found to be less virulent. These results provide additional evidence that swine serve as intermediate hosts or 'mixing vessels' for novel influenza viruses. They also emphasize the importance of surveillance in the swine population for use as an early warning system for influenza outbreaks in swine and human populations.

  20. Safety, efficacy, and immunogenicity of an inactivated influenza vaccine in healthy adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial over two influenza seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouveret Nancy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seasonal influenza imposes a substantial personal morbidity and societal cost burden. Vaccination is the major strategy for influenza prevention; however, because antigenically drifted influenza A and B viruses circulate annually, influenza vaccines must be updated to provide protection against the predicted prevalent strains for the next influenza season. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy, safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of a trivalent inactivated split virion influenza vaccine (TIV in healthy adults over two influenza seasons in the US. Methods The primary endpoint of this double-blind, randomized study was the average efficacy of TIV versus placebo for the prevention of vaccine-matched, culture-confirmed influenza (VMCCI across the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 influenza seasons. Secondary endpoints included the prevention of laboratory-confirmed (defined by culture and/or serology influenza, as well as safety, reactogenicity, immunogenicity, and consistency between three consecutive vaccine lots. Participants were assessed actively during both influenza seasons, and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected for viral culture from individuals with influenza-like illness. Blood specimens were obtained for serology one month after vaccination and at the end of each influenza season's surveillance period. Results Although the point estimate for efficacy in the prevention of all laboratory-confirmed influenza was 63.2% (97.5% confidence interval [CI] lower bound of 48.2%, the point estimate for the primary endpoint, efficacy of TIV against VMCCI across both influenza seasons, was 46.3% with a 97.5% CI lower bound of 9.8%. This did not satisfy the pre-specified success criterion of a one-sided 97.5% CI lower bound of >35% for vaccine efficacy. The VMCCI attack rates were very low overall at 0.6% and 1.2% in the TIV and placebo groups, respectively. Apart from a mismatch for influenza B virus lineage in 2005

  1. Enhanced pneumonia and disease in pigs vaccinated with an inactivated human-like (δ-cluster) H1N2 vaccine and challenged with pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Phillip C; Vincent, Amy L; Loving, Crystal L; Lager, Kelly M; Janke, Bruce H; Kehrli, Marcus E; Roth, James A

    2011-03-24

    Influenza is an economically important respiratory disease affecting swine world-wide with potential zoonotic implications. Genetic reassortment and drift has resulted in genetically and antigenically distinct swine influenza viruses (SIVs). Consequently, prevention of SIV infection is challenging due to the increased rate of genetic change and a potential lack of cross-protection between vaccine strains and circulating novel isolates. This report describes a vaccine-heterologous challenge model in which pigs were administered an inactivated H1N2 vaccine with a human-like (δ-cluster) H1 six and three weeks before challenge with H1 homosubtypic, heterologous 2009 pandemic H1N1. At necropsy, macroscopic and microscopic pneumonia scores were significantly higher in the vaccinated and challenged (Vx/Ch) group compared to non-vaccinated and challenged (NVx/Ch) pigs. The Vx/Ch group also demonstrated enhanced clinical disease and a significantly elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine profile in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared to the NVx/Ch group. In contrast, viral shedding and replication were significantly higher in NVx/Ch pigs although all challenged pigs, including Vx/Ch pigs, were shedding virus in nasal secretions. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and serum neutralizing (SN) antibodies were detected to the priming antigen in the Vx/Ch pigs but no measurable cross-reacting HI or SN antibodies were detected to pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1). Overall, these results suggest that inactivated SIV vaccines may potentiate clinical signs, inflammation and pneumonia following challenge with divergent homosubtypic viruses that do not share cross-reacting HI or SN antibodies. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. A Phylogeny-Based Global Nomenclature System and Automated Annotation Tool for H1 Hemagglutinin Genes from Swine Influenza A Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macken, Catherine A.; Lewis, Nicola S.; Van Reeth, Kristien; Brown, Ian H.; Swenson, Sabrina L.; Simon, Gaëlle; Saito, Takehiko; Berhane, Yohannes; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice; Pereda, Ariel; Davis, C. Todd; Donis, Ruben O.; Webby, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The H1 subtype of influenza A viruses (IAVs) has been circulating in swine since the 1918 human influenza pandemic. Over time, and aided by further introductions from nonswine hosts, swine H1 viruses have diversified into three genetic lineages. Due to limited global data, these H1 lineages were named based on colloquial context, leading to a proliferation of inconsistent regional naming conventions. In this study, we propose rigorous phylogenetic criteria to establish a globally consistent nomenclature of swine H1 virus hemagglutinin (HA) evolution. These criteria applied to a data set of 7,070 H1 HA sequences led to 28 distinct clades as the basis for the nomenclature. We developed and implemented a web-accessible annotation tool that can assign these biologically informative categories to new sequence data. The annotation tool assigned the combined data set of 7,070 H1 sequences to the correct clade more than 99% of the time. Our analyses indicated that 87% of the swine H1 viruses from 2010 to the present had HAs that belonged to 7 contemporary cocirculating clades. Our nomenclature and web-accessible classification tool provide an accurate method for researchers, diagnosticians, and health officials to assign clade designations to HA sequences. The tool can be updated readily to track evolving nomenclature as new clades emerge, ensuring continued relevance. A common global nomenclature facilitates comparisons of IAVs infecting humans and pigs, within and between regions, and can provide insight into the diversity of swine H1 influenza virus and its impact on vaccine strain selection, diagnostic reagents, and test performance, thereby simplifying communication of such data. IMPORTANCE A fundamental goal in the biological sciences is the definition of groups of organisms based on evolutionary history and the naming of those groups. For influenza A viruses (IAVs) in swine, understanding the hemagglutinin (HA) genetic lineage of a circulating strain aids

  3. Inactivated H7 Influenza Virus Vaccines Protect Mice despite Inducing Only Low Levels of Neutralizing Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Ram P; Blanchfield, Kristy; Belser, Jessica A; Music, Nedzad; Tzeng, Wen-Pin; Holiday, Crystal; Burroughs, Ashley; Sun, Xiangjie; Maines, Taronna R; Levine, Min Z; York, Ian A

    2017-10-15

    Avian influenza viruses of the H7 hemagglutinin (HA) subtype present a significant public health threat, as evidenced by the ongoing outbreak of human A(H7N9) infections in China. When evaluated by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (MN) assays, H7 viruses and vaccines are found to induce lower level of neutralizing antibodies (nAb) than do their seasonal counterparts, making it difficult to develop and evaluate prepandemic vaccines. We have previously shown that purified recombinant H7 HA appear to be poorly immunogenic in that they induce low levels of HI and MN antibodies. In this study, we immunized mice with whole inactivated reverse genetics reassortant (RG) viruses expressing HA and neuraminidase (NA) from 3 different H7 viruses [A/Shanghai/2/2013(H7N9), A/Netherlands/219/2003(H7N7), and A/New York/107/2003(H7N2)] or with human A(H1N1)pdm09 (A/California/07/2009-like) or A(H3N2) (A/Perth16/2009) viruses. Mice produced equivalent titers of antibodies to all viruses as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, the antibody titers induced by H7 viruses were significantly lower when measured by HI and MN assays. Despite inducing very low levels of nAb, H7 vaccines conferred complete protection against homologous virus challenge in mice, and the serum antibodies directed against the HA head region were capable of mediating protection. The apparently low immunogenicity associated with H7 viruses and vaccines may be at least partly related to measuring antibody titers with the traditional HI and MN assays, which may not provide a true measure of protective immunity associated with H7 immunization. This study underscores the need for development of additional correlates of protection for prepandemic vaccines. IMPORTANCE H7 avian influenza viruses present a serious risk to human health. Preparedness efforts include development of prepandemic vaccines. For seasonal influenza viruses, protection is correlated with antibody

  4. Uptake and Effectiveness of a Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Children in Urban and Rural Kenya, 2010 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Mark A; Lebo, Emmaculate; Emukule, Gideon O; Otieno, Nancy; Caselton, Deborah L; Bigogo, Godfrey; Njuguna, Henry; Muthoka, Philip M; Waiboci, Lilian W; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Xu, Xiyan; Njenga, Moses K; Mott, Joshua A; Breiman, Robert F

    2016-03-01

    In Africa, recent surveillance has demonstrated a high burden of influenza, but influenza vaccine is rarely used. In Kenya, a country with a tropical climate, influenza has been shown to circulate year-round, like in other tropical countries. During 3 months in 2010 and 2011 and 2 months in 2012, the Kenya Medical Research Institute/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Kenya offered free injectable trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine to children 6 months to 10 years old in 2 resource-poor communities in Kenya-Kibera and Lwak (total population ~50,000). We conducted a case-control study to evaluate vaccine effectiveness (VE) in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza associated with influenza-like illness and acute lower respiratory illness. Of the approximately 18,000 eligible children, 41%, 48% and 51% received at least 1 vaccine in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively; 30%, 36% and 38% were fully vaccinated. VE among fully vaccinated children was 57% [95% confidence interval (CI): 29% to 74%] during a 6-month follow-up period, 39% (95% CI: 17% to 56%) during a 9-month follow-up period and 48% (95% CI: 32% to 61%) during a 12-month follow-up period. For the 12-month follow-up period, VE was statistically significant in children Kenya, parents of nearly half of the eligible children <10 years old chose to get their children vaccinated with a free influenza vaccine. During a 12-month follow-up period, the vaccine was moderately effective in preventing medically attended influenza-associated respiratory illness.

  5. Replication of avian, human and swine influenza viruses in porcine respiratory explants and association with sialic acid distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauwynck Hans J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout the history of human influenza pandemics, pigs have been considered the most likely "mixing vessel" for reassortment between human and avian influenza viruses (AIVs. However, the replication efficiencies of influenza viruses from various hosts, as well as the expression of sialic acid (Sia receptor variants in the entire porcine respiratory tract have never been studied in detail. Therefore, we established porcine nasal, tracheal, bronchial and lung explants, which cover the entire porcine respiratory tract with maximal similarity to the in vivo situation. Subsequently, we assessed virus yields of three porcine, two human and six AIVs in these explants. Since our results on virus replication were in disagreement with the previously reported presence of putative avian virus receptors in the trachea, we additionally studied the distribution of sialic acid receptors by means of lectin histochemistry. Human (Siaα2-6Gal and avian virus receptors (Siaα2-3Gal were identified with Sambucus Nigra and Maackia amurensis lectins respectively. Results Compared to swine and human influenza viruses, replication of the AIVs was limited in all cultures but most strikingly in nasal and tracheal explants. Results of virus titrations were confirmed by quantification of infected cells using immunohistochemistry. By lectin histochemistry we found moderate to abundant expression of the human-like virus receptors in all explant systems but minimal binding of the lectins that identify avian-like receptors, especially in the nasal, tracheal and bronchial epithelium. Conclusions The species barrier that restricts the transmission of influenza viruses from one host to another remains preserved in our porcine respiratory explants. Therefore this system offers a valuable alternative to study virus and/or host properties required for adaptation or reassortment of influenza viruses. Our results indicate that, based on the expression of Sia

  6. Regional patterns of genetic diversity in swine influenza A viruses in the United States from 2010 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Rasna R; Anderson, Tavis K; Vincent, Amy L

    2018-04-06

    Regular spatial and temporal analyses of the genetic diversity and evolutionary patterns of influenza A virus (IAV) in swine informs control efforts and improves animal health. Initiated in 2009, the USDA passively surveils IAV in U.S. swine, with a focus on subtyping clinical respiratory submissions, sequencing at minimum the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes, and sharing these data publicly. In this study, our goal was to quantify and describe regional and national patterns in the genetic diversity and evolution of IAV in U.S. swine from 2010 to 2016. A comprehensive phylogenetic and epidemiological analysis of publicly available HA and NA genes generated by the USDA surveillance system collected from January 2010 to December 2016 was conducted. The dominant subtypes and genetic clades detected during the study period were H1N1 (H1-γ/1A.3.3.3, N1-classical, 29%), H1N2 (H1-δ1/1B.2.2, N2-2002, 27%), and H3N2 (H3-IV-A, N2-2002, 15%), but many other minor clades were also maintained. Year-round circulation was observed, with a primary epidemic peak in October-November and a secondary epidemic peak in March-April. Partitioning these data into 5 spatial zones revealed that genetic diversity varied regionally and was not correlated with aggregated national patterns of HA/NA diversity. These data suggest that vaccine composition and control efforts should consider IAV diversity within swine production regions in addition to aggregated national patterns. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Evidence of cross-reactive immunity to 2009 pandemic influenza A virus in workers seropositive to swine H1N1 influenza viruses circulating in Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A De Marco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pigs play a key epidemiologic role in the ecology of influenza A viruses (IAVs emerging from animal hosts and transmitted to humans. Between 2008 and 2010, we investigated the health risk of occupational exposure to swine influenza viruses (SIVs in Italy, during the emergence and spread of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic (H1N1pdm virus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Serum samples from 123 swine workers (SWs and 379 control subjects (Cs, not exposed to pig herds, were tested by haemagglutination inhibition (HI assay against selected SIVs belonging to H1N1 (swH1N1, H1N2 (swH1N2 and H3N2 (swH3N2 subtypes circulating in the study area. Potential cross-reactivity between swine and human IAVs was evaluated by testing sera against recent, pandemic and seasonal, human influenza viruses (H1N1 and H3N2 antigenic subtypes. Samples tested against swH1N1 and H1N1pdm viruses were categorized into sera collected before (n. 84 SWs; n. 234 Cs and after (n. 39 SWs; n. 145 Cs the pandemic peak. HI-antibody titers ≥10 were considered positive. In both pre-pandemic and post-pandemic peak subperiods, SWs showed significantly higher swH1N1 seroprevalences when compared with Cs (52.4% vs. 4.7% and 59% vs. 9.7%, respectively. Comparable HI results were obtained against H1N1pdm antigen (58.3% vs. 7.7% and 59% vs. 31.7%, respectively. No differences were found between HI seroreactivity detected in SWs and Cs against swH1N2 (33.3% vs. 40.4% and swH3N2 (51.2 vs. 55.4% viruses. These findings indicate the occurrence of swH1N1 transmission from pigs to Italian SWs. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: A significant increase of H1N1pdm seroprevalences occurred in the post-pandemic peak subperiod in the Cs (p<0.001 whereas SWs showed no differences between the two subperiods, suggesting a possible occurrence of cross-protective immunity related to previous swH1N1 infections. These data underline the importance of risk assessment and occupational health surveillance activities aimed

  8. Immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine in overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Giavoli, Claudia; Trombetta, Claudia; Bianchini, Sonia; Montinaro, Valentina; Spada, Anna; Montomoli, Emanuele; Principi, Nicola

    2016-01-02

    Obesity may be a risk factor for increased hospitalization and deaths from infections due to respiratory pathogens. Additionally, obese patients appear to have impaired immunity after some vaccinations. To evaluate the immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of an inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) in overweight and obese children, 28 overweight/obese pediatric patients and 23 healthy normal weight controls aged 3-14 years received a dose of TIV. Four weeks after vaccine administration, significantly higher seroprotection rates against the A/H1N1 strain were observed among overweight/obese children compared with normal weight controls (pvaccination, similar or slightly higher seroconversion and seroprotection rates against the A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 strains were detected in overweight/obese than in normal weight children, whereas significantly higher rates of seroconversion and seroprotection against the B strain were found in overweight/obese patients than in normal weight controls (pvaccine administration (pchildren, antibody response to TIV administration is similar or slightly higher than that evidenced in normal weight subjects of similar age and this situation persists for at least 4 months after vaccine administration in the presence of a favorable safety profile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Protection of human influenza vaccines against a reassortant swine influenza virus of pandemic H1N1 origin using a pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunorat, Jirapat; Charoenvisal, Nataya; Woonwong, Yonlayong; Kedkovid, Roongtham; Jittimanee, Supattra; Sitthicharoenchai, Panchan; Kesdangsakonwut, Sawang; Poolperm, Pariwat; Thanawongnuwech, Roongroje

    2017-10-01

    Since the pandemic H1N1 emergence in 2009 (pdmH1N1), many reassortant pdmH1N1 viruses emerged and found circulating in the pig population worldwide. Currently, commercial human subunit vaccines are used commonly to prevent the influenza symptom based on the WHO recommendation. In case of current reassortant swine influenza viruses transmitting from pigs to humans, the efficacy of current human influenza vaccines is of interest. In this study, influenza A negative pigs were vaccinated with selected commercial human subunit vaccines and challenged with rH3N2. All sera were tested with both HI and SN assays using four representative viruses from the surveillance data in 2012 (enH1N1, pdmH1N1, rH1N2 and rH3N2). The results showed no significant differences in clinical signs and macroscopic and microscopic findings among groups. However, all pig sera from vaccinated groups had protective HI titers to the enH1N1, pdmH1N1 and rH1N2 at 21DPV onward and had protective SN titers only to pdmH1N1and rH1N2 at 21DPV onward. SN test results appeared more specific than those of HI tests. All tested sera had no cross-reactivity against the rH3N2. Both studied human subunit vaccines failed to protect and to stop viral shedding with no evidence of serological reaction against rH3N2. SIV surveillance is essential for monitoring a novel SIV emergence potentially for zoonosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Human Phase 1 trial of low-dose inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine formulated with Advax™ delta inulin adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David L; Sajkov, Dimitar; Honda-Okubo, Yoshikazu; Wilks, Samuel H; Aban, Malet; Barr, Ian G; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2016-07-19

    Influenza vaccines are usually non-adjuvanted but addition of adjuvant may improve immunogenicity and permit dose-sparing, critical for vaccine supply in the event of an influenza pandemic. The aim of this first-in-man study was to determine the effect of delta inulin adjuvant on the safety and immunogenicity of a reduced dose seasonal influenza vaccine. Healthy male and female adults aged 18-65years were recruited to participate in a randomized controlled study to compare the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of a reduced-dose 2007 Southern Hemisphere trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine formulated with Advax™ delta inulin adjuvant (LTIV+Adj) when compared to a full-dose of the standard TIV vaccine which does not contain an adjuvant. LTIV+Adj provided equivalent immunogenicity to standard TIV vaccine as assessed by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays against each vaccine strain as well as against a number of heterosubtypic strains. HI responses were sustained at 3months post-immunisation in both groups. Antibody landscapes against a large panel of H3N2 influenza viruses showed distinct age effects whereby subjects over 40years old had a bimodal baseline HI distribution pattern, with the highest HI titers against the very oldest H3N2 isolates and with a second HI peak against influenza isolates from the last 5-10years. By contrast, subjects >40years had a unimodal baseline HI distribution with peak recognition of H3N2 isolates from approximately 20years ago. The reduced dose TIV vaccine containing Advax adjuvant was well tolerated and no safety issues were identified. Hence, delta inulin may be a useful adjuvant for use in seasonal or pandemic influenza vaccines. Australia New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry: ACTRN12607000599471. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of Human H1N2 and Human-Swine Reassortant H1N2 and H1N1 Influenza A Viruses among Pigs in Ontario, Canada (2003 to 2005)†

    OpenAIRE

    Karasin, Alexander I.; Carman, Suzanne; Olsen, Christopher W.

    2006-01-01

    Since 2003, three novel genotypes of H1 influenza viruses have been recovered from Canadian pigs, including a wholly human H1N2 virus and human-swine reassortants. These isolates demonstrate that human-lineage H1N2 viruses are infectious for pigs and that viruses with a human PB1/swine PA/swine PB2 polymerase complex can replicate in pigs.

  12. In vitro reassortment between endemic H1N2 and 2009 H1N1 pandemic swine influenza viruses generates attenuated viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben M Hause

    Full Text Available The pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1 influenza virus was first reported in humans in the spring of 2009 and soon thereafter was identified in numerous species, including swine. Reassortant viruses, presumably arising from the co-infection of pH1N1 and endemic swine influenza virus (SIV, were subsequently identified from diagnostic samples collected from swine. In this study, co-infection of swine testicle (ST cells with swine-derived endemic H1N2 (MN745 and pH1N1 (MN432 yielded two reassortant H1N2 viruses (R1 and R2, both possessing a matrix gene derived from pH1N1. In ST cells, the reassortant viruses had growth kinetics similar to the parental H1N2 virus and reached titers approximately 2 log(10 TCID(50/mL higher than the pH1N1 virus, while in A549 cells these viruses had similar growth kinetics. Intranasal challenge of pigs with H1N2, pH1N1, R1 or R2 found that all viruses were capable of infecting and transmitting between direct contact pigs as measured by real time reverse transcription PCR of nasal swabs. Lung samples were also PCR-positive for all challenge groups and influenza-associated microscopic lesions were detected by histology. Interestingly, infectious virus was detected in lung samples for pigs challenged with the parental H1N2 and pH1N1 at levels significantly higher than either reassortant virus despite similar levels of viral RNA. Results of our experiment suggested that the reassortant viruses generated through in vitro cell culture system were attenuated without gaining any selective growth advantage in pigs over the parental lineages. Thus, reassortant influenza viruses described in this study may provide a good system to study genetic basis of the attenuation and its mechanism.

  13. Virulence and transmissibility of H1N2 influenza virus in ferrets imply the continuing threat of triple-reassortant swine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Song, Min-Suk; Lee, Jun Han; Baek, Yun Hee; Kwon, Hyeok-il; Park, Su-Jin; Choi, Eun Hye; Lim, Gyo-Jin; Lee, Ok-Jun; Kim, Si-Wook; Kim, Chul-Joong; Sung, Moon Hee; Kim, Myung Hee; Yoon, Sun-Woo; Govorkova, Elena A; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G; Choi, Young-Ki

    2012-09-25

    Efficient worldwide swine surveillance for influenza A viruses is urgently needed; the emergence of a novel reassortant pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus in 2009 demonstrated that swine can be the direct source of pandemic influenza and that the pandemic potential of viruses prevalent in swine populations must be monitored. We used the ferret model to assess the pathogenicity and transmissibility of predominant Korean triple-reassortant swine (TRSw) H1N2 and H3N2 influenza viruses genetically related to North American strains. Although most of the TRSw viruses were moderately pathogenic, one [A/Swine/Korea/1204/2009; Sw/1204 (H1N2)] was virulent in ferrets, causing death within 10 d of inoculation, and was efficiently transmitted to naive contact ferrets via respiratory droplets. Although molecular analysis did not reveal known virulence markers, the Sw/1204 virus acquired mutations in hemagglutinin (HA) (Asp-225-Gly) and neuraminidase (NA) (Ser-315-Asn) proteins during the single ferret passage. The contact-Sw/1204 virus became more virulent in mice, replicated efficiently in vitro, extensively infected human lung tissues ex vivo, and maintained its ability to replicate and transmit in swine. Reverse-genetics studies further indicated that the HA(225G) and NA(315N) substitutions contributed substantially in altering virulence and transmissibility. These findings support the continuing threat of some field TRSw viruses to human and animal health, reviving concerns on the capacity of pigs to create future pandemic viruses. Apart from warranting continued and enhanced global surveillance, this study also provides evidence on the emerging roles of HA(225G) and NA(315N) as potential virulence markers in mammals.

  14. Complete genome sequence of a novel influenza A H1N2 virus circulating in swine from Central Bajio region, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Betancourt, J I; Cervantes-Torres, J B; Saavedra-Montañez, M; Segura-Velázquez, R A

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to perform the complete genome sequence of a swine influenza A H1N2 virus strain isolated from a pig in Guanajuato, México (A/swine/Mexico/GtoDMZC01/2014) and to report its seroprevalence in 86 counties at the Central Bajio zone. To understand the evolutionary dynamics of the isolate, we undertook a phylogenetic analysis of the eight gene segments. These data revealed that the isolated virus is a reassortant H1N2 subtype, as its genes are derived from human (HA, NP, PA) and swine (M, NA, PB1, PB2 and NS) influenza viruses. Pig serum samples were analysed by the hemagglutination inhibition test, using wild H1N2 and H3N2 strains (A/swine/México/Mex51/2010 [H3N2]) as antigen sources. Positive samples to the H1N2 subtype were processed using the field-isolated H1N1 subtype (A/swine/México/Ver37/2010 [H1N1]). Seroprevalence to the H1N2 subtype was 26.74% in the sampled counties, being Jalisco the state with highest seroprevalence to this subtype (35.30%). The results herein reported demonstrate that this new, previously unregistered influenza virus subtype in México that shows internal genes from other swine viral subtypes isolated in the past 5 years, along with human virus-originated genes, is widely distributed in this area of the country. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Simplifying influenza vaccination during pandemics : sublingual priming and intramuscular boosting of immune responses with heterologous whole inactivated influenza vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murugappan, Senthil; Patil, Harshad P; Frijlink, Henderik W; Huckriede, Anke; Hinrichs, Wouter L J

    2014-01-01

    The best approach to control the spread of influenza virus during a pandemic is vaccination. Yet, an appropriate vaccine is not available early in the pandemic since vaccine production is time consuming. For influenza strains with a high pandemic potential like H5N1, stockpiling of vaccines has been

  16. The control of H5 or H7 mildly pathogenic avian influenza: a role for inactivated vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, David A

    2002-02-01

    Biosecurity is the first line of defence in the prevention and control of mildly pathogenic avian influenza (MPAI). Its use has been highly successful in keeping avian influenza (AI) out of commercial poultry worldwide. However, sometimes AI becomes introduced into poultry populations and, when that occurs, biosecurity again is the primary means of controlling the disease. There is agreement that routine serological monitoring, disease reporting, isolation or quarantine of affected flocks, application of strict measures to prevent the contamination of and movement of people and equipment, and changing flock schedules are necessities for controlling AI. There is disagreement as to the disposition of MPAI-infected flocks: some advocate their destruction and others advocate controlled marketing. Sometimes biosecurity is not enough to stop the spread of MPAI. In general, influenza virus requires a dense population of susceptible hosts to maintain itself. When there is a large population of susceptible poultry in an area, use of an inactivated AI vaccine can contribute to AI control by reducing the susceptibility of the population. Does use of inactivated vaccine assist, complicate or interfere with AI control and eradication? Yes, it assists MPAI control (which may reduce the risk of highly pathogenic AI (HPAI)) but, unless steps are taken to prevent it, vaccination may interfere with sero-epidemiology in the case of an HPAI outbreak. Does lack of vaccine assist, complicate or interfere with AI control and eradication? Yes, it assists in identification of sero-positive (convalescent) flocks in a HPAI eradication program, but it interferes with MPAI control (which in turn may increase the risk of emergence of HPAI).A number of hypothetical concerns have been raised about the use of inactivated AI vaccines. Infection of vaccinated flocks, serology complications and spreading of virus by vaccine crews are some of the hypothetical concerns. The discussion of these concerns

  17. Comparative pathology of pigs infected with Korean H1N1, H1N2, or H3N2 swine influenza A viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Lyoo, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Ki; Jung, Kwonil; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Song, Daesub

    2014-01-01

    Background The predominant subtypes of swine influenza A virus (SIV) in Korea swine population are H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2. The viruses are genetically close to the classical U.S. H1N1 and triple-reassortant H1N2 and H3N2 viruses, respectively. Comparative pathogenesis caused by Korean H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 SIV was evaluated in this study. Findings The H3N2 infected pigs had severe scores of gross and histopathological lesions at post-inoculation days (PID) 2, and this then progressively decrease...

  18. Transmission dynamics of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in humans and swine in backyard farms in Tumbes, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Yeny O; Montgomery, Joel M; Kasper, Mathew R; Nelson, Martha I; Razuri, Hugo; Guezala, Maria C; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Barnes, John; Gilman, Robert H; Bausch, Daniel G; Gonzalez, Armando E

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to determine the frequency of pH1N1 transmission between humans and swine on backyard farms in Tumbes, Peru. Two-year serial cross-sectional study comprising four sampling periods: March 2009 (pre-pandemic), October 2009 (peak of the pandemic in Peru), April 2010 (1st post-pandemic period), and October 2011 (2nd post-pandemic period). Backyard swine serum, tracheal swabs, and lung sample were collected during each sampling period. We assessed current and past pH1N1 infection in swine through serological testing, virus culture, and RT-PCR and compared the results with human incidence data from a population-based active surveillance cohort study in Peru. Among 1303 swine sampled, the antibody prevalence to pH1N1 was 0% pre-pandemic, 8% at the peak of the human pandemic (October 2009), and 24% in April 2010 and 1% in October 2011 (post-pandemic sampling periods). Trends in swine seropositivity paralleled those seen in humans in Tumbes. The pH1N1 virus was isolated from three pigs during the peak of the pandemic. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these viruses likely represent two separate human-to-swine transmission events in backyard farm settings. Our findings suggest that human-to-swine pH1N1 transmission occurred during the pandemic among backyard farms in Peru, emphasizing the importance of interspecies transmission in backyard pig populations. Continued surveillance for influenza viruses in backyard farms is warranted. © 2015 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Early assessment of anxiety and behavioral response to novel swine-origin influenza A(H1N1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Holland Jones

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since late April, 2009, a novel influenza virus A (H1N1, generally referred to as the "swine flu," has spread around the globe and infected hundreds of thousands of people. During the first few days after the initial outbreak in Mexico, extensive media coverage together with a high degree of uncertainty about the transmissibility and mortality rate associated with the virus caused widespread concern in the population. The spread of an infectious disease can be strongly influenced by behavioral changes (e.g., social distancing during the early phase of an epidemic, but data on risk perception and behavioral response to a novel virus is usually collected with a substantial delay or after an epidemic has run its course. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the results from an online survey that gathered data (n = 6,249 about risk perception of the Influenza A(H1N1 outbreak during the first few days of widespread media coverage (April 28-May 5, 2009. We find that after an initially high level of concern, levels of anxiety waned along with the perception of the virus as an immediate threat. Overall, our data provide evidence that emotional status mediates behavioral response. Intriguingly, principal component analysis revealed strong clustering of anxiety about swine flu, bird flu and terrorism. All three of these threats receive a great deal of media attention and their fundamental uncertainty is likely to generate an inordinate amount of fear vis-a-vis their actual threat. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that respondents' behavior varies in predictable ways. Of particular interest, we find that affective variables, such as self-reported anxiety over the epidemic, mediate the likelihood that respondents will engage in protective behavior. Understanding how protective behavior such as social distancing varies and the specific factors that mediate it may help with the design of epidemic control strategies.

  20. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine and Live, Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in Preventing Influenza-Like Illness among US Service Members, 2006-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    controlled studies. Vaccine 2012; 30:886–92. 11. Piedra PA, Gaglani MJ, Kozinetz CA, et al. Trivalent live attenuated intranasal influenza vaccine...120:e553–64. 12. Halloran ME, Piedra PA, Longini IM Jr, et al. Efficacy of trivalent, cold-adapted, influenza virus vaccine against influenza A (Fujian

  1. Positive regulation of humoral and innate immune responses induced by inactivated Avian Influenza Virus vaccine in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Fatma; Hassanin, Ola

    2015-12-01

    Avian Influenza (AI) vaccines are widely used for mammals and birds in a trial to eliminate the Avian Influenza virus (AIV) infection from the world. However and up till now the virus is still existed via modulation of its antigenic structure to evade the pressure of host immune responses. For a complete understanding of the immune responses following AI vaccination in chickens, the modulations of the chickens humoral immune responses and interferon-alpha signaling pathway, as a fundamental part of the innate immune responses, were investigated. In our study, we measured the humoral immune response using hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. In addition, chicken interferon-alpha pathway components was measured at RNA levels using Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) following one dose of inactivated H5N1 influenza vaccine at 14 days of age. In this study, the protective levels of humoral antibody responses were observed at 14, 21 and 28 days following immunization with inactivated (Re-1/H5N1) AI vaccine. In the chicken spleen cells, up regulation in the chicken interferon-alpha pathway components (MX1 & IRF7) was existed as early as 48 h post vaccination and remained until 28 days post vaccination at the endogenous state. However, after the recall with ex-vivo stimulation, the up regulation was more pronounced in the transcriptional factor (IRF7) compared to the antiviral gene (MX1) at 28 days post vaccination. So far, from our results it appears that the inactivated H5N1 vaccine can trigger the chicken interferon-alpha signaling pathway as well as it can elicit protective humoral antibody responses.

  2. Clinical and Immune Responses to Inactivated Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Vaccine in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotloff, Karen L.; Halasa, Natasha B.; Harrison, Christopher J.; Englund, Janet A.; Walter, Emmanuel B.; King, James C.; Creech, C. Buddy; Healy, Sara A.; Dolor, Rowena J.; Stephens, Ina; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Noah, Diana L.; Hill, Heather; Wolff, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background As the influenza AH1N1 pandemic emerged in 2009, children were found to experience high morbidity and mortality and were prioritized for vaccination. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, age-stratified trial assessed the safety and immunogenicity of inactivated influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine in healthy children aged 6 months to 17 years. Methods Children received two doses of approximately 15 μg or 30 μg hemagglutin antigen 21 days apart. Reactogenicity was assessed for 8 days after each dose, adverse events through day 42, and serious adverse events or new-onset chronic illnesses through day 201. Serum hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titers were measured on days 0 (pre-vaccination), 8, 21, 29, and 42. Results A total of 583 children received the first dose and 571 received the second dose of vaccine. Vaccinations were generally well-tolerated and no related serious adverse events were observed. The 15 μg dosage elicited a seroprotective HAI (≥1:40) in 20%, 47%, and 93% of children in the 6-35 month, 3-9 year, and 10-17 year age strata 21 days after dose 1 and in 78%, 82%, and 98% of children 21 days after dose 2, respectively. The 30 μg vaccine dosage induced similar responses. Conclusions The inactivated influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine exhibited a favorable safety profile at both dosage levels. While a single 15 or 30 μg dose induced seroprotective antibody responses in most 10-17 year olds, younger children required 2 doses, even when receiving dosages 4-6 fold higher than recommended. Well-tolerated vaccines are needed that induce immunity after a single dose for use in young children during influenza pandemics. PMID:25222307

  3. Long-term effect of oral immunization against influenza with a gamma-inactivated vaccine in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noack, K.; Tischner, H.; Pohl, W.D.; Braeuniger, S.; Nordheim, W.

    1986-01-01

    NMRI mice were immunized orally twice within 10 days with an influenza vaccine inactivated by gamma radiation. The immunization with a relatively low dosis led to the occurence of low specific antibody titer in the lung lavage fluid up to 6th month. Despite of the low titer, immunized mice were protected against aerogenic infection for about 6 months. Protection was demonstrated in comparison to non-immunized mice by a limited increase of cells in bronchoalveolar lavage, low virus titer in the lung and survival of most animals after a lethal aerosol challenge with the live virus. (author)

  4. Specific Inhibitory Effect of κ-Carrageenan Polysaccharide on Swine Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Shao

    Full Text Available The 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic placed unprecedented demands on antiviral drug resources and the vaccine industry. Carrageenan, an extractive of red algae, has been proven to inhibit infection and multiplication of various enveloped viruses. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of κ-carrageenan to inhibit swine pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus to gain an understanding of antiviral ability of κ-carrageenan. It was here demonstrated that κ-carrageenan had no cytotoxicity at concentrations below 1000 μg/ml. Hemagglutination, 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 and cytopathic effect (CPE inhibition assays showed that κ-carrageenan inhibited A/Swine/Shandong/731/2009 H1N1 (SW731 and A/California/04/2009 H1N1 (CA04 replication in a dose-dependent fashion. Mechanism studies show that the inhibition of SW731 multiplication and mRNA expression was maximized when κ-carrageenan was added before or during adsorption. The result of Hemagglutination inhibition assay indicate that κ-carrageenan specifically targeted HA of SW731 and CA04, both of which are pandemic H1N/2009 viruses, without effect on A/Pureto Rico/8/34 H1N1 (PR8, A/WSN/1933 H1N1 (WSN, A/Swine/Beijing/26/2008 H1N1 (SW26, A/Chicken/Shandong/LY/2008 H9N2 (LY08, and A/Chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 H9N2 (ZB07 viruses. Immunofluorescence assay and Western blot showed that κ-carrageenan also inhibited SW731 protein expression after its internalization into cells. These results suggest that κ-carrageenan can significantly inhibit SW731 replication by interfering with a few replication steps in the SW731 life cycles, including adsorption, transcription, and viral protein expression, especially interactions between HA and cells. In this way, κ-carrageenan might be a suitable alternative approach to therapy meant to address anti-IAV, which contains an HA homologous to that of SW731.

  5. Quantifying benefits and risks of vaccinating Australian children aged six months to four years with trivalent inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, H; Carcione, D; Dowse, G; Effler, P

    2010-09-16

    Australian and New Zealand health authorities identified seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines manufactured by CSL Biotherapies as the probable cause of increased febrile convulsions in children under five within 24 hours of vaccination and recommended against their use in this age group. We quantified the benefit-risk profile of the CSL vaccines using the number needed to vaccinate and suggest they might have caused two to three hospital admissions due to febrile convulsions for every hospital admission due to influenza prevented.

  6. Swine flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sinha

    Full Text Available Summary: The recent outbreak of human infection with a novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1 virus is spreading rapidly through sustained human-to-human transmission in multiple countries. Human-to-human transmission occurs by inhalation of infectious droplets and droplet nuclei, and by direct contact, which is facilitated by air and land travel and social gatherings. The most frequently reported symptoms are fever, cough, myalgia, and sore throat. Detailed contact and travel histories and knowledge of viral activity in community are essential for prompt case detection by the health personnel. Real-time Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis of throat swabs or lower respiratory samples is a sensitive means of diagnosis. Use of oral oseltamivir may be warranted for the treatment of severe illness. Keywords: Swine influenza, H1N1, Swine flu, Oseltamivir

  7. Whole inactivated equine influenza vaccine: Efficacy against a representative clade 2 equine influenza virus, IFNgamma synthesis and duration of humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillot, R; Prowse, L; Montesso, F; Huang, C M; Barnes, H; Escala, J

    2013-03-23

    Equine influenza (EI) is a serious respiratory disease of horses induced by the equine influenza virus (EIV). Surveillance, quarantine procedures and vaccination are widely used to prevent or to contain the disease. This study aimed to further characterise the immune response induced by a non-updated inactivated EI and tetanus vaccine, including protection against a representative EIV isolate of the Florida clade 2 sublineage. Seven ponies were vaccinated twice with Duvaxyn IE-T Plus at an interval of four weeks. Five ponies remained unvaccinated. All ponies were experimentally infected with the EIV strain A/eq/Richmond/1/07 two weeks after the second vaccination. Clinical signs of disease were recorded and virus shedding was measured after experimental infection. Antibody response and EIV-specific IFNgamma synthesis, a marker of cell-mediated immunity, were measured at different time points of the study. Vaccination resulted in significant protection against clinical signs of disease induced by A/eq/Richmond/1/07 and reduced virus shedding when challenged at the peak of immunity. Antigenic drift has been shown to reduce protection against EIV infection. Inclusion of a more recent and representative EIV vaccine strain, as recommended by the OIE expert surveillance panel on equine influenza vaccine, may maximise field protection. In addition, significant levels of EIV-specific IFNgamma synthesis by peripheral blood lymphocytes were detected in immunised ponies, which provided a first evidence of CMI stimulation after vaccination with a whole inactivated EIV. Duration of humoral response was also retrospectively investigated in 14 horses vaccinated under field condition and following the appropriate immunisation schedule, up to 599 days after first immunisation. This study revealed that most immunised horses maintained significant levels of cross-reactive SRH antibody for a prolonged period of time, but individual monitoring may be beneficial to identify poor vaccine

  8. Cross-Species Infectivity of H3N8 Influenza Virus in an Experimental Infection in Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solórzano, Alicia; Foni, Emanuela; Córdoba, Lorena; Baratelli, Massimiliano; Razzuoli, Elisabetta; Bilato, Dania; Martín del Burgo, María Ángeles; Perlin, David S; Martínez, Jorge; Martínez-Orellana, Pamela; Fraile, Lorenzo; Chiapponi, Chiara; Amadori, Massimo; del Real, Gustavo; Montoya, María

    2015-11-01

    Avian influenza A viruses have gained increasing attention due to their ability to cross the species barrier and cause severe disease in humans and other mammal species as pigs. H3 and particularly H3N8 viruses, are highly adaptive since they are found in multiple avian and mammal hosts. H3N8 viruses have not been isolated yet from humans; however, a recent report showed that equine influenza A viruses (IAVs) can be isolated from pigs, although an established infection has not been observed thus far in this host. To gain insight into the possibility of H3N8 avian IAVs to cross the species barrier into pigs, in vitro experiments and an experimental infection in pigs with four H3N8 viruses from different origins (equine, canine, avian, and seal) were performed. As a positive control, an H3N2 swine influenza virus A was used. Although equine and canine viruses hardly replicated in the respiratory systems of pigs, avian and seal viruses replicated substantially and caused detectable lesions in inoculated pigs without previous adaptation. Interestingly, antibodies against hemagglutinin could not be detected after infection by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) test with avian and seal viruses. This phenomenon was observed not only in pigs but also in mice immunized with the same virus strains. Our data indicated that H3N8 IAVs from wild aquatic birds have the potential to cross the species barrier and establish successful infections in pigs that might spread unnoticed using the HAI test as diagnostic tool. Although natural infection of humans with an avian H3N8 influenza A virus has not yet been reported, this influenza A virus subtype has already crossed the species barrier. Therefore, we have examined the potential of H3N8 from canine, equine, avian, and seal origin to productively infect pigs. Our results demonstrated that avian and seal viruses replicated substantially and caused detectable lesions in inoculated pigs without previous adaptation. Surprisingly, we

  9. Evaluation of the zoonotic potential of a novel reassortant H1N2 swine influenza virus with gene constellation derived from multiple viral sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee Hoon; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Decano, Arun G; Kim, Se Mi; Park, Su-Jin; Kwon, Hyeok-Il; Kim, Eun-Ha; Kim, Young-Il; Kim, HyongKyu; Kim, Seok-Yong; Song, Min-Suk; Jang, Hyung-Kwan; Park, Bong Kyun; Choi, Young Ki

    2015-08-01

    In 2011-2012, contemporary North American-like H3N2 swine influenza viruses (SIVs) possessing the 2009 pandemic H1N1 matrix gene (H3N2pM-like virus) were detected in domestic pigs of South Korea where H1N2 SIV strains are endemic. More recently, we isolated novel reassortant H1N2 SIVs bearing the Eurasian avian-like swine H1-like hemagglutinin and Korean swine H1N2-like neuraminidase in the internal gene backbone of the H3N2pM-like virus. In the present study, we clearly provide evidence on the genetic origins of the novel H1N2 SIVs virus through genetic and phylogenetic analyses. In vitro studies demonstrated that, in comparison with a pre-existing 2012 Korean H1N2 SIV [A/swine/Korea/CY03-11/2012 (CY03-11/2012)], the 2013 novel reassortant H1N2 isolate [A/swine/Korea/CY0423/2013 (CY0423-12/2013)] replicated more efficiently in differentiated primary human bronchial epithelial cells. The CY0423-12/2013 virus induced higher viral titers than the CY03-11/2012 virus in the lungs and nasal turbinates of infected mice and nasal wash samples of ferrets. Moreover, the 2013 H1N2 reassortant, but not the intact 2012 H1N2 virus, was transmissible to naïve contact ferrets via respiratory-droplets. Noting that the viral precursors have the ability to infect humans, our findings highlight the potential threat of a novel reassortant H1N2 SIV to public health and underscore the need to further strengthen influenza surveillance strategies worldwide, including swine populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A human-like H1N2 influenza virus detected during an outbreak of acute respiratory disease in swine in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Rejane; Rech, Raquel Rubia; Gava, Danielle; Cantão, Mauricio Egídio; da Silva, Marcia Cristina; Silveira, Simone; Zanella, Janice Reis Ciacci

    2015-01-01

    Passive monitoring for detection of influenza A viruses (IAVs) in pigs has been carried out in Brazil since 2009, detecting mostly the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus. Since then, outbreaks of acute respiratory disease suggestive of influenza A virus infection have been observed frequently in Brazilian pig herds. During a 2010-2011 influenza monitoring, a novel H1N2 influenza virus was detected in nursery pigs showing respiratory signs. The pathologic changes were cranioventral acute necrotizing bronchiolitis to subacute proliferative and purulent bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Lung tissue samples were positive for both influenza A virus and A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus based on RT-qPCR of the matrix gene. Two IAVs were isolated in SPF chicken eggs. HI analysis of both swine H1N2 influenza viruses showed reactivity to the H1δ cluster. DNA sequencing was performed for all eight viral gene segments of two virus isolates. According to the phylogenetic analysis, the HA and NA genes clustered with influenza viruses of the human lineage (H1-δ cluster, N2), whereas the six internal gene segments clustered with the A(H1N1)pdm09 group. This is the first report of a reassortant human-like H1N2 influenza virus derived from pandemic H1N1 virus causing an outbreak of respiratory disease in pigs in Brazil. The emergence of a reassortant IAV demands the close monitoring of pigs through the full-genome sequencing of virus isolates in order to enhance genetic information about IAVs circulating in pigs.

  11. Rapid detection and subtyping of European swine influenza viruses in porcine clinical samples by haemagglutinin- and neuraminidase-specific tetra- and triplex real-time RT-PCRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henritzi, Dinah; Zhao, Na; Starick, Elke; Simon, Gaelle; Krog, Jesper S; Larsen, Lars Erik; Reid, Scott M; Brown, Ian H; Chiapponi, Chiara; Foni, Emanuela; Wacheck, Silke; Schmid, Peter; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Harder, Timm C

    2016-11-01

    A diversifying pool of mammalian-adapted influenza A viruses (IAV) with largely unknown zoonotic potential is maintained in domestic swine populations worldwide. The most recent human influenza pandemic in 2009 was caused by a virus with genes originating from IAV isolated from swine. Swine influenza viruses (SIV) are widespread in European domestic pig populations and evolve dynamically. Knowledge regarding occurrence, spread and evolution of potentially zoonotic SIV in Europe is poorly understood. Efficient SIV surveillance programmes depend on sensitive and specific diagnostic methods which allow for cost-effective large-scale analysis. New SIV haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) subtype- and lineage-specific multiplex real-time RT-PCRs (RT-qPCR) have been developed and validated with reference virus isolates and clinical samples. A diagnostic algorithm is proposed for the combined detection in clinical samples and subtyping of SIV strains currently circulating in Europe that is based on a generic, M-gene-specific influenza A virus RT-qPCR. In a second step, positive samples are examined by tetraplex HA- and triplex NA-specific RT-qPCRs to differentiate the porcine subtypes H1, H3, N1 and N2. Within the HA subtype H1, lineages "av" (European avian-derived), "hu" (European human-derived) and "pdm" (human pandemic A/H1N1, 2009) are distinguished by RT-qPCRs, and within the NA subtype N1, lineage "pdm" is differentiated. An RT-PCR amplicon Sanger sequencing method of small fragments of the HA and NA genes is also proposed to safeguard against failure of multiplex RT-qPCR subtyping. These new multiplex RT-qPCR assays provide adequate tools for sustained SIV monitoring programmes in Europe. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Influenza Viruses Circulating within European Swine between 2009 and 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. Watson, Simon; Langat, Pinky; M. Reid, Scott

    2015-01-01

    )pdm09 becoming established at a mean frequency of 8% across European countries. Notably, swine in the United Kingdom have largely had a replacement of the endemic Eurasian avian virus-like (“avian-like”) genotypes with A(H1N1)pdm09-derived genotypes. The high number of reassortant genotypes observed...

  13. Swine influenza and vaccines: an alternative approach for decision making about pandemic prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Marcello; Ferrini, Silvia; Montomoli, Emanuele

    2013-08-01

    During the global pandemic of A/H1N1/California/07/2009 (A/H1N1/Cal) influenza, many governments signed contracts with vaccine producers for a universal influenza immunization program and bought hundreds of millions of vaccines doses. We argue that, as Health Ministers assumed the occurrence of the worst possible scenario (generalized pandemic influenza) and followed the strong version of the Precautionary Principle, they undervalued the possibility of mild or weak pandemic wave. An alternative decision rule, based on the non-extensive entropy principle, is introduced, and a different Precautionary Principle characterization is applied. This approach values extreme negative results (catastrophic events) in a different way and predicts more plausible and mild events. It introduces less pessimistic forecasts in the case of uncertain influenza pandemic outbreaks. A simplified application is presented using seasonal data of morbidity and severity among Italian children influenza-like illness for the period 2003-10. Established literature results predict an average attack rate of not less than 15% for the next pandemic influenza [Meltzer M, Cox N, Fukuda K. The economic impact of pandemic influenza in the United States: implications for setting priorities for interventions. Emerg Infect Dis 1999;5:659-71; Meltzer M, Cox N, Fukuda K. Modeling the Economic Impact of Pandemic Influenza in the United States: Implications for Setting Priorities for Intervention. Background paper. Atlanta, GA: CDC, 1999. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol5no5/melt_back.htm (7 January 2011, date last accessed))]. The strong version of the Precautionary Principle would suggest using this prediction for vaccination campaigns. On the contrary, the non-extensive maximum entropy principle predicts a lower attack rate, which induces a 20% saving in public funding for vaccines doses. The need for an effective influenza pandemic prevention program, coupled with an efficient use of public

  14. H1N1 Swine Influenza Viruses Differ from Avian Precursors by a Higher pH Optimum of Membrane Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Jan; Kouassi, Nancy Mounogou; Foni, Emanuela; Klenk, Hans-Dieter; Matrosovich, Mikhail

    2016-02-01

    The H1N1 Eurasian avian-like swine (EAsw) influenza viruses originated from an avian H1N1 virus. To characterize potential changes in the membrane fusion activity of the hemagglutinin (HA) during avian-to-swine adaptation of the virus, we studied EAsw viruses isolated in the first years of their circulation in pigs and closely related contemporary H1N1 viruses of wild aquatic birds. Compared to the avian viruses, the swine viruses were less sensitive to neutralization by lysosomotropic agent NH4Cl in MDCK cells, had a higher pH optimum of hemolytic activity, and were less stable at acidic pH. Eight amino acid substitutions in the HA were found to separate the EAsw viruses from their putative avian precursor; four substitutions-T492S, N722D, R752K, and S1132F-were located in the structural regions of the HA2 subunit known to play a role in acid-induced conformational transition of the HA. We also studied low-pH-induced syncytium formation by cell-expressed HA proteins and found that the HAs of the 1918, 1957, 1968, and 2009 pandemic viruses required a lower pH for fusion induction than did the HA of a representative EAsw virus. Our data show that transmission of an avian H1N1 virus to pigs was accompanied by changes in conformational stability and fusion promotion activity of the HA. We conclude that distinctive host-determined fusion characteristics of the HA may represent a barrier for avian-to-swine and swine-to-human transmission of influenza viruses. Continuing cases of human infections with zoonotic influenza viruses highlight the necessity to understand which viral properties contribute to interspecies transmission. Efficient binding of the HA to cellular receptors in a new host species is known to be essential for the transmission. Less is known about required adaptive changes in the membrane fusion activity of the HA. Here we show that adaptation of an avian influenza virus to pigs in Europe in 1980s was accompanied by mutations in the HA, which decreased

  15. Immunogenicity and safety of Southern Hemisphere inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine: a Phase III, open-label study of adults in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbini, Cristiano A F; Ribeiro Dos Santos, Rodrigo; Jose Nunes, Maria; Soni, Jyoti; Li, Ping; Jain, Varsha K; Ofori-Anyinam, Opokua

    The World Health Organization influenza forecast now includes an influenza B strain from each of the influenza B lineages (B/Yamagata and B/Victoria) for inclusion in seasonal influenza vaccines. Traditional trivalent influenza vaccines include an influenza B strain from one lineage, but because two influenza B lineages frequently co-circulate, the effectiveness of trivalent vaccines may be reduced in seasons of influenza B vaccine-mismatch. Thus, quadrivalent vaccines may potentially reduce the burden of influenza compared with trivalent vaccines. In this Phase III, open-label study, we assessed the immunogenicity and safety of Southern Hemisphere inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (Fluarix™ Tetra) in Brazilian adults (NCT02369341). The primary objective was to assess hemagglutination-inhibition antibody responses against each vaccine strain 21 days after vaccination in adults (aged ≥18-60 years) and older adults (aged >60 years). Solicited adverse events for four days post-vaccination, and unsolicited adverse events and serious adverse events for 21 days post-vaccination were also assessed. A total of 63 adults and 57 older adults received one dose of inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine at the beginning of the 2015 Southern Hemisphere influenza season. After vaccination, in adults and older adults, the hemagglutination-inhibition titers fulfilled the European licensure criteria for immunogenicity. In adults, the seroprotection rates with HI titer ≥1:40 were 100% (A/H1N1), 98.4% (A/H3N2), 100% (B/Yamagata), and 100% (B/Victoria); in older adults were 94.7% (A/H1N1), 96.5% (A/H3N2), 100% (B/Yamagata), and 100% (B/Victoria). Pain was the most common solicited local adverse events in adults (27/62) and in older adults (13/57), and the most common solicited general adverse events in adults was myalgia (9/62), and in older adults were myalgia and arthralgia (both 2/57). Unsolicited adverse events were reported by 11/63 adults and 10/57 older adults

  16. Study on Efficacy of Gamma Radiation on the Inactivation of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 (Thai isolate) in Chicken Meat and Chicken Feces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinyochon, Wasana; Piadang, Nattayana; Mulika, Ladda; Parchariyanon, Sujira; Vitittheeranon, Arag; Damrongwatapokin, Sudarat

    2006-09-01

    A study on the efficacy of gamma radiation on the inactivation of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype, Thai isolate was carried out. The virus was in the form frozen infected allantoic fluid frozen chicken meat and frozen chicken feces. The result indicated that 9 kilo grey of gamma radiation could completely inactivated 106.0 EID50/ml of AIV infected allantoic fluid and 22 kiel grey and 15 kilo grey of gamma radiation completely inactivate 106.0 EID50/10/ grams of chicken meat and 106.0 EID50/5 grams of chicken feces respectively.

  17. Characterization of an artificial swine-origin influenza virus with the same gene combination as H1N1/2009 virus: a genesis clue of pandemic strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueli; Sun, Yipeng; Pu, Juan; Fan, Lihong; Shi, Weimin; Hu, Yanxin; Yang, Jun; Xu, Qi; Wang, Jingjing; Hou, Dongjun; Ma, Guangpeng; Liu, Jinhua

    2011-01-01

    Pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza virus, derived from a reassortment of avian, human, and swine influenza viruses, possesses a unique gene segment combination that had not been detected previously in animal and human populations. Whether such a gene combination could result in the pathogenicity and transmission as H1N1/2009 virus remains unclear. In the present study, we used reverse genetics to construct a reassortant virus (rH1N1) with the same gene combination as H1N1/2009 virus (NA and M genes from a Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine virus and another six genes from a North American triple-reassortant H1N2 swine virus). Characterization of rH1N1 in mice showed that this virus had higher replicability and pathogenicity than those of the seasonal human H1N1 and Eurasian avian-like swine H1N1 viruses, but was similar to the H1N1/2009 and triple-reassortant H1N2 viruses. Experiments performed on guinea pigs showed that rH1N1 was not transmissible, whereas pandemic H1N1/2009 displayed efficient transmissibility. To further determine which gene segment played a key role in transmissibility, we constructed a series of reassortants derived from rH1N1 and H1N1/2009 viruses. Direct contact transmission studies demonstrated that the HA and NS genes contributed to the transmission of H1N1/2009 virus. Second, the HA gene of H1N1/2009 virus, when combined with the H1N1/2009 NA gene, conferred efficient contact transmission among guinea pigs. The present results reveal that not only gene segment reassortment but also amino acid mutation were needed for the generation of the pandemic influenza virus.

  18. Characterization of an artificial swine-origin influenza virus with the same gene combination as H1N1/2009 virus: a genesis clue of pandemic strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueli Zhao

    Full Text Available Pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza virus, derived from a reassortment of avian, human, and swine influenza viruses, possesses a unique gene segment combination that had not been detected previously in animal and human populations. Whether such a gene combination could result in the pathogenicity and transmission as H1N1/2009 virus remains unclear. In the present study, we used reverse genetics to construct a reassortant virus (rH1N1 with the same gene combination as H1N1/2009 virus (NA and M genes from a Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine virus and another six genes from a North American triple-reassortant H1N2 swine virus. Characterization of rH1N1 in mice showed that this virus had higher replicability and pathogenicity than those of the seasonal human H1N1 and Eurasian avian-like swine H1N1 viruses, but was similar to the H1N1/2009 and triple-reassortant H1N2 viruses. Experiments performed on guinea pigs showed that rH1N1 was not transmissible, whereas pandemic H1N1/2009 displayed efficient transmissibility. To further determine which gene segment played a key role in transmissibility, we constructed a series of reassortants derived from rH1N1 and H1N1/2009 viruses. Direct contact transmission studies demonstrated that the HA and NS genes contributed to the transmission of H1N1/2009 virus. Second, the HA gene of H1N1/2009 virus, when combined with the H1N1/2009 NA gene, conferred efficient contact transmission among guinea pigs. The present results reveal that not only gene segment reassortment but also amino acid mutation were needed for the generation of the pandemic influenza virus.

  19. Different evolutionary trends of swine H1N2 influenza viruses in Italy compared to European viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ana; Gabanelli, Elena; Sozzi, Enrica; Lelli, Davide; Chiapponi, Chiara; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Cordioli, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    European H1N2 swine influenza viruses (EU H1N2SIVs) arose from multiple reassortment events among human H1N1, human H3N2, and avian influenza viruses. We investigated the evolutionary dynamics of 53 Italian H1N2 strains by comparing them with EU H1N2 SIVs. Hemagglutinin (HA) phylogeny revealed Italian strains fell into four groups: Group A and B (41 strains) had a human H1 similar to EU H1N2SIVs, which probably originated in 1986. However Group B (38 strains) formed a subgroup that had a two-amino acid deletion at positions 146/147 in HA. Group C (11 strains) contained an avian H1 that probably originated in 1996, and Group D (1 strain) had an H1 characteristic of the 2009 pandemic strain. Neuraminidase (NA) phylogeny suggested a series of genomic reassortments had occurred. Group A had an N2 that originated from human H3N2 in the late 1970s. Group B had different human N2 that most likely arose from a reassortment with the more recent human H3N2 virus, which probably occurred in 2000. Group C had an avian-like H1 combined with an N2 gene from one of EU H1N2SIVs, EU H3N2SIVs or Human H3N2. Group D was part of the EU H3N2SIVs clade. Although selection pressure for HA and NA was low, several positively selected sites were identified in both proteins, some of which were antigenic, suggesting selection influenced the evolution of SIV. The data highlight different evolutionary trends between European viruses and currently circulating Italian B strains and show the establishment of reassortant strains involving human viruses in Italian pigs.

  20. [Serological detection of Brucella suis, influenza virus and Aujeszky's disease virus in backyard and small swine holders in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibarbora, Marina; Cappuccio, Javier A; Aznar, María N; Bessone, Fernando A; Piscitelli, Hernán; Pereda, Ariel J; Pérez, Daniel R

    Farmers raising less than 100 sows represent more than 99% of swine producers in Argentina, although little is known about their sanitary status and productive characteristics in the country. Sanitary and productive information was obtained. Furthermore, samples for serological studies were taken to detect antibodies against Brucella suis (Bs), Aujeszky's disease virus (AV) and influenza virus (IV) in 68 backyard and small producers with less than 100 sows located in the north, central and south regions of Argentina. Antibodies against H1 pandemic were detected in 80% of the farms while 11%, 11.7% and 6.0% of the producers were positive to influenza H3 cluster 2, AV and Bs, respectively. None of the producers was aware of the risk factors concerning the transmission of diseases from pigs to humans. A percentage of 47% of them buy pigs for breeding from other farmers and markets. With regard to biosecurity measures, only 16% of the farms had perimeter fences. The results of this study demonstrate that productive characterization and disease surveys are important to improve productivity and to reduce the risk of disease transmission among animals and humans. The study of sanitary status and risk factors is necessary for better control and eradication of diseases in backyard or small producers. More representative studies at country level should be carried out to detect the pathogensthat circulate and, with this knowledge, to implement prevention and control measures. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. PA-X protein contributes to virulence of triple-reassortant H1N2 influenza virus by suppressing early immune responses in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guanlong; Zhang, Xuxiao; Liu, Qinfang; Bing, Guoxia; Hu, Zhe; Sun, Honglei; Xiong, Xin; Jiang, Ming; He, Qiming; Wang, Yu; Pu, Juan; Guo, Xin; Yang, Hanchun; Liu, Jinhua; Sun, Yipeng

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have identified a functional role of PA-X for influenza viruses in mice and avian species; however, its role in swine remains unknown. Toward this, we constructed PA-X deficient virus (Sw-FS) in the background of a Triple-reassortment (TR) H1N2 swine influenza virus (SIV) to assess the impact of PA-X in viral virulence in pigs. Expression of PA-X in TR H1N2 SIV enhanced viral replication and host protein synthesis shutoff, and inhibited the mRNA levels of type I IFNs and proinflammatory cytokines in porcine cells. A delay of proinflammatory responses was observed in lungs of pigs infected by wild type SIV (Sw-WT) compared to Sw-FS. Furthermore, Sw-WT virus replicated and transmitted more efficiently than Sw-FS in pigs. These results highlight the importance of PA-X in the moderation of virulence and immune responses of TR SIV in swine, which indicated that PA-X is a pro-virulence factor in TR SIV in pigs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of two H1N2 swine influenza A viruses from disease outbreaks in pigs in Sweden during 2009 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metreveli, Giorgi; Emmoth, Eva; Zohari, Siamak; Bálint, Adám; Widén, Frederik; Muradrasoli, Shaman; Wallgren, Per; Belák, Sándor; Leblanc, Neil; Berg, Mikael; Kiss, István

    2011-04-01

    The influenza A virus subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 are prevalent in pig populations worldwide. In the present study, two relatively uncommon swine influenza virus (SIV) H1N2 subtypes, isolated in Sweden in 2009 and 2010, were compared regarding their molecular composition and biological characteristics. The differences regarding markers purportedly related to pathogenicity, host adaptation or replication efficiency. They included a truncated PB1-F2 protein in the earlier isolate but a full length version in the more recent one; differences in the number of haemagglutinin glycosylation sites, including a characteristic human one; and a nuclear export protein with altered export signal. Of particular interest, the NS1 amino acid sequence of swine H1N2-2009 and 2010 has a 'unique or very unusual' PDZ binding domain (RPKV) at the C-terminal of the protein, a motif that has been implicated as a virulence marker. Concerning biological properties, these viruses reached lower titre and showed reduced cytopathogenicity in MDCK cells compared with an avian-like H1N1 isolate A/swine/Lidkoping/1193/2002 belonging to the same lineage as the 2009 and 2010 isolates. The findings should contribute to better understanding of factors related to the survival/extinction of this uncommon reassortant variant.

  3. Swine-origin influenza A viral (H1N1) infection in children. Chest computed tomography findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Soo-Ah; Kim, Hyo-Lim; Yoon, Jong-seo; Kang, Jin-Han; Lee, Joon-Sung; Chun, Ho-Jong

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the chest computed tomography (CT) findings in children with swine-origin influenza (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection. The radiologists retrospectively reviewed chest CT findings in 12 children with S-OIV infection and recorded the following findings: ground-glass opacities (GGO), consolidation, nodules, reticular opacities, peribronchial cuffing, and air trapping; distribution; affected lobes. The presence of pleural effusions, pneumomediastinum, pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE), and lymphadenopathy was also recorded. Chest CT revealed GGO (67%), consolidation (67%), nodules (25%), peribronchial cuffing (42%), and air trapping (33%). The distribution of the lesions was random (75%), peribronchial (17%), or subpleural (8%). The lobes affected were the lower (92%), upper (58%), and middle (17%) lobes. There were associated pleural effusions (42%), PIE (42%), pneumomediastinum (33%), and lymphadenopathy (75%). Among five patients with air-leak complications, three had a history of allergies and three required the intensive care unit. Chest CT findings in children with S-OIV infection were peribronchial thickening and a mixture of airspace consolidation and GGO with random distribution and lower lobe predominance. Pleural effusion, lymphadenopathy, PIE, and pneumomediastinum may be associated findings. (author)

  4. Avian influenza A virus PB2 promotes interferon type I inducing properties of a swine strain in porcine dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocaña-Macchi, Manuela; Ricklin, Meret E.; Python, Sylvie; Monika, Gsell-Albert; Stech, Jürgen; Stech, Olga; Summerfield, Artur

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 influenza A virus (IAV) pandemic resulted from reassortment of avian, human and swine strains probably in pigs. To elucidate the role of viral genes in host adaptation regarding innate immune responses, we focussed on the effect of genes from an avian H5N1 and a porcine H1N1 IAV on infectivity and activation of porcine GM-CSF-induced dendritic cells (DC). The highest interferon type I responses were achieved by the porcine virus reassortant containing the avian polymerase gene PB2. This finding was not due to differential tropism since all viruses infected DC equally. All viruses equally induced MHC class II, but porcine H1N1 expressing the avian viral PB2 induced more prominent nuclear NF-κB translocation compared to its parent IAV. The enhanced activation of DC may be detrimental or beneficial. An over-stimulation of innate responses could result in either pronounced tissue damage or increased resistance against IAV reassortants carrying avian PB2.

  5. Avian influenza A virus PB2 promotes interferon type I inducing properties of a swine strain in porcine dendritic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocana-Macchi, Manuela; Ricklin, Meret E.; Python, Sylvie; Monika, Gsell-Albert [Institute of Virology and Immunoprophylaxis, Mittelhaeusern (Switzerland); Stech, Juergen; Stech, Olga [Friedrich-Loeffler Institut, Greifswald-Insel Riems (Germany); Summerfield, Artur, E-mail: artur.summerfield@ivi.admin.ch [Institute of Virology and Immunoprophylaxis, Mittelhaeusern (Switzerland)

    2012-05-25

    The 2009 influenza A virus (IAV) pandemic resulted from reassortment of avian, human and swine strains probably in pigs. To elucidate the role of viral genes in host adaptation regarding innate immune responses, we focussed on the effect of genes from an avian H5N1 and a porcine H1N1 IAV on infectivity and activation of porcine GM-CSF-induced dendritic cells (DC). The highest interferon type I responses were achieved by the porcine virus reassortant containing the avian polymerase gene PB2. This finding was not due to differential tropism since all viruses infected DC equally. All viruses equally induced MHC class II, but porcine H1N1 expressing the avian viral PB2 induced more prominent nuclear NF-{kappa}B translocation compared to its parent IAV. The enhanced activation of DC may be detrimental or beneficial. An over-stimulation of innate responses could result in either pronounced tissue damage or increased resistance against IAV reassortants carrying avian PB2.

  6. Chest Radiographic Findings of Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, So Young; Hong, Eun Sook; Paik, Sang Hyun; Park, Seong Jin; Cha, Jang Gyu; Lee, Hae Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Yun Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    To analyze chest radiographic findings in children infected with laboratory confirmed novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus. Three hundred seventy-two out of 2,014 children with laboratory confirmed H1N1 infection and who also underwent a chest radiograph from September to November 2009 were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into in-patients, out-patients, and patients with co-infections and further subdivided into with underlying disease and without underlying disease as well as age (<2 years old, 2-5 years, 5-10 years, 10-18 years old). The initial radiographs were evaluated for radiographic findings and the anatomic distribution of abnormalities. The initial radiographs were abnormal in 154 (41.39%) patients. The predominant radiographic findings were peribronchial wall opacity found in 85 (22.84%) patients and hyperinflation observed in 69 (18.54%) patients. Further, 75 (71.42%) patients exhibited central predominance and the right lower lung zone was also commonly involved. There were statistically significant differences in the radiological findings between in-patient and out-patient groups. However, there were no significant differences in the radiographic findings between in-patients and the co-infection group with respect the presence of underlying disease and age. Initial radiographs of children with laboratory confirmed H1N1 virus were abnormal in 41.39% of cases. The common radiographic findings included peribronchial opacities, hyperinflation, lower lung zonal distribution, and central predominance

  7. Adjuvant Activity of Sargassum pallidum Polysaccharides against Combined Newcastle Disease, Infectious Bronchitis and Avian Influenza Inactivated Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jie Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effects of Sargassum pallidum polysaccharides (SPP on the immune responses in a chicken model. The adjuvanticity of Sargassum pallidum polysaccharides in Newcastle disease (ND, infectious bronchitis (IB and avian influenza (AI was investigated by examining the antibody titers and lymphocyte proliferation following immunization in chickens. The chickens were administrated combined ND, IB and AI inactivated vaccines containing SPP at 10, 30 and 50 mg/mL, using an oil adjuvant vaccine as a control. The ND, IB and AI antibody titers and the lymphocyte proliferation were enhanced at 30 mg/mL SPP. In conclusion, an appropriate dose of SPP may be a safe and efficacious immune stimulator candidate that is suitable for vaccines to produce early and persistent prophylaxis.

  8. Differential interactions of virulent and non-virulent H. parasuis strains with naïve or swine influenza virus pre-infected dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussá, Tufária; Rodríguez-Cariño, Carolina; Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro; Baratelli, Massimiliano; Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Fraile, Lorenzo; Domínguez, Javier; Aragon, Virginia; Montoya, María

    2012-11-16

    Pigs possess a microbiota in the upper respiratory tract that includes Haemophilus parasuis. Pigs are also considered the reservoir of influenza viruses and infection with this virus commonly results in increased impact of bacterial infections, including those by H. parasuis. However, the mechanisms involved in host innate responses towards H. parasuis and their implications in a co-infection with influenza virus are unknown. Therefore, the ability of a non-virulent H. parasuis serovar 3 (SW114) and a virulent serovar 5 (Nagasaki) strains to interact with porcine bone marrow dendritic cells (poBMDC) and their modulation in a co-infection with swine influenza virus (SwIV) H3N2 was examined. At 1 hour post infection (hpi), SW114 interaction with poBMDC was higher than that of Nagasaki, while at 8 hpi both strains showed similar levels of interaction. The co-infection with H3N2 SwIV and either SW114 or Nagasaki induced higher levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-10 compared to mock or H3N2 SwIV infection alone. Moreover, IL-12 and IFN-α secretion differentially increased in cells co-infected with H3N2 SwIV and Nagasaki. These results pave the way for understanding the differences in the interaction of non-virulent and virulent strains of H. parasuis with the swine immune system and their modulation in a viral co-infection.

  9. Pathogenic characteristics of a novel triple-reasserted H1N2 swine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huili; Tao, Jie; Zhang, Pengchao; Yin, Xiuchen; Ha, Zhuo; Zhang, Chunling

    2016-07-01

    A novel triple reasserted H1N2 virus A/swine/Shanghai/1/2007 (SH07) was isolated from nasal swabs of weaned pig showing clinical symptoms of coughing and sneezing. To explore the virus characteristics, mice, chickens and pigs were selected for pathogenicity study. Pigs inoculated intranasally with 10(6) TCID50 SH07 showed clinical symptoms with coughing and sneezing, but no death. The virus nuclear acid was detected in many tissues using real-time PCR, which was mainly distributed in respiratory system particularly in the lungs. The virus was low-pathogenic to chickens with 10(6) TCID50 dose inoculation either via intramuscular or intranasal routes. However virus nuclear acid detection and virus isolation confirmed that the virus can also be found in nasal and rectum. When virus was inoculated into mice by intramuscular or intranasal routes we observed 100% and 80% lethality respectively. The third generation of samples passaged on MDCK cell were SIV positive in indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using antiserum against H1N2 SIV. Furthermore, the lungs of mice showed obvious lesion with interstitial pneumonia. Data in our study suggest that SH07 is preferentially pathogenic to mammals rather than birds although it is a reasserting virus with the fragments from swine, human and avian origin. Copyright © 2016 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Design and Performance of the CDC Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase PCR Swine Flu Panel for Detection of 2009 A (H1N1) Pandemic Influenza Virus▿†‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Bo; Wu, Kai-Hui; Emery, Shannon; Villanueva, Julie; Johnson, Roy; Guthrie, Erica; Berman, LaShondra; Warnes, Christine; Barnes, Nathelia; Klimov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) have been shown to sporadically infect humans and are infrequently identified by the Influenza Division of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after being received as unsubtypeable influenza A virus samples. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) procedures for detection and characterization of North American lineage (N. Am) SIV were developed and implemented at CDC for rapid identification of specimens from cases of suspected infections with SIV. These procedures were utilized in April 2009 for detection of human cases of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic (pdm) influenza virus infection. Based on genetic sequence data derived from the first two viruses investigated, the previously developed rRT-PCR procedures were optimized to create the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel for detection of the 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza virus. The analytical sensitivity of the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was shown to be 5 copies of RNA per reaction and 10−1.3∼−0.7 50% infectious doses (ID50) per reaction for cultured viruses. Cross-reactivity was not observed when testing human clinical specimens or cultured viruses that were positive for human seasonal A (H1N1, H3N2) and B influenza viruses. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was distributed to public health laboratories in the United States and internationally from April 2009 until June 2010. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel served as an effective tool for timely and specific detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza viruses and facilitated subsequent public health response implementation. PMID:21593260

  11. Immune response to inactivated influenza virus vaccine: antibody reactivity with epidemic influenza B viruses of two highly distinct evolutionary lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyhälä, R; Kleemola, M; Kumpulainen, V; Vartiainen, E; Lappi, S; Pönkä, A; Cantell, K

    1992-01-01

    Vaccination of adults (healthy female employees potentially capable of transmitting influenza to high-risk persons; n = 104) in autumn 1990 with a trivalent influenza virus vaccine containing B/Yamagata/16/88 induced a low antibody response to B/Finland/150/90, a recent variant of B/Victoria/2/87-like viruses, as compared with the antibody response to B/Finland/172/91, a current variant in the lineage of B/Yamagata/16/88-like viruses. Up to the end of the epidemic season, the antibody status declined but was still significantly better than before the vaccination. The results suggest that the vaccine strain was appropriate for the outbreak of 1990 to 1991 in Finland, but may provide unsatisfactory protection against B/Victoria/2/87-like viruses. Evidence is given that use of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK)-grown virus as an antigen in the haemagglutination inhibition test (HI) may provide more reliable information about the protective antibodies than use of untreated or ether-treated egg-grown viruses. Significantly higher postvaccination and postepidemic antibody titres were recorded among subjects who exhibited the antibody before vaccination than among seronegative subjects. A significantly higher response rate among initially seronegative people than among seropositive people was recorded for antibody to B/Finland/150/90, but no clear evidence was obtained that the pre-existing antibody could have had a negative effect on the antibody production.

  12. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type="submit" value="Submit" /> Archived Flu Emails Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Information on Avian Influenza Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  13. Immunopotentiators Improve the Efficacy of Oil-Emulsion-Inactivated Avian Influenza Vaccine in Chickens, Ducks and Geese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihu Lu

    Full Text Available Combination of CVCVA5 adjuvant and commercial avian influenza (AI vaccine has been previously demonstrated to provide good protection against different AI viruses in chickens. In this study, we further investigated the protective immunity of CVCVA5-adjuvanted oil-emulsion inactivated AI vaccine in chickens, ducks and geese. Compared to the commercial H5 inactivated vaccine, the H5-CVCVA5 vaccine induced significantly higher titers of hemaglutinin inhibitory antibodies in three lines of broiler chickens and ducks, elongated the antibody persistence periods in geese, elevated the levels of cross serum neutralization antibody against different clade and subclade H5 AI viruses in chicken embryos. High levels of mucosal antibody were detected in chickens injected with the H5 or H9-CVCA5 vaccine. Furthermore, cellular immune response was markedly improved in terms of increasing the serum levels of cytokine interferon-γ and interleukine 4, promoting proliferation of splenocytes and upregulating cytotoxicity activity in both H5- and H9-CVCVA5 vaccinated chickens. Together, these results provide evidence that AI vaccines supplemented with CVCVA5 adjuvant is a promising approach for overcoming the limitation of vaccine strain specificity of protection.

  14. Production of inactivated influenza H5N1 vaccines from MDCK cells in serum-free medium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Yung-Chih Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Highly pathogenic influenza viruses pose a constant threat which could lead to a global pandemic. Vaccination remains the principal measure to reduce morbidity and mortality from such pandemics. The availability and surging demand for pandemic vaccines needs to be addressed in the preparedness plans. This study presents an improved high-yield manufacturing process for the inactivated influenza H5N1 vaccines using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells grown in a serum-free (SF medium microcarrier cell culture system. PRINCIPAL FINDING: The current study has evaluated the performance of cell adaptation switched from serum-containing (SC medium to several commercial SF media. The selected SF medium was further evaluated in various bioreactor culture systems for process scale-up evaluation. No significant difference was found in the cell growth in different sizes of bioreactors studied. In the 7.5 L bioreactor runs, the cell concentration reached to 2.3 × 10(6 cells/mL after 5 days. The maximum virus titers of 1024 Hemagglutinin (HA units/50 µL and 7.1 ± 0.3 × 10(8 pfu/mL were obtained after 3 days infection. The concentration of HA antigen as determined by SRID was found to be 14.1 µg/mL which was higher than those obtained from the SC medium. A mouse immunogenicity study showed that the formalin-inactivated purified SF vaccine candidate formulated with alum adjuvant could induce protective level of virus neutralization titers similar to those obtained from the SC medium. In addition, the H5N1 viruses produced from either SC or SF media showed the same antigenic reactivity with the NIBRG14 standard antisera. CONCLUSIONS: The advantages of this SF cell-based manufacturing process could reduce the animal serum contamination, the cost and lot-to-lot variation of SC medium production. This study provides useful information to manufacturers that are planning to use SF medium for cell-based influenza vaccine production.

  15. Characterization of Immune Responses to an Inactivated Avian Influenza Virus Vaccine Adjuvanted with Nanoparticles Containing CpG ODN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shirene M; Alkie, Tamiru N; Abdelaziz, Khaled Taha; Hodgins, Douglas C; Novy, Anastasia; Nagy, Éva; Sharif, Shayan

    2016-06-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV), a mucosal pathogen, gains entry into host chickens through respiratory and gastrointestinal routes. Most commercial AIV vaccines for poultry consist of inactivated, whole virus with adjuvant, delivered by parenteral administration. Recent advances in vaccine development have led to the application of nanoparticle emulsion delivery systems, such as poly (d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles to enhance antigen-specific immune responses. In chickens, the Toll-like receptor 21 ligand, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), have been demonstrated to be immunostimulatory. The objective of this study was to compare the adjuvant potential of CpG ODN 2007 encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles with nonencapsulated CpG ODN 2007 when combined with a formalin-inactivated H9N2 virus, through intramuscular and aerosol delivery routes. Chickens were vaccinated at days 7 and 21 posthatch for the intramuscular route and at days 7, 21, and 35 for the aerosol route. Antibody-mediated responses were evaluated weekly in sera and lacrimal secretions in specific pathogen-free chickens. The results indicate that nonencapsulated CpG ODN 2007 in inactivated AIV vaccines administered by the intramuscular route generated higher antibody responses compared to the encapsulated CpG ODN 2007 formulation by the same route. Additionally, encapsulated CpG ODN 2007 in AIV vaccines administered by the aerosol route elicited higher mucosal responses compared to nonencapsulated CpG ODN 2007. Future studies may be aimed at evaluating protective immune responses induced with PLGA encapsulation of AIV and adjuvants.

  16. Influenza virus inactivation for studies of antigenicity and phenotypic neuraminidase inhibitor resistance profiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Jonges (Marcel); W.M. Liu; E. van der Vries (Erhard); R. Jacobi (Ronald); I. Pronk (Inge); C. Boog (Claire); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); A. Meijer (Adam); E. Soethout (Ernst)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction of a new influenza virus in humans urges quick analysis of its virological and immunological characteristics to determine the impact on public health and to develop protective measures for the human population. At present, however, the necessity of executing pandemic

  17. EARLY IDENTIFICATION OF SWINE INFLUENZA A (H1N1- BASING ONEPIDEMIOLOGIC CLUE, CLINICAL PRESENTATION, IMAGING FINDINGS, PERIPHERAL LEUCOCYTE COUNTS AND SPO2 LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswararao Kopparti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The present study is a retrospective study of 22 cases of RT-PCR positive swine influenza spanning from 2014 to 20-09-2017 with main objective of early identification of influenza A H1N1 basing on epidemiological clue, clinical presentation, imaging findings and lab parameters as early antiviral therapy and judicious management of ARDS brings good outcome as per available literature. 1,2,3 MATERIAL AND METHODS 22 confirmed adult cases of swine influenza by throat/nasopharyngeal swab RT-PCR for H1N1 were studied in terms of clinical presentation, imaging findings, lab manifestations and SpO2 levels4 with particular emphasis on imaging findings. RESULTS 95% presented with symptoms of Influenza-Like Illness (ILI. Nearly, 80% of patients belonged to fourth to fifth decades. Leucocyte count was normal in 75% and 25% had low leucocyte count (<4000, SpO2 levels were normal in 25% and low in 75% cases. CXR was abnormal in 82% of cases of which 83% had mid/lower zone peripheral, patchy, pleural-based consolidations and 17% showed all lung zone opacities. HRCT chest done in 32% of cases showed similar features of chest xray findings with dominant mid/lower zone pleural-based consolidations to ground-glass haziness without pleural effusions and no mediastinal nodal involvement. CONCLUSION As intermittent outbreaks of swine influenza are still continuing in India with recent spurt in incidence in the months of April/May 2017, early diagnosis of H1N1 A is necessary for improved outcome. Early diagnosis is feasible by ILI presentation, normal or low leucocyte count, low SpO2 levels and characteristic radiologic findings of bilateral mid/lower zone pleural-based peripheral patchy opacities to consolidations. As this can be done at peripheral level, primary care physicians need to be sensitised in early diagnosis and treatment and prompt referral to higher centres when needed. Since, the present study is a retrospective one and of public health

  18. Pathogenicity and transmission of triple reassortant H3N2 swine influenza A viruses is attenuated following Turkey embryo propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Shobana; Pudupakam, Raghavendra Sumanth; Deventhiran, Jagadeeswaran; Tevatia, Rahul; Leroith, Tanya

    2017-03-01

    Genetic lineages of swine influenza A viruses (SIVs) have recently been established in Turkeys in the United States. To identify molecular determinants that are involved in virulence and transmission of SIVs to Turkeys, we sequentially passaged two triple reassortant H3N2 SIV isolates from Minnesota in ten day old specific-pathogen free (SPF) Turkey embryos and tested them in seven-day old Turkey poults. We found that SIV replication in Turkey embryos led to minimal mutations in and around the receptor binding and antigenic sites of the HA molecule, while other gene segments were unchanged. The predominant changes associated with Turkey embryo passage were A223V, V226A and T248I mutations in the receptor-binding and glycosylation sites of the HA molecule. Furthermore, Turkey embryo propagation altered receptor specificity in SIV strain 07-1145. Embryo passaged 07-1145 virus showed a decrease in α2, 6 sialic acid receptor binding compared to the wild type virus. Intranasal infection of wild type SIVs in one-week-old Turkey poults resulted in persistent diarrhea and all the infected birds seroconverted at ten days post infection. The 07-1145 wild type virus also transmitted to age matched in-contact birds introduced one-day post infection. Turkeys infected with embryo passaged viruses displayed no clinical signs and were not transmitted to in-contact poults. Our results suggest that Turkey embryo propagation attenuates recent TR SIVs for infectivity and transmission in one week old Turkeys. Our findings will have important implications in identifying molecular determinants that control the transmission and virulence of TR SIVs in Turkeys and other species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pneumonia in novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus infection: High-resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ping; Su Dongju; Zhang Jifeng; Xia Xudong; Sui Hong; Zhao Donghui

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to review the initial high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in pneumonia patients with presumed/laboratory-confirmed novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection and detect pneumonia earlier. Materials and methods: High-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of 106 patients with presumed/laboratory-confirmed novel S-OIV (H1N1) infection were reviewed. The 106 patients were divided into two groups according to the serious condition of the diseases. The pattern (consolidation, ground-glass, nodules, and reticulation), distribution, and extent of abnormality on the HRCT were evaluated in both groups. The dates of the onset of symptoms of the patients were recorded. Results: The predominant CT findings in the patients at presentation were unilateral or bilateral multifocal asymmetric ground-glass opacities alone (n = 29, 27.4%), with unilateral or bilateral consolidation (n = 50, 47.2%). The consolidation had peribronchovascular and subpleural predominance. The areas of consolidation were found mainly in the posterior, middle and lower regions of the lungs. Reticular opacities were found in 6 cases of the initial MDCT scan. The extent of disease was greater in group 1 patients requiring advanced mechanical ventilation, with diffuse involvement in 19 patients (63.3%) of group 1 patients, and only 15/76 (19.7%) of group 2 patients (p 2 test). 20 cases (19%) of the 106 patients had small bilateral or unilateral pleural effusions. None had evidence of hilar or mediastinal lymph node enlargement on CT performed at admission or later. Conclusions: The most common radiographic and CT findings in patients with S-OIV infection are unilateral or bilateral ground-glass opacities with or without associated focal or multifocal areas of consolidation. On HRCT, the ground-glass opacities had a predominant peribronchovascular and subpleural distribution. CT plays an important role in the early recognition of severe S-OIV (H1N1).

  20. Inactivated H9N2 avian influenza virus vaccine with gel-primed and mineral oil-boosted regimen could produce improved immune response in broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D-H; Kwon, J-S; Lee, H-J; Lee, Y-N; Hur, W; Hong, Y-H; Lee, J-B; Park, S-Y; Choi, I-S; Song, C-S

    2011-05-01

    The frequent economic losses incurred with H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAI) infection have raised serious concerns for the poultry industry. A 1-dose regimen with inactivated H9N2 LPAI vaccine could not prevent vaccinated poultry from becoming infected and from shedding wild viruses. A study was conducted to determine whether a 2-dose regimen of inactivated H9N2 LPAI vaccine could enhance the immunologic response in chickens. Such gel-primed and mineral oil-boosted regimen has produced encouraging results associated with improved immune responses to an H9N2 LPAI. This strategy could be cost effective and helpful for preventing avian influenza virus in the poultry industry.

  1. SAFETY OF INACTIVATED POLYMER-SUBUNIT THREE VALENCE INFLUENZA VACCINE. POSTREGISTRATIONAL OBSERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Kharit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trial for polymer-subunit trivalent influenza vaccine Grippol plus reactogenicity assessment in 153 children aged 3–17 years old was conducted in the frames of post-registration studies. Prior to the vaccination the written informed agreement was signed by every participant’ parent. In post-vaccination period physical examination and thermometry was performed daily in post-immunization days 1–5, on days 21–28 and then on a monthly basis for 4 months. Study results demonstrated that Grippol plus possesses low reactogenicity and can be applied in pediatrics for immunization in accordance with National Immunization schedule.Key words: children, influenza, vaccination.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(4:37-41

  2. Inactivated Influenza Vaccine That Provides Rapid, Innate-Immune-System-Mediated Protection and Subsequent Long-Term Adaptive Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Brendon Y; Wong, Chinn Yi; Mifsud, Edin J; Edenborough, Kathryn M; Sekiya, Toshiki; Tan, Amabel C L; Mercuri, Francesca; Rockman, Steve; Chen, Weisan; Turner, Stephen J; Doherty, Peter C; Kelso, Anne; Brown, Lorena E; Jackson, David C

    2015-10-27

    The continual threat to global health posed by influenza has led to increased efforts to improve the effectiveness of influenza vaccines for use in epidemics and pandemics. We show in this study that formulation of a low dose of inactivated detergent-split influenza vaccine with a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) agonist-based lipopeptide adjuvant (R4Pam2Cys) provides (i) immediate, antigen-independent immunity mediated by the innate immune system and (ii) significant enhancement of antigen-dependent immunity which exhibits an increased breadth of effector function. Intranasal administration of mice with vaccine formulated with R4Pam2Cys but not vaccine alone provides protection against both homologous and serologically distinct (heterologous) viral strains within a day of administration. Vaccination in the presence of R4Pam2Cys subsequently also induces high levels of systemic IgM, IgG1, and IgG2b antibodies and pulmonary IgA antibodies that inhibit hemagglutination (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) activities of homologous but not heterologous virus. Improved primary virus nucleoprotein (NP)-specific CD8(+) T cell responses are also induced by the use of R4Pam2Cys and are associated with robust recall responses to provide heterologous protection. These protective effects are demonstrated in wild-type and antibody-deficient animals but not in those depleted of CD8(+) T cells. Using a contact-dependent virus transmission model, we also found that heterologous virus transmission from vaccinated mice to naive mice is significantly reduced. These results demonstrate the potential of adding a TLR2 agonist to an existing seasonal influenza vaccine to improve its utility by inducing immediate short-term nonspecific antiviral protection and also antigen-specific responses to provide homologous and heterologous immunity. The innate and adaptive immune systems differ in mechanisms, specificities, and times at which they take effect. The innate immune system responds within hours of

  3. Identification of cross-reacting T-cell epitopes in structural and non-structural proteins of swine and pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus strains in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baratelli, Massimiliano; Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Trebbien, Ramona

    2017-01-01

    Heterologous protection against swine influenza viruses (SwIVs) of different lineages is an important concern for the pig industry. Cross-protection between 'avian-like' H1N1 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 lineages has been observed previously, indicating the involvement of cross-reacting T-cells. Here...

  4. Safety of a Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Health Care Workers in Kurdistan Province, Western Iran; A Longitudinal Follow-up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Jafar; Jamil Amjadi, Mohamad

    2014-03-01

    We studied the safety of a trivalent inactivated surface antigen (split virion, inactivated) influenza vaccine, Begrivac® (Novartis Company), widely used in health care workers in Kurdistan. A longitudinal follow-up study was performed in Sanandaj city, west of Iran, recruiting 936 people. A questionnaire was completed for each participant, and all symptoms or abnormal physical findings were recorded. In part 1 of the study, the post-vaccination complaints were headache (5.3%), fever (7.9%), weakness (9.6%), chills (10.1%), sweating (10.5%), arthralgia (20.2%), and malaise (21.5%). Swelling of the injection site was seen in 267 (30.3%) participants, and pruritus of the injection site was seen in 290 (32.9%) participants. Redness and induration were also reported in 42.5% of the participants. Local reactions were mainly mild and lasted for 1-2 days. No systemic reactions were reported in the second part of the study. None of the participants experienced any inconvenience. We concluded that local adverse reactions after the trivalent inactivated split influenza vaccine, Begrivac®, in health care workers were far more common than expected. Continuous surveillance is needed to assess the potential risks and benefits of newly produced influenza vaccines.

  5. A Single-Amino-Acid Substitution at Position 225 in Hemagglutinin Alters the Transmissibility of Eurasian Avian-Like H1N1 Swine Influenza Virus in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zeng; Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Tao, Shiyu; Liu, Liling; Kong, Huihui; Ma, Shujie; Meng, Fei; Suzuki, Yasuo; Qiao, Chuanling; Chen, Hualan

    2017-11-01

    Efficient transmission from human to human is the prerequisite for an influenza virus to cause a pandemic; however, the molecular determinants of influenza virus transmission are still largely unknown. In this study, we explored the molecular basis for transmission of Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EAH1N1) swine influenza viruses by comparing two viruses that are genetically similar but differ in their transmissibility in guinea pigs: the A/swine/Guangxi/18/2011 virus (GX/18) is highly transmissible by respiratory droplet in guinea pigs, whereas the A/swine/Heilongjiang/27/2012 virus (HLJ/27) does not transmit in this animal model. We used reverse genetics to generate a series of reassortants and mutants in the GX/18 background and tested their transmissibility in guinea pigs. We found that a single-amino-acid substitution of glycine (G) for glutamic acid (E) at position 225 (E225G) in the HA1 protein completely abolished the respiratory droplet transmission of GX/18, whereas the substitution of E for G at the same position (G225E) in HA1 enabled HLJ/27 to transmit in guinea pigs. We investigated the underlying mechanism and found that viruses bearing 225E in HA1 replicated more rapidly than viruses bearing 225G due to differences in assembly and budding efficiencies. Our study indicates that the amino acid 225E in HA1 plays a key role in EAH1N1 swine influenza virus transmission and provides important information for evaluating the pandemic potential of field influenza virus strains. IMPORTANCE Efficient transmission among humans is a prerequisite for a novel influenza virus to cause a human pandemic. Transmissibility of influenza viruses is a polygenic trait, and understanding the genetic determinants for transmissibility will provide useful insights for evaluating the pandemic potential of influenza viruses in the field. Several amino acids in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of influenza viruses have been shown to be important for transmissibility, usually by

  6. Dual Infection of Novel Influenza Viruses A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 in a Cluster of Cambodian Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    influenza viruses as well as the avian influenza virus A/H5N1...on full genome sequencing. This incident confirms dual influenza virus infections and highlights the risk of zoonotic and seasonal influenza viruses ...North American swine influenza viruses , North American avian influenza viruses , human influenza viruses , and a Eurasian swine influenza virus . 18

  7. Genomic characterization of H1N2 swine influenza viruses in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ana; Chiapponi, Chiara; Boniotti, Maria Beatrice; Sozzi, Enrica; Foni, Emanuela; Barbieri, Ilaria; Zanoni, Maria Grazia; Faccini, Silvia; Lelli, Davide; Cordioli, Paolo

    2012-05-04

    Three subtypes (H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2) are currently diffused worldwide in pigs. The H1N2 subtype was detected for the first time in Italian pigs in 1998. To investigate the genetic characteristics and the molecular evolution of this subtype in Italy, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of whole genome sequences of 26 strains isolated from 1998 to 2010. Phylogenetic analysis of HA and NA genes showed differences between the older (1998-2003) and the more recent strains (2003-2010). The older isolates were closely related to the established European H1N2 lineage, whereas the more recent isolates possessed a different NA deriving from recent human H3N2 viruses. Two other reassortant H1N2 strains have been detected: A/sw/It/22530/02 has the HA gene that is closely related to H1N1 viruses; A/sw/It/58769/10 is an uncommon strain with an HA that is closely related to H1N1 and an NA similar to H3N2 SIVs. Amino acid analysis revealed interesting features: a deletion of two amino acids (146-147) in the HA gene of the recent isolates and two strains isolated in 1998; the presence of the uncommon aa change (N66S), in the PB1-F2 protein in strains isolated from 2009 to 2010, which is said to have contributed to the increased virulence. These results demonstrate the importance of pigs as mixing vessels for animal and human influenza and show the presence and establishment of reassortant strains involving human viruses in pigs in Italy. These findings also highlighted different genomic characteristics of the NA gene the recent Italian strains compared to circulating European viruses. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Effect of zymosan and poly (I:C) adjuvants on responses to microneedle immunization coated with whole inactivated influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ju-Hyung; Noh, Jin-Yong; Kim, Kwon-Ho; Park, Jae-Keun; Lee, Ji-Ho; Jeong, Seong Dong; Jung, Dae-Yoon; Song, Chang-Seon; Kim, Yeu-Chun

    2017-11-10

    Microneedles are the micrometer size devices used for the delivery of vaccines and biotherapeutics. In order to increase the vaccine efficacy and reduce the antigen dose, there is a significant need to find some adjuvants for the microneedle vaccination. In this study, zymosan, which is the cell wall preparation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or poly (I:C) was coated on a microneedle with inactivated influenza virus, and then immunized into BALB/c mouse to determine the immunogenicity, protection and synergetic effect between two adjuvants. As a result, the group administered with zymosan and vaccine antigen showed significantly stronger IgG response, HI titer and IgG subtypes without any adverse effects, compared to the group immunized with the vaccine antigen alone. Also, there were enhanced cellular immune responses in the group received adjuvant with vaccine antigen. In addition, they showed superior protection and lung viral reduction against lethal viral challenge. Taken together, this study confirms that zymosan can be used as an immunostimulant for microneedle vaccination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Immunogenicity and Safety of the New Inactivated Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine Vaxigrip Tetra: Preliminary Results in Children ≥6 Months and Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Montomoli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1980s, two lineages of influenza B viruses have been distinguished. These can co-circulate, limiting the protection provided by inactivated trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs. This has prompted efforts to formulate quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIVs, to enhance protection against circulating influenza B viruses. This review describes the results obtained from seven phase III clinical trials evaluating the immunogenicity, safety, and lot-to-lot consistency of a new quadrivalent split-virion influenza vaccine (Vaxigrip Tetra® formulated by adding a second B strain to the already licensed TIV. Since Vaxigrip Tetra was developed by means of a manufacturing process strictly related to that used for TIV, the data on the safety profile of TIV are considered supportive of that of Vaxigrip Tetra. The safety and immunogenicity of Vaxigrip Tetra were similar to those of the corresponding licensed TIV. Moreover, the new vaccine elicits a superior immune response towards the additional strain, without affecting immunogenicity towards the other three strains. Vaxigrip Tetra is well tolerated, has aroused no safety concerns, and is recommended for the active immunization of individuals aged ≥6 months. In addition, preliminary data confirm its immunogenicity and safety even in children aged 6–35 months and its immunogenicity in older subjects (aged 66–80 years.

  10. Inactivated Eyedrop Influenza Vaccine Adjuvanted with Poly(I:C Is Safe and Effective for Inducing Protective Systemic and Mucosal Immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Do Kim

    Full Text Available The eye route has been evaluated as an efficient vaccine delivery routes. However, in order to induce sufficient antibody production with inactivated vaccine, testing of the safety and efficacy of the use of inactivated antigen plus adjuvant is needed. Here, we assessed various types of adjuvants in eyedrop as an anti-influenza serum and mucosal Ab production-enhancer in BALB/c mice. Among the adjuvants, poly (I:C showed as much enhancement in antigen-specific serum IgG and mucosal IgA antibody production as cholera toxin (CT after vaccinations with trivalent hemagglutinin-subunits or split H1N1 vaccine antigen in mice. Vaccination with split H1N1 eyedrop vaccine antigen plus poly(I:C showed a similar or slightly lower efficacy in inducing antibody production than intranasal vaccination; the eyedrop vaccine-induced immunity was enough to protect mice from lethal homologous influenza A/California/04/09 (H1N1 virus challenge. Additionally, ocular inoculation with poly(I:C plus vaccine antigen generated no signs of inflammation within 24 hours: no increases in the mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines nor in the infiltration of mononuclear cells to administration sites. In contrast, CT administration induced increased expression of IL-6 cytokine mRNA and mononuclear cell infiltration in the conjunctiva within 24 hours of vaccination. Moreover, inoculated visualizing materials by eyedrop did not contaminate the surface of the olfactory bulb in mice; meanwhile, intranasally administered materials defiled the surface of the brain. On the basis of these findings, we propose that the use of eyedrop inactivated influenza vaccine plus poly(I:C is a safe and effective mucosal vaccine strategy for inducing protective anti-influenza immunity.

  11. Pneumonia in novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus infection: High-resolution CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ping, E-mail: pinglee_2000@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Su Dongju, E-mail: hyd_sdj@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Respiratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Zhang Jifeng, E-mail: zjf2005520@163.com [Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Xia Xudong, E-mail: xiaxd888@163.com [Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Sui Hong, E-mail: suisuihong@126.com [Department of Statistics, Harbin Medical University, 240 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Zhao Donghui, E-mail: yhwoooooo@yahoo.com.cn [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Heilongjiang, 187 Xiang An Street, Harbin 150036 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to review the initial high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in pneumonia patients with presumed/laboratory-confirmed novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection and detect pneumonia earlier. Materials and methods: High-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of 106 patients with presumed/laboratory-confirmed novel S-OIV (H1N1) infection were reviewed. The 106 patients were divided into two groups according to the serious condition of the diseases. The pattern (consolidation, ground-glass, nodules, and reticulation), distribution, and extent of abnormality on the HRCT were evaluated in both groups. The dates of the onset of symptoms of the patients were recorded. Results: The predominant CT findings in the patients at presentation were unilateral or bilateral multifocal asymmetric ground-glass opacities alone (n = 29, 27.4%), with unilateral or bilateral consolidation (n = 50, 47.2%). The consolidation had peribronchovascular and subpleural predominance. The areas of consolidation were found mainly in the posterior, middle and lower regions of the lungs. Reticular opacities were found in 6 cases of the initial MDCT scan. The extent of disease was greater in group 1 patients requiring advanced mechanical ventilation, with diffuse involvement in 19 patients (63.3%) of group 1 patients, and only 15/76 (19.7%) of group 2 patients (p < 0.01, {chi}{sup 2} test). 20 cases (19%) of the 106 patients had small bilateral or unilateral pleural effusions. None had evidence of hilar or mediastinal lymph node enlargement on CT performed at admission or later. Conclusions: The most common radiographic and CT findings in patients with S-OIV infection are unilateral or bilateral ground-glass opacities with or without associated focal or multifocal areas of consolidation. On HRCT, the ground-glass opacities had a predominant peribronchovascular and subpleural distribution. CT plays an important role in the early recognition of severe S

  12. Cross-protection against European swine influenza viruses in the context of infection immunity against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus: studies in the pig model of influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yu; De Hert, Karl; Van Reeth, Kristien

    2015-09-24

    Pigs are natural hosts for the same influenza virus subtypes as humans and are a valuable model for cross-protection studies with influenza. In this study, we have used the pig model to examine the extent of virological protection between a) the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus and three different European H1 swine influenza virus (SIV) lineages, and b) these H1 viruses and a European H3N2 SIV. Pigs were inoculated intranasally with representative strains of each virus lineage with 6- and 17-week intervals between H1 inoculations and between H1 and H3 inoculations, respectively. Virus titers in nasal swabs and/or tissues of the respiratory tract were determined after each inoculation. There was substantial though differing cross-protection between pH1N1 and other H1 viruses, which was directly correlated with the relatedness in the viral hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins. Cross-protection against H3N2 was almost complete in pigs with immunity against H1N2, but was weak in H1N1/pH1N1-immune pigs. In conclusion, infection with a live, wild type influenza virus may offer substantial cross-lineage protection against viruses of the same HA and/or NA subtype. True heterosubtypic protection, in contrast, appears to be minimal in natural influenza virus hosts. We discuss our findings in the light of the zoonotic and pandemic risks of SIVs.

  13. Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type="submit" value="Submit" /> Archived Flu Emails Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccine Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español ...

  14. Anti-viral properties and mode of action of standardized Echinacea purpurea extract against highly pathogenic avian Influenza virus (H5N1, H7N7 and swine-origin H1N1 (S-OIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoop Roland

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza virus (IV infections are a major threat to human welfare and animal health worldwide. Anti-viral therapy includes vaccines and a few anti-viral drugs. However vaccines are not always available in time, as demonstrated by the emergence of the new 2009 H1N1-type pandemic strain of swine origin (S-OIV in April 2009, and the acquisition of resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors such as Tamiflu® (oseltamivir is a potential problem. Therefore the prospects for the control of IV by existing anti-viral drugs are limited. As an alternative approach to the common anti-virals we studied in more detail a commercial standardized extract of the widely used herb Echinacea purpurea (Echinaforce®, EF in order to elucidate the nature of its anti-IV activity. Results Human H1N1-type IV, highly pathogenic avian IV (HPAIV of the H5- and H7-types, as well as swine origin IV (S-OIV, H1N1, were all inactivated in cell culture assays by the EF preparation at concentrations ranging from the recommended dose for oral consumption to several orders of magnitude lower. Detailed studies with the H5N1 HPAIV strain indicated that direct contact between EF and virus was required, prior to infection, in order to obtain maximum inhibition in virus replication. Hemagglutination assays showed that the extract inhibited the receptor binding activity of the virus, suggesting that the extract interferes with the viral entry into cells. In sequential passage studies under treatment in cell culture with the H5N1 virus no EF-resistant variants emerged, in contrast to Tamiflu®, which produced resistant viruses upon passaging. Furthermore, the Tamiflu®-resistant virus was just as susceptible to EF as the wild type virus. Conclusion As a result of these investigations, we believe that this standard Echinacea preparation, used at the recommended dose for oral consumption, could be a useful, readily available and affordable addition to existing control options

  15. Efficacy of a pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus vaccine in pigs against the pandemic influenza virus is superior to commercially available swine influenza vaccines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, W.L.A.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.; Weesendorp, E.; Zoelen-Bos, van D.J.; Heutink, R.; Quak, J.; Goovaerts, D.; Heldens, J.; Maas, H.A.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Koch, G.

    2011-01-01

    In April 2009 a new influenza A/H1N1 strain, currently named “pandemic (H1N1) influenza 2009¿ (H1N1v), started the first official pandemic in humans since 1968. Several incursions of this virus in pig herds have also been reported from all over the world. Vaccination of pigs may be an option to

  16. Effectiveness of seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in preventing influenza hospitalisations and primary care visits in Auckland, New Zealand, in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, N; Pierse, N; Bissielo, A; Huang, Qs; Radke, S; Baker, Mg; Widdowson, Ma; Kelly, H

    2014-08-28

    This study reports the first vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimates for the prevention of general practice visits and hospitalisations for laboratory-confirmed influenza from an urban population in Auckland, New Zealand, in the same influenza season (2013). A case test-negative design was used to estimate propensity-adjusted VE in both hospital and community settings. Patients with a severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) or influenza-like illness (ILI) were defined as requiring hospitalisation (SARI) or attending a general practice (ILI) with a history of fever or measured temperature ≥38 °C, cough and onset within the past 10 days. Those who tested positive for influenza virus were cases while those who tested negative were controls. Results were analysed to 7 days post symptom onset and adjusted for the propensity to be vaccinated and the timing during the influenza season. Influenza vaccination provided 52% (95% CI: 32 to 66) protection against laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalisation and 56% (95% CI: 34 to 70) against presenting to general practice with influenza. VE estimates were similar for all types and subtypes. This study found moderate effectiveness of influenza vaccine against medically attended and hospitalised influenza in New Zealand, a temperate, southern hemisphere country during the 2013 winter season.

  17. Safety and immunogenicity of a trivalent, inactivated, mammalian cell culture-derived influenza vaccine in healthy adults, seniors, and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Scott A; Smith, Bruce; Mabrouk, Taoufik; Germain, Marc; Trépanier, Pierre; Hassell, Thomas; Treanor, John; Gauthier, Richard; Mills, Elaine L

    2002-01-15

    We performed randomized, double-blind, controlled trials to assess the safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated, Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK)-derived cell line produced influenza vaccine in healthy adults (19-50 years), children (3-12 years) and the elderly (> or =65 years). We studied three lots of cell culture-derived vaccine and one lot of licensed egg-derived vaccine in healthy adults (n=462), two lots of cell culture-derived vaccine and one lot of egg-derived vaccine in seniors (n=269), and one lot of each vaccine in children (n=209). Adverse events were collected during the first 3 days post-immunization; serum was collected before and 1 month after immunization. Rates of local and systemic adverse reactions were similar with both vaccines. An injection site adverse event rated at least moderate severity was reported by 21.9% of children who received the egg-derived vaccine and 25.0% of those who received the cell culture-derived vaccine. In healthy adults the proportions were 12.1 and 15.3%, respectively and 6.7 and 6.3%, respectively in seniors. Systemic events of at least moderate severity were 12.4 and 12.5% in children, 19.8 and 13.6% in healthy adults, and 14.1 and 9.7% in seniors; none of these differences were statistically significant. The antibody response against all three viruses was similar between the two vaccines. From 83 to 100% of children, healthy adults and seniors achieved hemagglutination inhibition titers in excess of 40 post-immunization. We conclude that the cell culture-derived vaccine was safe and immunogenic in children, healthy adults and seniors.

  18. Intranasal Immunization Using Mannatide as a Novel Adjuvant for an Inactivated Influenza Vaccine and Its Adjuvant Effect Compared with MF59.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ting Ren

    Full Text Available Intranasal vaccination is more potent than parenteral injection for the prevention of influenza. However, because the poor efficiency of antigen uptake across the nasal mucosa is a key issue, immunostimulatory adjuvants are essential for intranasal vaccines. The immunomodulator mannatide or polyactin (PA has been used for the clinical treatment of impaired immunity in China, but its adjuvant effect on an inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (ITIV via intranasal vaccination is unclear. To explore the adjuvant effect of PA, an inactivated trivalent influenza virus with or without PA or MF59 was instilled intranasally once a week in BALB/c mice. Humoral immunity was assessed by both the ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI methods using antigen-specific antibodies. Splenic lymphocyte proliferation and the IFN-γ level were measured to evaluate cell-mediated immunity. The post-vaccination serum HI antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs for the H1N1 and H3N2 strains, antigen-specific serum IgG and IgA GMTs, mucosal SIgA GMT, splenic lymphocyte proliferation, and IFN-γ were significantly increased in the high-dose PA-adjuvanted vaccine group. The seroconversion rate and the mucosal response for the H3N2 strain were significantly elevated after high-dose PA administration. These adjuvant effects of high-dose PA for the influenza vaccine were comparable with those of the MF59 adjuvant, and abnormal signs or pathological changes were not found in the evaluated organs. In conclusion, PA is a novel mucosal adjuvant for intranasal vaccination with the ITIV that has safe and effective mucosal adjuvanticity in mice and successfully induces both serum and mucosal antibody responses and a cell-mediated response.

  19. Comparative Pathogenesis of an Avian H5N2 and a Swine H1N1 Influenza Virus in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vleeschauwer, Annebel; Atanasova, Kalina; Van Borm, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Pigs are considered intermediate hosts for the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) to humans but the basic organ pathogenesis of AIVs in pigs has been barely studied. We have used 42 four-week-old influenza naive pigs and two different inoculation routes (intranasal and intratracheal) ...

  20. Antigenic variation of H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 swine influenza viruses in Japan and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemae, Nobuhiro; Nguyen, Tung; Ngo, Long Thanh; Hiromoto, Yasuaki; Uchida, Yuko; Pham, Vu Phong; Kageyama, Tsutomu; Kasuo, Shizuko; Shimada, Shinichi; Yamashita, Yasutaka; Goto, Kaoru; Kubo, Hideyuki; Le, Vu Tri; Van Vo, Hung; Do, Hoa Thi; Nguyen, Dang Hoang; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Matsuu, Aya; Saito, Takehiko

    2013-04-01

    The antigenicity of the influenza A virus hemagglutinin is responsible for vaccine efficacy in protecting pigs against swine influenza virus (SIV) infection. However, the antigenicity of SIV strains currently circulating in Japan and Vietnam has not been well characterized. We examined the antigenicity of classical H1 SIVs, pandemic A(H1N1)2009 (A(H1N1)pdm09) viruses, and seasonal human-lineage SIVs isolated in Japan and Vietnam. A hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay was used to determine antigenic differences that differentiate the recent Japanese H1N2 and H3N2 SIVs from the H1N1 and H3N2 domestic vaccine strains. Minor antigenic variation between pig A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses was evident by HI assay using 13 mAbs raised against homologous virus. A Vietnamese H1N2 SIV, whose H1 gene originated from a human strain in the mid-2000s, reacted poorly with post-infection ferret serum against human vaccine strains from 2000-2010. These results provide useful information for selection of optimal strains for SIV vaccine production.

  1. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars E.; Dürrwald, Ralf; Foni, Emanuela; Harder, Timm; Reeth, Van Kristien; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Reid, Scott M.; Dan, Adam; Maldonado, Jaime; Huovilainen, Anita; Billinis, Charalambos; Davidson, Irit; Agüero, Montserrat; Vila, Thaïs; Hervé, Séverine; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Chiapponi, Chiara; Urbaniak, Kinga; Kyriakis, Constantinos S.; Brown, Ian H.; Loeffen, Willie; Meulen, Van der Karen; Schlegel, Michael; Bublot, Michel; Kellam, Paul; Watson, Simon; Lewis, Nicola S.; Pybus, Oliver G.; Webby, Richard; Chen, Hualan; Vincent, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs

  2. Characterization of a novel oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant for swine influenza virus and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccines consisting of subunit or inactivated bacteria/virus and potent adjuvants are widely used to control and prevent infectious diseases. Because inactivated and subunit antigens are often less antigenic than live microbes, a growing need exists for the development of new and improved vaccine ad...

  3. Protection of pigs against pandemic swine origin H1N1 influenza A virus infection by hemagglutinin- or neuraminidase-expressing attenuated pseudorabies virus recombinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbeil, Katharina; Lange, Elke; Blohm, Ulrike; Teifke, Jens P; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Fuchs, Walter

    2015-03-02

    Influenza is an important respiratory disease of pigs, and may lead to novel human pathogens like the 2009 pandemic H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus (SoIV). Therefore, improved influenza vaccines for pigs are required. Recently, we demonstrated that single intranasal immunization with a hemagglutinin (HA)-expressing pseudorabies virus recombinant of vaccine strain Bartha (PrV-Ba) protected pigs from H1N1 SoIV challenge (Klingbeil et al., 2014). Now we investigated enhancement of efficacy by prime-boost vaccination and/or intramuscular administration. Furthermore, a novel PrV-Ba recombinant expressing codon-optimized N1 neuraminidase (NA) was included. In vitro replication of this virus was only slightly affected compared to parental virus. Unlike HA, the abundantly expressed NA was efficiently incorporated into PrV particles. Immunization of pigs with the two PrV recombinants, either singly or in combination, induced B cell proliferation and the expected SoIV-specific antibodies, whose titers increased substantially after boost vaccination. After immunization of animals with either PrV recombinant H1N1 SoIV challenge virus replication was significantly reduced compared to PrV-Ba vaccinated or naïve controls. Protective efficacy of HA-expressing PrV was higher than of NA-expressing PrV, and not significantly enhanced by combination. Despite higher serum antibody titers obtained after intramuscular immunization, transmission of challenge virus to naïve contact animals was only prevented after intranasal prime-boost vaccination with HA-expressing PrV-Ba. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Safety and Immunogenicity of Full-Dose Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine (TIV) Compared With Half-Dose TIV Administered to Children 6 Through 35 Months of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Natasha B; Gerber, Michael A; Berry, Andrea A; Anderson, Edwin L; Winokur, Patricia; Keyserling, Harry; Eckard, Allison Ross; Hill, Heather; Wolff, Mark C; McNeal, Monica M; Edwards, Kathryn M; Bernstein, David I

    2015-09-01

    Children 6 through 35 months of age are recommended to receive half the dose of influenza vaccine compared with older children and adults. This was a 6-site, randomized 2:1, double-blind study comparing full-dose (0.5 mL) trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) with half-dose (0.25 mL) TIV in children 6 through 35 months of age. Children previously immunized with influenza vaccine (primed cohort) received 1 dose, and those with no previous influenza immunizations (naive cohort) received 2 doses of TIV. Local and systemic adverse events were recorded. Sera were collected before immunization and 1 month after last dose of TIV. Hemagglutination inhibition antibody testing was performed. Of the 243 subjects enrolled (32 primed, 211 naive), data for 232 were available for complete analysis. No significant differences in local or systemic reactions were observed. Few significant differences in immunogenicity to the 3 vaccine antigens were noted. The immune response to H1N1 was significantly higher in the full-dose group among primed subjects. In the naive cohort, the geometric mean titer for all 3 antigens after 2 doses of TIV were significantly higher in the 12 through 35 months compared with the 6 through 11 months age group. Our study confirms the safety of full-dose TIV given to children 6 through 35 months of age. An increase in antibody responses after full- versus half-dose TIV was not observed, except for H1N1 in the primed group. Larger studies are needed to clarify the potential for improved immunogenicity with higher vaccine doses. Recommending the same dose could simplify the production, storage, and administration of influenza vaccines.

  5. Interim estimates of the effectiveness of seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in preventing influenza hospitalisations and primary care visits in Auckland, New Zealand, in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, N; Pierse, N; Huang, Q S; Radke, S; Bissielo, A; Thompson, M G; Kelly, H

    2014-10-23

    We present preliminary results of influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in New Zealand using a case test-negative design for 28 April to 31 August 2014. VE adjusted for age and time of admission among all ages against severe acute respiratory illness hospital presentation due to laboratory-confirmed influenza was 54% (95% CI: 19 to 74) and specifically against A(H1N1)pdm09 was 65% (95% CI:33 to 81). For influenza-confirmed primary care visits, VE was 67% (95% CI: 48 to 79) overall and 73% (95% CI: 50 to 85) against A(H1N1)pdm09.

  6. Inactivation of Avian Influenza Viruses on Porous and Non-porous Surfaces is Enhanced by Elevating Absolute Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, J; Chan, M; VanderZaag, A

    2017-08-01

    This study was to evaluate the effect of absolute humidity (AH), a combined factor of temperature and relative humidity (RH), on inactivation of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) on surfaces. Suspensions of the H9N2 or H6N2 AIV were deposited onto carrier surfaces that were either porous (pine wood) or non-porous (stainless steel, synthetic rubber and glass). The inoculated carriers were incubated at 23, 35 or 45°C with 25% or 55% RH for up to 28 days. After incubation, virus was recovered and quantified by chicken embryo assays. The time required to obtain a log 10 reduction in virus infectivity (D-value) was estimated using a linear regression model. At AH of 5.2 g/m 3 (23°C & 25% RH), both viruses survived up to 14 days on the porous surface and for at least 28 days on the non-porous surfaces. The corresponding D-values for H9N2 and H6N2 were 1.49 and 6.90 days on the porous surface and 7.81 and 12.5 days on the non-porous surfaces, respectively. In comparison, at AH of 9.9 g/m 3 (35°C & 25% RH) or 11.3 g/m 3 (23°C & 55% RH), the D-values for H9N2 and H6N2 dropped to ≤0.76 day on the porous surface and to ≤1.81 days on the non-porous surfaces. As the AH continued to rise from 11.3 to 36.0 g/m 3 , the D-value for both viruses decreased further. The relationship between D-value and AH followed a form of y = ax -b for both viruses. The D-values for H9N2 virus were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those for H6N2 virus. Exposure to ammonia gas at concentrations of 86 and 173 ppm did not significantly alter test results. The findings give evidence that increasing the AH in poultry buildings following an outbreak of disease could greatly reduce the length of time required for their decontamination. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2016.

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of intranasal live attenuated vaccine (LAIV versus injectable inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV for Canadian children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarride JE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Eric Tarride,1,2 Natasha Burke,1,2 Camilla Von Keyserlingk,1,2 Daria O'Reilly,1,2 Feng Xie,1,2 Ron Goeree1,21Programs for Assessment of Technology in Health (PATH Research Institute, St Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton, Hamilton, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, CanadaBackground: Influenza affects all age groups and is common in children. Between 15% and 42% of preschool- and school-aged children experience influenza each season. Recently, intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine, trivalent (LAIV has been approved in Canada.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of LAIV compared with that of the injectable inactivated influenza vaccine, trivalent (TIV in Canadian children and adolescents from both a payer (eg. Ministry of Health perspective and a societal perspective.Methods: A cost-effectiveness model comparing LAIV and TIV in children aged 24–59 months old was supplemented by primary (ie, a survey of 144 Canadian physicians and secondary (eg, literature data to model children aged 2–17 years old. Parameter uncertainty was addressed through univariate and probability analyses.Results: Although LAIV increased vaccination costs when compared to TIV, LAIV reduced the number of influenza cases and lowered the number of hospitalizations, emergency room visits, outpatient visits, and parents’ days lost from work. The estimated offsets in direct and societal costs saved were CAD$4.20 and CAD$35.34, respectively, per vaccinated child aged 2–17 years old. When costs and outcomes were considered, LAIV when compared to TIV, was the dominant strategy. At a willingness to pay of CAD$50,000 per quality adjusted life year gained, or CAD$100,000 per quality adjusted life year gained, the probabilistic results indicated that the probability of LAIV being cost-effective was almost 1.Conclusions: LAIV reduces the burden

  8. Immunogenicity and safety assessment of a trivalent, inactivated split influenza vaccine in Korean children: Double-blind, randomized, active-controlled multicenter phase III clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Beom; Rhim, Jung-Woo; Shin, Hye Jo; Lee, Soo Young; Kim, Hyun-Hee; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Yil; Ma, Sang Hyuk; Park, Joon Soo; Kim, Hwang Min; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Dong Ho; Choi, Young Youn; Cha, Sung-Ho; Hong, Young Jin; Kang, Jin Han

    2015-01-01

    A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, active-control phase III clinical trial was performed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of a trivalent, inactivated split influenza vaccine. Korean children between the ages of 6 months and 18 y were enrolled and randomized into a study (study vaccine) or a control vaccine group (commercially available trivalent, inactivated split influenza vaccine) in a 5:1 ratio. Antibody responses were determined using hemagglutination inhibition assay, and post-vaccination immunogenicity was assessed based on seroconversion and seroprotection rates. For safety assessment, solicited local and systemic adverse events up to 28 d after vaccination and unsolicited adverse events up to 6 months after vaccination were evaluated. Immunogenicity was assessed in 337 and 68 children of the study and control groups. In the study vaccine group, seroconversion rates against influenza A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B strains were 62.0% (95% CI: 56.8-67.2), 53.4% (95% CI: 48.1-58.7), and 54.9% (95% CI: 48.1-60.2), respectively. The corresponding seroprotection rates were 95.0% (95% CI: 92.6-97.3), 93.8% (95% CI: 91.2-96.4), and 95.3% (95% CI: 93.0-97.5). The lower 95% CI limits of the seroconversion and seroprotection rates were over 40% and 70%, respectively, against all strains. Seroconversion and seroprotection rates were not significantly different between the study and control vaccine groups. Furthermore, the frequencies of adverse events were not significantly different between the 2 vaccine groups, and no serious vaccination-related adverse events were noted. In conclusion, the study vaccine exhibited substantial immunogenicity and safety in Korean children and is expected to be clinically effective.

  9. Safety, immunogenicity, and lot-to-lot consistency of a quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in children, adolescents, and adults: A randomized, controlled, phase III trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadorna-Carlos, Josefina B; Nolan, Terry; Borja-Tabora, Charissa Fay; Santos, Jaime; Montalban, M Cecilia; de Looze, Ferdinandus J; Eizenberg, Peter; Hall, Stephen; Dupuy, Martin; Hutagalung, Yanee; Pépin, Stéphanie; Saville, Melanie

    2015-05-15

    Inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (IIV4) containing two influenza A strains and one strain from each B lineage (Yamagata and Victoria) may offer broader protection against seasonal influenza than inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (IIV3), containing a single B strain. This study examined the safety, immunogenicity, and lot consistency of an IIV4 candidate. This phase III, randomized, controlled, multicenter trial in children/adolescents (9 through 17 years) and adults (18 through 60 years) was conducted in Australia and in the Philippines in 2012. The study was double-blind for IIV4 lots and open-label for IIV4 vs IIV3. Children/adolescents were randomized 2:2:2:1 and adults 10:10:10:1 to receive one of three lots of IIV4 or licensed IIV3. Safety data were collected for up to 6 months post-vaccination. Hemagglutination inhibition and seroneutralization antibody titers were assessed pre-vaccination and 21 days post-vaccination. 1648 adults and 329 children/adolescents received IIV4, and 56 adults and 55 children/adolescents received IIV3. Solicited reactions, unsolicited adverse events, and serious adverse events were similar for IIV3 and IIV4 recipients in both age groups. Injection-site pain, headache, malaise, and myalgia were the most frequently reported solicited reactions, most of which were mild and resolved within 3 days. No vaccine-related serious adverse events or deaths were reported. Post-vaccination antibody responses, seroconversion rates, and seroprotection rates for the 3 strains common to both vaccines were comparable for IIV3 and IIV4 in both age groups. Antibody responses to IIV4 were equivalent among vaccine lots and comparable between age groups for each of the 4 strains. IIV4 met all European Medicines Agency immunogenicity criteria for adults for all 4 strains. In both age groups, IIV4 was well tolerated and caused no safety concerns, induced robust antibody responses to all 4 influenza strains, and met all EMA immunogenicity

  10. Use of a novel virus inactivation method for a multicenter avian influenza real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction proficiency study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, Erica; Suarez, David L

    2005-01-01

    Proficiency assessments are important elements in quality control for diagnostic laboratories. Traditionally, proficiency testing for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays has involved the use of clinical samples, samples "spiked" with live agents or DNA plasmids. Because of government regulations and biosecurity concerns, distribution of live high-consequence pathogens of livestock and poultry, such as avian influenza, is not possible, and DNA plasmids are not technically suitable for evaluating RNA virus detection. Therefore, a proficiency testing panel using whole avian influenza in a diluent containing a phenolic disinfectant that inactivates the virus while preserving the RNA for at least 8 weeks at -70 C was developed and used in a multicenter proficiency assessment for a type A influenza real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR test. The test, which was highly standardized, except for variation in the real-time RT-PCR equipment used, was shown to be highly reproducible by proficiency testing in 12 laboratories in the United States, Canada, and Hong Kong. Variation in cycle threshold values among 35 data sets and 490 samples was minimal (CV = 5.19%), and sample identifications were highly accurate (96.7% correct identifications) regardless of real-time PCR instrumentation.

  11. Membrane-bound IL-12 and IL-23 serve as potent mucosal adjuvants when co-presented on whole inactivated influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tila; Heffron, Connie L; High, Kevin P; Roberts, Paul C

    2014-05-03

    Potent and safe adjuvants are needed to improve the efficacy of parenteral and mucosal vaccines. Cytokines, chemokines and growth factors have all proven to be effective immunomodulatory adjuvants when administered with a variety of antigens. We have previously evaluated the efficacy of membrane-anchored interleukins (IL) such as IL-2 and IL-4 co-presented as Cytokine-bearing Influenza Vaccines (CYT-IVACs) using a mouse model of influenza challenge. Here, we describe studies evaluating the parenteral and mucosal adjuvanticity of membrane-bound IL-12 and IL-23 CYT-IVACs in young adult mice. Mucosal immunization using IL-12 and IL-23 bearing whole influenza virus vaccine (WIV) was more effective at eliciting virus-specific nasal IgA and reducing viral lung burden following challenge compared to control WIV vaccinated animals. Both IL-12 and IL-23 bearing WIV elicited the highest anti-viral IgA levels in serum and nasal washes. This study highlights for the first time the mucosal adjuvant potential of IL-12 and IL-23 CYT-IVAC formulations in eliciting mucosal immune responses and reducing viral lung burden. The co-presentation of immunomodulators in direct context with viral antigen in whole inactivated viral vaccines may provide a means to significantly lower the dose of vaccine required for protection.

  12. The influence of experimental infection of gilts with swine H1N2 influenza A virus during the second month of gestation on the course of pregnancy, reproduction parameters and clinical status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwit, Krzysztof; Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona

    2014-06-04

    The course of swine influenza in pigs is reported to be similar to human influenza. Occasionally abortions and other reproduction disorders have been associated with influenza A virus (IAV) infection in pigs. Abortions may be a consequence of high fever, pro-inflammatory cytokines or transplacental transmission of the virus.The role of IAV in the complications observed during pregnancy has been scanty and the true importance of this agent as a cause of reproductive problems in swine is not known. The aim was to determine the possible involvement of swine H1N2 IAV strain on reproductive disorders in pregnant gilts under experimental conditions. The gestation length was from 113 to 116 days, no abortion or any other reproduction disorders were noted. A PCR assay confirms the presence of IAV in the nasal swabs taken from inoculated gilts between 1 and 5 dpi. In the nasal swabs from control gilts and newborn piglets, no IAV genetic material was found. No viral RNA was detected in samples of blood taken from gilts and piglets, placentas, lungs and tracheas taken from piglets euthanized after delivery. The significant decrease in the number and percentage of lymphocytes without leukopenia was observed at 4 dpi in inoculated gilts. The percentage of granulocytes increased significantly at 4 dpi in inoculated pigs. The concentration of IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α were higher in inoculated gilts, while IL-4 and IFN-γ were not detected in the serum of any of animals. The serum concentrations of C-reactive protein remained stable during study, while haptoglobin concentrations increased significantly after inoculation. The results of the study indicate that infection of pregnant gilts with swine H1N2 IAV in the second month of pregnancy does not cause abortion and other reproduction disorders. No evidence for transplacental transmission of swine H1N2 IAV was found. However, due to subclinical course of influenza in the present experiment caution should be taken in extrapolating

  13. Thermal inactivation of H5N2 high-pathogenicity avian influenza virus in dried egg white with 7.5% moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Colleen; Swayne, David E

    2009-09-01

    High-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) cause severe systemic disease with high mortality in chickens. Isolation of HPAIV from the internal contents of chicken eggs has been reported, and this is cause for concern because HPAIV can be spread by movement of poultry products during marketing and trade activity. This study presents thermal inactivation data for the HPAIV strain A/chicken/PA/1370/83 (H5N2) (PA/83) in dried egg white with a moisture content (7.5%) similar to that found in commercially available spray-dried egg white products. The 95% upper confidence limits for D-values calculated from linear regression of the survival curves at 54.4, 60.0, 65.5, and 71.1 degrees C were 475.4, 192.2, 141.0, and 50.1 min, respectively. The line equation y = [0.05494 x degrees C] + 5.5693 (root mean square error = 0.0711) was obtained by linear regression of experimental D-values versus temperature. Conservative predictions based on the thermal inactivation data suggest that standard industry pasteurization protocols would be very effective for HPAIV inactivation in dried egg white. For example, these calculations predict that a 7-log reduction would take only 2.6 days at 54.4 degrees C.

  14. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of an outbreak of novel H1N1 (swine origin) influenza A virus among United States military beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F; Blair, Patrick J; Faix, Dennis; Arnold, John; Echols, Sara; Sherman, Sterling S; Tueller, John E; Warkentien, Tyler; Sanguineti, Gabriela; Bavaro, Mary; Hale, Braden R

    2009-12-15

    A novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus was identified in March 2009 and subsequently caused worldwide outbreaks. The San Diego region was an early focal point of the emerging pandemic. We describe the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of this novel strain in a military population to assist in future outbreak prevention and control efforts. We performed an epidemiologic evaluation of novel H1N1 virus infections diagnosed in San Diego County among 96,258 local US military beneficiaries. The structured military medical system afforded the ability to obtain precise epidemiologic information on the impact on H1N1 virus infection in a population. The novel H1N1 virus was confirmed using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). From 21 April through 8 May 2009, 761 patients presented with influenza-like illness and underwent rRT-PCR testing. Of these patients, 97 had confirmed novel H1N1 virus infection, with an incidence rate of 101 cases per 100,000 persons. The median age of H1N1 patients with H1N1 virus infection was 21 years (interquartile range, 15-25 years). Fever was a universal symptom in patients with H1N1 virus infection; other symptoms included cough (present in 96% of patients), myalgia or arthralgia (57%), and sore throat (51%). Sixty-eight (70%) of our patients had an identifiable epidemiologic link to another confirmed patient. The largest cluster of cases of H1N1 virus infection occurred on a Navy ship and involved 32 (8%) of 402 crew members; the secondary attack rate was 6%-14%. The rapid influenza testing that was used during this outbreak had a sensitivity of 51% and specificity of 98%, compared with rRT-PCR. Only 1 patient was hospitalized, and there were no deaths. A novel H1N1 influenza A virus caused a significant outbreak among military beneficiaries in San Diego County, including a significant cluster of cases onboard a Navy ship. The outbreak described here primarily affected adolescents and young

  15. PB1-F2 Protein Does Not Impact the Virulence of Triple-Reassortant H3N2 Swine Influenza Virus in Pigs but Alters Pathogenicity and Transmission in Turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deventhiran, Jagadeeswaran; Kumar, Sandeep R P; Raghunath, Shobana; Leroith, Tanya; Elankumaran, Subbiah

    2016-01-01

    PB1-F2 protein, the 11th influenza A virus (IAV) protein, is considered to play an important role in primary influenza virus infection and postinfluenza secondary bacterial pneumonia in mice. The functional role of PB1-F2 has been reported to be a strain-specific and host-specific phenomenon. Its precise contribution to the pathogenicity and transmission of influenza virus in mammalian host, such as swine, and avian hosts, such as turkeys, remain largely unknown. In this study, we explored the role of PB1-F2 protein of triple-reassortant (TR) H3N2 swine influenza virus (SIV) in pigs and turkeys. Using the eight-plasmid reverse genetics system, we rescued wild-type SIV A/swine/Minnesota/1145/2007 (H3N2) (SIV 1145-WT), a PB1-F2 knockout mutant (SIV 1145-KO), and its N66S variant (SIV 1145-N66S). The ablation of PB1-F2 in SIV 1145 modulated early-stage apoptosis but did not affect the viral replication in swine alveolar macrophage cells. In pigs, PB1-F2 expression did not affect nasal shedding, lung viral load, immunophenotypes, and lung pathology. On the other hand, in turkeys, SIV 1145-KO infected poults, and its in-contacts developed clinical signs earlier than SIV 1145-WT groups and also displayed more extensive histopathological changes in intestine. Further, turkeys infected with SIV 1145-N66S displayed poor infectivity and transmissibility. The more extensive histopathologic changes in intestine and relative transmission advantage observed in turkeys infected with SIV 1145-KO need to be further explored. Taken together, these results emphasize the host-specific roles of PB1-F2 in the pathogenicity and transmission of IAV. Novel triple-reassortant H3N2 swine influenza virus emerged in 1998 and spread rapidly among the North American swine population. Subsequently, it showed an increased propensity to reassort, generating a range of reassortants. Unlike classical swine influenza virus, TR SIV produces a full-length PB1-F2 protein, which is considered an important

  16. Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's egg pasteurization processes on the inactivation of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus and velogenic Newcastle disease virus in processed egg products

    Science.gov (United States)

    High pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/1983 (H5N2), and velogenic Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) AMPV-1/California/212676/2002 were inoculated into various egg products then heat treated at various temperatures for 0 to 30 min to determine thermal inactivation p...

  17. Comparative pathology of pigs infected with Korean H1N1, H1N2, or H3N2 swine influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyoo, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Ki; Jung, Kwonil; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Song, Daesub

    2014-09-24

    The predominant subtypes of swine influenza A virus (SIV) in Korea swine population are H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2. The viruses are genetically close to the classical U.S. H1N1 and triple-reassortant H1N2 and H3N2 viruses, respectively. Comparative pathogenesis caused by Korean H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 SIV was evaluated in this study. The H3N2 infected pigs had severe scores of gross and histopathological lesions at post-inoculation days (PID) 2, and this then progressively decreased. Both the H1N1 and H1N2 infected pigs lacked gross lesions at PID 2, but they showed moderate to severe pneumonia on PID 4, 7 and 14. The pigs infected with H1N1 had significant scores of gross and histopathological lesions when compared with the other pigs infected with H1N2, H3N2, and mock at PID 14. Mean SIV antigen-positive scores were rarely detected for pigs infected with H1N2 and H3N2 from PID 7, whereas a significantly increased amount of viral antigens were found in the bronchioles and alveolar epithelium of the H1N1infected pigs at PID 14. We demonstrated that Korean SIV subtypes had different pulmonary pathologic patterns. The Korean H3N2 rapidly induced acute lung lesions such as broncho-interstitial pneumonia, while the Korean H1N1 showed longer course of infection as compared to other strains.

  18. Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Solórzano-Santos, Fortino; Miranda-Novales, Ma. Guadalupe

    2009-01-01

    La influenza es una infección viral aguda de las vías respiratorias, altamente contagiosa. Es causada por el virus de la influenza A, B y C. Puede afectar a todos los grupos etarios durante epidemias, aunque tiene mayor morbilidad en los extremos de la vida. La enfermedad frecuentemente requiere de atención médica y hospitalización, contribuyendo sustancialmente a pérdidas económicas, exceso en el número de días/cama-hospital y muertes. Considerando la epidemia reciente en México del virus de...

  19. Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forleo-Neto Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A influenza (gripe é doença infecciosa aguda de origem viral que acomete o trato respiratório e a cada inverno atinge mais de 100 milhões de pessoas na Europa, Japão e Estados Unidos, causando anualmente a morte de cerca de 20 a 40 mil pessoas somente neste último país. O agente etiológico é o Myxovirus influenzae, ou vírus da gripe. Este subdivide-se nos tipos A, B e C, sendo que apenas os do tipo A e B apresentam relevância clínica em humanos. O vírus influenza apresenta altas taxas de mutação, o que resulta freqüentemente na inserção de novas variantes virais na comunidade, para as quais a população não apresenta imunidade. São poucas as opções disponíveis para o controle da influenza. Dentre essas, a vacinação constitui a forma mais eficaz para o controle da doença e de suas complicações. Em função das mutações que ocorrem naturalmente no vírus influenza, recomenda-se que a vacinação seja realizada anualmente. No Brasil, segundo dados obtidos pelo Projeto VigiGripe - ligado à Universidade Federal de São Paulo -, verifica-se que a influenza apresenta pico de atividade entre os meses de maio e setembro. Assim, a época mais indicada para a vacinação corresponde aos meses de março e abril. Para o tratamento específico da influenza estão disponíveis quatro medicamentos antivirais: os fármacos clássicos amantadina e rimantidina e os antivirais de segunda geração oseltamivir e zanamivir. Os últimos, acrescentam alternativas para o tratamento da influenza e ampliam as opções disponíveis para o seu controle.

  20. Multiplex RT-PCR assay for differentiating European swine influenza virus subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapponi, Chiara; Moreno, Ana; Barbieri, Ilaria; Merenda, Marianna; Foni, Emanuela

    2012-09-01

    In Europe, three major swine influenza viral (SIV) subtypes (H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2) have been isolated in pigs. Developing a test that is able to detect and identify the subtype of the circulating strain rapidly during an outbreak of respiratory disease in the pig population is of essential importance. This study describes two multiplex RT-PCRs which distinguish the haemagglutinin (HA) gene and the neuraminidase (NA) gene of the three major subtypes of SIV circulating in Europe. The HA PCR was able to identify the lineage (avian or human) of the HA of H1 subtypes. The analytical sensitivity of the test, considered to be unique, was assessed using three reference viruses. The detection limit corresponded to 1×10(-1) TCID(50)/200μl for avian-like H1N1, 1×10(0) TCID(50)/200μl for human-like H1N2 and 1×10(1) TCID(50)/200μl for H3N2 SIV. The multiplex RT-PCR was first carried out on a collection of 70 isolated viruses showing 100% specificity and then on clinical samples, from which viruses had previously been isolated, resulting in an 89% positive specificity of the viral subtype. Finally, the test was able to identify the viral subtype correctly in 56% of influenza A positive samples, from which SIV had not been isolated previously. It was also possible to identify mixed viral infections and the circulation of a reassortant strain before performing genomic studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of feed restriction on performance and postprandial nutrient metabolism in pigs co-infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and swine influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Le Floc'h

    Full Text Available As nutritional status and inflammation are strongly connected, feeding and nutritional strategies could be effective to improve the ability of pigs to cope with disease. The aims of this study were to investigate the impact of a feed restriction on the ability of pigs to resist and be tolerant to a coinfection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp and the European H1N1 swine influenza virus, and the consequences for nutrient metabolism, with a focus on amino acids. Two groups of specific pathogen-free pigs were inoculated with Mhp and H1N1 21 days apart. One group was fed ad libitum, the other group was subjected to a two-week 40% feed restriction starting one week before H1N1 infection. The two respective mock control groups were included. Three days post-H1N1 infection, 200 g of feed was given to pigs previously fasted overnight and serial blood samples were taken over 4 hours to measure plasma nutrient concentrations. Throughout the study, clinical signs were observed and pathogens were detected in nasal swabs and lung tissues. Feed-restricted pigs presented shorter hyperthermia and a positive mean weight gain over the 3 days post-H1N1 infection whereas animals fed ad libitum lost weight. Both infection and feed restriction reduced postprandial glucose concentrations, indicating changes in glucose metabolism. Post-prandial plasma concentrations of the essential amino acids histidine, arginine and threonine were lower in co-infected pigs suggesting a greater use of those amino acids for metabolic purposes associated with the immune response. Altogether, these results indicate that modifying feeding practices could help to prepare animals to overcome an influenza infection. Connections with metabolism changes are discussed.

  2. Immunogenicity and safety of Southern Hemisphere inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine: a Phase III, open-label study of adults in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Zerbini, Cristiano A.F.; Ribeiro dos Santos, Rodrigo; Jose Nunes, Maria; Soni, Jyoti; Li, Ping; Jain, Varsha K.; Ofori-Anyinam, Opokua

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The World Health Organization influenza forecast now includes an influenza B strain from each of the influenza B lineages (B/Yamagata and B/Victoria) for inclusion in seasonal influenza vaccines. Traditional trivalent influenza vaccines include an influenza B strain from one lineage, but because two influenza B lineages frequently co-circulate, the effectiveness of trivalent vaccines may be reduced in seasons of influenza B vaccine-mismatch. Thus, quadrivalent vaccines may potentiall...

  3. Population dynamics of swine influenza virus in farrow-to-finish and specialised finishing herds in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, W.L.A.; Hunneman, W.A.; Quak, J.; Verheijden, J.H.M.; Stegeman, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Influenza virus infections with subtypes H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2 are very common in domestic pigs in Europe. Data on possible differences of population dynamics in finishing pigs in farrow-to-finish herds and in specialised finishing herds are, however, scarce. The presence of sows and weaned piglets on

  4. Risk of febrile seizures and epilepsy after vaccination with diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated poliovirus, and Haemophilus influenzae type B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuelian; Christensen, Jakob; Hviid, Anders; Li, Jiong; Vedsted, Peter; Olsen, Jørn; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2012-02-22

    Vaccination with whole-cell pertussis vaccine carries an increased risk of febrile seizures, but whether this risk applies to the acellular pertussis vaccine is not known. In Denmark, acellular pertussis vaccine has been included in the combined diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) vaccine since September 2002. To estimate the risk of febrile seizures and epilepsy after DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccination given at 3, 5, and 12 months. A population-based cohort study of 378,834 children who were born in Denmark between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2008, and followed up through December 31, 2009; and a self-controlled case series (SCCS) study based on children with febrile seizures during follow-up of the cohort. Hazard ratio (HR) of febrile seizures within 0 to 7 days (0, 1-3, and 4-7 days) after each vaccination and HR of epilepsy after first vaccination in the cohort study. Relative incidence of febrile seizures within 0 to 7 days (0, 1-3, and 4-7 days) after each vaccination in the SCCS study. A total of 7811 children were diagnosed with febrile seizures before 18 months, of whom 17 were diagnosed within 0 to 7 days after the first (incidence rate, 0.8 per 100,000 person-days), 32 children after the second (1.3 per 100,000 person-days), and 201 children after the third (8.5 per 100,000 person-days) vaccinations. Overall, children did not have higher risks of febrile seizures during the 0 to 7 days after the 3 vaccinations vs a reference cohort of children who were not within 0 to 7 days of vaccination. However, a higher risk of febrile seizures was found on the day of the first (HR, 6.02; 95% CI, 2.86-12.65) and on the day of the second (HR, 3.94; 95% CI, 2.18-7.10), but not on the day of the third vaccination (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.73-1.57) vs the reference cohort. On the day of vaccination, 9 children were diagnosed with febrile seizures after the first (5.5 per 100,000 person-days), 12

  5. Heterosybtypic T-cell immunity to influenza in humans: challenges for universal T-cell influenza vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranya eSridhar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus (IAV remains a significant global health issue causing annual epidemics, pandemics and sporadic human infections with highly pathogenic avian or swine influenza viruses. Current inactivated and live vaccines are the mainstay of the public health response to influenza although vaccine efficacy is lower against antigenically distinct viral strains. The first pandemic of the 21st century underlined the urgent need to develop new vaccines capable of protection against a broad range of influenza strains. Such universal influenza vaccines are based on the idea of heterosubtypic immunity wherein immune responses to epitopes conserved across IAV strains can confer protection against subsequent infection and disease. T-cells recognising conserved antigens are a key contributor to reducing viral load and limiting disease severity during heterosubtypic infection in animal models. Recent studies undertaken during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic provided key insights into the role of cross-reactive T-cells in mediating heterosubtypic protection in humans. This review focuses on human influenza to discuss the epidemiological observations that underpin cross-protective immunity, the role of T-cells as key players in mediating heterosubtypic immunity including recent data from natural history cohort studies and the ongoing clinical development of T-cell inducing universal influenza vaccines. The challenges and knowledge gaps for developing vaccines to generate long-lived protective T-cell responses is discussed.

  6. Standardization of an inactivated H17N1 avian influenza vaccine and efficacy against A/Chicken/Italy/13474/99 high-pathogenicity virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Trani, L; Cordioli, P; Falcone, E; Lombardi, G; Moreno, A; Sala, G; Tollis, M

    2003-01-01

    The minimum requirements for assessing the immunogenicity of an experimental avian influenza (AI) vaccine prepared from inactivated A/Turkey/Italy/2676/99 (H7N1) low-pathogenicity (LP) AI (LPAI) virus were determined in chickens of different ages. A correlation between the amount of hemagglutinin (HA) per dose of vaccine and the protection against clinical signs of disease and infection by A/Chicken/Italy/13474/99 highly pathogenic (HP) AI (HPAI) virus was established. Depending on the vaccination schedule, one or two administrations of 0.5 microg of hemagglutinin protected chickens against clinical signs and death and completely prevented virus shedding from birds challenged at different times after vaccination.

  7. The response of mute swans (Cygnus olor, Gm. 1789) to vaccination against avian influenza with an inactivated H5N2 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolka, Beata; Żbikowski, Artur; Dolka, Izabella; Szeleszczuk, Piotr

    2016-10-22

    Recent epidemics of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) produced an unprecedented number of cases in mute swans (Cygnus olor) in European countries, which indicates that these birds are very sensitive to the H5N1 virus. The HPAI outbreaks stirred a debate on the controversial stamping-out policy in populations of protected bird species. After preventive vaccination had been approved in the European Union, several countries have introduced vaccination schemes to protect poultry, captive wild birds or exotic birds in zoos against HPAI. The aim of this study was to investigate the immune response of wild mute swans to immunization with an inactivated AI H5N2 vaccine approved for use in poultry. The serological responses of mute swans were assessed by comparison with racing pigeons (Columba livia), a species which is characterized by different susceptibility to infection with the H5N1 HPAI virus and plays a questionable role in the ecology of influenza (H5N1) viruses. Swans were vaccinated once or twice at an interval of 4 weeks. The humoral immune response was evaluated by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and NP-ELISA. The lymphocyte blast transformation test was used to determine the cell-mediated immune response. Higher values of the geometric mean titer (GMT) and 100 % seroconversion (HI ≥32) were noted in double vaccinated swans (1448.2) than in single vaccinated swans (128.0) or in double vaccinated pigeons (215.3). Significant differences in HI titers were observed between swans and pigeons, but no variations in ELISA scores were noted after the booster dose. Immunization of swans had no effect on the proliferative activity of lymphocytes. The inactivated H5N2 vaccine was safe and immunogenic for mute swans and pigeons. Vaccination may have practical implications for swans kept in zoos, wildlife parks or rehabilitation centers. However, challenge studies are needed to prove the efficacy of the H5N2 AI vaccine.

  8. High mortality from respiratory failure secondary to swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegelenberg, C F N; Irusen, E M; Cooper, R; Diacon, A H; Taljaard, J J; Mowlana, A; von Groote-Bidlingmaier, F; Bolliger, C T

    2010-05-01

    The novel influenza A (H1N1) pandemic affected South Africa late during the 2009 Southern hemisphere winter and placed an extra burden on a health care system already dealing with a high prevalence of chronic lung diseases and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological characteristics, clinical features, management and outcomes of patients with confirmed influenza A (H1N1) infection complicated by respiratory failure. We included all adult patients with confirmed influenza A (H1N1) infection that were referred to the medical intensive care unit of a large academic hospital in Cape Town for ventilatory support in this prospective observational study. A total of 19 patients (39.5 +/- 14.8 years) needed ventilatory support over a 6-week period. Of these, 15 were female and 16 had identifiable risk factors for severe disease, including pregnancy (n = 6), type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 6), obesity (n = 4), HIV infection (n = 3), immunosuppressive therapy (n = 3) and active pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 2). The most frequent complications were acute renal failure (n = 13), acute respiratory distress syndrome (n = 12) and ventilator associated pneumonia (n = 10). Thirteen patients died (mortality: 68.4%). Fatal cases were significantly associated with an APACHE II score >or=20 (P = 0.034), but not with a P(a)O(2)/F(I)O(2) or=12 (P = 0.134). The majority of patients with respiratory failure secondary to influenza A (H1N1) infection were young females and had an underlying risk factor for severe disease. The condition had a high mortality, particularly amongst patients with an APACHE II score >or=20.

  9. The effect of gamma-irradiation conditions on the immunogenicity of whole-inactivated Influenza A virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Shannon C; Lau, Josyane; Singleton, Eve V; Babb, Rachelle; Davies, Justin; Hirst, Timothy R; McColl, Shaun R; Paton, James C; Alsharifi, Mohammed

    2017-02-15

    Gamma-irradiation, particularly an irradiation dose of 50kGy, has been utilised widely to sterilise highly pathogenic agents such as Ebola, Marburg Virus, and Avian Influenza H5N1. We have reported previously that intranasal vaccination with a gamma-irradiated Influenza A virus vaccine (γ-Flu) results in cross-protective immunity. Considering the possible inclusion of highly pathogenic Influenza strains in future clinical development of γ-Flu, an irradiation dose of 50kGy may be used to enhance vaccine safety beyond the internationally accepted Sterility Assurance Level (SAL). Thus, we investigated the effect of irradiation conditions, including high irradiation doses, on the immunogenicity of γ-Flu. Our data confirm that irradiation at low temperatures (using dry-ice) is associated with reduced damage to viral structure compared with irradiation at room temperature. In addition, a single intranasal vaccination with γ-Flu irradiated on dry-ice with either 25 or 50kGy induced seroconversion and provided complete protection against lethal Influenza A challenge. Considering that low temperature is expected to reduce the protein damage associated with exposure to high irradiation doses, we titrated the vaccine dose to verify the efficacy of 50kGy γ-Flu. Our data demonstrate that exposure to 50kGy on dry-ice is associated with limited effect on vaccine immunogenicity, apparent only when using very low vaccine doses. Overall, our data highlight the immunogenicity of influenza virus irradiated at 50kGy for induction of high titre antibody and cytotoxic T-cell responses. This suggests these conditions are suitable for development of γ-Flu vaccines based on highly pathogenic Influenza A viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Technology transfer of oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant manufacturing for pandemic influenza vaccine production in Romania: Preclinical evaluation of split virion inactivated H5N1 vaccine with adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavaru, Crina; Onu, Adrian; Lupulescu, Emilia; Tucureanu, Catalin; Rasid, Orhan; Vlase, Ene; Coman, Cristin; Caras, Iuliana; Ghiorghisor, Alina; Berbecila, Laurentiu; Tofan, Vlad; Bowen, Richard A; Marlenee, Nicole; Hartwig, Airn; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Baldwin, Susan L; Van Hoeven, Neal; Vedvick, Thomas S; Huynh, Chuong; O'Hara, Michael K; Noah, Diana L; Fox, Christopher B

    2016-04-02

    Millions of seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine doses containing oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant have been administered in order to enhance and broaden immune responses and to facilitate antigen sparing. Despite the enactment of a Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines and a multi-fold increase in production capabilities over the past 10 years, worldwide capacity for pandemic influenza vaccine production is still limited. In developing countries, where routine influenza vaccination is not fully established, additional measures are needed to ensure adequate supply of pandemic influenza vaccines without dependence on the shipment of aid from other, potentially impacted first-world countries. Adaptation of influenza vaccine and adjuvant technologies by developing country influenza vaccine manufacturers may enable antigen sparing and corresponding increases in global influenza vaccine coverage capacity. Following on previously described work involving the technology transfer of oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant manufacturing to a Romanian vaccine manufacturing institute, we herein describe the preclinical evaluation of inactivated split virion H5N1 influenza vaccine with emulsion adjuvant, including immunogenicity, protection from virus challenge, antigen sparing capacity, and safety. In parallel with the evaluation of the bioactivity of the tech-transferred adjuvant, we also describe the impact of concurrent antigen manufacturing optimization activities. Depending on the vaccine antigen source and manufacturing process, inclusion of adjuvant was shown to enhance and broaden functional antibody titers in mouse and rabbit models, promote protection from homologous virus challenge in ferrets, and facilitate antigen sparing. Besides scientific findings, the operational lessons learned are delineated in order to facilitate adaptation of adjuvant technologies by other developing country institutes to enhance global pandemic influenza preparedness.

  11. Inactivation of low pathogenicity notifiable avian influenza virus and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus following pasteurization in liquid egg products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixty seven million cases of shell eggs produced per year in the U.S. are processed as liquid egg product. The U.S. also exports a large amount of egg products. Although the U.S. is normally free of avian influenza, concern about contamination of egg product with these viruses has in the past result...

  12. Impact of information on intentions to vaccinate in a potential epidemic: Swine-origin Influenza A (H1N1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanel, Olivier; Luchini, Stéphane; Massoni, Sébastien; Vergnaud, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination campaigns to prevent the spread of epidemics are successful only if the targeted populations subscribe to the recommendations of health authorities. However, because compulsory vaccination is hardly conceivable in modern democracies, governments need to convince their populations through efficient and persuasive information campaigns. In the context of the swine-origin A (H1N1) 2009 pandemic, we use an interactive study among the general public in the South of France, with 175 participants, to explore what type of information can induce change in vaccination intentions at both aggregate and individual levels. We find that individual attitudes to vaccination are based on rational appraisal of the situation, and that it is information of a purely scientific nature that has the only significant positive effect on intention to vaccinate. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Corticosteroid treatment ameliorates acute lung injury induced by 2009 swine origin influenza A (H1N1 virus in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenggang Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 2009 influenza pandemic affected people in almost all countries in the world, especially in younger age groups. During this time, the debate over whether to use corticosteroid treatment in severe influenza H1N1 infections patients resurfaced and was disputed by clinicians. There is an urgent need for a susceptible animal model of 2009 H1N1 infection that can be used to evaluate the pathogenesis and the therapeutic effect of corticosteroid treatment during infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We intranasally inoculated two groups of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice (using 4- or 6-to 8-week-old mice to compare the pathogenesis of several different H1N1 strains in mice of different ages. Based on the results, a very susceptible 4-week-old C57BL/6 mouse model of Beijing 501 strain of 2009 H1N1 virus infection was established, showing significantly elevated lung edema and cytokine levels compared to controls. Using our established animal model, the cytokine production profile and lung histology were assessed at different times post-infection, revealing increased lung lesions in a time-dependent manner. In additional,the mice were also treated with dexamethasone, which significantly improved survival rate and lung lesions in infected mice compared to those in control mice. Our data showed that corticosteroid treatment ameliorated acute lung injury induced by the 2009 A/H1N1 virus in mice and suggested that corticosteroids are valid drugs for treating 2009 A/H1N1 infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using the established, very susceptible 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 mouse model, our studies indicate that corticosteroids are a potential therapeutic remedy that may address the increasing concerns over future 2009 A/H1N1 pandemics.

  14. In silico analysis and identification of novel inhibitor for new H1N1 swine influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath Dammalli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify alternative drug for the treatment of pandemic disease caused by influenza virus. Methods: The structure based drug design approach was employed. New sequence was employed to build the N1 simulation structure by homology modeling which was further checked for high reliability by verify score and Ramachandran plot. Evaluation of drug likeness and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity showed that the ligands satisfy all the properties to be used as a drug. Docking studies were performed using LeadIT and docking scores indicated good binding energy values towards N1. Results: Four candidates were screened and suggested as potent target candidates from the docking studies. The screened compounds from Stemonaceae family illustrated better activity compared to the drugs which are already present in the market. Conclusions: The results may help to find the alternative drug to solve the drug-resistant problem and stimulate designing more effective drugs against 2009-H1N1 influenza pandemic, yet pharmacological studies have to confirm it.

  15. Using routine surveillance data to estimate the epidemic potential of emerging zoonoses: application to the emergence of US swine origin influenza A H3N2v virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Cauchemez

    Full Text Available Prior to emergence in human populations, zoonoses such as SARS cause occasional infections in human populations exposed to reservoir species. The risk of widespread epidemics in humans can be assessed by monitoring the reproduction number R (average number of persons infected by a human case. However, until now, estimating R required detailed outbreak investigations of human clusters, for which resources and expertise are not always available. Additionally, existing methods do not correct for important selection and under-ascertainment biases. Here, we present simple estimation methods that overcome many of these limitations.Our approach is based on a parsimonious mathematical model of disease transmission and only requires data collected through routine surveillance and standard case investigations. We apply it to assess the transmissibility of swine-origin influenza A H3N2v-M virus in the US, Nipah virus in Malaysia and Bangladesh, and also present a non-zoonotic example (cholera in the Dominican Republic. Estimation is based on two simple summary statistics, the proportion infected by the natural reservoir among detected cases (G and among the subset of the first detected cases in each cluster (F. If detection of a case does not affect detection of other cases from the same cluster, we find that R can be estimated by 1-G; otherwise R can be estimated by 1-F when the case detection rate is low. In more general cases, bounds on R can still be derived.We have developed a simple approach with limited data requirements that enables robust assessment of the risks posed by emerging zoonoses. We illustrate this by deriving transmissibility estimates for the H3N2v-M virus, an important step in evaluating the possible pandemic threat posed by this virus. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  16. Safety and reactogenicity of the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPa-IPV/Hib) vaccine in healthy Vietnamese toddlers: An open-label, phase III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Dang Duc; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Karkada, Naveen; Assudani, Deepak; Yu, Ta-Wen; Han, Htay Htay

    2016-03-03

    The introduction of combination vaccines plays a significant role in increasing vaccine acceptance and widening vaccine coverage. Primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) diseases has been implemented in Vietnam. In this study we evaluated the safety and reactogenicity of combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio (DTPa-IPV)/Hib vaccine when administered as a booster dose in 300 healthy Vietnamese children Vietnamese children aged <2 years.

  17. Safety and tolerability of a cell culture derived trivalent subunit inactivated influenza vaccine administered to healthy children and adolescents: A Phase III, randomized, multicenter, observer-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Terry; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Capeding, Maria Rosario; Carson, Simon; Senders, Shelly David; Jaehnig, Peter; de Rooij, Richard; Chandra, Richa

    2016-01-04

    Cell culture-derived inactivated influenza vaccines (TIVc) are necessary for scale and predictability of production to meet global demand. This study compared the safety and tolerability of TIVc with an egg-derived trivalent influenza vaccine (TIVf) in 4-17 yearolds. A Phase 3 observer blind, multicenter study enrolled 2055 healthy participants randomized 2:1 to receive either TIVc or TIVf, respectively (1372 TIVc and 683 TIVf evaluable subjects). Participants received one dose each on Days 1 and 28 (4-8 year-olds not previously vaccinated [NPV]) or one dose on Day 1 (4-8 and 9-17 yearolds previously vaccinated [PV]). Solicited adverse events (AEs) occurring within 7 days after each vaccination were assessed; participants were followed up for 6 months after their last dose for safety. Most solicited and unsolicited AEs were mild to moderate with vaccine-related SAEs were reported. TIVc and TIVf were similar in percentages of participants reporting solicited reactions in 4-8 years NPV group after the 1st dose: local reactions, TIVc: 48%, TIVf: 43%; systemic reactions, TIVc: 34%, TIVf: 32%; percentages were lower following the 2nd dose in TIVc; local reactions: TIVc: 40%; TIVf: 43%; systemic reactions: TIVc: 21%; TIVf: 22%. In 4-17 years PV group, solicited reactions were lower following TIVf, local reactions: TIVc: 53%; TIVf: 43%; systemic reactions: TIVc: 37%, TIVf: 30%. Injection-site pain was the most common solicited reaction, and was similar following TIVc and TIVf in 4-8 yearolds (TIVc: 56%; TIVf: 55%), and lower following TIVf in 9-17 years group (TIVc: 52%; TIVf: 42%). Reporting of unsolicited AEs was similar for TIVc and TIVf across the two age groups. TIVc was well tolerated and had a safety and reactogenicity profile similar to that of TIVf in healthy 4-17 yearolds (NCT01857206). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic and biological characterisation of an avian-like H1N2 swine influenza virus generated by reassortment of circulating avian-like H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Bragstad, Karoline; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The influenza A virus subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 are the most prevalent subtypes in swine. In 2003, a reassorted H1N2 swine influenza virus (SIV) subtype appeared and became prevalent in Denmark. In the present study, the reassortant H1N2 subtype was characterised genetically...... and the infection dynamics compared to an “avian-like” H1N1 virus by an experimental infection study. METHODS: Sequence analyses were performed of the H1N2 virus. Two groups of pigs were inoculated with the reassortant H1N2 virus and an “avian-like” H1N1 virus, respectively, followed by inoculation...... with the opposite subtype four weeks later. Measurements of HI antibodies and acute phase proteins were performed. Nasal virus excretion and virus load in lungs were determined by real-time RT-PCR. RESULTS: The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the reassorted H1N2 virus contained a European “avian-like” H1-gene...

  19. Protection of guinea pigs by vaccination with a recombinant swinepox virus co-expressing HA1 genes of swine H1N1 and H3N2 influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiarong; Yang, Deji; Huang, Dongyan; Xu, Jiaping; Liu, Shichao; Lin, Huixing; Zhu, Haodan; Liu, Bao; Lu, Chengping

    2013-03-01

    Swine influenza (SI) is an acute respiratory infectious disease of swine caused by swine influenza virus (SIV). SIV is not only an important respiratory pathogen in pigs but also a potent threat to human health. Here, we report the construction of a recombinant swinepox virus (rSPV/H3-2A-H1) co-expressing hemagglutinin (HA1) of SIV subtypes H1N1 and H3N2. Immune responses and protection efficacy of the rSPV/H3-2A-H1 were evaluated in guinea pigs. Inoculation of rSPV/H3-2A-H1 yielded neutralizing antibodies against SIV H1N1 and H3N2. The IFN-γ and IL-4 concentrations in the supernatant of lymphocytes stimulated with purified SIV HA1 antigen were significantly higher (P guinea pigs against SIV H1N1 or H3N2 challenge was observed. No SIV shedding was detected from guinea pigs vaccinated with rSPV/H3-2A-H1 after challenge. Most importantly, the guinea pigs immunized with rSPV/H3-2A-H1 did not show gross and micrographic lung lesions. However, the control guinea pigs experienced distinct gross and micrographic lung lesions at 7 days post-challenge. Our data suggest that the recombinant swinepox virus encoding HA1 of SIV H1N1 and H3N2 might serve as a promising candidate vaccine for protection against SIV H1N1 and H3N2 infections.

  20. Vector optimization and needle-free intradermal application of a broadly protective polyvalent influenza A DNA vaccine for pigs and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggren, Marie; Nielsen, Jens; Bragstad, Karoline

    2015-01-01

    such as the induction of cellular and humoral immunity, inherent safety and rapid production time. We have previously developed a DNA vaccine encoding selected influenza proteins of pandemic origin and demonstrated broad protective immune responses in ferrets and pigs. In this study, we evaluated our DNA vaccine......The threat posed by the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus emphasized the need for new influenza A virus vaccines inducing a broad cross-protective immune response for use in both humans and pigs. An effective and broad influenza vaccine for pigs would greatly benefit the pork industry and contribute...... to public health by diminishing the risk of emerging highly pathogenic reassortants. Current inactivated protein vaccines against swine influenza produce only short-lived immunity and have no efficacy against heterologous strains. DNA vaccines are a potential alternative with advantages...

  1. Efficacy of two H5N9-inactivated vaccines against challenge with a recent H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza isolate from a chicken in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublot, Michel; Le Gros, François-Xavier; Nieddu, Daniela; Pritchard, Nikki; Mickle, Thomas R; Swayne, David E

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of two avian influenza (AI) H5-inactivated vaccines containing either an American (A/turkey/Wisconsin/68 H5N9; H5N9-WI) or a Eurasian isolate (A/chicken/Italy/22A/98 H5N9; H5N9-It). Three-week-old specific pathogen-free chickens were vaccinated once and challenged 3 wk later with a H5N1 highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) virus isolated from a chicken in Thailand in 2004. All unvaccinated challenged birds died within 2 days, whereas 90% and 100% of chickens vaccinated with H5N9-WI and H5N9-It, respectively, were protected against morbidity and mortality. Both vaccines prevented cloacal shedding and significantly reduced oral shedding of the challenge HPAI virus. Additional chickens (vaccinated or unvaccinated) were placed in contact with the directly challenged birds 18 hr after challenge. All unvaccinated chickens in contact with unvaccinated challenged birds died within 3 days after contact, whereas unvaccinated chickens in contact with vaccinated challenged birds either showed a significantly delayed mortality or did not become infected. All vaccinated contacts were protected against clinical signs, and most chickens did not shed detectable amount of HPAI virus. Altogether, these data indicate that both vaccines protected very well against morbidity and mortality and reduced or prevented shedding induced by direct or contact exposure to Asian H5N1 HPAI virus.

  2. Randomized trial to compare the safety and immunogenicity of CSL Limited's 2009 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine to an established vaccine in United States children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Rebecca C; Hu, Wilson; Houchin, Vonda G; Eder, Frank S; Jackson, Kenneth C; Hartel, Gunter F; Sawlwin, Daphne C; Albano, Frank R; Greenberg, Michael

    2014-12-12

    A trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (CSL's TIV, CSL Limited) was licensed under USA accelerated approval regulations for use in persons≥18 years. We performed a randomized, observer-blind study to assess the safety and immunogenicity of CSL's TIV versus an established US-licensed vaccine in a population≥6 months to vaccination history determined the dosing regimen (one or two vaccinations). Subjects received CSL's TIV (n=739) or the established vaccine (n=735) in the autumn of 2009. Serum hemagglutination-inhibition titers were determined pre-vaccination and 30 days after the last vaccination. No febrile seizures or other vaccine-related SAEs were reported. After the first vaccination for Cohorts A and B, respectively, the relative risks of fever were 2.73 and 2.32 times higher for CSL's TIV compared to the established vaccine. Irritability and loss of appetite (for Cohort A) and malaise (for Cohort B) were also significantly higher for CSL's TIV compared to the established vaccine. Post-vaccination geometric mean titers (GMTs) for CSL's TIV versus the established vaccine were 385.49 vs. 382.45 for H1N1; 669.13 vs. 705.61 for H3N2; and 100.65 vs. 93.72 for B. CSL's TIV demonstrated immunological non-inferiority to the established vaccine in all cohorts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pandemic Swine-Origin H1N1 Influenza Virus Replicates to Higher Levels and Induces More Fever and Acute Inflammatory Cytokines in Cynomolgus versus Rhesus Monkeys and Can Replicate in Common Marmosets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Mooij

    Full Text Available The close immunological and physiological resemblance with humans makes non-human primates a valuable model for studying influenza virus pathogenesis and immunity and vaccine efficacy against infection. Although both cynomolgus and rhesus macaques are frequently used in influenza virus research, a direct comparison of susceptibility to infection and disease has not yet been performed. In the current study a head-to-head comparison was made between these species, by using a recently described swine-origin pandemic H1N1 strain, A/Mexico/InDRE4487/2009. In comparison to rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques developed significantly higher levels of virus replication in the upper airways and in the lungs, involving both peak level and duration of virus production, as well as higher increases in body temperature. In contrast, clinical symptoms, including respiratory distress, were more easily observed in rhesus macaques. Expression of sialyl-α-2,6-Gal saccharides, the main receptor for human influenza A viruses, was 50 to 73 times more abundant in trachea and bronchus of cynomolgus macaques relative to rhesus macaques. The study also shows that common marmosets, a New World non-human primate species, are susceptible to infection with pandemic H1N1. The study results favor the cynomolgus macaque as model for pandemic H1N1 influenza virus research because of the more uniform and high levels of virus replication, as well as temperature increases, which may be due to a more abundant expression of the main human influenza virus receptor in the trachea and bronchi.

  4. Pre-infection of pigs with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae modifies outcomes of infection with European swine influenza virus of H1N1, but not H1N2, subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblanc, C; Gorin, S; Quéguiner, S; Gautier-Bouchardon, A V; Ferré, S; Amenna, N; Cariolet, R; Simon, G

    2012-05-25

    Swine influenza virus (SIV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) are widespread in farms and are major pathogens involved in the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). The aim of this experiment was to compare the pathogenicity of European avian-like swine H1N1 and European human-like reassortant swine H1N2 viruses in naïve pigs and in pigs previously infected with Mhp. Six groups of SPF pigs were inoculated intra-tracheally with either Mhp, or H1N1, or H1N2 or Mhp+H1N1 or Mhp+H1N2, both pathogens being inoculated at 21 days intervals in these two last groups. A mock-infected group was included. Although both SIV strains induced clinical signs when singly inoculated, results indicated that the H1N2 SIV was more pathogenic than the H1N1 virus, with an earlier shedding and a greater spread in lungs. Initial infection with Mhp before SIV inoculation increased flu clinical signs and pathogenesis (hyperthermia, loss of appetite, pneumonia lesions) due to the H1N1 virus but did not modify significantly outcomes of H1N2 infection. Thus, Mhp and SIV H1N1 appeared to act synergistically, whereas Mhp and SIV H1N2 would compete, as H1N2 infection led to the elimination of Mhp in lung diaphragmatic lobes. In conclusion, SIV would be a risk factor for the severity of respiratory disorders when associated with Mhp, depending on the viral subtype involved. This experimental model of coinfection with Mhp and avian-like swine H1N1 is a relevant tool for studying the pathogenesis of SIV-associated PRDC and testing intervention strategies for the control of the disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Key Facts about Influenza (Flu) and Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swine Variant Pandemic Other Key Facts About Influenza (Flu) Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Flu Treating Flu What is Influenza (also called Flu)? The flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused ...

  6. Influenza A (H3N2) Variant Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swine Variant Pandemic Other Influenza A (H3N2) Variant Virus Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Influenza viruses that normally circulate in pigs are called “variant” ...

  7. Optimization of inactivated H5N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza vaccine and inactivated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine with antigen dose and prime-boost regimen in domestic ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, Seong-Su; To, Eredene-Ochir; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Noh, Jin-Yong; Hong, Woo-Tack; Jeong, Jei-Hyun; Gwon, Gyeong-Bin; Song, Chang-Seon

    2017-09-01

    Owing to the increase in the number of diseases affecting ducks and the demand for food safety by consumers, vaccination has become one of the factors that influence duck meat productivity. The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus is one of the most prevalent and causes one of the most lethal diseases in domestic ducks, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a food-borne pathogen persistent in the domestic duck population. To better understand the optimal usage of HPAI and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccines, we aimed to determine antigen dose, oil and gel adjuvant usage with prime-boost regimen, and vaccination age, inducing the best immune response in ducks, without an effect on body weight gain. In the case of the inactivated H5N9 vaccine, a single dose of vaccine was inadequate to induce proper antibody titer when administered to day-old ducks, which necessitates boost vaccination. Administration of the oil-adjuvanted H5N9 vaccine administration in day-old and 2-week-old ducks resulted in a lower body weight at the time of slaughtering, compared to that of gel-adjuvanted H5N9 vaccine. However, gel-adjuvanted H5N9 vaccine failed to induce proper immune response to an extent recommend by OIE-World Organization for Animal Health. In the case of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine, a moderate or low dose of vaccine was appropriate for day-old ducks receiving the gel prime-oil boost vaccination. Single vaccination with oil adjuvants affects the mean body weight of 7-week-old ducks, suggesting that the gel adjuvant is more suitable for meat production. We expect that the use of adjuvants in a prime-boost regimen and at antigen doses set in this study will be helpful to maximize body weight in the case of domestic duck production at the actual farm site. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. High-resolution computed tomography findings of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection: comparison with scrub typhus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Bang Sil; Lee, In Jae; Lee, Kwanseop; Im, Hyoung June

    2012-01-01

    Background. Swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection and scrub typhus, also known as tsutsugamushi disease can manifest as acute respiratory illnesses, particularly during the late fall or early winter, with similar radiographic findings, such as a predominance of ground-glass opacity (GGO). Purpose. To differentiate S-OIV infection from scrub typhus using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Material and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the HRCT findings of 14 patients with S-OIV infection and 10 patients with scrub typhus. We assessed the location, cross-sectional distribution, and the presence of a peribronchovascular distribution of GGO and consolidations on HRCT. We also assessed the presence of interlobular septal thickening, bronchial wall thickening, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, pleural effusion, and mediastinal or axillary lymph node enlargement. Results. Scrub typhus was more common than S-OIV in elderly patients (P < 0.001). The monthly incidences of S-OIV and scrub typhus infection reached a peak between October and November. About 86% of S-OIV patients and 80% of scrub typhus patients presented with GGO. About 67% of the GGO lesions in S-OIV had a peribronchovascular distribution, but this was absent in scrub typhus (P = 0.005). Consolidation (93% vs. 10%, P < 0.001) and bronchial wall thickening (43% vs. 0%, P = 0.024) were more frequent in S-OIV infection than scrub typhus. Interlobular septal thickening (90% vs. 36%, P = 0.013) and axillary lymphadenopathy (90% vs. 0%, P < 0.001) were more common in scrub typhus than S-OIV infection. Conclusion. There was considerable overlap in HRCT findings between S-OIV infection and scrub typhus. However, S-OIV showed a distinctive peribronchovascular distribution of GGO lesions. Consolidation and bronchial wall thickening were seen more frequently in S-OIV infection, whereas interlobular septal thickening and axillary lymphadenopathy were more common in scrub typhus. Thus, CT could

  9. High-resolution computed tomography findings of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection: comparison with scrub typhus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Bang Sil; Lee, In Jae; Lee, Kwanseop [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ijlee2003@medimail.co.kr; Im, Hyoung June [Dept. of Occupational Medicine, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Background. Swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection and scrub typhus, also known as tsutsugamushi disease can manifest as acute respiratory illnesses, particularly during the late fall or early winter, with similar radiographic findings, such as a predominance of ground-glass opacity (GGO). Purpose. To differentiate S-OIV infection from scrub typhus using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Material and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the HRCT findings of 14 patients with S-OIV infection and 10 patients with scrub typhus. We assessed the location, cross-sectional distribution, and the presence of a peribronchovascular distribution of GGO and consolidations on HRCT. We also assessed the presence of interlobular septal thickening, bronchial wall thickening, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, pleural effusion, and mediastinal or axillary lymph node enlargement. Results. Scrub typhus was more common than S-OIV in elderly patients (P < 0.001). The monthly incidences of S-OIV and scrub typhus infection reached a peak between October and November. About 86% of S-OIV patients and 80% of scrub typhus patients presented with GGO. About 67% of the GGO lesions in S-OIV had a peribronchovascular distribution, but this was absent in scrub typhus (P = 0.005). Consolidation (93% vs. 10%, P < 0.001) and bronchial wall thickening (43% vs. 0%, P = 0.024) were more frequent in S-OIV infection than scrub typhus. Interlobular septal thickening (90% vs. 36%, P = 0.013) and axillary lymphadenopathy (90% vs. 0%, P < 0.001) were more common in scrub typhus than S-OIV infection. Conclusion. There was considerable overlap in HRCT findings between S-OIV infection and scrub typhus. However, S-OIV showed a distinctive peribronchovascular distribution of GGO lesions. Consolidation and bronchial wall thickening were seen more frequently in S-OIV infection, whereas interlobular septal thickening and axillary lymphadenopathy were more common in scrub typhus. Thus, CT could

  10. The safety, immunogenicity, and acceptability of inactivated influenza vaccine delivered by microneedle patch (TIV-MNP 2015): a randomised, partly blinded, placebo-controlled, phase 1 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouphael, Nadine G; Paine, Michele; Mosley, Regina; Henry, Sebastien; McAllister, Devin V; Kalluri, Haripriya; Pewin, Winston; Frew, Paula M; Yu, Tianwei; Thornburg, Natalie J; Kabbani, Sarah; Lai, Lilin; Vassilieva, Elena V; Skountzou, Ioanna; Compans, Richard W; Mulligan, Mark J; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2017-08-12

    Microneedle patches provide an alternative to conventional needle-and-syringe immunisation, and potentially offer improved immunogenicity, simplicity, cost-effectiveness, acceptability, and safety. We describe safety, immunogenicity, and acceptability of the first-in-man study on single, dissolvable microneedle patch vaccination against influenza. The TIV-MNP 2015 study was a randomised, partly blinded, placebo-controlled, phase 1, clinical trial at Emory University that enrolled non-pregnant, immunocompetent adults from Atlanta, GA, USA, who were aged 18-49 years, naive to the 2014-15 influenza vaccine, and did not have any significant dermatological disorders. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to four groups and received a single dose of inactivated influenza vaccine (fluvirin: 18 μg of haemagglutinin per H1N1 vaccine strain, 17 μg of haemagglutinin per H3N2 vaccine strain, and 15 μg of haemagglutinin per B vaccine strain) (1) by microneedle patch or (2) by intramuscular injection, or received (3) placebo by microneedle patch, all administered by an unmasked health-care worker; or received a single dose of (4) inactivated influenza vaccine by microneedle patch self-administered by study participants. A research pharmacist prepared the randomisation code using a computer-generated randomisation schedule with a block size of 4. Because of the nature of the study, participants were not masked to the type of vaccination method (ie, microneedle patch vs intramuscular injection). Primary safety outcome measures are the incidence of study product-related serious adverse events within 180 days, grade 3 solicited or unsolicited adverse events within 28 days, and solicited injection site and systemic reactogenicity on the day of study product administration through 7 days after administration, and secondary safety outcomes are new-onset chronic illnesses within 180 days and unsolicited adverse events within 28 days, all analysed by intention to treat

  11. The evolving history of influenza viruses and influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannoun, Claude

    2013-09-01

    The isolation of influenza virus 80 years ago in 1933 very quickly led to the development of the first generation of live-attenuated vaccines. The first inactivated influenza vaccine was monovalent (influenza A). In 1942, a bivalent vaccine was produced after the discovery of influenza B. It was later discovered that influenza viruses mutated leading to antigenic changes. Since 1973, the WHO has issued annual recommendations for the composition of the influenza vaccine based on results from surveillance systems that identify currently circulating strains. In 1978, the first trivalent vaccine included two influenza A strains and one influenza B strain. Currently, there are two influenza B lineages circulating; in the latest WHO recommendations, it is suggested that a second B strain could be added to give a quadrivalent vaccine. The history of influenza vaccine and the associated technology shows how the vaccine has evolved to match the evolution of influenza viruses.

  12. The 2009 A (H1N1) influenza virus pandemic: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Marc P; Tam, John S; Assossou, Olga M; Kieny, Marie Paule

    2010-07-12

    In March and early April 2009 a new swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV), A (H1N1), emerged in Mexico and the USA. The virus quickly spread worldwide through human-to-human transmission. In view of the number of countries and communities which were reporting human cases, the World Health Organization raised the influenza pandemic alert to the highest level (level 6) on June 11, 2009. The propensity of the virus to primarily affect children, young adults and pregnant women, especially those with an underlying lung or cardiac disease condition, and the substantial increase in rate of hospitalizations, prompted the efforts of the pharmaceutical industry, including new manufacturers from China, Thailand, India and South America, to develop pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccines. All currently registered vaccines were tested for safety and immunogenicity in clinical trials on human volunteers. All were found to be safe and to elicit potentially protective antibody responses after the administration of a single dose of vaccine, including split inactivated vaccines with or without adjuvant, whole-virion vaccines and live-attenuated vaccines. The need for an increased surveillance of influenza virus circulation in swine is outlined. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. A double-blind trial of a new inactivated, trivalent, intra-nasal anti-influenza vaccine in general practice: relationship between immunogenicity and respiratory morbidity over the winter of 1997-98.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiderman, A; Furst, A; Stewart, B; Greenbaum, E; Morag, A; Zakay-Rones, Z

    2001-02-01

    Influenza is responsible for considerable morbidity not only among older people but in younger age groups as well. However, most large-scale anti-influenza vaccination campaigns are still aimed principally at the elderly using injectable vaccines. Until now there has been much less emphasis on targeting younger populations or using intra-nasal vaccines in mass anti-influenza immunisation programmes. To assess the immunogenicity of a new inactivated intra-nasal anti-influenza vaccine and to measure its effect on respiratory morbidity in a volunteer general practice population. A prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial using the new vaccine was carried out over the winter of 1997-98 on 274 healthy patients aged 12-60 from three Israeli general practices, 182 in the vaccine group and 92 in the placebo group. Following vaccination the changes in the antigen levels and episodes of respiratory illness in the vaccine and placebo groups were measured. Protective antibody levels occurred after a single dose of vaccine [influenza H1N1, 41% immune pre-vaccination to 73% post-vaccination; influenza H3N2, 35-66%; influenza B, 27-64%]. Between January and March 1998, when influenza activity was at a peak in Israel, the average number of respiratory illness events in the vaccine group [14 events/100 subjects per month] was significantly less than in the placebo group [22 events/100 subjects per month]; similarly, the average number of respiratory illness days in the vaccine group over the same period [69 days/100 subjects per month] was significantly less than in the placebo group [117 days/100 subjects per month]. The new vaccine possessed significant immunogenicity and was associated with a significant reduction in respiratory morbidity among a group of healthy older children and adults. Since intra-nasal vaccines are simpler to administer and more acceptable to the public than injections the vaccine's potential for use in routine anti-influenza vaccination

  14. Methods for molecular surveillance of influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ruixue; Taubenberger, Jeffery K

    2010-01-01

    Molecular-based techniques for detecting influenza viruses have become an integral component of human and animal surveillance programs in the last two decades. The recent pandemic of the swine-origin influenza A virus (H1N1) and the continuing circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1) further stress the need for rapid and accurate identification and subtyping of influenza viruses for surveillance, outbreak management, diagnosis and treatment. There has been remarkable pr...

  15. Genetic and biological characterisation of an avian-like H1N2 swine influenza virus generated by reassortment of circulating avian-like H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Bragstad, Karoline; Larsen, Lars Erik; Nielsen, Jens; Bøtner, Anette; Heegaard, Peter M H; Fomsgaard, Anders; Viuff, Birgitte; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2013-09-18

    The influenza A virus subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 are the most prevalent subtypes in swine. In 2003, a reassorted H1N2 swine influenza virus (SIV) subtype appeared and became prevalent in Denmark. In the present study, the reassortant H1N2 subtype was characterised genetically and the infection dynamics compared to an "avian-like" H1N1 virus by an experimental infection study. Sequence analyses were performed of the H1N2 virus. Two groups of pigs were inoculated with the reassortant H1N2 virus and an "avian-like" H1N1 virus, respectively, followed by inoculation with the opposite subtype four weeks later. Measurements of HI antibodies and acute phase proteins were performed. Nasal virus excretion and virus load in lungs were determined by real-time RT-PCR. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the reassorted H1N2 virus contained a European "avian-like" H1-gene and a European "swine-like" N2-gene, thus being genetically distinct from most H1N2 viruses circulating in Europe, but similar to viruses reported in 2009/2010 in Sweden and Italy. Sequence analyses of the internal genes revealed that the reassortment probably arose between circulating Danish "avian-like" H1N1 and H3N2 SIVs. Infected pigs developed cross-reactive antibodies, and increased levels of acute phase proteins after inoculations. Pigs inoculated with H1N2 exhibited nasal virus excretion for seven days, peaking day 1 after inoculation two days earlier than H1N1 infected pigs and at a six times higher level. The difference, however, was not statistically significant. Pigs euthanized on day 4 after inoculation, had a high virus load in all lung lobes. After the second inoculation, the nasal virus excretion was minimal. There were no clinical sign except elevated body temperature under the experimental conditions. The "avian-like" H1N2 subtype, which has been established in the Danish pig population at least since 2003, is a reassortant between circulating swine "avian-like" H1N1 and H3N2. The Danish

  16. PANDEMIC SWINE INFLUENZA VIRUS: PREPAREDNESS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zamzar

    offices including Ministries of Health, Agriculture,. Defense ... adapt international standards to local. 4 realities . ... authority to declare an emergency, restrict travel and mass ... Communication goals, strategies, and messages will evolve during ...

  17. Coadministration of Recombinant Adenovirus Expressing GM-CSF with Inactivated H5N1 Avian Influenza Vaccine Increased the Immune Responses and Protective Efficacy Against a Wild Bird Source of H5N1 Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangwei; Wang, Xinglong; Jia, Yanqing; Wang, Chongyang; Tang, Qiuxia; Han, Qingsong; Xiao, Sa; Yang, Zengqi

    2017-10-01

    Wild birds play a key role in the spread of avian influenza virus (AIV). There is a continual urgent requirement for AIV vaccines to address the ongoing genetic changes of AIV. In the current study, we trialed a novel AIV vaccine against the wild bird source of H5N1 type AIV with recombinant adenovirus expressing granulocyte monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as an adjuvant. A total of 150-day-old commercial chicks, with AIV-maternal-derived antibody, were divided into 6 groups. The primary vaccination was performed at day 14 followed by a subsequent boosting and intramuscular challenge on day 28 and 42, respectively. Recombinant GM-CSF (rGM-CSF) expressed by adenovirus, named as rAd-GM-CSF, raised the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers (log 2 ) against AIV from 7.0 (vaccinate with inactivated vaccine alone) to 8.4 after booster immunization. Moreover, the rGM-CSF addition markedly increased the expression of interferon-γ, interleukin-4, and major histocompatibility complex-II in the lungs, compared with those immunized with inactivated vaccine alone on day 29, that is, 18 h post booster immunization. Following challenge, chicks inoculated with the inactivated AIV vaccine and rAd-GM-CSF together exhibited mild clinical signs and 62% survivals compared to 33% in the group immunized with inactivated AIV vaccine alone. Higher level of HI titers, immune related molecule expressions, and protection ratio demonstrates a good potential of rGM-CSF in improving humoral and cell mediated immune responses of inactivated AIV vaccines.

  18. Defining Moments in MMWR History: Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Infection in Two Children, Southern California, March-April 2009

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In 2009, novel influenza A H1N1 virus infection in two children from southern California was first identified. This marked the beginning of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. MMWR was the first scientific publication to break the news of these cases and went on to publish critical findings from the pandemic. In this podcast, Dr. Dan Jernigan discusses this historic public health event.

  19. Identification and Epidemiology of Severe Respiratory Disease due to Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1 Virus Infection in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Zahariadis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In March 2009, global surveillance started detecting cases of influenza-like illness in Mexico. By mid-April 2009, two pediatric patients were identified in the United States who were confirmed to be infected by a novel influenza A (H1N1 strain. The present article describes the first identified severe respiratory infection and the first death associated with pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1 in Canada.

  20. Efficacy of single dose of a bivalent vaccine containing inactivated Newcastle disease virus and reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus against lethal HPAI and NDV infection in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hun Lee

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI and Newcastle disease (ND are 2 devastating diseases of poultry, which cause great economic losses to the poultry industry. In the present study, we developed a bivalent vaccine containing antigens of inactivated ND and reassortant HPAI H5N1 viruses as a candidate poultry vaccine, and we evaluated its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in specific pathogen-free chickens. The 6:2 reassortant H5N1 vaccine strain containing the surface genes of the A/Chicken/Korea/ES/2003(H5N1 virus was successfully generated by reverse genetics. A polybasic cleavage site of the hemagglutinin segment was replaced by a monobasic cleavage site. We characterized the reverse genetics-derived reassortant HPAI H5N1 clade 2.5 vaccine strain by evaluating its growth kinetics in eggs, minimum effective dose in chickens, and cross-clade immunogenicity against HPAI clade 1 and 2. The bivalent vaccine was prepared by emulsifying inactivated ND (La Sota strain and reassortant HPAI viruses with Montanide ISA 70 adjuvant. A single immunization with this vaccine induced high levels of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titers and protected chickens against a lethal challenge with the wild-type HPAI and ND viruses. Our results demonstrate that the bivalent, inactivated vaccine developed in this study is a promising approach for the control of both HPAI H5N1 and ND viral infections.

  1. Finding a new drug and vaccine for emerging swine flu: What is the concept?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Viroj WiwanitkitWiwanitkit House, Bangkhae, Bangkok 10160Abstract: Influenza is a well known infection of the respiratory system. The main clinical manifestations of influenza include fever, sore throat, headache, cough, coryza, and malaise. Apart from the well known classical influenza, there are also groups of influenza virus infections that are called “atypical infection”. These infections are usually due to a novel influenza virus infection. In early 2009, an emerging novel influenza originating from Mexico called swine flu was reported. The World Health Organization noted a level VI precaution, the highest level precaution possible, for this newest influenza virus infection. As of June 2009, it is not known if this disease will be successfully controlled. Finding new drugs and vaccine for the emerging swine flu is still required to cope with this emerging worldwide problem.Keywords: swine flu, drug, vaccine, concept

  2. Immunogenicity and Safety of an Inactivated Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine in US Children 6-35 Months of Age During 2013-2014: Results From A Phase II Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Chandrasekaran, Vijayalakshmi; Domachowske, Joseph B; Li, Ping; Innis, Bruce L; Jain, Varsha K

    2016-06-01

    Viruses from 2 influenza B lineages co-circulate, leading to suboptimal protection with trivalent influenza vaccines (TIV). Quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIV) containing both lineages offer broader protection. We compared inactivated seasonal QIV versus TIV (15 and 7.5 μg hemagglutinin [HA] for each influenza strain, respectively) in a phase II randomized (1 : 1), observer-blind trial in US children 6-35 months of age (identifier NCT01974895). The primary objective was to evaluate immune responses induced by QIV for the 4 vaccine strains 28 days after completion of vaccination. A secondary objective was to demonstrate superiority of QIV versus TIV for the B/Victoria strain contained in QIV but not TIV. Immunogenicity was evaluated in the per-protocol cohort (N = 280), and safety was evaluated in the intent-to-treat cohort (N = 314). Seroconversion rates (SCRs) for QIV were 80.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73.0%-86.6%), 72.0% (95% CI, 63.9%-79.2%), 86.0% (95% CI, 79.2%-91.2%), and 66.4% (95% CI, 58.1%-74.1%) for A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B/Yamagata, and B/Victoria, respectively. Quadrivalent influenza vaccines demonstrated immunogenic superiority over TIV for B/Victoria with a geometric mean titer ratio of 4.73 (95% CI, 3.73%-5.99%) and SCR difference of 54.02% (95% CI, 43.88%-62.87%). Safety was similar between the vaccine groups despite the QIV's higher antigen content. No serious adverse events were reported related to vaccination. Quadrivalent influenza vaccine (15 µg HA/strain) was immunogenic with an acceptable safety profile. The next phase of its development in children 6-35 months of age is a phase III trial in countries where it is not yet licensed. In countries where it is already licensed, a switch from TIV to QIV would provide broader protection in this vulnerable group. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society.

  3. Immunogenicity and Safety of an Inactivated Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine in US Children 6–35 Months of Age During 2013–2014: Results From A Phase II Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Chandrasekaran, Vijayalakshmi; Domachowske, Joseph B.; Li, Ping; Innis, Bruce L.; Jain, Varsha K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Viruses from 2 influenza B lineages co-circulate, leading to suboptimal protection with trivalent influenza vaccines (TIV). Quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIV) containing both lineages offer broader protection. Methods We compared inactivated seasonal QIV versus TIV (15 and 7.5 μg hemagglutinin [HA] for each influenza strain, respectively) in a phase II randomized (1 : 1), observer-blind trial in US children 6–35 months of age (identifier NCT01974895). The primary objective was to evaluate immune responses induced by QIV for the 4 vaccine strains 28 days after completion of vaccination. A secondary objective was to demonstrate superiority of QIV versus TIV for the B/Victoria strain contained in QIV but not TIV. Immunogenicity was evaluated in the per-protocol cohort (N = 280), and safety was evaluated in the intent-to-treat cohort (N = 314). Results Seroconversion rates (SCRs) for QIV were 80.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73.0%–86.6%), 72.0% (95% CI, 63.9%–79.2%), 86.0% (95% CI, 79.2%–91.2%), and 66.4% (95% CI, 58.1%–74.1%) for A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B/Yamagata, and B/Victoria, respectively. Quadrivalent influenza vaccines demonstrated immunogenic superiority over TIV for B/Victoria with a geometric mean titer ratio of 4.73 (95% CI, 3.73%–5.99%) and SCR difference of 54.02% (95% CI, 43.88%–62.87%). Safety was similar between the vaccine groups despite the QIV's higher antigen content. No serious adverse events were reported related to vaccination. Conclusions Quadrivalent influenza vaccine (15 µg HA/strain) was immunogenic with an acceptable safety profile. The next phase of its development in children 6–35 months of age is a phase III trial in countries where it is not yet licensed. In countries where it is already licensed, a switch from TIV to QIV would provide broader protection in this vulnerable group. PMID:26407273

  4. Swine flu - A pandemic outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jini George

    Full Text Available Hippocrates had described influenza like outbreak in 412 B.C. and since then repeated influenza like epidemics and pandemics have been recorded in recent times. One of the greatest killers of all time was the pandemic of swine flu (Spanish flu of 1918-1919, when 230 million people died. Annual influenza epidemics are estimated to affect 5–15% of the global population, resulting in severe illness in 3–5 million patients causing 250,000–500,000 deaths worldwide. Severe illness and deaths occur mainly in the high-risk populations of infants, the elderly and chronically ill patients. The 2009 outbreak of swine flu is thought to be a mutation more specifically a reassortment of four known strains of influenza A virus subtype H1N1; one endemic in humans, one endemic in birds, and two endemic in pigs. WHO officially declared the outbreak to be a pandemic on June 11, 2009, but stressed that the new designation was a result of the global "spread of the virus," not its severity. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 472-474

  5. Defining Moments in MMWR History: Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Infection in Two Children, Southern California, March-April 2009

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-07-17

    In 2009, novel influenza A H1N1 virus infection in two children from southern California was first identified. This marked the beginning of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. MMWR was the first scientific publication to break the news of these cases and went on to publish critical findings from the pandemic. In this podcast, Dr. Dan Jernigan discusses this historic public health event.  Created: 7/17/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 7/17/2017.

  6. Frequency of apnea, bradycardia, and desaturations following first diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B immunization in hospitalized preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spady Donald W

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse cardiorespiratory events including apnea, bradycardia, and desaturations have been described following administration of the first diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B (DTP-IPV-Hib immunization to preterm infants. The effect of the recent substitution of acellular pertussis vaccine for whole cell pertussis vaccine on the frequency of these events requires further study. Methods Infants with gestational age of ≤ 32 weeks who received their first DTP-IPV-Hib immunization prior to discharge from two Edmonton Neonatal Intensive Care Units January 1, 1996 to November 30, 2000 were eligible for the study. Each immunized infant was matched by gestational age to one control infant. The number of episodes of apnea, bradycardia, and/or desaturations (ABD and the treatment required for these episodes in the 72 hours prior to and 72 hours post-immunization (for the immunized cohort or at the same post-natal age (for controls was recorded. Results Thirty-four infants who received DTP-IPV-Hib with whole cell pertussis vaccine, 90 infants who received DTP-IPV-Hib with acellular pertussis vaccine, and 124 control infants were entered in the study. Fifty-six immunized infants (45.1% and 36 control infants (29.0% had a resurgence of or increased ABD in the 72 hours post-immunization in the immunized infants and at the same post-natal age in the controls with an adjusted odds ratio for immunized infants of 2.41 (95% CI 1.29,4.51 as compared to control infants. The incidence of an increase in adverse cardiorespiratory events post-immunization was the same in infants receiving whole cell or acellular pertussis vaccine (44.1% versus 45.6%. Eighteen immunized infants (14.5% and 51 control infants (41.1% had a reduction in ABD in the 72 hours post- immunization or at the equivalent postnatal age in controls for an odds ratio of 0.175 (95%CI 0.08, 0.39. The need for therapy of ABD in the immunized

  7. Frequency of apnea, bradycardia, and desaturations following first diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B immunization in hospitalized preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jackie; Robinson, Joan L; Spady, Donald W

    2006-01-01

    Background Adverse cardiorespiratory events including apnea, bradycardia, and desaturations have been described following administration of the first diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B (DTP-IPV-Hib) immunization to preterm infants. The effect of the recent substitution of acellular pertussis vaccine for whole cell pertussis vaccine on the frequency of these events requires further study. Methods Infants with gestational age of ≤ 32 weeks who received their first DTP-IPV-Hib immunization prior to discharge from two Edmonton Neonatal Intensive Care Units January 1, 1996 to November 30, 2000 were eligible for the study. Each immunized infant was matched by gestational age to one control infant. The number of episodes of apnea, bradycardia, and/or desaturations (ABD) and the treatment required for these episodes in the 72 hours prior to and 72 hours post-immunization (for the immunized cohort) or at the same post-natal age (for controls) was recorded. Results Thirty-four infants who received DTP-IPV-Hib with whole cell pertussis vaccine, 90 infants who received DTP-IPV-Hib with acellular pertussis vaccine, and 124 control infants were entered in the study. Fifty-six immunized infants (45.1%) and 36 control infants (29.0%) had a resurgence of or increased ABD in the 72 hours post-immunization in the immunized infants and at the same post-natal age in the controls with an adjusted odds ratio for immunized infants of 2.41 (95% CI 1.29,4.51) as compared to control infants. The incidence of an increase in adverse cardiorespiratory events post-immunization was the same in infants receiving whole cell or acellular pertussis vaccine (44.1% versus 45.6%). Eighteen immunized infants (14.5%) and 51 control infants (41.1%) had a reduction in ABD in the 72 hours post- immunization or at the equivalent postnatal age in controls for an odds ratio of 0.175 (95%CI 0.08, 0.39). The need for therapy of ABD in the immunized infants was not

  8. Infecção pelo vírus Influenza A (H1N1 de origem suína: como reconhecer, diagnosticar e prevenir How to prevent, recognize and diagnose infection with the swine-origin Influenza A (H1N1 virus in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcyone Artioli Machado

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Em março de 2009, houve o início de uma epidemia de gripe no México que, em pouco tempo, levou ao surgimento de casos semelhantes em outros países, alertando as autoridades sanitárias para o risco de uma pandemia. Neste artigo, descrevemos os principais sinais e sintomas da infecção pelo vírus Influenza A (H1N1 de origem suína, as medidas a serem tomadas para os casos suspeitos ou confirmados e como proceder em relação aos contactantes. Comentamos também quais drogas são utilizadas para o tratamento e profilaxia.In March of 2009, a flu epidemic began in Mexico. Shortly thereafter, similar cases appeared in other countries, alerting authorities to the risk of a pandemic. This article details the principal signs and symptoms of infection with the swine-origin Influenza A (H1N1 virus. In addition, the measures to be taken in suspected or confirmed cases are addressed, as are the procedures to follow in relation to contacts. Furthermore, the drugs used in the prophylaxis against and the treatment of infection with the H1N1 virus are described.

  9. Chalcones as novel influenza A (H1N1) neuraminidase inhibitors from Glycyrrhiza inflata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Trong Tuan; Nguyen, Phi Hung; Lee, Hong Sik

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of highly pathogenic influenza A virus strains, such as the new H1N1 swine influenza (novel influenza), represents a serious threat to global human health. During our course of an anti-influenza screening program on natural products, one new licochalcone G (1) and seven known (2-8) ...

  10. Rapid separation and identification of the subtypes of swine and equine influenza A viruses by electromigration techniques with UV and fluorometric detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Marie; Kubíček, O.; Kubesová, Anna; Rosenbergová, K.; Kubíčková, Z.; Šlais, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 136, č. 14 (2011), s. 3010-3015 ISSN 0003-2654 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00310701; GA MV VG20112015021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : influenza viruses * capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) * capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.230, year: 2011

  11. Protective immunity against influenza in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, Peter Paul

    2002-01-01

    Swine influenza is a highly contagious acute viral disease of the respiratory tract in pigs, which is prevalent world-wide. The disease causes considerable economic damage primarily due to reduced weight gain in finishing pigs and reduced reproductive performance of sows. In addition, influenza is a

  12. Treatment and Prevention of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rewar, Suresh; Mirdha, Dashrath; Rewar, Prahlad

    2015-01-01

    Swine influenza is a respiratory infection common to pigs worldwide caused by type A influenza viruses, principally subtypes H1N1, H1N2, H2N1, H3N1, H3N2, and H2N3. Swine influenza viruses also can cause moderate to severe illness in humans and affect persons of all age groups. People in close contact with swine are at especially high risk. Until recently, epidemiological study of influenza was limited to resource-rich countries. The World Health Organization declared an H1N1 pandemic on June 11, 2009, after more than 70 countries reported 30,000 cases of H1N1 infection. In 2015, incidence of swine influenza increased substantially to reach a 5-year high. In India in 2015, 10,000 cases of swine influenza were reported with 774 deaths. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend real-time polymerase chain reaction as the method of choice for diagnosing H1N1. Antiviral drugs are the mainstay of clinical treatment of swine influenza and can make the illness milder and enable the patient to feel better faster. Antiviral drugs are most effective when they are started within the first 48 hours after the clinical signs begin, although they also may be used in severe or high-risk cases first seen after this time. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends use of oseltamivir (Tamiflu, Genentech) or zanamivir (Relenza, GlaxoSmithKline). Prevention of swine influenza has 3 components: prevention in swine, prevention of transmission to humans, and prevention of its spread among humans. Because of limited treatment options, high risk for secondary infection, and frequent need for intensive care of individuals with H1N1 pneumonia, environmental control, including vaccination of high-risk populations and public education are critical to control of swine influenza out breaks. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Predicting spread of new pandemic swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) in local mid-size city: evaluation of hospital bed shortage and effectiveness of vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Shouhei; Kuroda, Yoshiki

    2010-01-01

    On April 24th, 2009, a new swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) was first reported in Mexico. Japan confirmed cases of the flu on May 9th, and the pandemic in Japan has become full-scale. The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan announced that the first peak of this pandemic was predicted to occur in October, 2009. Therefore, it is most important to predict the progress of this pandemic to be able to use medical resources effectively in Japan. We used a modified susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered (SEIR) model to calculate the number of infected people and hospital bed shortage during this pandemic. In this model, available medical resources were investigated on the basis of four vaccination scenarios. Our model showed that it would take a further six months for the pandemic to peak than was predicted by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan. Without vaccination, at the peak of the pandemic 23,689 out of 400,000 people would be infected and the hospital bed shortage would reach 7,349 in total. We suggest that mathematical models are strong tools to predict the spread of infectious diseases. According to our model, it is possible to prevent hospital bed shortage by vaccination.

  14. Influenza A Viruses of Swine (IAV-S) in Vietnam from 2010 to 2015: Multiple Introductions of A(H1N1)pdm09 Viruses into the Pig Population and Diversifying Genetic Constellations of Enzootic IAV-S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemae, Nobuhiro; Harada, Michiyo; Nguyen, Phuong Thanh; Nguyen, Tung; Nguyen, Tien Ngoc; To, Thanh Long; Nguyen, Tho Dang; Pham, Vu Phong; Le, Vu Tri; Do, Hoa Thi; Vo, Hung Van; Le, Quang Vinh Tin; Tran, Tan Minh; Nguyen, Thanh Duy; Thai, Phuong Duy; Nguyen, Dang Hoang; Le, Anh Quynh Thi; Nguyen, Diep Thi; Uchida, Yuko; Saito, Takehiko

    2017-01-01

    Active surveillance of influenza A viruses of swine (IAV-S) involving 262 farms and 10 slaughterhouses in seven provinces in northern and southern Vietnam from 2010 to 2015 yielded 388 isolates from 32 farms; these viruses were classified into H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes. Whole-genome sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolates represented 15 genotypes, according to the genetic constellation of the eight segments. All of the H1N1 viruses were entirely A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, whereas all of the H1N2 and H3N2 viruses were reassortants among 5 distinct ancestral viruses: H1 and H3 triple-reassortant (TR) IAV-S that originated from North American pre-2009 human seasonal H1, human seasonal H3N2, and A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. Notably, 93% of the reassortant IAV-S retained M genes that were derived from A(H1N1)pdm09, suggesting some advantage in terms of their host adaptation. Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis revealed that multiple introductions of A(H1N1)pdm09 and TR IAV-S into the Vietnamese pig population have driven the genetic diversity of currently circulating Vietnamese IAV-S. In addition, our results indicate that a reassortant IAV-S with human-like H3 and N2 genes and an A(H1N1)pdm09 origin M gene likely caused a human case in Ho Chi Minh City in 2010. Our current findings indicate that human-to-pig transmission as well as cocirculation of different IAV-S have contributed to diversifying the gene constellations of IAV-S in Vietnam. This comprehensive genetic characterization of 388 influenza A viruses of swine (IAV-S) isolated through active surveillance of Vietnamese pig farms from 2010 through 2015 provides molecular epidemiological insight into the genetic diversification of IAV-S in Vietnam after the emergence of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. Multiple reassortments among A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses and enzootic IAV-S yielded 14 genotypes, 9 of which carried novel gene combinations. The reassortants that carried M genes derived from A(H1N1

  15. Isolation of a Reassortant H1N2 Swine Flu Strain of Type “Swine-Human-Avian” and Its Genetic Variability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-Bai Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We isolated an influenza strain named A/Swine/Fujian/F1/2010 (H1N2 from a pig suspected to be infected with swine flu. The results of electron microscopy, hemagglutination (HA assay, hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay, and whole genome sequencing analysis suggest that it was a reassortant virus of swine (H1N1 subtype, human (H3N2 subtype, and avian influenza viruses. To further study the genetic evolution of A/Swine/Fujian/F1/2010 (H1N2, we cloned its whole genome fragments using RT-PCR and performed phylogenetic analysis on the eight genes. As a result, the nucleotide sequences of HA, NA, PB1, PA, PB2, NP, M, and NS gene are similar to those of A/Swine/Shanghai/1/2007(H1N2 with identity of 98.9%, 98.9%, 99.0%, 98.6%, 99.0%, 98.9%, 99.3%, and 99.3%, respectively. Similar to A/Swine/Shanghai/1/2007(H1N2, we inferred that the HA, NP, M, and NS gene fragments of A/Swine/Fujian/F1/2010 (H1N2 strain were derived from classical swine influenza H3N2 subtype, NA and PB1 were derived from human swine influenza H3N2 subtype, and PB2 and PA genes were derived from avian influenza virus. This further validates the role of swine as a “mixer” for influenza viruses.

  16. 76 FR 79203 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Avian Influenza Vaccines for Domesticated Poultry/Wild...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Exclusive License: Avian Influenza Vaccines for Domesticated Poultry/Wild Birds To Be Provided to the... serotypes H5N1, H1N1, H3N2, and H3N8 for poultry, swine and equine. Particularly one vaccine, a trivalent... influenza vaccines are specifically designed for poultry, swine and equine recipients, with the following...

  17. Pulmonary immunization of chickens using non-adjuvanted spray-freeze dried whole inactivated virus vaccine completely protects against highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Ben; Tonnis, Wouter F.; Murugappan, Senthil; Rottier, Peter; Koch, Guus; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Huckriede, Anke; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus is a major threat to public health as well as to the global poultry industry. Most fatal human infections are caused by contact with infected poultry. Therefore, preventing the virus from entering the poultry population is a priority. This is,

  18. Identification of reassortant pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in Korean pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jae Yeon; Park, Sung Jun; Kim, Hye Kwon; Rho, Semi; Nguyen, Giap Van; Song, Daesub; Kang, Bo Kyu; Moon, Hyung Jun; Yeom, Min Joo; Park, Bong Kyun

    2012-05-01

    Since the 2009 pandemic human H1N1 influenza A virus emerged in April 2009, novel reassortant strains have been identified throughout the world. This paper describes the detection and isolation of reassortant strains associated with human pandemic influenza H1N1 and swine influenza H1N2 (SIV) viruses in swine populations in South Korea. Two influenza H1N2 reassortants were detected, and subtyped by PCR. The strains were isolated using Madin- Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, and genetically characterized by phylogenetic analysis for genetic diversity. They consisted of human, avian, and swine virus genes that were originated from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus and a neuraminidase (NA) gene from H1N2 SIV previously isolated in North America. This identification of reassortment events in swine farms raises concern that reassortant strains may continuously circulate within swine populations, calling for the further study and surveillance of pandemic H1N1 among swine.

  19. Influenza A Subtyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Karen L.; Mangold, Kathy A.; Du, Hongyan; Pesavento, Kristen M.; Nawrocki, John; Nowak, Jan A.

    2010-01-01

    Influenza virus subtyping has emerged as a critical tool in the diagnosis of influenza. Antiviral resistance is present in the majority of seasonal H1N1 influenza A infections, with association of viral strain type and antiviral resistance. Influenza A virus subtypes can be reliably distinguished by examining conserved sequences in the matrix protein gene. We describe our experience with an assay for influenza A subtyping based on matrix gene sequences. Viral RNA was prepared from nasopharyngeal swab samples, and real-time RT-PCR detection of influenza A and B was performed using a laboratory developed analyte-specific reagent-based assay that targets a conserved region of the influenza A matrix protein gene. FluA-positive samples were analyzed using a second RT-PCR assay targeting the matrix protein gene to distinguish seasonal influenza subtypes based on differential melting of fluorescence resonance energy transfer probes. The novel H1N1 influenza strain responsible for the 2009 pandemic showed a melting profile distinct from that of seasonal H1N1 or H3N2 and compatible with the predicted melting temperature based on the published novel H1N1 matrix gene sequence. Validation by comparison with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention real-time RT-PCR for swine influenza A (novel H1N1) test showed this assay to be both rapid and reliable (>99% sensitive and specific) in the identification of the novel H1N1 influenza A virus strain. PMID:20595627

  20. Antibody responses induced by Japanese whole inactivated vaccines against equine influenza virus (H3N8) belonging to Florida sublineage clade2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Takashi; Bannai, Hiroshi; Nemoto, Manabu; Tsujimura, Koji; Kondo, Takashi; Matsumura, Tomio

    2011-04-01

    In 2010, the World Organisation for Animal Health recommended the inclusion of a Florida sublineage clade2 strain of equine influenza virus (H3N8), which is represented by A/equine/Richmond/1/07 (Richmond07), in equine influenza vaccines. Here, we evaluate the antigenic differences between Japanese vaccine strains and Richmond07 by performing hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. Ferret antiserum raised to A/equine/La Plata/93 (La Plata93), which is a Japanese vaccine strain, reacted with Richmond07 at a similar titer to La Plata93. Moreover, two hundred racehorses exhibited similar geometric mean HI antibody titers against La Plata93 and Richmond07 (73.1 and 80.8, respectively). Therefore, we can expect the antibody induced by the current Japanese vaccines to provide some protection against Richmond07-like viruses.

  1. Vaccination-challenge studies with a Port Chalmers/73 (H3N2)-based swine influenza virus vaccine: Reflections on vaccine strain updates and on the vaccine potency test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschauwer, Annebel; Qiu, Yu; Van Reeth, Kristien

    2015-05-11

    The human A/Port Chalmers/1/73 (H3N2) influenza virus strain, the supposed ancestor of European H3N2 swine influenza viruses (SIVs), was used in most commercial SIV vaccines in Europe until recently. If manufacturers want to update vaccine strains, they have to perform laborious intratracheal (IT) challenge experiments and demonstrate reduced virus titres in the lungs of vaccinated pigs. We aimed to examine (a) the ability of a Port Chalmers/73-based commercial vaccine to induce cross-protection against a contemporary European H3N2 SIV and serologic cross-reaction against H3N2 SIVs from Europe and North America and (b) the validity of intranasal (IN) challenge and virus titrations of nasal swabs as alternatives for IT challenge and titrations of lung tissue in vaccine potency tests. Pigs were vaccinated with Suvaxyn Flu(®) and challenged by the IT or IN route with sw/Gent/172/08. Post-vaccination sera were examined in haemagglutination-inhibition assays against vaccine and challenge strains and additional H3N2 SIVs from Europe and North America, including an H3N2 variant virus. Tissues of the respiratory tract and nasal swabs were collected 3 days post challenge (DPCh) and from 0-7 DPCh, respectively, and examined by virus titration. Two vaccinations consistently induced cross-reactive antibodies against European H3N2 SIVs from 1998-2012, but minimal or undetectable antibody titres against North American viruses. Challenge virus titres in the lungs, trachea and nasal mucosa of the vaccinated pigs were significantly reduced after both IT and IN challenge. Yet the reduction of virus titres and nasal shedding was greater after IT challenge. The Port Chalmers/73-based vaccine still offered protection against a European H3N2 SIV isolated 35 years later and with only 86.9% amino acid homology in its HA1, but it is unlikely to protect against H3N2 SIVs that are endemic in North America. We use our data to reflect on vaccine strain updates and on the vaccine potency test

  2. Protecting Against Influenza (Flu): Advice for Caregivers of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Protecting Against Influenza (Flu): Advice for Caregivers of Young Children Language: English ( ... from the flu. Advice on How to Prevent Flu for Caregivers of Young Children 1. Take Time ...

  3. In contrast to conventional inactivated influenza vaccines, 4xM2e.HSP70c fusion protein fully protected mice against lethal dose of H1, H3 and H9 influenza A isolates circulating in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi, Seyyed Mahmoud, E-mail: smebrahimi@shirazu.ac.ir [Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-3651,Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center of Virus and Vaccine, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Science, P.O.Box 14155-3651, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dabaghian, Mehran [Department of Pathobiology, University of Tehran, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 14155-6453, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tebianian, Majid [Department of Biotechnology, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute (RVSRI), P.O. Box 31975/148, Karaj, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zabeh Jazi, Mohammad Hossein [Department of Pathobiology, University of Tehran, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 14155-6453, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Ideal vaccines against influenza viruses should elicit not only a humoral response, but also a cellular response. Mycobacterium tuberculosis HSP70 (mHSP70) have been found to promote immunogenic APCs function, elicit a strong cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response, and prevent the induction of tolerance. Moreover, it showed linkage of antigens to the C-terminus of mHSP70 (mHSP70c) can represent them as vaccines resulted in more potent, protective antigen specific responses in the absence of adjuvants or complex formulations. Hence, recombinant fusion protein comprising C-terminus of mHSP70 genetically fused to four tandem repeats of the ectodomain of the conserved influenza matrix protein M2 (M2e) was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified under denaturing condition, refolding, and then confirmed by SDS-PAGE, respectively. The recombinant fusion protein, 4xM2e.HSP70c, retained its immunogenicity and displayed the protective epitope of M2e by ELISA and FITC assays. A prime-boost administration of 4xM2e.HSP70c formulated in F105 buffer by intramuscular route in mice (Balb/C) provided full protection against lethal dose of mouse-adapted H1N1, H3N2, or H9N2 influenza A isolates from Iran compared to 0-33.34% survival rate of challenged unimmunized and immunized mice with the currently in use conventional vaccines designated as control groups. However, protection induced by immunization with 4xM2e.HSP70c failed to prevent weight loss in challenged mice; they experienced significantly lower weight loss, clinical symptoms and higher lung viral clearance in comparison with protective effects of conventional influenza vaccines in challenged mice. These data demonstrate that C-terminal domain of mHSP70 can be a superior candidate to deliver the adjuvant function in M2e-based influenza A vaccine in order to provide significant protection against multiple influenza A virus strains.

  4. In contrast to conventional inactivated influenza vaccines, 4xM2e.HSP70c fusion protein fully protected mice against lethal dose of H1, H3 and H9 influenza A isolates circulating in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi, Seyyed Mahmoud; Dabaghian, Mehran; Tebianian, Majid; Zabeh Jazi, Mohammad Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Ideal vaccines against influenza viruses should elicit not only a humoral response, but also a cellular response. Mycobacterium tuberculosis HSP70 (mHSP70) have been found to promote immunogenic APCs function, elicit a strong cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response, and prevent the induction of tolerance. Moreover, it showed linkage of antigens to the C-terminus of mHSP70 (mHSP70c) can represent them as vaccines resulted in more potent, protective antigen specific responses in the absence of adjuvants or complex formulations. Hence, recombinant fusion protein comprising C-terminus of mHSP70 genetically fused to four tandem repeats of the ectodomain of the conserved influenza matrix protein M2 (M2e) was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified under denaturing condition, refolding, and then confirmed by SDS–PAGE, respectively. The recombinant fusion protein, 4xM2e.HSP70c, retained its immunogenicity and displayed the protective epitope of M2e by ELISA and FITC assays. A prime-boost administration of 4xM2e.HSP70c formulated in F105 buffer by intramuscular route in mice (Balb/C) provided full protection against lethal dose of mouse-adapted H1N1, H3N2, or H9N2 influenza A isolates from Iran compared to 0–33.34% survival rate of challenged unimmunized and immunized mice with the currently in use conventional vaccines designated as control groups. However, protection induced by immunization with 4xM2e.HSP70c failed to prevent weight loss in challenged mice; they experienced significantly lower weight loss, clinical symptoms and higher lung viral clearance in comparison with protective effects of conventional influenza vaccines in challenged mice. These data demonstrate that C-terminal domain of mHSP70 can be a superior candidate to deliver the adjuvant function in M2e-based influenza A vaccine in order to provide significant protection against multiple influenza A virus strains.

  5. Likely Correlation between Sources of Information and Acceptability of A/H1N1 Swine-Origin Influenza Virus Vaccine in Marseille, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninove, Laetitia; Sartor, Catherine; Badiaga, Sékéné; Botelho, Elizabeth; Brouqui, Philippe; Zandotti, Christine; De Lamballerie, Xavier; La Scola, Bernard; Drancourt, Michel; Gould, Ernest A.; Charrel, Rémi N.; Raoult, Didier

    2010-01-01

    Background In France, there was a reluctance to accept vaccination against the A/H1N1 pandemic influenza virus despite government recommendation and investment in the vaccine programme. Methods and Findings We examined the willingness of different populations to accept A/H1N1vaccination (i) in a French hospital among 3315 employees immunized either by in-house medical personnel or mobile teams of MDs and (ii) in a shelter housing 250 homeless persons. Google was used to assess the volume of enquiries concerning incidence of influenza. We analyzed the information on vaccination provided by Google, the website of the major French newspapers, and PubMed. Two trust Surveys were used to assess public opinion on the trustworthiness of people in different professions. Paramedics were significantly more reluctant to accept immunisation than qualified medical staff. Acceptance was significantly increased when recommended directly by MDs. Anecdotal cases of directly observed severe infections were followed by enhanced acceptance of paramedical staff. Scientific literature was significantly more in favour of vaccination than Google and French newspaper websites. In the case of the newspaper websites, information correlated with their recognised political reputations, although they would presumably claim independence from political bias. The Trust Surveys showed that politicians were highly distrusted in contrast with doctors and pharmacists who were considered much more trustworthy. Conclusions The low uptake of the vaccine could reflect failure to convey high quality medical information and advice relating to the benefits of being vaccinated. We believe that the media and internet contributed to this problem by raising concerns within the general population and that failure to involve GPs in the control programme may have been a mistake. GPs are highly regarded by the public and can provide face-to-face professional advice and information. The top-down strategy of vaccine

  6. Risk of narcolepsy associated with inactivated adjuvanted (AS03 A/H1N1 (2009 pandemic influenza vaccine in Quebec.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Montplaisir

    Full Text Available An association between an adjuvanted (AS03 A/H1N1 pandemic vaccine and narcolepsy has been reported in Europe.To assess narcolepsy risk following administration of a similar vaccine in Quebec.Retrospective population-based study.Neurologists and lung specialists in the province were invited to report narcolepsy cases to a single reference centre.Patients were interviewed by two sleep experts and standard diagnostic tests were performed. Immunization status was verified in the provincial pandemic influenza vaccination registry.Confirmed narcolepsy with or without cataplexy with onset of excessive daytime sleepiness between January 1st, 2009, and December 31st, 2010. Relative risks (RRs were calculated using a Poisson model in a cohort analysis, by a self-controlled case series (SCCS and a case-control method.A total of 24 cases were included and overall incidence rate was 1.5 per million person-years. A cluster of 7 cases was observed among vaccinated persons in the winter 2009-2010. In the primary cohort analysis, 16-week post-vaccination RR was 4.32 (95% CI: 1.50-11.12. RR was 2.07 (0.70-6.17 in the SCCS, and 1.48 (0.37-7.03 using the case-control method. Estimates were lower when observation was restricted to the period of pandemic influenza circulation, and tended to be higher in persons <20 years old and for cataplexy cases.Results are compatible with an excess risk of approximately one case per million vaccine doses, mainly in persons less than 20 years of age. However, a confounding effect of the influenza infection cannot be ruled out.

  7. Immunogenicity and Safety of a Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Children 6 Months to 17 Years of Age, Previously Vaccinated with an AS03-Adjuvanted A(H1N1)Pdm09 Vaccine: Two Open-label, Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Berglund, Johan; Korhonen, Tiina; Flodmark, Carl-Erik; Lindstrand, Ann; Silfverdal, Sven Arne; Bambure, Vinod; Caplanusi, Adrian; Dieussaert, Ilse; Roy-Ghanta, Sumita; Vaughn, David W

    2015-07-01

    During the influenza pandemic 2009-2010, an AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine was used extensively in children 6 months of age and older, and during the 2010-2011 influenza season, the A(H1N1)pdm09 strain was included in the seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) without adjuvant. We evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of TIV in children previously vaccinated with the AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine. Healthy children were randomized (1:1) to receive TIV or a control vaccine. Children were aged 6 months to 9 years (n = 154) and adolescents 10-17 years (n = 77) when they received AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine at least 6 months before study enrolment. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralizing antibody responses against the A(H1N1)pdm09 strain were evaluated before (day 0) and at day 28 and month 6 after study vaccination. Reactogenicity was assessed during the 7 day postvaccination period, and safety was assessed for 6 months. At day 0, >93.9% of all children had HI titers ≥1:40 for the A(H1N1)pdm09 strain, which increased to 100% at both day 28 and month 6 in the TIV group. Between days 0 and 28, HI antibody geometric mean titers against A(H1N1)pdm09 increased by 9-fold and 4-fold in children 6 months to 9 years of age and 10-17 years of age, respectively. AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine-induced robust immune responses in children that persisted into the next season, yet were still boosted by TIV containing A(H1N1)pdm09. The reactogenicity and safety profile of TIV did not appear compromised by prior receipt of AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine.

  8. Likely correlation between sources of information and acceptability of A/H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus vaccine in Marseille, France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Nougairède

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In France, there was a reluctance to accept vaccination against the A/H1N1 pandemic influenza virus despite government recommendation and investment in the vaccine programme. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We examined the willingness of different populations to accept A/H1N1 vaccination (i in a French hospital among 3315 employees immunized either by in-house medical personnel or mobile teams of MDs and (ii in a shelter housing 250 homeless persons. Google was used to assess the volume of enquiries concerning incidence of influenza. We analyzed the information on vaccination provided by Google, the website of the major French newspapers, and PubMed. Two trust Surveys were used to assess public opinion on the trustworthiness of people in different professions. Paramedics were significantly more reluctant to accept immunisation than qualified medical staff. Acceptance was significantly increased when recommended directly by MDs. Anecdotal cases of directly observed severe infections were followed by enhanced acceptance of paramedical staff. Scientific literature was significantly more in favour of vaccination than Google and French newspaper websites. In the case of the newspaper websites, information correlated with their recognised political reputations, although they would presumably claim independence from political bias. The Trust Surveys showed that politicians were highly dis-trusted in contrast with doctors and pharmacists who were considered much more trustworthy. CONCLUSIONS: The low uptake of the vaccine could reflect failure to convey high quality medical information and advice relating to the benefits of being vaccinated. We believe that the media and internet contributed to this problem by raising concerns within the general population and that failure to involve GPs in the control programme may have been a mistake. GPs are highly regarded by the public and can provide face-to-face professional advice and information. The top

  9. Protection against H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian and Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Virus Infection in Cynomolgus Monkeys by an Inactivated H5N1 Whole Particle Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Misako; Shichinohe, Shintaro; Itoh, Yasushi; Ishigaki, Hirohito; Kitano, Mitsutaka; Arikata, Masahiko; Pham, Van Loi; Ishida, Hideaki; Kitagawa, Naoko; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Ichikawa, Takaya; Tsuchiya, Hideaki; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Le, Quynh Mai; Ito, Mutsumi; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi; Ogasawara, Kazumasa

    2013-01-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection has been reported in poultry and humans with expanding clade designations. Therefore, a vaccine that induces immunity against a broad spectrum of H5N1 viruses is preferable for pandemic preparedness. We established a second H5N1 vaccine candidate, A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-3/2007 (Vac-3), in our virus library and examined the efficacy of inactivated whole particles of this strain against two clades of H5N1 HPAIV strains that caused severe morbidity in cynomolgus macaques. Virus propagation in vaccinated macaques infected with either of the H5N1 HPAIV strains was prevented compared with that in unvaccinated macaques. This vaccine also prevented propagation of a pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in macaques. In the vaccinated macaques, neutralization activity, which was mainly shown by anti-hemagglutinin antibody, against H5N1 HPAIVs in plasma was detected, but that against H1N1 virus was not detected. However, neuraminidase inhibition activity in plasma and T-lymphocyte responses in lymph nodes against H1N1 virus were detected. Therefore, cross-clade and heterosubtypic protective immunity in macaques consisted of humoral and cellular immunity induced by vaccination with Vac-3. PMID:24376571

  10. Protection against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian and pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza virus infection in cynomolgus monkeys by an inactivated H5N1 whole particle vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misako Nakayama

    Full Text Available H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV infection has been reported in poultry and humans with expanding clade designations. Therefore, a vaccine that induces immunity against a broad spectrum of H5N1 viruses is preferable for pandemic preparedness. We established a second H5N1 vaccine candidate, A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-3/2007 (Vac-3, in our virus library and examined the efficacy of inactivated whole particles of this strain against two clades of H5N1 HPAIV strains that caused severe morbidity in cynomolgus macaques. Virus propagation in vaccinated macaques infected with either of the H5N1 HPAIV strains was prevented compared with that in unvaccinated macaques. This vaccine also prevented propagation of a pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus in macaques. In the vaccinated macaques, neutralization activity, which was mainly shown by anti-hemagglutinin antibody, against H5N1 HPAIVs in plasma was detected, but that against H1N1 virus was not detected. However, neuraminidase inhibition activity in plasma and T-lymphocyte responses in lymph nodes against H1N1 virus were detected. Therefore, cross-clade and heterosubtypic protective immunity in macaques consisted of humoral and cellular immunity induced by vaccination with Vac-3.

  11. Genetic diversity among pandemic 2009 influenza viruses isolated from a transmission chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordyce, Sarah Louise; Bragstad, Karoline; Pedersen, Svend Stenvang

    2013-01-01

    Influenza viruses such as swine-origin influenza A(H1N1) virus (A(H1N1)pdm09) generate genetic diversity due to the high error rate of their RNA polymerase, often resulting in mixed genotype populations (intra-host variants) within a single infection. This variation helps influenza to rapidly res...

  12. Immunogenicity and safety of high-dose trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine compared to standard-dose vaccine in children and young adults with cancer or HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Hana; Allison, Kim J; Van de Velde, Lee-Ann; Tang, Li; Sun, Yilun; Flynn, Patricia M; McCullers, Jonathan A

    2016-06-08

    Approaches to improve the immune response of immunocompromised patients to influenza vaccination are needed. Children and young adults (3-21 years) with cancer or HIV infection were randomized to receive 2 doses of high-dose (HD) trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) or of standard-dose (SD) TIV. Hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody titers were measured against H1, H3, and B antigens after each dose and 9 months later. Seroconversion was defined as ≥4-fold rise in HAI titer comparing pre- and post-vaccine sera. Seroprotection was defined as a post-vaccine HAI titer ≥1:40. Reactogenicity events (RE) were solicited using a structured questionnaire 7 and 14 days after each dose of vaccine, and adverse events by medical record review for 21 days after each dose of vaccine. Eighty-five participants were enrolled in the study; 27 with leukemia, 17 with solid tumor (ST), and 41 with HIV. Recipients of HD TIV had significantly greater fold increase in HAI titers to B antigen in leukemia group and to H1 antigen in ST group compared to SD TIV recipients. This increase was not documented in HIV group. There were no differences in seroconversion or seroprotection between HD TIV and SD TIV in all groups. There was no difference in the percentage of solicited RE in recipients of HD TIV (54% after dose 1 and 38% after dose 2) compared to SD TIV (40% after dose 1 and 20% after dose 2, p=0.27 and 0.09 after dose 1 and 2, respectively). HD TIV was more immunogenic than SD TIV in children and young adults with leukemia or ST, but not with HIV. HD TIV was safe and well-tolerated in children and young adults with leukemia, ST, or HIV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plain, Ronald L; Lawrence, John D

    2003-07-01

    The US swine industry is large and growing. The quantity of pork desired by consumers of US pork is growing at the rate of 1.5%/y. New production systems and new technology have enabled production per sow to grow at a rate of 4% annually in recent years. Consequently, the number of sows in the United States is declining. Because productivity growth is outpacing demand growth, the deflated price of hogs and pork is declining. Hog production and prices continue to exhibit strong seasonal and cyclic patterns. Pork production is usually lowest in the summer and highest in the fall. Production and prices tend to follow 4-year patterns. The US swine industry continues to evolve toward fewer and larger producers who rely on contracts for both hog production and marketing. In 2000, over half of the hogs marketed were from approximately 156 firms marketing more than 50,000 head annually. These producers finished 60% of their production in contract facilities. Over 90% of their marketings were under contract or were owned by a packer. These producers expressed a high level of satisfaction with hog production. Both they and their contract growers were satisfied with production contracts. These large producers were satisfied with their marketing contracts and planned to continue them in the future. The hog industry has changed a great deal in the last decade. There is little reason to believe this rapid rate of change will not continue. This swine industry is highly competitive and profit driven. Profit margins are too small to allow producers the luxury of ignoring new technology and innovative production systems. Consequently, hog production will continue its rapid evolution from traditional agriculture to typical industry.

  14. Xanthones from Polygala karensium inhibit neuraminidases from influenza A viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Trong Tuan; Dang, Thai Trung; Nguyen, Phi Hung

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of the H1N1 swine flu pandemic has the possibility to develop the occurrence of disaster- or drug-resistant viruses by additional reassortments in novel influenza A virus. In the course of an anti-influenza screening program for natural products, 10 xanthone derivatives (1-10) were ...

  15. Intranasal delivery of influenza subunit vaccine formulated with GEM particles as an adjuvant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saluja, Vinay; Amorij, Jean P; van Roosmalen, Maarten L; Leenhouts, Kees; Huckriede, Anke; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Frijlink, Henderik W

    Nasal administration of influenza vaccine has the potential to facilitate influenza control and prevention. However, when administered intranasally (i.n.), commercially available inactivated vaccines only generate systemic and mucosal immune responses if strong adjuvants are used, which are often

  16. A clinical trial to assess the immunogenicity and safety of Inactivated Influenza Vaccine (Whole Virion IP (Pandemic Influenza (H1N1 2009 Monovalent Vaccine; VaxiFlu-S ™ in healthy Indian adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A H Kubavat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The pandemic of H1N1 2009 influenza has spread world over and low degree of virus transmission has continued in several regions of India. Aims : To assess the immunogenicity and safety of Pandemic Influenza (H1N1 2009 Monovalent Vaccine in healthy adult Indian population. Settings and Design : Prospective, open label, multicentric, phase 2/3 clinical trial. Materials and Methods : Healthy adult Indian subjects belonging to either 18-59 years or ≥60 years age groups were enrolled and administered a single 0.5 ml (≥15 mcg of hemagglutinin antigen dose of vaccine in the deltoid muscle. Anti-hemagglutinin antibody titer was assessed at baseline and 21 (±2 days after vaccination by Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI test. Safety assessments were done for a period of 42 days. Statistical Analysis Used : Percentages of appropriate population with 95% confidence intervals calculated, log transformation of the data to calculate Geometric Mean Titers (GMTs and chi-square test and student′s t-test applied for significance testing. Results : 182/198 and 53/63 volunteers in age groups of 18-59 years and ≥60 years, respectively, achieved an HI titer ≥1 : 40 at Day 21 (91.9% [95% confidence interval: 88.1-95.7%] and 84.1% [75.1-93.2%]; P=0.072. Further, 171/198 and 50/63 volunteers in the respective age groups achieved seroconversion/four-fold increase in titer at Day 21 (86.4% [81.6-91.1%] and 79.4% [69.4-89.4%]; P=0.179. A significant rise of 22.6-fold [18.0-28.4] and 10.5-fold [7.4-15.0] was noted in GMT in the respective age groups (P<0.001 for both groups as compared to baseline. Nine vaccine-related adverse events were reported (3.4% incidence [1.2-5.6%], which were of low severity only. Conclusions : Pandemic Influenza (H1N1 2009 Monovalent Vaccine produces excellent immunogenic response with a good tolerability profile in adult Indian population.

  17. Reverse Genetics Approaches for the Development of Influenza Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogales, Aitor; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics of human respiratory disease. Influenza virus infections represent a serious public health and economic problem, which are most effectively prevented through vaccination. However, influenza viruses undergo continual antigenic variation, which requires either the annual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines or the rapid generation of vaccines against potential pandemic virus strains. The segmented nature of influenza virus allows for the reassortment between two or more viruses within a co-infected cell, and this characteristic has also been harnessed in the laboratory to generate reassortant viruses for their use as either inactivated or live-attenuated influenza vaccines. With the implementation of plasmid-based reverse genetics techniques, it is now possible to engineer recombinant influenza viruses entirely from full-length complementary DNA copies of the viral genome by transfection of susceptible cells. These reverse genetics systems have provided investigators with novel and powerful approaches to answer important questions about the biology of influenza viruses, including the function of viral proteins, their interaction with cellular host factors and the mechanisms of influenza virus transmission and pathogenesis. In addition, reverse genetics techniques have allowed the generation of recombinant influenza viruses, providing a powerful technology to develop both inactivated and live-attenuated influenza vaccines. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of state-of-the-art, plasmid-based, influenza reverse genetics approaches and their implementation to provide rapid, convenient, safe and more effective influenza inactivated or live-attenuated vaccines. PMID:28025504

  18. [Contemporary threat of influenza virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płusa, Tadeusz

    2010-01-01

    Swine-origine H1N1 influenza virus (S-OIV) caused a great mobilization of health medical service over the world. Now it is well known that a vaccine against novel virus is expected as a key point in that battle. In the situation when recommended treatment with neuraminidase inhibitors is not sufficient to control influenza A/H1N1 viral infection the quick and precisely diagnostic procedures should be applied to save and protect our patients.

  19. Protective Efficacy of Recombinant Turkey Herpes Virus (rHVT-H5) and Inactivated H5N1 Vaccines in Commercial Mulard Ducks against the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 Clade 2.2.1 Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilany, Walid H; Safwat, Marwa; Mohammed, Samy M; Salim, Abdullah; Fasina, Folorunso Oludayo; Fasanmi, Olubunmi G; Shalaby, Azhar G; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Hassan, Mohammed K; Lubroth, Juan; Jobre, Yilma M

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt, ducks kept for commercial purposes constitute the second highest poultry population, at 150 million ducks/year. Hence, ducks play an important role in the introduction and transmission of avian influenza (AI) in the Egyptian poultry population. Attempts to control outbreaks include the use of vaccines, which have varying levels of efficacy and failure. To date, the effects of vaccine efficacy has rarely been determined in ducks. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a live recombinant vector vaccine based on a turkey Herpes Virus (HVT) expressing the H5 gene from a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAIV strain (A/Swan/Hungary/499/2006) (rHVT-H5) and a bivalent inactivated H5N1 vaccine prepared from clade 2.2.1 and 2.2.1.1 H5N1 seeds in Mulard ducks. A 0.3ml/dose subcutaneous injection of rHVT-H5 vaccine was administered to one-day-old ducklings (D1) and another 0.5ml/dose subcutaneous injection of the inactivated MEFLUVAC was administered at 7 days (D7). Four separate challenge experiments were conducted at Days 21, 28, 35 and 42, in which all the vaccinated ducks were challenged with 106EID50/duck of H5N1 HPAI virus (A/chicken/Egypt/128s/2012(H5N1) (clade 2.2.1) via intranasal inoculation. Maternal-derived antibody regression and post-vaccination antibody immune responses were monitored weekly. Ducks vaccinated at 21, 28, 35 and 42 days with the rHVT-H5 and MEFLUVAC vaccines were protected against mortality (80%, 80%, 90% and 90%) and (50%, 70%, 80% and 90%) respectively, against challenges with the H5N1 HPAI virus. The amount of viral shedding and shedding rates were lower in the rHVT-H5 vaccine groups than in the MEFLUVAC groups only in the first two challenge experiments. However, the non-vaccinated groups shed significantly more of the virus than the vaccinated groups. Both rHVT-H5 and MEFLUVAC provide early protection, and rHVT-H5 vaccine in particular provides protection against HPAI challenge.

  20. Immunogenicity and tolerability of inactivated flu vaccine In high risk and healthy children Inmunogenicidad y tolerancia de la vacuna inactivada anti-influenza en niños en alto riesgo y en controles sanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Avila Aguero

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We conducted this open study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of the inactivated influenza vaccine, Imovax Gripe® in 154 children between 6 and 36 months of age at high risk of influenza- related complications, and in a reference group of 64 healthy children. The study was conducted over two flu seasons, in which the vaccine contained the same A strains but different B strains. The results for the A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 strains from the two flu seasons were pooled, but those for the B strains were not. Anti-hemagglutinin (HA antibody titers were determined before, and one month after each vaccination, and safety was evaluated based on diary card reporting any adverse event observed, either included or not in the list of "solicited events". Within each group of vaccines, the seroconversion rates, seroprotection rates, and ratio of post- to prevaccination geometric mean titers (GMTR for the A/H3N2 and the A/H1N1 strains fulfilled all requirements of the criteria of the European Union Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products (CPMP. The immune responses in high-risk and in healthy children were similar, and consistent with those observed in previous studies conducted in healthy children. The vaccine was equally well tolerated by all study groups. Reactogenicity was low and similar in both high-risk and healthy children. Overall from 9.5% to 15.4% of at-risk children and 12% of healthy children reported a solicited local reaction; 23.0 to 28.8% of high-risk and 25.3% of healthy children reported a solicited systemic reaction. The study results provide support for vaccination of children at high-risk of influenza related complications.Se realizó un estudio clínico abierto para evaluar la inmunogenícidad y la seguridad de la vacuna inactivada anti-influenza, Imovax Gripe®, en 154 niños entre 6 y 36 meses de edad con alto riesgo de complicaciones ligadas a la influenza, y en un grupo de referencia de 64 niños sanos. El estudio fue

  1. A live-attenuated and an inactivated chimeric porcine circovirus (PCV)1-2 vaccine are both effective at inducing a humoral immune response and reducing PCV2 viremia and intrauterine infection in female swine of breeding age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemann, Michelle; Beach, Nathan M; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Wang, Chong; Halbur, Patrick G; Opriessnig, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to determine the efficacy of inactivated (1 or 2 dose) and live-attenuated chimeric porcine circovirus (PCV)1-2 vaccines in sows using the PCV2-spiked semen model. Thirty-five sows were randomly divided into 6 groups: negative and positive controls, 1 dose inactivated PCV1-2 vaccine challenged (1-VAC-PCV2), 2 dose inactivated PCV1-2 vaccine challenged (2-VAC-PCV2), 1 dose live-attenuated PCV1-2 vaccine unchallenged (1-LIVE-VAC), and 1 dose live-attenuated PCV1-2 vaccine challenged (1-LIVE-VAC-PCV2). The inactivated PCV1-2 vaccine induced higher levels of PCV2-specific antibodies in dams. All vaccination strategies provided good protection against PCV2 viremia in dams, whereas the majority of the unvaccinated sows were viremic. Four of the 35 dams became pregnant: a negative control, a positive control, a 2-VAC-PCV2 sow, and a 1-LIVE-VAC-PCV2 sow. The PCV2 DNA was detected in 100%, 67%, and 29% of the fetuses obtained from the positive control, inactivated vaccinated, or live-attenuated vaccinated dams, respectively. The PCV2 antigen in hearts was only detectable in the positive control litter (23% of the fetuses). The PCV1-2 DNA was detected in 29% of the fetuses in the litter from the 1-LIVE-VAC-PCV2 dam. Under the conditions of this pilot study, both vaccines protected against PCV2 viremia in breeding age animals; however, vertical transmission was not prevented.

  2. Safety and immunogenicity of 2010-2011 H1N12009-containing trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in children 12-59 months of age previously given AS03-adjuvanted H1N12009 pandemic vaccine: a PHAC/CIHR Influenza Research Network (PCIRN) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Joanne M; Scheifele, David W; Quach, Caroline; Vanderkooi, Otto G; Ward, Brian; McNeil, Shelly; Dobson, Simon; Kellner, James D; Kuhn, Susan; Kollman, Tobias; MacKinnon-Cameron, Donna; Smith, Bruce; Li, Yan; Halperin, Scott A

    2012-05-14

    Concern arose in 2010 that reactogenicity, particularly febrile seizures, to influenza A/H1N1-containing 2010-2011 trivalent seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) could occur in young children who had been previously immunized and/or infected with the pandemic strain. We conducted a pre-season study of 2010-2011 TIV safety and immunogenicity in children 12-59 months of age to inform public health decision making. Children immunized with 1 or 2 doses of the pandemic vaccine, with or without the 2009-10 TIV, received 1 or 2 doses of 2010-11 TIV in an observational, multicentre Canadian study. Standard safety monitoring was enhanced by a telephone call at ~24 h post-TIV when adverse events were expected to peak. Summary safety reports were rapidly reported to public health before the launch of public programs. TIV immunogenicity was assessed day 0, and 21 days after final vaccination. Clinical Trials Registration NCT01180621. Among 207 children, a general adverse event was reported by 60.9% of children post-dose one and by 58.3% post-dose two. Only severe fever (>38.5°C) was more common in two-dose compared to one dose recipients (16.7%, n=4 v. 1.0%, n=2). At baseline 99.0% of participants had A/H1N1 hemagglutinin inhibition (HAI) titers ≥10, and 85.5% had a protective titer of ≥40 (95% CI 80.0, 90.0). Baseline geometric mean titers (GMT) were higher in recipients of a 2-dose schedule of pandemic vaccine compared to one-dose recipients: 153.1 (95% CI 126.2, 185.7) v. 78.8 ((58.1, 106.8, pvaccine immunogenicity were exceeded for A/H1N1 and H3N2, but responses to the B antigen were poor. No correlations between reactogenicity and either baseline high influenza titers or serologic response to revaccination were evident. Infants and toddlers who received AS03-adjuvanted A/H1N1 2009 vaccine up to 11 months earlier retained high titers in the subsequent season but re-exposure to A/H1N1 2009 antigen in TIV resulted in no unusual adverse effects and 100% were sero

  3. Initial Identification and Characterization of an Emerging Zoonotic Influenza Prior to Pandemic Spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    equally closely strains of both H1N2 influenza A virus of swine origin and H3N2 influenza A virus of avian origin. The expected matches for each of...Naval Health Research Center Initial Identification and Characterization of an Emerging Zoonotic Influenza Virus Prior to Pandemic Spread...10.1128/JCM.01336-10 PMCID: PMC3020883 Initial Identification and Characterization of an Emerging Zoonotic Influenza Virus Prior to Pandemic

  4. Cross talk between animal and human influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Makoto; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Although outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in wild and domestic birds have been posing the threat of a new influenza pandemic for the past decade, the first pandemic of the twenty-first century came from swine viruses. This fact emphasizes the complexity of influenza viral ecology and the difficulty of predicting influenza viral dynamics. Complete control of influenza viruses seems impossible. However, we must minimize the impact of animal and human influenza outbreaks by learning lessons from past experiences and recognizing the current status. Here, we review the most recent influenza virology data in the veterinary field, including aspects of zoonotic agents and recent studies that assess the pandemic potential of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

  5. Virus-Vectored Influenza Virus Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

  6. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in Port Shepstone, South Africa. Introduction. Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 'swine flu' variant is currently a global pandemic.1 The infection associated with this virus is usually a mild, self-limiting illness. However, it may progress to severe pneumonia requiring intensive care unit (ICU) therapy in 31% of patients.2 This may.

  7. Influenza Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Polio Whooping cough Influenza (flu) Rabies Yellow fever Influenza Photos Photographs accompanied by text that reads "Courtesy ... of these photos are quite graphic. Shows how influenza germs spread through the air when someone coughs ...

  8. A Novel H1N2 Influenza Virus Related to the Classical and Human Influenza Viruses from Pigs in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yafen; Wu, Xiaowei; Wang, Nianchen; Ouyang, Guowen; Qu, Nannan; Cui, Jin; Qi, Yan; Liao, Ming; Jiao, Peirong

    2016-01-01

    Southern China has long been considered to be an epicenter of pandemic influenza viruses. The special environment, breeding mode, and lifestyle in southern China provides more chances for wild aquatic birds, domestic poultry, pigs, and humans to be in contact. This creates the opportunity for interspecies transmission and generation of new influenza viruses. In this study, we reported a novel reassortant H1N2 influenza virus from pigs in southern China. According to the phylogenetic trees and homology of the nucleotide sequence, the virus was confirmed to be a novel triple-reassortant H1N2 virus containing genes from classical swine (PB2, PB1, HA, NP, and NS genes), triple-reassortant swine (PA and M genes), and recent human (NA gene) lineages. It indicated that the novel reassortment virus among human and swine influenza viruses occurred in pigs in southern China. The isolation of the novel reassortant H1N2 influenza viruses provides further evidence that pigs are "mixing vessels," and swine influenza virus surveillance in southern China will provide important information about genetic evaluation and antigenic variation of swine influenza virus to formulate the prevention and control measures for the viruses.

  9. The impact of communications about swine flu (influenza A H1N1v) on public responses to the outbreak: results from 36 national telephone surveys in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, G J; Potts, H W W; Michie, S

    2010-07-01

    To assess the association between levels of worry about the possibility of catching swine flu and the volume of media reporting about it; the role of psychological factors in predicting likely uptake of the swine flu vaccine; and the role of media coverage and advertising in predicting other swine flu-related behaviours. Data from a series of random-digit-dial telephone surveys were analysed. A time series analysis tested the association between levels of worry and the volume of media reporting on the start day of each survey. Cross-sectional regression analyses assessed the relationships between likely vaccine uptake or behaviour and predictor variables. Thirty-six surveys were run at, on average, weekly intervals across the UK between 1 May 2009 and 10 January 2010. Five surveys (run between 14 August and 13 September) were used to assess likely vaccine uptake. Five surveys (1-17 May) provided data relating to other behaviours. Between 1047 and 1173 people aged 16 years or over took part in each survey: 5175 participants provided data about their likely uptake of the swine flu vaccine; 5419 participants provided data relating to other behaviours. All participants were asked to state how worried they were about the possibility of personally catching swine flu. Subsets were asked how likely they were to take up a swine flu vaccination if offered it and whether they had recently carried tissues with them, bought sanitising hand gel, avoided using public transport or had been to see a general practitioner, visited a hospital or called NHS Direct for a flu-related reason. The percentage of 'very' or 'fairly' worried participants fluctuated between 9.6% and 32.9%. This figure was associated with the volume of media reporting, even after adjusting for the changing severity of the outbreak [chi2(1) = 6.6, p = 0.010, coefficient for log-transformed data = 2.6]. However, this effect only occurred during the UK's first summer wave of swine flu. In total, 56.1% of

  10. Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Pigs [1.3 MB, 2 pages] Educational Posters [389 KB, 1 page] Compendium of Measures to ... site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  11. Sinclair swine melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hook, R.R.; Berkelhammer, J.; Hamby, C.V.

    1986-01-01

    Sinclair(S-1) miniature swine spontaneously develop melanomas which have many biologic and histologic features in common with human superficial spreading melanoma. Host control of this neoplasm was indicated by the high incidence of spontaneous regression, a decrease in tumor development with age and a decrease in progressive growth of the tumor as age of tumor development increases. Immunologic mechanisms were implicated in host control by histologic observation of a mononuclear inflammatory infiltration of tumors which lead to depigmentation and fibrosis. In vitro immunologic studies revealed that leukocytes from melanoma swine were sensitized specifically to a tumor associated antigen like substance present in extracts of cutaneous melanomas and cultured swine melanoma cells and that melanoma swine leukocytes were cytotoxic for swine melanoma cells. Furthermore, these studies suggested the existence of a common cross reactive, melanoma associated antigen shared by human and swine melanomas. Antigenic analyses of swine melanomas with mouse monoclonal antibodies developed to a single swine melanoma cell culture and with rabbit antisera developed to pooled extracts of cutaneous melanomas demonstrated the presence of tumor associated antigens in swine melanoma cell culture and cutaneous melanomas. The failure of mouse monoclonal antibodies to detect antigens in cutaneous melanoma extracts and the failure of rabbit antisera to detect antigens in melanoma cell culture extracts suggested a differential in antigen expression between swine melanoma cells grown in vitro and in vivo

  12. Effectiveness of inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine in the 2015/2016 season as assessed in both a test-negative case-control study design and a traditional case-control study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimiya, Takahisa; Shinjoh, Masayoshi; Anzo, Makoto; Takahashi, Hiroki; Sekiguchi, Shinichiro; Sugaya, Norio; Takahashi, Takao

    2018-04-21

    Both traditional case-control studies (TCCSs) and test-negative case-control studies (TNCCSs) are commonly used to assess influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE). To compensate for the fact that observational studies are susceptible to bias, we combined both methods to assess VE in one geographical area during the 2015/2016 season, when influenza A (H1N1)pdm was dominant. Our TNCCS covered 331 children aged 6 months to 15 years who visited our hospital with fever, including 182 with influenza, and our TCCS covered 812 pediatric outpatients aged 6 months to 15 years, including 214 with influenza. Influenza infection and vaccination history were reviewed, and VE was calculated as (1 - odds ratio) × 100. In the TNCCS, VE against influenza A was 68% (95% CI 47-81) overall, and 70% (48-83) for those given two doses; against influenza B, VE was 37% (- 12-64) overall and 49% (2-74) for two doses. In the TCCS, VE against influenza A was 44% (15-63) overall and 44% (13-64) for two doses, and VE against influenza B was 24% (- 19-52) overall and 41% (3-64) for two doses. Both studies confirmed significant VE against influenza A, significant two-dose VE against influenza B, and better two-dose VE than one-dose VE. What is Known: • Influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) varies from year to year. • Observational studies are conventionally used for VE assessment. However, they are inherently susceptible to bias and confounding. What is New: • This is the first report of influenza VE assessment using more than one observational study and performed in a specific area during the same season. • VE estimates obtained in our traditional case-control study were lower than those in our test-negative case-control study, but both studies found significant VE against influenza.

  13. Influenza vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerhus, Sven Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally......, the quality of the studies was low, and several studies lacked hard clinical endpoints. Data on adverse effects were scarce. More randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of influenza vaccination are warranted....

  14. Diversity of the murine antibody response targeting influenza A(H1N1pdm09) hemagglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jason R; Tzeng, Wen-Pin; Spesock, April; Music, Nedzad; Guo, Zhu; Barrington, Robert; Stevens, James; Donis, Ruben O; Katz, Jacqueline M; York, Ian A

    2014-06-01

    We infected mice with the 2009 influenza A pandemic virus (H1N1pdm09), boosted with an inactivated vaccine, and cloned immunoglobulins (Igs) from HA-specific B cells. Based on the redundancy in germline gene utilization, we inferred that between 72-130 unique IgH VDJ and 35 different IgL VJ combinations comprised the anti-HA recall response. The IgH VH1 and IgL VK14 variable gene families were employed most frequently. A representative panel of antibodies were cloned and expressed to confirm reactivity with H1N1pdm09 HA. The majority of the recombinant antibodies were of high avidity and capable of inhibiting H1N1pdm09 hemagglutination. Three of these antibodies were subtype-specific cross-reactive, binding to the HA of A/South Carolina/1/1918(H1N1), and one further reacted with A/swine/Iowa/15/1930(H1N1). These results help to define the genetic diversity of the influenza anti-HA antibody repertoire profile induced following infection and vaccination, which may facilitate the development of influenza vaccines that are more protective and broadly neutralizing. Protection against influenza viruses is mediated mainly by antibodies, and in most cases this antibody response is narrow, only providing protection against closely related viruses. In spite of this limited range of protection, recent findings indicate that individuals immune to one influenza virus may contain antibodies (generally a minority of the overall response) that are more broadly reactive. These findings have raised the possibility that influenza vaccines could induce a more broadly protective response, reducing the need for frequent vaccine strain changes. However, interpretation of these observations is hampered by the lack of quantitative characterization of the antibody repertoire. In this study, we used single-cell cloning of influenza HA-specific B cells to assess the diversity and nature of the antibody response to influenza hemagglutinin in mice. Our findings help to put bounds on the

  15. Incompatibility of lyophilized inactivated polio vaccine with liquid pentavalent whole-cell-pertussis-containing vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, H.; Have, Ten R.; Maas, van der L.; Kersten, G.F.A.; Amorij, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    A hexavalent vaccine containing diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, whole cell pertussis, Haemophilius influenza type B, hepatitis B and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) may: (i) increase the efficiency of vaccination campaigns, (ii) reduce the number of injections thereby reducing needlestick

  16. Changing human mobility and the spreading rate of global influenza outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaa, Jan Willem

    2010-01-01

    Influenza, commonly called the flu, is an infectious disease which causes up to 500,000 deaths annually during seasonal epidemics. Influenza viruses circulate in many different types and in many species, such as birds, swines and humans. When a new human

  17. Meningitis - H. influenzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. influenzae meningitis; H. flu meningitis; Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis ... H. influenzae meningitis is caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b bacteria. This illness is not the same ...

  18. Understanding influenza vaccine protection in the community: an assessment of the 2013 influenza season in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carville, Kylie S; Grant, Kristina A; Sullivan, Sheena G; Fielding, James E; Lane, Courtney R; Franklin, Lucinda; Druce, Julian; Kelly, Heath A

    2015-01-03

    The influenza virus undergoes frequent antigenic drift, necessitating annual review of the composition of the influenza vaccine. Vaccination is an important strategy for reducing the impact and burden of influenza, and estimating vaccine effectiveness (VE) each year informs surveillance and preventative measures. We aimed to describe the influenza season and to estimate the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine in Victoria, Australia, in 2013. Routine laboratory notifications, general practitioner sentinel surveillance (including a medical deputising service) data, and sentinel hospital admission surveillance data for the influenza season (29 April to 27 October 2013) were collated in Victoria, Australia, to describe influenza-like illness or confirmed influenza during the season. General practitioner sentinel surveillance data were used to estimate VE against medically-attended laboratory confirmed influenza. VE was estimated using the case test negative design as 1-adjusted odds ratio (odds of vaccination in cases compared with controls) × 100%. Cases tested positive for influenza while non-cases (controls) tested negative. Estimates were adjusted for age group, week of onset, time to swabbing and co-morbidities. The 2013 influenza season was characterised by relatively low activity with a late peak. Influenza B circulation preceded that of influenza A(H1)pdm09, with very little influenza A(H3) circulation. Adjusted VE for all influenza was 55% (95%CI: -11, 82), for influenza A(H1)pdm09 was 43% (95%CI: -132, 86), and for influenza B was 56% (95%CI: -51, 87) Imputation of missing data raised the influenza VE point estimate to 64% (95%CI: 13, 85). Clinicians can continue to promote a positive approach to influenza vaccination, understanding that inactivated influenza vaccines prevent at least 50% of laboratory-confirmed outcomes in hospitals and the community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Progress on adenovirus-vectored universal influenza vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Kui; Ying, Guan; Yan, Zhou; Shanshan, Yan; Lei, Zhang; Hongjun, Li; Maosheng, Sun

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus (IFV) infection causes serious health problems and heavy financial burdens each year worldwide. The classical inactivated influenza virus vaccine (IIVV) and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) must be updated regularly to match the new strains that evolve due to antigenic drift and antigenic shift. However, with the discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies that recognize conserved antigens, and the CD8+ T cell responses targeting viral internal proteins nucleoprotein ...

  20. Deciphering the Swine-Flu Pandemics of 1918 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Richard; Dos Reis, Mario; Tamuri, Asif; Hay, Alan

    The devastating "Spanish flu" of 1918 killed an estimated 50 million people worldwide, ranking it as the deadliest pandemic in recorded human history. It is generally believed that the virus transferred from birds directly to humans shortly before the start of the pandemic, subsequently jumping from humans to swine. By developing 'non-homogeneous' substitution models that consider that substitution patterns may be different in human, avian, and swine hosts, we can determine the timing of the host shift to mammals. We find it likely that the Spanish flu of 1918, like the current 2009 pandemic, was a 'swine-origin' influenza virus. Now that we are faced with a new pandemic, can we understand how influenza is able to change hosts? Again by modelling the evolutionary process, considering the different selective constraints for viruses in the different hosts, we can identify locations that seem to be under different selective constraints in humans and avian hosts. This allows us to identify changes that may have facilitated the establishment of the 2009 swine-origin flu in humans.

  1. Transmission of influenza A viruses between pigs and people, Iowa, 2002-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terebuh, Pauline; Olsen, Christopher W; Wright, Jennifer; Klimov, Alexander; Karasin, Alexander; Todd, Karla; Zhou, Hong; Hall, Henrietta; Xu, Xiyan; Kniffen, Tim; Madsen, David; Garten, Rebecca; Bridges, Carolyn B

    2010-11-01

    Triple-reassortant (tr) viruses of human, avian, and swine origin, including H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes, emerged in North American swine herds in 1998 and have become predominant. While sporadic human infections with classical influenza A (H1N1) and with tr-swine influenza viruses have been reported, relatively few have been documented in occupationally exposed swine workers (SW). We conducted a 2-year (2002-2004) prospective cohort study of transmission of influenza viruses between pigs and SW from a single pork production company in Iowa. Respiratory samples were collected and tested for influenza viruses from SW and from pigs under their care through surveillance for influenza-like illnesses (ILI). Serial blood samples from study participants were tested by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) for antibody seroconversion against human and swine influenza viruses (SIV), and antibody seroprevalence was compared to age-matched urban Iowa blood donors. During the first year, 15 of 88 SW had ILI and were sampled; all were culture-negative for influenza. During the second year, 11 of 76 SW had ILI and were sampled; one was culture-positive for a human seasonal H3N2 virus. Among 20 swine herd ILI outbreaks sampled, influenza A virus was detected by rRT-PCR from 17 with 11 trH1N1 and five trH3N2 virus isolates cultured. During both years, HI geometric mean titers were significantly higher among SW compared to blood donor controls for three SIV: classical swine Sw/WI/238/97 (H1N1), tr Sw/IN/9K035/99 (H1N2), and trSw/IA/H02NJ56371/02 (H1N1)] (P influenza viruses and were exposed to diverse influenza virus strains circulating in pigs. Influenza virus surveillance among pigs and SW should be encouraged to better understand cross-species transmission and diversity of influenza viruses at the human-swine interface. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Influenza A (H1N1) neuraminidase inhibitors from Vitis amurensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Anh; Dao, Trong Tuan; Tung, Bui Thanh

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a novel H1N1 influenza A virus (H1N1/09 virus) was identified and considered a strong candidate for a novel influenza pandemic. As part of an ongoing anti-influenza screening programme on natural products, eight oligostilbenes were isolated as active principles from the methanol extract...... of Vitis amurensis. This manuscript reports the isolation, structural elucidation, and anti-viral activities of eight compounds on various neuraminidases from influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1), and oseltamivir-resistant novel H1N1 (H274Y) expressed in 293T cells...

  3. The safety and immunogenicity of influenza vaccine in children with asthma in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza, Alvaro; Huerta, José G; Garcia, Maria de la Luz; Rojas, Arsheli; López-Martínez, Irma; Penagos, Martín; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Deroche, Christele; Mascareñas, Cesar

    2009-07-01

    The morbidity and mortality associated with influenza is substantial in children with asthma. There are no available data on the safety and immunogenicity of influenza vaccine in children with asthma in Latin America. Furthermore, it is unclear if influenza vaccination may cause asthma exacerbations. We conducted a placebo-controlled trial to investigate the safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated trivalent split virus influenza vaccine in children with asthma in Mexico. We also measured the impact of influenza vaccination on pulmonary function tests in this population. The inactivated influenza vaccine was immunogenic and safe in terms of local and systemic side effects compared to placebo. We observed no significant impact on pulmonary function tests among vaccine recipients. Given the significant morbidity associated with influenza in children, strategies to promote increased influenza vaccination coverage in this high-risk group in Latin America and elsewhere are urgently needed.

  4. Avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird flu; H5N1; H5N2; H5N8; H7N9; Avian influenza A (HPAI) H5 ... The first avian influenza in humans was reported in Hong Kong in 1997. It was called avian influenza (H5N1). The outbreak was linked ...

  5. Emerging influenza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. de Wit (Emmie); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn 1918 the Spanish influenza pandemic, caused by an avian H1N1 virus, resulted in over 50 million deaths worldwide. Several outbreaks of H7 influenza A viruses have resulted in human cases, including one fatal case. Since 1997, the outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI)

  6. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of swine semen and... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.10 Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved...

  7. Expression of a single siRNA against a conserved region of NP gene strongly inhibits in vitro replication of different Influenza A virus strains of avian and swine origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppani, Elena; Bassi, Ivan; Dotti, Silvia; Lizier, Michela; Ferrari, Maura; Lucchini, Franco

    2015-08-01

    Influenza A virus is the principal agent responsible of the respiratory tract's infections in humans. Every year, highly pathogenic and infectious strains with new antigenic assets appear, making ineffective vaccines so far developed. The discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) opened the way to the progress of new promising drugs against Influenza A virus and also to the introduction of disease resistance traits in genetically modified animals. In this paper, we show that Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line expressing short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) cassette, designed on a specific conserved region of the nucleoprotein (NP) viral genome, can strongly inhibit the viral replication of four viral strains sharing the target sequence, reducing the viral mRNA respectively to 2.5×10(-4), 7.5×10(-5), 1.7×10(-3), 1.9×10(-4) compared to the control, as assessed by real-time PCR. Moreover, we demonstrate that during the challenge with a viral strain bearing a single mismatch on the target sequence, although a weaker inhibition is observed, viral mRNA is still lowered down to 1.2×10(-3) folds in the shRNA-expressing clone compared to the control, indicating a broad potential use of this approach. In addition, we developed a highly predictive and fast screening test of siRNA sequences based on dual-luciferase assay, useful for the in vitro prediction of the potential effect of viral inhibition. In conclusion, these findings reveal new siRNA sequences able to inhibit Influenza A virus replication and provide a basis for the development of siRNAs as prophylaxis and therapy for influenza infection both in humans and animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A pandemic influenza H1N1 live vaccine based on modified vaccinia Ankara is highly immunogenic and protects mice in active and passive immunizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Hessel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of novel influenza vaccines inducing a broad immune response is an important objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate live vaccines which induce both strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against the novel human pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, and to show protection in a lethal animal challenge model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For this purpose, the hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes of the influenza A/California/07/2009 (H1N1 strain (CA/07 were inserted into the replication-deficient modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA virus--a safe poxviral live vector--resulting in MVA-H1-Ca and MVA-N1-Ca vectors. These live vaccines, together with an inactivated whole virus vaccine, were assessed in a lung infection model using immune competent Balb/c mice, and in a lethal challenge model using severe combined immunodeficient (SCID mice after passive serum transfer from immunized mice. Balb/c mice vaccinated with the MVA-H1-Ca virus or the inactivated vaccine were fully protected from lung infection after challenge with the influenza H1N1 wild-type strain, while the neuraminidase virus MVA-N1-Ca induced only partial protection. The live vaccines were already protective after a single dose and induced substantial amounts of neutralizing antibodies and of interferon-gamma-secreting (IFN-gamma CD4- and CD8 T-cells in lungs and spleens. In the lungs, a rapid increase of HA-specific CD4- and CD8 T cells was observed in vaccinated mice shortly after challenge with influenza swine flu virus, which probably contributes to the strong inhibition of pulmonary viral replication observed. In addition, passive transfer of antisera raised in MVA-H1-Ca vaccinated immune-competent mice protected SCID mice from lethal challenge with the CA/07 wild-type virus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The non-replicating MVA-based H1N1 live vaccines induce a broad protective immune response and are promising vaccine candidates for

  9. Influenza vaccine strategies for solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirzel, Cédric; Kumar, Deepali

    2018-05-15

    The aim of this study was to highlight recent evidence on important aspects of influenza vaccination in solid organ transplant recipients. Influenza vaccine is the most evaluated vaccine in transplant recipients. The immunogenicity of the vaccine is suboptimal after transplantation. Newer formulations such as inactivated unadjuvanted high-dose influenza vaccine and the administration of a booster dose within the same season have shown to increase response rates. Intradermal vaccination and adjuvanted vaccines did not show clear benefit over standard influenza vaccines. Recent studies in transplant recipients do not suggest a higher risk for allograft rejection, neither after vaccination with a standard influenza vaccine nor after the administration of nonstandard formulation (high-dose, adjuvanted vaccines), routes (intradermally) or a booster dose. Nevertheless, influenza vaccine coverage in transplant recipients is still unsatisfactory low, potentially due to misinterpretation of risks and benefits. Annual influenza vaccination is well tolerated and is an important part of long-term care of solid organ transplant recipients.

  10. Swine brucellosis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen SC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available SC Olsen, FM Tatum Infectious Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA, USA Abstract: Brucella suis is a significant zoonotic species that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human-to-human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic livestock, preventing human infection is the primary reason for its emphasis in disease control programs. Although disease prevalence varies worldwide, in areas outside of Europe, swine brucellosis is predominantly caused by B. suis biovars 1 and 3. In Europe, swine are predominantly infected with biovar 2 which is much less pathogenic in humans. In many areas worldwide, feral or wild populations of swine are important reservoir hosts. Like other Brucella spp. in their natural host, B. suis has developed mechanisms to survive in an intracellular environment and evade immune detection. Limitations in sensitivity and specificity of current diagnostics require use at a herd level, rather for individual animals. There is currently no commercial vaccine approved for preventing brucellosis in swine. Although not feasible in all situations, whole-herd depopulation is the most effective regulatory mechanism to control swine brucellosis. Keywords: livestock, transmission, pathogenicity, vaccine, host, infection

  11. Emerging influenza viruses and the prospect of a universal influenza virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krammer, Florian

    2015-05-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and pandemics at irregular intervals. Several cases of human infections with avian and swine influenza viruses have been detected recently, warranting enhanced surveillance and the development of more effective countermeasures to address the pandemic potential of these viruses. The most effective countermeasure against influenza virus infection is the use of prophylactic vaccines. However, vaccines that are currently in use for seasonal influenza viruses have to be re-formulated and re-administered in a cumbersome process every year due to the antigenic drift of the virus. Furthermore, current seasonal vaccines are ineffective against novel pandemic strains. This paper reviews zoonotic influenza viruses with pandemic potential and technological advances towards better vaccines that induce broad and long lasting protection from influenza virus infection. Recent efforts have focused on the development of broadly protective/universal influenza virus vaccines that can provide immunity against drifted seasonal influenza virus strains but also against potential pandemic viruses. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Isolation and genetic characterization of avian-like H1N1 and novel ressortant H1N2 influenza viruses from pigs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai; Zhang, Peng-Chao; Zhou, Yan-Jun; Li, Guo-Xin; Pan, Jie; Yan, Li-Ping; Shi, Xiao-Xiao; Liu, Hui-Li; Tong, Guang-Zhi

    2009-08-21

    As pigs are susceptible to both human and avian influenza viruses, they have been proposed to be intermediate hosts or mixing vessels for the generation of pandemic influenza viruses through reassortment or adaptation to the mammalian host. In this study, we reported avian-like H1N1 and novel ressortant H1N2 influenza viruses from pigs in China. Homology and phylogenetic analyses showed that the H1N1 virus (A/swine/Zhejiang/1/07) was closely to avian-like H1N1 viruses and seemed to be derived from the European swine H1N1 viruses, which was for the first time reported in China; and the two H1N2 viruses (A/swine/Shanghai/1/07 and A/swine/Guangxi/13/06) were novel ressortant H1N2 influenza viruses containing genes from the classical swine (HA, NP, M and NS), human (NA and PB1) and avian (PB2 and PA) lineages, which indicted that the reassortment among human, avian, and swine influenza viruses had taken place in pigs in China and resulted in the generation of new viruses. The isolation of avian-like H1N1 influenza virus originated from the European swine H1N1 viruses, especially the emergence of two novel ressortant H1N2 influenza viruses provides further evidence that pigs serve as intermediate hosts or "mixing vessels", and swine influenza virus surveillance in China should be given a high priority.

  13. EVALUATION OF REACTOGENICITY, SAFETY AND IMMUNOGENICITY OF INACTIVATED MONOVALENT VACCINE IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Mironov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available NPO «Microgen» developed vaccine «PANDEFLU» — influenza inactivated subunit adsorbed monovalent vaccine, strain A/California/7/2009 (H1N1, for specific prophylaxis of pandemic influenza in different age groups of citizens. Reactogenicity, safety and immunogenicity were analyzed in a study of volunteers 18–60 years old. The article presents results of administration of vaccine «PANDEFLU» in children. The study performed in two clinical centers proves good tolerability, reactogenicity, safety and high immunogenicity of this vaccine.Key words: children, influenza, influenza virus А/H1N1, inactivated influenza vaccine, reactogenicity, safety, immunogenicity.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(4:106-109

  14. Development of a diagnostic kit for Tamiflu-resistant influenza A (H1N1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, I. L.; Hong, S. W.

    2012-01-01

    Swine influenza A, which has been pandemic worldwide since 2009, is a new type virus derived from A type influenza. Although some drugs against the contageous disease, such as relenza and tamiflu, have been commercialized, those drug resistant viruses could be also followed by the wide usage of drugs. For examples, Tamiflu-resistant viruses, the mutant type viruses, can not be cured by the treatment of tamiflu anymore. Thus, a quick diagnosis for the wild type (tamiflu-sensitive) and mutant (tamiflu-resistant) virus would be essential in order to prevent the wide spread of viruses. In spite of that, unfortunately, very few studies have been conducted until now. If we could tell the differences between tamiflu-resistant and -sensitive patients using by the proper diagnostic kit, not only patient specific treatment would be possible, but also the spread of viruses would be effectively prevented. Currently used detection methods for the swine influenza A H1N1, which were originated from CDC, USA, can not detect the tamiflu-resistant swine influenza A H1N1, but only can detect tamiflu-sensitive wine influenza A H1N1. In this study, all the primers for the detection of swInfA, swH1, MP and NA (neuraminidase) have been developed in order to detect both tamiflu-resistant and tamiflu-sensitive swine influenza A H1N1s simultaneously, and then, new multiplex RT-PCR methods has been established

  15. Development of a diagnostic kit for Tamiflu-resistant influenza A (H1N1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, I. L.; Hong, S. W.

    2012-01-15

    Swine influenza A, which has been pandemic worldwide since 2009, is a new type virus derived from A type influenza. Although some drugs against the contageous disease, such as relenza and tamiflu, have been commercialized, those drug resistant viruses could be also followed by the wide usage of drugs. For examples, Tamiflu-resistant viruses, the mutant type viruses, can not be cured by the treatment of tamiflu anymore. Thus, a quick diagnosis for the wild type (tamiflu-sensitive) and mutant (tamiflu-resistant) virus would be essential in order to prevent the wide spread of viruses. In spite of that, unfortunately, very few studies have been conducted until now. If we could tell the differences between tamiflu-resistant and -sensitive patients using by the proper diagnostic kit, not only patient specific treatment would be possible, but also the spread of viruses would be effectively prevented. Currently used detection methods for the swine influenza A H1N1, which were originated from CDC, USA, can not detect the tamiflu-resistant swine influenza A H1N1, but only can detect tamiflu-sensitive wine influenza A H1N1. In this study, all the primers for the detection of swInfA, swH1, MP and NA (neuraminidase) have been developed in order to detect both tamiflu-resistant and tamiflu-sensitive swine influenza A H1N1s simultaneously, and then, new multiplex RT-PCR methods has been established.

  16. Non-hydrolyzed in digestive tract and blood natural L-carnosine peptide ("bioactivated Jewish penicillin") as a panacea of tomorrow for various flu ailments: signaling activity attenuating nitric oxide (NO) production, cytostasis, and NO-dependent inhibition of influenza virus replication in macrophages in the human body infected with the virulent swine influenza A (H1N1) virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Deyev, Anatoliy I; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2013-01-01

    Influenza (flu) is caused by a highly contagious virus that is spread by coughs and sneezes. Flu symptoms include high fever, chills and sweating, sore throat, weakness, headache, muscle and joint pains, and cough. Older people and those with an underlying medical condition are more likely to develop serious complications, including secondary bacterial pneumonia, primary influenza pneumonia, and inflammation of the brain or heart. There are three types of flu virus: A, B, and C. The flu virus has a unique ability to change its surface structure. This allows it to escape recognition by the body's immune system and cause widespread illness (epidemics and pandemics). Most cases of influenza occur within a 6- to 8-week period during winter and spring. Epidemics occur when there are minor changes in the nature of the virus so that more people within a community are susceptible. Influenza A is more likely to cause epidemics. Pandemics (worldwide epidemics) occur when there are major changes in the virus so that the disease affects a large proportion of people in a geographic region or on more than one continent. The findings presented in this article have many important implications for understanding the influenza A (H1N1) viral pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment. Direct viral cytotoxicity (referred cytopathic effect) is only a fraction of several types of events induced by virus infection. Nitric oxide and oxygen free radicals such as superoxide anion (O2-·) are generated markedly in influenza A (including H1N1) virus-infected host boosts, and these molecular species are identified as the potent pathogenic agents. The mutual interaction of nitric oxide (NO) with O2-· resulting in the formation of peroxynitrite is operative in the pathogenic mechanism of influenza virus pneumonia. Influenza virus infection involves pathological events in which oxygen free radicals play an important role in the pathogenesis. The toxicity and reactivity of oxygen radicals generated

  17. Inactivation Data.xlsx

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data set is a spreadsheet that contains results of inactivation experiments that were conducted to to determine the effectiveness of chlorine in inactivating B....

  18. Protective effect of a polyvalent influenza DNA vaccine in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Ingrid; Borggren, Marie; Rosenstierne, Maiken Worsøe

    2018-01-01

    Background Influenza A virus in swine herds represents a major problem for the swine industry and poses a constant threat for the emergence of novel pandemic viruses and the development of more effective influenza vaccines for pigs is desired. By optimizing the vector backbone and using a needle...... needle-free delivery to the skin, we immunized pigs with two different doses (500 μg and 800 μg) of an influenza DNA vaccine based on six genes of pandemic origin, including internally expressed matrix and nucleoprotein and externally expressed hemagglutinin and neuraminidase as previously demonstrated....... Two weeks following immunization, the pigs were challenged with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus. Results When challenged with 2009 pandemic H1N1, 0/5 vaccinated pigs (800 μg DNA) became infected whereas 5/5 unvaccinated control pigs were infected. The pigs vaccinated with the low dose (500 μg DNA) were...

  19. Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) class I allele typing of Danish swine herds and identification of commonly occurring haplotypes using sequence specific low and high resolution primers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Jungersen, Gregers; Sørensen, Maria Rathmann

    2014-01-01

    of such peptide-MHC complexes (pMHC) naïve T cells can become activated and respond to a given pathogen leading to its elimination and the generation of memory cells. Hence SLA plays a crucial role in maintaining overall adaptive immunologic resistance to pathogens. Knowing which SLA alleles that are commonly...... occurring can be of great importance in regard to future vaccine development and the establishment of immune protection in swine through broad coverage, highly specific, subunit based vaccination against viruses such as swine influenza, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, vesicular...

  20. Influenza surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Bednarska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza surveillance was established in 1947. From this moment WHO (World Health Organization has been coordinating international cooperation, with a goal of monitoring influenza virus activity, effective diagnostic of the circulating viruses and informing society about epidemics or pandemics, as well as about emergence of new subtypes of influenza virus type A. Influenza surveillance is an important task, because it enables people to prepare themselves for battle with the virus that is constantly mutating, what leads to circulation of new and often more virulent strains of influenza in human population. As vaccination is the most effective method of fighting the virus, one of the major tasks of GISRS is developing an optimal antigenic composition of the vaccine for the current epidemic season. European Influenza Surveillance Network (EISN has also developed over the years. EISN is running integrated epidemiological and virological influenza surveillance, to provide appropriate data to public health experts in member countries, to enable them undertaking relevant activities based on the current information about influenza activity. In close cooperation with GISRS and EISN are National Influenza Centres - national institutions designated by the Ministry of Health in each country.

  1. Effective influenza vaccines for children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzhoff, Angelika; Stoddard, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal influenza causes clinical illness and hospitalization in all age groups; however, conventional inactivated vaccines have only limited efficacy in young children. MF59®, an oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant, has been used since the 1990s to enhance the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in the elderly, a population with waning immune function due to immunosenescence.   Clinical trials now provide information to support a favorable immunogenicity and safety profile of MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine in young children. Published data indicate that Fluad®, a trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine with MF59, was immunogenic and well tolerated in young children, with a benefit/risk ratio that supports routine clinical use. A recent clinical trial also shows that Fluad provides high efficacy against PCR-confirmed influenza. Based on the results of clinical studies in children, the use of MF59-adjuvanted vaccine offers the potential to enhance efficacy and make vaccination a viable prevention and control strategy in this population. PMID:22327501

  2. Serum amyloid P component inhibits influenza A virus infections: in vitro and in vivo studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, A; Andersen, I; Junker, K

    2001-01-01

    . These studies were extended to comprise five mouse-adapted influenza A strains, two swine influenza A strains, a mink influenza A virus, a ferret influenza A reassortant virus, a influenza B virus and a parainfluenza 3 virus. The HA activity of all these viruses was inhibited by SAP. Western blotting showed......Serum amyloid P component (SAP) binds in vitro Ca(2+)-dependently to several ligands including oligosaccharides with terminal mannose and galactose. We have earlier reported that SAP binds to human influenza A virus strains, inhibiting hemagglutinin (HA) activity and virus infectivity in vitro...... that SAP bound to HA trimers, monomers and HA1 and HA2 subunits of influenza A virus. Binding studies indicated that galactose, mannose and fucose moieties contributed to the SAP reacting site(s). Intranasal administration of human SAP to mice induced no demonstrable toxic reactions, and circulating...

  3. Inactivation of Caliciviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Nims

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Caliciviridae family of viruses contains clinically important human and animal pathogens, as well as vesivirus 2117, a known contaminant of biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes employing Chinese hamster cells. An extensive literature exists for inactivation of various animal caliciviruses, especially feline calicivirus and murine norovirus. The caliciviruses are susceptible to wet heat inactivation at temperatures in excess of 60 °C with contact times of 30 min or greater, to UV-C inactivation at fluence ≥30 mJ/cm2, to high pressure processing >200 MPa for >5 min at 4 °C, and to certain photodynamic inactivation approaches. The enteric caliciviruses (e.g.; noroviruses display resistance to inactivation by low pH, while the non-enteric species (e.g.; feline calicivirus are much more susceptible. The caliciviruses are inactivated by a variety of chemicals, including alcohols, oxidizing agents, aldehydes, and β-propiolactone. As with inactivation of viruses in general, inactivation of caliciviruses by the various approaches may be matrix-, temperature-, and/or contact time-dependent. The susceptibilities of the caliciviruses to the various physical and chemical inactivation approaches are generally similar to those displayed by other small, non-enveloped viruses, with the exception that the parvoviruses and circoviruses may require higher temperatures for inactivation, while these families appear to be more susceptible to UV-C inactivation than are the caliciviruses.

  4. Influenza A Virus with a Human-Like N2 Gene Is Circulating in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    2013-01-01

    A novel reassortant influenza A virus, H1avN2hu, has been found in Danish swine. The virus contains an H1 gene similar to the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of H1N1 avian-like swine viruses and an N2 gene most closely related to the neuraminidase (NA) gene of human H3N2 viruses from the mid-1990s....

  5. African Swine Fever Virus Biology and Vaccine Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla, Yolanda; Pérez-Núñez, Daniel; Richt, Juergen A

    2018-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is an acute and often fatal disease affecting domestic pigs and wild boar, with severe economic consequences for affected countries. ASF is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and the island of Sardinia, Italy. Since 2007, the virus emerged in the republic of Georgia, and since then spread throughout the Caucasus region and Russia. Outbreaks have also been reported in Belarus, Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Romania, Moldova, Czech Republic, and Poland, threatening neighboring West European countries. The causative agent, the African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a large, enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus that enters the cell by macropinocytosis and a clathrin-dependent mechanism. African Swine Fever Virus is able to interfere with various cellular signaling pathways resulting in immunomodulation, thus making the development of an efficacious vaccine very challenging. Inactivated preparations of African Swine Fever Virus do not confer protection, and the role of antibodies in protection remains unclear. The use of live-attenuated vaccines, although rendering suitable levels of protection, presents difficulties due to safety and side effects in the vaccinated animals. Several African Swine Fever Virus proteins have been reported to induce neutralizing antibodies in immunized pigs, and vaccination strategies based on DNA vaccines and recombinant proteins have also been explored, however, without being very successful. The complexity of the virus particle and the ability of the virus to modulate host immune responses are most likely the reason for this failure. Furthermore, no permanent cell lines able to sustain productive virus infection by both virulent and naturally attenuated African Swine Fever Virus strains exist so far, thus impairing basic research and the commercial production of attenuated vaccine candidates. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Public views of the uk media and government reaction to the 2009 swine flu pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Emily

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first cases of influenza A/H1N1 (swine flu were confirmed in the UK on 27th April 2009, after a novel virus first identified in Mexico rapidly evolved into a pandemic. The swine flu outbreak was the first pandemic in more than 40 years and for many, their first encounter with a major influenza outbreak. This study examines public understandings of the pandemic, exploring how people deciphered the threat and perceived they could control the risks. Methods Purposive sampling was used to recruit seventy three people (61 women and 12 men to take part in 14 focus group discussions around the time of the second wave in swine flu cases. Results These discussions showed that there was little evidence of the public over-reacting, that people believed the threat of contracting swine flu was inevitable, and that they assessed their own self-efficacy for protecting against it to be low. Respondents assessed a greater risk to their health from the vaccine than from the disease. Such findings could have led to apathy about following the UK Governments recommended health protective behaviours, and a sub-optimal level of vaccine uptake. More generally, people were confused about the difference between seasonal influenza and swine flu and their vaccines. Conclusions This research suggests a gap in public understandings which could hinder attempts to communicate about novel flu viruses in the future. There was general support for the government's handling of the pandemic, although its public awareness campaign was deemed ineffectual as few people changed their current hand hygiene practices. There was less support for the media who were deemed to have over-reported the swine flu pandemic.

  7. Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Outbreak at the U.S. Air Force Academy: Epidemiology and Viral Shedding Duration (American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 20, Number 10, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    virus : zoonotic potential and vaccina- tion strategies for the control of avian and swine influenzas . J Infect Dis 2008;197(1S):S19–24. ber x www.ajpm-online.net ...nsubtypeable influenza A virus from patient samples. he viral specimens were transported to the CDC nfluenza laboratory, where both viral samples were...etermined to be a novel influenza A virus of swine rigin (nH1N1), consistent with virus isolated from atients in a Mexico influenza outbreak that began

  8. Fullerene C60 and graphene photosensibiles for photodynamic virus inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousova, I.; Hvorostovsky, A.; Kiselev, V.; Zarubaev, V.; Kiselev, O.; Piotrovsky, L.; Anfimov, P.; Krisko, T.; Muraviova, T.; Rylkov, V.; Starodubzev, A.; Sirotkin, A.; Grishkanich, A.; Kudashev, I.; Kancer, A.; Kustikova, M.; Bykovskaya, E.; Mayurova, A.; Stupnikov, A.; Ruzankina, J.; Afanasyev, M.; Lukyanov, N.; Redka, D.; Paklinov, N.

    2018-02-01

    A solid-phase photosensitizer based on aggregated C60 fullerene and graphene oxide for photodynamic inactivation of pathogens in biological fluids was studied. The most promising technologies of inactivation include the photodynamic effect, which consists in the inactivation of infectious agents by active oxygen forms (including singlet oxygen), formed when light is activated by the photosensitizer introduced into the plasma. Research shows features of solid-phase systems based on graphene and fullerene C60 oxide, which is a combination of an effective inactivating pathogens (for example, influenza viruses) reactive oxygen species formed upon irradiation of the photosensitizer in aqueous and biological fluids, a high photostability fullerene coatings and the possibility of full recovery photosensitizer from the biological environment after the photodynamic action.

  9. Swine Brucellosis: Current Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucella suis is a significant zoonosis that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human to human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic liv...

  10. Avian And Other Zoonotic Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Avian influenza: guidelines. recommendations, descriptions Global Influenza and Surveillance Response System (GISRS) Food safety authorities network OIE Avian Influenza ...

  11. Pathogens gone wild? Medical anthropology and the "swine flu" pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Merrill

    2009-07-01

    Beginning in April 2009, global attention began focusing on the emergence in Mexico of a potentially highly lethal new influenza strain of porcine origin that has successfully jumped species barriers and is now being transmitted around the world. Reported on extensively by the mass media, commented on by public health and government officials across the globe, and focused on with nervous attention by the general public, the so-called swine flu pandemic raises important questions, addressed here, concerning the capacity of medical anthropology to respond usefully to such disease outbreaks and their health and social consequences.

  12. Propidium Monoazide Coupled with PCR Predicts Infectivity of Enteric Viruses in Swine Manure and Biofertilized Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, Gislaine; Hernández, Marta; García-González, María Cruz; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2016-03-01

    The use of propidium monoazide (PMA) coupled with real-time PCR (RT-qPCR or qPCR for RNA or DNA viruses, respectively) was assessed to discriminate infectious enteric viruses in swine raw manure, swine effluent from anaerobic biodigester (AB) and biofertilized soils. Those samples were spiked either with infectious and heat-inactivated human adenovirus-2 (HAdV-2) or mengovirus (vMC0), and PMA-qPCR/RT-qPCR allowed discriminating inactivated viruses from the infective particles, with significant reductions (>99.9%). Then, the procedure was further assayed to evaluate the presence and stability of two non-cultivable viruses (porcine adenovirus and rotavirus A) in natural samples (swine raw manure, swine effluent from AB and biofertilized soils); it demonstrated viral inactivation during the storage period at 23 °C. As a result, the combination of PMA coupled to real-time PCR can be a promising alternative for prediction of viral infectivity in comparison to more labour-intensive and costly techniques such as animal or tissue-culture infectivity methods, and for those viruses that do not have currently available cell culture techniques.

  13. Safety and immunogenicity of adjuvanted inactivated split-virion and whole-virion influenza A (H5N1) vaccines in children: a phase I-II randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang; Liu, Shu-Zhen; Dong, Shan-Shan; Dong, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Wu-Li; Lu, Min; Li, Chang-Gui; Zhou, Ji-Chen; Fang, Han-Hua; Liu, Yan; Liu, Li-Ying; Qiu, Yuan-Zheng; Gao, Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Jiang-Ting; Zhong, Xiang; Yin, Wei-Dong; Feng, Zi-Jian

    2010-08-31

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus H5N1 has the potential to cause a pandemic. Many prototype pandemic influenza A (H5N1) vaccines had been developed and well evaluated in adults in recent years. However, data in children are limited. Herein we evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of adjuvanted split-virion and whole-virion H5N1 vaccines in children. An open-labelled phase I trial was conducted in children aged 3-11 years to receive aluminum-adjuvated, split-virion H5N1 vaccine (5-30 microg) and in children aged 12-17 years to receive aluminum-adjuvated, whole-virion H5N1 vaccine (5-15 microg). Safety of the two formulations was assessed. Then a randomized phase II trial was conducted, in which 141 children aged 3-11 years received the split-virion vaccine (10 or 15 microg) and 280 children aged 12-17 years received the split-virion vaccine (10-30 microg) or the whole-virion vaccine (5 microg). Serum samples were collected for hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assays. 5-15 microg adjuvated split-virion vaccines were well tolerated in children aged 3-11 years and 5-30 microg adjuvated split-virion vaccines and 5 microg adjuvated whole-virion vaccine were well tolerated in children aged 12-17 years. Most local and systemic reactions were mild or moderate. Before vaccination, all participants were immunologically naïve to H5N1 virus. Immune responses were induced after the first dose and significantly boosted after the second dose. In 3-11 years children, the 10 and 15 microg split-virion vaccine induced similar responses with 55% seroconversion and seroprotection (HI titer >or=1:40) rates. In 12-17 years children, the 30 microg split-virion vaccine induced the highest immune response with 71% seroconversion and seroprotection rates. The 5 microg whole-virion vaccine induced higher response than the 10 microg split-virion vaccine did. The aluminum-adjuvanted, split-virion prototype pandemic influenza A (H5N1) vaccine showed good safety and immunogenicity in

  14. Immune response in domestic ducks following intradermal delivery of inactivated vaccine against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus adjuvanted with oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, Seong-Su; Lee, Dong-Hun; Park, Jae-Keun; To, Eredene-Ochir; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Noh, Jin-Yong; Gomis, Susantha; Song, Chang-Seon

    2015-08-01

    Ducks are a natural reservoir for H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, which produces a range of clinical outcomes from asymptomatic infections to severe disease with mortality. Vaccination against HPAI is one of the few methods available for controlling avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in domestic ducks; therefore, it is necessary to improve vaccine efficacy against HPAI in domestic ducks. However, few studies have focused on enhancing the immune response by testing alternative administration routes and adjuvants. While attempting to maximize the efficacy of a vaccine, it is important to select an appropriate vaccine delivery route and adjuvant to elicit an enhanced immune response. Although several studies have indicated that the vaccination of ducks against HPAI viruses has offered protection against lethal virus challenge, the immunogenicity of the vaccine still requires improvement. In this study, we characterized the immune response following a novel vaccination strategy against H5N1 HPAI virus in domestic ducks. Our novel intradermal delivery system and the application of the cytosine-phosphodiester-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) adjuvant allowed us to obtain information regarding the sustained vaccine immunity. Compared with the intramuscular route of vaccination, the intradermal route resulted in higher antibody titer as well as lower antibody deviation following secondary vaccination. In addition, the use of a CpG-ODN adjuvant had a dose-sparing effect on antibody titer. Furthermore, when a high dose of antigen was used, the CpG-ODN-adjuvanted vaccine maintained a high mean antibody titer. This data demonstrates that intradermal immunization combined with administration of CpG-ODN as an adjuvant may be a promising strategy for improving vaccine efficacy in domestic ducks. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Human temperatures for syndromic surveillance in the emergency department: data from the autumn wave of the 2009 swine flu (H1N1) pandemic and a seasonal influenza outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordonaro, Samantha F; McGillicuddy, Daniel C; Pompei, Francesco; Burmistrov, Dmitriy; Harding, Charles; Sanchez, Leon D

    2016-03-09

    The emergency department (ED) increasingly acts as a gateway to the evaluation and treatment of acute illnesses. Consequently, it has also become a key testing ground for systems that monitor and identify outbreaks of disease. Here, we describe a new technology that automatically collects body temperatures during triage. The technology was tested in an ED as an approach to monitoring diseases that cause fever, such as seasonal flu and some pandemics. Temporal artery thermometers that log temperature measurements were placed in a Boston ED and used for initial triage vital signs. Time-stamped measurements were collected from the thermometers to investigate the performance a real-time system would offer. The data were summarized in terms of rates of fever (temperatures ≥100.4 °F [≥38.0 °C]) and were qualitatively compared with regional disease surveillance programs in Massachusetts. From September 2009 through August 2011, 71,865 body temperatures were collected and included in our analysis, 2073 (2.6 %) of which were fevers. The period of study included the autumn-winter wave of the 2009-2010 H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic, during which the weekly incidence of fever reached a maximum of 5.6 %, as well as the 2010-2011 seasonal flu outbreak, during which the maximum weekly incidence of fever was 6.6 %. The periods of peak fever rates corresponded with the periods of regionally elevated flu activity. Temperature measurements were monitored at triage in the ED over a period of 2 years. The resulting data showed promise as a potential surveillance tool for febrile disease that could complement current disease surveillance systems. Because temperature can easily be measured by non-experts, it might also be suitable for monitoring febrile disease activity in schools, workplaces, and transportation hubs, where many traditional syndromic indicators are impractical. However, the system's validity and generalizability should be evaluated in additional years and

  16. A prospective study of Romanian agriculture workers for zoonotic influenza infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Coman

    Full Text Available In this prospective study we sought to examine seroepidemiological evidence for acute zoonotic influenza virus infection among Romanian agricultural workers.Sera were drawn upon enrollment (2009 and again at 12 and 24 months from 312 adult agriculture workers and 51 age-group matched controls. Participants were contacted monthly for 24 months and queried regarding episodes of acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI. Cohort members meeting ILI criteria permitted respiratory swab collections as well as acute and convalescent serum collection. Serologic assays were performed against 9 avian, 3 swine, and 3 human influenza viruses.During the two-year follow-up, a total of 23 ILI events were reported. Two subjects' specimens were identified as influenza A by rRT-PCR. During the follow-up period, three individuals experienced elevated microneutralization antibody titers ≥1∶80 against three (one each avian influenza viruses: A/Teal/Hong Kong/w312/97(H6N1, A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2, or A/Duck/Alberta/60/1976(H12N5. However, none of these participants met the criteria for poultry exposure. A number of subjects demonstrated four-fold increases over time in hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay titers for at least one of the three swine influenza viruses (SIVs; however, it seems likely that two of these three responses were due to cross-reacting antibody against human influenza. Only elevated antibody titers against A/Swine/Flanders/1/1998(H3N2 lacked evidence for such confounding. In examining risk factors for elevated antibody against this SIV with multiple logistic regression, swine exposure (adjusted OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-2.8 and tobacco use (adjusted OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.1-2.9 were important predictors.While Romania has recently experienced multiple incursions of highly pathogenic avian influenza among domestic poultry, this cohort of Romanian agriculture workers had sparse evidence of avian influenza virus infections. In contrast, there was

  17. Respiratory Highlights, 2016 - 2017 Influenza Season (2 October 2016 - 31 September 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-21

    Medicine Public Health and Preventive Medicine Dept/PHR 2510 Fifth St., Bldg. 840 Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-7913 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Surveillance Program Cleared, 88PA, Case # 2018-1051, 5 Mar 2018. 1 USAF School of Aerospace Medicine & Defense Health Agency...influenza from an infected child with a history of swine contact at an agricultural event in Texas. The HA gene from select influenza positives was

  18. Host adaptation and transmission of influenza A viruses in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauwen, Eefje JA; Fouchier, Ron AM

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of influenza A viruses of pigs and birds have infected humans in the last decade, sometimes with severe clinical consequences. Each of these so-called zoonotic infections provides an opportunity for virus adaptation to the new host. Fortunately, most of these human infections do not yield viruses with the ability of sustained human-to-human transmission. However, animal influenza viruses have acquired the ability of sustained transmission between humans to cause pandemics on rare occasions in the past, and therefore, influenza virus zoonoses continue to represent threats to public health. Numerous recent studies have shed new light on the mechanisms of adaptation and transmission of avian and swine influenza A viruses in mammals. In particular, several studies provided insights into the genetic and phenotypic traits of influenza A viruses that may determine airborne transmission. Here, we summarize recent studies on molecular determinants of virulence and adaptation of animal influenza A virus and discuss the phenotypic traits associated with airborne transmission of newly emerging influenza A viruses. Increased understanding of the determinants and mechanisms of virulence and transmission may aid in assessing the risks posed by animal influenza viruses to human health, and preparedness for such risks. PMID:26038511

  19. Framing risk in pandemic influenza policy and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seetoh, Theresa; Liverani, Marco; Coker, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This article explores differing understandings of 'risk' in relation to pandemic influenza policy and control. After a preliminary overview of methodological and practical problems in risk analysis, ways in which risk was framed and managed in three historical cases were examined. The interdependence between scientific empiricism and political decision-making led to the mismanagement of the 1976 swine influenza scare in the USA. The 2004 H5N1 avian influenza outbreak in Thailand, on the other hand, was undermined by questions of national economic interest and concerns over global health security. Finally, the recent global emergency of pandemic influenza H1N1 in 2009 demonstrated the difficulties of risk management under a context of pre-established perceptions about the characteristics and inevitability of a pandemic. Following the analysis of these cases, a conceptual framework is presented to illustrate ways in which changing relationships between risk assessment, risk perception and risk management can result in differing policy strategies.

  20. EVALUATION OF REACTOGENICITY, SAFETY AND IMMUNOGENICITY OF INACTIVATED MONOVALENT VACCINE IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    A.N. Mironov; A.A. Romanova; R.Ya. Meshkova; I.V. Fel’dblyum; N.V. Kupina; D.S. Bushmenkov; A.A. Tsaan

    2010-01-01

    NPO «Microgen» developed vaccine «PANDEFLU» — influenza inactivated subunit adsorbed monovalent vaccine, strain A/California/7/2009 (H1N1), for specific prophylaxis of pandemic influenza in different age groups of citizens. Reactogenicity, safety and immunogenicity were analyzed in a study of volunteers 18–60 years old. The article presents results of administration of vaccine «PANDEFLU» in children. The study performed in two clinical centers proves good tolerability, reactogenicity, safety ...

  1. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  2. Weighing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses - a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkema, Reina Saapke; Freidl, Gudrun Stephanie; de Bruin, Erwin; Koopmans, Marion

    2016-11-03

    Assessing influenza A virus strains circulating in animals and their potential to cross the species barrier and cause human infections is important to improve human influenza surveillance and preparedness. We reviewed studies describing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses. Comparing serological data is difficult due to a lack of standardisation in study designs and in laboratory methods used in published reports. Therefore, we designed a scoring system to assess and weigh specificity of obtained serology results in the selected articles. Many studies report reliable evidence of antibodies to swine influenza viruses among persons occupationally exposed to pigs. Most avian influenza studies target H5, H7 and H9 subtypes and most serological evidence of human exposure to avian influenza viruses is reported for these subtypes. Avian influenza studies receiving a low grade in this review often reported higher seroprevalences in humans compared with studies with a high grade. Official surveillance systems mainly focus on avian H5 and H7 viruses. Swine influenza viruses and avian subtypes other than H5 and H7 (emphasising H9) should be additionally included in official surveillance systems. Surveillance efforts should also be directed towards understudied geographical areas, such as Africa and South America. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  3. Weighing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses − a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkema, Reina Saapke; Freidl, Gudrun Stephanie; de Bruin, Erwin; Koopmans, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Assessing influenza A virus strains circulating in animals and their potential to cross the species barrier and cause human infections is important to improve human influenza surveillance and preparedness. We reviewed studies describing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses. Comparing serological data is difficult due to a lack of standardisation in study designs and in laboratory methods used in published reports. Therefore, we designed a scoring system to assess and weigh specificity of obtained serology results in the selected articles. Many studies report reliable evidence of antibodies to swine influenza viruses among persons occupationally exposed to pigs. Most avian influenza studies target H5, H7 and H9 subtypes and most serological evidence of human exposure to avian influenza viruses is reported for these subtypes. Avian influenza studies receiving a low grade in this review often reported higher seroprevalences in humans compared with studies with a high grade. Official surveillance systems mainly focus on avian H5 and H7 viruses. Swine influenza viruses and avian subtypes other than H5 and H7 (emphasising H9) should be additionally included in official surveillance systems. Surveillance efforts should also be directed towards understudied geographical areas, such as Africa and South America. PMID:27874827

  4. Challenges of influenza A viruses in humans and animals and current animal vaccines as an effective control measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are genetically diverse and variable pathogens that share various hosts including human, swine, and domestic poultry. Interspecies and intercontinental viral spreads make the ecology of IAV more complex. Beside endemic IAV infections, human has been exposed to pandemic and zoonotic threats from avian and swine influenza viruses. Animal health also has been threatened by high pathogenic avian influenza viruses (in domestic poultry) and reverse zoonosis (in swine). Considering its dynamic interplay between species, prevention and control against IAV should be conducted effectively in both humans and animal sectors. Vaccination is one of the most efficient tools against IAV. Numerous vaccines against animal IAVs have been developed by a variety of vaccine technologies and some of them are currently commercially available. We summarize several challenges in control of IAVs faced by human and animals and discuss IAV vaccines for animal use with those application in susceptible populations. PMID:29399575

  5. Physical examination of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, B J; Hamilton, M; Masters, P G

    1992-07-01

    Swine may be examined to evaluate a disease state or a lowered economic performance or as a herd health consultation. As much of the examination as possible should be performed without handling the animal. A thorough history, evaluation of herd records, environmental examination, and herd examination should be performed prior to the evaluation of an individual animal. All necessary equipment should be available when starting the individual examination. The animals is then restrained and examined, and necessary samples are taken. Post-mortem examinations or slaughter house evaluations are a very frequent part of a health examination on swine. All samples taken should be in accordance with the standards of the laboratory that you use. You should work closely with the laboratory to obtain the best results. Physical examination of swine can be rewarding for the veterinarian as well as the producer. The most important aspect to remember is to have enough information and the proper equipment available to handle the animals for the minimal amount of time to gain the maximum benefits. Vietnamese pot-bellied pigs are similar to domestic swine in terms of their diseases and health but are dissimilar in management; pot-bellied pigs are frequently brought to the veterinarian for individual examinations. History is the most valuable part of the examination, followed by observation. Pot-bellied pigs prefer to be held securely with a hand under the chin and rump. The examination is conducted similarly to the examination of any companion animal. Chemical restraint often is necessary for sampling or minor surgical procedures. Owners should be consulted prior to the use of any restraint. This will help win their approval and confidence when working on their pets. While performing the physical examination, look at the pig's overall health as well as specific breed characteristics. Try to stay abreast of swine vaccination recommendations; you may be consulted in this regard. Most

  6. Inactivation and stability of viral diagnostic reagents treated by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, L.A.; Freeman, C.Y.; Hall, H.E.; Forrester, B.D.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this study was to apply the pertinent findings from gamma inactivation of virus infectivity to the production of high quality diagnostic reagents. A Gammacell 220 was used to subject 38 viruses grown in either susceptible tissue cultures or embryonated chicken eggs to various doses of gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 source. The radiation required to reduce viral infectivity was 0.42 to 3.7 megarads (Mrad). The effect of gamma treatment on the antigenic reactivity of reagents for the complement fixation (CF), hemagglutination (HA) and neuraminadase assays was determined. Influenza antigens inactivated with 1.7 Mrad displayed comparable potency, sensitivity, specificity and stability to those inactivated by standard procedures with beta-propiolactone (BPL). Significant inactivation of influenza N1 and B neuraminidase occurred with >2.4 Mrad radiation at temperatures above 4 0 C. All 38 viruses were inactivated, and CF or HA antigens were prepared successfully. Antigenic potency remained stable with all antigens for 3 years and with 83% after 5 years storage. Influenza HA antigens evaluated after 9 years of storage demonstrated 86% stability. Gamma radiation is safer than chemical inactivation procedures and is a reliable and effective replacement for BPL in preparing diagnostic reagents. (author)

  7. Inactivation and stability of viral diagnostic reagents treated by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, L A; Freeman, C Y; Hall, H E; Forrester, B D [Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA (USA)

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study was to apply the pertinent findings from gamma inactivation of virus infectivity to the production of high quality diagnostic reagents. A Gammacell 220 was used to subject 38 viruses grown in either susceptible tissue cultures or embryonated chicken eggs to various doses of gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 source. The radiation required to reduce viral infectivity was 0.42 to 3.7 megarads (Mrad). The effect of gamma treatment on the antigenic reactivity of reagents for the complement fixation (CF), hemagglutination (HA) and neuraminadase assays was determined. Influenza antigens inactivated with 1.7 Mrad displayed comparable potency, sensitivity, specificity and stability to those inactivated by standard procedures with beta-propiolactone (BPL). Significant inactivation of influenza N1 and B neuraminidase occurred with >2.4 Mrad radiation at temperatures above 4{sup 0}C. All 38 viruses were inactivated, and CF or HA antigens were prepared successfully. Antigenic potency remained stable with all antigens for 3 years and with 83% after 5 years storage. Influenza HA antigens evaluated after 9 years of storage demonstrated 86% stability. Gamma radiation is safer than chemical inactivation procedures and is a reliable and effective replacement for BPL in preparing diagnostic reagents. (author).

  8. Avian Influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Gary Adam; Maslow, Melanie Jane

    2005-05-01

    The current epidemic of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Southeast Asia raises serious concerns that genetic reassortment will result in the next influenza pandemic. There have been 164 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza since 1996. In 2004, there were 45 cases of human H5N1 in Vietnam and Thailand, with a mortality rate more than 70%. In addition to the potential public health hazard, the current zoonotic epidemic has caused severe economic losses. Efforts must be concentrated on early detection of bird outbreaks with aggressive culling, quarantining, and disinfection. To prepare for and prevent an increase in human cases, it is essential to improve detection methods and stockpile effective antivirals. Novel therapeutic modalities, including short-interfering RNAs and new vaccine strategies that use plasmid-based genetic systems, offer promise should a pandemic occur.

  9. Genetic characterization of H1N2 influenza a virus isolated from sick pigs in Southern China in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wei Li; Huang, Liang Zong; Qi, Hai Tao; Cao, Nan; Zhang, Liang Quan; Wang, Heng; Guan, Shang Song; Qi, Wen Bao; Jiao, Pei Rong; Liao, Ming; Zhang, Gui Hong

    2011-10-13

    In China H3N2 and H1N1 swine influenza viruses have been circulating for many years. In January 2010, before swine were infected with foot and mouth disease in Guangdong, some pigs have shown flu-like symptoms: cough, sneeze, runny nose and fever. We collected the nasopharyngeal swab of all sick pigs as much as possible. One subtype H1N2 influenza viruses were isolated from the pig population. The complete genome of one isolate, designated A/swine/Guangdong/1/2010(H1N2), was sequenced and compared with sequences available in GenBank. The nucleotide sequences of all eight viral RNA segments were determined, and then phylogenetic analysis was performed using the neighbor-joining method. HA, NP, M and NS were shown to be closely to swine origin. PB2 and PA were close to avian origin, but NA and PB1were close to human origin. It is a result of a multiple reassortment event. In conclusion, our finding provides further evidence about the interspecies transmission of avian influenza viruses to pigs and emphasizes the importance of reinforcing swine influenza virus (SIV) surveillance, especially before the emergence of highly pathogenic FMDs in pigs in Guangdong.

  10. Genetic characterization of H1N2 influenza a virus isolated from sick pigs in Southern China in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Wei

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In China H3N2 and H1N1 swine influenza viruses have been circulating for many years. In January 2010, before swine were infected with foot and mouth disease in Guangdong, some pigs have shown flu-like symptoms: cough, sneeze, runny nose and fever. We collected the nasopharyngeal swab of all sick pigs as much as possible. One subtype H1N2 influenza viruses were isolated from the pig population. The complete genome of one isolate, designated A/swine/Guangdong/1/2010(H1N2, was sequenced and compared with sequences available in GenBank. The nucleotide sequences of all eight viral RNA segments were determined, and then phylogenetic analysis was performed using the neighbor-joining method. HA, NP, M and NS were shown to be closely to swine origin. PB2 and PA were close to avian origin, but NA and PB1were close to human origin. It is a result of a multiple reassortment event. In conclusion, our finding provides further evidence about the interspecies transmission of avian influenza viruses to pigs and emphasizes the importance of reinforcing swine influenza virus (SIV surveillance, especially before the emergence of highly pathogenic FMDs in pigs in Guangdong.

  11. Outbreaks of influenza A virus in farmed mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark: molecular characterization of the viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona

    2012-01-01

    that the virus was a human/swine reassortant, with the H and N gene most related to human H3N2 viruses circulating in 2005. The remaining 6 genes were most closely related to H1N2 influenza viruses circulating in Danish swine. This virus had not previously been described in swine, mink or humans. PCRs assays...... specifically targeting the new reassortant were developed and used to screen influenza positive samples from humans and swine in Denmark with negative results. Thus, there was no evidence that this virus had spread to humans or was circulating in Danish pigs. In 2010 and 2011, influenza virus was again...... diagnosed in diseased mink in a few farms. The genetic typing showed that the virus was similar to the pandemic H1N1 virus circulating in humans and swine. The H3N2 virus was not detected in 2010 and 2011. Taken together, these findings indicate that mink is highly susceptible for influenza A virus of human...

  12. Immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine when coadministered with Diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and haemophilus influenzae type B vaccines in children 15 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofa, Andrew F; Klein, Nicola P; Paul, Ian M; Michaels, Marian G; Goessler, Mary; Chandrasekaran, Vijayalakshmi; Blatter, Mark

    2011-09-01

    This study (NCT00197236) evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine when coadministered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines in children 15 months of age. This was an open-labeled, multicenter study with healthy subjects enrolled and randomized (1:1:1) into 3 treatment groups. A total of 394 subjects received the first study vaccinations at 15 months of age. Group HAV (N = 135) received 2 doses of HAV vaccine 6 to 9 months apart. Group HAV+DTaP+Hib (N = 127) received HAV vaccine coadministered with DTaP and Hib vaccines and the second dose of HAV vaccine, 6 to 9 months later. Group DTaP+Hib→HAV (N = 132) received the DTaP and Hib vaccines at 15 months of age, followed by HAV vaccine 30 days later and the second dose of HAV vaccine 7 to 10 months after the DTaP+Hib vaccines. Immune responses were evaluated before the first study vaccination and 30 days after each vaccine dose. Solicited, unsolicited, and serious adverse events were collected. After 2 doses of the HAV vaccine, all subjects in the 3 groups were seropositive. The geometric mean concentration of anti-HAV antibodies ranged between 1625.1 and 1904.4 mIU/mL. Coadministration of the 3 vaccines did not impact immunogenicity of the HAV, DTaP, or Hib vaccines. Vaccines were well tolerated in all groups. A 2-dose schedule of HAV vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic when administered to children starting at 15 months of age. Immune responses to the DTaP or Hib vaccines were similar whether they were administered alone or were coadministered with the HAV vaccine.

  13. A Universal Influenza Vaccine Can Lead to Disease Exacerbation or Viral Control Depending on Delivery Strategies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bemelin-Cottet, C.; Deloizy, Ch.; Staněk, Ondřej; Barc, C.; Bouguyon, E.; Urien, C.; Boulesteix, O.; Pezant, J.; Richard, Ch-A.; Moudjou, M.; Da Costa, B.; Jouneau, L.; Chevalier, Ch.; Leclerc, C.; Šebo, Peter; Bertho, N.; Schwartz-Corni, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, DEC 26 (2016), s. 641 ISSN 1664-3224 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA03010331; GA MZe QJ1210041 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : dendritic cells * swine * influenza Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.429, year: 2016

  14. The Swine Flu Triage (SwiFT) study: development and ongoing refinement of a triage tool to provide regular information to guide immediate policy and practice for the use of critical care services during the H1N1 swine influenza pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, K M; Harrison, D A; Walsh, T S; McAuley, D F; Perkins, G D; Taylor, B L; Menon, D K

    2010-12-01

    To use, existing critical care and early pandemic, data to inform care during the pandemic influenza A 2009 (H1N1) pandemic (with a possible use for triage - if the demand for critical care seriously exceeded supply). To monitor the impact of the H1N1 pandemic on critical care services, in real time, with regular feedback to critical care clinicians and other relevant jurisdictions to inform ongoing policy and practice. Modelling of data and cohort study. Modelling - 148 adult, general critical care units in England, Wales and Northern Ireland in the Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre Case Mix Programme. Cohort study - 192 acute hospitals in England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland and the Republic of Ireland. Modelling - 105,397 admissions to adult, general critical care units. Cohort study - 1728 H1N1 pandemic-related admissions referred and assessed as requiring critical care. Modelling - requirement for organ support and acute hospital mortality. Cohort study - survival to the end of critical care. Modelling - cancelled or postponed, elective or scheduled surgery resulted in savings in calendar days of critical, Level 3 and advanced respiratory care of 17, 11 and 10%, respectively. These savings varied across units. Using routine, physiological variables, the best triage models, for all and for acute respiratory admissions, achieved only satisfactory concordance of 0.79 and 0.75, respectively. Application of the best model on all admissions indicated that approximately 12.5% of calendar days of critical care could be saved. Cohort study - research governance approvals were achieved for 192 acute hospitals, for 91 within 1 day of central research and development approval across the five countries. A total of 1725 cases (562 confirmed) were reported. Confirmed cases were young (mean age of 40 years), had low severity of acute illness on presentation [61% CURB-65 (confusion, urea, respiratory rate, blood pressure, age over 65 years) 0-1], but had

  15. Influenza vaccines: Evaluation of the safety profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Claudia Maria; Gianchecchi, Elena; Montomoli, Emanuele

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The safety of vaccines is a critical factor in maintaining public trust in national vaccination programs. Vaccines are recommended for children, adults and elderly subjects and have to meet higher safety standards, since they are administered to healthy subjects, mainly healthy children. Although vaccines are strictly monitored before authorization, the possibility of adverse events and/or rare adverse events cannot be totally eliminated. Two main types of influenza vaccines are currently available: parenteral inactivated influenza vaccines and intranasal live attenuated vaccines. Both display a good safety profile in adults and children. However, they can cause adverse events and/or rare adverse events, some of which are more prevalent in children, while others with a higher prevalence in adults. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of influenza vaccine safety according to target groups, vaccine types and production methods. PMID:29297746

  16. Antibody Contributes to Heterosubtypic Immunity In the Cotton Rat Model of Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    H1N2 swine influenza virus in pigs previously infected with H1N1 and/or H3N2 subtypes. Vaccine 21: 1375–1381. Wei, C.J., J.C. Boyington, P.M...contributes to heterosubtypic protection against influenza A-induced tachypnea in cotton rats" Name of Candidate: r. Timothy M. Straight Doctor of...Heterosubtypic Immunity In the Cotton Rat Model of Influenza " is appropriately acknowledged and, beyond brief excerpts, is with the permission of the

  17. Settling and survival profile of enteric pathogens in the swine effluent for water reuse purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, G; Kunz, A; Magri, M E; Schissi, C D; Viancelli, A; Philippi, L S; Barardi, C R M

    2016-11-01

    The present study evaluated the pathogens persistence and settling profile in swine effluent. We determined the enteric pathogens settling characteristics, their survival and inactivation profile in swine effluent (for water reuse purpose) and in sludge (generated after aerobic treatment - during secondary settling process). The study was performed in laboratorial-scale and in full-scale (manure treatment plant). Enteric viruses and enteric bacteria were used as biomarkers. Results showed that these enteric pathogens were significantly reduced from swine effluent during secondary settling process, and enteric viruses removal was correlated with the suspended solids decantation. The design of secondary settlers can be adapted to improve pathogens removal, by diminishing the solids loading rate per area and time, ending in higher hydraulic retention times. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. HIV/AIDS and the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other HIV/AIDS and the Flu Questions & Answers Language: English ( ... people with HIV and AIDS. Should people with HIV/AIDS receive the inactivated influenza vaccine? People with ...

  19. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E in swine abattoir workers.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disease poses economic ... III and IV infect both swine and humans; and are re- ... associated with transmission in swine abattoir workers in ..... tal evidence for cross-species infection by swine hepatitis ... A novel virus in swine is closely.

  20. Expression of microRNAs and innate immune factor genes in lung tissue of pigs infected with influenza virus (H1N2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Cirera, S.; Vasby, D.

    A infection. The present work aimed of providing a better understanding of the involvement of innate immune factors including miRNA in the host response to establishment and progression of influenza virus infection. Twenty pigs were challenged by aerosol containing H1N2 (A/swine/Denmark/12687/03) influenza......Swine influenza is a highly infectious respiratory disease in pigs caused by influenza A virus. Activation of a frontline of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) expressed by epithelial cells as well as immune cells of the upper respiratory tract, leads to a potent type 1 interferon (IFN) release......, this response must be tightly regulated. Recently, microRNA (miRNA) has been proposed to play an important role in modulating and fine tuning the innate immune response in order to avoid such harmful overreactions. Little is known about the significance of miRNA regulation in the lung during acute influenza...

  1. Vaccine-induced anti-HA2 antibodies promote virus fusion and enhance influenza virus respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Surender; Loving, Crystal L; Manischewitz, Jody; King, Lisa R; Gauger, Phillip C; Henningson, Jamie; Vincent, Amy L; Golding, Hana

    2013-08-28

    Vaccine-induced disease enhancement has been described in connection with several viral vaccines in animal models and in humans. We investigated a swine model to evaluate mismatched influenza vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) after pH1N1 infection. Vaccinating pigs with whole inactivated H1N2 (human-like) virus vaccine (WIV-H1N2) resulted in enhanced pneumonia and disease after pH1N1 infection. WIV-H1N2 immune sera contained high titers of cross-reactive anti-pH1N1 hemagglutinin (HA) antibodies that bound exclusively to the HA2 domain but not to the HA1 globular head. No hemagglutination inhibition titers against pH1N1 (challenge virus) were measured. Epitope mapping using phage display library identified the immunodominant epitope recognized by WIV-H1N2 immune sera as amino acids 32 to 77 of pH1N1-HA2 domain, close to the fusion peptide. These cross-reactive anti-HA2 antibodies enhanced pH1N1 infection of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells by promoting virus membrane fusion activity. The enhanced fusion activity correlated with lung pathology in pigs. This study suggests a role for fusion-enhancing anti-HA2 antibodies in VAERD, in the absence of receptor-blocking virus-neutralizing antibodies. These findings should be considered during the evaluation of universal influenza vaccines designed to elicit HA2 stem-targeting antibodies.

  2. Enhancement of the Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of a Mucosal Influenza Subunit Vaccine by the Saponin Adjuvant GPI-0100

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Heng; Patil, Harshad P.; de Vries-Idema, Jacqueline; Wilschut, Jan; Huckriede, Anke

    2012-01-01

    Identification of safe and effective adjuvants remains an urgent need for the development of inactivated influenza vaccines for mucosal administration. Here, we used a murine challenge model to evaluate the adjuvant activity of GPI-0100, a saponin-derived adjuvant, on influenza subunit vaccine

  3. Vaccinia-based influenza vaccine overcomes previously induced immunodominance hierarchy for heterosubtypic protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ji-Sun; Yoon, Jungsoon; Kim, Yeon-Jung; Kang, Kyuho; Woo, Sunje; Jung, Dea-Im; Song, Man Ki; Kim, Eun-Ha; Kwon, Hyeok-Il; Choi, Young Ki; Kim, Jihye; Lee, Jeewon; Yoon, Yeup; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Youn, Jin-Won

    2014-08-01

    Growing concerns about unpredictable influenza pandemics require a broadly protective vaccine against diverse influenza strains. One of the promising approaches was a T cell-based vaccine, but the narrow breadth of T-cell immunity due to the immunodominance hierarchy established by previous influenza infection and efficacy against only mild challenge condition are important hurdles to overcome. To model T-cell immunodominance hierarchy in humans in an experimental setting, influenza-primed C57BL/6 mice were chosen and boosted with a mixture of vaccinia recombinants, individually expressing consensus sequences from avian, swine, and human isolates of influenza internal proteins. As determined by IFN-γ ELISPOT and polyfunctional cytokine secretion, the vaccinia recombinants of influenza expanded the breadth of T-cell responses to include subdominant and even minor epitopes. Vaccine groups were successfully protected against 100 LD50 challenges with PR/8/34 and highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, which contained the identical dominant NP366 epitope. Interestingly, in challenge with pandemic A/Cal/04/2009 containing mutations in the dominant epitope, only the group vaccinated with rVV-NP + PA showed improved protection. Taken together, a vaccinia-based influenza vaccine expressing conserved internal proteins improved the breadth of influenza-specific T-cell immunity and provided heterosubtypic protection against immunologically close as well as distant influenza strains. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Control of African swine fever epidemics in industrialized swine populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten

    2016-01-01

    , it is important to explore strategies that can effectively control an epidemic of ASF. In this study, the epidemiological and economic effects of strategies to control the spread of ASF between domestic swine herds were examined using a published model (DTU-DADS-ASF). The control strategies were the basic EU...... and national strategy (Basic), the basic strategy plus pre-emptive depopulation of neighboring swine herds, and intensive surveillance of herds in the control zones, including testing live or dead animals. Virus spread via wild boar was not modelled. Under the basic control strategy, the median epidemic......African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a high impact on swine health. The disease is endemic in certain regions in the Baltic countries and has spread to Poland constituting a risk of ASF spread toward Western Europe. Therefore, as part of contingency planning...

  5. Portable GMR Handheld Platform for the Detection of Influenza A Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Klein, Todd; Krishna, Venkatramana D; Su, Diqing; Perez, Andres M; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2017-11-22

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is a common respiratory pathogen infecting many hosts including humans, pigs (swine influenza virus or SIV), and birds (avian influenza virus or AIV). Monitoring swine and avian influenza viruses in the wild, farms, and live poultry markets is of great significance for human and veterinary public health. A portable, sensitive, and quantitative immunoassay device will be of high demand especially in the rural and resource-limited areas. We report herein our Z-Lab point-of-care (POC) device for sensitive and specific detection of swine influenza viruses with minimum sample handling and laboratory skill requirements. In the present study, a portable and quantitative immunoassay platform based on giant magnetoresistive (GMR) technology is used for the detection of IAV nucleoprotein (NP) and purified H3N2v. Z-Lab displays quantitative results in less than 10 min with sensitivities down to 15 ng/mL and 125 TCID 50 /mL for IAV nucleoprotein and purified H3N2v, respectively. This platform allows lab-testing to be performed outdoors and opens up the applications of immunoassays in nonclinical settings.

  6. Pathogens Inactivated by Low-Energy-Electron Irradiation Maintain Antigenic Properties and Induce Protective Immune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertey, Jasmin; Bayer, Lea; Grunwald, Thomas; Pohl, Alexandra; Beckmann, Jana; Gotzmann, Gaby; Casado, Javier Portillo; Schönfelder, Jessy; Rögner, Frank-Holm; Wetzel, Christiane; Thoma, Martin; Bailer, Susanne M.; Hiller, Ekkehard; Rupp, Steffen; Ulbert, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Inactivated vaccines are commonly produced by incubating pathogens with chemicals such as formaldehyde or β-propiolactone. This is a time-consuming process, the inactivation efficiency displays high variability and extensive downstream procedures are often required. Moreover, application of chemicals alters the antigenic components of the viruses or bacteria, resulting in reduced antibody specificity and therefore stimulation of a less effective immune response. An alternative method for inactivation of pathogens is ionizing radiation. It acts very fast and predominantly damages nucleic acids, conserving most of the antigenic structures. However, currently used irradiation technologies (mostly gamma-rays and high energy electrons) require large and complex shielding constructions to protect the environment from radioactivity or X-rays generated during the process. This excludes them from direct integration into biological production facilities. Here, low-energy electron irradiation (LEEI) is presented as an alternative inactivation method for pathogens in liquid solutions. LEEI can be used in normal laboratories, including good manufacturing practice (GMP)- or high biosafety level (BSL)-environments, as only minor shielding is necessary. We show that LEEI efficiently inactivates different viruses (influenza A (H3N8), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1)) and bacteria (Escherichia coli) and maintains their antigenicity. Moreover, LEEI-inactivated influenza A viruses elicit protective immune responses in animals, as analyzed by virus neutralization assays and viral load determination upon challenge. These results have implications for novel ways of developing and manufacturing inactivated vaccines with improved efficacy. PMID:27886076

  7. Characterization of uncultivable bat influenza virus using a replicative synthetic virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bats harbor many viruses, which are periodically transmitted to humans resulting in outbreaks of disease (e.g., Ebola, SARS-CoV. Recently, influenza virus-like sequences were identified in bats; however, the viruses could not be cultured. This discovery aroused great interest in understanding the evolutionary history and pandemic potential of bat-influenza. Using synthetic genomics, we were unable to rescue the wild type bat virus, but could rescue a modified bat-influenza virus that had the HA and NA coding regions replaced with those of A/PR/8/1934 (H1N1. This modified bat-influenza virus replicated efficiently in vitro and in mice, resulting in severe disease. Additional studies using a bat-influenza virus that had the HA and NA of A/swine/Texas/4199-2/1998 (H3N2 showed that the PR8 HA and NA contributed to the pathogenicity in mice. Unlike other influenza viruses, engineering truncations hypothesized to reduce interferon antagonism into the NS1 protein didn't attenuate bat-influenza. In contrast, substitution of a putative virulence mutation from the bat-influenza PB2 significantly attenuated the virus in mice and introduction of a putative virulence mutation increased its pathogenicity. Mini-genome replication studies and virus reassortment experiments demonstrated that bat-influenza has very limited genetic and protein compatibility with Type A or Type B influenza viruses, yet it readily reassorts with another divergent bat-influenza virus, suggesting that the bat-influenza lineage may represent a new Genus/Species within the Orthomyxoviridae family. Collectively, our data indicate that the bat-influenza viruses recently identified are authentic viruses that pose little, if any, pandemic threat to humans; however, they provide new insights into the evolution and basic biology of influenza viruses.

  8. Characterization of uncultivable bat influenza virus using a replicative synthetic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Ma, Jingjiao; Liu, Qinfang; Bawa, Bhupinder; Wang, Wei; Shabman, Reed S; Duff, Michael; Lee, Jinhwa; Lang, Yuekun; Cao, Nan; Nagy, Abdou; Lin, Xudong; Stockwell, Timothy B; Richt, Juergen A; Wentworth, David E; Ma, Wenjun

    2014-10-01

    Bats harbor many viruses, which are periodically transmitted to humans resulting in outbreaks of disease (e.g., Ebola, SARS-CoV). Recently, influenza virus-like sequences were identified in bats; however, the viruses could not be cultured. This discovery aroused great interest in understanding the evolutionary history and pandemic potential of bat-influenza. Using synthetic genomics, we were unable to rescue the wild type bat virus, but could rescue a modified bat-influenza virus that had the HA and NA coding regions replaced with those of A/PR/8/1934 (H1N1). This modified bat-influenza virus replicated efficiently in vitro and in mice, resulting in severe disease. Additional studies using a bat-influenza virus that had the HA and NA of A/swine/Texas/4199-2/1998 (H3N2) showed that the PR8 HA and NA contributed to the pathogenicity in mice. Unlike other influenza viruses, engineering truncations hypothesized to reduce interferon antagonism into the NS1 protein didn't attenuate bat-influenza. In contrast, substitution of a putative virulence mutation from the bat-influenza PB2 significantly attenuated the virus in mice and introduction of a putative virulence mutation increased its pathogenicity. Mini-genome replication studies and virus reassortment experiments demonstrated that bat-influenza has very limited genetic and protein compatibility with Type A or Type B influenza viruses, yet it readily reassorts with another divergent bat-influenza virus, suggesting that the bat-influenza lineage may represent a new Genus/Species within the Orthomyxoviridae family. Collectively, our data indicate that the bat-influenza viruses recently identified are authentic viruses that pose little, if any, pandemic threat to humans; however, they provide new insights into the evolution and basic biology of influenza viruses.

  9. Influenza vaccine effectiveness for hospital and community patients using control groups with and without non-influenza respiratory viruses detected, Auckland, New Zealand 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierse, Nevil; Kelly, Heath; Thompson, Mark G; Bissielo, Ange; Radke, Sarah; Huang, Q Sue; Baker, Michael G; Turner, Nikki

    2016-01-20

    We aimed to estimate the protection afforded by inactivated influenza vaccine, in both community and hospital settings, in a well characterised urban population in Auckland during 2014. We used two different comparison groups, all patients who tested negative for influenza and only those patients who tested negative for influenza and had a non-influenza respiratory virus detected, to calculate the vaccine effectiveness in a test negative study design. Estimates were made separately for general practice outpatient consultations and hospitalised patients, stratified by age group and by influenza type and subtype. Vaccine status was confirmed by electronic record for general practice patients and all respiratory viruses were detected by real time polymerase chain reaction. 1039 hospitalised and 1154 general practice outpatient consultations met all the study inclusion criteria and had a respiratory sample tested for influenza and other respiratory viruses. Compared to general practice patients, hospitalised patients were more likely to be very young or very old, to be Māori or Pacific Islander, to have a low income and to suffer from chronic disease. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) adjusted for age and other participant characteristics using all influenza negative controls was 42% (95% CI: 16 to 60%) for hospitalised and 56% (95% CI: 35 to 70%) for general practice patients. The vaccine appeared to be most effective against the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 strain with an adjusted VE of 62% (95% CI:38 to 77%) for hospitalised and 59% (95% CI:36 to 74%) for general practice patients, using influenza virus negative controls. Similar results found when patients testing positive for a non-influenza respiratory virus were used as the control group. This study contributes to validation of the test negative design and confirms that inactivated influenza vaccines continue to provide modest but significant protection against laboratory-confirmed influenza. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  10. Novel triple reassortant H1N2 influenza viruses bearing six internal genes of the pandemic 2009/H1N1 influenza virus were detected in pigs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Chuanling; Liu, Liping; Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Xu, Huiyang; Chen, Hualan

    2014-12-01

    The pandemic A/H1N1 influenza viruses emerged in both Mexico and the United States in March 2009, and were transmitted efficiently in the human population. Transmissions of the pandemic 2009/H1N1 virus from humans to poultry and other species of mammals were reported from several continents during the course of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Reassortant H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 viruses containing genes of the pandemic 2009/H1N1 viruses appeared in pigs in some countries. In winter of 2012, a total of 2600 nasal swabs were collected from healthy pigs in slaughterhouses located throughout 10 provinces in China. The isolated viruses were subjected to genetic and antigenic analysis. Two novel triple-reassortant H1N2 influenza viruses were isolated from swine in China in 2012, with the HA gene derived from Eurasian avian-like swine H1N1, the NA gene from North American swine H1N2, and the six internal genes from the pandemic 2009/H1N1 viruses. The two viruses had similar antigenic features and some significant changes in antigenic characteristics emerged when compared to the previously identified isolates. We inferred that the novel reassortant viruses in China may have arisen from the accumulation of the three types of influenza viruses, which further indicates that swine herds serve as "mixing vessels" for influenza viruses. Influenza virus reassortment is an ongoing process, and our findings highlight the urgent need for continued influenza surveillance among swine herds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pandemisk influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom; Almlund, Pernille

    danske myndigheder kommunikerede åbent og løbende om influenza-krisen og dens trusler. Indsatsen blev anerkendt fra alle sider og førte på intet tidspunkt til alvorlig og længerevarende kritik af myndighederne. Der var tale om en tilfredsstillende krisehåndtering, hvad angår den del, der fokuserede på...... kommunikation om denne tog en drejning i forhold til selve influenza-krisen. Myndighedernes kommunikation blev mere uklar, forvirringen voksede i befolkningen, og der blev rejst kritik i offentligheden. Forløbet rejser spørgsmålene om, den samlede håndtering af kommunikationsindsatsen kunne have været mere...

  12. SAFETY OF CELL-DERIVED SUBUNIT ADJUVANTED INFLUENZA VACCINE FOR CHILDREN VACCINATION: DOUBLE-BLIND RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Kharit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the safety data for cell-derived inactivated subunit adjuvanted influenza vaccine «Grippol Neo» in children 3–17 years old in comparison with reference egg-derived inactivated subunit vaccine «Grippol plus». Good test vaccine tolerability and high efficacy profile is demonstrated. Based on the results obtained vaccine «Grippol Neo» is recommended for mass influenza prophylaxis in pediatry, including National Immunization Schedule.Key words: children, influenza, vaccination, «Grippol Neo».(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(4:44-49

  13. Avian influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon; Bicout, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Previous introductions of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) to the EU were most likely via migratory wild birds. A mathematical model has been developed which indicated that virus amplification and spread may take place when wild bird populations of sufficient size within EU become ...... of implementing specific biosecurity measures on reducing the probability of AIV entering into a poultry holding. Human diligence is pivotal to select, implement and maintain specific, effective biosecurity measures....

  14. Ultraviolet inactivation of papain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baugher, J.F.; Grossweiner, L.I.

    1975-01-01

    Flash photolysis transient spectra (lambda > 250 nm) of aqueous papain showed that the initial products are the neutral tryptophan radical Trp (lambdasub(max) 510 nm), the tryptophan triplet state 3 Trp (lambdasub(max) 460 nm), the disulfide bridge electron adduct -SS - - (lambdasub(max) 420 nm) and the hydrated electron esub(aq) - . The -SS - - yield was not altered by nitrous oxide or air, indicating that the formation of this product does not involve electrons in the external medium. The original papain preparation was activated by irradiating under nitrogen. The action spectrum supports previous work attributing the low initial activity to blocking of cysteinyl site 25 with a mixed disulfide. Flask lamp irradiation in nitrogen led to activation at low starting activities and inactivation at higher starting activities, while only inactivation at the same quantum yield was observed with air saturation. The results are consistent with photoionization of an essential tryptophyl residue as the key inactivating step. (author)

  15. Outbreaks of Influenza A Virus in Farmed Mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark: Molecular characterization of the involved viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona

    mink farms with respiratory symptoms. Full-genome sequencing showed that the virus was a human/swine reassortant, with the H and N gene most related to human H3N2 viruses circulating in 2005. The remaining 6 genes were most closely related to H1N2 influenza viruses circulating in Danish swine....... This virus had not previously been described in swine, mink nor humans. PCRs assays specifically targeting the new reassortant were developed and used to screen influenza positive samples from humans and swine in Denmark with negative results. Thus, there was no evidence that this virus had spread to humans...... or was circulating in Danish pigs. In 2010 and 2011, influenza virus was again diagnosed in diseased mink in a few farms. The genetic typing showed that the virus was similar to the pandemic H1N1 virus circulating in humans and swine. The H3N2 virus was not detected in 2010 and 2011. Taken together, these findings...

  16. African Swine Fever Virus, Siberia, Russia, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbasov, Denis; Titov, Ilya; Tsybanov, Sodnom; Gogin, Andrey; Malogolovkin, Alexander

    2018-04-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is arguably the most dangerous and emerging swine disease worldwide. ASF is a serious problem for the swine industry. The first case of ASF in Russia was reported in 2007. We report an outbreak of ASF in Siberia, Russia, in 2017.

  17. Replication Capacity of Avian Influenza A(H9N2) Virus in Pet Birds and Mammals, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenny, Brian J; Shanmuganatham, Karthik; Sonnberg, Stephanie; Feeroz, Mohammed M; Alam, S M Rabiul; Hasan, M Kamrul; Jones-Engel, Lisa; McKenzie, Pamela; Krauss, Scott; Webster, Robert G; Jones, Jeremy C

    2015-12-01

    Avian influenza A(H9N2) is an agricultural and public health threat. We characterized an H9N2 virus from a pet market in Bangladesh and demonstrated replication in samples from pet birds, swine tissues, human airway and ocular cells, and ferrets. Results implicated pet birds in the potential dissemination and zoonotic transmission of this virus.

  18. Swine Influenza Viruses – Evolution and Zoonotic Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fobian, Kristina

    reassortants (H1avN2hu and H1pdmN2sw). The two reassortants were detected for the first time in 2011 and have since then become established and are now circulating in Danish pigs. Viral replication in nasal wash samples and viral load in respiratory organs were determined. Growth kinetics of the four SIVs were...

  19. Investigations of significance of vaccination against swine parvovirosis in persistently infected sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupulović Diana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Parvoviral infection of swine is a disease which is manifested in reproductive disorders in sows and gilts in the form of anestria, premature births, miscarriages, mummified fetuses, the birth of poorly vital piglets and/or a reduced number of piglets in the litter. The infection is present in farms with intensive breeding conditions in the form of an endemic infection, all over the world, and also in our country. Timely diagnostics and adequate prophylaxis prevent the occurrence and spread of this disease. Experimental investigations covered 21 sows, divided into two experimental and a third, the control, group. Animals of the first experimental group were vaccinated once before exposure to the boar using an inactivated vaccine, Porcilis Parvo, and animals of the second experimental group were vaccinated twice at an interval of 3 weeks, also using an inactivated vaccine, Parvovax. Sows of the control group were not vaccinated. Blood samples were taken from all animals four times during the course of the experiment, and specific antibodies against the swine parvovirus were determined using the method of hemagglutination inhibition (HI test. The results of the investigations indicate that there was an increase in the titre of specific antibodies following the vaccination of persistently infected sows with the swine parvivirus, and that the present antibodies did not prevent the creating of an immune response. It was established following a comparison of the geometric mean values of antibody titres of vaccinated sows that there was a significant increase in the antibody level following the two vaccinations using the Parvovax vaccine, against the titre values in sows vaccinated once with the Porcilis Parvo vaccine. In control animals, the average value of the antibody level was many times lower in comparison with the established values in the experimental groups. This provides justification for the implementation of immunoprophylaxis against swine

  20. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  1. Feed quality in swine diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Branislav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will demonstrate the quality of some feed used in swine diet. The emphasis will be on feed whose incorporation into mixes could result in unfavorable effects on production, health and economic production of swine. Data will be presented on maize and its possible negative effects, having in mind toxins. Soybean meal, or genetically modified soybean meal, will also be observed. The next feed which will be discussed will be soybean whey obtained by different procedures and the potential dangers of its use in swine diet rations. Sunflower meal, feed of animal origin, with emphasis on fish flour and meat-bone flour will also be covered in the work. A feed which has been attracting particular attention lately is yeast imported from Italy. Its quality characteristics will be discussed, the so-called non-protein nitrogen. Analyses of mineral feed will include sources of phosphorus, phosphates (monocalciumphosphate, dicalcium phosphate phytases and resolving the problem of phosphorus in swine rations. Finally, an inevitable segment are synthetic amino acids, especially lysine and its role in swine diet.

  2. Progress on adenovirus-vectored universal influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Kui; Ying, Guan; Yan, Zhou; Shanshan, Yan; Lei, Zhang; Hongjun, Li; Maosheng, Sun

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus (IFV) infection causes serious health problems and heavy financial burdens each year worldwide. The classical inactivated influenza virus vaccine (IIVV) and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) must be updated regularly to match the new strains that evolve due to antigenic drift and antigenic shift. However, with the discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies that recognize conserved antigens, and the CD8(+) T cell responses targeting viral internal proteins nucleoprotein (NP), matrix protein 1 (M1) and polymerase basic 1 (PB1), it is possible to develop a universal influenza vaccine based on the conserved hemagglutinin (HA) stem, NP, and matrix proteins. Recombinant adenovirus (rAd) is an ideal influenza vaccine vector because it has an ideal stability and safety profile, induces balanced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses due to activation of innate immunity, provides 'self-adjuvanting' activity, can mimic natural IFV infection, and confers seamless protection against mucosal pathogens. Moreover, this vector can be developed as a low-cost, rapid-response vaccine that can be quickly manufactured. Therefore, an adenovirus vector encoding conserved influenza antigens holds promise in the development of a universal influenza vaccine. This review will summarize the progress in adenovirus-vectored universal flu vaccines and discuss future novel approaches.

  3. Economics of influenza vaccine administration timing for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; Tai, Julie H Y; Bailey, Rachel R; Smith, Kenneth J; Nowalk, Andrew J

    2010-03-01

    To determine how much should be invested each year to encourage and operationalize the administration of influenza vaccine to children before November and how late the vaccine should be offered each year. Monte Carlo decision analytic computer simulation models. The children's influenza vaccination timing model quantified the incremental economic value of vaccinating a child earlier in the influenza season and the incremental cost of delaying vaccination. The children's monthly influenza vaccination decision model evaluated the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating versus not vaccinating for every month of the influenza season. Getting children vaccinated by the end of October rather than when they are currently getting vaccinated could save society between $6.4 million and $9.2 million plus 653 and 926 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and third-party payers between $4.1 million and $6.1 million plus 647 to 942 QALYs each year. Decision makers may want to continue offering influenza vaccination to children at least through the end of December. Vaccinating with trivalent inactivated virus vaccine was more cost-effective than vaccinating with live attenuated influenza vaccine for every month. Policymakers could invest up to $6 million to $9 million a year to get children vaccinated in September or October without expending any net costs.

  4. Fever following immunization with influenza A (H1N1) vaccine in children : a survey-based study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broos, Nancy; van Puijenbroek, Eugène P; van Grootheest, Kees

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In November 2009, all children in the Netherlands from 6 months up to 4 years of age were indicated to receive the Influenza A (H1N1) vaccine. Fever is a common adverse event following immunization in children. Pandemrix®, an inactivated, split-virus influenza A (H1N1) vaccine, was used

  5. Predicting Hotspots for Influenza Virus Reassortment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Marius; Martin, Vincent; Cappelle, Julien; Hosseini, Parviez; Njabo, Kevin Y.; Abdel Aziz, Soad; Xiao, Xiangming; Daszak, Peter; Smith, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    The 1957 and 1968 influenza pandemics, each of which killed ≈1 million persons, arose through reassortment events. Influenza virus in humans and domestic animals could reassort and cause another pandemic. To identify geographic areas where agricultural production systems are conducive to reassortment, we fitted multivariate regression models to surveillance data on influenza A virus subtype H5N1 among poultry in China and Egypt and subtype H3N2 among humans. We then applied the models across Asia and Egypt to predict where subtype H3N2 from humans and subtype H5N1 from birds overlap; this overlap serves as a proxy for co-infection and in vivo reassortment. For Asia, we refined the prioritization by identifying areas that also have high swine density. Potential geographic foci of reassortment include the northern plains of India, coastal and central provinces of China, the western Korean Peninsula and southwestern Japan in Asia, and the Nile Delta in Egypt. PMID:23628436

  6. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  7. Influenza A viruses of avian origin circulating in pigs and other mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniak, Kinga; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are zoonotic agents, capable of crossing the species barriers. Nowadays, they still constitute a great challenge worldwide. The natural reservoir of all influenza A viruses are wild aquatic birds, despite the fact they have been isolated from a number of avian and mammalian species, including humans. Even when influenza A viruses are able to get into another than waterfowl population, they are often unable to efficiently adapt and transmit between individuals. Only in rare cases, these viruses are capable of establishing a new lineage. To succeed a complete adaptation and further transmission between species, influenza A virus must overcome a species barrier, including adaptation to the receptors of a new host, which would allow the virus-cell binding, virus replication and, then, animal-to-animal transmission. For many years, pigs were thought to be intermediate host for adaptation of avian influenza viruses to humans, because of their susceptibility to infection with both, avian and human influenza viruses, which supported hypothesis of pigs as a 'mixing vessel'. In this review, the molecular factors necessary for interspecies transmission are described, with special emphasis on adaptation of avian influenza viruses to the pig population. In addition, this review gives the information about swine influenza viruses circulating around the world with special emphasis on Polish strains.

  8. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be..., except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with or exposed to pseudorabies. Pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered...

  9. A review of simulation modelling approaches used for the spread of zoonotic influenza viruses in animal and human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorjee, S; Poljak, Z; Revie, C W; Bridgland, J; McNab, B; Leger, E; Sanchez, J

    2013-09-01

    Increasing incidences of emerging and re-emerging diseases that are mostly zoonotic (e.g. severe acute respiratory syndrome, avian influenza H5N1, pandemic influenza) has led to the need for a multidisciplinary approach to tackling these threats to public and animal health. Accordingly, a global movement of 'One-Health/One-Medicine' has been launched to foster collaborative efforts amongst animal and human health officials and researchers to address these problems. Historical evidence points to the fact that pandemics caused by influenza A viruses remain a major zoonotic threat to mankind. Recently, a range of mathematical and computer simulation modelling methods and tools have increasingly been applied to improve our understanding of disease transmission dynamics, contingency planning and to support policy decisions on disease outbreak management. This review provides an overview of methods, approaches and software used for modelling the spread of zoonotic influenza viruses in animals and humans, particularly those related to the animal-human interface. Modelling parameters used in these studies are summarized to provide references for future work. This review highlights the limited application of modelling research to influenza in animals and at the animal-human interface, in marked contrast to the large volume of its research in human populations. Although swine are widely recognized as a potential host for generating novel influenza viruses, and that some of these viruses, including pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009, have been shown to be readily transmissible between humans and swine, only one study was found related to the modelling of influenza spread at the swine-human interface. Significant gaps in the knowledge of frequency of novel viral strains evolution in pigs, farm-level natural history of influenza infection, incidences of influenza transmission between farms and between swine and humans are clearly evident. Therefore, there is a need to direct

  10. Gamma-irradiated influenza A virus can prime for a cross-reactive and cross-protective immune response against influenza A viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullbacher, A.; Ada, G.L.; Tha Hla, R.

    1988-01-01

    A-strain influenza virus A/JAP (H2N2) was tested for its ability to induce cytotoxic T cells (Tc) after being rendered non-infectious by either UV or gamma irradiation. Gamma-irradiated virus proved to be more efficient than UV-inactivated virus in priming for a memory Tc cell response or in boosting memory spleen cells in vitro. Most importantly, γ-inactivated, but not UV-inactivated, A/JAP immunized animals survived lethal challenge with heterologous (A/PC(H3N2), A/WSN(H1N1)) virus as effectively as mice primed with infectious virus

  11. MPLEx: a method for simultaneous pathogen inactivation and extraction of samples for multi-omics profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Eisfeld, Amie J.; Casey, Cameron P.; Stratton, Kelly G.; Gonzalez, Juan F.; Habyarimana, Fabien; Negretti, Nicholas M.; Sims, Amy C.; Chauhan, Sadhana; Thackray, Larissa B.; Halfmann, Peter J.; Walters, Kevin B.; Kim, Young-Mo; Zink, Erika M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Weitz, Karl K.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Ahmer, Brian; Konkel, Michael E.; Motin, Vladimir; Baric, Ralph S.; Diamond, Michael S.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Waters, Katrina M.; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2017-01-01

    The continued emergence and spread of infectious agents is of increasing concern due to increased population growth and the associated increased livestock production to meet food demands, increased urbanization and land-use changes, and greater travel. A systems biology approach to infectious disease research can significantly advance our understanding of host-pathogen relationships and facilitate the development of new therapies and vaccines. Molecular characterization of infectious samples outside of appropriate biosafety containment can only take place subsequent to pathogen inactivation. Herein, we describe a modified Folch extraction using chloroform/methanol that facilitates the molecular characterization of infectious samples by enabling simultaneous pathogen inactivation and extraction of proteins, metabolites, and lipids for subsequent mass spectrometry-based multi-omics measurements. This metabolite, protein and lipid extraction (MPLEx) method resulted in complete inactivation of bacterial and viral pathogens with exposed lipid membranes, including Yersinia pestis, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Campylobacter jejuni in pure culture, and Yersinia pestis, Campylobacter jejuni, West Nile, MERS-CoV, Ebola, and influenza H7N9 viruses in infection studies. Partial inactivation was observed for pathogens without exposed lipid membranes including 99.99% inactivation of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 99.6% and >99% inactivation of Clostridium difficile spores and vegetative cells, respectively, and 50% inactivation of adenovirus type 5. To demonstrate that MPLEx yields biomaterial of sufficient quality for subsequent multi-omics analyses, we highlight select proteomics, metabolomics and lipidomics data from human epithelial lung cells infected with wild-type and mutant forms of influenza H7N9. We believe that MPLEx will facilitate systems biology studies of infectious samples by enabling simultaneous pathogen inactivation and multi

  12. Microbiome overview in swine lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Maboni Siqueira

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiologic agent of swine enzootic pneumonia. However other mycoplasma species and secondary bacteria are found as inhabitants of the swine respiratory tract, which can be also related to disease. In the present study we have performed a total DNA metagenomic analysis from the lungs of pigs kept in a field condition, with suggestive signals of enzootic pneumonia and without any infection signals to evaluate the bacteria variability of the lungs microbiota. Libraries from metagenomic DNA were prepared and sequenced using total DNA shotgun metagenomic pyrosequencing. The metagenomic distribution showed a great abundance of bacteria. The most common microbial families identified from pneumonic swine's lungs were Mycoplasmataceae, Flavobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae, whereas in the carrier swine's lungs the most common families were Mycoplasmataceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae and Flavobacteriaceae. Analysis of community composition in both samples confirmed the high prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae. Moreover, the carrier lungs had more diverse family population, which should be related to the lungs normal flora. In summary, we provide a wide view of the bacterial population from lungs with signals of enzootic pneumonia and lungs without signals of enzootic pneumonia in a field situation. These bacteria patterns provide information that may be important for the establishment of disease control measures and to give insights for further studies.

  13. Glycosylation of Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase of Influenza A Virus as Signature for Ecological Spillover and Adaptation among Influenza Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kim

    2018-04-01<