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Sample records for inaa laser ablation-inductively

  1. Forensic investigation of brick stones using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheid, Nicole; Becker, Stefan; Duecking, Marc; Hampel, Gabriele; Volker Kratz, Jens; Watzke, Peter; Weis, Peter; Zauner, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Brick stones collected from different production facilities were studied for their elemental compositions under forensic aspects using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF). The aim of these examinations was to assess the potential of these methods in forensic comparison analyses of brick stones. The accuracy of the analysis methods was evaluated using NIST standard reference materials (679, 98b and 97b). In order to compare the stones to each other, multivariate data analysis was used. The evaluation of the INAA results (based on the concentrations of V, Na, K, Sm, U, Sc, Fe, Co, Rb and Cs) using principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis is presented as an example. The results derived from the different analytical methods are consistent. It was shown that elemental analysis using the described methods is a valuable tool for forensic examinations of brick stones.

  2. Detection efficiencies in nano- and femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waelle, M.; Koch, J.; Flamigni, L.; Heiroth, S.; Lippert, T.; Hartung, W.; Guenther, D.

    2009-01-01

    Detection efficiencies of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), defined as the ratio of ions reaching the detector and atoms released by LA were measured. For this purpose, LA of silicate glasses, zircon, and pure silicon was performed using nanosecond (ns) as well as femtosecond (fs) LA. For instance, ns-LA of silicate glass using helium as in-cell carrier gas resulted in detection efficiencies between approximately 1E-7 for low and 3E-5 for high mass range elements which were, in addition, almost independent on the laser wavelength and pulse duration chosen. In contrast, the application of argon as carrier gas was found to suppress the detection efficiencies systematically by a factor of up to 5 mainly due to a less efficient aerosol-to-ion conversion and ion transmission inside the ICP-MS

  3. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. An alternative technique for monitoring 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TsingHai Wang; Yan-Chen Lai; Yi-Kong Hsieh; Chu-Fang Wang

    2017-01-01

    Developing a rapid detection method for monitoring released 90 Sr remains a challenge to analytical chemists, particularly considering its low concentration and significant interferences in environmental samples. We proposed a concept as an alternative to detect 90 Sr on the surface of fish scales using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The high affinity of fish scales to Sr is capable of preconcentrating 90 Sr that minimizes isobaric interferences from 90 Zr + or 89 YH + , while tailing effect by abundant 88 Sr can be effectively reduced by adjusting the forward power of ICP-MS component. Adopting dried droplets of internal standards further allows a semiquantification of 90 Sr content on the surface of fish scales, which also arises an opportunity to monitoring the bioaccumulation of 90 Sr after Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. (author)

  4. Trace Analysis of Irradiated Granite Samples from Hiroshima by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amr, M.A.; Helal, N.F.; Zahran, N.F.; Becker, J.S.; Pickhardt, C.; Dietze, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is widely accepted as a rapid and sensitive technique for trace elemental analysis of solid materials and for local analysis of inhomogeneous materials (such as geological samples). Due to its direct solid sample analysis capability, LA-ICP-MS (using a quadrupole based ICP-MS and at the Research Center Juelich developed laser ablation system: Nd-YAG-laser, 226 nm, 10 Hz and 5 ns) is applied for the analysis of geological (granite) samples from Hiroshima. In order to prepare homogeneous targets, these samples were melted together with a lithium-borate mixture in a muffle furnace at 1050 degree c. Furthermore, for investigating of matrix effects the powder of these samples is mixed with graphite and pressed as targets for laser ablation. The quantification of the analysis results was carried out using granite (GM) as standard reference material. The relative sensitivity coefficients (RSCs) for most elements, which were determined for correction of the measured values, varied between 0.3 and 3

  5. Quantitative images of metals in plant tissues measured by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J.S.; Dietrich, R.C.; Matusch, A.; Pozebon, D.; Dressler, V.L.

    2008-01-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used for quantitative imaging of toxic and essential elements in thin sections (thickness of 30 or 40 μm) of tobacco plant tissues. Two-dimensional images of Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, Rh, Pt and Pb in leaves, shoots and roots of tobacco were produced. Sections of the plant tissues (fixed onto glass slides) were scanned by a focused beam of a Nd:YAG laser in a laser ablation chamber. The ablated material was transported with argon as carrier gas to the ICP ion source at a quadrupole ICP-MS instrument. Ion intensities of the investigated elements were measured together with 13 C + , 33 S + and 34 S + within the entire plant tissue section. Matrix matching standards (prepared using powder of dried tobacco leaves) were used to constitute calibration curves, whereas the regression coefficient of the attained calibration curves was typically 0.99. The variability of LA-ICP-MS process, sample heterogeneity and water content in the sample were corrected by using 13 C + as internal standard. Quantitative imaging of the selected elements revealed their inhomogeneous distribution in leaves, shoots and roots

  6. The influence of laser-particle interaction in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, Helmut; Loper, Kristofer H.; Hahn, David W.; Niemax, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Particles produced by previous laser shots may have significant influence on the analytical signal in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma (LA-ICP) spectrometry if they remain close to the position of laser sampling. The effects of these particles on the laser-induced breakdown event are demonstrated in several ways. LIBS-experiments were conducted in an ablation cell at atmospheric conditions in argon or air applying a dual-pulse arrangement with orthogonal pre-pulse, i.e., plasma breakdown in a gas generated by a focussed laser beam parallel and close to the sample surface followed by a delayed crossing laser pulse in orthogonal direction which actually ablates material from the sample and produces the LIBS plasma. The optical emission of the LIBS plasma as well as the absorption of the pre-pulse laser was measured. In the presence of particles in the focus of the pre-pulse laser, the plasma breakdown is affected and more energy of the pre-pulse laser is absorbed than without particles. As a result, the analyte line emission from the LIBS plasma of the second laser is enhanced. It is assumed that the enhancement is not only due to an increase of mass ablated by the second laser but also to better atomization and excitation conditions favored by a reduced gas density in the pre-pulse plasma. Higher laser pulse frequencies increase the probability of particle-laser interaction and, therefore, reduce the shot-to-shot line intensity variation as compared to lower particle loadings in the cell. Additional experiments using an aerosol chamber were performed to further quantify the laser absorption by the plasma in dependence on time both with and without the presence of particles. The overall implication of laser-particle interactions for LIBS and LA-ICP-MS/OES are discussed.

  7. The influence of laser-particle interaction in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Helmut; Loper, Kristofer H.; Hahn, David W.; Niemax, Kay

    2011-02-01

    Particles produced by previous laser shots may have significant influence on the analytical signal in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma (LA-ICP) spectrometry if they remain close to the position of laser sampling. The effects of these particles on the laser-induced breakdown event are demonstrated in several ways. LIBS-experiments were conducted in an ablation cell at atmospheric conditions in argon or air applying a dual-pulse arrangement with orthogonal pre-pulse, i.e., plasma breakdown in a gas generated by a focussed laser beam parallel and close to the sample surface followed by a delayed crossing laser pulse in orthogonal direction which actually ablates material from the sample and produces the LIBS plasma. The optical emission of the LIBS plasma as well as the absorption of the pre-pulse laser was measured. In the presence of particles in the focus of the pre-pulse laser, the plasma breakdown is affected and more energy of the pre-pulse laser is absorbed than without particles. As a result, the analyte line emission from the LIBS plasma of the second laser is enhanced. It is assumed that the enhancement is not only due to an increase of mass ablated by the second laser but also to better atomization and excitation conditions favored by a reduced gas density in the pre-pulse plasma. Higher laser pulse frequencies increase the probability of particle-laser interaction and, therefore, reduce the shot-to-shot line intensity variation as compared to lower particle loadings in the cell. Additional experiments using an aerosol chamber were performed to further quantify the laser absorption by the plasma in dependence on time both with and without the presence of particles. The overall implication of laser-particle interactions for LIBS and LA-ICP-MS/OES are discussed.

  8. Comparison of femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for uranium isotopic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havrilla, George Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McIntosh, Kathryn Gallagher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Judge, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dirmyer, Matthew R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Campbell, Keri [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gonzalez, Jhanis J. [Applied Spectra Inc., Fremont, CA (United States)

    2016-10-20

    Feasibility tests were conducted using femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for rapid uranium isotopic measurements. The samples used in this study consisted of a range of pg quantities of known 235/238 U solutions as dried spot residues of 300 pL drops on silicon substrates. The samples spanned the following enrichments of 235U: 0.5, 1.5, 2, 3, and 15.1%. In this direct comparison using these particular samples both pulse durations demonstrated near equivalent data can be produced on either system with respect to accuracy and precision. There is no question that either LA-ICP-MS method offers the potential for rapid, accurate and precise isotopic measurements of U10Mo materials whether DU, LEU or HEU. The LA-ICP-MS equipment used for this work is commercially available. The program is in the process of validating this work for large samples using center samples strips from Y-12 MP-1 LEU-Mo Casting #1.

  9. Comparison of femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for uranium isotopic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havrilla, George Joseph; McIntosh, Kathryn Gallagher; Judge, Elizabeth; Dirmyer, Matthew R.; Campbell, Keri; Gonzalez, Jhanis J.

    2016-01-01

    Feasibility tests were conducted using femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for rapid uranium isotopic measurements. The samples used in this study consisted of a range of pg quantities of known 235/238 U solutions as dried spot residues of 300 pL drops on silicon substrates. The samples spanned the following enrichments of 235 U: 0.5, 1.5, 2, 3, and 15.1%. In this direct comparison using these particular samples both pulse durations demonstrated near equivalent data can be produced on either system with respect to accuracy and precision. There is no question that either LA-ICP-MS method offers the potential for rapid, accurate and precise isotopic measurements of U10Mo materials whether DU, LEU or HEU. The LA-ICP-MS equipment used for this work is commercially available. The program is in the process of validating this work for large samples using center samples strips from Y-12 MP-1 LEU-Mo Casting #1.

  10. Study of plasma parameters influencing fractionation in laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gäckle, M.; Merten, D.

    2010-12-01

    Methods permitting to test the influence of the matrix as well as of its local and temporal distribution on the plasma conditions in laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are developed. For this purpose, the MS interface is used as plasma probe allowing to investigate the average plasma condition within the ICP zone observed in terms of temporal and spatial distribution of the matrix. Inserted matrix particles, particularly when being atomized and ionized, can cause considerable changes in both electron density and plasma temperature thus influencing the ionization equilibrium of the individual analytes. In this context, the plasma probe covers a region of the plasma for which no local thermodynamic equilibrium can be assumed. The differences in temperature, identified within the region of the plasma observed, amounted up to 3000 K. While in the central region conditions were detected that would not allow efficient atomization and ionization of the matrix, these conditions improve considerably towards the margin of the area observed. Depending on the nature as well as on the temporally and locally variable density of the matrix, this can lead to varying intensity ratios of the analytes and explain fractionation effects. By means of a derived equation it is shown that the deviation of the intensity ratio from the concentration ratio turns out to be more serious the higher the difference of the ionization potential of the analytes observed, the lower the plasma temperature and the higher the matrix concentration within the area observed.

  11. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of trace elements in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Yiling; Chang Chaochiang; Jiang Shiuhjen

    2003-01-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been applied to the determination of Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in soil samples. The dried soil powder was pressed into a pellet for LA-ICP-MS analysis. Triton X-100 was added to work as the modifier to enhance the ion signals. The influences of instrument operating conditions (LA and ICP-MS) and pellet preparation on the ion signals were reported. For Cr determination, the ICP-MS was operated under the dynamic reaction cell mode which alleviated the mass overlap interference. Standard addition method and isotope dilution method were used for the quantitation work. The powder sample was spiked with suitable amounts of element standards and/or enriched isotopes, well-mixed, dried and then pressed into a pellet for LA-ICP-MS analysis. This method has been applied to determine Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in NIST SRM 2711 Montana soil and NIST SRM 2709 San Joaquin soil reference materials. The analysis results were in agreement with the certified values. The precision between sample replicates was better than 5% with LA-ICP-MS method. Detection limits estimated from standard addition curves were approximately 0.9, 2, 9, 0.7 and 0.3 ng g -1 for Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, respectively

  12. Minimally-invasive Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry analysis of model ancient copper alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walaszek, Damian [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Chemistry, Biological and Chemical Research Centre, Żwirki i Wigury 101, 02-089 Warszawa (Poland); Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Senn, Marianne; Wichser, Adrian [Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Faller, Markus [Laboratory for Jointing Technology and Corrosion, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Wagner, Barbara; Bulska, Ewa [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Chemistry, Biological and Chemical Research Centre, Żwirki i Wigury 101, 02-089 Warszawa (Poland); Ulrich, Andrea [Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland)

    2014-09-01

    This work describes an evaluation of a strategy for multi-elemental analysis of typical ancient bronzes (copper, lead bronze and tin bronze) by means of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS).The samples originating from archeological experiments on ancient metal smelting processes using direct reduction in a ‘bloomery’ furnace as well as historical casting techniques were investigated with the use of the previously proposed analytical procedure, including metallurgical observation and preliminary visual estimation of the homogeneity of the samples. The results of LA-ICPMS analysis were compared to the results of bulk composition obtained by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) after acid digestion. These results were coherent for most of the elements confirming the usefulness of the proposed analytical procedure, however the reliability of the quantitative information about the content of the most heterogeneously distributed elements was also discussed in more detail. - Highlights: • The previously proposed procedure was evaluated by analysis of model copper alloys. • The LA-ICPMS results were comparable to the obtained by means of XRF and ICPMS. • LA-ICPMS results indicated the usefulness of the proposed analytical procedure.

  13. Analysis of liquid samples using dried-droplet laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, Trong-Mui; Hsieh, Hui-Fang; Chang, Wei-Ciang [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013 Taiwan (China); Chang, E.-E. [Department of Biochemistry, Taipei Medical University, Taipei City, 11031 Taiwan (China); Wang, Chu-Fang, E-mail: cfwang@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013 Taiwan (China); Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-15

    In this study we developed a dried-droplet method for laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The proposed method provides accurate and precise results when building calibration curves and determining elements of interest in real liquid samples. After placing just 1 {mu}L of a liquid standard solution or a real sample onto the filter surface and then converting the solution into a very small, thin dry spot, the sample could be applied as an analytical subject for LA. To demonstrate the feasibility of this proposed method, we used LA-ICP-MS and conventional ICP-MS to determine the levels of 13 elements (Li, V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Cd, Sb, Tl, and Pb) in five water samples. The correlation coefficients obtained from the various calibration curves ranged from 0.9920 ({sup 205}Tl) to 0.9998 ({sup 51}V), sufficient to allow the determination of a wide range of elements in the samples. We also investigated the effects of Methylene Blue (MB) and the NaCl concentration on the elemental analyses. MB could be used as an indicator during the ablation process; its presence in the samples only negligibly influenced the intensities of the signals of most of the tested elements. Notably, high NaCl contents led to signal suppression for some of the elements. In comparison with the established sample introduction by nebulization, our developed technique abrogates the need for time-consuming sample preparation and reduces the possibility of sample contamination.

  14. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for analysis of pellets of plant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Marcos S. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luís, km 235, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Schenk, Emily R. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL (United States); International Forensic Research Institute, Florida International University, Miami, FL (United States); Santos, Dário [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Rua Professor Arthur Riedel 275, Diadema, SP (Brazil); Krug, Francisco José [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Almirall, José R., E-mail: almirall@fiu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL (United States); International Forensic Research Institute, Florida International University, Miami, FL (United States)

    2014-04-01

    An evaluation of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (LAICP OES) for the direct analysis of pelleted plant material is reported. Ground leaves of orange citrus, soy and sugarcane were comminuted using a high-speed ball mill, pressed into pellets and sampled directly with laser ablation and analyzed by ICP OES. The limits of detection (LODs) for the method ranged from as low as 0.1 mg kg{sup −1} for Zn to as high as 94 mg kg{sup −1} for K but were generally below 6 mg kg{sup −1} for most of the elements of interest. A certified reference material consisting of a similar matrix (NIST SRM 1547 peach leaves) was used to check the accuracy of the calibration and the reported method resulted in an average bias of ∼ 5% for all the elements of interest. The precision for the reported method ranged from as low as 4% relative standard deviation (RSD) for Mn to as high as 17% RSD for Zn but averaged ∼ 6.5% RSD for all the elements (n = 10). The proposed method was tested for the determination of Ca, Mg, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and B, and the results were in good agreement with those obtained for the corresponding acid digests by ICP-OES, no differences being observed by applying a paired t-test at the 95% confidence level. The reported direct solid sampling method provides a fast alternative to acid digestion that results in similar and appropriate analytical figures of merit with regard to sensitivity, accuracy and precision for plant material analysis. - Highlights: • An evaluation of LA-ICP-OES for the direct analysis of pelleted plant material is reported. • Orange citrus, soy and sugarcane plants were pressed into pellets and sampled directly. • The element menu consisted of Ca, Mg, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and B. • LODs for the method ranged from 0.1 mg kg{sup −1} for Zn to 94 mg kg{sup −1} for K. • The precision ranged from 4% RSD for Mn to 17% RSD for Zn (∼ 6.5% RSD average)

  15. High-resolution line-scan analysis of resin-embedded sediments using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekam, Rick; Jilbert, Tom; Mason, Paul R D; de Lange, Gert J.; Reichart, Gert Jan

    2015-01-01

    Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) line-scanning is a promising technique for producing high-resolution (μm-scale) geochemical records on resin-embedded sediments. However, this approach has not yet been thoroughly tested on sediment samples of known elemental

  16. High-resolution line-scan analysis of resin-embedded sediments using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekam, R.; Jilbert, T.; de Lange, G.J.; Reichart, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) line-scanning is a promising technique for producing high-resolution (µm-scale) geochemical records on resin-embedded sediments. However, this approach has not yet been thoroughly tested on sediment samples of known elemental

  17. Multiplexed microRNA detection using lanthanide-labeled DNA probes and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bang, Thomas Christian; Shah, Pratik; Cho, Seok Keun

    2014-01-01

    coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). Three miRNAs from Arabidopsis thaliana were analyzed simultaneously with high specificity, and the sensitivity of the method was comparable to radioactive detection (low femtomol range). The perspective of the developed method is highly multiplexed......In the past decade, microRNAs (miRNAs) have drawn increasing attention due to their role in regulation of gene expression. Especially, their potential as biomarkers in disease diagnostics has motivated miRNA research, including the development of simple, accurate, and sensitive detection methods....... The narrow size range of miRNAs (20-24 nucleotides) combined with the chemical properties of conventional reporter tags has hampered the development of multiplexed miRNA assays. In this study, we have used lanthanide-labeled DNA probes for the detection of miRNAs on membranes using laser ablation inductively...

  18. Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, J. [Institute of Physical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: kaiser@fme.vutbr.cz; Galiova, M.; Novotny, K.; Cervenka, R. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Reale, L. [Faculty of Sciences, University of L' Aquila, Via Vetoio (Coppito 1), 67010 L' Aquila (Italy); Novotny, J.; Liska, M.; Samek, O. [Institute of Physical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Kanicky, V.; Hrdlicka, A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Stejskal, K.; Adam, V.; Kizek, R. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2009-01-15

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) were utilized for mapping the accumulation of Pb, Mg and Cu with a resolution up to 200 {mu}m in a up to cm x cm area of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaves. The results obtained by LIBS and LA-ICP-MS are compared with the outcomes from Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC). It is shown that laser-ablation based analytical methods can substitute or supplement these techniques mainly in the cases when a fast multi-elemental mapping of a large sample area is needed.

  19. Direct analysis of samples by mass spectrometry: From elements to bio-molecules using laser ablation inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdian, David C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Mass spectrometric methods that are able to analyze solid samples or biological materials with little or no sample preparation are invaluable to science as well as society. Fundamental research that has discovered experimental and instrumental parameters that inhibit fractionation effects that occur during the quantification of elemental species in solid samples by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is described. Research that determines the effectiveness of novel laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric methods for the molecular analysis of biological tissues at atmospheric pressure and at high spatial resolution is also described. A spatial resolution is achieved that is able to analyze samples at the single cell level.

  20. Visualizing fossilization using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry maps of trace elements in Late Cretaceous bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, A.E.; Rogers, R.R.; Trueman, C.N.

    2009-01-01

    Elemental maps generated by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) provide a previously unavailable high-resolution visualization of the complex physicochemical conditions operating within individual bones during the early stages of diagenesis and fossilization. A selection of LA-ICP-MS maps of bones collected from the Late Cretaceous of Montana (United States) and Madagascar graphically illustrate diverse paths to recrystallization, and reveal unique insights into geochemical aspects of taphonomic history. Some bones show distinct gradients in concentrations of rare earth elements and uranium, with highest concentrations at external bone margins. Others exhibit more intricate patterns of trace element uptake related to bone histology and its control on the flow paths of pore waters. Patterns of element uptake as revealed by LA-ICP-MS maps can be used to guide sampling strategies, and call into question previous studies that hinge upon localized bulk samples of fossilized bone tissue. LA-ICP-MS maps also allow for comparison of recrystallization rates among fossil bones, and afford a novel approach to identifying bones or regions of bones potentially suitable for extracting intact biogeochemical signals. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  1. On-line double isotope dilution laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the quantitative analysis of solid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Beatriz; Rodríguez-González, Pablo; García Alonso, J Ignacio; Malherbe, Julien; García-Fonseca, Sergio; Pereiro, Rosario; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2014-12-03

    We report on the determination of trace elements in solid samples by the combination of on-line double isotope dilution and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The proposed method requires the sequential analysis of the sample and a certified natural abundance standard by on-line IDMS using the same isotopically-enriched spike solution. In this way, the mass fraction of the analyte in the sample can be directly referred to the certified standard so the previous characterization of the spike solution is not required. To validate the procedure, Sr, Rb and Pb were determined in certified reference materials with different matrices, including silicate glasses (SRM 610, 612 and 614) and powdered samples (PACS-2, SRM 2710a, SRM 1944, SRM 2702 and SRM 2780). The analysis of powdered samples was carried out both by the preparation of pressed pellets and by lithium borate fusion. Experimental results for the analysis of powdered samples were in agreement with the certified values for all materials. Relative standard deviations in the range of 6-21% for pressed pellets and 3-21% for fused solids were obtained from n=3 independent measurements. Minimal sample preparation, data treatment and consumption of the isotopically-enriched isotopes are the main advantages of the method over previously reported approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Elemental fractionation in 785 nm picosecond and femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaheen, M.E., E-mail: mshaheen73@science.tanta.edu.eg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); Gagnon, J.E.; Fryer, B.J. [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research (GLIER), University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada)

    2015-05-01

    Elemental fractionation and ICP-MS signal response were investigated for two different pulse width laser beams originating from the same laser system. Femtosecond and picosecond laser beams at pulse widths of 130 fs and 110 ps, respectively, and wavelength of 785 nm were used to ablate NIST 610 synthetic glass and SRM 1107 Naval Brass B at the same spot for 800 to 1000 laser pulses at different repetition rates (5 to 50 Hz). Elemental fractionation was found to depend on repetition rate and showed a trend with femtosecond laser ablation that is opposite to that observed in picosecond laser ablation for most measured isotopes. ICP-MS signal intensity was higher in femtosecond than picosecond LA-ICP-MS in both NIST 610 and naval brass when ablation was conducted under the same fluence and repetition rate. The differences in signal intensity were partly related to differences in particle size distribution between particles generated by femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses and the consequent differences in transport and ionization efficiencies. The main reason for the higher signal intensity resulting from femtosecond laser pulses was related to the larger crater sizes compared to those created during picosecond laser ablation. Elemental ratios measured using {sup 66}Zn/{sup 63}Cu, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th/{sup 238}U, {sup 66}Zn/{sup 232}Th and {sup 66}Zn/{sup 208}Pb were found to change with the number of laser pulses with data points being more scattered in picosecond than femtosecond laser pulses. Reproducibility of replicate measurements of signal intensities, fractionation and elemental ratios was better for fs-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 3 to 6%) than ps-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 7 to 11%). - Highlights: • Fractionation and ICP-MS signal response were investigated for two different pulse widths using NIST 610 and Naval Brass. • Dependence of fractionation indices on repetition rate and pulse width. • Higher ablation rate was observed in picosecond compared to

  3. Elemental fractionation in 785 nm picosecond and femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, M.E.; Gagnon, J.E.; Fryer, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Elemental fractionation and ICP-MS signal response were investigated for two different pulse width laser beams originating from the same laser system. Femtosecond and picosecond laser beams at pulse widths of 130 fs and 110 ps, respectively, and wavelength of 785 nm were used to ablate NIST 610 synthetic glass and SRM 1107 Naval Brass B at the same spot for 800 to 1000 laser pulses at different repetition rates (5 to 50 Hz). Elemental fractionation was found to depend on repetition rate and showed a trend with femtosecond laser ablation that is opposite to that observed in picosecond laser ablation for most measured isotopes. ICP-MS signal intensity was higher in femtosecond than picosecond LA-ICP-MS in both NIST 610 and naval brass when ablation was conducted under the same fluence and repetition rate. The differences in signal intensity were partly related to differences in particle size distribution between particles generated by femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses and the consequent differences in transport and ionization efficiencies. The main reason for the higher signal intensity resulting from femtosecond laser pulses was related to the larger crater sizes compared to those created during picosecond laser ablation. Elemental ratios measured using 66 Zn/ 63 Cu, 208 Pb/ 238 U, 232 Th/ 238 U, 66 Zn/ 232 Th and 66 Zn/ 208 Pb were found to change with the number of laser pulses with data points being more scattered in picosecond than femtosecond laser pulses. Reproducibility of replicate measurements of signal intensities, fractionation and elemental ratios was better for fs-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 3 to 6%) than ps-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 7 to 11%). - Highlights: • Fractionation and ICP-MS signal response were investigated for two different pulse widths using NIST 610 and Naval Brass. • Dependence of fractionation indices on repetition rate and pulse width. • Higher ablation rate was observed in picosecond compared to femtosecond laser ablation of NIST 610 and Brass

  4. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the characterization of pigments in prehistoric rock art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resano, Martin; García-Ruiz, Esperanza; Alloza, Ramiro; Marzo, Maria P; Vandenabeele, Peter; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2007-12-01

    In this work, several red-colored paintings of post-Paleolithic schematic style found in 10 different shelters in the vicinity of the Vero River (Huesca) were sampled and subjected to analysis by means of scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX), Raman spectroscopy, and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). The goal of this research was to obtain meaningful information on the samples composition, in order to establish differences or similarities among them. The combined use of these techniques proved beneficial, as Raman data permitted structural information on the compounds present (hematite was identified as the main pigment, whereas calcite and gypsum are the main components of the substrate layer, as well as of the accretions that covered the pigments) to be obtained, while the quantitative values obtained by SEM were suitable for the use of Ca as internal reference during LA-ICPMS analysis. However, it was this latter technique that provided the most relevant data for fingerprinting purposes. The potential of this technique for obtaining spatially resolved information allowed the multielement quantitative analysis of the pigment layer, in spite of the presence of superficial accretions. The sensitivity of the technique permitted the determination of more than 40 elements present in a wide concentration range (from microgram per gram to 10% level) with minimum sample consumption (approximately 900 ng for each sample, corresponding to five replicates). Finally, in order to establish significant differences, only those elements showing a high correlation with Fe (As, Co, Mo, Sb, Tl, and Zr, in this case) were selected, as it is expected that these were truly present in the original pigment, while others could have migrated into the pigment layer throughout time. By using this information, it seems feasible to discriminate between various paint pots, as demonstrated for the samples under

  5. Discrimination of side-window glass of Korean autos by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sin-Woo; Ryu, Jong-Sik; Min, Ji-Sook; Choi, Man-Yong; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Shin, Woo-Jin

    2016-07-15

    Fragments of glass from cars are often found at crime scenes and can be crucial evidence for solving the crime. The glass fragments are important as trace evidence at crime scenes related to car accidents and burgled homes. By identifying the origin of glass fragments, it is possible to infer the identity of a suspect. Our results represent a promising approach to a thorough forensic investigation of car glass. Thirty-five samples from the side windows of cars produced and used in South Korea were collected from the official agencies of five car manufacturers and from two glassmakers. In addition, 120 samples from side mirrors were collected from the same suppliers as well as from small businesses. Their chemical compositions (including Pb isotopes) were analyzed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was performed. The percentages of major elements (Si, Ca, and Fe) in side-window glass varied within narrow ranges (30.0 ± 2.36%, 5.93 ± 0.52%, and 0.33 ± 0.05%, respectively), while the differences among Pb isotope ratios were not significant. In contrast, light rare earth elements (LREEs) were different from each glassmaker. From the LDA, the types of side-window glass were successfully discriminated according to car manufacturer, glassmaker, and even glass thickness. However, glass from side mirrors cannot be used for good forensic identifiers. Discrimination techniques for side-window glass, although not for side mirrors, using chemical compositions combined with multivariate statistical analyses provide evidence for forensic investigations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Determination of refractive and volatile elements in sediment using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duodu, Godfred Odame; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Allen, Charlotte; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2015-10-22

    Wet-milling protocol was employed to produce pressed powder tablets with excellent cohesion and homogeneity suitable for laser ablation (LA) analysis of volatile and refractive elements in sediment. The influence of sample preparation on analytical performance was also investigated, including sample homogeneity, accuracy and limit of detection. Milling in volatile solvent for 40 min ensured sample is well mixed and could reasonably recover both volatile (Hg) and refractive (Zr) elements. With the exception of Cr (-52%) and Nb (+26%) major, minor and trace elements in STSD-1 and MESS-3 could be analysed within ±20% of the certified values. Comparison of the method with total digestion method using HF was tested by analysing 10 different sediment samples. The laser method recovers significantly higher amounts of analytes such as Ag, Cd, Sn and Sn than the total digestion method making it a more robust method for elements across the periodic table. LA-ICP-MS also eliminates the interferences from chemical reagents as well as the health and safety risks associated with digestion processes. Therefore, it can be considered as an enhanced method for the analysis of heterogeneous matrices such as river sediments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of refractive and volatile elements in sediment using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duodu, Godfred Odame [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), 2 George St, 4001, QLD (Australia); Goonetilleke, Ashantha [School of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), 2 George St, 4001, QLD (Australia); Allen, Charlotte [Institute for Future Environments, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), 2 George St, 4001, QLD (Australia); Ayoko, Godwin A., E-mail: g.ayoko@qut.edu.au [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), 2 George St, 4001, QLD (Australia)

    2015-10-22

    Wet-milling protocol was employed to produce pressed powder tablets with excellent cohesion and homogeneity suitable for laser ablation (LA) analysis of volatile and refractive elements in sediment. The influence of sample preparation on analytical performance was also investigated, including sample homogeneity, accuracy and limit of detection. Milling in volatile solvent for 40 min ensured sample is well mixed and could reasonably recover both volatile (Hg) and refractive (Zr) elements. With the exception of Cr (−52%) and Nb (+26%) major, minor and trace elements in STSD-1 and MESS-3 could be analysed within ±20% of the certified values. Comparison of the method with total digestion method using HF was tested by analysing 10 different sediment samples. The laser method recovers significantly higher amounts of analytes such as Ag, Cd, Sn and Sn than the total digestion method making it a more robust method for elements across the periodic table. LA-ICP-MS also eliminates the interferences from chemical reagents as well as the health and safety risks associated with digestion processes. Therefore, it can be considered as an enhanced method for the analysis of heterogeneous matrices such as river sediments. - Highlights: • Wet milling was used to produce pressed tablet sediment for LA-ICP-MS analysis. • Milling was effective for refractive elements with narrow range of particle size. • This is the first use of LA-ICP-MS for Hg analysis in sediment samples. • Acceptable accuracy and precision were obtained for most of the elements studied. • Detection limits down to parts per trillion were observed for some elements.

  8. LASER ABLATION-INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA-ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY STUDY AT THE 222-S LABORATORY USING HOT-CELL GLOVE BOX PROTOTYPE SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.; Owens, J.W.; Seidel, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the installation, testing and acceptance of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant procured laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES) system for remotely analyzing high-level waste samples in a hot cell environment. The 2005-003; ATS MP 1027, Management Plan for Waste Treatment Plant Project Work Performed by Analytical Technical Services. The APD group at the 222-S laboratory demonstrated acceptable turnaround time (TAT) and provide sufficient data to assess sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the LA-ICP-AES method

  9. LASER ABLATION-INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA-ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY STUDY AT THE 222-S LABORATORY USING HOT-CELL GLOVE BOX PROTOTYPE SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, C.M.; Jain, J.; Owens, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the installation, testing, and acceptance of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) procured laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES) system for remotely analyzing high-level waste (HLW) samples in a hot cell environment. The work was completed by the Analytical Process Development (APD) group in accordance with Task Order 2005-003; ATS MP 1027, Management Plan for Waste Treatment Plant Project Work Performed by Analytical Technical Services. The APD group at the 222-S Laboratory demonstrated acceptable turnaround time (TAT) and provide sufficient data to assess sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the LA-ICP-AES method

  10. Imaging of Selenium by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) in 2-D Electrophoresis Gels and Biological Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Elisa Castañeda Santa; Susanne Becker, J; Sabine Becker, J; Sussulini, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    Selenium and selenoproteins are important components of living organisms that play a role in different biological processes. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is a powerful analytical technique that has been employed to obtain distribution maps of selenium in biological tissues in a direct manner, as well as in selenoproteins, previously separated by their molecular masses and isoelectric points using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE). In this chapter, we present the protocols to perform LA-ICP-MS imaging experiments, allowing the distribution visualization and determination of selenium and/or selenoproteins in biological systems.

  11. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry for the multi-element analysis of polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resano, M.; García-Ruiz, E.; Vanhaecke, F.

    2005-11-01

    In this work, the potential of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for the fast analysis of polymers has been explored. Different real-life samples (polyethylene shopping bags, an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene material and various plastic bricks) as well as several reference materials (VDA 001 to 004, Cd in polyethylene) have been selected for the study. Two polyethylene reference materials (ERM-EC 680 and 681), for which a reference or indicative value for the most relevant metals is available, have proved their suitability as standards for calibration. Special attention has been paid to the difficulties expected for the determination of Cr at the μg g - 1 level in this kind of materials, due to the interference of ArC + ions on the most abundant isotopes of Cr. The use of ammonia as a reaction gas in a dynamic reaction cell is shown to alleviate this problem, resulting in a limit of detection of 0.15 μg g - 1 for this element, while limiting only modestly the possibilities of the technique for simultaneous multi-element analysis. In this regard, As is the analyte most seriously affected by the use of ammonia, and its determination has to be carried out in vented mode, at the expense of measuring time. In all cases studied, accurate results could be obtained for elements ranging in content from the sub-μg g - 1 level to tens of thousands of μg g - 1 . However, the use of an element of known concentration as internal standard may be needed for materials with a matrix significantly different from that of the standard (polyethylene in this work). Precision ranged between 5% and 10% RSD for elements found at the 10 μg g - 1 level or higher, while this value could deteriorate to 20% for analytes found at the sub-μg g - 1 level. Overall, the technique evaluated presents many advantages for the fast and accurate multi-element analysis of these materials, avoiding laborious digestion procedures and minimizing the risk of analyte losses due

  12. Application of femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of thin Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cell films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seokhee [School of Mechatronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Gonzalez, Jhanis J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Applied Spectra Inc., 46665 Fremont Boulevard, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Yoo, Jong H. [Applied Spectra Inc., 46665 Fremont Boulevard, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Chirinos, Jose R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas 1041A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Russo, Richard E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Applied Spectra Inc., 46665 Fremont Boulevard, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Jeong, Sungho, E-mail: shjeong@gist.ac.kr [School of Mechatronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-27

    This work reports that the composition of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin solar cell films can be quantitatively predicted with high accuracy and precision by femtosecond laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (fs-LA-ICP-MS). It is demonstrated that the results are strongly influenced by sampling conditions during fs-laser beam (λ = 1030 nm, τ = 450 fs) scanning on the CIGS surface. The fs-LA-ICP-MS signals measured at optimal sampling conditions generally provide a straight line calibration with respect to the reference concentrations measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The concentration ratios predicted by fs-LA-ICP-MS showed high accuracy, to 95–97% of the values measured with ICP-OES, for Cu, In, Ga, and Se elements. - Highlights: • Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry of thin film is reported. • Concentration ratio prediction with a confidence level of 95–97% is achieved. • Quantitative determination of composition is demonstrated.

  13. Dual purpose laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for pulsed laser deposition and diagnostics of thin film fabrication: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azdejković, Mersida Janeva; van Elteren, Johannes Teun; Rozman, Kristina Zuzek; Jaćimović, Radojko; Sarantopoulou, Evangelia; Kobe, Spomenka; Cefalas, Alkiviadis Constantinos

    2009-08-15

    PLD (pulsed laser deposition) is an attractive technique to fabricate thin films with a stoichiometry reflecting that of the target material. Conventional PLD instruments are more or less black boxes in which PLD is performed virtually "blind", i.e. without having great control on the important PLD parameters. In this preliminary study, for the first time, a 213 nm Nd-YAG commercial laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICPMS) intended for microanalysis work was used for PLD under atmospheric pressure and in and ex situ ICPMS analysis for diagnostics of the thin film fabrication process. A PLD demonstration experiment in a He atmosphere was performed with a Sm(13.8)Fe(82.2)Ta(4.0) target-Ta-coated silicon wafer substrate (contraption with defined geometry in the laser ablation chamber) to transfer the permanent magnetic properties of the target to the film. Although this paper is not dealing with the magnetic properties of the film, elemental analysis was applied as a means of depicting the PLD process. It was shown that in situ ICPMS monitoring of the ablation plume as a function of the laser fluence, beam diameter and repetition rate may be used to ensure the absence of large particles (normally having a stoichiometry somewhat different from the target). Furthermore, ex situ microanalysis of the deposited particles on the substrate, using the LA-ICPMS as an elemental mapping tool, allowed for the investigation of PLD parameters critical in the fabrication of a thin film with appropriate density, homogeneity and stoichiometry.

  14. Forensic analysis of printing inks using tandem Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Kiran; Trejos, Tatiana; Almirall, José

    2015-01-01

    Elemental analysis, using either LA-ICP-MS or LIBS, can be used for the chemical characterization of materials of forensic interest to discriminate between source materials originating from different sources and also for the association of materials known to originate from the same source. In this study, a tandem LIBS/LA-ICP-MS system that combines the benefits of both LIBS and LA-ICP-MS was evaluated for the characterization of samples of printing inks (toners, inkjets, intaglio and offset.). The performance of both laser sampling methods is presented. A subset of 9 black laser toners, 10 colored (CMYK) inkjet samples, 12 colored (CMYK) offset samples and 12 intaglio inks originating from different manufacturing sources were analyzed to evaluate the discrimination capability of the tandem method. These samples were selected because they presented a very similar elemental profile by LA-ICP-MS. Although typical discrimination between different ink sources is found to be > 99% for a variety of inks when only LA-ICP-MS was used for the analysis, additional discrimination was achieved by combining the elemental results from the LIBS analysis to the LA-ICP-MS analysis in the tandem technique, enhancing the overall discrimination capability of the individual laser ablation methods. The LIBS measurements of the Ca, Fe, K and Si signals, in particular, improved the discrimination for this specific set of different ink samples previously shown to exhibit very similar LA-ICP-MS elemental profiles. The combination of these two techniques in a single setup resulted in better discrimination of the printing inks with two distinct fingerprint spectra, providing information from atomic/ionic emissions and isotopic composition (m/z) for each ink sample.

  15. Forensic analysis of printing inks using tandem Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subedi, Kiran; Trejos, Tatiana; Almirall, José

    2015-01-01

    Elemental analysis, using either LA-ICP-MS or LIBS, can be used for the chemical characterization of materials of forensic interest to discriminate between source materials originating from different sources and also for the association of materials known to originate from the same source. In this study, a tandem LIBS/LA-ICP-MS system that combines the benefits of both LIBS and LA-ICP-MS was evaluated for the characterization of samples of printing inks (toners, inkjets, intaglio and offset.). The performance of both laser sampling methods is presented. A subset of 9 black laser toners, 10 colored (CMYK) inkjet samples, 12 colored (CMYK) offset samples and 12 intaglio inks originating from different manufacturing sources were analyzed to evaluate the discrimination capability of the tandem method. These samples were selected because they presented a very similar elemental profile by LA-ICP-MS. Although typical discrimination between different ink sources is found to be > 99% for a variety of inks when only LA-ICP-MS was used for the analysis, additional discrimination was achieved by combining the elemental results from the LIBS analysis to the LA-ICP-MS analysis in the tandem technique, enhancing the overall discrimination capability of the individual laser ablation methods. The LIBS measurements of the Ca, Fe, K and Si signals, in particular, improved the discrimination for this specific set of different ink samples previously shown to exhibit very similar LA-ICP-MS elemental profiles. The combination of these two techniques in a single setup resulted in better discrimination of the printing inks with two distinct fingerprint spectra, providing information from atomic/ionic emissions and isotopic composition (m/z) for each ink sample. - Highlights: • The optimization of the parameters for LA-ICP-MS and LIBS in a tandem experiment are presented. • The analytical figures of merit for the tandem experiment for data collected simultaneously, are presented. • A

  16. Forensic analysis of printing inks using tandem Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subedi, Kiran, E-mail: ksube001@fiu.edu; Trejos, Tatiana, E-mail: trejost@fiu.edu; Almirall, José, E-mail: almirall@fiu.edu

    2015-01-01

    Elemental analysis, using either LA-ICP-MS or LIBS, can be used for the chemical characterization of materials of forensic interest to discriminate between source materials originating from different sources and also for the association of materials known to originate from the same source. In this study, a tandem LIBS/LA-ICP-MS system that combines the benefits of both LIBS and LA-ICP-MS was evaluated for the characterization of samples of printing inks (toners, inkjets, intaglio and offset.). The performance of both laser sampling methods is presented. A subset of 9 black laser toners, 10 colored (CMYK) inkjet samples, 12 colored (CMYK) offset samples and 12 intaglio inks originating from different manufacturing sources were analyzed to evaluate the discrimination capability of the tandem method. These samples were selected because they presented a very similar elemental profile by LA-ICP-MS. Although typical discrimination between different ink sources is found to be > 99% for a variety of inks when only LA-ICP-MS was used for the analysis, additional discrimination was achieved by combining the elemental results from the LIBS analysis to the LA-ICP-MS analysis in the tandem technique, enhancing the overall discrimination capability of the individual laser ablation methods. The LIBS measurements of the Ca, Fe, K and Si signals, in particular, improved the discrimination for this specific set of different ink samples previously shown to exhibit very similar LA-ICP-MS elemental profiles. The combination of these two techniques in a single setup resulted in better discrimination of the printing inks with two distinct fingerprint spectra, providing information from atomic/ionic emissions and isotopic composition (m/z) for each ink sample. - Highlights: • The optimization of the parameters for LA-ICP-MS and LIBS in a tandem experiment are presented. • The analytical figures of merit for the tandem experiment for data collected simultaneously, are presented. • A

  17. Application of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma multicollector mass spectometry in determination of lead isotope ratios in common glass for forensic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjåstad, Knut-Endre; Andersen, Tom; Simonsen, Siri Lene

    2013-01-01

    Samples of glass used as trace evidence in criminal cases are commonly small, with particle sizes below a millimeter. To perform chemical analysis suitable for forensic purposes, methods capable of analyzing such small samples are required. In this paper, analyses of lead isotope ratios by means of laser ablation inductively coupled multicollector mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) are presented. Sampling by use of laser ablation allows fragments down to 0.1 mg to be analyzed with sufficient precision to discriminate between glasses of different origin. In fact, the use of lead isotopes determined by LA-MC-ICP-MS approaches the discrimination attainable by multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) analysis of dissolved samples of 5 mg or more. Further, we have obtained a probability distribution by two dimensional kernel density estimates for the collected data set as an alternative presentation method to the well-established bivariate plot. The underlying information available from kernel density estimates is of importance for forensic scientists involved in probabilistic interpretation of physical evidence. - Highlights: • Lead isotope ratios prove suitable to discriminate glass for forensic purposes. • 96% of glass samples from different sources were separated by lead isotopic ratios. • Laser ablation allows fragments of glass with extension of 0.5 mm to be analyzed. • Isotopic ratios of lead are well suited for statistical analysis of evidence

  18. Micro-spectrochemical analysis of document paper and gel inks by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trejos, Tatiana, E-mail: trejost@fiu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); International Forensic Research Institute (IFRI), Florida International University, Miami, FL 3319 (United States); Flores, Alejandra, E-mail: aflor017@fiu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Almirall, Jose R., E-mail: almirall@fiu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); International Forensic Research Institute (IFRI), Florida International University, Miami, FL 3319 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Current methods used in document examinations are not suitable to associate or discriminate between sources of paper and gel inks with a high degree of certainty. Nearly non-destructive, laser-based methods using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) were used to improve the forensic comparisons of gel inks, ballpoint inks and document papers based on similarities in elemental composition. Some of the advantages of these laser-based methods include minimum sample consumption/destruction, high sensitivity, high selectivity and excellent discrimination between samples from different origins. Figures of merit are reported including limits of detection, precision, homogeneity at a micro-scale and linear dynamic range. The variation of the elemental composition in paper was studied within a single sheet, between pages from the same ream, between papers produced by the same plant at different time intervals and between seventeen paper sources produced by ten different plants. The results show that elemental analysis of paper by LIBS and LA-ICP-MS provides excellent discrimination (> 98%) between different sources. Batches manufactured at weekly and monthly intervals in the same mill were also differentiated. The ink of more than 200 black pens was analyzed to determine the variation of the chemical composition of the ink within a single pen, between pens from the same package and between brands of gel inks and ballpoint inks. Homogeneity studies show smaller variation of elemental compositions within a single source than between different sources (i.e. brands and types). It was possible to discriminate between pen markings from different brands and between pen markings from the same brand but different model. Discrimination of {approx} 96-99% was achieved for sets that otherwise would remain inseparable by conventional methods. The results show that elemental analysis, using either LA

  19. Micro-spectrochemical analysis of document paper and gel inks by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trejos, Tatiana; Flores, Alejandra; Almirall, Jose R.

    2010-01-01

    Current methods used in document examinations are not suitable to associate or discriminate between sources of paper and gel inks with a high degree of certainty. Nearly non-destructive, laser-based methods using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) were used to improve the forensic comparisons of gel inks, ballpoint inks and document papers based on similarities in elemental composition. Some of the advantages of these laser-based methods include minimum sample consumption/destruction, high sensitivity, high selectivity and excellent discrimination between samples from different origins. Figures of merit are reported including limits of detection, precision, homogeneity at a micro-scale and linear dynamic range. The variation of the elemental composition in paper was studied within a single sheet, between pages from the same ream, between papers produced by the same plant at different time intervals and between seventeen paper sources produced by ten different plants. The results show that elemental analysis of paper by LIBS and LA-ICP-MS provides excellent discrimination (> 98%) between different sources. Batches manufactured at weekly and monthly intervals in the same mill were also differentiated. The ink of more than 200 black pens was analyzed to determine the variation of the chemical composition of the ink within a single pen, between pens from the same package and between brands of gel inks and ballpoint inks. Homogeneity studies show smaller variation of elemental compositions within a single source than between different sources (i.e. brands and types). It was possible to discriminate between pen markings from different brands and between pen markings from the same brand but different model. Discrimination of ∼ 96-99% was achieved for sets that otherwise would remain inseparable by conventional methods. The results show that elemental analysis, using either LA-ICP-MS or

  20. Analysis of rare earth elements in coal fly ash using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert L.; Bank, Tracy; Montross, Scott; Roth, Elliot; Howard, Bret; Verba, Circe; Granite, Evan

    2018-05-01

    Reference standard NIST SRM 1633b and FA 345, a fly ash sample from an eastern U.S. coal power plant, were analyzed to determine and quantify the mineralogical association of rare earth elements (REE). These analyses were completed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and a scanning electron microscope, equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS). Internal standardization was avoided by quantifying elemental concentrations by normalizing to 100% oxides. Mineral grains containing elevated REE concentrations were found in diverse chemical environments, but were most commonly found in regions where Al and Si were predominant. Dividing the spot analyses into time segments yielded plots that showed the REE content changing over time as individual mineral grains were being ablated. SEM-EDS images of FA 345 confirmed the trends that were found in the LA-ICP-MS results. Small grains of apatite, monazite, or zircon were frequently observed as free mineral grains or embedded in amorphous aluminosilicate glass and were not associated with ferrous particles. This finding is consistent with previous reports that magnetic enrichment may be an effective way of concentrating non-magnetic REE phases. Furthermore, aggressive mechanical and chemical-based separation schemes will be required to separate and recover REE from aluminosilicate glass.

  1. Direct trace-elemental analysis of urine samples by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after sample deposition on clinical filter papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramendía, Maite; Rello, Luis; Vanhaecke, Frank; Resano, Martín

    2012-10-16

    Collection of biological fluids on clinical filter papers shows important advantages from a logistic point of view, although analysis of these specimens is far from straightforward. Concerning urine analysis, and particularly when direct trace elemental analysis by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) is aimed at, several problems arise, such as lack of sensitivity or different distribution of the analytes on the filter paper, rendering obtaining reliable quantitative results quite difficult. In this paper, a novel approach for urine collection is proposed, which circumvents many of these problems. This methodology consists on the use of precut filter paper discs where large amounts of sample can be retained upon a single deposition. This provides higher amounts of the target analytes and, thus, sufficient sensitivity, and allows addition of an adequate internal standard at the clinical lab prior to analysis, therefore making it suitable for a strategy based on unsupervised sample collection and ulterior analysis at referral centers. On the basis of this sampling methodology, an analytical method was developed for the direct determination of several elements in urine (Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb, Sn, Tl, Pb, and V) at the low μg L(-1) level by means of LA-ICPMS. The method developed provides good results in terms of accuracy and LODs (≤1 μg L(-1) for most of the analytes tested), with a precision in the range of 15%, fit-for-purpose for clinical control analysis.

  2. Elemental bioimaging of nanosilver-coated prostheses using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaske, Franziska; Reifschneider, Olga; Gosheger, Georg; Wehe, Christoph A; Sperling, Michael; Karst, Uwe; Hauschild, Gregor; Höll, Steffen

    2014-01-07

    The distribution of different chemical elements from a nanosilver-coated bone implant was visualized, combining the benefits of two complementary methods for elemental bioimaging, the nondestructive micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF), and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Challenges caused by the physically inhomogeneous materials including bone and soft tissues were addressed by polymer embedding. With the use of μ-XRF, fast sample mapping was achieved obtaining titanium and vanadium signals from the metal implant as well as phosphorus and calcium signals representing hard bone tissue and sulfur distribution representing soft tissues. Only by the use of LA-ICP-MS, the required high sensitivity and low detection limits for the determination of silver were obtained. Metal distribution within the part of cancellous bone was revealed for silver as well as for the implant constituents titanium, vanadium, and aluminum. Furthermore, the detection of coinciding high local zirconium and aluminum signals at the implant surface indicates remaining blasting abrasive from preoperative surface treatment of the nanosilver-coated device.

  3. Trace Element Analysis of Minerals in Magmatic-Hydrothermal Ores by Laser Ablation Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry: Approaches and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Cook

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS has rapidly established itself as the method of choice for generation of multi-element datasets for specific minerals, with broad applications in Earth science. Variation in absolute concentrations of different trace elements within common, widely distributed phases, such as pyrite, iron-oxides (magnetite and hematite, and key accessory minerals, such as apatite and titanite, can be particularly valuable for understanding processes of ore formation, and when trace element distributions vary systematically within a mineral system, for a vector approach in mineral exploration. LA-ICP-MS trace element data can assist in element deportment and geometallurgical studies, providing proof of which minerals host key elements of economic relevance, or elements that are deleterious to various metallurgical processes. This contribution reviews recent advances in LA-ICP-MS methodology, reference standards, the application of the method to new mineral matrices, outstanding analytical uncertainties that impact on the quality and usefulness of trace element data, and future applications of the technique. We illustrate how data interpretation is highly dependent on an adequate understanding of prevailing mineral textures, geological history, and in some cases, crystal structure.

  4. Development of near-field laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for sub-micrometric analysis of solid samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabbour, Chirelle

    2016-01-01

    A near field laser ablation method was developed for chemical analysis of solid samples at sub-micrometric scale. This analytical technique combines a nanosecond laser Nd:YAG, an atomic Force Microscope (AFM), and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS). In order to improve the spatial resolution of the laser ablation process, the near-field enhancement effect was applied by illuminating, by the laser beam, the apex of the AFM conductive sharp tip maintained at a few nanometers (5 to 30 nm) above the sample surface. The interaction between the illuminated tip and the sample surface enhances locally the incident laser energy and leads to the ablation process. By applying this technique to conducting gold and tantalum samples, and semiconducting silicon sample, a lateral resolution of 100 nm and depths of a few nanometers were demonstrated. Two home-made numerical codes have enabled the study of two phenomena occurring around the tip: the enhancement of the laser electrical field by tip effect, and the induced laser heating at the sample surface. The influence of the main operating parameters on these two phenomena, amplification and heating, was studied. an experimental multi-parametric study was carried out in order to understand the effect of different experimental parameters (laser fluence, laser wavelength, number of laser pulses, tip-to-sample distance, sample and tip nature) on the near-field laser ablation efficiency, crater dimensions and amount of ablated material. (author) [fr

  5. Investigation of gold nanoparticles uptake and their tissue level distribution in rice plants by laser ablation-inductively coupled-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelmel, Jeremy; Leland, Thomas; Wang, Huanhua; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri; Xing, Baoshan

    2013-01-01

    The tissue level uptake and spatial distribution of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots and shoots under hydroponic conditions was investigated using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Rice plants were hydroponically exposed to positively, neutrally, and negatively charged AuNPs [AuNP1(+), AuNP2(0), AuNP3(−)] with a core diameter of 2 nm. Plants were exposed to AuNPs having 1.6 mg Au/L for 5 days or 0.14 mg Au/L for 3 months to elucidate how the surface charges of the nanoparticles affects their uptake into living plant tissues. The results demonstrate that terminal functional groups greatly affected the AuNP uptake into plant tissues. Au concentration determined by LA-ICP-MS in 5 day treated rice roots followed this order: AuNP1(+) > AuNP2(0) > AuNP3(−) but this order was reversed for rice shoots, indicating preferential translocation of AuNP3(−). Bioimages revealed distributions of mesophyll and vascular AuNP dependent on organ or AuNP concentration. Highlights: ► LA-ICP-MS technique was effectively used to quantify engineered AuNP in rice plant. ► Uptake and translocation of AuNPs are evident in rice roots and shoots. ► Organ level distribution of AuNPs is affected by their surface charges. ► Bioimaging of AuNP distribution in rice tissues by LA-ICP-MS was demonstrated. -- The tissue level uptake and spatial distribution of engineered gold nanoparticles (AuNP) by rice plants was demonstrated by LA-ICP-MS bioimaging

  6. The potential of using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-TOF-MS) in the forensic analysis of micro debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scadding, Cameron J; Watling, R John; Thomas, Allen G

    2005-08-15

    The majority of crimes result in the generation of some form of physical evidence, which is available for collection by crime scene investigators or police. However, this debris is often limited in amount as modern criminals become more aware of its potential value to forensic scientists. The requirement to obtain robust evidence from increasingly smaller sized samples has required refinement and modification of old analytical techniques and the development of new ones. This paper describes a new method for the analysis of oxy-acetylene debris, left behind at a crime scene, and the establishment of its co-provenance with single particles of equivalent debris found on the clothing of persons of interest (POI). The ability to rapidly determine and match the elemental distribution patterns of debris collected from crime scenes to those recovered from persons of interest is essential in ensuring successful prosecution. Traditionally, relatively large amounts of sample (up to several milligrams) have been required to obtain a reliable elemental fingerprint of this type of material [R.J. Walting , B.F. Lynch, D. Herring, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 12 (1997) 195]. However, this quantity of material is unlikely to be recovered from a POI. This paper describes the development and application of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-TOF-MS), as an analytical protocol, which can be applied more appropriately to the analysis of micro-debris than conventional quadrupole based mass spectrometry. The resulting data, for debris as small as 70mum in diameter, was unambiguously matched between a single spherule recovered from a POI and a spherule recovered from the scene of crime, in an analytical procedure taking less than 5min.

  7. Trace metal analysis by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasmamass spectrometry and x-ray K-edge densitometry of forensic samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Jonna Elizabeth [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-10-25

    This dissertation describes a variety of studies on the determination of trace elements in samples with forensic importance. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to determine the trace element composition of numerous lipstick samples. Lipstick samples were determined to be homogeneous. Most lipstick samples of similar colors were readily distinguishable at a 95% confidence interval based on trace element composition. Numerous strands of a multi-strand speaker cable were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS. The strands in this study are spatially heterogeneous in trace element composition. In actual forensic applications, the possibility of spatial heterogeneity must be considered, especially in cases where only small samples (e.g., copper wire fragments after an explosion) are available. The effects of many unpredictable variables, such as weather, temperature, and human activity, on the retention of gunshot residue (GSR) around projectile wounds were assessed with LAICP- MS. Skin samples around gunshot and stab wounds and larvae feeding in and around the wounds on decomposing pig carcasses were analyzed for elements consistent with GSR (Sb, Pb, Ba, and Cu). These elements were detected at higher levels in skin and larvae samples around the gunshot wounds compared to the stab wounds for an extended period of time throughout decomposition in both a winter and summer study. After decomposition, radiographic images of the pig bones containing possible damage from bullets revealed metallic particles embedded within a number of bones. Metallic particles within the bones were analyzed with x-ray, K-edge densitometry and determined to contain lead, indicating that bullet residue can be retained throughout decomposition and detected within bones containing projectile trauma.

  8. Analytical procedure for characterization of medieval wall-paintings by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syta, Olga; Rozum, Karol; Choińska, Marta; Zielińska, Dobrochna; Żukowska, Grażyna Zofia; Kijowska, Agnieszka; Wagner, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Analytical procedure for the comprehensive chemical characterization of samples from medieval Nubian wall-paintings by means of portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) and Raman spectroscopy (RS) was proposed in this work. The procedure was used for elemental and molecular investigations of samples from archeological excavations in Nubia (modern southern Egypt and northern Sudan). Numerous remains of churches with painted decorations dated back to the 7th–14th century were excavated in the region of medieval kingdoms of Nubia but many aspects of this art and its technology are still unknown. Samples from the selected archeological sites (Faras, Old Dongola and Banganarti) were analyzed in the form of transfers (n = 26), small fragments collected during the excavations (n = 35) and cross sections (n = 15). XRF was used to collect data about elemental composition, LA-ICPMS allowed mapping of selected elements, while RS was used to get the molecular information about the samples. The preliminary results indicated the usefulness of the proposed analytical procedure for distinguishing the substances, from both the surface and sub-surface domains of the wall-paintings. The possibility to identify raw materials from the wall-paintings will be used in the further systematic, archeometric studies devoted to the detailed comparison of various historic Nubian centers. - Highlights: • The analytical procedure for examination of unique wall paintings was proposed. • Identification of pigments and supporting layers of wall-paintings was obtained. • Heterogeneous samples were mapped with the use of LA-ICPMS. • Anatase in the sub-surface regions of samples was detected by Raman spectroscopy

  9. Analytical procedure for characterization of medieval wall-paintings by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syta, Olga; Rozum, Karol; Choińska, Marta [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Zielińska, Dobrochna [Institute of Archaeology, University of Warsaw, Krakowskie Przedmieście 26/28, 00-927 Warsaw (Poland); Żukowska, Grażyna Zofia [Chemical Faculty, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Kijowska, Agnieszka [National Museum in Warsaw, Aleje Jerozolimskie 3, 00-495 Warsaw (Poland); Wagner, Barbara, E-mail: barbog@chem.uw.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-11-01

    Analytical procedure for the comprehensive chemical characterization of samples from medieval Nubian wall-paintings by means of portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) and Raman spectroscopy (RS) was proposed in this work. The procedure was used for elemental and molecular investigations of samples from archeological excavations in Nubia (modern southern Egypt and northern Sudan). Numerous remains of churches with painted decorations dated back to the 7th–14th century were excavated in the region of medieval kingdoms of Nubia but many aspects of this art and its technology are still unknown. Samples from the selected archeological sites (Faras, Old Dongola and Banganarti) were analyzed in the form of transfers (n = 26), small fragments collected during the excavations (n = 35) and cross sections (n = 15). XRF was used to collect data about elemental composition, LA-ICPMS allowed mapping of selected elements, while RS was used to get the molecular information about the samples. The preliminary results indicated the usefulness of the proposed analytical procedure for distinguishing the substances, from both the surface and sub-surface domains of the wall-paintings. The possibility to identify raw materials from the wall-paintings will be used in the further systematic, archeometric studies devoted to the detailed comparison of various historic Nubian centers. - Highlights: • The analytical procedure for examination of unique wall paintings was proposed. • Identification of pigments and supporting layers of wall-paintings was obtained. • Heterogeneous samples were mapped with the use of LA-ICPMS. • Anatase in the sub-surface regions of samples was detected by Raman spectroscopy.

  10. Investigating the influence of standard staining procedures on the copper distribution and concentration in Wilson's disease liver samples by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachmöller, Oliver; Aichler, Michaela; Schwamborn, Kristina; Lutz, Lisa; Werner, Martin; Sperling, Michael; Walch, Axel; Karst, Uwe

    2017-12-01

    The influence of rhodanine and haematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining on the copper distribution and concentration in liver needle biopsy samples originating from patients with Wilson's disease (WD), a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder of the copper metabolism, is investigated. In contemporary diagnostic of WD, rhodanine staining is used for histopathology, since rhodanine and copper are forming a red to orange-red complex, which can be recognized in the liver tissue using a microscope. In this paper, a laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) method is applied for the analysis of eight different WD liver samples. Apart from a spatially resolved elemental detection as qualitative information, this LA-ICP-MS method offers also quantitative information by external calibration with matrix-matched gelatine standards. The sample set of this work included an unstained and a rhodanine stained section of each WD liver sample. While unstained sections of WD liver samples showed very distinct structures of the copper distribution with high copper concentrations, rhodanine stained sections revealed a blurred copper distribution with significant decreased concentrations in a range from 20 to more than 90%. This implies a copper removal from the liver tissue by complexation during the rhodanine staining. In contrast to this, a further HE stained sample of one WD liver sample did not show a significant decrease in the copper concentration and influence on the copper distribution in comparison to the unstained section. Therefore, HE staining can be combined with the analysis by means of LA-ICP-MS in two successive steps from one thin section of a biopsy specimen. This allows further information to be gained on the elemental distribution by LA-ICP-MS additional to results obtained by histological staining. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Fusion Bead Procedure for Nuclear Forensics Employing Synthetic Enstatite to Dissolve Uraniferous and Other Challenging Materials Prior to Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, David G; Croudace, Ian W; Warwick, Phillip E

    2017-06-06

    There is an increasing demand for rapid and effective analytical tools to support nuclear forensic investigations of seized or suspect materials. Some methods are simply adapted from other scientific disciplines and can effectively be used to rapidly prepare complex materials for subsequent analysis. A novel sample fusion method is developed, tested, and validated to produce homogeneous, flux-free glass beads of geochemical reference materials (GRMs), uranium ores, and uranium ore concentrates (UOC) prior to the analysis of 14 rare earth elements (REE) via laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The novelty of the procedure is the production of glass beads using 9 parts high purity synthetic enstatite (MgSiO 3 ) as the glass former with 1 part of sample (sample mass ∼1.5 mg). The beads are rapidly prepared (∼10 min overall time) by fusing the blended mixture on an iridium strip resistance heater in an argon-purged chamber. Many elements can be measured in the glass bead, but the rare earth group in particular is a valuable series in nuclear forensic studies and is well-determined using LA-ICP-MS. The REE data obtained from the GRMs, presented as chondrite normalized patterns, are in very good agreement with consensus patterns. The UOCs have comparable patterns to solution ICP-MS methods and published data. The attractions of the current development are its conservation of sample, speed of preparation, and suitability for microbeam analysis, all of which are favorable for nuclear forensics practitioners and geochemists requiring REE patterns from scarce or valuable samples.

  12. Investigation of matrix effects in 193 nm laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis using reference glasses of different transparencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czas, J.; Jochum, K.P.; Stoll, B.; Weis, U.; Yang, Q.-C.; Jacob, D.E.; Andreae, M.O.

    2012-01-01

    The degree of transparency of glasses, which depends on the Fe content, may influence the ablation behavior during laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis. To test possible matrix effects when using a 193 nm Nd:YAG laser, we have analyzed transparent and opaque NIST, BAM and USGS reference glasses. These reference materials are ideal for such investigations, because they are well characterized, most elements are homogeneously distributed at the micrometer scale, and their Fe content varies over a very large range, from 16 to 130,000 μg g −1 . Our measurements show that the fractionation factors of refractory and volatile lithophile elements, such as Sr, Ba, and Rb, are 1.00 ± 0.03 and independent of the degree of transparency. However, for volatile chalcophile/siderophile elements (e.g., Zn and Pb) the fractionation factors vary significantly between 0.7 and 1, depending on the spot sizes and the transparency of the material. Mass-load-induced matrix effects may also influence the accuracy of LA-ICP-MS analysis. They are less than 2% for the lithophile and up to 10% for volatile chalcophile/siderophile elements when the mass load varies by a factor 2.4. Relative sensitivity factors used for calibration of lithophile elements agree within uncertainty limits for transparent and opaque glasses when using a 193 nm laser. Even for volatile/chalcophile elements they differ only by 5–10%. The reliability of the LA-ICP-MS analyses is demonstrated by presenting concentration data of 27 trace elements in the NIST, BAM and USGS reference glasses using NIST SRM 612 for calibration, where highly accurate reference values are available. For trace element concentrations in the range between 1 and 500 μg g −1 , the reproducibility and the uncertainties at the 95% confidence level of the measurements vary between 1–4%, and 7–10%, respectively. - Highlights: ► Matrix effects are low for lithophile elements using a 193 nm laser

  13. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis of agricultural soils using the sol-gel technique of pellet preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubova, I.; Hola, M.; Vaculovic, T.; Pinkas, J.; Prokes, L.; Stefan, I.; Kanicky, V.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Monitoring of metals in agricultural soils is gaining importance as they are accumulated by plants. A LAICPQMS method with Nd:YAG 213 nm laser has been developed for determination of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in soil pellets prepared by the sol-gel technique. LA-ICPMS analysis of archive samples was verified by XRF of wax-soil pellets and ICPMS with nebulization of solutions obtained by total soil decomposition and by analysis of reference materials. Sequention extraction was used for fractionation analysis. (author)

  14. The determination of low level trace elements in coals by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, C.A.; Spears, D.A.; Krause, P.; Cox, A.G. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1999-11-01

    The rapid determination of elements present in low level concentrations in bituminous coals is possible using laser abalation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (l.a.-i.c.p.-m.s.). A wide range of trace elements can routinely be determined using this technique but it is for environmentally sensitive elements, such as As, Cd, Mo, Sb, Se and Hg, that it is of most use due to the low levels of detection. Calibration of the i.c.p.-m.s. was achieved using a series of uncertified coals and the method evaluated using the South African certified coals, Sarm 18, 19 and 20. A critical evaluation of the data obtained shows that for many of the elements studied the results obtained are both accurate and precise, even at very low concentrations, with the limits of detection for all of the elements being in the {mu}g/kg (parts per billion) range. 6 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Applications of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Johanna Sabine

    2002-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) have been applied as the most important inorganic mass spectrometric techniques having multielemental capability for the characterization of solid samples in materials science. ICP-MS is used for the sensitive determination of trace and ultratrace elements in digested solutions of solid samples or of process chemicals (ultrapure water, acids and organic solutions) for the semiconductor industry with detection limits down to sub-picogram per liter levels. Whereas ICP-MS on solid samples (e.g. high-purity ceramics) sometimes requires time-consuming sample preparation for its application in materials science, and the risk of contamination is a serious drawback, a fast, direct determination of trace elements in solid materials without any sample preparation by LA-ICP-MS is possible. The detection limits for the direct analysis of solid samples by LA-ICP-MS have been determined for many elements down to the nanogram per gram range. A deterioration of detection limits was observed for elements where interferences with polyatomic ions occur. The inherent interference problem can often be solved by applying a double-focusing sector field mass spectrometer at higher mass resolution or by collision-induced reactions of polyatomic ions with a collision gas using an ICP-MS fitted with collision cell. The main problem of LA-ICP-MS is quantification if no suitable standard reference materials with a similar matrix composition are available. The calibration problem in LA-ICP-MS can be solved using on-line solution-based calibration, and different procedures, such as external calibration and standard addition, have been discussed with respect to their application in materials science. The application of isotope dilution in solution-based calibration for trace metal determination in small amounts of noble metals has been developed as a new calibration strategy. This review discusses new

  16. Using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to characterize copper, zinc and mercury along grizzly bear hair providing estimate of diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noël, Marie, E-mail: marie.noel@stantec.com [Stantec Consulting Ltd. 2042 Mills Road, Unit 11, Sidney BC V8L 4X2 (Canada); Christensen, Jennie R., E-mail: jennie.christensen@stantec.com [Stantec Consulting Ltd. 2042 Mills Road, Unit 11, Sidney BC V8L 4X2 (Canada); Spence, Jody, E-mail: jodys@uvic.ca [School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Bob Wright Centre A405, University of Victoria, PO BOX 3065 STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3V6 (Canada); Robbins, Charles T., E-mail: ctrobbins@wsu.edu [School of the Environment and School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-4236 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We enhanced an existing technique, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), to function as a non-lethal tool in the temporal characterization of trace element exposure in wild mammals. Mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) were analyzed along the hair of captive and wild grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Laser parameters were optimized (consecutive 2000 μm line scans along the middle line of the hair at a speed of 50 μm/s; spot size = 30 μm) for consistent ablation of the hair. A pressed pellet of reference material DOLT-2 and sulfur were used as external and internal standards, respectively. Our newly adapted method passed the quality control tests with strong correlations between trace element concentrations obtained using LA-ICP-MS and those obtained with regular solution-ICP-MS (r{sup 2} = 0.92, 0.98, 0.63, 0.57, 0.99 and 0.90 for Hg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, respectively). Cross-correlation analyses revealed good reproducibility between trace element patterns obtained from hair collected from the same bear. One exception was Cd for which external contamination was observed resulting in poor reproducibility. In order to validate the method, we used LA-ICP-MS on the hair of five captive grizzly bears fed known and varying amounts of cutthroat trout over a period of 33 days. Trace element patterns along the hair revealed strong Hg, Cu and Zn signals coinciding with fish consumption. Accordingly, significant correlations between Hg, Cu, and Zn in the hair and Hg, Cu, and Zn intake were evident and we were able to develop accumulation models for each of these elements. While the use of LA-ICP-MS for the monitoring of trace elements in wildlife is in its infancy, this study highlights the robustness and applicability of this newly adapted method. - Highlights: • LA-ICP-MS provides temporal trace metal exposure information for wild grizzly bears. • Cu and Zn temporal exposures provide

  17. Multi-element quantification of ancient/historic glasses by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using sum normalization calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elteren, Johannes T. van; Tennent, Norman H.; Selih, Vid S.

    2009-01-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for quantitative analysis of ancient/historic glasses is subject to calibration issues which have been addressed in this work. Since ancient/historic glasses have widely ranging matrix compositions, a complementary analysis by an alternative method is generally employed to determine at least one major element which can be used as an internal standard. We demonstrate that such a complementary analysis is unnecessary using a so-called sum normalization calibration technique (mathematically formulated) by simultaneous measurement of 54 elements and normalizing them to 100% [w/w] based on their corresponding oxide concentrations. The crux of this approach is that by assuming a random internal standard concentration of a particular major oxide, e.g. SiO 2 , the normalization algorithm varies the internal standard concentration until the cumulated concentrations of all 54 elemental oxides reach 100% [w/w]. The fact that 54 elements are measured simultaneously predetermines the laser ablation mode to rastering. Nine glass standards, some replicating historic compositions, were used for calibration. The linearity of the calibration graphs (forced through the origin) represented by the relative standard deviations in the slope were between 0.1 and 6.6% using SiO 2 as an internal standard. This allows high-accuracy determination of elemental oxides as confirmed by good agreement between found and reported values for major and minor elemental oxides in some synthetic glasses with typical medieval composition (European Science Foundation 151 and 158). Also for trace elemental concentrations of lanthanides in a reference glass (P and H Developments Ltd. DLH7, a base glass composition with nominally 75 μg g -1 elements added) accurate data were obtained. Interferences from polyatomic species and doubly charged species on the masses of trace elements are possible, depending on the base composition of the

  18. Using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to characterize copper, zinc and mercury along grizzly bear hair providing estimate of diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noël, Marie; Christensen, Jennie R.; Spence, Jody; Robbins, Charles T.

    2015-01-01

    We enhanced an existing technique, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), to function as a non-lethal tool in the temporal characterization of trace element exposure in wild mammals. Mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) were analyzed along the hair of captive and wild grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Laser parameters were optimized (consecutive 2000 μm line scans along the middle line of the hair at a speed of 50 μm/s; spot size = 30 μm) for consistent ablation of the hair. A pressed pellet of reference material DOLT-2 and sulfur were used as external and internal standards, respectively. Our newly adapted method passed the quality control tests with strong correlations between trace element concentrations obtained using LA-ICP-MS and those obtained with regular solution-ICP-MS (r 2 = 0.92, 0.98, 0.63, 0.57, 0.99 and 0.90 for Hg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, respectively). Cross-correlation analyses revealed good reproducibility between trace element patterns obtained from hair collected from the same bear. One exception was Cd for which external contamination was observed resulting in poor reproducibility. In order to validate the method, we used LA-ICP-MS on the hair of five captive grizzly bears fed known and varying amounts of cutthroat trout over a period of 33 days. Trace element patterns along the hair revealed strong Hg, Cu and Zn signals coinciding with fish consumption. Accordingly, significant correlations between Hg, Cu, and Zn in the hair and Hg, Cu, and Zn intake were evident and we were able to develop accumulation models for each of these elements. While the use of LA-ICP-MS for the monitoring of trace elements in wildlife is in its infancy, this study highlights the robustness and applicability of this newly adapted method. - Highlights: • LA-ICP-MS provides temporal trace metal exposure information for wild grizzly bears. • Cu and Zn temporal exposures provide

  19. Quantitative analysis of major and trace elements in NH4HF2-modified silicate rock powders by laser ablation - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Hu, Zhaochu; Liu, Yongsheng; Yang, Wenwu; Chen, Haihong; Hu, Shenghong; Xiao, Hongyan

    2017-08-29

    In this paper, we described a NH 4 HF 2 digestion method as sample preparation for the rapid determination of major and trace elements in silicate rocks using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Sample powders digested by NH 4 HF 2 at 230 °C for 3 h form ultrafine powders with a typical grain size d 80  rocks have a consistent grain morphology and size, allowing us to produce pressed powder pellets that have excellent cohesion and homogeneity suitable for laser ablation micro-analysis without the addition of binder. The influences of the digestion parameters were investigated and optimized, including the evaporation stage of removing residual NH 4 HF 2 , sample homogenization, selection of the digestion vessel and calibration strategy of quantitative analysis. The optimized NH 4 HF 2 digestion method was applied to dissolve six silicate rock reference materials (BCR-2, BHVO-2, AGV-2, RGM-2, GSP-2, GSR-1) covering a wide range of rock types. Ten major elements and thirty-five trace elements were simultaneously analyzed by LA-ICP-MS. The analytical results of the six reference materials generally agreed with the recommended values, with discrepancies of less than 10% for most elements. The analytical precision is within 5% for most major elements and within 10% for most trace elements. Compared with previous methods of LA-ICP-MS bulk analysis, our method enables the complete dissolution of refractory minerals, such as zircon, in intermediate-acidic intrusive rocks and limits contamination as well as the loss of volatile elements. Moreover, there are many advantages for the new technique, including reducing matrix effects between reference materials and samples, spiking the internal standard simply and feasibly and sample batch processing. The applicability filed of the new technique in this study was focused on the whole-rock analysis of igneous rock samples, which are from basic rocks to acid rocks (45% rock analysis

  20. Time-resolved studies of particle effects in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Part 2: Investigation of MO+ ions, effect of sample morphology, transport gas, and binding agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdian, D.; Bajic, S.; Baldwin, D.; Houk, R.

    2007-01-01

    Time resolved signals in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are studied to determine the influence of experimental parameters on ICP-induced fractionation effects. Differences in sample composition and morphology, i.e., ablating brass, glass, or dust pellets, have a profound effect on the time resolved signal. Helium transport gas significantly decreases large positive signal spikes arising from large particles in the ICP. A binder for pellets also reduces the abundance and amplitude of spikes in the signal. MO + ions also yield signal spikes, but these MO + spikes generally occur at different times from their atomic ion counterparts.

  1. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-dynamic reaction cell-mass spectrometry for the multi-element analysis of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resano, M.; Garcia-Ruiz, E.; Vanhaecke, F.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the potential of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for the fast analysis of polymers has been explored. Different real-life samples (polyethylene shopping bags, an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene material and various plastic bricks) as well as several reference materials (VDA 001 to 004, Cd in polyethylene) have been selected for the study. Two polyethylene reference materials (ERM-EC 680 and 681), for which a reference or indicative value for the most relevant metals is available, have proved their suitability as standards for calibration. Special attention has been paid to the difficulties expected for the determination of Cr at the μg g -1 level in this kind of materials, due to the interference of ArC + ions on the most abundant isotopes of Cr. The use of ammonia as a reaction gas in a dynamic reaction cell is shown to alleviate this problem, resulting in a limit of detection of 0.15 μg g -1 for this element, while limiting only modestly the possibilities of the technique for simultaneous multi-element analysis. In this regard, As is the analyte most seriously affected by the use of ammonia, and its determination has to be carried out in vented mode, at the expense of measuring time. In all cases studied, accurate results could be obtained for elements ranging in content from the sub-μg g -1 level to tens of thousands of μg g -1 . However, the use of an element of known concentration as internal standard may be needed for materials with a matrix significantly different from that of the standard (polyethylene in this work). Precision ranged between 5% and 10% RSD for elements found at the 10 μg g -1 level or higher, while this value could deteriorate to 20% for analytes found at the sub-μg g -1 level. Overall, the technique evaluated presents many advantages for the fast and accurate multi-element analysis of these materials, avoiding laborious digestion procedures and minimizing the risk of analyte losses due to the

  2. Current developments in laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for use in geology, forensics, and nuclear nonproliferation research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerly, Joshua D. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-08-26

    This dissertation focused on new applications of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The diverse fields that were investigated show the versatility of the technique. In Chapter 2, LA-ICP-MS was used to investigate the rare earth element (REE) profiles of garnets from the Broken Hill Deposit in New South Wales, Australia. The normalized REE profiles helped to shed new light on the formation of deposits of sulfide ores. This information may be helpful in identifying the location of sulfide ore deposits in other locations. New sources of metals such as Pg, Zn, and Ag, produced from these ores, are needed to sustain our current technological society. The application of LA-ICP-MS presented in Chapter 3 is the forensics analysis of automotive putty and caulking. The elemental analysis of these materials was combined with the use of Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The PCA comparison was able to differentiate the automotive putty samples by manufacturer and lot number. The analysis of caulk was able to show a differentiation based on manufacturer, but no clear differentiation was shown by lot number. This differentiation may allow matching of evidence in the future. This will require many more analyses and the construction of a database made up of many different samples. The 4th chapter was a study of the capabilities of LA-ICP-MS for fast and precise analysis of particle ensembles for nuclear nonproliferation applications. Laser ablation has the ability to spatially resolve particle ensembles which may contain uranium or other actinides from other particles present in a sample. This is of importance in samples obtained from air on filter media. The particle ensembles of interest may be mixed in amongst dust and other particulates. A problem arises when ablating these particle ensembles directly from the filter media. Dust particles other than ones of interest may be accidentally entrained in the aerosol of the ablated particle

  3. Elemental analysis of coal by tandem laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Meirong; Oropeza, Dayana; Chirinos, José; González, Jhanis J.; Lu, Jidong; Mao, Xianglei; Russo, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    The capabilities and analytical benefits of combined LIBS and LA-ICP-MS were evaluated for the analysis of coal samples. The ablation system consisted of a Nd:YAG laser operated 213 nm. A Czerny-turner spectrograph with ICCD detector and time-of-flight based mass spectrometer were utilized for LIBS and ICP-MS detection, respectively. This tandem approach allows simultaneous determination of major and minor elements (C, Si, Ca, Al, Mg), and trace elements (V, Ba, Pb, U, etc.) in the coal samples. The research focused on calibration strategies, specifically the use of univariate and multivariate data analysis on analytical performance. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was shown to minimize and compensate for matrix effects in the emission and mass spectra improving quantitative analysis by LIBS and LA-ICP-MS, respectively. The correlation between measurements from these two techniques demonstrated that mass spectral data combined with LIBS emission measurements by PLSR improved the accuracy and precision for quantitative analysis of trace elements in coal. - Highlights: • Tandem LIBS LA-ICP-MS • Simultaneous determination of major and minor elements and trace elements in the coal samples. • Extended Dynamic Range • Correlation between LIBS with LA-ICP-MS demonstrated improved the accuracy and precision for quantitative analysis of coal

  4. Elemental analysis of coal by tandem laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Meirong [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Oropeza, Dayana [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Chirinos, José [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Escuela de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas 1041a (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); González, Jhanis J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lu, Jidong [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); Mao, Xianglei [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Russo, Richard E., E-mail: RERusso@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The capabilities and analytical benefits of combined LIBS and LA-ICP-MS were evaluated for the analysis of coal samples. The ablation system consisted of a Nd:YAG laser operated 213 nm. A Czerny-turner spectrograph with ICCD detector and time-of-flight based mass spectrometer were utilized for LIBS and ICP-MS detection, respectively. This tandem approach allows simultaneous determination of major and minor elements (C, Si, Ca, Al, Mg), and trace elements (V, Ba, Pb, U, etc.) in the coal samples. The research focused on calibration strategies, specifically the use of univariate and multivariate data analysis on analytical performance. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was shown to minimize and compensate for matrix effects in the emission and mass spectra improving quantitative analysis by LIBS and LA-ICP-MS, respectively. The correlation between measurements from these two techniques demonstrated that mass spectral data combined with LIBS emission measurements by PLSR improved the accuracy and precision for quantitative analysis of trace elements in coal. - Highlights: • Tandem LIBS LA-ICP-MS • Simultaneous determination of major and minor elements and trace elements in the coal samples. • Extended Dynamic Range • Correlation between LIBS with LA-ICP-MS demonstrated improved the accuracy and precision for quantitative analysis of coal.

  5. Elemental analysis of soils using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) with multivariate discrimination: tape mounting as an alternative to pellets for small forensic transfer specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzi, Sarah C; Almirall, José R

    2014-01-01

    Elemental analysis of soil is a useful application of both laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in geological, agricultural, environmental, archeological, planetary, and forensic sciences. In forensic science, the question to be answered is often whether soil specimens found on objects (e.g., shoes, tires, or tools) originated from the crime scene or other location of interest. Elemental analysis of the soil from the object and the locations of interest results in a characteristic elemental profile of each specimen, consisting of the amount of each element present. Because multiple elements are measured, multivariate statistics can be used to compare the elemental profiles in order to determine whether the specimen from the object is similar to one of the locations of interest. Previous work involved milling and pressing 0.5 g of soil into pellets before analysis using LA-ICP-MS and LIBS. However, forensic examiners prefer techniques that require smaller samples, are less time consuming, and are less destructive, allowing for future analysis by other techniques. An alternative sample introduction method was developed to meet these needs while still providing quantitative results suitable for multivariate comparisons. The tape-mounting method involved deposition of a thin layer of soil onto double-sided adhesive tape. A comparison of tape-mounting and pellet method performance is reported for both LA-ICP-MS and LIBS. Calibration standards and reference materials, prepared using the tape method, were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS and LIBS. As with the pellet method, linear calibration curves were achieved with the tape method, as well as good precision and low bias. Soil specimens from Miami-Dade County were prepared by both the pellet and tape methods and analyzed by LA-ICP-MS and LIBS. Principal components analysis and linear discriminant analysis were applied to the multivariate data

  6. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) Imaging of Cerebral Ischemia: Combined Analysis of Rat Brain Thin Cuts Toward Improved Tissue Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbekova, Anna; Lohninger, Hans; van Tilborg, Geralda A F; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Bonta, Maximilian; Limbeck, Andreas; Lendl, Bernhard; Al-Saad, Khalid A; Ali, Mohamed; Celikic, Minja; Ofner, Johannes

    2018-02-01

    Microspectroscopic techniques are widely used to complement histological studies. Due to recent developments in the field of chemical imaging, combined chemical analysis has become attractive. This technique facilitates a deepened analysis compared to single techniques or side-by-side analysis. In this study, rat brains harvested one week after induction of photothrombotic stroke were investigated. Adjacent thin cuts from rats' brains were imaged using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The LA-ICP-MS data were normalized using an internal standard (a thin gold layer). The acquired hyperspectral data cubes were fused and subjected to multivariate analysis. Brain regions affected by stroke as well as unaffected gray and white matter were identified and classified using a model based on either partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) or random decision forest (RDF) algorithms. The RDF algorithm demonstrated the best results for classification. Improved classification was observed in the case of fused data in comparison to individual data sets (either FT-IR or LA-ICP-MS). Variable importance analysis demonstrated that both molecular and elemental content contribute to the improved RDF classification. Univariate spectral analysis identified biochemical properties of the assigned tissue types. Classification of multisensor hyperspectral data sets using an RDF algorithm allows access to a novel and in-depth understanding of biochemical processes and solid chemical allocation of different brain regions.

  7. Elemental mapping in fossil tooth root section of Ursus arctos by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vašinová Galiová, M.; Nývltová Fišáková, Miriam; Kynický, J.; Prokeš, L.; Neff, H.; Mason, A. Z.; Gadas, P.; Košler, J.; Kanický, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 105, 15 February 2013 (2013), s. 235-243 ISSN 0039-9140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Diagenesis * Diet * Geochemical analysis * Laser ablation ICP-MS * Migration Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 3.511, year: 2013

  8. Bayesian Integration and Classification of Composition C-4 Plastic Explosives Based on Time-of-Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Christine M; Kelly, Ryan T; Alexander, Liz; Newburn, Matt; Bader, Sydney; Ewing, Robert G; Fahey, Albert J; Atkinson, David A; Beagley, Nathaniel

    2016-04-05

    Time-of-flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) were used for characterization and identification of unique signatures from a series of 18 Composition C-4 plastic explosives. The samples were obtained from various commercial and military sources around the country. Positive and negative ion TOF-SIMS data were acquired directly from the C-4 residue on Si surfaces, where the positive ion mass spectra obtained were consistent with the major composition of organic additives, and the negative ion mass spectra were more consistent with explosive content in the C-4 samples. Each series of mass spectra was subjected to partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), a multivariate statistical analysis approach which serves to first find the areas of maximum variance within different classes of C-4 and subsequently to classify unknown samples based on correlations between the unknown data set and the original data set (often referred to as a training data set). This method was able to successfully classify test samples of C-4, though with a limited degree of certainty. The classification accuracy of the method was further improved by integrating the positive and negative ion data using a Bayesian approach. The TOF-SIMS data was combined with a second analytical method, LA-ICPMS, which was used to analyze elemental signatures in the C-4. The integrated data were able to classify test samples with a high degree of certainty. Results indicate that this Bayesian integrated approach constitutes a robust classification method that should be employable even in dirty samples collected in the field.

  9. Using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to explore geochemical taphonomy of vertebrate fossils in the upper cretaceous two medicine and Judith River formations of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, R.R.; Fricke, H.C.; Addona, V.; Canavan, R.R.; Dwyer, C.N.; Harwood, C.L.; Koenig, A.E.; Murray, R.; Thole, J.T.; Williams, J.

    2010-01-01

    Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to determine rare earth element (REE) content of 76 fossil bones collected from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Two Medicine (TMF) and Judith River (JRF) Formations of Montana. REE content is distinctive at the formation scale, with TMF samples exhibiting generally higher overall REE content and greater variability in REE enrichment than JRF samples. Moreover, JRF bones exhibit relative enrichment in heavy REE, whereas TMF bones span heavy and light enrichment fields in roughly equal proportions. TMF bones are also characterized by more negative Ce anomalies and greater U enrichment than JRF bones, which is consistent with more oxidizing diagenetic conditions in the TMF. Bonebeds in both formations show general consistency in REE content, with no indication of spatial or temporal mixing within sites. Previous studies, however, suggest that the bonebeds in question are attritional assemblages that accumulated over considerable time spans. The absence of geochemical evidence for mixing is consistent with diagenesis transpiring in settings that remained chemically and hydrologically stable during recrystallization. Lithology-related patterns in REE content were also compared, and TMF bones recovered from fluvial sandstones show relative enrichment in heavy REE when compared with bones recovered from fine-grained floodplain deposits. In contrast, JRF bones, regardless of lithologic context (sandstone versus mudstone), exhibit similar patterns of REE uptake. This result is consistent with previous reconstructions that suggest that channel-hosted microfossil bonebeds of the JRF developed via the reworking of preexisting concentrations embedded in the interfluve. Geochemical data further indicate that reworked elements were potentially delivered to channels in a recrystallized condition, which is consistent with rapid adsorption of REE postmortem. Copyright ?? 2010, SEPM (Society for

  10. Application of a particle separation device to reduce inductively coupled plasma-enhanced elemental fractionation in laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillong, Marcel; Kuhn, Hans-Rudolf; Guenther, Detlef

    2003-01-01

    The particle size distribution of laser ablation aerosols are a function of the wavelength, the energy density and the pulse duration of the laser, as well as the sample matrix and the gas environment. Further the size of the particles affects the vaporization and ionization efficiency in the inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Some matrices produce large particles, which are not completely vaporized and ionized in the ICP. The previous work has shown that analytical results such as matrix-independent calibration, accuracy and precision can be significantly influenced by the particle sizes of the particles. To minimize the particle size related incomplete conversion of the sample to ions in the ICP a particle separation device was developed, which allows effective particle separation using centrifugal forces in a thin coiled tube. In this device, the particle cut-off size is varied by changing the number of turns in the coil, as well as by changing the gas flow and the tube diameter. The interaction of the laser with the different samples leads to varying particle size distributions. When carrying out quantitative analysis with non-matrix matched calibration reference materials, it was shown that different particle cut-off sizes were required depending on the ICP conditions and the instrument used for analysis. Various sample materials were investigated in this study to demonstrate the applicability of the device. For silicate matrices, the capability of the ICP to produce ions was significantly reduced for particles larger than 0.5 μm, and was dependent on the element monitored. To reduce memory effects caused by the separated particles, a washout procedure was developed, which additionally allowed the analysis of the trapped particles. These results clearly demonstrate the very important particle size dependent ICP-MS signal response and the potential of the described particle size based separator for the reduction of ICP induced elemental fractionation

  11. Development of routines for simultaneous in situ chemical composition and stable Si isotope ratio analysis by femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frick, Daniel A., E-mail: dfrick@gfz-potsdam.de [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Schuessler, Jan A. [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Blanckenburg, Friedhelm von [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Institute of Geological Science, Freie Universität Berlin, 12249 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-09-28

    Stable metal (e.g. Li, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mo) and metalloid (B, Si, Ge) isotope ratio systems have emerged as geochemical tracers to fingerprint distinct physicochemical reactions. These systems are relevant to many Earth Science questions. The benefit of in situ microscale analysis using laser ablation (LA) over bulk sample analysis is to use the spatial context of different phases in the solid sample to disclose the processes that govern their chemical and isotopic compositions. However, there is a lack of in situ analytical routines to obtain a samples' stable isotope ratio together with its chemical composition. Here, we evaluate two novel analytical routines for the simultaneous determination of the chemical and Si stable isotope composition (δ{sup 30}Si) on the micrometre scale in geological samples. In both routines, multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) is combined with femtosecond-LA, where stable isotope ratios are corrected for mass bias using standard-sample-bracketing with matrix-independent calibration. The first method is based on laser ablation split stream (LASS), where the laser aerosol is split and introduced simultaneously into both the MC-ICP-MS and a quadrupole ICP-MS. The second method is based on optical emission spectroscopy using direct observation of the MC-ICP-MS plasma (LA-MC-ICP-MS|OES). Both methods are evaluated using international geological reference materials. Accurate and precise Si isotope ratios were obtained with an uncertainty typically better than 0.23‰, 2SD, δ{sup 30}Si. With both methods major element concentrations (e.g., Na, Al, Si, Mg, Ca) can be simultaneously determined. However, LASS-ICP-MS is superior over LA-MC-ICP-MS|OES, which is limited by its lower sensitivity. Moreover, LASS-ICP-MS offers trace element analysis down to the μg g{sup −1}-range for more than 28 elements due to lower limits of detection, and with typical uncertainties better than 15%. For in situ

  12. Development of routines for simultaneous in situ chemical composition and stable Si isotope ratio analysis by femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frick, Daniel A.; Schuessler, Jan A.; Blanckenburg, Friedhelm von

    2016-01-01

    Stable metal (e.g. Li, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mo) and metalloid (B, Si, Ge) isotope ratio systems have emerged as geochemical tracers to fingerprint distinct physicochemical reactions. These systems are relevant to many Earth Science questions. The benefit of in situ microscale analysis using laser ablation (LA) over bulk sample analysis is to use the spatial context of different phases in the solid sample to disclose the processes that govern their chemical and isotopic compositions. However, there is a lack of in situ analytical routines to obtain a samples' stable isotope ratio together with its chemical composition. Here, we evaluate two novel analytical routines for the simultaneous determination of the chemical and Si stable isotope composition (δ 30 Si) on the micrometre scale in geological samples. In both routines, multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) is combined with femtosecond-LA, where stable isotope ratios are corrected for mass bias using standard-sample-bracketing with matrix-independent calibration. The first method is based on laser ablation split stream (LASS), where the laser aerosol is split and introduced simultaneously into both the MC-ICP-MS and a quadrupole ICP-MS. The second method is based on optical emission spectroscopy using direct observation of the MC-ICP-MS plasma (LA-MC-ICP-MS|OES). Both methods are evaluated using international geological reference materials. Accurate and precise Si isotope ratios were obtained with an uncertainty typically better than 0.23‰, 2SD, δ 30 Si. With both methods major element concentrations (e.g., Na, Al, Si, Mg, Ca) can be simultaneously determined. However, LASS-ICP-MS is superior over LA-MC-ICP-MS|OES, which is limited by its lower sensitivity. Moreover, LASS-ICP-MS offers trace element analysis down to the μg g −1 -range for more than 28 elements due to lower limits of detection, and with typical uncertainties better than 15%. For in situ

  13. Determination of major, minor and trace elements in rock samples by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: Progress in the utilization of borate glasses as targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Tacito Dantas F.; Escalfoni, Rainerio; Fonseca, Teresa Cristina O. da; Miekeley, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    The present work is a continuation of a research study performed at our laboratory aiming at the multielement analysis of rock samples (basalts and shale) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in combination with laser ablation using borate glasses as analytical targets. Argon, nitrogen-argon mixtures and helium were evaluated as cell gases, the latter confirming its better performance. Different operational parameters of the laser, such as gas flow, energy, focus, scanning speed and sampling frequency were optimized. External calibration was made with standards prepared by fusion of geological reference materials (basalts 688 and BCR-2, obsidian SRM 278, and shale SGR-1) of different mass fractions in the meta-tetra borate matrix. Coefficients of determination (R 2 ) were > 0.99 for 30 elements from o total of 40 determined. Method validation was then performed using additional certified reference materials (BHVO-2, BIR-1, SCo-1) produced as borate targets in a similar way. Accuracies were better than 10% for most of the elements studied and analytical precisions, calculated from the residual standard deviations of calibration curves were, typically, between 6% and 10%. Additionally, the semiquantitative TotalQuant (registered) technique was applied, which gave, within the expected uncertainty for this calibration technique, concordant results when compared to the quantitative external calibration procedure. Both methods were then used for the analysis of marine shale samples, which are of great geological interest in petroleum prospecting.

  14. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: Examinations of the origins of polyatomic ions and advances in the sampling of particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, Travis [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation provides a general introduction to Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation (LA) sampling, with an examination of analytical challenges in the employment of this technique. It discusses the origin of metal oxide ions (MO+) in LA-ICP-MS, as well as the effect of introducing helium and nitrogen to the aerosol gas flow on the formation of these polyatomic interferences. It extends the study of polyatomic ions in LA-ICP-MS to metal argide (MAr+) species, an additional source of possible significant interferences in the spectrum. It describes the application of fs-LA-ICP-MS to the determination of uranium isotope ratios in particulate samples.

  15. Development of a 2D laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry mapping procedure for mercury in maize (Zea mays L.) root cross-sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debeljak, Marta [Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Večna Pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Elteren, Johannes T. van, E-mail: elteren@ki.si [Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Večna Pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-07-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •LA-ICP-MS mapping to study the distribution of Hg in plant root cross-sections. •Sorption of LA-generated Hg vapour leads to serious memory effects. •Spot analysis with a delay time of 10 s in between spots alleviates memory effects. •Ablation straight through the sample simplifies calibration. •Hg{sup 2+} does not cross the endodermal root barrier of maize plants. -- Abstract: A LA-ICP-MS method based on a 213 nm Nd:YAG laser and a quadrupole ICP-MS has been developed for mapping of mercury in root cross-sections of maize (Zea mays L.) to investigate the mechanism of mercury uptake from soil and its potential translocation to the edible parts. Conventional rastering was found to be unusable due to sorption of mercury onto the internal parts of the LA device, giving rising to memory effects resulting in serious loss of resolution and inaccurate quantification. Spot analysis on a virtual grid on the surface of the root sections using washout times of 10 s in between spots greatly alleviated problems related to these memory effects. By ablating straight through the root sections on a poly(methyl methacrylate) support the calibration process was simplified as internal standardization and matrix-matching could be circumvented. Mercury-spiked freeze-drying embedding medium, sectioned similarly to the root sections, was used for the preparation of the standards. Standards and root sections were subjected to spot analysis using the following operational parameters: beam diameter, 15 μm; laser fluence, 2.5 J cm{sup −2}; repetition rate, 20 Hz; dwell time, 1 s; acquisition time, 0.1 s. The mercury peaks for standards and roots sections could be consistently integrated for quantification and construction of the 2D mercury maps for the root sections. This approach was successfully used to investigate the mercury distribution in root sections of maize grown in soil spiked to a level of 50 mg kg{sup −1} DW HgCl{sub 2}. It was

  16. Development of a 2D laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry mapping procedure for mercury in maize (Zea mays L.) root cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debeljak, Marta; Elteren, Johannes T. van; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •LA-ICP-MS mapping to study the distribution of Hg in plant root cross-sections. •Sorption of LA-generated Hg vapour leads to serious memory effects. •Spot analysis with a delay time of 10 s in between spots alleviates memory effects. •Ablation straight through the sample simplifies calibration. •Hg 2+ does not cross the endodermal root barrier of maize plants. -- Abstract: A LA-ICP-MS method based on a 213 nm Nd:YAG laser and a quadrupole ICP-MS has been developed for mapping of mercury in root cross-sections of maize (Zea mays L.) to investigate the mechanism of mercury uptake from soil and its potential translocation to the edible parts. Conventional rastering was found to be unusable due to sorption of mercury onto the internal parts of the LA device, giving rising to memory effects resulting in serious loss of resolution and inaccurate quantification. Spot analysis on a virtual grid on the surface of the root sections using washout times of 10 s in between spots greatly alleviated problems related to these memory effects. By ablating straight through the root sections on a poly(methyl methacrylate) support the calibration process was simplified as internal standardization and matrix-matching could be circumvented. Mercury-spiked freeze-drying embedding medium, sectioned similarly to the root sections, was used for the preparation of the standards. Standards and root sections were subjected to spot analysis using the following operational parameters: beam diameter, 15 μm; laser fluence, 2.5 J cm −2 ; repetition rate, 20 Hz; dwell time, 1 s; acquisition time, 0.1 s. The mercury peaks for standards and roots sections could be consistently integrated for quantification and construction of the 2D mercury maps for the root sections. This approach was successfully used to investigate the mercury distribution in root sections of maize grown in soil spiked to a level of 50 mg kg −1 DW HgCl 2 . It was found that at given

  17. Laser ablation - inductive coupled plasma - mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) geochemistry characterization of albitites associated to uranium in Lagoa da Rabicha deposit, Lagoa Real, BA (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Lucilia A. Ramos de; Rios, Francisco Javier; Amorim, Lucas Eustaquio Dias; Souza, Aurelio da Silva; Prates, Sonia Pinto; Yardley, Bruce; Matos, Evando Carele

    2009-01-01

    The LA-ICP-MS technique is a good tool for mineral geochemical characterization. The technique has high spatial resolution, elevated sensibility, low detection limits and multi-elementary analysis possibility. Almost all chemistry elements can be analyzed by this methodology. Briefly, this methodology consists in vaporize the sample by Laser Ablation, which is dragged by argon into the Plasma where are created and accelerated the ions. They are separated by their mass/charge ratio into the Mass Spectrometer, being conveyed to a detector that convert the signals in specters. In this work LA-ICP-MS analyses were performed in two albitites thin sections, a mineralized and a non mineralized sample. Both samples are from the Lagoa da Rabicha Deposit, Uranium Lagoa Real Province, BA. From these analysis it was possible to chemically characterize the minerals present in the samples and better understand the trace elements on them. The results for plagioclase in both samples show that it is albite (NaAlSi 3 O 8 ). The albite from sample 200907-20 shows traces of strontium, lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium and thorium in one crystal. The albite from sample 200907-23 has strontium with uranium, yttrium and lead in smaller quantities. The results obtained in this work are very important and contribute to a better understanding of the uranium origin in Lagoa Real deposits. (author)

  18. 2D elemental mapping of sections of human kidney stones using laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: Possibilities and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vašinová Galiová, Michaela [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Central European Institute of Technology (CEITEC), Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Čopjaková, Renata; Škoda, Radek [Department of Geological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Štěpánková, Kateřina; Vaňková, Michaela [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Kuta, Jan [Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Prokeš, Lubomír [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Kynický, Jindřich [Department of Pedology and Geology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); and others

    2014-10-01

    A 213 nm Nd:YAG-based laser ablation (LA) system coupled to quadrupole-based inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and an ArF* excimer-based LA-system coupled to a double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer were employed to study the spatial distribution of various elements in kidney stones (uroliths). Sections of the surfaces of uroliths were ablated according to line patterns to investigate the elemental profiles for the different urolith growth zones. This exploratory study was mainly focused on the distinguishing of the main constituents of urinary calculus fragments by means of LA-ICP-mass spectrometry. Changes in the ablation rate for oxalate and phosphate phases related to matrix density and hardness are discussed. Elemental association was investigated on the basis of 2D mapping. The possibility of using NIST SRM 1486 Bone Meal as an external standard for calibration was tested. It is shown that LA-ICP-MS is helpful for determination of the mineralogical composition and size of all phases within the analyzed surface area, for tracing down elemental associations and for documenting the elemental content of urinary stones. LA-ICP-MS results (elemental contents and maps) are compared to those obtained with electron microprobe analysis and solution analysis ICP-MS. - Highlights: • Elements in phosphate and oxalate urolith phases were quantified by LA-ICP-MS. • SRM NIST 1486 Bone Meal was proved suitable for quantification in uroliths. • Different ablation rates in particular phases were included at quantification. • Oxalate and apatite phases show opposite hardness order to natural minerals. • Uroliths were classified according to elemental association to phases.

  19. A novel quantification strategy of transferrin and albumin in human serum by species-unspecific isotope dilution laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Liuxing, E-mail: fenglx@nim.ac.cn; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Jun; Shen, Dairui; Li, Hongmei

    2015-07-16

    Highlights: • Species-unspecific ID-PAGE-LA-ICP-MS was used to quantify Alb and Tf in human serum. • Addition methods of species-unspecific {sup 34}S spike were evaluated. • Isotope change conditions were investigated to reach satisfactory “isotope equilibration”. • Human serum CRM (ERM-DA470k/IFCC) was used to validate the new arrangements. • The developed method offers potential for accurate quantification of protein by ID-PAGE-LA-ICP-MS. - Abstract: Species-specific (SS) isotope dilution analysis with gel electrophoresis (GE)-laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS is a promising technique for the quantification of particular metal-binding proteins in biological samples. However, unavailable isotopically enriched spike and metal losses in GE separation are main limitations for SS-isotope dilution PAGE-LA-ICP-MS. In this study, we report for the first time the absolute quantification of transferrin (Tf) and albumin (Alb) in human serum by non-denaturing (native) GE combined with species-unspecific isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). In order to achieve a homogeneous distribution of both protein and isotope-enriched spike (simulated isotope equilibration), immersing the protein strips with {sup 34}S spike solution after gel electrophoresis was demonstrated to be an effective way of spike addition. Furthermore, effects of immersion time and {sup 34}S spike concentration were investigated to obtain optimal conditions of the post-electrophoresis isotope dilution method. The relative mass of spike and ablated sample (m{sub sp}/m{sub sam}) in IDMS equation was calculated by standard Tf and Alb proteins, which could be applied to the quantification of Tf and Alb in ERM-DA470k/IFCC for method confirmation. The results were in agreement with the certified value with good precision and small uncertainty (1.5–3%). In this method, species-specific spike protein is not necessary and the integrity of the heteroatom-protein could be maintained in sample preparation

  20. A novel quantification strategy of transferrin and albumin in human serum by species-unspecific isotope dilution laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Liuxing; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Jun; Shen, Dairui; Li, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Species-unspecific ID-PAGE-LA-ICP-MS was used to quantify Alb and Tf in human serum. • Addition methods of species-unspecific 34 S spike were evaluated. • Isotope change conditions were investigated to reach satisfactory “isotope equilibration”. • Human serum CRM (ERM-DA470k/IFCC) was used to validate the new arrangements. • The developed method offers potential for accurate quantification of protein by ID-PAGE-LA-ICP-MS. - Abstract: Species-specific (SS) isotope dilution analysis with gel electrophoresis (GE)-laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS is a promising technique for the quantification of particular metal-binding proteins in biological samples. However, unavailable isotopically enriched spike and metal losses in GE separation are main limitations for SS-isotope dilution PAGE-LA-ICP-MS. In this study, we report for the first time the absolute quantification of transferrin (Tf) and albumin (Alb) in human serum by non-denaturing (native) GE combined with species-unspecific isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). In order to achieve a homogeneous distribution of both protein and isotope-enriched spike (simulated isotope equilibration), immersing the protein strips with 34 S spike solution after gel electrophoresis was demonstrated to be an effective way of spike addition. Furthermore, effects of immersion time and 34 S spike concentration were investigated to obtain optimal conditions of the post-electrophoresis isotope dilution method. The relative mass of spike and ablated sample (m sp /m sam ) in IDMS equation was calculated by standard Tf and Alb proteins, which could be applied to the quantification of Tf and Alb in ERM-DA470k/IFCC for method confirmation. The results were in agreement with the certified value with good precision and small uncertainty (1.5–3%). In this method, species-specific spike protein is not necessary and the integrity of the heteroatom-protein could be maintained in sample preparation process. Moreover, the

  1. Th, U and trace elements determination in Egyiptian Lake sediments by INAA and laser fluorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, S.S.; Grass, F.; Ghods, A.

    1995-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine element concentrations in Aswan High Dam Lake sediments. Sediment samples were collected from 40 to 500 km upstream of the dam to follow the sedimentation process and the distribution of Th, U and the trace elements in the lake. INAA was applied for the determination of Sm, Ce, Lu, Th, Cr, Yb, Au, Hf, Ba, Nd, Cs, Tb, Sc, Rb, Fe, Zn, Co, Eu, and Sb, while Laser Fluorimetry was applied for U determination. The accuracy and the reproducibility of the techniques were tested with IAEA standard materials (SL, Soil-7). The U values ranged from 4 ppm to 18 ppm, Th values were between 2 and 10 ppm, and showed a very good correlation with the rare earth elements and Fe. The distribution of most of the elements in the lake follows the same trend as the distribution of the clays in the sediments. Ba showed a negative correlation with most of the elements under investigation. (author) 5 refs.; 4 figs.; 7 tabs

  2. Can laser-ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry be a promising alternative to laser ablation/inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and glow discharge mass spectrometry for the elemental analysis of solids?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sysoev, AA; Sysoev, AA

    2002-01-01

    At the beginning of the age of laser-ionisation mass spectrometry (LIMS) increasing numbers of publications were observed. However, later the method began to run into obstacles associated with poor reproducibility of analysis and large variations in elemental sensitivities so that the wide interest

  3. Visualizing elemental deposition patterns on carbonaceous anodes from lithium ion batteries: A laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry study on factors influencing the deposition of lithium, nickel, manganese and cobalt after dissolution and migration from the Li1[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 and LiMn1.5 Ni0.5O4 cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieters, Timo; Evertz, Marco; Fengler, Alexander; Börner, Markus; Dagger, Tim; Stenzel, Yannick; Harte, Patrick; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2018-03-01

    In this study, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is applied to previously aged carbonaceous anodes from lithium ion batteries (LIBs). These electrodes are treated by cyclic aging in a lithium ion cell set-up against Li1[Ni1/3Mn 1/3Co1/3]O2 = NMC111 to elucidate factors that influence transition metal dissolution (TMD) of the cathode and subsequent deposition on the anode. The investigations are carried out by qualitatively visualizing the 7Li and TM patterns (60Ni, 55Mn and 59Co) of whole coin and pouch-bag electrodes. The lithium, as well as the TM amount, found on the anode, is directly correlated to the applied upper cut-off voltage (4.6, 4.7, 4.8 and 4.9 V) showing more deposition of Li and TMs at elevated voltages. While 7Li shows a more homogeneous pattern, the TM distribution is inhomogeneous but showing a similar pattern for all TMs of the same sample. An unequal pressure distribution, resulting in a nonparallel electrode alignment, on the electrode stack is identified to be responsible for the inhomogeneous TM deposition pattern. This uneven electrode orientation results in different diffusion pathways for the TM migration with regard to the spatial distances.

  4. INAA - application and limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydorn, K.

    1990-01-01

    The uncertainties associated with performing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) are discussed in relation to their category. The Comite International de Poids et Mesure (CIPM) distinguishes between uncertainties according to how their contribution to the overall uncertainty is evaluated. INAA is a potentially definitive method, if all sources of uncertainty can be accounted for. The limitation of the method is reached when uncertainties, which cannot be accounted for, assume significance, and the method cannot be brought in statistical control. (orig.)

  5. Trace analysis of irradiated steel samples from hiroshima by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helal, A.I.; Zahran, N.F.

    2000-01-01

    A double focusing (JEOL, PLASMAX2) and quadrupole (ELAN6000, Perkin Elmer) mass spectrometers were used for the quantitative analysis of trace elements in steel samples from Hiroshima. The quantification of the analytical results was carried out using steel 468 as a standard reference material. The relative sensitivity coefficients (RSC's) for most of the elements varied between 0.12 and 2.93. The effect of iron as a matrix and the non-spectroscopic interferences are studied. Comparison of the results obtained on two steel samples from Hiroshima with that obtained on steel 468 standard reference materials demonstrated that there is no significant difference between them. Therefore, it is possible to say that the irradiated steel samples from Hiroshima have nearly the same specifications of trace element content as those of the normal steel samples

  6. Quantification of elemental mapping of heterogeneous geological sample by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaculovič, T.; Breiter, Karel; Korbelová, Zuzana; Venclová, Natalie; Tomková, Kateřina; Jonášová, Šárka; Kanický, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 133, JUL 2017 (2017), s. 200-207 ISSN 0026-265X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-13600S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67985912 Keywords : LA-ICP-MS * induced breakdown spectroscopy * atomic emission spectrometry * in-situ analysis * trace-metals Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation; AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology (ARU-G) OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry; Archaeology (ARU-G) Impact factor: 3.034, year: 2016

  7. Phase and composition changes of titanite during laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fliegel, D.; Klementová, Mariana; Kosler, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 10 (2010), s. 4272-4277 ISSN 0003-2700 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : LA- ICP -MS * elemental fractionation Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.874, year: 2010

  8. Multielemental analysis of prehistoric animal teeth by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galiová, M.; Kaiser, J.; Fortes, J. F.; Novotný, K.; Malina, R.; Prokeš, L.; Hrdlička, A.; Vaculovič, T.; Nývltová Fišáková, Miriam; Svoboda, Jiří; Kanický, V.; Laserna, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 13 (2010), C191-C199 ISSN 0003-6935 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB800010701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : bear * multieelemental analysis * LIBS * LA-ICP-MS Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 1.703, year: 2010

  9. Arsenic in hair by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.

    1993-01-01

    In the fall of 1990, Blanche Kiser Moore was tried in the state of North Carolina for the murder, by arsenic poisoning, of a former boyfriend of hers (RCR), found guilty of first-degree murder by the jury, and sentenced to death. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), with gamma-ray spectrometry, was carried out on sectioned hair samples from six possible poisoning victims of hers, by the authors, and the results presented at the trial by VPG. Details of the sample preparations, the numerical results obtained, and their interpretation are presented. Also presented are difficulties involved involved in such analysis, and discussion of the fast-neutron interferences caused by Se and Br. (author) 6 refs.; 6 figs

  10. Comparison of relative INAA and k0-INAA using soil and sediment reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacimovic, R.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare the results obtained by the relative INAA and k 0 -INAA methods for the same input parameters (sample mass, nuclear data, net peak area for the same gamma line and the same measurement and same cooling and measurement times). In total eight environmental soil and sediment reference materials (RM) or certified reference materials (CRM) from different producers were analysed. In this work only the recommended or certified values were considered, allowing comparison of the two methods for 30 elements. The results point out that k 0 -INAA possesses superior qualities compared to relative INAA, being insensitive to flux gradients, and independent of recommended/certified values in RMs/CRMs, often used as standards in relative INAA. (author)

  11. Data Management and Acquisition System for INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donald J. Ondov; John M. Ondov

    1998-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) remains a powerful technique for multielemental trace analysis. In atmospheric aerosol studies, we typically determine 40 elements, including markers of natural and anthropogenic sources, heavy metals, and toxic or nutrient trace elements in aerosol samples. The need for size spectral, spatial, and temporal information requires that hundreds of samples be collected and accurately analyzed. Quality assurance is a primary component of the analytical protocol. The quality of INAA data depends on counting statistics--accurate preparation of standards, positioning of samples above the detector, resolution of interferences, and correction for coincidence effects when counting close to the detector--and on reliable operation of the amplifier and analog-to-digital converters. Furthermore, the analysis of such large numbers of samples by INAA is a complicated endeavor, involving a large number of tasks that, if not recorded or completed properly, can compromise the analysis. To reduce the possibility of operator error in keeping track of a complex array of information and to speed the detection of instrumental faults, we have developed a new analysis protocol and automated sample analysis and management (SAM) software system. The SAM system is a relational database application designed to log data associated with the collection of atmospheric aerosol and associated samples collected with a variety of instruments, assist in choosing samples for analysis by a variety of techniques, schedule irradiation and counting for INAA, interface with the ORTEC Gamma Vision (GV) software, capture the analytical data, calculate elemental masses from activities provided by GV, and prepare first-tier data summaries and manipulations. All the sample and flux monitor counts are initiated through SAM

  12. INAA of aerosol samples in Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, T.; Lartigue, J.; Navarrete, M.; Cabrera, L.; Riveroll, M.

    2000-01-01

    Total solid particles (TSP), respirable particles (RP) PM10 and 17 metallic pollutants were measured in dwellings in the Metropolitan Zone of Mexico Valley (MZMV) by gravimetry and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Monitoring was performed in Northeast, Center, Southeast and Southwest Zones in the winter and spring seasons. In general, the average concentration of contaminants (derived from industrial activities) that we have determined have increased with time. TSP and RP PM10 are often above the US and Mexican norms. (author)

  13. INAA of RM IAEA-155 whey powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Lixin; Tian Weizhi

    1993-01-01

    An IAEA biological RM IAEA-155 whey powder was analysed for phosphorus, as well as other 24 elements by INAA. The Bremsstrahlung photons produced by 32 P is measured by a HpGe spectrometer. The interferences involved in P determination were comprehensively studied and this method was also applied to the determinations of P in several established biological NBS SRMs and proved to be reliable for a wide range of P contents in biological samples

  14. Overview of INAA method and its application in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavar, A.R.; Sarmani, S.B.; Khalafi, H.; Abdul Khalik Wood; Khoo, K.S.

    2011-01-01

    Present work shows the development of nuclear technology in Malaysia and highlights its applications that have been developed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method. In addition, present study exhibits a comprehensive review of INAA for calculation of neutron flux parameters and concentration of elements. The INAA is a powerful method to analyse the sample which identifies qualitative and quantitative of elements present in a sample. The INAA is a working instrument with advantages of experimental simplicity, high accuracy, excellent flexibility with respect to irradiation and counting conditions, and suitability for computerization. In INAA, sample is irradiated and measured directly. In practical, INAA is based on an absolute, relative and single-comparator standardisation method.The INAA has been developed since 1982 when the TRIGA Mark II reactor of Malaysia has commissioned. The absolute method was less utilised, the relative method has been used since 1982, and the k 0 -INAA method is derived from single-comparator standardization method has been developed since 1996 in Malaysian. The relative method, because of its advantages, such as high accuracy, easy for using, has the most application in Malaysia. Currently, local Universities and Malaysian Nuclear Agency (MNA) research reactor use INAA method in Malaysia. (Author)

  15. Overview of INAA Method and Its Application in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavar, A.R.; Sarmani, S.B.; Khalafi, H.; Wood, A.K.; Khoo, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Present work shows the development of nuclear technology in Malaysia and highlights its applications that have been developed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method. In addition, present study exhibits a comprehensive review of INAA for calculation of neutron flux parameters and concentration of elements. The INAA is a powerful method to analyse the sample which identifies qualitative and quantitative of elements present in a sample. The INAA is a working instrument with advantages of experimental simplicity, high accuracy, excellent flexibility with respect to irradiation and counting conditions, and suitability for computerization. In INAA, sample is irradiated and measured directly. In practical, INAA is based on an absolute, relative and single-comparator standardisation method. The INAA has been developed since 1982 when the TRIGA MARK II reactor of Malaysia has commissioned. The absolute method was less utilised, the relative method has been used since 1982, and the k_0-INAA method is derived from single-comparator standardization method has been developed since 1996 in Malaysia. The relative method, because of its advantages, such as high accuracy, easy for using, has the most application in Malaysia. Currently, local Universities and Malaysian Nuclear Agency (MNA) research reactor use INAA method in Malaysia. (author)

  16. INAA and flame AAS of various vegetable reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djingova, R.; Arpadjan, S.; Kuleff, I.

    1991-01-01

    INAA and flame AAS have been used for the analysis of a large number of vegetable reference materials. Out of all determined elements (28 by INAA and 11 by AAS) nine are common for both methods (Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Zn) and for these the possibilities of the two methods have been compared. (orig.)

  17. Analysis of Mexican cigarettes by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, T.; Lartigue, J.; Navarrete, M.; Morales, O.Y.; Aguilar, F.; Cuapio, L.A.; Lopez, C.

    2008-01-01

    Due to large consumption of tobacco in Mexico and in order to complement previous work performed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence, the present study has determined 15 elements by INAA in 9 cigarettes brands being marketed in Mexico. As a part of a Quality Control Program, NIST standard reference materials (SRM) and an IAEA reference material were analyzed to confirm the accuracy and reproducibility. Average of As and Cd were 0.56 and 1.15 μg x g -1 , respectively, in the range of those of foreign brands. (author)

  18. Development of INAA automation at CARR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yonggang; Xiao Caijin; Hua Long; Jin Xiangchun; Wang Xinghua; Li Jue; Cao Lei; Wang Pingsheng; Ni Bangfa

    2016-01-01

    A new INAA (instrumental neutron activation analysis) automatic measurement system has been established at China advanced research reactor. Three HPGe spectrometers can be working simultaneously at 24 h a day. The sample rabbit contains an RFID (radio frequency identification) tag which is used for identifying and/or tracing the sample route or location. The automation system controlled by software Kingview6.55 and programmable logic controller is mainly composed of four parts, sample counting system, sample driving system, samples holder and sample exchanger. (author)

  19. Analysis of submicrogram samples by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstrom, D J [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, TX (USA). Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center

    1990-12-20

    Procedure have been developed to increase the sensitivity of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) so that cosmic-dust samples weighing only 10{sup -9}-10{sup -7} g are routinely analyzed for a sizable number of elements. The primary differences from standard techniques are: (1) irradiation of the samples is much more intense, (2) gamma ray assay of the samples is done using long counting times and large Ge detectors that are operated in an excellent low-background facility, (3) specially prepared glass standards are used, (4) samples are too small to be weighed routinely and concentrations must be obtained indirectly, (5) sample handling is much more difficult, and contamination of small samples with normally insignificant amounts of contaminants is difficult to prevent. In spite of the difficulties, INAA analyses have been done on 15 cosmic-dust particles and a large number of other stratospheric particles. Two-sigma detection limits for some elements are in the range of femtograms (10{sup -15} g), e.g. Co=11, Sc=0.9, Sm=0.2 A particle weighing just 0.2 ng was analyzed, obtaining abundances with relative analytical uncertainties of less than 10% for four elements (Fe, Co, Ni and Sc), which were sufficient to allow identification of the particle as chondritic interplanetary dust. Larger samples allow abundances of twenty or more elements to be obtained. (orig.).

  20. Application of laser ablation-ICP-MS to determine high-resolution elemental profiles across the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary at Agost (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sosa-Montes de Oca, Claudia; de Lange, Gert J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073930962; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisca; Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco J.

    2018-01-01

    A high-resolution analysis of the distribution of major and trace elements across a Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary (KPgB) was done using Laser Ablation-Inductivity Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and was compared with traditional distinct sampling and analysis. At the Agost site (SE

  1. INAA of polyacrylic hydrogels of pharmaceutical grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponta, C.; Salagean, M.; Pantelica, A.; Georgescu, I.I.

    1998-01-01

    Polyacrylic acid (PA) and its salts are promising biomaterials used in the pharmaceutical industry. They could be used as pharmaceutical additives, as a burn dressing and also in the slow released implants or trans-derma patch formulations. Polyacrylic acid of pharmaceutical grade can be obtained by gamma irradiation polymerization. The influence of the raw materials and of the technological procedure on the final product purity has been investigated by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) method. The following materials have been analyzed by INAA: 1) acrylic acid of technical grade; 2) acrylic acid purified by double crystallisation; 3) NaOH of analytical grade; 4) CaCl-2·6H 2 O of pharmaceutical grade; 5) CaCl 2 ·2H 2 O of analytical grade; 6) granulated PANa; 7) ungranulated PANa; 8) ungranulated PANaCa; 9) PANaCa granulated by milling in IFIN-HH using the mill nr. 1; 10) PANaCa granulated by milling in Institute of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research (ICPR); 11) PANaCa granulated by milling in IFIN-HH using the mill nr. 2. The first five samples, marked from 1 to 5, are raw materials and the other six samples, marked from 6 to 11, are the final polyacrylic structures processed by various technological procedures. The samples together with the appropriate reference materials have been irradiated at WWR-S reactor in a neutron flux of 2.5·10 12 cm -2 s -1 and the induced radioactivity was registered by a HPGe detector (EG/G ORTEC) of 30% efficiency and 2.1 keV resolution. The concentrations of As, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Fe, La, Sb, Sc, Zn have been determined. For the final polyacrylic structures, except for granulated PANa (sample 6), only the elements Co, Cr, Fe, Sc, Zn were found at the following concentration levels: tens of ppm (Co), ppm (Zn), hundreds of ppb (Cr), tens of ppb (Co), ppb (Co, Sc), 10 -1 ppb (Sc). In the granulated PANa, in comparison with the other analyzed final products, similar concentration values were found for Fe, Sc and Zn

  2. Trace and essential elements determination in baby formulas milk by INAA and k0-INAA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lylia Hamidatou; Hocine Slamene; Tarik Akhal; Alaa Boulegane

    2014-01-01

    As a part of the food analysis program executed at Es-Salam research reactor by neutron activation analysis laboratory, the concentration of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Fe, K, La, Rb and Zn in baby formulas milk have been determined by using INAA and k 0 -NAA techniques. It was found that the concentration of all elements obtained by both techniques was relatively identical for the three brands of the 0-6 and 6-12 months of analyzed samples. In addition, the analytical results have been compared with those given by producers. (author)

  3. Classification of archaeologically stratified pumice by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltz, C.; Bichler, M.

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of the research program 'Synchronization of Civilization in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in the 2nd Millenium B.C.' instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine 30 elements in pumice from archaeological excavations to reveal their specific volcanic origin. The widespread pumiceous products of several eruptions in the Aegean region were used as abrasive tools and were therefore popular trade objects. A remarkable quantity of pumice and pumiceous tephra (several km 3 ) was produced by the 'Minoan eruption' of Thera (Santorini), which is assumed to have happened between 1450 and 1650 B.C. Thus the discovery of the primary fallout of 'Minoan' tephra in archaeologically stratified locations can be used as a relative time mark. Additionally, pumice lumps used as abrasive can serve for dating by first appearance. Essential to an identification of the primary volcanic source is the knowledge that pumices from the Aegean region can easily be distinguished by their trace element distribution patterns, as previous work has shown. The elements Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined in 16 samples of pumice lumps from excavations in Tell-el-Dab'a and Tell-el-Herr (Egypt). Two irradiation cycles and five measurement runs were applied. A reliable identification of the samples is achieved by comparing these results to the database compiled in previous studies. (author)

  4. TEM investigations of laser ablated particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliegel, D.; Dundas, S.; Kosler, J.; Klementova, M.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry suffers from fractionation effects hindering a non matrix matched calibration strategy. Different reasons for elemental fractionation that are related to the laser ablation, the transport and the vaporization in the plasma are discussed. One major question to be addressed linked to the vaporization yield in the ICP is in which of mineralogical phase the different ablated particle sizes enter the plasma. This contribution will investigate particles generated by a 213 nm laser from different samples such as minerals and alloys with respect to their chemical and phase compositions using high resolution TEM. (author)

  5. The reflection of INAA results to the environmental administration in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wee Boon Siong; Abdul Khalik Hj. Wood

    2007-01-01

    The use of INAA in environmental studies in Malaysia has been very encouraging with many projects funded by the government agencies. Thus, the INAA technique could provide useful results and eventually appeal to the environmental administration in Malaysia. The aim of this report is to provide information regarding the environmental administration in Malaysia and to discuss the prospect of INAA in environmental research. (author)

  6. Lanthanide Elements as Labels in Multiplexed Analysis of Proteins and MicroRNAs by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bang, Thomas Christian

    Analytical methods for targeted and multiplexed analysis of proteins and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) are important tools for investigating how environmental stimuli affect biological entities at the molecular level. Specific analyses of proteins and nucleic acids can be achieved on the basis...

  7. INAA using 252Cf neutron source at University of Pune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajurkar, N.S.

    2006-01-01

    The review presents the work done over last two decades on Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) by our research group at University of Pune using 252 Cf spontaneous fission neutron source. The technique has been applied in different fields viz. numismatics, industry, agriculture, ayurveda, environmental and health sciences and diffusion studies. A brief discussion of the work is presented in this article. (author)

  8. Discriminative study of white porcelains by INAA and PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.Q.; Feng, S.L.; Meng, F.F.; Wang, H.M.; Liu, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    The fine white porcelains of Xing Kiln, Ding Kiln and Jingxing Kiln are very similar or alike in many aspects, such as typology of the vessel, texture of the body, colors of the body and the glaze. It is difficult for the archaeologists to distinguish the provenance using traditional methods. Nuclear analytical techniques (INAA, PIXE, XRF, SRXRF) have been widely employed for the provenance study of cultural relics in recent years due to their unique advantage, i.e. capable of nondestructive analysis. The element contents in the body and glaze of white porcelain shards with known provenance were determined by INAA and PIXE. In the meanwhile blind samples were prepared and analyzed in the same way. The differences of the element abundance patterns were processed by multivariate statistical analysis. On the basis of the analytical data and the statistical results, the discriminating criteria for provenance identification are obtained and verified by the blind samples.

  9. Determination of trace elements in KRISS biological CRMs by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kyung Haeng; Park, Kwang Won; Zeisler, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    Two biological Certified Reference Materials (CRMs), KRISS 108-04-001 (oyster tissue) and 108-05-001 (water dropwort stem), were prepared by Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS) during FY '01. The certified values of these materials had been determined by Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) for six elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn). Additional analytical works are now progressing to certify the concentrations of a number of the environmental and nutrimental elements in these CRMs. The certified values in a CRM are usually determined by using a single primary method with confirmation by other method(s) or using two independent critically-evaluated methods. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) plays an important role in determination of certified values. INAA procedure was used in determination of 20 elements in these two biological CRMs to acquire the concentration information and the results were compared with KRISS certified values

  10. INAA Application for Trace Element Determination in Biological Reference Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmodjo, D. P. D.; Kurniawati, S.; Lestiani, D. D.; Adventini, N.

    2017-06-01

    Trace element determination in biological samples is often used in the study of health and toxicology. Determination change to its essentiality and toxicity of trace element require an accurate determination method, which implies that a good Quality Control (QC) procedure should be performed. In this study, QC for trace element determination in biological samples was applied by analyzing the Standard Reference Material (SRM) Bovine muscle 8414 NIST using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Three selected trace element such as Fe, Zn, and Se were determined. Accuracy of the elements showed as %recovery and precision as %coefficient of variance (%CV). The result showed that %recovery of Fe, Zn, and Se were in the range between 99.4-107%, 92.7-103%, and 91.9-112%, respectively, whereas %CV were 2.92, 3.70, and 5.37%, respectively. These results showed that INAA method is precise and accurate for trace element determination in biological matrices.

  11. Trace element impurity determination in aspirin tablets by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, E.K.; Saiki, M.

    2009-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to assess trace element concentrations in six samples of aspirin tablets acquired in Sao Paulo city, Brazil. Concentrations of the elements Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, K, La, Na, Sc and Zn were determined. Comparisons were made between the results obtained with published data for aspirins from foreign countries. Certified reference materials, INCT-MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs were analyzed for quality control of the analytical results. (author)

  12. Sampling study in milk storage tanks by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, L.G.C.; Nadai Fernandes de, E.A.; Bacchi, M.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the representativeness of samples for assessing chemical elements in milk bulk tanks. Milk samples were collected from a closed tank in a dairy plant and from an open top tank in a dairy farm. Samples were analyzed for chemical elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). For both experiments, Br, Ca, Cs, K, Na, Rb and Zn did not present significant differences between samples thereby indicating the appropriateness of the sampling procedure adopted to evaluate the analytes of interest. (author)

  13. K0-INAA method accuracy using Zn as comparator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedregal, P.; Mendoza, P.; Ubillus, M.; Montoya, E.

    2010-01-01

    An evaluation of the accuracy in the application of the k 0 -INAA method using Zn foil as comparator is presented. A good agreement was found in the precision within analysts and between them, as well as in the assessment of trueness for most elements. The determination of important experimental parameters like gamma peak counting efficiency, γ-γ true coincidence, comparator preparation and quality assurance/quality control is also described and discussed.

  14. Practical procedure for method validation in INAA- A tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroni, Robson; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: robsonpetroni@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the procedure employed by the Neutron Activation Laboratory at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (LAN, IPEN - CNEN/SP) for validation of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) methods. According to recommendations of ISO/IEC 17025 the method performance characteristics (limit of detection, limit of quantification, trueness, repeatability, intermediate precision, reproducibility, selectivity, linearity and uncertainties budget) were outline in an easy, fast and convenient way. The paper presents step by step how to calculate the required method performance characteristics in a process of method validation, what are the procedures, adopted strategies and acceptance criteria for the results, that is, how to make a method validation in INAA. In order to exemplify the methodology applied, obtained results for the method validation of mass fraction determination of Co, Cr, Fe, Rb, Se and Zn in biological matrix samples, using an internal reference material of mussel tissue were presented. It was concluded that the methodology applied for validation of INAA methods is suitable, meeting all the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025, and thereby, generating satisfactory results for the studies carried at LAN, IPEN - CNEN/SP. (author)

  15. Practical procedure for method validation in INAA- A tutorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroni, Robson; Moreira, Edson G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the procedure employed by the Neutron Activation Laboratory at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (LAN, IPEN - CNEN/SP) for validation of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) methods. According to recommendations of ISO/IEC 17025 the method performance characteristics (limit of detection, limit of quantification, trueness, repeatability, intermediate precision, reproducibility, selectivity, linearity and uncertainties budget) were outline in an easy, fast and convenient way. The paper presents step by step how to calculate the required method performance characteristics in a process of method validation, what are the procedures, adopted strategies and acceptance criteria for the results, that is, how to make a method validation in INAA. In order to exemplify the methodology applied, obtained results for the method validation of mass fraction determination of Co, Cr, Fe, Rb, Se and Zn in biological matrix samples, using an internal reference material of mussel tissue were presented. It was concluded that the methodology applied for validation of INAA methods is suitable, meeting all the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025, and thereby, generating satisfactory results for the studies carried at LAN, IPEN - CNEN/SP. (author)

  16. Multielemental analysis of Korean geological reference samples by INAA, ICP-AES and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naoki Shirai; Hiroki Takahashi; Yuta Yokozuka; Mitsuru Ebihara; Meiramkhan Toktaganov; Shun Sekimoto

    2015-01-01

    Six Korean geological reference samples (KB-1, KGB-1, KT-1, KD-1, KG-1 and KG-2) prepared by Korea Institutes of Geoscience and Mineral Resources were analyzed by using INAA, ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Some elements could be determined by both INAA and non-INAA methods (ICP-AES and ICP-MS), and these data are consistent with each other. This study confirms that a combination of ICP-AES and ICP-MS is comparable to INAA in determining a wide range of major, minor and trace elements in geological materials. (author)

  17. Grain-size effects on PIXE and INAA analysis of IAEA-336 lichen reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, A.P.; Freitas, M.C.; Wolterbeek, H.Th.; Verburg, T.G.; Goeij, J.J.M. de

    2007-01-01

    IAEA-336 lichen certified reference material was used to compare outcomes from INAA and PIXE elemental analyses, in relationship with grain size. The IAEA material (grain size <125 μm) was ground and sieved through nylon nets with 64 μm, 41 μm and 20 μm pores. Particle sizes were determined by Laser Light Scattering technique: the data indicate that, after sieving, the IAEA-336 lichen reference material's particle size distribution follows a bimodal distribution, which is turning more and more monomodal after further fine sieving. Replicates of each fraction were analysed by INAA and PIXE. Results for Cl, K, Mn, Fe and Zn by both techniques were compared by application of z-values tested against the criterion vertical bar z vertical bar < 3 for approval of results at the 99.7% confidence level. Under the conditions of this study, the limited amount of lichen material as 'seen' in the PIXE analysis and the grain size distribution in the lichen material were no causes of measurable differences between the results of both techniques. However, fractionation into smaller grain sizes showed to be associated with lower element content, for Na, Cl, K, Mn and Sr even up to a factor of 2. The observed increases of the proportion of algae in the smaller grain-size fractions and the possible accumulation capacity for certain elements in the fungal part of the lichen may explain the observed phenomenon. The sieving process and consequently the discarding of part of the material have lead to a change of the properties of the original sample, namely algae/fungus percentage and elemental contents

  18. Comparisons of PGA and INAA in the analyses of meteorite samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wee Boon Siong; Ebihara, M.; Abdul Khalik Wood

    2010-01-01

    Prompt gamma-ray analysis (PGA) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) are suitable methods for multi-elemental determinations in various samples. These two methods are complementary because PGA is capable of analyzing most major and minor elements in rock samples whereas INAA is more superior in determining minor and trace elements. Both PGA and INAA are essential for the study of rare samples such as meteorites because of non-destructivity and relatively being free from contaminations. Samples for PGA can be reused for INAA, which help to reduce the sample usage. This project aims to utilize PGA and INAA techniques for comparative study and apply them to meteorites. In this study, 11 meteorite samples received from the Meteorite Working Group of NASA were analyzed. The Allende meteorite powder was included as quality control material. Results from PGA and INAA for Allende showed good agreement with literature values, signifying the reliabilities of these two methods. Elements Al, Ca, Mg, Mn, Na and Ti were determined by both methods and their results are compared. Comparison of PGA and INAA data using linear regression analysis showed correlations coefficients r 2 > 0.90 for Al, Ca, Mn and Ti, 0.85 for Mg, and 0.38 for Na. The PGA results for Na using 472 keV were less accurate due to the interference from the broad B peak. Therefore, Na results from INAA method are preferred. For other elements (Al, Ca, Mg, Mn and Ti), PGA and INAA results can be used as cross-reference for consistency. The PGA and INAA techniques have been applied to meteorite samples and results are comparable to literature values compiled from previously analyzed meteorites. In summary, both PGA and INAA methods give reasonably good agreement and are indispensable in the study of meteorites. (author)

  19. Analytical data of geologic obsidians from Japan by INAA using middle- and long-lived nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the results of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) on 3,704 obsidian samples, taking the measurements of 23 elements. The results are summarized, combining the results of INAA conducted earlier by AMBIRU et al. on 1,444 samples. The samples for these analyses are taken from seventy obsidian sources located at various places of Japan. (author)

  20. Investigation of trace elements in Guangxi ancient pottery by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Zicheng; Sun Weidong; Huang Yunlan

    1997-01-01

    Guangxi Zhuang Nationality Autonomous Region is an original place for manufacture of ancient pottery in China since Zenpiyan site, dated 9240-10370 years ago, was excavated. Contents of trace elements La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, U, Th, Sc, Ta, Ba, Cs, Rb, Sr and Zr in 44 pottery shards from Guangxi sites, dated from 1450 B.C. to 200 A.D., were determined by INAA and XRF. The provenances of the 44 samples are postulated by the analyses of geochemical parameters

  1. INAA of cortical and trabecular bone samples from animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, M.K.; Saiki, M.

    2004-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to determine Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Sr and Zn in bovine and porcine rib bones. Precise results were obtained in analyses of freeze-dried cortical and trabecular bones separately, and also of whole bone ashes. Cortical tissues presented higher concentrations of Ba, Ca, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Sr and Zn than those obtained in trabecular ones. Comparisons were also made between the results obtained for bovine and porcine rib bones. (author)

  2. Multi-element determination of soil solution by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Qinfang; Wu Shuiqing; Tian Jibing

    1992-01-01

    One of the factors influencing crop growth is the effective elemental contents, especially trace elements, under the circumstances of the same concentrations of N, P and K in soil. In order to obtain the data of effective elemental contents in soil, a novel method was introduced. In this method, soil solution was extracted by a squeezer. The concentrations of elements in soil solution were determined by INAA. Study on the compositions and the contents of elements in soil solution will provide information on making a suitable soil environment for plant growth and on rational and economical manuring

  3. INAA analysis for Jun porcelaim and modern Chinese Jun porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Xiuqin; Dong Jinquan; Han Song; Tang Yunhui

    2004-01-01

    A total of 28 old Jun porcelain, seven modern Chinese Jun porcelain and two Jingdezhen porcelain samples are analyzed with INAA method. The systematic geochemical study for these 37 samples on their REE and trace elements shows that these three types of china were made with relatively stable and similar material, although they leaptover 600 years in different colors and from different kilns. However, the REE patterns of modern Chinese Jun porcelain are a little bit different from that of old Jun porcelain, and clear different from the old glaze of Jindezheng. (authors)

  4. INAA and petrological study of sandstones from the Angkor monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Kranda, K.; Soukal, L.; Novak, J.K.; Lang, M.; Poncar, J.; Krausova, I.; Cunin, O.

    2008-01-01

    We determined 35 major, minor and trace elements in sandstone samples taken from building blocks of 19 Angkor temples and from an old and a new quarry using INAA. We also characterized the sandstone samples with conventional microscopy and electron microprobe analysis. Using cluster analysis, we found no straightforward correlation between the chemical/petrological properties of the sandstones and a presumed period of individual temples construction. The poor correlation may result either from the inherent inhomogeneity of sandstone or just reflect the diversity of quarries that supplied building blocks for the construction of any particular temple. (author)

  5. Algal Biomass Analysis by Laser-Based Analytical Techniques—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Pořízka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Algal biomass that is represented mainly by commercially grown algal strains has recently found many potential applications in various fields of interest. Its utilization has been found advantageous in the fields of bioremediation, biofuel production and the food industry. This paper reviews recent developments in the analysis of algal biomass with the main focus on the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and partly Laser-Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma techniques. The advantages of the selected laser-based analytical techniques are revealed and their fields of use are discussed in detail.

  6. Algal Biomass Analysis by Laser-Based Analytical Techniques—A Review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pořízka, P.; Procházková, P.; Procházka, D.; Sládková, L.; Novotný, J.; Petrilak, M.; Brada, M.; Samek, Ota; Pilát, Zdeněk; Zemánek, Pavel; Adam, V.; Kizek, R.; Novotný, K.; Kaiser, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, 23 SEP (2014), s. 17725-17752 ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA ČR GAP205/11/1687 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy * LIBS * Laser-Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma coupled with Mass Spectroscopy and Optical Emission Spectroscopy * LA-ICP-MS * LA-ICP-OES * ICP-OES * Raman spectroscopy * algae * algal biomass * biofuel * bioremediation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.245, year: 2014

  7. Characterization of edible clay (multani mitti) using INAA (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Fiaz, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Multani Mitti is basically clay commonly used in cosmetics, medicines. It is also used for cleansing of body and hair and eating specially women (pregnant and lactating) and children. 16 Essential major, minor and trace elements (Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Se Sr, Ti, V and Zn) have been determined in Multani Mitti (MM) clay using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique were studied in collected clay samples from Rakhi Gaj located 40 Km from D. G. Khan, Pakistan. These samples were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to detect the elemental hazard assessment. Radioassay schemes for three sets of elements after neutron irradiation and cooling were evolved to avoid matrix effects. The composition of MM clay shows major elements in descending order as Fe > K > Mg > Na > Mn > Zn > V > Rb > Cr >Ba followed by minor elements as Sr >Co > Cs with trace levels of Se. Data have been compared with clays available in literature globally. Intakes of essential elements were calculated for pregnant, lactating women and children. Intakes were found comparable to WHO levels except Fe and Cr. Risk assessment was measured using mathematical model. The quality assurance of data was performed using Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) of a similar matrix (IAEA Lake sediment SL-1 and IAEA Soil S-7). (author)

  8. Lithium and trace-element concentrations in trioctahedral micas from granites of different geochemical types measured via laser ablation ICP-MS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Breiter, Karel; Vaňková, M.; Vašinová Galiová, M.; Korbelová, Zuzana; Kanický, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 1 (2017), s. 15-33 ISSN 0026-461X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-13600S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : trioctahedral micas * Li-mica * rare-metal granite * Bohemian Massif * laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.285, year: 2016

  9. Laser ablation ICPMS study of trace element chemistry in molybdenite coupled with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) - An important tool for identification of different types of mineralization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pašava, J.; Svojtka, Martin; Veselovský, F.; Ďurišová, Jana; Ackerman, Lukáš; Pour, O.; Drábek, M.; Halodová, P.; Haluzová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2016), s. 874-895 ISSN 0169-1368 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15390S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : molybdenite * trace-element geochemistry * Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Mass * spectrometry * scanning electron microscopy * nano- to micro-inclusions * Bohemian Massif * Uzbekistan Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.095, year: 2016

  10. Comparison between INAA and ICP-OES: analysis of Sudanese medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikhaldin, Elsadig Abdelmoniem

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to provide elemental concentrations in medicinal plants and mainly to compare the two different determination methods (INAA and ICP-OES after wet digestion) elemental analysis of 14 Sudanese medicinal plants was carried out using INAA and ICP-OES techniques. The selection of reported elements was done according to intersection of elements determined by both techniques. This intersecting element list contained Ca, K, Fe, Mn, Mg, Sr, Zn, Cu, Co, and Cr. INAA correlated well with ICP-OES measurements of the same plants as long as concentrations were sufficiently above LoQ. Correlation coefficients (R 2 ) in this case is close to 1. Generally, INAA results tended to be higher compared to ICP-OES. The performance and possible source of errors of both techniques was discussed also with respect to measurements of certified reference materials. INAA provided the advantage of having both, faster and non destructive sample preparation than ICP-OES. Therefore, INAA may be technique of choice for Ca, K, Zn, and Mg elements specifically when samples are needed for further investigations. Regarding the low concentrations e.g for Cr, Ni or Cu, ICP-OES is the superior technique over INAA due to the sufficiently low limits of determination and thus gaining more detectable results at low concentrations. (author)

  11. Quantification of total aluminium concentrations in food samples at trace levels by INAA and PIGE methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, Braja B.; Acharya, R.

    2017-01-01

    Total aluminium contents in various food samples were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) methods. A total of 16 rice samples, collected from the field, were analyzed by INAA using reactor neutrons from Dhruva reactor. Whereas a total 17 spices collected from market, were analyzed by both INAA and PIGE methods in conjunction with high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Aluminium concentration values were found to be in the range of 19-845 mg kg -1 for spices and 15-104 mg kg -1 for rice samples. The methods were validated by analyzing standard reference materials (SRMs) form NIST. (author)

  12. Elemental analysis of hair using PIXE-tomography and INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, D.; Gomez-Morilla, I.; Spyrou, N.

    2008-01-01

    3D quantitative elemental maps of a section of a strand of hair were produced using a combination of PIXE-Tomography and simultaneous On/Off Axis STIM-Tomography at the University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre. The distributions of S, K, Cl, Ca, Fe and Zn were determined using the PIXE-T reconstruction package DISRA. The results were compared with conventional bulk PIXE analysis of tomographic data as determined using Dan32. The overall concentrations determined by PIXE were compared with elemental concentrations held in the University of Surrey Hair Database. All the entries currently in the database were produced using INAA. The merits and possible contributions of tomographic PIXE analysis to analysis of hair are discussed. The conclusions drawn from the PIXE-Tomography analysis can be used to argue for more stringent procedures for hair analysis at the University of Surrey. (author)

  13. Analytical Methods INAA and PIXE Applied to Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter in Bandung, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Lestiani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem. The objectives of this study are to apply the nuclear analytical techniques to airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung, to assess the accuracy and to ensure the reliable of analytical results through the comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA and particles induced X-ray emission (PIXE. Particle samples in the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 ranges have been collected in Bandung twice a week for 24 hours using a Gent stacked filter unit. The result showed that generally there was a systematic difference between INAA and PIXE results, which the values obtained by PIXE were lower than values determined by INAA. INAA is generally more sensitive and reliable than PIXE for Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Fe, Br and I, therefore INAA data are preffered, while PIXE usually gives better precision than INAA for Mg, K, Ca, Ti and Zn. Nevertheless, both techniques provide reliable results and complement to each other. INAA is still a prospective method, while PIXE with the special capabilities is a promising tool that could contribute and complement the lack of NAA in determination of lead, sulphur and silicon. The combination of INAA and PIXE can advantageously be used in air pollution studies to extend the number of important elements measured as key elements in source apportionment.

  14. Application of INAA in analysis of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Cheng; Songlin Feng; Rongwu Li

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the applications of INAA in analysis of Chinese ancient porcelain fired from early Northern Song dynasty (AD 1004-1127) to Late Yuan dynasty (AD 1320-1368) in Hutian Kiln. Minor and trace elements of 168 pieces of ancient porcelain bodies were determined by INAA. The results of factor analysis and some archaeological questions are also discussed in this paper. (author)

  15. Analytical Methods INAA and PIXE Applied to Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter in Bandung, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestiani, D.D.; Santoso, M.

    2011-01-01

    Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem. The objectives of this study are to apply the nuclear analytical techniques to airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung, to assess the accuracy and to ensure the reliable of analytical results through the comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and particles induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Particle samples in the PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 ranges have been collected in Bandung twice a week for 24 hours using a Gent stacked filter unit. The result showed that generally there was a systematic difference between INAA and PIXE results, which the values obtained by PIXE were lower than values determined by INAA. INAA is generally more sensitive and reliable than PIXE for Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Fe, Br and I, therefore INAA data are preferred, while PIXE usually gives better precision than INAA for Mg, K, Ca, Ti and Zn. Nevertheless, both techniques provide reliable results and complement to each other. INAA is still a prospective method, while PIXE with the special capabilities is a promising tool that could contribute and complement the lack of NAA in determination of lead, sulphur and silicon. The combination of INAA and PIXE can advantageously be used in air pollution studies to extend the number of important elements measured as key elements in source apportionment. (author)

  16. Elemental analysis of Taiwanese areca nut and limes with INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Y.Y.; Chung, C.

    1997-01-01

    The popular areca nuts were sampled and their stuffed white and red lime were collected simultaneously from four marketplaces in Taiwan in different growing seasons. Samples of areca nut were treated via homogenizer prior to freeze drying, about 100-150 mg each of the areca nut and lime were packed into PE bag. Samples were irradiated with neutron flux about 10 12 n x cm -2 x s -1 . A total of 17, 18, and 13 elements was analyzed with INAA for white lime, red lime, and areca nut, respectively. The results indicated that Ca have the highest concentration in both limes. Most elements in collected samples have wide range of concentrations among different seasons and marketplaces. It is suggested that the elemental concentration of areca nut and limes exists in divergence originated from various farms in Taiwan. In addition, four elements of Ca, Fe, Mg, and Sc are probably overtaken by persons having chewing habit of areca nut and their effects on oral cancer are discussed. (author)

  17. INAA of Aegaean pumices for the classification of archaeological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltz, C.; Schmid, P.; Bichler, M.

    1999-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine 29 elements in pumice from several volcanic sources (Milos, Nisyros, Yali, Kos and Thera) in the Aegean Sea, Greece, to establish a data basis for the identification of pumice and tephra layers found in archaeological context. The widespread products of the 'Minoan Eruption' of the Thera volcano can now be distinguished clearly from all other sources and will be used to establish a datumline in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in the second millenium B.C. The elements Al, As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb and Zr were determined in 14 samples from Milos, 25 samples from Nisyros, 7 samples from Kos and 17 samples from Thera. Two cycles of irradiation and four measurement runs were applied. The results were compared and suitable groups, typical for each island, were classified. Due to insufficiently comparable data sets, the criteria for distinguishing the different sources have not been revealed by previous studies. This basic knowledge was used to relate pumice from excavations in Tell-el-Dab'a (Egypt) and Bronze Age Knossos to their specific volcanic origin. (author)

  18. Development of a software for INAA analysis automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahn, Guilherme S.; Genezini, Frederico A.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Ticianelli, Regina B.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a software to automate the post-counting tasks in comparative INAA has been developed that aims to become more flexible than the available options, integrating itself with some of the routines currently in use in the IPEN Activation Analysis Laboratory and allowing the user to choose between a fully-automatic analysis or an Excel-oriented one. The software makes use of the Genie 2000 data importing and analysis routines and stores each 'energy-counts-uncertainty' table as a separate ASCII file that can be used later on if required by the analyst. Moreover, it generates an Excel-compatible CSV (comma separated values) file with only the relevant results from the analyses for each sample or comparator, as well as the results of the concentration calculations and the results obtained with four different statistical tools (unweighted average, weighted average, normalized residuals and Rajeval technique), allowing the analyst to double-check the results. Finally, a 'summary' CSV file is also produced, with the final concentration results obtained for each element in each sample. (author)

  19. INAA for interelement correlations in rats after mercuric chloride exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandon, L.; Kasarskis, E.J.; Ehmann, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    Motor neurons in rat spinal cord have been shown to have a selective affinity for Hg in a study by Moeller-Madsen and Dansher (1986). In a related animal model study the authors have exposed seventeen rats to mercuric chloride through drinking water continuously for eight months. A control group of rats was given regular water. Rat brain, spinal cord, and kidney were irradiated with thermal neutrons for determination of Hg and 16 other elements by INAA. As expected, Hg was increased in all tissues from treated rats. Cs was significantly elevated in spinal cord of Hg-dosed rats. Kidney had a significant decrease in As, Co, and K with a significant increase in Br and Se in Hg-dosed rats. These results in rats are contrasted with data (Khare, et al., 1990) from patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to determine if the elemental imbalances in this neurodegenerative disease are primary alterations, or merely secondary effects related to Hg levels

  20. INAA: environmental studies in Minas Gerais State - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veado, Maria Adelaide R.V.; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de; Arantes, Irene Albernaz; Cabaleiro, Henrique L.; Almeida, Marcus Ronan M.G.; Severo, Maria Izabel

    2005-01-01

    Intense mining activities in Minas Gerais State - Brazil bring out tons of waste to the environment. Considerable concentrations of toxic elements penetrate the soil, ground waters and rivers. This endangers the environment quality not only in the surrounding areas but also occurs in ichthyofauna and in more distant areas of cattle raising and agricultural activities. After seasonal floods, veterinary clinic studies have shown that most animals raised in this region are affected by symptomatologic a nervous disease, still not clearly diagnosed, that suggests intoxication. These pathologies are mostly noted after floods. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and was applied to determine several elements in environmental samples. The irradiation characteristics are chosen to determine the isotopes in the best conditions. In this work the INAA, was applied using the TRIGA Mark I IPR - R1 (CDTN/CNEN).. The obtained results show that the contaminated water, sediment and forage with heavy metals and toxic elements from the Das Velhas River upstream basin, the mining region, carry contamination to the ichthyofauna and farming region within a distance of approximately 400 km. (author)

  1. Determination of tantalum in standard steels by INAA and absorption spectrophotometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obrusnik, I; Posta, S [Ustav Jaderneho Vyzkumu, Rez (Czechoslovakia)

    1978-02-14

    Two analytical methods, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and absorption spectrophotometry with malachite green, have been used for the determination of tantalum in standard steels produced by the Research Institute of CKD Prague - steels No. 167 and No. 169 with expected concentrations of Ta 0.01% and 0.03%, respectively. INAA method consisted of irradiation of steel samples (chips) in a nuclear reactor and Ge(Li) ..gamma..-ray spectrometry after a cooling period of one month. A spectrophotometric determination is based on the extraction of ionic associate of TaF/sub 6//sup -/ with malachite green into Oenzene from a solution of diluted sulphuric acid and hydrofluoric acid. The results obtained by the two methods are in a good agreement. However, INAA method is more sensitive and precise then spectrophotometry for the determination of tantalum in steels in the above-mentioned concentration ranges.

  2. Determination of tantalum in standard steels by INAA and absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrusnik, I.; Posta, S.

    1978-01-01

    Two analytical methods, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and absorption spectrophotometry with malachite green, have been used for the determination of tantalum in standard steels produced by the Research Institute of CKD Prague - steels No. 167 and No. 169 with expected concentrations of Ta 0.01% and 0.03%, respectively. INAA method consisted of irradiation of steel samples (chips) in a nuclear reactor and Ge(Li) γ-ray spectrometry after a cooling period of one month. A spectrophotometric determination is based on the extraction of ionic associate of TaF 6 - with malachite green into Oenzene from a solution of diluted sulphuric acid and hydrofluoric acid. The results obtained by the two methods are in a good agreement. However, INAA method is more sensitive and precise then spectrophotometry for the determination of tantalum in steels in the above-mentioned concentration ranges. (author)

  3. From scientific research towards scientific service by INAA: Experiences and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, P.

    2001-01-01

    An evaluation has been made at the laboratory for INAA in Delft of the type of analytical protocols requested for by scientific and commercial customers. Examples are given of the differences in requests from industrial research and university research and the consequences for the analysis protocol to be selected. On the basis of experience with the users and clients and customer satisfaction evaluation results, a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis has been made. This analysis makes clear that many of the frequently mentioned 'advantages' of INAA do not excite the clients. One of the typical weaknesses of the technique results from lack of automation, indispensable for effective and economic operations. This may hamper small INAA groups to become interesting for large-scale and/or parallel requests, to become competitive and self-sustainable. Suggestions are given how the weaknesses and threats may be circumvented and how the strong points and opportunities may be successfully exploited. (author)

  4. Determination of Impurities in Aluminum Alloy by INAA Single Comparator Method (K0-Standardization Method)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarheel, A.; Khamis, I.; Somel, N.

    2007-01-01

    Multielement determination by the k0 based INAA using k0-IAEA program has been performed at Syrian Atomic Energy Commission using alloys. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe, Ni, Sn and Ti in addition to aluminum element were determined in an aluminum alloy and Ni, Cr, Mo were determined in dental alloys using INAA k0-standardization method. Al-0.1%Au, Ni and Zn certified reference materials were analyzed to assess the suitability and accuracy of the method. Elements were determined in reference materials and samples after short and long irradiations, according to element half-lives.

  5. Contamination of crop vegetation with trace elements from a fertilizer plant. An INAA study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelica, A.; Oprea, C.; Frontasyeva, M.; Georgescu, I.I.; Pincovschi, E.; Catana, L.

    2004-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine various trace elements in crop vegetation (potato, carrot and maize) grown around a phosphate fertilizer plant in Romania. INAA using long-lived radionuclides was applied at NIPNE in Bucharest, and based on short-lived radionuclides at JINR in Dubna. The results for Na, Mg, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, As, and Hg were compared with Romanian norms for the alimentary products, as well as with literature data. Concentration ratios to control samples for both soil and crop as well as concentration factors of crop to host soil were assessed. (author)

  6. Determination of trace elements in cockle Anadara Granosa L. using INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Noorddin

    1994-01-01

    This study determines the trace metal content in Anadara Granosa L., a popular seafood amongst South-East-Asians. Using the technique of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) identification has been made of the presence of 17 trace metals including elements which are classified as toxic (As, Br, Cs) and those which are rare-earths (Eu, Ce, Lu, Tb, Yb). (author)

  7. Synthesis of Precision for the Certification of Phosphorus in Biological Materials by INAA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, E.; Heydorn, K.

    1987-01-01

    The β-emitter32P was used to determine total phosphorus by INAA in Skim Milk Powder RM 63, a material now certified by the EEC Bureau of Reference (BCR). Samples and comparator were irradiated in the Danish reactor DR 3. One month later the samples were dissolved in water and aliquots counted...

  8. Use of INAA for investigation of emission of elements in combustion of Polish lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janczyszyn, J.; Loska, L.; Pohorecki, W.; Wagner, M.

    2002-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied for the determination of trace elements content in samples of Polish lignite and its ash. Pairs of results, for lignite and ash, and respective ash contents were used for calculation of the percentage of element remaining in ash after the lignite combustion. (author)

  9. Simultaneous multielement determination of chewing and snuff tobaccos used in India by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, U.C.; Shaikh, G.N.

    1986-01-01

    Trace elements present in Indian cigarette tobacco and cigarette smoke were reported earlier. This paper presents trace element concentrations in chewing and snuff tobaccos determined by INAA. The levels of Br, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Zn, etc., present in different brands of chewing and snuff tobaccos are compared in two types of tobacco as well as with similar data from other countires. (author)

  10. The provenance study of Chinese ancient architectonical colored glaze by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lin; Feng Songlin; Li Rongwu; Lue Zhirong; Li Guoxia

    2008-01-01

    The colored glazes are very popular and famous in Chinese ancient architectures. In order to exactly locate the provenance of ancient architectonical colored glazes, 196 pieces of ancient colored glaze bodies and porcelain bodies fired in Xiyue Temple and Lidipo kiln are analyzed by INAA. The results of factor analysis and some archaeological questions are reported and discussed in this paper

  11. The provenance study of Chinese ancient architectonical colored glaze by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Lin [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)], E-mail: chenglin@bnu.edu.cn; Feng Songlin [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Rongwu [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100049 (China); Lue Zhirong [Shan' xi Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Xi' an 710054 (China); Li Guoxia [Institute of Physical Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2008-12-15

    The colored glazes are very popular and famous in Chinese ancient architectures. In order to exactly locate the provenance of ancient architectonical colored glazes, 196 pieces of ancient colored glaze bodies and porcelain bodies fired in Xiyue Temple and Lidipo kiln are analyzed by INAA. The results of factor analysis and some archaeological questions are reported and discussed in this paper.

  12. Bayesian Integration and Characterization of Composition C-4 Plastic Explosives Based on Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Christine M.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Alexander, M. L.; Newburn, Matthew K.; Bader, Sydney P.; Ewing, Robert G.; Fahey, Albert J.; Atkinson, David A.; Beagley, Nathaniel

    2016-02-25

    Key elements regarding the use of non-radioactive ionization sources will be presented as related to explosives detection by mass spectrometry and ion mobility spectrometry. Various non-radioactive ionization sources will be discussed along with associated ionization mechanisms pertaining to specific sample types.

  13. Laser ablation ICP-mass spectrometry determination of Th230 in soils at the Gunnison, Colorado UMTRA site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.S.; Braymen, S.; McIntosh, R.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes an innovative technology, laser ablation-inductively couple plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), operated in a mobile laboratory, to rapidly detect thorium 230 activity levels in soil samples. This technology was demonstrated on-site during November 1993 at the Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA project site in support of their remediation effort. The LA-ICP-MS sampling and analysis technique was chosen because of the capability for rapid analysis, approximately three samples per hour, with minimal sample preparation

  14. Investigate the capability of INAA absolute method to determine the concentrations of 238U and 232Th in rock samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alnour, I.A.

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed to study the capability of INAA absolute method in determining the elemental concentration of 238 U and 232 Th in the rock samples. The INAA absolute method was implemented in PUSPATI TRIGA Mark II research reactor, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NM). The accuracy of INAA absolute method was performed by analyzing the IAEA certified reference material (CRM) Soil-7. The analytical results showed the deviations between experimental and certified values were mostly less than 10 % with Z-score in most cases less than 1. In general, the results of analysed CRM Soil-7 show a good agreement between certified and experimental results which mean that the INAA absolute method can be used accurately for elemental analysis of uranium and thorium in various types of samples. The concentration of 238 U and 232 Th ranged from 1.77 to 24.25 and 0.88 to 95.50 ppm respectively. The highest value of 238 U and 232 Th was recorded for granite rock sample G17 of 238 U and sample G9 of 232 Th, whereas the lower value was 1.77 ppm of 238 U recorded in sandstone rock and 0.88 ppm of 232 Th for gabbro. Moreover, a comparison of the 238 U and 232 Th results obtained by the INAA absolute method shows an acceptable level of consistency with those obtained by the INAA relative method. (author)

  15. INAA and PIXE for the determination of the contents of extractable sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, M.C.; Hipolito, C.S.

    2007-01-01

    The three-stage BCR sequential step reference extraction procedure was applied to the reference material BCR CRM 601, especially developed for fractionation studies. Extracted fractions were analyzed for Cr, Ni, Zn, Cd, and Pb, by k 0 -standardized instrumental neutron activation (k 0 INAA) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE), and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Sample preparation procedures were developed for both k 0 INAA and PIXE techniques, related to the evaporation of the solutions in order to get solid samples for neutron and proton irradiation. Quality control was assessed by intercomparison of the analytical results obtained by the applied techniques, which included results for a few certified reference materials. In the extracted fractions, chromium concentration was not determined accurately by both nuclear techniques. Concerning Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn, the results were in general in good agreement with the certified values and FAAS. Some incomplete separation of the residue might have occurred. (author)

  16. INAA and ETAAS of toxic element content of fruits harvested and consumed in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Siddique, N.; Rahman, A.; Zaidi, J.H.; Ahmad, S.

    2004-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and electro-thermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) were employed to determine the toxic elements in fourteen fruits harvested in Pakistan. As, Br, Hg, Sb and Se were determined using INAA. Cadmium and Pb were determined using ETAAS. The intake levels of all toxic elements have been calculated. The data show that dates supply the maximum amount of most of the toxic elements. Peels of apple and pear have also been investigated and were found to contain higher concentration of toxic elements than their edible parts. The reliability of the techniques has been established by the use of standard reference materials. This study shows that all investigated fruits cultivated and consumed in Pakistan are safe for human consumption. (author)

  17. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of some clayey rocks of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janczyszyn, J.; Domanska, G.; Wyszomirski, P.

    1988-01-01

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied for determination of minor and trace element contents in some Polish clayey rocks. Lower Silesian kaolins from Wyszonowice near Strzelin and from Wadroze Wielkie near Legnica as well as allite from Kaplonosy (Lublin Coal Basin) were investigated. The contents of 26 elements were determined, including rare earth metals (Sc, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu), actinides (U, Th), alkali metals (Na, K, Rb, Cs) and gold. INAA studies allowed to determine the variability of minor and trace element contents in the weathering profile in 2,5/K borehole in Wyszonowice and in size fractions separated from kaolin of Wadroze Wielkie. When using this method, the effectiveness of chemical and thermal extraction of these elements from allite of Kaplonosy was checked, too. (author)

  18. INAA of CAIs from the Maralinga CK4 chondrite: Effects of parent body thermal metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Keller, L. P.; Martinez, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    Maralinga is an anomalous CK4 carbonaceous chondrite which contains numerous Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAI's) unlike the other members of the CK group. These CAI's are characterized by abundant green hercynitic spinel intergrown with plagioclase and high-Ca clinopyroxene, and a total lack of melilite. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used to further characterize the meteorite, with special focus on the CAI's. High sensitivity INAA was done on eight sample disks about 100-150 microns in diameter obtained from a normal 30 micron thin section with a diamond microcoring device. The CAI's are enriched by 60-70X bulk meteorite values in Zn, suggesting that the substantial exchange of Fe for Mg that made the spinel in the CAI's hercynitic also allowed efficient scavenging of Zn from the rest of the meteorite during parent body thermal metamorphism. Less mobile elements appear to have maintained their initial heterogeneity.

  19. The application of INAA in a study of environment geochemistry on the Xizang (Tibet) Plateau, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junliang Tian; Puling Liu; Yaqi Li

    1993-01-01

    INAA as a routine analysis method has been used in a study of environment geochemistry on the Xizang (Tibet) Plateau in China, and 34 elements in soil samples were determined by INAA with both short and long irradiations. Some primary results from the study, including mean element concentrations in Tibetian soil, patterns of element distribution in soils developed from main types of parent materials on the plateau are described. The results confirm the expectation that soil formed in such cold and dry environment on the the plateau retained the main geochemical characteristics of the parent materials. However, the results still imply the possible migration of some elements in different bio-climatic environments during the soil formation. The elements in the top soils, mainly the alkalis and alkaline earths, and also As, Br, etc., were enriched or depleted in varying degrees in proportion to their abundance in the parent materials. (author) 9 refs.; 4 tabs

  20. Determination of trace and toxic elements in Koran rice CRM by INAA, ICP and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Sam Chung; Young Ju Chung; Kyung Haeng Cho; Joung Hae Lee

    1997-01-01

    Trace and toxic elements in Certified Reference Material (CRM) made of Korean rice at the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science have been analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Data intercomparison from the measurement with those of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Induced Coupled Plasma Spectrometry (ICPS) has been studied. The powdered samples were sterilized at 1.5 x 10 6 rad in the bottles using a 60 Co source after sieving and spiking to specific elements such as As, Cd, Cr, Cu and Hg and then the homogeneity of samples was assessed. Rice flour (SRM 1568a) and standard solutions made by the National Institute of Standards Technology (NIST) were used to construct the calibration curves for the INAA and the chemical methods, respectively. The uncertainties and concentration of constituent elements were determined and the possibility of their use for analytical quality control was considered. (author)

  1. Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Milonni, Peter W

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive introduction to the operating principles and applications of lasers. Explains basic principles, including the necessary elements of classical and quantum physics. Provides concise discussions of various laser types including gas, solid state, semiconductor, and free electron lasers, as well as of laser resonators, diffraction, optical coherence, and many applications including holography, phase conjugation, wave mixing, and nonlinear optics. Incorporates many intuitive explanations and practical examples. Discussions are self-contained in a consistent notation and in a style that should appeal to physicists, chemists, optical scientists and engineers.

  2. Study on provenance of ancient pottery excavated from Huating Ruins, Xinyi County by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Anwu; Wang Changsui; Chi Jinqi; Satoshi Koshimizu; Kazai Manabu; Kushihara Koichi

    1997-01-01

    The ancient pottery excavated from Huating Ruins, Xinyi Country, Jiangsu Province, was measured and studied by INAA. The data were manipulated by multivariate statistic analysis, such as cluster and factor analysis. It has been shown that the specimens can be divided into two groups, which are related to Liangzhu Culture area and Dawenkou Culture area respectively. The result seems to support the viewpoint that the pottery specimens of Liangzhu Culture from Huating Ruins belong to war trophies

  3. Distinguish of Famous Jun Porcelain in Ancient and Present Age by INAA and BP Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoxia; Liang Xianhua; Zhao Weijuan; Sun Hongwei; Guo Min; Xie Jianzhong; Gao Zhengyao; Cui Pengfei; Yang Dawei; Li rongwu; Zhao Qingyun; Sun Xinmin; Zhao Wenjun; Feng Songlin

    2010-01-01

    Forty samples of Jun porcelain from an ancient Juntai kiln and 3 modern Jun kilns (Kongjia, Miaojia and Xinghang) were selected and analyzed for 25 elements by INAA.The data were trained and forecasted by BP neural network. The results indicate that the network can distinguish unknown body and glaze samples of the official Jun porcelain and the modern top-grade Jun porcelain after proper training. (authors)

  4. Salvinia auriculata: Aquatic bioindicator studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Soares, Daniel Cristian; Figueiredo de Oliveira, Ester [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), Avenida Antonio Carlos, 6627 Pampulha, CEP 30123-970 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Fatima Silva, Gracia Divina de; Duarte, Lucienir Pains [Departamento de Quimica, ICEx, Nucleo de estudos de Plantas Medicinais (NEPLAM), Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Avenida Antonio Carlos, 6627 Pampulha, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Pott, Vali Joana [Empresa Brasileira de Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), BR 262 km 4, Caixa Postal 154, CEP 79002-970 Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil); Vieira Filho, Sidney Augusto [Escola de Farmacia, DEFAR, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Rua Costa Sena, 171, CEP 35400-000 Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais (Brazil)], E-mail: bibo@ef.ufop.br

    2008-05-15

    Through instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) the elemental chemical composition of Salvinia auriculata and Ouro Preto city public water was determined. Elements Ce, Th, Cr, Hf, Sb, Sc, Rb, Fe, Zn, Co, Au, La and Br were quantified. High chromium concentration was determined in this plant. But, chromium was determined only in low concentrations in the water. The results indicate the great capacity of this plant to absorb and accumulate inorganic elements.

  5. INAA for the characterization of airborne particulate matter from the industrial area of Islamabad city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasim, M.; Rahman, A.; Waheed, S.; Daud, M.; Ahmad, S.

    2003-01-01

    Air particulate matter (PM) was collected in two size fractions using stacked filter units (SFUs) provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) from the industrial area of Islamabad. Nucleopore polycarbonate filters were used for collecting from Oct 98 to Jun 99 the particulate matter in coarse and fine size fractions. The samples were characterized by the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). About 33 elements were quantified using different irradiation and counting protocols. (author)

  6. Forensic INAA of bullet-lead and shotshell-pellet evidence specimens with a TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, Vincent P.

    1988-01-01

    This paper has been published earlier, in the references cited. The main purpose of this paper is to acquaint interested TRIGA reactor groups with the main features of the Forensic INAA of BL and SSP evidence specimens - and to recommend that they consider acquiring the necessary expertise and then provide such analysis services to law enforcement agencies, public defenders, and defence attorneys in their respective areas

  7. Trace elements in the diets of Turkish children determined by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aras, N.K.; Mauerhofer, E.; Naidu, R.K.; Arcasoy, A.; Denschlag, H.O.

    1992-01-01

    The role of toxic and essential trace elements in human diet is increasingly important because of environmental problems and the increasingly sophisticated industrial treatment of food products. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is particularly well suited for multielement determinations. In order to test and demonstrated the usefulness of the method in connection with the fast pneumatic tube system of the Mainz TRIGA reactor, the authors have analyzed six diet samples of Turkish children

  8. Uses of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for lichen as bio indicators of environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arribere, M.; Guevara, S.R.; Calvelo, S.

    1994-01-01

    Three species of epiphytic lichens were sampled at NW Patagonia, Argentina, from urban and peripherical forest area environments Sixty lichen samples were analysed individually by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The elements present in the samples were determined by parametric methods at the Neutron Activation Laboratory at Centro Atomico Bariloche, Argentina. All concentration values were normalized to Al concentration. The average normalized concentrations for each element, discriminated by species and environment, are presented in this work. (author). 11 refs, 6 tabs

  9. Bioaccessible contents of inorganic elements in plant based edible materials by INAA and ICPMS methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharia, R.S.; Dutta, R.K.; Acharya, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2013-01-01

    We report total metal contents and their Bioaccessibility concentrations from Momordica Charantia (karela), Asparagus racemosus (satavari), Terminalia arjuna (arjuna bark) and Syzyzium cumini (jamun). The metal bioaccessibilities were determined by treating the dried powdered samples sequentially in gastric and intestinal fluid of porcine origin and the concentrations of the elements were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS). (author)

  10. Pretreatment process for mineral analysis in FFH using INAA-method and evaluation of mineral intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ok Hee; Youn, Kyung Jin; Lee, Ji Bum; Kim, Mi Jin

    2010-05-01

    This study were aimed to set up the pre-treatment process for FFH and analyse Pretreatment processes for the analysis of food mineral contents by INAA were established according to FFH state using freeze-drying and homogenization. The Se contents showed higher precision with INAA-method than ICP-method. The content of Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Co in FFH measured using INAA-method showed that the mineral contents in the amount of recommended intakes by manufacturer were not significantly different according to FFH type. The average Ca contents was the highest in Yousanguns > nutritional supplement> glucosamines. The average K content of FFH with one serving size were the highest in glucosamines>aloes> nutritional supplements. I content among FFH was the highest in nutritional supplements. The average Mg contents were highest in Chlorella-Spirurina and Aloes. The average Cu content of FFH was the highest in Yeasts. The contents of Fe, Zn and Se were the highest in nutritional supplements. The mineral contents in recommended intake amounts by manufacturer were over the maximum contents regulated by Korean FDA in some imported FFH products. their mineral contents of FFH using NAA-method and to assess the mineral intakes by FFH

  11. Determination of heavy metals in air conditioner dust using FAAS and INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, N.

    2012-01-01

    The elements Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in dust samples collected from air conditioner (AC) filters from 15 commercial sites of Lahore using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS). The elements Cr, Mn and Zn were also determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The results obtained showed that higher amounts of these metals were measured in these dust samples than normally found in soil. This was especially true for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Generally the amounts of Cd, Cr and Mn did not vary throughout the city of Lahore but the amounts of the traffic related Cu, Pb and Zn elements had the more variable ranges of 30-140, 30-230 and 74-2810 mg/kg respectively. The concentrations obtained for Cr, Mn and Zn by INAA were found to be higher than those obtained using FAAS. Analysis of the data obtained showed the digestion procedure employed to be the possible cause for this occurrence. It was also found that Mn was being over-estimated by INAA due to the interference from the Mg peak. (author)

  12. Application of INAA complementary gamma ray photopeaks to homogeneity study of candidate reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Edson G.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Lima, Ana P.S.; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Maihara, Vera A.; Saiki, Mitiko

    2009-01-01

    Characterization and certification of reference materials, RMs, is a complex task involving many steps. One of them is the homogeneity testing to assure that key property values will not present variation among RM bottles. Good precision is the most important figure of merit of an analytical technique to allow it to be used in the homogeneity testing of candidate RMs. Due to its inherent characteristics, Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, INAA, is an analytical technique of choice for homogeneity testing. Problems with sample digestion and contamination from reagents are not an issue in INAA, as solid samples are analyzed directly. For element determination via INAA, the activity of a suitable gamma ray decay photopeak for an element is chosen and it is compared to the activity of a standard of the element. An interesting possibility is the use of complementary gamma ray photopeaks (for the elements that present them) to confirm the homogeneity test results for an element. In this study, an investigation of the use of the complementary gamma ray photopeaks of 110 mAg, 82 Br, 60 Co, 134 Cs, 152 Eu, 59 Fe, 140 La, 233 Pa (for Th determination), 46 Sc and 75 Se radionuclides was undertaken in the between bottle homogeneity study of a mussel candidate RM under preparation at IPEN - CNEN/SP. Although some photopeaks led to biased element content results, the use of complementary gamma ray photopeaks proved to be helpful in supporting homogeneity study conclusions of new RMs. (author)

  13. Pretreatment process for mineral analysis in FFH using INAA-method and evaluation of mineral intakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ok Hee; Youn, Kyung Jin; Lee, Ji Bum; Kim, Mi Jin [Yongin University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    This study were aimed to set up the pre-treatment process for FFH and analyse Pretreatment processes for the analysis of food mineral contents by INAA were established according to FFH state using freeze-drying and homogenization. The Se contents showed higher precision with INAA-method than ICP-method. The content of Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Co in FFH measured using INAA-method showed that the mineral contents in the amount of recommended intakes by manufacturer were not significantly different according to FFH type. The average Ca contents was the highest in Yousanguns > nutritional supplement> glucosamines. The average K content of FFH with one serving size were the highest in glucosamines>aloes> nutritional supplements. I content among FFH was the highest in nutritional supplements. The average Mg contents were highest in Chlorella-Spirurina and Aloes. The average Cu content of FFH was the highest in Yeasts. The contents of Fe, Zn and Se were the highest in nutritional supplements. The mineral contents in recommended intake amounts by manufacturer were over the maximum contents regulated by Korean FDA in some imported FFH products. their mineral contents of FFH using NAA-method and to assess the mineral intakes by FFH

  14. k{sub 0}-INAA for determining chemical elements in bird feathers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, Elvis J., E-mail: ejfranca@usp.b [CENA/USP, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade of Sao Paulo, P.O. Box 97, 13400-970, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, Elisabete A.N.; Fonseca, Felipe Y. [CENA/USP, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade of Sao Paulo, P.O. Box 97, 13400-970, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Antunes, Alexsander Z. [IF, Instituto Florestal do Estado de Sao Paulo, Rua do Horto 931, Horto Florestal 02377-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bardini Junior, Claudiney; Bacchi, Marcio A.; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Cavalca, Isabel P.O. [CENA/USP, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade of Sao Paulo, P.O. Box 97, 13400-970, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2010-10-11

    The k{sub 0}-method instrumental neutron activation analysis (k{sub 0}-INAA) was employed for determining chemical elements in bird feathers. A collection was obtained taking into account several bird species from wet ecosystems in diverse regions of Brazil. For comparison reason, feathers were actively sampled in a riparian forest from the Marins Stream, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, using mist nets specific for capturing birds. Biological certified reference materials were used for assessing the quality of analytical procedure. Quantification of chemical elements was performed using the k{sub 0}-INAA Quantu Software. Sixteen chemical elements, including macro and micronutrients, and trace elements, have been quantified in feathers, in which analytical uncertainties varied from 2% to 40% depending on the chemical element mass fraction. Results indicated high mass fractions of Br (max=7.9 mg kg{sup -1}), Co (max=0.47 mg kg{sup -1}), Cr (max=68 mg kg{sup -1}), Hg (max=2.79 mg kg{sup -1}), Sb (max=0.20 mg kg{sup -1}), Se (max=1.3 mg kg{sup -1}) and Zn (max=192 mg kg{sup -1}) in bird feathers, probably associated with the degree of pollution of the areas evaluated. In order to corroborate the use of k{sub 0}-INAA results in biomonitoring studies using avian community, different factor analysis methods were used to check chemical element source apportionment and locality clustering based on feather chemical composition.

  15. Determination of trace concentrations of aluminium in rice samples by INAA and PIGE methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, B.B.; Biswal, R.R.; Acharya, R.; Pujari, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium is one of the toxic elements entering human body mainly through food and food products. Though its bioavailability is very less, it is necessary to evaluate its total concentrations in food and food products entering to the body through. In order to evaluate total aluminium contents in various food items for daily dietary intake of aluminum, authors have systematically planned to carry out experiments in various food items including rice. Rice is the main food in many parts of India as well as in Odisha. Rice samples under study belong to three categories; (i) various rice samples from local market, (ii) various rice samples grown in similar irrigation (soil and water) conditions and (iii) same variety of rice with different irrigation conditions. Solid samples (pre-cleaned) were powdered, homogenized and taken for analysis by two nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) namely instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using reactor neutrons at BARC and particle induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) using 4 MeV proton beam (20 nA current) from 3 MV Tandetron at IOP, Bhubaneswar in conjunction with high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Samples of 10-50 mg for INAA and 250 mg (pelletized in cellulose) for PIGE were used for experiments. For INAA, samples were irradiated at PCF, Dhruva reactor for 1 minute

  16. A preliminary study on identification of Thai rice samples by INAA and statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsri, S.; Kukusamude, C.

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the elemental compositions in 93 Thai rice samples using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and to identify rice according to their types and rice cultivars using statistical analysis. As, Mg, Cl, Al, Br, Mn, K, Rb and Zn in Thai jasmine rice and Sung Yod rice samples were successfully determined by INAA. The accuracy and precision of the INAA method were verified by SRM 1568a Rice Flour. All elements were found to be in a good agreement with the certified values. The precisions in term of %RSD were lower than 7%. The LODs were obtained in range of 0.01 to 29 mg kg-1. The concentration of 9 elements distributed in Thai rice samples was evaluated and used as chemical indicators to identify the type of rice samples. The result found that Mg, Cl, As, Br, Mn, K, Rb, and Zn concentrations in Thai jasmine rice samples are significantly different but there was no evidence that Al is significantly different from concentration in Sung Yod rice samples at 95% confidence interval. Our results may provide preliminary information for discrimination of rice samples and may be useful database of Thai rice.

  17. Inductively Coupled Plasma: Fundamental Particle Investigations with Laser Ablation and Applications in Magnetic Sector Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathan Joe Saetveit

    2008-01-01

    Particle size effects and elemental fractionation in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are investigated with nanosecond and femtosecond laser ablation, differential mobility analysis, and magnetic sector ICP-MS. Laser pulse width was found to have a significant influence on the LA particle size distribution and the elemental composition of the aerosol and thus fractionation. Emission from individual particles from solution nebulization, glass, and a pressed powder pellet are observed with high speed digital photography. The presence of intact particles in an ICP is shown to be a likely source of fractionation. A technique for the online detection of stimulated elemental release from neural tissue using magnetic sector ICP-MS is described. Detection limits of 1 (micro)g L -1 or better were found for P, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn in a 60 (micro)L injection in a physiological saline matrix

  18. Combination of multielement technique (INAA and ICP-MS) for a French air pollution bio-monitoring survey using mosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayrault, S.; Deschamps, C.; Amblard, G.; Galsomies, L.; Letrouit-Galinou, M.A.; Bonhomme, P.

    1998-01-01

    This work presents the use of two trace analysis techniques through the data obtained for a significant part of the 557 mosses sampled in France. Sampling were made within the framework of European survey carried out in 1995-1996 and proposed by the Nordic Council. The analyses were produced with a combination of two multielement analysis techniques: INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis) and ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry). Theses two techniques were suitable for trace analyses in mosses. They were clearly complementary and provided for 36 elements including the heavy metals of key interest in air pollution studies. The choice of the technique for a given element depended on the feasibility (e g. Pb is not attainable by INAA), the detection limit, the analytical variability, the preparation procedures and the concentration ranges (5-100 μg/g for Pb, 0.5-5 μg/g for As). INAA measured the total content in the sample, while ICP-MS demanded a mineralization procedure resulting in losses/contamination hazards. Thus, INAA results were preferred, although this technique was time consuming. However the ICP-MS results for Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb were retained, for different reasons: detection limits (Cd, Cu), no convenient INAA conditions (Ni), and feasibility (Pb). (authors)

  19. Trace element determination in plant material by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with special reference to molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnier, C.; Schnug, E.

    1981-01-01

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) permits a non-destructive multielement determination of minute trace element concentrations in organic material. No sample preparation except drying is required. Especially for the determination of molybdenum the INAA offers great advantages compared to the methods used in agricultural chemistry where complicated enrichment and extraction steps are needed. Contamination by reagents or loss of elements are not potential sources of errors. The principle, the advantages and disadvantages of INAA are described. The method is demonstrated with the example of celery samples from an experiment with five different nitrogen fertilizers on contaminated soil and of cabbage samples from an uncontaminated region. Besides molybdenum, 19 other elements (Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Cd, Sb, Ba, La, W, Au, Th) are determined. (orig.) [de

  20. Effect of sample matrix composition on INAA sample weights, measurement precisions, limits of detection, and optimum conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.; Nakazawa, L.; Leslie, J.

    1984-01-01

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) Advance Prediction Computer Program (APCP) is extremely useful in guiding one to optimum subsequent experimental analyses of samples of all types of matrices. By taking into account the contributions to the cumulative Compton-continuum levels from all significant induced gamma-emitting radionuclides, it provides good INAA advance estimates of detectable photopeaks, measurement precisions, concentration lower limits of detection (LOD's) and optimum irradiation/decay/counting conditions - as well as of the very important maximum allowable sample size for each set of conditions calculated. The usefulness and importance of the four output parameters cited in the title are discussed using the INAA APCP outputs for NBS SRM-1632 Coal as the example

  1. Establishing adequate conditions for mercury determination in environmental samples by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Caroline; Santos, Eliane C.; Saiki, Mitiko

    2017-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element released into the environment mainly by anthropic activities. Consequently, the improvement for Hg determination in environmental samples is of great interest. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) is considered an adequate method to determine several elements. However, Hg determination by INAA is often hampered by its volatility, which causes losses. The aim of this study was to establish adequate irradiation conditions for Hg determination in environmental samples by INAA. The following parameters were evaluated: irradiation time, container for irradiation and spectral gamma ray interferences. For the study, aliquots of certified reference materials (CRMs) and tree bark samples were irradiated together with Hg synthetic standard at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. Gamma ray activities of 1 97 Hg and 203 Hg were measured in a spectrometer coupled to a HGe detector. Results obtained indicated that polyethylene capsules or envelopes can be used as container for sample irradiation and the Hg impurities in these containers were negligible. Irradiation time of one hour was adequate for Hg determination and in long irradiations of 8 h problems of spectral interference of 198 Au and 75 Se were observed. In addition, Hg loss during the irradiation of 1 h and after irradiation was not observed. Quality control of Hg results, obtained in the CRMs analyses using one hour of irradiation, indicated good precision and accuracy with |Z score| < 2. The experimental conditions established in this study were applied to tree bark samples. Detection limits for Hg of these analyses were between 0.14 and 1.9 μg g -1 . (author)

  2. Top-down instead of bottom-up estimates of uncertainty in INAA results?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, P.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    The initial publication of the ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) and many related documents has resulted in a worldwide awareness of the importance of a realistic estimate of the value reported after the +/- sign. The evaluation of uncertainty in measurement, as introduced by the GUM, is derived from the principles applied in physical measurements. Many testing laboratories have already experienced large problems in applying these principles in e.g. (bio)chemical measurements, resulting in time-consuming evaluations and costly additional experiments. Other, more pragmatic and less costly approaches have been proposed to obtain a realistic estimate of the range in which the true value of the measurement may be found with a certain degree of probability. One of these approaches, the 'top-down method', is based on the standard deviation in the results of intercomparison data. This approach is much easier for tests for which it is either difficult to establish a full measurement equation, or if e.g. matrix-matching reference materials are absent. It has been demonstrated that the GUM 'bottom-up' approach of evaluating uncertainty in measurement can easily be applied in instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) as all significant sources of uncertainty can be evaluated. INAA is therefore a valuable technique to test the validity of the top-down approach. In this contribution, examples of the top-down evaluation of uncertainty in INAA derived from participation in intercomparison rounds and proficiency testing schemes will be presented. The results will be compared with the bottom-up evaluation of uncertainty, and ease of applicability, validity and usefullness of both approaches will be discussed.

  3. Establishing adequate conditions for mercury determination in environmental samples by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Caroline; Santos, Eliane C.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: caroline.perez@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element released into the environment mainly by anthropic activities. Consequently, the improvement for Hg determination in environmental samples is of great interest. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) is considered an adequate method to determine several elements. However, Hg determination by INAA is often hampered by its volatility, which causes losses. The aim of this study was to establish adequate irradiation conditions for Hg determination in environmental samples by INAA. The following parameters were evaluated: irradiation time, container for irradiation and spectral gamma ray interferences. For the study, aliquots of certified reference materials (CRMs) and tree bark samples were irradiated together with Hg synthetic standard at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. Gamma ray activities of 1{sup 97}Hg and {sup 203}Hg were measured in a spectrometer coupled to a HGe detector. Results obtained indicated that polyethylene capsules or envelopes can be used as container for sample irradiation and the Hg impurities in these containers were negligible. Irradiation time of one hour was adequate for Hg determination and in long irradiations of 8 h problems of spectral interference of {sup 198}Au and {sup 75}Se were observed. In addition, Hg loss during the irradiation of 1 h and after irradiation was not observed. Quality control of Hg results, obtained in the CRMs analyses using one hour of irradiation, indicated good precision and accuracy with |Z score| < 2. The experimental conditions established in this study were applied to tree bark samples. Detection limits for Hg of these analyses were between 0.14 and 1.9 μg g{sup -1}. (author)

  4. Advances in 193 nm excimer lasers for mass spectrometry applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmdahl, Ralph; Esser, Hans-Gerd; Bonati, Guido

    2016-03-01

    Ongoing progress in mass analysis applications such as laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry of solid samples and ultraviolet photoionization mediated sequencing of peptides and proteins is to a large extent driven by ultrashort wavelength excimer lasers at 193 nm. This paper will introduce the latest improvements achieved in the development of compact high repetition rate excimer lasers and elaborate on the impact on mass spectrometry instrumentation. Various performance and lifetime measurements obtained in a long-term endurance test over the course of 18 months will be shown and discussed in view of the laser source requirements of different mass spectrometry tasks. These sampling type applications are served by excimer lasers delivering pulsed 193 nm output of several mJ as well as fast repetition rates which are already approaching one Kilohertz. In order to open up the pathway from the laboratory to broader market industrial use, sufficient component lifetimes and long-term stable performance behavior have to be ensured. The obtained long-term results which will be presented are based on diverse 193 nm excimer laser tube improvements aiming at e.g. optimizing the gas flow dynamics and have extended the operational life the laser tube for the first time over several billion pulses even under high duty-cycle conditions.

  5. Investigations of some regional river systems by INAA and X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drazhkovich, R.J.; Kukoch, A.

    1985-01-01

    Distribution of Zn, Hg, Sb, Cr, Fe, Sc and Co has been investigated in materials dissolved and suspended in the rivers Ibar, Zapadna Morava and Kamenica by means of INAA and X-ray fluorescence. Irradiation was made in VKG-channels of RA-nuclear reactor Vincha. Distribution coefficients were calculated, as well as contamination factors for investigated river regional systems in comparison to the uncontaminated water system. Data obtained indicate the possibility of utilization of these two analytical methods for investigation and control of biogeochemical and contamination processes in small regional water systems, especially important for modern studies in life sciences

  6. Element concentrations in candidate biological and environmental reference materials by k0-standardized INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    K 0 -Based Neutron Activation Analysis (k 0 INAA) was used to analyze the candidate reference materials Apple Leaves and Peach Leaves, and Oriental Tobacco Leaves and Virginia Tobacco Leaves. Concentration values for 27 elements were measured. The accuracy was ascertained by analysis of two certified reference materials. NIST 1572 Citrus Leaves and 1573 Tomato Leaves. The homogeneity test of the IAEA Evernia prunastri candidate reference material in aliquots ≥ 100 mg is extended to the elements Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb, Sb, Cs, Ba, Ce and Th. (orig.)

  7. INAA analysis of rocks: A routine method using Fe as an internal flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, R.W.; Kay, S. Mahlburg

    1992-01-01

    Over the past decade at Cornell, trace elements in over 2500 rocks have been analyzed by INAA. The samples, mainly volcanic rocks, have known concentrations of major elements (e.g. Si, Ti, Al, Mg, Ca, K, Fe, Na) and the last two of these (Fe and Na) are also determined by activation, using rock standards (e.g. USGS standards BCRl, BHVO, etc.). Differences between Fe determined by INAA and that determined as a part of the major element analysis are mainly attributed to volatile (H 2 O, CO 2 ) loss (especially when major element analyses were done by electron microprobe on fused powders, whereas the INAA analyses were done on the powders), and to flux variability during irradiation. Instead of reporting two values for Fe we use Fe as an internal flux monitor, with Na and the trace elements being reported relative to the given Fe value. The ratio Na/Fe is used as a sensitive check on the identity of the sample and as a monitor of alkali loss affecting the major element analysis. Other than this modification (Kay et aL 1987, also reported in Chappell and Hergt, 1989) we use an INAA method similar to mat practiced by many labs. Powdered samples (about 0.5 g) are sealed in high-purity silica tubes and irradiated in the Cornell Triga reactor. Samples are counted for a minimum of 2 hours (up to 10 hours) 7 and 40 days after irradiation. Data are reduced using a program written at Cornell, with peak and background regions that have been checked for interferences. Corrections are routinely applied for Ce (Fe), Nd (Br), Tb (Th), Eu (Ba), Lu (U), and Yb (Th) (interference is from element in parentheses). A U fission yield correction is applied to La, Ce, Nd, and Ba. A correction for Ta introduced by grinding in WC containers can be made using known Ta/W ratios in the grinding containers. The correction amounted to 10-20% of the Ta gross peak. Recently, samples have been prepared in a ceramic grinding containers; for these, no Ta correction is needed. Trace elements determined

  8. Feasibility study of k (0)-INAA at the ITU TRIGA Mark II research reactor, Turkey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Esen, A. N.; Haciyakupoglu, S.; Erenturk, S.; Kubešová, Marie; Kučera, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 309, č. 1 (2016), s. 179-184 ISSN 0236-5731. [14th International Conference on Modern Trends in Activation Analysis (MTAA) / 11th International conference on Nuclear Analytical Methods in the Life Science (NAMLS). Delft, 23.08.2015-23.08.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Kayzero for Windows * k0-INAA * neutron flux parametrs * standard reference materials Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  9. Differences in trace element concentrations between the right and left hemispheres of human brain using INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayi, A.E.; Surrey Univ.; Spyrou, N.M.; Akanle, O.A.; Ubertalli, L.C.; Part, P.

    2000-01-01

    Very few publications have quoted differences between the same regions in both the right and left hemispheres of the human brain. It may be possible that the two hemispheres have different trace elemental concentrations, since it is known that they both have different functions. In this study, three brain regions from both the right and left hemispheres of the cortex have been sampled from five elderly individuals (three 'normal' and two Alzheimer's disease) and their elemental concentrations have been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). (author)

  10. Determination of trace elements by INAA in urban air particulate matter and transplanted lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergamaschi, L.; Rizzio, E.; Profumo, A.; Gallorini, M.

    2005-01-01

    Lichens as biomonitors and neutron activation analysis as analytical technique have been employed to evaluate the trace element atmospheric pollution in the metropolitan area of the city of Pavia (Northern Italy). Transplanted lichens (Parmelia sulcata and Usnea gr. hirta) and air particulate matter have been monthly collected and analyzed during the winter 2001-2002. INAA and ET-AAS have been used for the determination of 28 elements in air particulate matter and 25 elements in lichens. Trace metals concentrations as well as the corresponding enrichment factors were evaluated and compared. (author)

  11. INAA and petrological study of sandstones from Khmer temples in Angkor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Kranda, K.; Novak, J.K.; Poncar, J.; Krausova, I.; Soukal, L.

    2009-01-01

    INAA was used to determine 35 major, minor and trace elements in sandstone samples taken from building blocks of 21 Khmer temples in Angkor, Cambodia. The sandstone samples were also characterized by conventional optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and electron microprobe analysis. The aim of this work was to examine the hypothesis that a particular elemental and/or mineral composition of the building materials can be characteristic of a particular architectural style/building period in the history of constructing the Angkor monuments. Preliminary results of this study are presented

  12. Application of the INAA technique for elemental analysis of metallic biomaterials used in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cincu, Em; Craciun, L.; Manea-Grigore, Ioana; Cazan, I.L.; Manu, V.; Barbos, D.; Cocis, A.

    2009-01-01

    The sensitive nuclear analytical technique Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been applied on several types of metallic biomaterials (Heraenium CE, Ventura Nibon, Wiron 99 and Ducinox which are currently used for restoration in the dental clinics) to study its performance in elemental analysis and identify eventual limitations. The investigation has been performed by two NAA Laboratories and aimed at getting an answer to the question on how the biomaterials compositions influence the patients' health over the course of time, taking into account the EC Directive 94/27/EC recommendations concerning Ni toxicity.

  13. Discriminant analysis of normal and malignant breast tissue based upon INAA investigation of elemental concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwanhoong Ng; Senghuat Ong; Bradley, D.A.; Laimeng Looi

    1997-01-01

    Discriminant analysis of six trace element concentrations measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in 26 paired-samples of malignant and histologically normal human breast tissues shows the technique to be a potentially valuable clinical tool for making malignant-normal classification. Nonparametric discriminant analysis is performed for the data obtained. Linear and quadratic discriminant analyses are also carried out for comparison. For this data set a formal analysis shows that the elements which may be useful in distinguishing between malignant and normal tissues are Ca, Rb and Br, providing correct classification for 24 out of 26 normal samples and 22 out of 26 malignant samples. (Author)

  14. Application of INAA in monitoring vertical migration of elements in weathering zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frana, J.; Mastalka, A.; Henes, J.

    1983-01-01

    The vertical migration of elements is studied in two types of Czechoslovak soils formed on loess. The INAA method is used to determine the total value of ca 40 elements in soils. Processed are relative errors of determination and the concentrations of elements to depths of 150 cm. Tables show the distribution of elements of rare earths according to genetic horizons, graphically presented is the vertical distribution of elements with concentrations exceeding 0.1 weight %. Soil enrichment or depletion with trace elements as compared with bedrock is shown on the examples of Co, Mn and Zn. (author)

  15. Correlations between chemical composition and provenance of Justino site ceramics by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.O.; Munita, C.S.; Valerio, M.E.G.; Oliveira, P.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), have been used for the definition of compositional groups of potteries from Justino site, Brazil, according to the chemical similarities of ceramic paste. The outliers were identified by means of robust Mahalanobis distance. The temper effect in the ceramic paste was studied by means of modified Mahalanobis filter. The results were interpreted by means of cluster, principal components, and discriminant analyses. This work provides contributions for the reconstruction of the prehistory of baixo Sao Francisco region, and for the reconstitution of the Brazilian Northeast ceramist population of general frame. (author)

  16. Provenance studies in Amazon basin by means of chemical composition obtained by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.O.; Munita, C.S.; Soares, E.A.A.

    2015-01-01

    This study determines the provenance of the 106 sediments samples deposited by the Solimoes and Negro rivers in the tectonic depressions in Manaus, Amazon state, Brazil. Twenty-four chemical elements in the sediment samples collected before the confluence of Negro and Solimoes rivers have been determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA. It is inferred from the multivariate statistical methods that samples from the basin of the Solimoes river and tectonic depression 1 (the most significant of the region) are not significantly different. These results indicate the contribution this river in the sedimentary fill during the evolution in the Quaternary. (author)

  17. Determination of vanadium in titanate-based ferroelectrics by INAA with discriminating gamma-ray spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kameník, Jan; Dragounová, K.; Kučera, Jan; Bryknar, Z.; Trepakov, Vladimír; Strunga, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 311, č. 2 (2017), s. 1333-1338 ISSN 0236-5731. [1st International Conference on Radioanalytical and Nuclear chemistry (RANC). Budapest, 10.04.2016-15.04.2016] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : Titanate-based ferroelectrics * Vanadium * INAA * discriminating gamma-ray spectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry; Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  18. Particle Generation by Laser Ablation in Support of Chemical Analysis of High Level Mixed Waste from Plutonium Production Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, J. Thomas; Alexander, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    Investigate particles produced by laser irradiation and their analysis by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (LA/ICP-MS), with a view towards optimizing particle production for analysis of high level waste materials and waste glass. LA/ICP-MS has considerable potential to increase the safety and speed of analysis required for the remediation of high level wastes from cold war plutonium production operations. In some sample types, notably the sodium nitrate-based wastes at Hanford and elsewhere, chemical analysis using typical laser conditions depends strongly on the details of sample history composition in a complex fashion, rendering the results of analysis uncertain. Conversely, waste glass materials appear to be better behaved and require different strategies to optimize analysis

  19. Development and implementation of the k0-standardization and other parametric methods of INAA in Cuba. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rizo, O.; Herrera Peraza, E.F.; Manso Guevara, M.V.; Alvarez Pellon, I.; Montero Cabrera, M.E.; Lopez Reyes, M.C.; Ixquiac Cabrera, M.

    1999-01-01

    The main results obtained during the characterization of the Triga Mark III reactor at NNRI, Salazar, Mexico, the development of the non-conventional multimonitor HAV-1, the use of Certified Reference Material (CRM) as multimonitor for k 0 -factors experimental determination, and to study the reactor power and slowing-down thickness dependencies of the reactor flux parameters and its influence in k 0 -INAA are presented. The experience of the k 0 -INAA group at ISCTN, in the application of this analytical technique for different purposes is resumed. (author)

  20. Analysis of FDA in-house food reference materials with anticoincidence INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.L.; Cunningham, W.C.

    2013-01-01

    In-house reference material (IRM) cocoa powder (CCP) has been in use at US Food and Drug Administration laboratories for about 15 years. A single lot of commercial material was originally characterized for 32 elements by several laboratories and five techniques. A unique approach for basis weight determination based upon ambient relative humidity was developed for CCP, eliminating the need for dry weight determinations. The CCP Reference Sheet is updated by incorporating new results approximately every 5 years. The last update occurred in 2006. As part of an effort to revalidate and update values for CCP, anticoincidence instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine mass fractions for 16 of the originally characterized elements, as well as to provide information on 16 other elements. Results were in very good agreement with 2006 Reference Sheet values. A new candidate IRM, fresh-frozen swordfish (FFSF) powder, was produced by adding inorganic As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Se to liquid nitrogen-frozen commercial swordfish filets which were then homogenized. Portions of FFSF were analyzed by INAA to provide mass fraction and homogeneity information for As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Sb, and Se as well as for eight other elements occurring naturally in the material. Non-homogeneities were ≤2.5 % for As, Br, Cd, and Cs, and ≤1.8 % for Cr, Hg, Rb, Sb, and Se. Certified reference materials DORM-3 Fish Protein powder and fresh-frozen SRM 1947 Lake Michigan Fish Tissue were analyzed as controls. (author)

  1. Toxic trace element content of local fruits using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, N.; Ahmed, S.; Rahman, A; Waheed, S.; Chaudhary, M.M.; Qureshi, I.H.

    1997-01-01

    An important route of entry of environmental contaminants into the human system is through food intake. To study the effect of environmental pollution on the food chain, base line levels of toxic element content of commonly available food articles must be established. This study was undertaken to determine the toxic meal content of Pakistani fruits. The techniques of instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) were employed for this purpose. Fourteen fruits apple, apricot, banana, data guava, kino, mango, melon, orange, peach, pear, plum, pomegranate and watermelon, as well as, the peels of apple and pear have been investigated and the results are discussed in this paper. The results were found to lie within 95 % confidence limit using Student's t test. Hg, As and Sb were detected, using INAA, in pear, pomegranate and water melon in low amounts (ppb levels) but were not detected in orange, plum and melon. Lesser amounts of toxic elements were detected in the peels of pear and high amounts were detected in apple peel as compared to the edible part of the fruit. Cadmium and lead were determined using Graphite Furnace atomic absorption Spectrometry. Cadmium was found to lie in the range of 18-42 ppb, in most fruits, whereas the amount of lead varied between 39-128 ppb. Lead was below detection limit in melon, guava, mango, and peach contained the highest amount of As, Cd, Hg and Pb. (author)

  2. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis- INAA: environmental studies in Das Velhas Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabelo V, M.A.; Andrade Q, M.T.; Araujo M, R.; Albernaz A, I.; Oliveira, A.H. de

    2006-01-01

    The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis - INAA was applied to determine concentrations of several elements in unpolluted areas and in the mining and farming region of the Das Velhas Basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. INAA was applied using the TRIGA Mark I IPR - R1 reactor at the Nuclear Technology Development Center of the National Committee of Nuclear Energy (CDTN/CNEN), in Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais State. At 100 kW of potency the flux of neutrons is 6.6 10 11 n.cm -2 .s -1 . The samples analyzed were: water; sediment; gravel of gold mine and forage. The obtained results for the Das Velhas Basin in water and sediment samples - mining companies region - show a high level (μg/g) of contamination with the analyzed elements, mainly in the sediment samples. During the period of floods, in farming region hundreds of kilometers away, contamination is found in fish and forage, reaching and harming both people and animals that live in the marginal region. (Author)

  3. Determination of elemental composition of some aphrodisiac herbs by Nuclear Analytical Technique (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, L.; Okunade, I.O.; Balogun, G.I.

    2011-01-01

    Fresh medicinal plants that are popularly believed to have aphrodisiac properties were collected in the form of leaves, stem bark, nuts, fruits, seeds, and roots, between 25th September 2009 and 15 October 2009. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determination of thirteen aphrodisiac herbs used to treat the problem of Sexual dysfunction. Concentrations of twenty two elements AI, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, and Zn have been determined by short and long irradiation times with a thermal neutron flux of 5* 1011ncm-2s-1. Quality control and quality assurance of the method was tested by analyzing IAEA-359 and SRM-1573 together with the samples. The INAA spectra were analyzed using WINSPAN 2004 software package. Our result shows that Euphobia hirta recorded high Zn (669±34 g g-1) which is more than the amount (95.0 g g-1) in Jaipal sex tonic. The level of Fe in Cassytha filiformis, and Indigofera hirsute, is 599 g g-1 and 702 g g-1 respectively. These values are in good agreement with the Fe concentration in the popular aphrodisiac Panax gingseng and Radix codonopsis. For all the species of the same family the correlation coefficients are highly distinctive for each species. The present study can be use to some extent to assess the safety intake of aphrodisiac herbs in the final formulation.

  4. Air quality evaluation of some industrial cities of Pakistan using INAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Rahman, A.; Daud, M.; Rahman, S.; Ahmad, S.; Islam, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) have been employed for the characterization of 40 trace elements in suspended particulate matter (SPM) and soil samples from Pakistan's industrially important cities of Gujranwala and Faisalabad. The air particulates, which were collected from five different locations of each city, indicate moderate to unhealthy air quality with SPM levels above the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Enrichment factors (EF) for all the elements have been calculated with respect to their concentrations in the soils. Some of the areas of Gujranwala show high EF values for Pb, Cr, Cu, Cd and Ca, which may indicate contributions due to heavy traffic with automotive exhaust, tanneries and many other acute anthropogenic activities in this area. The presence of high concentration of Cr is due to chrome plating units and leather industry in the adjoining areas. Similarly few sites from Faisalabad have high Pb, Cd and Sb contents from vehicular aerosols with the contributions from coal combustion, battery manufacturing industries, lead smelters and numerous other industries. IAEA Reference Materials were analyzed for the validation of INAA and AAS procedures employed and to ensure the accuracy and precision of the characterized data. (orig.)

  5. Application of INAA to archaeometry: Provenance determination of ancient Greek and Roman white marble artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moens, L.J.; Roos, P.G.; De Paepe, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    During the past five years a large scale project was set up to develop a method to determine the provenance of ancient sculptures made of white marble. The problem was solved by applying three different methods of analysis to the material: INAA and EAAS for the determination of minor- and trace-elements, mass spectrometry measuring the relative abundance of the stable O- and C-isotopes and finally petrography. It was found that these three methods yield complementary information. The role of INAA is of capital importance since it allows one to determine the concentration of a large number of elements in a single sample. In addition the application of multi-variate statistical analysis was indispensable to extract the useful information from the data set. After the analysis of hundreds of quarry samples and the setting up of a reference data base, the method was applied to the provenance determination of about a hundred Green and Roman sculptures from several museums in Europe and the US

  6. Studies of generalized elemental imbalances in neurological disease patients using INAA [instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehmann, W.D.; Vance, D.E.; Khare, S.S.; Kasarskis, E.J.; Markesbery, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    Evidence has been presented in the literature to implicate trace elements in the etiology of several age-related neurological diseases. Most of these studies are based on brain analyses. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), we have observed trace element imbalances in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Picks's disease. The most prevalent elemental imbalances found in the brain were for bromine, mercury, and the alkali metals. In this study the authors report INAA studies of trace elements in nonneural tissues from Alzheimer's disease and ALS patients. Samples from household relatives were collected for use as controls wherever possible. Hair samples were washed according to the International Atomic Energy Agency recommended procedure. Fingernail samples were scraped with a quartz knife prior to washing by the same procedure. For ALS patients, blood samples were also collected. These data indicate that elemental imbalances in Alzheimer's disease and ALS are not restricted to the brain. Many elements perturbed in the brain are also altered in the several nonneural tissues examined to date. The imbalances in different tissues, however, are not always in the same direction. The changes observed may represent causes, effects, or simply epiphenomena. Longitudinal studies of nonneural tissues and blood, as well as tissue microprobe analyses at the cellular and subcellular level, will be required in order to better assess the role of trace elements in the etiology of these diseases

  7. Characterizing suspended sediments from the Piracicaba River Basin by means of k0-INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, E.J.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Cavalca, I.P.O; Fonseca, F.Y.; Camilli, L.; Rodrigues, V.S.; Bardini Junior, C.; Ferreira, J.R.; Bacchi, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The inorganic chemical characterization of suspended sediments is of utmost relevance for the knowledge of the dynamics and movement of chemical elements in the aquatic and wet ecosystems. Despite the complexity of the effective design for studying this ecological compartment, this work has tested a procedure for analyzing suspended sediments by instrumental neutron activation analysis, k 0 method (k 0 -INAA). The chemical elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Hg, K, La, Mo, Na, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Yb and Zn were quantified in the suspended sediment compartment by means of k 0 -INAA. When compared with World Average for rivers, high mass fractions of Fe (222,900 mg/kg), Ba (4990 mg/kg), Zn (1350 mg/kg), Cr (646 mg/kg), Co (74.5 mg/kg), Br (113 mg/kg) and Mo (31.9 mg/kg) were quantified in suspended sediments from the Piracicaba River, the Piracicamirim Stream and the Marins Stream. Results of the principal component analysis for standardized chemical element mass fractions indicated an intricate correlation among chemical elements evaluated, as a response of the contribution of natural and anthropogenic sources of chemical elements for ecosystems.

  8. Grain-size effects on PIXE and INAA analysis of IAEA-336 lichen reference material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, A. P.; Freitas, M. C.; Wolterbeek, H. Th.; Verburg, T. G.; De Goeij, J. J. M.

    2007-02-01

    IAEA-336 lichen certified reference material was used to compare outcomes from INAA and PIXE elemental analyses, in relationship with grain size. The IAEA material (grain size lichen reference material's particle size distribution follows a bimodal distribution, which is turning more and more monomodal after further fine sieving. Replicates of each fraction were analysed by INAA and PIXE. Results for Cl, K, Mn, Fe and Zn by both techniques were compared by application of z-values tested against the criterion ∣ z∣ limited amount of lichen material as "seen" in the PIXE analysis and the grain size distribution in the lichen material were no causes of measurable differences between the results of both techniques. However, fractionation into smaller grain sizes showed to be associated with lower element content, for Na, Cl, K, Mn and Sr even up to a factor of 2. The observed increases of the proportion of algae in the smaller grain-size fractions and the possible accumulation capacity for certain elements in the fungal part of the lichen may explain the observed phenomenon. The sieving process and consequently the discarding of part of the material have lead to a change of the properties of the original sample, namely algae/fungus percentage and elemental contents.

  9. Relative enrichment of trace elements in atmospheric biomonitors - INAA results on tree bark and lichen thalli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, Adriano M.G.; Freitas, Maria Carmo; Ventura, Marcia G.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear techniques, such as instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) or proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), are invaluable tools in environmental assessment. Atmospheric biomonitoring, in particular, has been a preferential domain for their application, especially (yet not exclusively) due to their analytical robustness, minimal requirements for sample preparation, and multi-elemental capabilities. The latter aspect is not just important for the complement they stand for each other, but also for the possibility of multiple determination, that may provide an in-depth picture of an elemental pool. This paper addresses the relative magnitude of concentration patterns (by INAA) in epiphytic lichens (Parmelia spp.) thalli and olive tree (Olea Europaea Linn.) bark from two sectors of a biological-monitoring network in mainland Portugal. While absolute concentrations of non-crustal elements are generally higher in lichens than in bark, the reverse of this applies, and to a larger extent, to their enrichment in each biomonitor. Raw data is thus likely to be inflated by local circulation and/or re-suspension of previously deposited materials. Judging from these results, the question of signal magnitude could eventually stem more from secondary, non-crustal inputs of local origin, and less from systemic characteristics of the present organisms. (authors)

  10. Heavy metal elements in toiletries analyzed by INAA, ICP-MS and SEM-EDX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, E.; Tagami, K.; Okada, Y.; Nakahara, H.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, many toiletries claiming inclusion of platinum (Pt), silver (Ag) and gold (Au) as additives are sold in ordinary cosmetics shops. However, their concentrations are not clearly indicated. In the present work, these toiletries were analyzed for heavy metal elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the particle sizes were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the constitutions of the small particles were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The concentrations of Pt in the toiletries observed were from 1 to 80 ppm. The lower detection limit of Pt by INAA was about 1 ppm because of the presence of sodium in high concentrations for those samples. Consequently, some toiletries which should have had Pt according to the manufactures were found not to contain Pt probably because it was less than the detection limit. On the other hand, there were a few toiletries that were found to contain Ag although the addition of Ag was not mentioned by the manufactures. It is considered that these non-indicated Ag were included as impurities of the added Au. The concentrations of the non-indicated Ag were even higher than those of the indicated Ag. A very small amount of Sr, which was nominated in the negative list of Japan, was also detected in 2 out of 5 kinds of toiletries analyzed by ICP-MS. (orig.)

  11. Application of laser ablation inductivly coupled plasma mass spectrometry for characterization of U-7Mo/Al-55i dispersion fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Mook; Park, Jai Il; Youn, Young Sang; Ha, Yeong Keong; Kim, Jong Yun [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    This technical note demonstrates the feasibility of using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the characterization of U–7Mo/Al–5Si dispersion fuel. Our measurements show 5.0% Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) for the reproducibility of measured {sup 98}Mo/{sup 238}U ratios in fuel particles from spot analysis, and 3.4% RSD for {sup 98}Mo/{sup 238}U ratios in a NIST-SRM 612 glass standard. Line scanning allows for the distinction of U–7Mo fuel particles from the Al–5Si matrix. Each mass spectrum peak indicates the presence of U–7Mo fuel particles, and the time width of each peak corresponds to the size of that fuel particle. The size of the fuel particles is estimated from the time width of the mass spectrum peak for {sup 98}Mo by considering the scan rate used during the line scan. This preliminary application clearly demonstrates that laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry can directly identify isotope ratios and sizes of the fuel particles in U–Mo/Al dispersion fuel. Once optimized further, this instrument will be a powerful tool for investigating irradiated dispersion fuels in terms of fission product distributions in fuel matrices, and the changes in fuel particle size or shape after irradiation.

  12. Radiometric and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) of environmental specimens: lacustrine sediments from Danube Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duliu, Octavian G.

    2002-01-01

    specificity analytical methods such as Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) could evidence more than 40 different elements at concentrations about ppm or lower. Unwanted events as atmospheric nuclear tests and Chernobyl accident discharged a great amount of radioactive 137 Cs that once fixed into sediments represents an excellent tracer for natural processes such as sediment transport, accumulation and redistribution during the last 40-50 years. For multielemental investigation of environmental samples such as soil, sediments, water or various minerals INAA is one of the most suitable technique. Presumably pollutants elements such as Cr, Co, Zn, As, Sb and Br as well as REE that could be easily determined by INAA are helpful indicators of the source as well as of the mechanism of deposition and incorporation of these components. Investigated in correlation with radiocesium distribution as well as some natural trace elements such as REE, Sc or Hf, their vertical profiles in sediments allows a rapid reconstruction of the history of recent pollution processes. Radiometric and INAA measurements have been performed 'in tandem' for sediments collected from different lakes located in both Fluvial (western part) and Fluvio-maritime (eastern part and the Razelm-Sinoe lacustrine complex) sections of the Danube Delta, i.e. Lung, Mesteru, Matita, Furtuna and Merhei as well as Razelm and Leahova, respectively. A review of these investigations concerning the vertical profiles of 4 major elements (Na, K, Ca and Fe), 15 trace elements (Rb, Cs, Ba, Sc, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Th, U, Hf and Ta) as well as of 6 potential pollutants (Zn, Cr, Co, As, Sb and Br) in four lakes (Lung, Furtuna, Mester and Matita) together with anthropogenic 134 Cs and 137 Cs is presented. All these results reveal the great potential of radiometric as well as INAA in environmental as well as in geological investigations. (author)

  13. Laser microstructuring and annealing processes for lithium manganese oxide cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proell, J.; Kohler, R.; Torge, M.; Ulrich, S.; Ziebert, C.; Bruns, M.; Seifert, H.J.; Pfleging, W.

    2011-01-01

    It is expected that cathodes for lithium-ion batteries (LIB) composed out of nano-composite materials lead to an increase in power density of the LIB due to large electrochemically active surface areas but cathodes made of lithium manganese oxides (Li-Mn-O) suffer from structural instabilities due to their sensitivity to the average manganese oxidation state. Therefore, thin films in the Li-Mn-O system were synthesized by non-reactive radiofrequency magnetron sputtering of a spinel lithium manganese oxide target. For the enhancement of the power density and cycle stability, large area direct laser patterning using UV-laser radiation with a wavelength of 248 nm was performed. Subsequent laser annealing processes were investigated in a second step in order to set up a spinel-like phase using 940 nm laser radiation at a temperature of 680 deg. C. The interaction processes between UV-laser radiation and the material was investigated using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The changes in phase, structure and grain shape of the thin films due to the annealing process were recorded using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The structured cathodes were cycled using standard electrolyte and a metallic lithium anode. Different surface structures were investigated and a significant increase in cycling stability was found. Surface chemistry of an as-deposited as well as an electrochemically cycled thin film was investigated via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  14. An elemental concentration open source database for Hogdahl-Convention and Westcott-Formalism based on K0-INAA method in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavar, A.R.; Sukiman Sarmani; Tan, C.Y.; Rafie, N.N.; Lim, S.W.E.; Khoo, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    An electronic database has been developed and implemented for K 0 -INAA method in Malaysia. Databases are often developed according to national requirements. This database contains constant nuclear data for k 0 -INAA method. Hogdahl-convention and Westcott-formalism as 3 separate command user interfaces. It has been created using Microsoft Access 2007 under a Windows operating system. This database saves time and the quality of results can be assured when the calculation of neutron flux parameters and concentration of elements by k 0 -INAA method are utilised. An evaluation of the database was conducted by IAEA Soil7 where the results published which showed a high level of consistency. (Author)

  15. Analysis of bluish-white porcelain of Fanchang kiln in Anhui province by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuzhang; Zhang Juzhong

    2008-01-01

    The minor and trace elements in the bluish-white porcelain bodies of Fanchang kiln in different dynasties were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Multivariable statistical analysis of the experimental data was carried out by SPSS software. The results show that the contents of Yb, Ta, Hf and Th varied notably between early and middle North Song Dynasty. The chemical compositions of Fanchang porcelain bodies can be divided into three groups corresponding to Five Dynasties, early Northern Song and middle Northern Song. Combined with the results of major elements analysis, we think that the raw materials of Fanchang kiln varied in different periods and the using up of fine raw materials was the main reason of Fanchang kiln's decline. (authors)

  16. Trace element intake and dietary status of nuts consumed in Pakistan: study using INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Siddique, N.; Rahman, A.

    2007-01-01

    Five nuts, namely almond, cashew nuts, peanuts, pine nuts and pistachio, commonly consumed in Pakistan, were analyzed for their inorganic element contents. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) methodology, using different irradiation, cooling and counting protocols, was adopted to determine Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sc, Se, Sr and Zn. The investigated nuts were found to contain substantial amounts of Ca, Cl, Fe, Mg, K, Na and Zn. Dietary intake of the essential inorganic elements present in these nuts, as compared to the recommended dietary allowance, has also been calculated. This has further substantiated the nutrient role of nuts in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, as in addition to their established efficacy in improving the lipid profile, they are a rich source of cardioprotective trace elements such as magnesium, zinc, iron and calcium. Toxic elements were present in very low concentrations in nuts. (orig.)

  17. Operational management of results in INAA utilizing a versatile system of control charts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, P.; van Dijk, C.P.

    1997-01-01

    At the laboratory for INAA in Delft, the final approval of the analysis' report partly depends on the quality of the results of simultaneously processed reference materials (RM's). An extensive databank exists holding the information on RM type and analysis conditions. This information can be converted into control charts. The control charts can display (1) an element concentration in one RM as a function of moment of analysis, (2) an element concentrations in one RM as a function of the concentration of an interfering element, (3) an element concentration in all RM's, and (4) the normalized concentrations of all elements in one RM. The inspection of the various charts facilitates the decision on, e.g., the need for renewed standardization, the fitness-for-use of a RM, any analyst-dependent results, rigidity of the spectrum analysis software etc. (author)

  18. The advantageous way of getting the lowest uncertainty values of elemental concentration by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cincu, Em.; Manea, I.; Manu, V.; Barbos, D.

    2007-01-01

    Analysts in a NAA accredited laboratory bear full responsibility for the report on the material they investigated. The document has to contain the most accurate values that can be, as confidence to further use of the material on the market. To this end, analysts are expected to use the standardization method providing the lowest element concentration uncertainty and carefully quantify every factor that may contribute to the validity of the results. The question is which method is the most advantageous one from this perspective and in what conditions. This paper presents a comparison between results of the elemental analysis of a CRM sample by INAA, as obtained through two standardization methods and three calculations variants applied to the same experimental data. The results were discussed in terms of uncertainty and of the E n statistical criterion recommended for inter-comparison exercises. The influence of the nuclear reaction and decay data was studied in several cases. (author)

  19. Trace element intake and dietary status of nuts consumed in Pakistan: study using INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waheed, S; Siddique, N; Rahman, A [Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Nuclear Chemistry Div.

    2007-07-01

    Five nuts, namely almond, cashew nuts, peanuts, pine nuts and pistachio, commonly consumed in Pakistan, were analyzed for their inorganic element contents. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) methodology, using different irradiation, cooling and counting protocols, was adopted to determine Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sc, Se, Sr and Zn. The investigated nuts were found to contain substantial amounts of Ca, Cl, Fe, Mg, K, Na and Zn. Dietary intake of the essential inorganic elements present in these nuts, as compared to the recommended dietary allowance, has also been calculated. This has further substantiated the nutrient role of nuts in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, as in addition to their established efficacy in improving the lipid profile, they are a rich source of cardioprotective trace elements such as magnesium, zinc, iron and calcium. Toxic elements were present in very low concentrations in nuts. (orig.)

  20. Determination of trace elements in coffee beans and instant coffee of various origins by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Fatima, I.; Arif, M.; Qureshi, I.H.

    2006-01-01

    Extensive use of coffee, by one-third of world's population, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in it. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was successfully employed to determine the concentration of 20 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in four samples of coffee beans of various origins and two instant coffee brands most commonly consumed in Pakistan. Base-line values of certain toxic and essential elements in coffee are provided. The daily intake of essential and toxic elements through coffee was estimated and compared with the recommended values. The cumulative intake of Mn is four times higher than the recommended value and that of toxic elements is well below the tolerance limits. (author)

  1. Collimated scanning LS-INAA for testing trace elements homogeneity in Brazilian coffee beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagliaferro, F.S.; Nadai Fernandes de, E.A.; Bode, P.; Baas, H.W.

    2008-01-01

    The degree of homogeneity is normally assessed by the variability of the results of independent analyses of several (e.g., 15) normal-scale replicates. Large sample instrumental neutron activation analysis (LS-INAA) with a collimated Ge detector allows inspecting the degree of homogeneity of the initial batch material, using a kilogram-size sample. The test is based on the spatial distributions of induced radioactivity. Such test was applied to samples of Brazilian whole (green) coffee beans (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) of approximately 1 kg in the frame of development of a coffee reference material. Results indicated that the material do not contain significant element composition inhomogeneities between batches of approximately 30-50 g, masses typically forming the starting base of a reference material. (author)

  2. From misconception to a must. The measured merits of total quality management and accreditation in INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, P.

    1997-01-01

    Increasingly governmental bodies and industry require that supporting analytical laboratories have their quality assurance program implemented in a quality system by international standards such as derived from the ISO-25 guide. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) laboratories may have to deal with this trend too. In universities and research laboratories the need for it, and the implications of total quality management system are sometimes misconceived by unfamiliarity with the issue. The laboratory for INAA in Delft has been accredited for its quality system since 1993. Some of the tangible improvements since the introduction of quality management are presented. Four strategical considerations are given to consider the introduction of quality management at NAA laboratories, viz. with respect to the role of NAA for the validation of other methods, the role of NAA in the certification of reference materials, the preservation of knowledge and the acceptance of NAA as a respectable method. (author)

  3. Multielemental analysis of agroindustrial by-products employed in animal feeding by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teruya, C.M.; Armelin, M.J.A.; Saiki, M.

    2000-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with gamma-ray spectrometry was applied to determine As, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Sb, Se and Zn in the Brazilian agroindustrial by-products. These materials are widely used in ruminant feeding. The results obtained were compared with requirement and maximum tolerable concentrations. The general conclusions from the data obtained were: (1) many by-products presented concentrations of some essential elements lower than the requirement concentrations, while in some samples the concentrations of Cr, Fe, Mg and Se exceeded by a little the maximum tolerable concentrations, (2) the elements As, Cd, Hg and Sb, generally considered toxic, showed concentrations lower than maximum tolerable values. (author)

  4. Evaluation of concentrations of major and trace elements in human lung using INAA and PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaf, W.J.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    The elemental concentrations of Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, F, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, O, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, V and Zn in 15 human lung autopsy samples, taken from subjects aged more than fifty years old, were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using reactor neutrons in conjunction with a high resolution detection system. Two modes of irradiation and counting were applied; namely cyclic neutron activation analysis (CNAA) and conventional neutron activation analysis. Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, using a proton beam emerging from a 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, was additionally employed and Ge, Ni, P and Ti were also identified in the lung tissue. Detection of the X-ray spectra was performed using a high resolution Si(Li) semiconductor. The relevance of these results, including a comparison between the concentrations of elements measured in a pig's lung using CNAA and those found in the human lung is discussed. (author)

  5. Air pollution at an urban traffic tunnel in Lisbon, Portugal-an INAA study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida-Silva, M.; Canha, N. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Freitas, M.C., E-mail: cfreitas@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Dung, H.M; Dionisio, I. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    In this study, the results of chemical concentrations inside and outside of a Lisbon (Portugal) traffic tunnel were compared, during one week. They were obtained by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The tunnel values largely exceed the Air Ambient legislated values and the Pearson Correlations Coefficients point out to soil re-suspension/dispersed road dust (As, Ce, Eu, Hf, Fe, Mo, Sc, Zn), traffic-markers (Ba, Cr), tire wear (Cr, Zn), break wear (Fe, Zn, Ba, Cu, Sb), exhaust and motor oil (Zn) and sea-spray (Br, Na). On all days these elements inside the tunnel were more enriched than outside; significant statistical differences were found for Co (p=0.005), Br (p=0.008), Zn (p=0.01) and Sb (p=0.005), while enrichment factors of As and Sc are statistically identical. The highest values were found for As, Br, Zn and Sb, for both inside and outside the tunnel.

  6. Elemental imbalance studies by INAA on extra neural tissues from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandon, L.; Ehmann, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Human kidney and liver tissues were studied for generalized elemental imbalances in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Iron was significantly increased (p<0.05) in ALS kidneys and Co and Fe (marginal, p<0.10) were increased in ALS liver compared with their respective controls. Mercury values were almost two-fold higher for ALS kidney and 17% higher for ALS liver as compared with their respective controls, However, the Hg data exhibited large variations and ALS-control differences were not significant. Data from the present study are discussed with reference to the role of metallothioneins (MT) in ALS, and a possible linkage between a free radical mediated mechanism and degeneration of cells in ALS is also explored. (author). 43 refs., 2 tabs

  7. INAA in combination with other analytical techniques in the study of urban aerosol sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binh, N.T.; Truong, Y.; Ngo, N.T.; Sieu, L.N.; Hien, P.D.

    2000-01-01

    Concentrations of elements in fine and coarse PM10 samples collected in Ho Chi Minh City were determined by INAA for the purpose of characterising air pollution sources using multivariate receptor modeling techniques. Seven sources common to coarse and fine samples were identified. Resuspended soil dust is dominant in the coarse samples accounting for 41% of the particulate mass. In the fine samples, vehicle emissions and coal burning are most important accounting for about 20% each. Although a great number of elements were included in the input data for receptor modeling, the interpretation of emission sources was not always straightforward. Information on other source markers were needed. Therefore, a polarography method was used for quantifying lead, and recently, ion chromatography method became available for quantifying secondary sulphates, nitrates and other water soluble ions. (author)

  8. Provenance and indirect dating study on Hongzhou Kiln porcelains by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.Q.; Feng, S.L.; Quan, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    Over 100 sherds were collected from Hongzhou Kiln of Jiangxi Province, China and their body samples were analyzed by INAA. The compositional differences between samples with the same period but different provenance were observed. The contents of Na, Rb, Ba, Fe, Th, U, etc., were found to be different among samples from different periods, which implies they may be used to identify the manufacturing age indirectly. The analytical data were further processed by principal components analysis (PCA). The statistical results show that all the sherds can be classified into 5 groups: (1) Eastern Han and Eastern Wu; (2) Western Jin, Eastern Jin and Southern Dynasties; (3) Sui; (4) Early Tang and Middle Tang; (5) Late Tang and Five Dynasties. (author)

  9. Classification of calcium supplements through application of principal component analysis: a study by inaa and aas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Rahman, S.; Siddique, N.

    2013-01-01

    Different types of Ca supplements are available in the local markets of Pakistan. It is sometimes difficult to classify these with respect to their composition. In the present work principal component analysis (PCA) technique was applied to classify different Ca supplements on the basis of their elemental data obtained using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) techniques. The graphical representation of principal component analysis (PCA) scores utilizing intricate analytical data successfully generated four different types of Ca supplements with compatible samples grouped together. These included Ca supplements with CaCO/sub 3/as Ca source along with vitamin C, the supplements with CaCO/sub 3/ as Ca source along with vitamin D, Supplements with Ca from bone meal and supplements with chelated calcium. (author)

  10. The provenance study of Chinese ancient color glaze from Shanxi by INAA and factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, L.; Ding, X.L.; Feng, S.L.; Feng, X.Q.; Lu, Z.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the provenance study of Chinese ancient color glaze in Shanxi. The minor and trace elements of body of color glaze in different dynasty from Xiyue temper kiln and that of Lidipo kiln in Ming Dynasty determined by INAA, some of ancient porcelain from Lidipo kiln were measured, also. The factor analysis showed that provenances of the ancient color glazes from Xiyue Temple that were produced during Song Dynasty to the early Qing Dynasty were in the place of the Xiyue kiln, and body material of ancient color have little been changed, on the other hand, that of Later Qing Dynasty were-produced from Lidipo kiln. Different color glazes were measured by SRXRF and it proved the colored elements were Fe and Cu.

  11. Determination of rare earth elements in rice by INAA and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Thi Huynh, M.; Chu Pham Ngoc, S.; Carrot, F.; Revel, G.; Dang Vu, M.

    1997-01-01

    Irrigation of rice plants with a solution of rare earth elements increases both the production capacity and the resistance to disease. Assuming that the treated plants remain expendable, the different parts of plants, root stalk and grain, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and by mass spectrometry after plasma excitation (ICP-MS). About 40 elements were determined. The results showed that the contamination remained in the roots and was absent in rice grains. The analytical distribution of different elements in different parts of both treated and non-treated plants has given some information concerning the possible effect of the rare earth treatment. The performances of the two analytical methods have been compared. (author)

  12. INAA, AAS, and lead isotope analysis of ancient lead anchors from the black SEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuleff, I.; Djingova, R.; Alexandrova, A.

    1995-01-01

    Lead stock of wooden-lead anchors found along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast and typo logically dated VI c. B.C. - III c. A.D. have been analyzed for chemical composition and lead isotope ratios by INAA, AAS and mass spectrometry. Using multivariate methods for analysis as well as simple bi variate plots the lead for production of the stocks was localized as originating from Laurion, Thassos, Troas, Chalkidike and the Rhodopes. In general, the chemical composition is not recommended to be used for provenance study of lead artefacts. Combining the results from this study with the existing typo logical classification certain conclusion about the production and distribution of lead anchors in the Aegean region are made. (author). 22 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  13. INAA of toxic heavy metals in solid wastes from Indian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.N.; Ramakrishna, V.V.S.; Singh, V.

    1997-01-01

    Solid wastes and sewage sludges in metropolitan cities are potential health hazards due to toxic heavy metal pollutants. Sewage sludges from six Indian cities viz., Ahmedabad, Bikaner, Bombay, Calcutta, Jaipur, Kanpur and solid wastes from six different disposal sites of the capital city of Delhi have been analyzed for 26 elements (As, Au, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hg, Hf, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th and Zn) by employing instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Sewage sludges from Bombay after different treatments (settled, digested, aerobic, anaerobic) along with several environmental SRMs were also analyzed. An attempt has been made to attribute the pollutant sources to the degree of urbanisation and industrialization of the city. Role of treatment processes in the removal/retention of heavy metals is discussed. (author)

  14. Further investigating the determination of phosphorus in plants by INAA using bremsstrahlung measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, T.C.M.; Bacchi, M.A.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential element for plants and animals, playing a fundamental role in the production of biochemical energy. Despite its relevance, phosphorus is not commonly determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), because 32 P does not emit gamma-rays in its decay. There are alternative methods for the determination of phosphorus by INAA, such as the use of beta counting or the measurement of bremsstrahlung originated from the high energy beta particle from 32 P. Here the determination of phosphorus in plant materials by measuring the bremsstrahlung production was further investigated, to optimize an analytical protocol for minimizing interferences and overcoming the poor specificity. Eight certified reference materials of plant matrices with phosphorus ranging between 171 and 5,180 mg kg -1 were irradiated at a thermal neutron flux of 9.5 x 10 12 cm -2 s -1 and measured with a HPGe detector at decay times varying from 7 to 60 days. Phosphorus solutions added to a certified reference material at three levels were used for calibration. Counts accumulated in the baseline at four different regions of the gamma-ray spectra were tested for the determination of phosphorus, with better results for the 100 keV region. The Compton scattering contribution in the selected range was discounted using an experimental peak-to-Compton factor and the net areas of all peaks in the spectra with energies higher than 218 keV, i.e. Compton edge above 100 keV. Amongst the interferences investigated, the production of 32 P from sulfur, and the contribution of Compton scattering should be considered for producing good results. (author)

  15. Monitoring environmental pollution by ko-INAA for environmental protection in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutisna; Saryati; Yusuf, Saeful; Rina, Theresia; Suryani, Rina

    2007-01-01

    Regarding to the 2005-2007FNCA program decided, the NAA technique based on the k o -method has been used to determine a concentration of pollutant as function of time and location. This program carries out to monitor a pollutant in the marine environmental sample. Marine samples of sediment, seawater and a clamp, as well as, a green oyster collected from a selected location at north of Banten province and the Bay of Jakarta. Sampling have been carried out twice a year. For background, same sample have been collected at the sampling point located at south-west of Banten. Sediment and biota sample were prepared for NAA determination, meanwhile seawater have been prepared for polarographic measurement. Marine Sediment and biota samples, as well as flux monitor, have been irradiated at a rabbit system facility of RSG GA Siwabessy reactor with a thermal neutron flux of about 2.6.10 +17 n.m -2 .s -1 . Identification of (n, γ) reaction product has been done using a high resolution HPGe detector coupled to a multichannel analyzer. Analysis of γ-ray emitted by activation product have been done using Hyperlab software, while the elemental quantitative analysis have been done by the k o -INAA procedure using k o -IAEA software. The analytical quality was controlled by use of certified reference material of NIST 2702 Marine Sediment, SRM NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue, crm NMIJ 7302a Sediment and CRM No. 9 Sargasso. As preliminary result, the numbers of interested elements in sediments samples were determined to be of about 20 and should be presented in this workshop. Some results of k o -INAA assessment will also be reported and discussed. (author)

  16. Relative enrichment of trace elements in atmospheric biomonitors - INAA results on tree bark and lichen thalli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, A.M.G.; Freitas, M.C.; Ventura, M.G

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear techniques, such as INAA and PIXE, are invaluable tools in environmental studies. Atmospheric biomonitoring, in particular, has been a preferential domain for their application, especially (yet not exclusively) due to their analytical robustness, minimal requirements as to sample preparation, and multi-elemental capabilities. The latter aspect is not just important for the complement they stand for each other, but also for the possibility of multiple determination, that may provide an in-depth picture of an elemental pool and, therefore, assist in data analysis, qualification and interpretation, even if some research had been originally designed to target specific, fewer elements. This paper addresses the relative magnitude of concentration patterns (by INAA) in epiphytic lichens (Parmelia spp.) and olive tree (Olea europaea Linn.) bark from an extended sampling in mainland Portugal, by looking at representative elements from natural and anthropogenic sources. Not seldom have higher plants been overlooked as indicators due to vascular and nutritional features, and also for supposedly yielding poorer analytical signals as a result of an inferior accumulation of airborne contaminants. A nonparametric assessment - correlation and sign trends - of raw and normalised (to a crustal reference) data has shown that while absolute concentrations are indeed (generally) higher in lichens, they also appear to be inflated by inputs from local circulation and/or re-suspension of previously deposited materials. On the contrary, the relative enrichment of non-crustal elements is almost invariably higher in bark than in lichens, which seems definitely at odds with the dim-accumulation scenario mentioned above. Even when the opposite occurs, the corresponding differences are non-significant but for Cl. Judging from these results, the question of signal magnitude - and the problem of biased atmospheric indication at large - could eventually stem more from the impact of soil

  17. A laser ablation ICP-MS based method for multiplexed immunoblot analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bang, Thomas Christian; Petersen, Jørgen; Pedas, Pai Rosager

    2015-01-01

    developed a multiplexed antibody-based assay and analysed selected PSII subunits in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). A selection of antibodies were labelled with specific lanthanides and immunoreacted with thylakoids exposed to Mn deficiency after western blotting. Subsequently, western blot membranes were...... analysed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), which allowed selective and relative quantitative analysis via the different lanthanides. The method was evaluated against established liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC...... by more than one technique. The developed method enables a higher number of proteins to be multiplexed in comparison to existing immunoassays. Furthermore, multiplexed protein analysis by LA-ICP-MS provides an analytical platform with high throughput appropriate for screening large collections of plants....

  18. Evaluation of trace elements in chewing tobacco and snuff using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Siddique, N.; Rahman, S.

    2009-01-01

    Nine samples of chewing tobacco, snuff, tobacco leaf and ash were analyzed using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Almost all samples of chewing tobacco and snuff studied in this work contain substantial amounts of Mg, Mn, Na, K. V. Sc, Rb and Fe. Furthermore, varying amounts of Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co and Zn were also detected in all tobacco samples. Of the toxic elements which were determined using INAA. As, Sb and Hg were quantified in only few tobacco samples. However, other toxic elements, which were determined using AAS, such as Cu, Pb and Cd were detected in almost all samples of chewing tobacco and snuff. The concentration of majority of the detected elements is high in ash samples which imply that most elements in chewing tobacco and snuff may originate from the addition of ash. (orig.)

  19. Evaluation of trace elements in chewing tobacco and snuff using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waheed, S.; Siddique, N.; Rahman, S. [Chemistry Div., Directorate of Science, Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Tech., Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2009-07-01

    Nine samples of chewing tobacco, snuff, tobacco leaf and ash were analyzed using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Almost all samples of chewing tobacco and snuff studied in this work contain substantial amounts of Mg, Mn, Na, K. V. Sc, Rb and Fe. Furthermore, varying amounts of Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co and Zn were also detected in all tobacco samples. Of the toxic elements which were determined using INAA. As, Sb and Hg were quantified in only few tobacco samples. However, other toxic elements, which were determined using AAS, such as Cu, Pb and Cd were detected in almost all samples of chewing tobacco and snuff. The concentration of majority of the detected elements is high in ash samples which imply that most elements in chewing tobacco and snuff may originate from the addition of ash. (orig.)

  20. Nutritional and environmental properties of algal products used in healthy diet by INAA and ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avino, P.; Lepore, L.; Carconi, P.L.; Moauro, A.

    2000-01-01

    Spirulina platensis alga sampled in the Caribbean Sea and seven other commercial algal products available on the Italian market of different origin and aspect, have been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). By neutron irradiation and γ-ray spectrometry (INAA), as many as 20 elements could be measured instrumentally without any chemical treatment. Cu, Mg, Mn and Pb were determined after dissolution of the sample by ICP-AES. The cross-checking of the data, specifically by comparing those of Ca, Cr, Fe and Zn, obtained by the two techniques was found to be in good agreement. Special attention from analytical and nutritional point of view has been devoted to the toxic metals. The measurements have been carried out employing the reference algal material prepared by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

  1. Plastics from household waste as a source of heavy metal pollution: An inventory study using INAA as the analytical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, P.; De Bruin, M.; Aalbers, Th.G.; Meyer, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    An inventory study to the levels of cadmium in the plastic component of household waste was carried out utilizing INAA as the analytical technique. In a 2-h irradiation, 2-d decay, and 1-h measurement, protocol adequate sensitivities could be obtained for Cd, but also for a group of other metals: Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Sr, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Sn, Sb, Ba, and Hg. Red-, orange-, and yellow-colored plastics either contain Cd at high levels (over 1000 mg/kg) or have relatively low Cd concentrations (<50 mg/kg). High concentrations were also occasionally found for Sr,Se,Ba,Sb, and Hg. INAA appeared very well to be routinely usable for such analysis because of the absence of a destruction step, adequate sensitivity, high accuracy, and multielement results

  2. k0-INAA as a contributor in nutrition and health. Multielemental determination in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, leaves and stevioside product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedregal, P.S.; Ubillus, M.S.; Mendoza, P.A.

    2018-01-01

    Concerned about food safety and considering the advantages that bring the use of the powerful INAA technique based in k 0 method, we have decided to perform a complete multi element determination in the leaves and in the product stevioside, of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, which use as a sweetener has increased in the last decade. Using Stevia leaves from different origin, thirty seven elements were determined using k 0 -INAA; copper was quantified using ontoFAAS, while sixteen elements were determined in the stevioside product from different manufacturers. The results indicated that it is necessary to make a strict quality control on the content of elements in leaves, which are used both as a raw material of the stevioside product, as a sweetener. (author)

  3. Atmospheric deposition of trace elements around Ulan Bator city studied by moss and lichen biomonitoring technique and INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganbold, G.; Gehrbish, Sh.; Tsehndehehkhuu, Ts.; Gundorina, S.F.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Ostrovnaya, T.M.; Pavlov, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    For the first time the moss and lichen biomonitoring technique has been applied to air pollution in Mongolia (Ulan-Bator, the capital city). INAA at the IBR-2 reactor has made it possible to determine the content of 35 elements in moss and lichen biomonitors. Samples collected at sites located 10-15 km from the center of Ulan-Bator were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using epithermal neutrons. The mosses (Rhytidium rugosum, Thuidium abietinum, Entodon concinnus) and lichens (Cladonia stellaris, Parmelia separata) were used to study the atmospheric deposition of trace elements. It was shown that the suggested types of mosses could be used as suitable biomonitors to estimate the concentration levels of heavy metals and trace elements in Ulan-Bator atmospheric deposition. The results are compared to the data of atmospheric deposition of some European countries

  4. Atmospheric Deposition of Trace Elements Around Ulan-Bator City Studied by Moss and Lichen Biomonitoring Technique and INAA

    CERN Document Server

    Ganbold, G; Gundorina, S F; Frontasyeva, M V; Ostrovnaya, T M; Pavlov, S S; Tsendeekhuu, T

    2005-01-01

    For the first time the moss and lichen biomonitoring technique has been applied to air pollution in Mongolia (Ulan-Bator, the capital city). INAA at the IBR-2 reactor has made it possible to determine the content of 35 elements in moss and lichen biomonitors. Samples collected at sites located 10-15 km from the center of Ulan-Bator were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using epithermal neutrons. The mosses (\\textit{Rhytidium rugosum}, \\textit{Thuidium abietinum}, \\textit{Entodon concinnus}) and lichens (\\textit{Cladonia stellaris}, \\textit{Parmelia separata}) were used to study the atmospheric deposition of trace elements. It was shown that the suggested types of mosses could be used as suitable biomonitors to estimate the concentration levels of heavy metals and trace elements in Ulan-Bator atmospheric deposition. The results are compared to the data of atmospheric deposition of some European countries.

  5. Comparative study of essential and toxic trace elements in chewing tobacco and pan masalas by INAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul Choudhury, R.; Garg, A.N.; Nair, A.G.C.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of about 25 elements were measured in 10 samples of chewing tobacco and 5 of pan masalas by INAA and AAS. Reference Materials (RMs) were analysed for quality assurance and data validation. It is observed that besides many essential elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, P, Ca, Mg), several toxic elements such as As, Sb, Hg, Ni and Pb are also present in significant amounts and are likely to be swallowed along with saliva while chewing. (author)

  6. The accuracy of k1-standardized INAA applied to a gold-lined well-type detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaauw, M.

    2000-01-01

    The k 1 -method for standardization in INAA specifically tackles the problem of the interpretation of gamma-ray spectra as obtained with highly efficient detectors, as opposed to the k 0 -method. Results obtained from three NIST reference materials, measured after neutron activation with a gold-lined well-type detector, are presented. It is concluded that the accuracy of the method is better than 1%. (author)

  7. Multianalytical determination of trace elements in atmospheric biomonitors by k0-INAA, ICP-MS and AAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, M. C.; Pacheco, A. M. G.; Dionísio, I.; Sarmento, S.; Baptista, M. S.; Vasconcelos, M. T. S. D.; Cabral, J. P.

    2006-08-01

    Elemental contents of atmospheric biomonitors—epiphytic lichens and tree bark, exposed in continuous and discontinuous modes—have been assessed through k0-standardised instrumental neutron activation analysis ( k0-INAA) (two different institutions), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Certified reference materials—ISE-921 (river clay), NIST-1547 (peach leaves), ICHTJ-INCT-TL-1 (tea leaves; TL-1 hereinafter) and IAEA-336 (lichen material), and nonparametric statistics—rank-order correlations (Spearman RS) and enhanced-sign tests (Wilcoxon T)—were used for analytical control and data comparison, respectively. In general, quality of procedures was deemed good, except for k0-INAA in determining Br, Cu and Na, all likely affected by high counting statistics, and/or contamination issues (the latter). Results for Cu, Ni, Pb and Sr (by both ICP-MS and AAS) revealed that, despite an outstanding correlation (asymptotic p=0.000), they could be viewed as statistically equal for Cu only: AAS tended to yield higher values for Pb and Ni, and lower ones for Sr. The comparison between ICP-MS and k0-INAA data from TUDelft, for Al, Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, Na, Ti and V, showed an excellent correlation (as above) and random (relative) magnitude for Cu, Mg, Mn and Ti only: ICP-MS tended to yield higher values for Al, Na and V, and lower ones for Ca, whereas between k0-INAA data from TUDelft and ITN, for Br, Ca and Na, resulted in systematically higher [Br] and [Ca] variates from TUDelft, even if all corresponding data sets were found to correlate at stringent significance levels. In a few cases, though—Ca, Sr in lichens; Pb in bark—matrix effects did appear to interfere in the outcome of matched-pairs, signed-rank tests, since random hierarchy of variates could be asserted just when lichen and bark data sets were processed separately.

  8. Use of INAA in the preparation of a set soil Reference Materials with certified values of total element contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Horakova, J.; Soukal, L.

    1997-01-01

    A set of certified Reference Materials was prepared consisting of four natural agricultural soils with normal (n) and elevated (e) levels of element contents: CRM 7001 Light Sandy Soil (n), CRM 7002 Light Sandy Soil (e), CRM 7003 Silty Clay Loam (n), and CRM 7004 Loam (e). In these materials, certified and/or information values of the total contents of the elements As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn, and their fractions extractable by aqua regia, boiling and cold 2M nitric acid were derived from an interlaboratory comparison in which 28 laboratories participated. Highly precise and accurate procedures of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) were employed for homogeneity testing and also for certification of the total element contents. For comparation purposes, NIST SRM-2704 Buffalo River Sediment was analyzed by INAA, as well. The INAA results obtained compared very well with the certified and/or information values for four soil CRMs and also with NIST values for SRM-2704. From this agreement, a very high reliability of the new soil CRMs can be inferred. (author)

  9. Use of INAA, PGAA, and RNAA to determine 30 elements for certification of an SRM; Tomato leaves, 1573a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D L [Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Contaminants Chemistry; Becker, D A; Lindstrom, R M; Greenberg, R R; Garrity, K M; Mackey, E A [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Analyses for certification have been made for the determination of 30 elements in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Tomato Leaves renewal reference material, SRM 1573a. Three of the analytical techniques used were instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA), and prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA). These techniques provided data on 19 elements by INAA, 10 elements by PGAA, and 7 elements by RNAA, with some overlap between techniques. For example, INAA was able to obtain overall analytical uncertainties (at the 95 % confidence level) averaging [+-] 2.2 % for major and minor constituents (Ca, Mg, K), [+-] 3.3 % for constituents from 1 to 1000 [mu]g/g (Na, Fe, Al, Mn, Ba, Zn, Rb, La, Cr), and [+-] 6.4 % for elements between 10 and 1000 ng/g (Co, V, Se, Th, Sc, Sb), using sample dry weights of approximately 150 mg. These analyses represent the most extensive use to date of nuclear analytical techniques in the certification of a trace element SRM at NIST. (author) 6 refs.; 3 tabs.

  10. Influence of laser ablation parameters on trueness of imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaculovič, T.; Warchilová, T.; Čadková, Z.; Száková, J.; Tlustoš, P.; Otruba, V.; Kanický, V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Laser ablation conditions vs. quality of LA-ICP-MS imaging (resolution, detection). • Increase in laser spot size improves detection limit, while deteriorates resolution. • Decrease in scan speed improves resolution but prolongs time of analysis. • Compromise spot size and scan speed meet required quality of imaging. • Metal-enriched/depleted zones in tapeworm sections were resolved by LA-ICP-MS. - Abstract: Influence of laser ablation conditions on limit of detection, spatial resolution and time of analysis was studied for laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) applied to elemental mapping. Laser repetition rate and laser fluence were investigated in tapeworm thin section to attain optimum ablation rate, yielding appropriately low detection limit which complies with elemental contents in the tissue. Effect of combinations of laser spot size and scan speed on relative broadening (Δw rel ) of image of the ablated pattern (line) was investigated with the aim to quantify the trueness of imaging. Ink lines printed on paper were employed for the study of influence of spot size and scan speed on limit of detection, relative broadening of elemental image and duration of elemental mapping. An uneven distribution of copper in a printed line (coffee stain effect) was observed. The Δw rel is strongly reduced (down to 2%) at low scan speed (10 μm s −1 ) and laser spot diameter of 10 μm but resulting in unacceptably long time of mapping (up to 3000 min). Finally, tapeworm thin-section elemental maps (4 mm × 5 mm) were obtained at the laser spot diameter of 65 μm and the scan speed of 65 μm s −1 within 100 min. A dissimilar lateral distribution of Pb was observed in comparison with that of Cu or Zn due to different pathways of element uptake

  11. Influence of laser ablation parameters on trueness of imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaculovič, T.; Warchilová, T. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); CEITEC, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, Brno 62500 (Czech Republic); Čadková, Z.; Száková, J.; Tlustoš, P. [Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcka 129, Praha 16521 (Czech Republic); Otruba, V. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); Kanický, V., E-mail: viktork@chemi.muni.cz [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); CEITEC, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, Brno 62500 (Czech Republic)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Laser ablation conditions vs. quality of LA-ICP-MS imaging (resolution, detection). • Increase in laser spot size improves detection limit, while deteriorates resolution. • Decrease in scan speed improves resolution but prolongs time of analysis. • Compromise spot size and scan speed meet required quality of imaging. • Metal-enriched/depleted zones in tapeworm sections were resolved by LA-ICP-MS. - Abstract: Influence of laser ablation conditions on limit of detection, spatial resolution and time of analysis was studied for laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) applied to elemental mapping. Laser repetition rate and laser fluence were investigated in tapeworm thin section to attain optimum ablation rate, yielding appropriately low detection limit which complies with elemental contents in the tissue. Effect of combinations of laser spot size and scan speed on relative broadening (Δw{sub rel}) of image of the ablated pattern (line) was investigated with the aim to quantify the trueness of imaging. Ink lines printed on paper were employed for the study of influence of spot size and scan speed on limit of detection, relative broadening of elemental image and duration of elemental mapping. An uneven distribution of copper in a printed line (coffee stain effect) was observed. The Δw{sub rel} is strongly reduced (down to 2%) at low scan speed (10 μm s{sup −1}) and laser spot diameter of 10 μm but resulting in unacceptably long time of mapping (up to 3000 min). Finally, tapeworm thin-section elemental maps (4 mm × 5 mm) were obtained at the laser spot diameter of 65 μm and the scan speed of 65 μm s{sup −1} within 100 min. A dissimilar lateral distribution of Pb was observed in comparison with that of Cu or Zn due to different pathways of element uptake.

  12. Acceleration of Vaporization, Atomization, and Ionization Efficiencies in Inductively Coupled Plasma by Merging Laser-Ablated Particles with Hydrochloric Acid Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Takashi; Izumo, Saori; Furuta, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    To accelerate the vaporization, atomization, and ionization efficiencies in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, we merged HCl gas with laser-ablated particles before introduction into the plasma, to convert their surface constituents from oxides to lower-melting chlorides. When particles were merged with HCl gas generated from a HCl solution at 200°C, the measured concentrations of elements in the particles were 135% higher on average than the concentrations in particles merged with ultrapure water vapor. Particle corrosion and surface roughness were observed by scanning electron microscopy, and oxide conversion to chlorides was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Under the optimum conditions, the recoveries of measured elements improved by 23% on average, and the recoveries of elements with high-melting oxides (Sr, Zr, and Th) improved by as much as 36%. These results indicate that vaporization, atomization, and ionization in the ICP improved when HCl gas was merged with the ablated particles.

  13. EDXRF and INAA analyses of surface sediments of the Gulf of Saros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akyuz, T.; Mukhamedshina, N.; Mirsagatova, A.A.; Akyuz, S.; Sari, E.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A variety of elements and organic matter have been introduced to the environment as a result of human activities. Such substances find their way to the aquatic sediments from direct discharges to waterways, atmospheric emissions, and run of. In aquatic systems, sediments become the eventual sink for most of these chemicals. One of the most useful approaches to long-term monitoring of aquatic systems is the analysis of marine sediments. The Gulf of Saros in the northeastern Aegean Sea (Turkey) is a relatively unpolluted marine environment. It is located between latitudes 40 o 19 ' N - 40 o 37 ' N and longitudes 26 o 19 ' E - 26 o 50 ' E and has approximately 60 km length and 6-33 km wide. The main sources of fresh water and sediment to the Gulf are the Meric River in the northwest and the Kavak Creek in the east. In this study, 54 surface sediment samples, collected at different water depths in the Saros Gulf, by cruise of Sismik-1 of Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey, using Van Veen graph sampler were analysed quantitatively by radioisotope energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) techniques. In the case of EDXRF analysis, samples were excited using an 241 Am source (10 mCi) and a HPGe detector or a 109 Cd source (25 mCi) and a Si(Li) detector for 50,000 s with resolutions of approximately 350 eV and 185 eV FWHM, respectively, at 5.89 keV. The quantitative analyses were performed by the fundamental parameter technique, in order to minimise the matrix effects in X-ray fluorescence analysis. In the case of INAA method, the samples of 0.1 - 0.15 g mass were irradiated simultaneously with reference materials at a fission spectra neutron flux of the density of ∼5.10 13 cm -2 .s -1 (WWR-SM) nuclear reactor of Institute of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The concentrations of 40 elements were determined. The main interest of the present study is to assess the environmental state

  14. INAA study of sorption U from technological solution by different microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhamedshina, N.M.; Mirsagatova, A.A.; Bekmukhamedova, N.K.; Khamidova, Kh.M.; Rakhimova, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The capacity of microorganisms to accumulate metal ions can be used for the extraction of metals from technological solutions. The aim of this INAA study is to investigate the extraction U from technological solutions by different microorganisms- actinomycetes, Aspergillus niger and Acremonium sp10 cultures and to search more effective biosorbents of U among them. INAA is more available and cheap method for us also it has high enough sensitivity and allows to avoid exposing the bacteria to radioactive metals. Atomic absorptive analyzer is more suitable for the determination of impurities in solutions, but it is expensive and not available for us. Biomasses of microorganisms (1 g of each) were tested for their U sorption capacity from a technological solution of U-production, containing 71.1 mg/l ions U (initial solution diluted 10 times). The interaction between biomass and solutions lasted for 15 min. The flask with the solution was placed on a horizontal shaker (180 rpm) for 15 min and was then centrifuged. Then the amount U not sorted by the microorganisms was measured from the over-sedimentary solution (decantation). After sorption, 0.1 ml aliquots of the decantation were dropped on strips of ash free filter paper. The strips (samples) were dried, wrapped in the aluminum packets and placed in a container for irradiation in nuclear reactor. The U samples were irradiated for 5 at the fission neutron flux density of 5.3·10 13 cm -2 s -1 . The U content was calculated from the gamma-line (228.2 keV, 277.8 keV) intensities of radionuclide 239Np Uncertainty the U determining (relative standard deviation) was 2-3 %. Is shown, that the most effective sorbents of U from technological solutions are some strains of actinomycetes (98,0%) and microscopical fungus Acremonium sp10 (98, 3%).The optimal temperature solution was from of 23.5 o to 42.0 o and optimal pH was 8,3

  15. Investigation by gamma-ray spectrometry and INAA of radioactivity impact on phosphate fertilizer plant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelica, A.; Companis, I.; Georgescu, I. I.; Pincovshi, E.

    2006-01-01

    The radioactive polluting effect of a phosphate fertilizer plant on the environment was investigated by gamma-ray spectrometry and neutron activation analysis (INAA). The hazards could arise from industrial plants using raw phosphate materials to prepare fertilizers for agricultural purposes due to the phosphate rock which, depending on the type and geographical zone of provenance may contain rather large amounts of uranium. The fertilizer plant under study is situated about 4 km from the town of Turnu Magurele, on the left bank of the Danube River in Romania. The main by-products of the factory are: nitro phosphate type fertilizers (NP, NPK), Ammonia, Nitric acid, Ammonium nitrate, Urea, Sulfuric acid, Phosphoric acid, Sodium fluorosilicate and Aluminum sulfate. Gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides ( 2 26Ra, 2 35U, 2 38U, 2 32Th, and 4 0K), as well as 1 37Cs man-made radionuclide in surface soils collected from semicircular areas within radii of 0.5 and 15 km of the plant; in addition, different NPK type fertilizers and phosphate rocks were investigated. The samples (mass of about 100-g each) were kept tightly closed for one month to permit 2 26Ra to establish radioactive equilibrium with its decay products. This method makes it possible to assess U, Th, and K contents in samples by measuring 2 38U and 2 32Th (in equilibrium with their radioactive daughters) and 4 0K radioactivity, taken into account that 1 g of U, Th and K yield 1 2358 Bq 2 38U, 569 Bq 2 35U, 4057.2 Bq 2 32Th and 33.11 Bq 4 0K, respectively. The spectrometrical chain was based on a HPGe (EG and G Ortec) detector of 30 % relative efficiency and 2.1 keV resolution at 1332 keV of 6 0Co. INAA technique (neutron irradiation at TRIGA reactor of SCN Pitesti) was used to determine macro, micro and trace elements in samples collected from both technological shops of the factory (air dust and drinking tap water) and its surroundings

  16. Determination of 21 elements by INAA for certification of SRM 1570a, Spinach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Analyses for certification have been made by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for the determination of 21 elements in the National Institute of Standards and technology (NIST) Spinach renewal reference material, SRM 1570a. Elements determined included ones with short halflife products (Al, V, Ca, Mg) intermediate halflife products (Mn, Na, K, La), and long halflife products (Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, and Zn). For the first time a new robotic sample changer was used in the counting of long halflife indicator isotopes for certification of an SRM. Uncertainties obtained averaged ± 1.80% for the four major and minor constituents (Ca, K, Mg, Na); ± 3.14% for elements with concentrations form 1 to 400 mg/kg (Al, Ba, Cr, Fe, Mn, Rb, Sr, and Zn); and ± 8.31% for the ultra trace elements (<1 mg/kg) (Co, Cs, Eu, La, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, and V). (author) 3 refs.; 3 tabs

  17. ZAKI a windows-based k sub o standardization code for in-core INAA

    CERN Document Server

    Ojo, J O

    2002-01-01

    A new computer code ZAKI, for k sub o -based INAA standardization, written in Visual Basic for the WINDOWS environment is described. The parameter alpha measuring the deviation of the epithermal neutron spectrum shape from the ideal 1/E shape, and the thermal-to-epithermal flux ratio f, are monitored at each irradiation position for each irradiation using the ''triple bare monitor with k sub o '' technique. Stability of the irradiation position with respect to alpha and f is therefore assumed only for the duration of the irradiation. This now makes it possible to use k sub o standardization even for in-core reactor irradiation channels without an a priori knowledge of alpha and f values as required by existing commercial software. ZAKI is considerably versatile and contains features which allow for use of several detectors at different counting geometries, direct inputting of peak search output from GeniePc, and automatic nuclide identification of all gamma lines using an in-built library. Sample results for ...

  18. Chemical elements in common vegetable components of Portuguese diets, determined by k 0-INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, A.M.G.; Freitas, M.C.; Ventura, M.G.; Dionisio, I.; Ermakova, E.

    2006-01-01

    Vegetables play an important role in national diets, as a side dish to many a main-course fare the whole year round, and, especially in what concerns raw lettuce and tomato, with a higher seasonal rate of consumption during summer months, as associated to the traditional charcoal-grilled sardines. In March 2004, lettuces, tomatoes, carrots and cabbages of Portuguese origin (except for the carrots from one site) were purchased from large commercial areas or central markets of two central and southern regional hubs, respectively Coimbra and Evora. Even if from different growers, all vegetables had come from horticultural plots in the same general area of western Portugal, north of Lisboa. For lettuce plants, the inner leaves were separated from the external ones and processed as different samples for further analysis. In this work, the reactor and detector parameters were re-evaluated for the new IAEA k 0 -INAA software. Quality assessment was obtained through analysis of IAEA-359 (cabbage material) and BCR-679 (Bowen's kale). Traces of hazardous elements-namely, antimony, arsenic and bromine-could be found throughout, and, for lettuce samples, the overall results indicate that outer leaves feature higher concentrations than inner ones. Interestingly enough, vegetables from Coimbra and Evora appeared to differ from each other in their elemental levels, even if originally grown at relatively close range. Concentrations of trace elements are compared to available data from other countries' cultivars

  19. Elemental analysis of some Egyptian medicinal plants using INAA and FAAS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walley El-Dine, N.; Sroor, A.; Hammed, S.S.; El-Shershaby, A.; Alsamed, M.A

    2009-01-01

    Thirteen Egyptian medicinal plants used for the treatment and cure of various diseases have been elementally analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The pneumatic rabbit transfer system (PRTS)of 100 kw Budapest research reactor (BRR) was used , for short time irradiation, 300 s, with a thermal neutron flux of 2.4 * 10 12 n/(cm 2 .s). Long time irradiation, 4 hours, was performed at the second research Egyptian reactor (Et-Rr-2) with thermal neutron flux of 5.6 * 10 13 n/(cm 2 .s).Gamma ray spectra were measured by a HPGe detection system . The concentrations of fifteen elements namely Sc,Cr,Fe,Co ,Zn,Rb ,Mo,Sb,La,Ce,Nd, Sm, Yb, Hf and Pa have been determined by long irradiation time and some of them were determined also by FAAS technique. Fourteen elements Na,Mg,Al ,Cd,Cl,K,Ca,Ti,V,Mn ,Ni, Sr,Pb,and Cu, have been identified by short irradiation time and FAAS technique. The precision and accuracy of the method were evaluated using the standard reference material NIST SRM-1571. Comparison of the data obtained give agreement between the concentration of elements determined by the two techniques. The importance of these elements related to human health and nutrition has been discussed

  20. Study on ancient Chinese imitated GE ware by INAA and WDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Guoxi; Feng Songlin; Feng Xiangqian; Wang Yanqing; Zhu Jihao; Yan Lingtong; Li Yongqiang; Han Hongye

    2007-01-01

    Imitated GE ware was one of the most famous products of Jingdezhen porcelain field in Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644). The exterior features of its body and glaze are very marvelous. Black foot, purple mouth and crazing glaze are the main features of imitated GE ware. Until now, the key conditions of resulting these features are not clearly identified. In order to find the critical elements for firing these features, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) were used to determine the element abundance patterns of imitated GE ware body and glaze. The experimental data was compared with that of imitated Longquan celadon and of Longquan celadon. The analytical results indicated that Fe, Ti and Na were the critical elements. The body of imitated GE ware which contains high Fe and Ti are the basic conditions of firing its black body, black foot and purple mouth. The glaze of imitated GE ware which contains high Na is the main condition of producing its crazing glaze. Na is the critical element which enlarges the difference in expansion coefficients between the glaze and body of imitated GE ware. Furthermore, Zijin soil was added into kaolin to make the body rich in Fe and Ti. And something which was rich in Na was used to produce crazing glaze in the manufacturing process of imitated GE ware

  1. Comparative study for essential elements determination in milk products samples by INAA and ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kira, Carmen S.; Maihara, Vera A.

    2002-01-01

    The mineral elements Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na and Zn were analyzed in milk products by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The study included four types of cheese (mozzarella, minas, prato, parmesan), chocolate milk and yogurt. The samples were purchased from the local markets. Average concentrations ranged from 3668 (chocolate milk) to 16558 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Ca; from 2.61 (parmesan cheese) to 28.9 (chocolate milk) mg/kg for Fe; from 673 (mozzarella cheese) to 10492 (chocolate milk) mg/kg for K; from 398 (yogurt) to 2280 (minas cheese) mg/kg for Mg; from 1681 (yogurt) to 15248 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Na; from 12.1 (chocolate milk) to 71.8 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Zn. Two National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference materials (SRM 8435 Whole Milk Powder and SRM 1549 Non Fat Milk Powder) were analyzed to verify method accuracy. The statistic test used to determine the significance of the difference between the techniques was based on Unpaired t-Student test. Statistical test revealed no significance differences (P< 0,05) between the average values provided by the two methods for the most of determined elements. (author)

  2. Provenance and indirect dating study on Hongzhou Kiln porcelains by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.Q.; Feng, S.L.; Fan, C.S.; Zhang, W.J.; Quan, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    Hongzhou Kiln is one of the six leading celadon kilns in Tang Dynasty and plays an important role in the history of Chinese ceramics for its diverse decoration styles and innovative technology. Archaeologists divided Hongzhou Kiln production into 8 periods, i.e. Eastern Han and Eastern Wu, Western Jin, Eastern Jin, Southern Dynasties, Sui, Early Tang, Middle Tang, Late Tang and Five Dynasties. Up to now, 26 kiln sites have been discovered and excavated. A study on the chemical composition of the porcelains of different periods and provenance will help to know the developing process of Hongzhou celadon such as variation of raw materials, recipes, manufacturing technology, causes of prosperity and decline, etc. Over 200 sherds were collected and their body samples were analyzed by INAA. The compositional differences between samples with the same period but different provenance were observed. The contents of Na, Rb, Ba, Fe, Th, U, etc were found to be different among samples from different periods, which implies they may be used to identify the manufacturing age. The analytical data were further processed by principal component analysis (PCA). The statistical results show that all the sherds can be classified into 5 groups, (1) Eastern Han and Eastern Wu; (2) Western Jin, Eastern Jin and Southern Dynasties; (3) Sui; (4) Early Tang and Middle Tang; (5) Late Tang and Five Dynasties.

  3. Study on the elemental features of ancient Chinese white porcelain at Jingdezhen by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Guoxi [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); Graduated University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Feng Songlin [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China)], E-mail: fengsl@ihep.ac.cn; Feng Xiangqian [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Yongqiang; Han Hongye [Beijing Institute of Cultural Relics, Beijing 100009 (China); Wang Yanqing; Zhu Jihao; Yan Lingtong; Li Li [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2009-03-15

    Shards of ancient Chinese white porcelain, which were excavated at Maojiawan in the city of Beijing, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). These shards were fired in the period between the Yuan (AD 1271-1368) and Ming (AD 1368-1644) dynasties at Jingdezhen in southern China. According to the analytical results, different raw materials were used for making porcelain body in this period. Fe and Na are the characteristic elements which can be used for identifying the specific date of these porcelains. Furthermore, shards of Hongwu era (AD 1368-1398), Yongle-Xuande era (AD 1403-1435) and Chenghua-Zhengde era (AD 1465-1561) of the Ming dynasty can be clearly distinguished by their elemental body composition. The temporal chemical variation in the porcelain body of these eras is observed. The elemental body composition of Zhengde-Tianshun era (AD 1436-1464) is mainly similar to that of the Hongwu and Yongle-Xuande eras. The temporal chemical feature of Zhengtong-Tianshun era was not found.

  4. INAA determination of As in sectional hair samples for forensic purposes: Chronic or acute poisoning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, Jan; Kofronova, Katerina

    2009-01-01

    Autopsy of a 29-year old woman suspect of having committed suicide by ingestion of As 2 O 3 yielded contradictory findings. ICP-MS revealed a highly elevated As level in hair collected during the autopsy , viz. 26.4 μg.g -1 , indicating chronic arsenic poisoning, whereas all clinical symptoms and pathological findings suggested acute poisoning. To elucidate this discrepancy, INAA of sectional hair samples obtained from a hair-brush of the deceased woman was performed. The As levels found, viz. 0.06 to 0.26 μg.g -1 , ruled out chronic poisoning because the woman died approximately 14 hours after ingestion of As 2 O 3 . Two reasons for the discordant results are considered: (1) accidental, non-removed contamination of hair during As 2 O 3 ingestion; (2) wrong ICP-MS procedure. A brief review is also presented of As determination in hair for forensic purposes, including the issue of the supposed and still frequently discussed poisoning of Napoleon Bonaparte

  5. Elemental analysis of the Taiwanese health food Angelica keiskei by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien-Yi Chen

    2002-01-01

    The health food Angelica keiskei, planted and consumed as an oriental herb, was sampled from five farms in Taiwan. The determination of minor and trace elements identified in the roots, fresh leaves and stems of the plant, as well as in end-products such as tea bags and capsules, is essential for estimating the recommended daily intake for ensuring optimum health safety. Samples were homogenized prior to freeze-drying, and were irradiated with a neutron flux at about 2.0 x 10 12 n x cm -1 x s -1 . A total of 17 elements were analyzed using INAA. In the collected samples the elements exist in widely differing concentrations, ranging from 10 5 to 10 -2 μg/g for different farms. Aluminum was found more highly concentrated in roots than in any other part of the plant. Selenium ws the only element analyzed down to 10 -1 μg/g in the leaves. Meanwhile, arsenic was also found in the roots and stems at levels of nearly 10 -2 μg/g. The elemental concentrations and maximum daily intake (MDI) of this herb are compared with those of Angelica sinensis (Danggui in Mandarin), Ligusticum chuanxiony (Chuanxiong in Mandarin) and Panax ginseng (Ginseng in Mandarin) as well as with the recommended daily dietary intake values for Taiwanese consumers, developed by the WHO. (author)

  6. INAA in the determination of the elemental constituents of a natural fluorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogun, F.A.; Tubosun, I.A.; Adesanmi, C.A.; Ajao, J.A.; Akanle, A.O.; Spyrou, N.M.; Ojo, J.O.

    1997-01-01

    A complementary use of the comparative and the semi-absolute variations of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has enabled us to determine 22 different elements in a sample of natural fluorite originating from the younger granite province of Nigeria. The mineral has a brownish purple appearance with some veinlets having a deep purple coloration. Of all the 22 elements measured, Fe (851.36 ppm), Sb (7.69 ppm), Ag (87.4 ppm), Hg (2.71 ppm) and Se (1.97 ppm) are found to be exclusive to the veinlets while Au (109.15 ppm), Co (2.15 ppm) and W (173.20 ppm) are concentrated in the main matrix of the fluorite. With the aid of the semi-absolute method, it was possible to measure the Au concentration in the IAEA Soil-7 reference material to be 56.83±5.87% ppm. A qualitative electron microprobe analysis (EMA) showed that the bulk of the matrix is composed mainly of Ca and F, as expected. (author)

  7. ZAKI: a windows-based ko standardization code for in-core INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojo, J.O.; Filby, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    A new computer code ZAKI, for k o -based INAA standardization, written in Visual Basic for the WINDOWS environment is described. The parameter α measuring the deviation of the epithermal neutron spectrum shape from the ideal 1/E shape, and the thermal-to-epithermal flux ratio f, are monitored at each irradiation position for each irradiation using the ''triple bare monitor with k o '' technique. Stability of the irradiation position with respect to α and f is therefore assumed only for the duration of the irradiation. This now makes it possible to use k o standardization even for in-core reactor irradiation channels without an a priori knowledge of α and f values as required by existing commercial software. ZAKI is considerably versatile and contains features which allow for use of several detectors at different counting geometries, direct inputting of peak search output from GeniePc, and automatic nuclide identification of all gamma lines using an in-built library. Sample results for two certified reference materials are presented

  8. Preliminary characterization of ceramics from the Lago Grande archaeological site in the central Amazon by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazenfratz, Roberto; Munita, Casimiro S.; Neves, Eduardo G.; Oliveira, Paulo M.S.; Toyota, Rosimeiri G.

    2009-01-01

    The macroscopic characteristics of archaeological ceramics, such as the surface decoration and shape, are used as cultural and chronological indicators of ancient people. The combination of stylistic-typological studies with archaeometric analysis, as provenance studies, has been considered of great importance in Archaeology. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the pre-colonial Amazonian occupations. Inside this context, fifty ceramic fragments from the Lago Grande archaeological site were analyzed by INAA in order to characterize its elemental composition. The results were treated with multivariate statistics: Cluster, Principal Components and Discriminant Analysis. The results obtained by these three methods were compared in an effort to achieve some correlation with the archaeological context. It was stated the existence of two different groups of artifacts. They probably regard to the main ceramic phases found in the site excavation: Paredao and Manacapuru. Once confirmed by other archaeological analyses, these results could corroborate an exchange net among the former inhabitants of Lago Grande and other sites in the neighborhood. (author)

  9. Micooprecessor controlled facility for I.N.A.A. using short half life nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, P.; Korthoven, P.J.M.; Bruin, M. de

    1986-01-01

    At IRI a new, fully atomated facility for short half life INAA is being developed and installed at the Institute 2 MW reactor. The fast rabbit transfer system is constructed only of plastic and carbonfiber parts, so that rabbit contamination is minimized. This system is automated in such a way that it can operate safely without direct supervision; the sequence of irradiations and measurements is optimized by a computer-program for a given set of samples and analysis procedures. The rabbit system is controlled by an Apple IIe-computer connected to the central PDP 11/44 system of the Radiochemistry department. For a given set of samples and required analysis procedures (irradiation-,decay-, and measurement times) the central computer calculates an optimal sequence of individual actions (transfer from and to the reactor, sample storage of detector) to be carried out by the system. This sequence is loaded into the Apple-computer as a series of commands together with timing information. Actual control of the procedure occurs through the peripheral computer, which makes the system independent of delays or break-downs of the central multi-user computer system. Hardware, software and operating characteristics of the fast rabbit system will be discussed. (author)

  10. Passage rates in poultry digestion using stable isotope markers and INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkley, C.S.; Kim, W.K.; Ricke, S.C.; James, W.D.; Ellis, W.C.; McReynolds, J.L.; Kubena, L.F.; Nisbet, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    A method has been developed for the study of passage rates and mean residence times (MRT) of test rations through the gastrointestinal tracts of layer hens. The use of rare earth elements as stable indigestible markers monitored by neutron activation analysis has been previously demonstrated in numerous species. In this study hafnium was used to mark corn and alfalfa rations as well as a combination ration made up of 90% alfalfa and 10% corn. The primary goal of the study was to evaluate the potential for use of rare earth stable markers in poultry digestion and to determine efficiency of meal marking, optimum exposure rates and determination limits for use in the design of future experimental protocols. Three groups of 10 hens each were fed a particular marked meal with fecal droppings monitored for 24 hours. The hens were sacrificed after a second dosed feeding and a delay of two or seven hours, and digesta was collected from each portion of the gastrointestinal tract. Fecal dry matter as well as digesta collected was then prepared for analysis and the elemental concentrations of hafnium were measured with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Element adsorption on alfalfa was far less efficient than on the corn ration, limiting the applicability of much of the alfalfa data to digestion studies. Passage rate curves were prepared for corn. The marker was found to primarily concentrate in the ileum at both sacrifice times. (author)

  11. An environmental pollution study of Indian metropolitan cities and industrial surroundings by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.N.; Chutke, N.L.; Ambulkar, M.N.

    1995-01-01

    The process of urbanization and industrialization during last two decades has resulted in increased level of air pollution causing hazards to human health. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using short and long term irradiation has been employed for the determination of more than 30 elements in suspended particulate matter (SPM) from six metropolitan cities and three industrial surroundings. A comparison of mean elemental contents in dust particulates from commercial, industrial and residential zones of Delhi, Calcutta, Madras, Cochin, Bombay and Nagpur cities has shown wide variation in toxic pollutant (As, Br, Cr, Cu, Hg and Sb) concentrations. Coastal areas have shown higher concentrations of Na, K, Cl and Br. Highly industrialized Bombay showed highest levels of Br, Cl, Cr, Fe, Mg, P, Rb and Sc. Mean elemental contents in fugitive and ambient dust of a cement factory and thermal power station (both in central India) are widely different. SPM levels in fugitive dust of the two industrial surroundings are higher by an order of magnitude compared to ambient air. Analysis of ambient air dust from a paper mill showed highest concentrations of Hg, Sb and Zn. Elemental data have been compared with those of Urban Particulate Matter (SRM 1648), Coal Fly Ash (SRM 1633a) and Vehicle Exhaust Particulate (NIES No. 8) which were analysed for quality control. An attempt has been made to attribute the elemental contents to possible sources of origin. (author) 26 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  12. Investigation of element contents of natural diamond crystals of different gemological features by INAA and autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamrayeva, D.S.; Ulugmuradov, S.; Didyk, A.Y.; Gasanov, M.; Solodova, J.P.; Sedova, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The work presented aims at understanding the role of Co, Ni, Ti, Cr, Mn, Cu impurities on the natural diamond ( Type Ι ) quality, microstructure and morphology having different gemological features for identification their deposit. An according of the Kimberly Process there is Certification Scheme for regulating trade in diamonds to exclude 'bloody' diamonds. The 'four C's' criteria (color, clarity, carat weight, cut) had for decades been used by gemologists worldwide to evaluate precious gem diamonds. Those four parameters were believed to determine the value of the stones. Some 10 years ago gemologists added to those traditional criteria a fifth C, signifying Confidence. The role of the fifth C in pricing precious stones increased over time. An according of the Kimberly Process it is necessary to determine diamond deposit. Impurity content of natural diamonds is basic feature to for identification their deposit. We have used autoradiographic technique for investigation of spatial impurity distributions in natural diamond crystals. It is based on the secondary beta irradiation registration. Impurities were identified by energy lines of the gamma spectra obtained and by half-life periods. We bring information which allow to clarify the spatial distributions of Co, Ni, Ti, Cr, Mn, Cu impurities depended inner morphology of diamond crystal. It was established several types of impurity distributions depending from inner morphology of diamond crystals. Results of INAA and autoradiographic study of natural diamonds use for to make of international data for identification their deposit

  13. 14 MeV INAA nitrogen determination in coal conversion liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehmann, W.D.; Khalil, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    Fast neutron activation analysis has been used for the direct determination of nitrogen in coal conversion liqui-ds. In our previous work on coals, solid standards such as N-1-napthylacetamide, NBS SRM 912 urea and NBS SRM 148 nicotinic acid were used for nitrogen determinations. In this work, a set of organic liquids was selected and evaluated for use as nitrogen standards in the analysis of coal-derived liquids. The use of the liquid standards minimizes problems associated with maintaining uniform irradation and counting geometries and self absorption differences related to varying matrix densities. The standard liquids were selected using criteria of high boiling point, well-defined stoichiometry, high-purity, non-hygroscopic nature and simple C-H-N elemental compositions. Excellent agreement between the 14 MeV INAA data and calculated stoichiometric values has been demonstrated for liquids with nitrogen contents from 1.89 to 39.95%. The liquid standards have been used to determine nitrogen in a set of typical coal conversion liquids and several international standards. (author)

  14. Applied research on environmental pollution using INAA. A study on the environmental indicator analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nak Bae; Lee, Gil Yong; Yoon, Yoon Yul; Chon, Sang Ki [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    Among the many kinds of environmental indicator samples such as moss, lichen, pine needle, pine needle was selected as a bio-monitor and collected sample was divided two groups and one was washed with 1% hydrochloric acid to remove the elements deposited on surface. Trace elements in pine needle were analyzed by the decay time of each nuclide. Analytical accuracy was tested by analyzing NIST SRM 1575 pine needle. Results are follows: (1) Environmental indicator as a bio-monitor pine needle was selected. (2) The content difference of the trace elements between sampling period was monitored. And as content was varied with sampling time. (3) To monitor the influence of atmospheric deposition the surface of pine needle was washed with 1% hydrochloric acid. Therefore, As, Ce, La, Na, W, and Zn contents were decreased by washing. (4) Non-destructive INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis) technique was developed for the determination of trace elements in environmental samples. (5) Analytical accuracy was tested by analyzing NIST SRM 1575 pine needle, and the accuracy was well agreed within 10% deviation. summarized. (author). 18 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Hair-zinc levels determination in Algerian psoriatics using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansouri, A.; Hamidatou Alghem, L.; Beladel, B.; Mokhtari, O.E.K.; Bendaas, A.; Benamar, M.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Psoriasis is a multifactorial skin disease with an unknown etiology. Zinc has a positive impact on psoriasis. The aim of this study is to determine hair-zinc concentration in Algerian psoriatics. 58 psoriatics and 31 normal controls of both genders were selected. Hair zinc levels were determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique (INAA). Student's t-test and One-Way ANOVA were applied. The average zinc concentration for controls and patients were 152±53 μg/g and 167±52 μg/g respectively. They are not significantly different (p>0.05). Zn concentration for males and females controls and patients were 171±27 μg/g, 151±37 μg/g and 145±59 μg/g, 178±58 μg/g respectively. However, for females we have observed a significant difference (p<0.05). - Highlights: ► Psoriasis is a multifactorial skin disease with an unknown etiology. ► About 2–5% of global population in the world suffers from psoriasis. ► The aim of this study is to determine hair-zinc concentration in Algerian psoriatics. ► The average zinc concentration for controls and patients were 152±53 μg/g and 167±52 μg/g respectively.

  16. Study on the elemental features of ancient Chinese white porcelain at Jingdezhen by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Guoxi; Feng Songlin; Feng Xiangqian; Li Yongqiang; Han Hongye; Wang Yanqing; Zhu Jihao; Yan Lingtong; Li Li

    2009-01-01

    Shards of ancient Chinese white porcelain, which were excavated at Maojiawan in the city of Beijing, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). These shards were fired in the period between the Yuan (AD 1271-1368) and Ming (AD 1368-1644) dynasties at Jingdezhen in southern China. According to the analytical results, different raw materials were used for making porcelain body in this period. Fe and Na are the characteristic elements which can be used for identifying the specific date of these porcelains. Furthermore, shards of Hongwu era (AD 1368-1398), Yongle-Xuande era (AD 1403-1435) and Chenghua-Zhengde era (AD 1465-1561) of the Ming dynasty can be clearly distinguished by their elemental body composition. The temporal chemical variation in the porcelain body of these eras is observed. The elemental body composition of Zhengde-Tianshun era (AD 1436-1464) is mainly similar to that of the Hongwu and Yongle-Xuande eras. The temporal chemical feature of Zhengtong-Tianshun era was not found.

  17. Characteristics of the elemental compositions of particulate matter at a subway platform using INAA and XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, J.M.; Moon, J.H.; Chung, Y.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Insitute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Basic Science; Jeong, J.H.; Jung, B.W.; Lee, J.H. [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Environmental Engineering; Kim, K.H. [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Environment and Energy

    2011-07-01

    In this study, a total of 21 elements were determined from PM2.5 and PM10 samples collected at one subway station using INAA and XRF. In order to assess the pollution status and distribution characteristics in a subway station, the absolute concentration levels, concentration ratios, and crustal enrichment factors of these elements were analyzed. PM2.5 concentrations in the subway station varied in the range of 24.8 to 72.6 {mu}g m{sup -3} (average {+-} standard deviation: 42.6{+-}10.6 {mu}g m{sup -3}), while those of PM10 from 38.0 to 101 {mu}g m{sup -3} (67.2{+-}15.5 {mu}g m{sup -3}). The relative contribution of elemental components in each particle fraction accounted for about 42 and 44%, respectively. Out of all metals, Fe was predominant to represent about 29 and 27% of each particle fraction. In contrast, the crustal sources were estimated to contribute to about 3.7 and 2.3% of the total Fe concentrations, respectively. Thus, one can conclude that considerable quantities of airborne Fe particles originated mainly from subway sources, probably due to the wearing of the steel products like wheel, rail, brake, etc. (orig.)

  18. Characteristics of the elemental compositions of particulate matter at a subway platform using INAA and XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, J.M.; Moon, J.H.; Chung, Y.S.; Jeong, J.H.; Jung, B.W.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, K.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a total of 21 elements were determined from PM2.5 and PM10 samples collected at one subway station using INAA and XRF. In order to assess the pollution status and distribution characteristics in a subway station, the absolute concentration levels, concentration ratios, and crustal enrichment factors of these elements were analyzed. PM2.5 concentrations in the subway station varied in the range of 24.8 to 72.6 μg m -3 (average ± standard deviation: 42.6±10.6 μg m -3 ), while those of PM10 from 38.0 to 101 μg m -3 (67.2±15.5 μg m -3 ). The relative contribution of elemental components in each particle fraction accounted for about 42 and 44%, respectively. Out of all metals, Fe was predominant to represent about 29 and 27% of each particle fraction. In contrast, the crustal sources were estimated to contribute to about 3.7 and 2.3% of the total Fe concentrations, respectively. Thus, one can conclude that considerable quantities of airborne Fe particles originated mainly from subway sources, probably due to the wearing of the steel products like wheel, rail, brake, etc. (orig.)

  19. Assessment of bioaccumulation of REEs by plant species in a mining area by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain Md Anawar; Maria do Carmo Freitas; Nuno Canha; Isabel Dionisio; Ho Manh Dung; Catarina Galinha; Pacheco, A.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Native plant species, lichens and tailings, sampled from a copper-sulphide mining area located in southern-eastern Portugal, were analysed by neutron activation analysis (INAA) for determination of rare earth elements (REEs). Values of ΣREEs and individual REEs concentration of tailing samples are higher than those of natural background concentrations. The higher values of REEs are found in modern slags and the mixture of oxidized gossan and sulphide disseminated country rocks when compared with the alluvial sediments contaminated by mine tailings. The total concentrations of light REEs are higher than those of heavy REEs in all tailing samples. Distribution patterns of PAAS-normalized REEs in mine tailings show slightly LREE enriched and flat HREE pattern with negative Eu anomaly. Lichens accumulated higher concentration of lanthanides than vascular plants. The elevated levels of REEs in lichen, native plant species and tailing samples reflect the contamination of REEs in Sao Domingos mining area. The Carlina corymbosa, Erica australis and Lavandula luisierra accumulated the higher amounts of La, Ce and other REEs than the other plant species grown in this mining area. (author)

  20. Metals concentration in phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers produced in Brazil using INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bourlegat, Fernanda M.; Saueia, Catia H.R.; Mazzilli, Barbara P.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is obtained by wet reaction of the igneous phosphate rock with concentrated sulphuric acid, giving as final product phosphoric acid and dihydrated calcium sulphate (CaSO 4 .2H 2 O) as by-product. It may contain high quantities of P 2 O 5 , trace metals and radionuclides of U and Th series. Phosphogypsum worldwide production on 2006 was estimated in 170 million tons. All the countries that produce phosphate fertilizers by wet process are facing the same problem of finding solutions for the safe application of phosphogypsum, in order to minimize the impact caused by the disposal of large amounts of this by-product. Phosphogypsum can be used in agriculture as a soil amendment; however, for its safe application the concentration of the impurities present and their behaviour in the environment should be better understood. The radiological characterization has been extensively studied in the last decade, but there are few studies about the metals concentration in phosphogypsum. This work intends to determine the concentration of metals (Ba, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, Na, Sc, Ta, Th, U, Zn e Zr) and rare earth elements (REE) present in phosphogypsum produced in Brazil and to compare the results with those found in the phosphate fertilizers commonly commercialized. The technique used for the determination of the metals was instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). (author)

  1. Study on ancient Chinese imitated GE ware by INAA and WDXRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guoxi; Feng, Songlin; Feng, Xiangqian; Wang, Yanqing; Zhu, Jihao; Yan, Lingtong; Li, Yongqiang; Han, Hongye

    2007-11-01

    Imitated GE ware was one of the most famous products of Jingdezhen porcelain field in Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644). The exterior features of its body and glaze are very marvelous. Black foot, purple mouth and crazing glaze are the main features of imitated GE ware. Until now, the key conditions of resulting these features are not clearly identified. In order to find the critical elements for firing these features, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) were used to determine the element abundance patterns of imitated GE ware body and glaze. The experimental data was compared with that of imitated Longquan celadon and of Longquan celadon. The analytical results indicated that Fe, Ti and Na were the critical elements. The body of imitated GE ware which contains high Fe and Ti are the basic conditions of firing its black body, black foot and purple mouth. The glaze of imitated GE ware which contains high Na is the main condition of producing its crazing glaze. Na is the critical element which enlarges the difference in expansion coefficients between the glaze and body of imitated GE ware. Furthermore, Zijin soil was added into kaolin to make the body rich in Fe and Ti. And something which was rich in Na was used to produce crazing glaze in the manufacturing process of imitated GE ware.

  2. Study on the elemental features of ancient Chinese white porcelain at Jingdezhen by INAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guoxi; Feng, Songlin; Feng, Xiangqian; Li, Yongqiang; Han, Hongye; Wang, Yanqing; Zhu, Jihao; Yan, Lingtong; Li, Li

    2009-03-01

    Shards of ancient Chinese white porcelain, which were excavated at Maojiawan in the city of Beijing, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). These shards were fired in the period between the Yuan (AD 1271-1368) and Ming (AD 1368-1644) dynasties at Jingdezhen in southern China. According to the analytical results, different raw materials were used for making porcelain body in this period. Fe and Na are the characteristic elements which can be used for identifying the specific date of these porcelains. Furthermore, shards of Hongwu era (AD 1368-1398), Yongle-Xuande era (AD 1403-1435) and Chenghua-Zhengde era (AD 1465-1561) of the Ming dynasty can be clearly distinguished by their elemental body composition. The temporal chemical variation in the porcelain body of these eras is observed. The elemental body composition of Zhengde-Tianshun era (AD 1436-1464) is mainly similar to that of the Hongwu and Yongle-Xuande eras. The temporal chemical feature of Zhengtong-Tianshun era was not found.

  3. Study on ancient Chinese imitated GE ware by INAA and WDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Guoxi [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); Graduated University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Feng Songlin [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China)], E-mail: fengsl@ihep.ac.cn; Feng Xiangqian; Wang Yanqing; Zhu Jihao; Yan Lingtong [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Yongqiang; Han Hongye [Beijing Institute of Cultural Relics, Beijing 100009 (China)

    2007-11-15

    Imitated GE ware was one of the most famous products of Jingdezhen porcelain field in Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644). The exterior features of its body and glaze are very marvelous. Black foot, purple mouth and crazing glaze are the main features of imitated GE ware. Until now, the key conditions of resulting these features are not clearly identified. In order to find the critical elements for firing these features, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) were used to determine the element abundance patterns of imitated GE ware body and glaze. The experimental data was compared with that of imitated Longquan celadon and of Longquan celadon. The analytical results indicated that Fe, Ti and Na were the critical elements. The body of imitated GE ware which contains high Fe and Ti are the basic conditions of firing its black body, black foot and purple mouth. The glaze of imitated GE ware which contains high Na is the main condition of producing its crazing glaze. Na is the critical element which enlarges the difference in expansion coefficients between the glaze and body of imitated GE ware. Furthermore, Zijin soil was added into kaolin to make the body rich in Fe and Ti. And something which was rich in Na was used to produce crazing glaze in the manufacturing process of imitated GE ware.

  4. Correlation analysis of inorganic elements in biological tissue if DMDmdx/J mice using INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metairon, Sabrina; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Suzuki, Miriam F.; Bueno Junior, Carlos R.

    2011-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) has been used to determine Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na and S concentrations in bone and other organs samples from DMD mdx /J dystrophic mice as well as C57BL/6J control group mice. The DMD mdx /J mouse strain is relevant as an experimental model for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), which is the most severe and prevalent type of muscular dystrophy. Muscle weakness, premature death and instability of the membrane that involves the muscle fibers - causing functional/structural abnormalities and cell death - are main characteristics of this genetic disease. To show in more details the alterations that this disease may cause in bones (tibiae) and organs (quadriceps and heart), correlations matrixes were generated for both strains permitting a comparison between these groups. A significant change was observed in the analysis of the heart of dystrophic mice suggesting that this dysfunction affects severely the heart muscle. The results emphasize physiologic differences for Na, Ca and Mg and suggest that Br and S results are altered, emphasizing a constant monitoring needs. Other than that, these results may help the researchers to evaluate the efficiency of new treatments and to compare the advantages of different treatment approaches before performing tests in patients with muscular dystrophy. (author)

  5. Automation of INAA of biological objects in radioanalytical center of INP AS RU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakiev, S.A.; Danilova, E.A.; Kadirova, M.; Kadirov, U.S.; Kist, A.A.; Osinskaya, N.S.; Rakhmanov, J.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan in frames of the E nhanced nuclear techniques for materials identification S TCU project, the Radioanalytical Center (RAC) was created and in October 2004 has been officially opened. For analysis such objects as metals and alloys, minerals and ores, hydrogeological samples, technological products, soils, fertilizers, biological samples, foodstuffs, water, sediments, construction materials, as well as materials of unknown composition the following major analytical method were selected: Neutron activation analysis (instrumental and radiochemical); X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF); Radiometric method with registration of natural (alpha, gamma and beta) activity of samples. RAC was equipped in frames of the project with unique: HP Ge-detector with high resolution gamma-spectrometers; Si(Li)-detector with high resolution XRF-spectrometer, including DSA-1000 analyzers and Alpha-beta counter S olo o f Canberra Industries, Inc. Genie-2000 Spectroscopy System of Canberra spectrometers, represents the true state of the art in spectroscopy software platforms. Genie 2000 is a comprehensive set of capabilities for acquiring and analyzing spectra from Multichannel Analyzers (MCA). Its functions include MCA control, spectral display and manipulation, basic spectrum analysis and reporting. Genie 2000 software is available in several variations and with several layered optional packages. Genie 2000 Basic Spectroscopy and Gamma Analysis Software, which available in RAC permitting us automatically obtain nuclide identification report with all needed parameters. Any applications of Genie 2000 software have not possibility to calculate analyzed elements concentration. For automation this step of INAA by using Canberra Genie 2000 Spectroscopy System we developed user's B iological objects Application s oftware for comparator technique of INAA some biological objects. This Application

  6. INAA study of U sorption from technological solution by different microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhamedshina, N. M.; Mirsagatova, A. A.; Bekmukhamrdova, N. K.; Khamidova, M. Kh.; Rakhimova, M. S.

    2004-01-01

    Extraction of U from technological solution excludes a loss of valuable metal and pollution of the environment by heavy and radioactive element. For the purpose, nontraditional method of extraction using capacity of the microorganism sells to accumulate metal ions (cation) has been applied. Aim of this work is to study of U sorption from technological solutions by different microorganisms and to search more effective bio sorbents among microorganisms- actinomycetes, fungal culture (Acremonium, Aspergillus) by using INAA. INAA is more available and cheap method for us also it has high enough sensitivity and allows to avoid exposing the bacteria to radioactive metals. Atomic absorptive analyzer is more suitable for the determination of impurities in solutions, but it is expensive and not available for us. Actinomycetes were reproduced on starch-ammoniac agar medium: NaNO 3 - 1 g, actinomycetes MgSO 4 - 1 g, K 2 HPO 4 -1 g, starch -10 g, agar -20 g, distilled water - 1000 ml, pH = 6.8 - 7.0 on horizontal shaker (180 rpm) at temperature 28-30 degree for 1-3 days. Fungi were reproduced in liquid medium: NaNO 3 - 2 g, K 2 HPO 4 -1 g, KCl - 0.5 g, MgSO 4 - 0.5 g, FeSO 4 - 0.01 g, saccharose -20.0 g, tap water -1000 ml, pH = 7.0-7.2 on horizontal shaker (180 rpm) at temperature 28-30 degree for 1-3 days. After reproduction strains actinomycetes and fungi were separated by centrifuging (6000 rpm) and washed many times by distilled water. Strains of actinomycetes and fungi (1 g of each) were placed in 1 litre of the U technological solution (70.0 mg/l) and mixed on horizontal shaker (180 rpm). Interaction between strains and solution lasted 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 min. After interaction the content of U not sorbed by strains (residual content) was measured from the over-sedimentary solution (decantate). 1 ml solution (decantate) was dropped on strip of ash free filter paper. The strips (samples) were dried, wrapped in the aluminum packets and placed in a container for

  7. Piracicaba River Basin: evaluation of chemical elements in deep sediment profile by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    França, Elvis J. de; Santos, Robson A.; Santos, Katarine M. Barbosa; Silva, Gleyce K. A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (DIAMB/CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Div, de Monitoração Ambiental; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Cavalca, Isabel P.O., E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: lis@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Many hydrographic basins have been impacted by anthropogenic sources, the Piracicaba River Basin of the State of São Paulo, is one of that. The total concentrations of chemical elements in deep sediments of basin may be indicate those available in ecosystem. Therefore, in this research concentration of chemical elements on deep sediment profile sampled of Piracicaba River Basin was determined by k0-Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. After collecting the 60 cm depth profile, samples were obtained by sectioning the sediment profile in 5 cm layers, totalizing 12 samples. Analytical portions were transferred to polyethylene vials for neutron irradiation at the Nuclear Research Reactor IEA-R1 from the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN. After waiting for radiation safe levels, irradiated samples were transported to the Radioisotopes Laboratory from the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura CENA/USP. High Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry using HPGe detectors was applied to measure the induced radioactivity. The chemical element mass fractions and their respective expanded analytical uncertainties (95% confidence level) were determined by k0-INAA using the in-house software Quantu. Geological reference materials were analyzed with samples to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure. Results indicated the presence of enriched surface sediments (0-10 cm depth) for As, Ba, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, Sb, Sc, Sr, Yb and Zn, despite no alteration was observed for Eu, Ta and Tb. Therefore, the evaluation of deep sediment profile afford the chemical element dynamics for the Piracicaba Basin. (author)

  8. Outlier detection by robust Mahalanobis distance in geological data obtained by INAA to provenance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose O. dos, E-mail: osmansantos@ig.com.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sergipe (IFS), Lagarto, SE (Brazil); Munita, Casimiro S., E-mail: camunita@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Soares, Emilio A.A., E-mail: easoares@ufan.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias

    2013-07-01

    The detection of outlier in geochemical studies is one of the main difficulties in the interpretation of dataset because they can disturb the statistical method. The search for outliers in geochemical studies is usually based in the Mahalanobis distance (MD), since points in multivariate space that are a distance larger the some predetermined values from center of the data are considered outliers. However, the MD is very sensitive to the presence of discrepant samples. Many robust estimators for location and covariance have been introduced in the literature, such as Minimum Covariance Determinant (MCD) estimator. When MCD estimators are used to calculate the MD leads to the so-called Robust Mahalanobis Distance (RD). In this context, in this work RD was used to detect outliers in geological study of samples collected from confluence of Negro and Solimoes rivers. The purpose of this study was to study the contributions of the sediments deposited by the Solimoes and Negro rivers in the filling of the tectonic depressions at Parana do Ariau. For that 113 samples were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in which were determined the concentration of As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, U, Yb, Ta, Tb, Th and Zn. In the dataset was possible to construct the ellipse corresponding to robust Mahalanobis distance for each group of samples. The samples found outside of the tolerance ellipse were considered an outlier. The results showed that Robust Mahalanobis Distance was more appropriate for the identification of the outliers, once it is a more restrictive method. (author)

  9. Piracicaba River Basin: evaluation of chemical elements in deep sediment profile by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    França, Elvis J. de; Santos, Robson A.; Santos, Katarine M. Barbosa; Silva, Gleyce K. A.

    2017-01-01

    Many hydrographic basins have been impacted by anthropogenic sources, the Piracicaba River Basin of the State of São Paulo, is one of that. The total concentrations of chemical elements in deep sediments of basin may be indicate those available in ecosystem. Therefore, in this research concentration of chemical elements on deep sediment profile sampled of Piracicaba River Basin was determined by k0-Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. After collecting the 60 cm depth profile, samples were obtained by sectioning the sediment profile in 5 cm layers, totalizing 12 samples. Analytical portions were transferred to polyethylene vials for neutron irradiation at the Nuclear Research Reactor IEA-R1 from the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN. After waiting for radiation safe levels, irradiated samples were transported to the Radioisotopes Laboratory from the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura CENA/USP. High Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry using HPGe detectors was applied to measure the induced radioactivity. The chemical element mass fractions and their respective expanded analytical uncertainties (95% confidence level) were determined by k0-INAA using the in-house software Quantu. Geological reference materials were analyzed with samples to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure. Results indicated the presence of enriched surface sediments (0-10 cm depth) for As, Ba, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, Sb, Sc, Sr, Yb and Zn, despite no alteration was observed for Eu, Ta and Tb. Therefore, the evaluation of deep sediment profile afford the chemical element dynamics for the Piracicaba Basin. (author)

  10. Outlier detection by robust Mahalanobis distance in geological data obtained by INAA to provenance studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Jose O. dos; Munita, Casimiro S.; Soares, Emilio A.A.

    2013-01-01

    The detection of outlier in geochemical studies is one of the main difficulties in the interpretation of dataset because they can disturb the statistical method. The search for outliers in geochemical studies is usually based in the Mahalanobis distance (MD), since points in multivariate space that are a distance larger the some predetermined values from center of the data are considered outliers. However, the MD is very sensitive to the presence of discrepant samples. Many robust estimators for location and covariance have been introduced in the literature, such as Minimum Covariance Determinant (MCD) estimator. When MCD estimators are used to calculate the MD leads to the so-called Robust Mahalanobis Distance (RD). In this context, in this work RD was used to detect outliers in geological study of samples collected from confluence of Negro and Solimoes rivers. The purpose of this study was to study the contributions of the sediments deposited by the Solimoes and Negro rivers in the filling of the tectonic depressions at Parana do Ariau. For that 113 samples were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in which were determined the concentration of As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, U, Yb, Ta, Tb, Th and Zn. In the dataset was possible to construct the ellipse corresponding to robust Mahalanobis distance for each group of samples. The samples found outside of the tolerance ellipse were considered an outlier. The results showed that Robust Mahalanobis Distance was more appropriate for the identification of the outliers, once it is a more restrictive method. (author)

  11. Environmental application of XRF, ICP-AES and INAA on biological matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zararsiz, A.; Dogangun, A.; Tuncel, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: It is very important to determine trace quantities of metals in different matrices with high accuracy since the metals are used as markers for different sources in air pollution studies. In this study, the analytical capabilities of XRF, ICP-AES and INM techniques on a biological matrix namely lichens, which are widely used as bio monitoring organisms for the pollutants mapping in the atmosphere, were tested. Lichen samples were collected in Aegean Region of Turkey where pollution is an important issue. 9 elements were determined by XRF, 14 elements by ICP-AES and 13 elements by INM. Quality assurance was achieved using lichen SRM (IAEA-336) and Orchard leaves SRM (NIST- 1571). Produced data are subjected to statistical tests, like t-test, Q-test in order to determine the accuracy and precision of each technique. A recommendation list of the proper analytical technique is obtained for determination of each specific element considering analytical capabilities of ICP-AES, XRF and INM. As a result we can recommend that the first choice for Cd, Cu, Mg is ICP-AES, for In, K, Rb is INAA, for Br is XRF, if the concentrations are not close to the detection limit of XRF. For V, Cr, AI, Na, Fe ICP-AES and INM are both well, for Pb ICP-AES and XRF are both well, if the concentrations are not close to the detection limit of XRF, for Mn and Ca INM, XRF and ICP-AES are all give similar results for this type of biological matrix

  12. Application of INAA to provenance study of ceramics from Baixo Sao Francisco River, Sergipe, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.O.; Munita, C.S.; Toyota, Rosimeiri G.; Vergne, C.

    2007-01-01

    The study of the physical and chemical characteristics of crafts, in association with historical and archaeological research, has allowed for the reconstruction of ancient community habits. Archaeological studies include several techniques to reconstruct ancient cultures. Since ceramics represent a sophisticated merging of previously separate domains of human knowledge and experience, these objects are studied by means of archaeometric methods. In recent years an interdisciplinary research program was started between Museu Arqueologico de Xingo (MAX) and Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) to study the ancient ceramist cultures from Xingo region, located in Sergipe, Brazilian Northeast. Recent studies conducted in the area have showed the existence of an independent ceramist group without relation to the ceramist group well established in the Brazilian Northeast, Tupiguarani and Aratu. Instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA, is a suitable technique for provenance studies. In this work the chemical composition of 103 samples: 30 clays and 73 ceramics from Barracao archaeological site, from Baixo Sao Francisco, were analyzed. This analysis allowed for the definition of compositional groups of ceramics according to the chemical similarities of ceramic paste, which reveals the raw material composition used in the manufacturing process by prehistoric man. The outliers were identified by means robust Mahalanobis distance. The results were interpreted by means of cluster analysis, principal components analysis and discriminant analysis. The results obtained in this work, in association with archaeological information, allowed for the identification of the ceramic groups in relation to the ceramist occupations of the Xingo area. This work contributes for the reconstruction of the Baixo Sao Francisco region communities and for the reconstitution of the Brazilian Northeast ceramist population. (author)

  13. Experience with an accrediated INAA service laboratory at a University - will research be next?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, P.

    1993-01-01

    Quality assurance, total quality management, and accreditation are the recognizable attributes of an attitude and consideration of a work process that is being introduced to industry, utilities, and (industrial) laboratories. International reference documents-the International Standard Organization (ISO)- IEC guides - have been developed to harmonize the ways of implementing and evaluating QA practices in connection with accreditation. The life-styles of working under quality practices and working at a university demonstrate a large contrast. Many of the basic principles of quality practices, such as full documentation, written procedures and instructions, and careful consideration of the conditions under which work will be performed, are characteristically absent at universities. Universities nowadays also have a mission to teach quality practices to the present and future generations of scientists. Within a few years, society may call for academics who are not only knowledgeable on the principles of quality practices but who also have been educated, trained, and practiced in such an environment. Conflicts will be avoided when such academics occupy leading positions in organizations that already use quality practices or when they become responsible for the introduction of quality practices. The neutron activation analysis (NAA) laboratory and associated analysis systems at the Interfaculty Reactor Institute (IRI) of the Delft University of Technology has been reorganized and brought into accord with the requirements of EN45001 and ISO guide 25. After an audit by the official accreditation body in the Netherlands, STERLAB, the laboratory received its accreditation in early 1993, making it the first accredited laboratory of both kinds (university and instrumental (INAA)) in the Netherlands and possibly in the world

  14. Elemental analysis of the suspended particulate matter in the air of Tehran using INAA and AAS techniques. Appendix 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabpour, M.; Rostami, S.; Athari, M.

    1995-01-01

    A network of ten sampling stations for monitoring the elemental concentration of the suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the air of Tehran has been established. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) techniques have been used for analysis of the Whatman-41 filters collected during the year 1994. Assessment of the preliminary results using the two techniques has produced the following twenty-one elements: Al, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Ti, V, Zn. Various standard solutions with known concentrations of elements, together with standard reference materials, have been used for quality assurance of the measured concentrations. (author)

  15. Characterization of HPGe gamma spectrometric detectors systems for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at the Colombian Geological Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, O., E-mail: osierra@sgc.gov.co; Parrado, G., E-mail: gparrado@sgc.gov.co; Cañón, Y.; Porras, A.; Alonso, D.; Herrera, D. C.; Peña, M., E-mail: mlpena@sgc.gov.co; Orozco, J. [Colombian Geological Survey, Nuclear Affairs Technical Division, Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory, Bogota D. C. (Colombia)

    2016-07-07

    This paper presents the progress made by the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey (SGC in its Spanish acronym), towards the characterization of its gamma spectrometric systems for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), with the aim of introducing corrections to the measurements by variations in sample geometry. Characterization includes the empirical determination of the interaction point of gamma radiation inside the Germanium crystal, through the application of a linear model and the use of a fast Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) software to estimate correction factors for differences in counting efficiency that arise from variations in sample density between samples and standards.

  16. INAA for the determination of trace elements and evaluation of their enrichment factors in lichens of high altitude areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergamaschi, L.; Rizzio, E.; Giaveri, G.; Profumo, A.; Gallorini, M.; Giordani, L.

    2005-01-01

    Trace element (TE) characterization and analysis in epiphytic lichens collected in different areas of the Himalayas (Nepal) and of the Alps (Italy) is presented. The results give information for the assessment of TE distribution present in the two different areas. The evaluation of the enrichment factors may provide information for many elements about their association to long-distance atmospheric transport phenomena. To this purpose, samples of superficial soils, collected in the same areas of those of the lichens, have also been analyzed. Most of the trace elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), while lead and cadmium measurements were carried out with electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ET-AAS). (author)

  17. INAA applied to halogen (Br and I) stability in long-term storage of lyophilized biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, V.; Zaichick, S.

    2000-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine the Br and I concentration in the same ten lyophilized and homogenized human thyroid samples prior and after a 20-year storage at room temperature. It was found that long-term storage had no effect on the iodine content. At the same time, the bromine content was about 2-fold lower (p<0.01). It was assumed that possible losses of other halogens can occur under long-term storage of lyophilized biological materials at room temperature. (author)

  18. Investigations of some elements distribution in dental tissues by INAA as a function of ecological and some other parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draskovic, R.J.; Jacimovic, Lj.; Stojicevic, M.; Pajic, P.; Filipovic, V.

    1982-01-01

    Distribution of some elements (Hg, Zn, Sb, Co and Sc) in dental tissues (enamel, dentine, pulp) has been investiaated by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Teeth samples were taken from patients living in different regions (mine and mineralized areas, plain), taking into account the following parameters: ecological conditions, age of patients, stomatological operations and use of local cosmetic preparations containig mercury. Samples of vegetation (beech, moss, pine) from two locations belonging to regions of mineralized areas also were analyzed. Results of our investigations are presented and discussed. (author)

  19. The study of ancient porcelain of Hutian kiln site from Five dynasty (902-979) to Ming dynasty (1368-1644) by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Cheng; Junling Wang; Rongwu Li; Meitian Li

    2015-01-01

    Minor and trace elements of 398 pieces of ancient porcelain of Hutian kiln site from Five dynasty (AD 902-979) to Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644) were determined by instrumental neutron activate analysis (INAA). The data of INAA and PCA show the ages of all the porcelain can be divided into Five dynasty, Northern Song dynasty, Southern Song dynasty, Early Yuan dynasty, Later Yuan dynasty and Ming dynasty according to their chemical compositions. Moreover, some archaeological questions about the ancient porcelain are discussion also. (author)

  20. Determination of trace elements in the seeds of fruits using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in Arak, I.R. Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourimani Reza; Meighani Elham; Fathivand Aliasghar

    2018-01-01

    In this study, four fruit's seed samples as Punica granatum L., Citrus medica var. limonum, Malus domestica L. and Citrus vulgaris Risso were prepared from Arak's markets. They were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation method (INAA). In this method, Tehran research reactor as a neutron source and relative INAA method has been used as the analysis method and to record gamma ray spectrum, the high purity germanium detector was used. Pomegranate seeds had the highest number of essential elements. Apple seeds and sour orange seeds contain the highest levels of Mg and K, Respectively. (author)

  1. The use of INAA for the determination of trace elements, in particular cadmium, in plastics in relation to the enforcement of pollution standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, P.

    1993-01-01

    Many plastic products have relatively short life cycles. Upon final destruction, inorganic additives used for pigmentation, as polymer stabilizer or as flame retarding agent are being released to the environment. In a rapidly increasing way governmental authorities are setting limits to the use of inorganic additives, in particular cadmium, in plastics. INAA has attractive characteristics which may make authorities decide to select it for the control programs in relation to the enforcement of pollution standards. An evaluation is made of the use of INAA for such analysis; analysis protocols, sensitivities, and observed levels of other trace elements are being discussed. (author) 2 refs.; 2 tabs

  2. Forensic comparative glass analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridge, Candice M.; Powell, Joseph; Steele, Katie L.; Sigman, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    Glass samples of four types commonly encountered in forensic examinations have been analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the purpose of discriminating between samples originating from different sources. Some of the glass sets were also examined by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Refractive index (RI) measurements were also made on all glass samples and the refractive index data was combined with the LIBS and with the LA-ICP-MS data to enhance discrimination. The glass types examined included float glass taken from front and side automobile windows (examined on the non-float side), automobile headlamp glass, automobile side-mirror glass and brown beverage container glass. The largest overall discrimination was obtained by employing RI data in combination with LA-ICP-MS (98.8% discrimination of 666 pairwise comparisons at 95% confidence), while LIBS in combination with RI provided a somewhat lower discrimination (87.2% discrimination of 1122 pairwise comparisons at 95% confidence). Samples of side-mirror glass were less discriminated by LIBS due to a larger variance in emission intensities, while discrimination of side-mirror glass by LA-ICP-MS remained high

  3. Discrimination of forensic trace evidence using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Candice Mae

    Elemental analysis in forensic laboratories can be tedious and many trace evidence items are not analyzed to determine their elemental composition. Presently, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) is the primary analytical tool for determining the elemental composition of trace evidence items. However, due to the time it takes to obtain the required vacuum and the limited number of samples that can be analyzed at any one time, SEM-EDS can be impractical for a high volume of evidence items. An alternative instrument that can be used for this type of analysis is laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). While LA-ICP-MS is a very precise and quantitative analytical method that determines elemental composition based on isotopic mass measurements; however, the instrumentation is relatively expensive and therefore is budgetarily prohibitive for many forensic laboratories. It is the purpose of this research to evaluate an inexpensive instrument that can potentially provide rapid elemental analysis for many forensic laboratories. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an analytical method that meets these requirements and offers information about the elemental composition based on ionic, atomic and diatomic molecular emissions.

  4. A preliminary study of archaeological ceramic from the Sao Paulo II, Brazil, archaeological site by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Rogerio B.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Oliveira, Paulo M.S.; Neves, Eduardo G.; Tamahara, Eduardo K.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of trace elements plays an important role in the characterization of archaeological ceramics. It is well established that ceramics can be grouped based on similarities/dissimilarities derived from chemical data. Different analytical methods can be applied to determine the sample composition. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is the method preferred because present several advantages in relation to the other techniques. In this work, the elements determined were As, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sb, Sm, U, Yb, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, I, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sc, Ta , Tb, Th and Zn to carry out a preliminary chemical characterization in 44 ceramic samples from Sao Paulo II archaeological site by INAA. The site is located in Coari city, 363 km from Manaus, Amazonas state (AM). The elementary concentration results were studied using multivariate statistical methods. The similarity/dissimilarity among the samples was studied by means of discriminant analysis. The compositions group classification was done through cluster analysis, showing the formation of the three distinct groups of the ceramics. (author)

  5. Hazardous and other element characterization of new and used domestic plastic food containers using INAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Rahman, S.; Husnain, S.M.; Siddique, N.

    2012-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) methodology was developed to characterize the inorganic trace element constituents in new and used domestic plastic food containers. INAA was employed through the variation of irradiation, cooling and counting protocols for the determination of Al, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, Mn, Na, Nd, Sb, Sc, Th, Ti, V and Zn while FAAS was used to quantify toxic inorganic elements such as Cd, Pb and Cu. These elements are thought to originate from the polymer manufacturing processes. It was found that there was gradual increase in the concentration of most of these elements from new to used plastic samples. Moreover it was also observed that these inorganic elements are present in higher concentrations in the lower grade containers as compared to the high quality containers. It was also observed that the good quality containers even with the long usage do not degrade to such an extent as the low quality containers. (Orig./A.B.)

  6. Hazardous and other element characterization of new and used domestic plastic food containers using INAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Rahman, S.; Husnain, S.M.; Siddique, N.

    2012-01-01

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy methodology was developed to characterize the hazardous and other inorganic trace element constituents in new and used domestic plastic food containers. INAA due to its non destructive, highly sensitive, multielement and low detection limits characteristics was found to be a good technique for the characterization of polymeric products. Through the variation of irradiation, cooling and counting protocols Al, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, Mn, Na, Nd, Sb, Sc, Th, Ti, V and Zn were determined, while Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy was used as complementary technique to quantify toxic inorganic elements such as Cd, Pb and Cu. These elements are thought to originate from the polymer manufacturing processes. It was found that there was gradual increase in the concentration of most of these elements from new to used plastic samples. Moreover it was also observed that these inorganic elements are present in higher concentrations in the lower grade containers as compared to the high quality containers. It was also observed that the good quality containers even with the long usage do not degrade to such an extent as the low quality containers. (author)

  7. Analysis of heavy metals pollutant in water on final disposal place (TPA) Bantar Gebang, Bekasi and its surroundings using INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tommy Hutabarat; E Ristin Pujiindiyati

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of heavy metal pollutants content from the leachate samples of landfill sites, water wells and the river water using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) method has been done. This research was conducted to know the content of heavy metals in landfill sites, water wells of the population, and river water with INAA method and to see the level of pollution, especially in wells along the river population Ciketing, Bekasi. Samples taken from the landfill, the upstream and downstream from the landfill. The entire sample was filtered using a paper millipore and then activated in the reactor irradiation facility G.A. Siwabessy, Serpong. The measurement of samples were conducted using high resolution HPGe detector coupled with a multi channel analysis. The results showed that almost all the samples had concentrations of Hg, Cr, Co, Zn and Fe that exceeded the quality standard based on PP. 82 year 2001. The concentration of Co in some samples of rivers and wells are still under the standard limit. Further research is needed to be done on a regular basis with the involvement of natural stable isotope methods and chemical analysis to determine the origin of pollutants in order to obtain more comprehensive results. (author)

  8. Standardization of thermal and epithermal INAA methods for simultaneous determination of U and Th in mixed oxide samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.; Pujari, P.K.; Chandra, Ruma

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Uranium and thorium are important fuel materials for nuclear power program. In recent years utilization of thoria based fuel has assumed significance due to higher energy requirements. Thorium based mixed oxide is the proposed fuel for Advanced Heavy Water Reactors (AHWR). In this respect, studies are carried out through preparation of natural U and Th mixed oxides by powder metallurgical route, wherein composition of U and Th is specific and requires strict control in terms their contents and homogeneity in the mixture. Stringent chemical quality control necessitates compositional characterization of the fuel material i.e. accurate and precise determination of U and Th. A suitable method which does not need any chemical dissolution and yields high precision results with minima sample handling is desirable. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using reactor neutron is the technique of choice. In view of this, INAA methods namely thermal lNAA (TNAA) (utilizing whole reactor neutrons) and epithermal INAA (ENAA) (utilizing epicadmium neutrons) were standardized for the determination of U and Th in presence of each other in mixed oxide samples. In the present work pneumatic carrier facility (PCF) of Dhruva reactor and self-serve facility of CIRUS reactor were used for TNAA and ENAA respectively. Standards, synthetic samples and mixed oxide samples prepared in cellulose matrix, were irradiated for 1 minute at PCF of Dhruva reactor and for 1 hour at CIRUS reactor under cadmium cover (0.5 mm). Radioactive assay was carried out using 40% relative efficiency HPGe detector. Peak areas under the full energy peaks were evaluated by peak fit method using the PHAST software. Both activation and daughter products of U ( 239 U, 74.6 keV and 239 Np, 277 keV) and Th ( 233 Th, 86 keV and 233 Pa, 312 keV) were used for their concentration determination. The method was validated by analyzing synthetic mixed oxide samples (6-48%U-Th mixed oxide). The % deviations

  9. INAA and chemical analysis of water and sediments sampled in 1996 from the Romanian sector of the Danube river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelica, A.; Georgescu, I.I.; Oprica, M.H.I.; Borcia, C.

    1999-01-01

    Water and sediment samples collected during spring 1996 from 20 sampling sites of the Romanian sector of the Danube river and the Black Sea coast were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and by chemical methods to determine major, minor and trace element contents. The concentrations of 43 elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, Hg, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, W, Yb, Zr, Zn) were investigated by INAA at WWR-S reactor in Bucharest. Chemical methods were used to determine the content of P 2 O 5 and SiO 2 in sediments. For INAA, the water residues and sediment samples were irradiated at the WWR-S reactor in Bucharest at a neutron fluence rate of 2.3·10 12 cm -2 s -1 . As standards, reference materials IAEA-Soil 7 and WTM (sludge from city water treatment, from the Institute of Radioecology and Applied Nuclear Techniques Kosice, Slovakia) as well as chemical compounds of Al, Ca, Mg, V were used. Mono-standard method was applied in the case of Ti and Sr (Cl and Zn as standards, respectively). By chemical methods, the amount of SiO 2 was determined in sediment samples after the treatment with concentrated HCl and residuum dis-aggregation by fusion (melting with a mixture of Na 2 CO 3 and K 2 CO 3 ). Phosphorus was determined by spectrophotometry with ammonium molybdate and by reduction with ascorbic acid. It can be seen that, both for water and sediment samples, the highest contents of Al, Co, Cs, Fe, Rb, and Sb were found at the sites located upstream the Portile de Fier dam: at Turnu Severin (for water) and Orsova (for sediments). Ag, Au, Ni, Yb, Zr were determined only in some of the water samples at the following concentration levels: ng L -1 (Au, Lu), tens of ng L -1 (Ag, Tb, Yb), hundreds of ng L -1 (Ag), μg L -1 (Ni, Zr), tens of μg L -1 (Ni, Ti). From a comparison with results of our previous studies for the Danube bottom sediments, no significant

  10. Study on trace elements of ten kinds of fish species at Beijing market by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Guojun; Xiao Caijin; Jin Xiangchun; Yang Wei; Zhang Guiying; Wang Pingsheng; Hua Long; Ni Bangfa

    2013-01-01

    Background: As the improvement of the living standard, the safety of food becomes more and more concerned currently. The fish is healthy food with more protein but less fat. Purpose: We bought ten species of fish from the market, which are often eaten by Chinese, and analyzed the trace elements of them by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). So some detecting methods should be applied to give some suggestions for human. Methods: First of all, we choose six species of fresh water fish, including grass carp, weever, Wuchang Fish, tilapia, crucian, carp, and four species of frozen sea fish, including hairtail, yellow croaker, salmon, ling. All of them were collected from a supermarket in Beijing. Secondly, we remove the squama by Teflon coated scissor, wash the fish with de-ionized water and use ashless filter paper to absorb the water on the fish. Then we cut the squama-less part with titanium knife for about 10 g, put them into plastic bags separately and sealed, balance the net weight, use a tablet machine to press them into slice and freeze at -18℃ for 12 h. And then we put them into a vacuum desiccator to pump for 72 h, balance dry fish, calculate the ratio of moisture and triturate the sample into about 40 meshes in agate. Finally, we prepare three sub-samples about 300 mg with each packed by plastic bag for analysis. We put the samples, NIST-1632a and chemical standard material together, irradiate in micro neutron source reactor (MNSR) for 16 h, measure the radioactivity by Ge detector after cooling 5 d or 10 d, and calculate the contents of 16 elements by the ko-NAA and the relative method. Results: The contents of trace elements are different between fresh water fish and sea fish. The contents of As, Hg, Br: Na, Se in sea fish are apparently higher than fresh water fish, but the contents of Rb and Zn are contrary. Considering most fresh water fishes are feed, Zn was probably added in fodder. The content of As in weever is 2.4 μg·g -1 , the

  11. Characterization and forensic analysis of soil samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzi, Sarah C; Almirall, José R

    2011-07-01

    A method for the quantitative elemental analysis of surface soil samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was developed and applied to the analysis of bulk soil samples for discrimination between specimens. The use of a 266 nm laser for LIBS analysis is reported for the first time in forensic soil analysis. Optimization of the LIBS method is discussed, and the results compared favorably to a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) method previously developed. Precision for both methods was LIBS limits of detection were LIBS method successfully discriminated samples from two different sites in Dade County, FL. Analysis of variance, Tukey's post hoc test and Student's t test resulted in 100% discrimination with no type I or type II errors. Principal components analysis (PCA) resulted in clear groupings of the two sites. A correct classification rate of 99.4% was obtained with linear discriminant analysis using leave-one-out validation. Similar results were obtained when the same samples were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS, showing that LIBS can provide similar information to LA-ICP-MS. In a forensic sampling/spatial heterogeneity study, the variation between sites, between sub-plots, between samples and within samples was examined on three similar Dade sites. The closer the sampling locations, the closer the grouping on a PCA plot and the higher the misclassification rate. These results underscore the importance of careful sampling for geographic site characterization.

  12. Study on sources of colored glaze of Xiyue Temple in Shanxi province by INAA and multivariable statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lin; Feng Songlin

    2005-01-01

    The major, minor and trace elements in the bodies of ancient colored glazes which came from the site of Xiyue Temple and Lidipo kiln in Shanxi province, and were unearthed from the stratums of Song, Yuan, Ming, Early Qing and Late Qing dynasty were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The results of multivariable statistical analyses show that the chemical compositions of the colored glaze bodies are steady from Song to Early Qing dynasty, but distinctly different from that in Late Qing. Probably, the sources of fired material of ancient colored glaze from Song to Early Qing came from the site of Xiyue Temple. The chemical compositions of three pieces of colored glazes in Ming dynasty and that in Late Qing are similar to that of Lidipo kiln. From this, authors could conclude that the sources of the materials of ancient coloured glazes of Xiyue Temple in Late Qing dynasty were fired in Lidipo kiln. (authors)

  13. Measurement of heavy metals concentrations of the sediment of Persian Gulf by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athari Allaf, M.

    2002-01-01

    The Persian Gulf historically has been vulnerable to pollution, mainly because of its unique oceanographic characteristics. In the recent past, especially after Gulf war, regional countries including Iran began to investigate its environmental assessment. Because of mostly deposition of heavy metals in the sea sediment, one could use of concentration of trace elements as a contamination index. In this paper heavy metals concentrations of sediments were measured at seven stations in the Persian Gulf. Sampling was performed in six times during one year. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique (INAA) was used for measurement of Ce, Ca, Br. Al, Co, Cs, V, Ti, Na, Sc, K, Mn, Mg, and Zn in the all samples. In addition it was showed that using correlation factors calculations could search the sources of these elements

  14. Investigation of trace elements in ancient pottery from Jenini, Brong Ahafo region, Ghana by INAA and Compton suppression spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyarko, B.J.B. [SLOWPOKE-2 Facility, Trace Analysis Research Centre, Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4J3 (Canada); National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon-Accra (Ghana)], E-mail: bjbnyarko@yahoo.co.uk; Bredwa-Mensah, Y. [Department of Archaeology, University of Ghana, Legon-Accra (Ghana); Serfor-Armah, Y. [SLOWPOKE-2 Facility, Trace Analysis Research Centre, Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4J3 (Canada); National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon-Accra (Ghana); Dampare, S.B. [National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon-Accra (Ghana); Department of Earth Sciences, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Akaho, E.H.K.; Osae, S. [National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon-Accra (Ghana); Perbi, A. [Department of Archaeology, University of Ghana, Legon-Accra (Ghana); Chatt, A. [SLOWPOKE-2 Facility, Trace Analysis Research Centre, Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4J3 (Canada)

    2007-10-15

    Concentrations of trace elements in ancient pottery excavated from Jenini in the Brong Ahafo region of Ghana were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in conjunction with both conventional and Compton suppression counting. Jenini was a slave Camp of Samory Toure during the indigenous slavery and the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. Pottery fragments found during the excavation of the grave tombs of the slaves who died in the slave camps were analysed. In all, 26 trace elements were determined in 40 pottery fragments. These elemental concentrations were processed using multivariate statistical methods, cluster, factor and discriminant analyses in order to determine similarities and correlation between the various samples. The suitability of the two counting systems for determination of trace elements in pottery objects has been evaluated.

  15. Evaluation of distribution patterns and decision of distribution coefficients of trace elements in high-purity aluminium by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Shogo; Hirai, Shoji

    1986-01-01

    Recently, a high-purity aluminium has been used in semi-coductor device, so on. It was required that trace impurities should be reduced and that its content should be quantitatively evaluated. In this study, distribution patterns of many trace impurities in 99.999 % aluminium ingots, which was purified using a normal freezing method, were evaluated by an INAA. The effective distribution coefficient k for each detected elements was calculated using a theoretical distribution equation in the normal freezing method. As a result, the elements of k 1 was Hf. Especially, La, Sm, U and Th could be effectively purified, but Sc and Hf could be scarcely purified. Further more, it was found that the slower freezing gave the effective distribution coefficient close to the equilibrium distribution coefficient, and that the effective distribution coefficient became smaller with the larger atomic radius. (author)

  16. Investigation of trace elements in ancient pottery from Jenini, Brong Ahafo region, Ghana by INAA and Compton suppression spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyarko, B.J.B.; Bredwa-Mensah, Y.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Dampare, S.B.; Akaho, E.H.K.; Osae, S.; Perbi, A.; Chatt, A.

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of trace elements in ancient pottery excavated from Jenini in the Brong Ahafo region of Ghana were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in conjunction with both conventional and Compton suppression counting. Jenini was a slave Camp of Samory Toure during the indigenous slavery and the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. Pottery fragments found during the excavation of the grave tombs of the slaves who died in the slave camps were analysed. In all, 26 trace elements were determined in 40 pottery fragments. These elemental concentrations were processed using multivariate statistical methods, cluster, factor and discriminant analyses in order to determine similarities and correlation between the various samples. The suitability of the two counting systems for determination of trace elements in pottery objects has been evaluated

  17. INAA of trace elements in Indian vegetarian diet and its adequacy vis-a-vis Recommended Dietary Allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.; Garg, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    There has been an increasing awareness concerning the adequacy of trace elements in diet as their deficiency or excess may cause abnormal changes in the biochemical processes. Typical Indian vegetarian diet and dietary components such as cereals, grains, pulses, vegetables and spices have been analysed for 19 elements (Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th and Zn) by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Several Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were analysed for quality assurance. Based on the elemental contents, the daily dietary intake has been calculated and the data compared with those from other countries, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and permissible body burden. It has been observed that, although vegetarian, the Indian diet has an adequate content of essential trace elements compared to non-vegetarian oriental (Japan and Taiwan) and western (Germany, Denmark and USA) diets. (author)

  18. The spectra program library: A PC based system for gamma-ray spectra analysis and INAA data reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedecker, P.A.; Grossman, J.N.

    1995-01-01

    A PC based system has been developed for the analysis of gamma-ray spectra and for the complete reduction of data from INAA experiments, including software to average the results from mulitple lines and multiple countings and to produce a final report of analysis. Graphics algorithms may be called for the analysis of complex spectral features, to compare the data from alternate photopeaks and to evaluate detector performance during a given counting cycle. A database of results for control samples can be used to prepare quality control charts to evaluate long term precision and to search for systemic variations in data on reference samples as a function of time. The entire software library can be accessed through a user-friendly menu interface with internal help.

  19. Differences in trace element concentrations between Alzheimer and 'normal' human brain tissue using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayi, A.E.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    Brain samples obtained from the Netherlands Brain Bank were taken from the superior frontal gyrus, superior parietal gyrus and medial temporal gyrus of 'normal' and Alzheimer's disease subjects in order to determine elemental concentrations and compare elemental composition. Brain samples from the cortex were taken from 18 subjects, eight 'normals' (6 males and 2 females) and eleven with Alzheimer's disease, (1 male and 10 females) and the following elemental concentrations, Na, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Ag, Cs, Ba, and Eu were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The element which showed the greatest difference was Br, which was found to be significantly elevated in the cortex of Alzheimer's disease brains as compared to the 'normals' at significance (p < 0.001). (author)

  20. Elemental analysis of granite by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Taher, A.

    2012-01-01

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of granite samples collected from four locations in the Aswan area in South Egypt. The samples were prepared together with their standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7×10 11 n/cm 2 s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor. Gamma-ray spectra from an hyper-pure germanium detector were analyzed. The present study provides the basic data of elemental concentrations of granite rocks. The following elements have been determined Na, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Sc, Cr, Ti, Co, Zn, Ga, Rb, Zr, Nb, Sn, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th and U. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used for comparison and to detect elements, which can be detected only by XRF such as F, S, Cl, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and V. The data presented here are our contribution to understanding the elemental composition of the granite rocks. Because there are no existing databases for the elemental analysis of granite, our results are a start to establishing a database for the Egyptian granite. It is hoped that the data presented here will be useful to those dealing with geochemistry, granite chemistry and related fields. - Highlights: ► Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of granite. ► The samples were prepared together with their standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7×10 11 n/cm 2 s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor. ► Following elements have been determined Na, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Sc, Cr, Ti, Co, Zn, Ga, Rb, Zr, Nb, Sn, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th and U.

  1. Comparative study for toxic elements determination in air particulate reference material by INAA, CCT-ICP-MS, and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, J.M.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, K.H.; Moon, J.H.; Chung, Y.S.

    2005-01-01

    Although toxic elements are minor components in the atmospheric environment, they play a significant role as important marker for atmospheric science such as risk assessment, long-range transfer study, and source apportionment. Therefore, the techniques, which allow accurate and fast elemental analysis with a minimum pre-treatment, are very important. INAA has a main advantage of non-destruction of air particulate samples, while inductively Coupled plasma with mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) encounters the most significant difficulties in pre-treatment (digestion, fusion, and dilution) and polyatomic spectral interferences for interest toxic elements, Although INAA is still reference method, a number of factors (disadvantages of cost, complexity of the instruments, and scarcity of nuclear reactor) limit its applications. To date, the use of collision cell technology ICP-MS (CCT-ICP-MS) is recommended instead of typical ICP-MS for the analysis of the toxic elements; this is because CCT-ICP-MS technique prevents polyatomic spectral interferences despite of contamination and volatile effects. In this study, a number of toxic elements in reference material, NIST SRM 2783 (air particulate on filter media) were determined by INAA, CCT-ICP-MS, and ICP-MS. For both ICP methods, the filters were decomposed by microwave digestion with 5mL nitric acid. The analytical results by three methods were compared with certificated data; the INAA results showed the most accurate and precise data sets for all target elements among three methods. In detail, the deviation between analytical results and SRM's by INAA fell below 10% for all elements excluding As (14%), while those by CCT-ICP-MS were about 20%. For ICP-MS, the result does not agree with certificated data for several elements, because polyatomic spectral interference (due to 40 Ar 35 Cl, 40 Ar 23 Na, and 35 Cl 16 O) generate positive error of analytical result for As, Cu, and V. Based on our result, INAA is still one of the most

  2. Fluorescence imaging of ion distributions in an inductively coupled plasma with laser ablation sample introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, Lance M.; Ellis, Wade C.; Jones, Derick D.; Farnsworth, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution images of the spatial distributions of Sc II, Ca II, and Ba II ion densities in the 10 mm upstream from the sampling cone in a laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) were obtained using planar laser induced fluorescence. Images were obtained for each analyte as a function of the carrier gas flow rate with laser ablation (LA) sample introduction and compared to images with solution nebulization (SN) over the same range of flow rates. Additionally, images were obtained using LA at varying fluences and with varying amounts of helium added to a constant flow of argon gas. Ion profiles in SN images followed a pattern consistent with previous work: increasing gas flow caused a downstream shift in the ion profiles. When compared to SN, LA led to ion profiles that were much narrower radially and reached a maximum near the sampling cone at higher flow rates. Increasing the fluence led to ions formed in the ICP over greater axial and radial distances. The addition of He to the carrier gas prior to the ablation cell led to an upstream shift in the position of ionization and lower overall fluorescence intensities. - Highlights: • We map distributions of analytes in the ICP using laser ablation sample introduction. • We compare images from laser ablation with those from a pneumatic nebulizer. • We document the effects of water added to the laser ablation aerosol. • We compare distributions from a metal to those from crystalline solids. • We document the effect of laser fluence on ion distributions

  3. Determination of mercury in sectioned hair samples of Tycho Brahe by RNAA and μ-PIXE methods, and assay of Apertura piriformis bones by INAA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, Jan; Kamenik, Jan; Havranek, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Theories exist saying that the world-renowned Renaissance astronomer Tycho Brahe died of mercury intoxication. Brahe's grave was reopened in 2010 and new samples of his hair, beard-hair, and bones were taken and analysed. Evidence obtained by us suggests that Brahe was not administered lethal doses of mercury and that neither acute nor chronic mercury poisoning was the cause of his death. The INAA results of A piriformis suggest that his nasal prosthesis was most likely made of brass

  4. Study on the absorption of Fe, Mn, Mo and Zn by two cultivars of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan, Millsp) submitted to two doses of fertilizers using INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piasentin, R.M.; Armelin, M.J.A.; Saiki, M.

    2000-01-01

    Leaf samples of two varieties of Cajanus cajan Millsp were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples were taken from plants grown under two fertilizer dose conditions, making use of the following microminerals: Fe, Mn, Mo and Zn, which were applied individually to the soil. The samples were collected in two cutting times. We verify the variation in the absorption of each element, considering its availability in the soil. (author)

  5. Uncertainty and minimum detectable concentrations using relative, absolute and K*0-IAEA standardization for the INAA laboratory of the ETRR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M. Y.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) Laboratory of Egypt Second Training and Research Reactor (ETRR-2) is increasingly requested to perform multi-element analysis to large number of samples from different origins. The INAA laboratory has to demonstrate competence by conforming to appropriate internationally and nationally accepted standards. The objective of this work is to determine the uncertainty budget and sensitivity of the INAA laboratory measurements. Concentrations of 9 elements; Mn, Na, K, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Rb, and Cs, were measured against a certified test sample. Relative, absolute, and Ko-IAEA standardization methods were employed and results compared. The flux was monitored using cadmium covered gold method, and multifoil (gold, nickel and zirconium) method. The combined and expanded uncertainties were estimated. Uncertainty of concentrations ranged between 2-21% depending on the standardization method used. The relative method, giving the lowest uncertainty, produced uncertainty budget between 2 and 11%. The minimum detectable concentration was the lowest for Cs ranging between 0.36 and 0.59 ppb and the highest being for K in the range of 0.32 to 8.64 ppm

  6. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Northern Vietnam: Hanoi and Thainguyen case study using the moss biomonitoring technique, INAA and AAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viet, Hung Nguyen; Frontasyeva, Marina Vladimirovna; Thi, Thu My Trinh; Gilbert, Daniel; Bernard, Nadine

    2010-06-01

    The moss technique is widely used to monitor atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in many countries in Europe, whereas this technique is scarcely used in Asia. To implement this international reliable and cheap methodology in the Asian countries, it is necessary to find proper moss types typical for the Asian environment and suitable for the biomonitoring purposes. Such a case study was undertaken in Vietnam for assessing the environmental situation in strongly contaminated areas using local species of moss Barbula indica. The study is focused on two areas characterized by different pollution sources: the Hanoi urban area and the Thainguyen metallurgical zone. Fifty-four moss samples were collected there according to standard sampling procedure adopted in Europe. Two complementary analytical techniques, atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), were used for determination of elemental concentrations in moss samples. To characterize the pollution sources, multivariate statistical analysis was applied. A total of 38 metal elements were determined in the moss by the two analytical techniques. The results of descriptive statistics of metal concentration in moss from the city center and periphery of Hanoi determined by AAS are presented. The similar results for moss from Thainguyen province determined by INAA and AAS are given also. A comparison of mean elemental concentrations in moss of this work with those in different environmental conditions of other authors provides reasonable information on heavy metal atmospheric deposition levels. Factor loadings and factor scores were used to identify and apportion contamination sources at the sampling sites. The values of percentage of total of factors show two highly different types of pollution in the two examined areas-the Hanoi pollution composition with high portion of urban-traffic activity and soil dust (62%), and the one of Thainguyen with factors related to industrial

  7. Assessing soil pollution from a municipal waste dump in Islamabad, Pakistan. A study by INAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Siddique, N.

    2010-01-01

    INAA and AAS techniques have been employed to determine 40 elements in soil of a municipal waste dump in sector H-11, Islamabad. Background soil was also analyzed to study the extent of contamination of the dump site soil. Most of the major elements in these soils represented the geochemical composition of the soil in this area. The enrichment factors for quantified elements identified high Sb and Mg contents that could be attributed to the presence of PET and food materials in the waste. Geo-accumulation Index (I geo ), Pollution Index (PI) and the Integrated Pollution Index (IPI) have also been calculated for all elements. The values for these indices show that municipal waste has distorted the soil ambiance and the soil of waste dump site is slightly to moderately polluted as compared to the background soil. The dump soil was found to be moderately polluted by the elements Ba, Br, Ga, Rb, Zn, Ni and Pb. Significantly high Cu, Mg and Sb contamination was observed for the waste soil that is likely to pose an environmental issue if current waste disposal procedures are continuously employed. (author)

  8. Ironstones of the Olary Block, South Australia: the use of RNAA and INAA to understand their genesis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plimer, I.R. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia); Lottermoser, B.G.; Ashley, P.M.; Lawrie, D.C. [New England Univ., Armidale, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Geology

    1996-12-31

    Reactor neutron activation analysis (RNAA) , instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and electron microprobe analysis of ironstones and barite from the Olary Block indicate that these deposits are geochemically similar to modem and ancient submarine hydrothermal precipitates. Geochemical analyses generally show low Mn, Pb, Zn, As and Sb concentrations and elevated Au and Cu values. Major (Al, Si) and trace (REE, Th, U, PGEs) element data show that the ironstones and barite rocks are of hydrothermal origin and that mixing occurred between oxidised (and possibly hypersaline) surficial waters and a hydrothermal fluid similar to that from modem sites of submarine exhalation. Such geochemical similarities imply rapid burial in the volcano-sedimentary pile or sub-seafloor replacement. The REE patterns in the iron formations demonstrate a range from low temperature reduced hydrothermal precipitates, seawater and oxidised hydrothermal precipitates. Geochemical signatures are due to precipitation from hydrothermal fluids of lower temperature with further influence by prolonged exposure to the overlying water column and subaqueous oxidation. 7 refs.

  9. INAA and AAS of different products from sugar cane industry in Pakistan. Toxic trace elements for nutritional safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Rahman, S.; Gill, K.P.

    2009-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) have been used to determine As, Br, Hg, Sb and Se in combination with atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) as a complementary technique for the quantification of Cd and Pb in jaggery, brown sugar, white sugar and molasses. All sugar cane products were collected from the local sugar cane industry of Pakistan. The highest concentration of these potentially toxic elements was quantified in molasses; however, molasses together with jaggery, brown sugar and white sugar contains trace amounts of all of these elements. Due to very low concentration of Cd it could only be detected in molasses. To evaluate the percentage contribution of these elements in the sugar cane products to the weekly recommended values, intakes on weekly consumption of 100 g of each item have also been calculated which follow the pattern Br>Se>Pb>Hg>As>Sb. The elevated Br contents may be attributed to the use of Br-containing chemicals for fumigation; however, these contents are well within the tolerance levels. The estimated weekly intake of all toxic elements is very low indicating that sugar cane products can be safely ingested as part of the diets. (author)

  10. Study on the pre-qin pottery and proto-porcelain from boluo county, Guangdong province with INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianping; Chen Tiemei

    2003-01-01

    Seventy-seven pottery and proto-porcelain sherds collected from Meihuadun, Yingang and Henglingshan sites of Boluo County, Guangdong Province were studied with INAA. These sherds are of Western Zhou to Warring States Period. Concentrations of 27 elements were measured, then principal component analysis and other statistical procedures were applied to the data set in order to classify these sherds. This study shows: (1) Though these 3 archaeological sites are located close to each other within an area of about 1000 km 2 , ancient potters of these sites might use raw materials of different origins for pottery production, as pottery sherds of these 3 sites show different chemical compositions. Such differentiation is also observed for the proto-porcelain samples, indicating that proto-porcelain samples found at Meihuadun and Henglingshan might be of different provenance; (2) In each site during the Western Zhou to Spring-Autumn Period the same raw material was used for both hard pottery and soft pottery manufacturing, while during the Warring States Period no similarity in chemical compositions was observed between hard pottery and soft pottery samples. It is wondered if this phenomenon means an advancement of ceramic technology

  11. Lichens as biomonitor and INAA as analytical technique: a very effective formula for trace elements atmospheric pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergamaschi, L.; Rizzio, E.; Giaveri, G.; Brandone, A.; Gallorini, M.; Salvini, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this work, a preliminary investigation employing epiphytic lichens and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was carried out to evaluate the trace elements (TE) distribution in different areas of an Alpine region in north Italy characterized by the presence of many wool industrial settlements. Air particulate matter and soils samples were collected and analyzed for the determination of more than 25 TE. These results gave information on the actual concentrations in ng/m3 of the TE in the air and allowed the determination of their Enrichment Factors (EFs) calculated from the analysis of the soils and normalized using the concentration of scandium as reference natural element. In the same site, different epiphytic lichens and surrounding soils samples were collected too and, following the same procedure, analyzed for the determination of the trace elements and for the calculation of the corresponding EFs. The comparison between the EFs obtained from the air particulate and the lichens made it possible the verifying if both series of samples (air particulate and lichens) could give similar EFs values for those elements considered of anthropic origin; obtaining information about the bioaccumulation ability of the different lichen species for these pollutant elements; selecting the lichen species that could be used as monitors for the area under investigation

  12. Ironstones of the Olary Block, South Australia: the use of RNAA and INAA to understand their genesis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plimer, I R [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia); Lottermoser, B G; Ashley, P M; Lawrie, D C [New England Univ., Armidale, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Geology

    1997-12-31

    Reactor neutron activation analysis (RNAA) , instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and electron microprobe analysis of ironstones and barite from the Olary Block indicate that these deposits are geochemically similar to modem and ancient submarine hydrothermal precipitates. Geochemical analyses generally show low Mn, Pb, Zn, As and Sb concentrations and elevated Au and Cu values. Major (Al, Si) and trace (REE, Th, U, PGEs) element data show that the ironstones and barite rocks are of hydrothermal origin and that mixing occurred between oxidised (and possibly hypersaline) surficial waters and a hydrothermal fluid similar to that from modem sites of submarine exhalation. Such geochemical similarities imply rapid burial in the volcano-sedimentary pile or sub-seafloor replacement. The REE patterns in the iron formations demonstrate a range from low temperature reduced hydrothermal precipitates, seawater and oxidised hydrothermal precipitates. Geochemical signatures are due to precipitation from hydrothermal fluids of lower temperature with further influence by prolonged exposure to the overlying water column and subaqueous oxidation. 7 refs.

  13. k0-INAA application at IPEN Neutron Activation Laboratory by using the k0-IAEA program: biological sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puerta, Daniel Correa

    2013-01-01

    The results obtained in the application of the k 0 -standardization method at LAN-IPEN for biological matrices analysis, by using the k 0 -IAEA software, provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), are presented. The flux parameters f and a of the IEA-R1 reactor were determined for the pneumatic irradiation facility and for one selected irradiation position, 24B/shelf2, for short and long irradiations, respectively. In order to obtain these parameters, the bare triple-monitor method with 197 Au- 96 Zr- 94 Zr was used. In order to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the methodology, the biological reference materials Peach Leaves (NIST SRM 1547), Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT-MPH-2) e Tomato Leaves (NIST SRM 1573a) were analyzed. The statistical criteria Relative Errors (bias, %), Coefficient of Variation (CV) and U-score were applied to the obtained results (mean of six replicates). The relative errors (bias, %) in relation to certified values, were, for most elements, in the range of 0 e 30. The Coefficients of Variation were below 20%, showing a good reproducibility of the results. The U-score test showed that all results, except Na in Peach Leaves and in Tomato Leaves, were within 95% confidence interval. These results point out to a promising use of the k 0 -INAA method at LAN-IPEN for biological sample analysis. (author)

  14. A study on the relationship between iridium concentration in hen eggs and the iridium-enriched feed stuff by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Gaochuang; Mao Xueying; Lu Yali; Ouyang Hong; Wang Jinchun; Zhang Zhaohui; Chai Zhifang

    2000-01-01

    Several hens were fed by adding ammonium chloroiridate into their forage. After two weeks, the Ir concentration in three fractions (eggshell, albumen, egg yolk) of their eggs were measured by INAA. Ir was found in all of the three parts. However, the highest concentration of Ir was found in the egg yolk fraction, which was about 10 times higher than that in the eggshell and albumen. Moreover, the longer the Ir-containing feed stuff was used, the higher the Ir concentration in the egg fractions was. After 7-8 days feeding, it kept stable. On the other hand, as soon as adding the Ir-containing additives were stopped, the Ir concentration in the egg fractions fell down quickly. The experimental results indicated that the ratio from the feedstuff to the eggshell via gastrointestinal pathway to be about 0.07 percent. The new result might be beneficial to explain the iridium-enriched dinosaur eggshell fossils and to interpret the origin of the mass extinct event of dinosaur occurred at the end of Cretaceous

  15. Correlation analysis of inorganic elements in biological tissue if DMD{sup mdx}/J mice using INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metairon, Sabrina; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Suzuki, Miriam F., E-mail: metairon@usp.b, E-mail: czamboni@ipen.b, E-mail: mfsuzuki@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bueno Junior, Carlos R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Centro de Estudos do Genoma Humano; Sant' Anna, Osvaldo A., E-mail: gbrazil@usp.b [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) has been used to determine Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na and S concentrations in bone and other organs samples from DMD{sup mdx}/J dystrophic mice as well as C57BL/6J control group mice. The DMD{sup mdx}/J mouse strain is relevant as an experimental model for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), which is the most severe and prevalent type of muscular dystrophy. Muscle weakness, premature death and instability of the membrane that involves the muscle fibers - causing functional/structural abnormalities and cell death - are main characteristics of this genetic disease. To show in more details the alterations that this disease may cause in bones (tibiae) and organs (quadriceps and heart), correlations matrixes were generated for both strains permitting a comparison between these groups. A significant change was observed in the analysis of the heart of dystrophic mice suggesting that this dysfunction affects severely the heart muscle. The results emphasize physiologic differences for Na, Ca and Mg and suggest that Br and S results are altered, emphasizing a constant monitoring needs. Other than that, these results may help the researchers to evaluate the efficiency of new treatments and to compare the advantages of different treatment approaches before performing tests in patients with muscular dystrophy. (author)

  16. Analysis of As, Cr and Hg in crude oil sludge by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syazwani Mohd Fadzil; Khoo Kok Sionga, Amran Ab Majid; Sukiman Sarmani

    2009-01-01

    Environment are carrying toxic elements. The aim of this study was to determine As, Cr and Hg elements in crude oil sludge. In this study, crude oil sludge samples from a refining plant at Kerteh, Terengganu was carried out using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The samples were packed and irradiated at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency reactor TRIGA Mark II. Later, the samples were counted using a HPGe detector and were analyzed using the SAMPO 90 software. The certified reference material (CRM) namely NBS Coal Fly Ash 1633a was used as a standard to obtain the concentration average using a comparative method. A total of 11 elements (i.e. As, Co, Cr, Fe, Ga, Hg, Mn, Na, Sc, Se and Sr) were determined in all samples. The concentrations of As, Cr and Hg were found to be in the range of 0-18.8, 98.2-124 and 52.8-57.9 μg.g -1 respectively. From the concentration of these elements, the results showed that the value for total As element is low but the values for the total Cr and Hg are considerable higher than the permissible value. However, almost all the potential environmental impacts can be controlled by sludge disposal options such as well-designed, carefully, efficiently and continuously managed, by following accepted guidelines and regulations. (Author)

  17. The measurement of trace elements in interplanetary dust and cometary particles by ultra-high sensitivity INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolensky, M.E.; Lindstrom, D.J.; Lindstrom, R.M.; Lindstrom, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    Today the major elemental composition of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) is routinely determined in many laboratories. These and mineralogical studies have revealed the presence of at least two major types of IDPs, chondritic and refractory. Preliminary results of a successful attempt to determine abundances of a large suite of trace elements from both chondritic and refractory IDPs are reported. The analytical procedure can be used in the grain-by-grain analysis of returned cometary samples. Chondritic and refractory IDPs are characterized by standard scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) techniques. With this system, detection limits for many elements are well below picogram levels, and some approach femtogram levels. This technique is non-destructive, although some sample handling is required, so particles can be analyzed by other techniques after instrument neutron activation analysis (INAA) is completed. Data is presently being reduced from the analyses of 7 IDPs. These are U2015E10, U2015F1, W7029-A2, W7029-A3, W7013A8, LACl (all chondritic) and 705 (refractory). So far, 17 different major and trace elements were detected and measured in these particles, including rare earths and some very volatile elements (Br and Zn)

  18. Study on the property of the production for Fengdongyan kiln in Early Ming dynasty by INAA and EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.; Huang, Y.; Sun, H.Y.; Yan, L.T.; Feng, S.L.; Xu, Q.; Feng, X.Q.

    2016-01-01

    A lot of official wares carved “Guan” or the dragon patterns were excavated on the strata of Ming dynasty of the Fengdongyan kiln site at Dayao County. The imperial porcelain was fired in Hongwu and Yongle eras. However, the emergence of this imperial porcelain has triggered academic debate about the property of Fengdongyan kiln in the Early Ming dynasty. Based on the differences of the official kiln management, some scholars have determined that the property of the production for this kiln was the civilian kiln. According to the historical textural records and typology, others preliminary confirmed that Fengdongyan kiln was the official kiln. In this paper, the elemental compositions of body and glaze in imperial and civilian porcelain are study by INAA and EDXRF for determining the property of the production for this kiln in Early Ming dynasty. After the processing of experimental data by geochemical analysis and principal component analysis, the result show that the raw materials for making body and glaze in imperial porcelain are similar with those of the civilian porcelain and the degrees of elutriation for body can be slightly different in HW-M period of Ming dynasty. The analytical results support the view that the Fengdongyan kiln is civilian not official.

  19. k0-INAA for APM samples collected in period of June 2004 - March 2005 and some marine certified reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dung, Ho Manh; Vu, Cao Dong; Y, Truong; Sy, Nguyen Thi

    2006-01-01

    The airborne particulate matter (APM) samples have been collected in 2004 using two types of polycarbonate membrane filter PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 at two sites of industrial (Ho Chi Mihn City) and rural (Dateh) regions in south of Vietnam. Three marine certified reference materials have been selected to establish a k0-NAA procedure for marine samples. The concentration of trace multi-element in the samples has been determined by the k 0 -INAA procedure using K o -DALAT software developed in Dalat NRI. About 28 elements in 224 APM samples collected at two areas of Dateh and HCMC of Vietnam in period from June, 2004 to March, 2005 were presented in report. The statistical analysis was applied to the data set to investigate the pollution source at sampling sites. The results proved that the k 0 -NAA on the Dalat research reactor is a reliable and effective analytical technique for characterization of trace multi-element in APM and marine samples for air and marine environmental pollution study in Vietnam. (author)

  20. Hierarchical clustering of Alzheimer and 'normal' brains using elemental concentrations and glucose metabolism determined by PIXE, INAA and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutts, D.A.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    Brain tissue samples, obtained from the Alzheimer Disease Brain Bank, Institute of Psychiatry, London, were taken from both left and right hemispheres of three regions of the cerebrum, namely the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes for both Alzheimer and 'normal' subjects. Trace element concentrations in the frontal lobe were determined for twenty six Alzheimer (15 male, 11 female) and twenty six 'normal' (8 male, 18 female) brain tissue samples. In the parietal lobe ten Alzheimer (2 male, 8 female) and ten 'normal' (8 male, 2 female) samples were taken along with ten Alzheimer (4 male, 6 female) and ten 'normal' (6 male, 4 female) from the occipital lobe. For the frontal lobe trace element concentrations were determined using proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis while in parietal and occipital regions instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used. Additionally eighteen Alzheimer (9 male, 9 female) and eighteen age matched 'normal' (8 male, 10 female) living subjects were examined using positron emission tomography (PET) in order to determine regional cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (rCMRGlu). The rCMRGlu of 36 regions of the brain was investigated including frontal, occipital and parietal lobes as in the trace element study. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to the trace element and glucose metabolism data to discover which variables in the resulting dendrograms displayed the most significant separation between Alzheimer and 'normal' subjects. (author)

  1. Simultaneous determination of short-to-medium lived nuclides in Ghanaian food items using INAA and Compton suppression counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyarko, B.J.B.; Fletcher, J.J.; Zwicker, B.; Chatt, A.

    2006-01-01

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 19 elements in 10 individual food items from Ghana. The samples were irradiated for 1 minutes in a neutron flux of 2.5 x 10 11 n x cm -2 x s -1 at the Dalhousie University Slowpoke-2 reactor (DUSR) facility. After a 2-minute decay the samples were counted using a Compton suppression gamma-ray spectrometry system for 10 minutes to quantify Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cu, Dy, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, S, Sr, Th, Ti, U, V and Zn. The analytical procedure namely, irradiation, decay and counting times were optimized for quick turn-around time for simultaneous determination of the nineteen elements. White-seeded beans (Phaseolus coccineus), one of the most commonly consumed foodstuff in Ghana, were found to contain the highest level of the 19 elements determined, viz. K (1.4%) and Sorghum spp. the lowest level viz. Dy (2.2 ng x g -1 ). Two NIST SRMs were used for internal quality control. The concentrations of most of the elements were found to be within ±6% of the certified or information values. The precisions were calculated from six replicate measurements and were found to be within 10%. (author)

  2. Study on the property of the production for Fengdongyan kiln in Early Ming dynasty by INAA and EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); Huang, Y.; Sun, H.Y. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yan, L.T.; Feng, S.L.; Xu, Q. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); Feng, X.Q., E-mail: fengxq@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-08-15

    A lot of official wares carved “Guan” or the dragon patterns were excavated on the strata of Ming dynasty of the Fengdongyan kiln site at Dayao County. The imperial porcelain was fired in Hongwu and Yongle eras. However, the emergence of this imperial porcelain has triggered academic debate about the property of Fengdongyan kiln in the Early Ming dynasty. Based on the differences of the official kiln management, some scholars have determined that the property of the production for this kiln was the civilian kiln. According to the historical textural records and typology, others preliminary confirmed that Fengdongyan kiln was the official kiln. In this paper, the elemental compositions of body and glaze in imperial and civilian porcelain are study by INAA and EDXRF for determining the property of the production for this kiln in Early Ming dynasty. After the processing of experimental data by geochemical analysis and principal component analysis, the result show that the raw materials for making body and glaze in imperial porcelain are similar with those of the civilian porcelain and the degrees of elutriation for body can be slightly different in HW-M period of Ming dynasty. The analytical results support the view that the Fengdongyan kiln is civilian not official.

  3. Trace element analyses of fluid inclusions using laser ablation ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong-ying Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluid inclusions are records of the physico-chemical conditions of fluid–rock interactions during magmatism, mineralization and fluid percolation and mixing processes. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS is a powerful tool for in situ analyses of small samples at micrometer levels. Here we report in situ analyses of fluid inclusions using LA-ICP-MS method. NIST SRM glasses and 23Na are generally used as external and internal standards for LA-ICP-MS analysis of fluid inclusion, respectively, although the RSD of microthermometric estimation of 23Na is about 20% and even worse, the background signal of Na is high for most ICP-MS. Using well-characterized natural fluids inclusion, we show that RESOlution S-155 laser system analyze fluid inclusions in quartz and determine the trace element concentrations. Resonetics RESOlution S-155 laser has the advantage of the motorized Z stage can be used to accommodate variation of sample height or sample topography and height difference between samples, which is very important for analyzing the fluid inclusion in quartz. Our results suggest laser energy density is 25 J/cm2, laser pulse repetition rates are commonly between 6 and 10 Hz to avoid the fissuring of quartz and obtain adequate results. For this LA-ICP-MS analysis, uncertainty on 35Cl content is around 40% because of intensity of the 35Cl signal is three orders of magnitude less intense than the intensity of the 23Na signal. Nevertheless, it is still a useful reference for fluid inclusion analyses in addition to 23Na. This technique can be applied to a range of hydrothermal geology problems, including determining the origins of ore forming brines and ore deposition processes, mapping metamorphic and hydrothermal fluid provinces and pathways, and constraining the effects of fluid–rock reactions and fluid mixing.

  4. Lasers '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.G.; Shay, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: XUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Lasers, excimer lasers, chemical lasers, nuclear pumped lasers, high power gas lasers, solid state lasers, laser spectroscopy. The paper presented include: Development of KrF lasers for fusion and Nuclear driven solid-state lasers

  5. Forensic identification of trunk mat by trace element analysis of single fiber with laser ablation ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroma, Yuki; Nakai, Izumi; Hokura, Akiko

    2010-01-01

    The application of LA-ICP-MS (laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) to the chemical characterization of single trunk mat fibers made of PET was investigated in order to establish a forensic analytical method for the discrimination of samples of different origins. The analytical conditions of LA-ICP-MS equipped with a 213 nm Nd : YAG laser were optimized to analyze trace elements, such as Cu, Sb, and Ba at ppm levels. A total of 31 samples produced by 7 car manufactures in Japan were used for analysis. The concentrations of Li, Mg, Al, P, Ca, Ti, Co, Cu, Ge, Nb, Sb, Ta, and Pb were successfully measured from a single fiber sample with a diameter of ca. 20 μm. It was possible to discriminate all 31 samples based on the analytical results of a single fiber by LA-ICP-MS combined with those of FT-IR and SEM-EDS. LA-ICP-MS has good analytical sensitivity, and requires a much shorter preparation time and a smaller sample size than any other conventional element analysis methods. This paper demonstrates for the first time that this method is practically useful as a powerful tool for the forensic identification of a single trunk mat fiber. (author)

  6. Assessment and forensic application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the discrimination of Australian window glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Deftar, Moteaa M; Speers, Naomi; Eggins, Stephen; Foster, Simon; Robertson, James; Lennard, Chris

    2014-08-01

    A commercially available laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument was evaluated for the determination of elemental composition of twenty Australian window glass samples, consisting of 14 laminated samples and 6 non-laminated samples (or not otherwise specified) collected from broken windows at crime scenes. In this study, the LIBS figures of merit were assessed in terms of accuracy, limits of detection and precision using three standard reference materials (NIST 610, 612, and 1831). The discrimination potential of LIBS was compared to that obtained using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), X-ray microfluorescence spectroscopy (μXRF) and scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) for the analysis of architectural window glass samples collected from crime scenes in the Canberra region, Australia. Pairwise comparisons were performed using a three-sigma rule, two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test at 95% confidence limit in order to investigate the discrimination power for window glass analysis. The results show that the elemental analysis of glass by LIBS provides a discrimination power greater than 97% (>98% when combined with refractive index data), which was comparable to the discrimination powers obtained by LA-ICP-MS and μXRF. These results indicate that LIBS is a feasible alternative to the more expensive LA-ICP-MS and μXRF options for the routine forensic analysis of window glass samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The determination of trace metals by INAA in cortex cerebellum and putamen of human brain and in their neuromelanins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaveri, G.; Rizzio, E.; Bergamaschi, L.; Gallorini, M.; Zecca, L.

    2002-01-01

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used for all the measurements. Irradiations were performed at the Triga Mark II (General Atomic - USA) research reactor of the University of Pavia. Depending on the elements to be determined, two different irradiation procedures were followed: Short irradiations were performed in the pneumatic irradiation facility at a neutron flux of 5x10 12 n x cm -2 x s - 1 . Samples and standards sealed in plastic vials were irradiated for 5 minutes. Long irradiations were carried out in the central thimble facility at a nominal neutron flux of 1013 n x cm-2 x s - 1. Samples and standards were sealed in quartz vials and then neutron irradiated for 40 h. For the gamma spectra evaluation HPGe (gamma -x) detectors (ORTEC - USA) coupled to computerized multichannel analysers (ORTEC ADCAM - USA) were used. The concentrations of trace elements in Cortex, Cerebellum, Putamen and in their Neuromelanins are reported. Fe is the most abundant element in tissues, followed by Zinc. The ability of NMs to sequestrate metals is well shown, being their concentrations in NMs much higher than in their respective tissues, where some of them (Hg, Mo) were not even detectable. Strong differences are shown between the different pigments in interaction with metals. NM from SN shows a higher affinity for iron than all the other pigments isolated from other brain areas; nevertheless, the tissue that contains the highest concentration of this metal is PU and not SN. These results would confirm that NM from SN plays a protective role in neurons by quenching Fenton's reaction, so far considered the cause of the pathogenesis of PD. A protective role could be played by the other pigments as well, as the concentrations of analysed elements show that they bind large amounts of potentially toxic metals different from iron. This might be explained as the need of the neurons to defend themselves from the toxicity of this metal by the development of a specific

  8. Blood-copper and zinc levels and consequences of cardiovascular complications. A study by INAA and FAAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.; Waheed, S.

    2011-01-01

    To understand the role of Cu and Zn in human blood both in controls as well as in cardiovascular (CVD) patients, whole blood samples of 181 CVD and 185 controls between the ages of 20-66 years were investigated. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometric techniques were successfully employed to quantification Cu and Zn levels. The mean blood-Cu levels (1.50 mg L -1 ) were found as enhanced whereas Zn levels (5.88 mg L -1 ) were reduced in cardiovascular patients group as compared to 0.90 and 6.70 mg L -1 for Cu and Zn respectively in controls. Cu/Zn ratios for CVD patients are also higher than in control subjects. Negative correlation exists between Cu and Zn levels in both controls and patient groups. However, when the CVD patients were checked for their systolic and diastolic pressure it was found that copper concentrations in these patients was significantly increased (p < 0.001) with the rise of blood systolic pressure so a positive correlation was observed between copper and systolic pressure. Zn on the other hand has an inverse relation with systolic as well as diastolic pressure (p < 0.001). Total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) in blood samples have also been determined and their probable role in the CVD complication has been observed. A positive correlation of blood-Cu with TC, TG, and LDL-C indicates that rise in blood-Cu levels may initiate the development of CVD. An increase in Cu/Zn ratio can instigate the cardiovascular risk factor. The findings from this study can definitely update our knowledge of the role of Cu and Zn in the development of CVD risk in humans. (author)

  9. The concentration of Fe and Zn in food-stuff of agriculture, husbandry and fishery determined by k0-INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Th Rina Mulyaningsih

    2009-01-01

    Deficiency of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) micronutrient was suffered by population Therefore the determination of Fe and Zn in agriculture, husbandry, and fishery were carried out. The objective of this research is to estimate Fe and Zn intake through consumed food-stuff. Sampling was done in Pasar Serpong, while Fe and Zn was determined by k 0 - instrumental neutron activation analysis (k 0 -INAA). The result of analysis indicated that concentration of Fe and Zn in beef, goat and goat liver were >150 µg/g, in chicken flesh were around 30 µg/g. This food-stuff is good as source intake of Fe and Zn, due to level of consumption was low i.e. 0.001 - 0.018 kg/day, so its intake was lower enough i.e. 0.1 - 0.5 mg/day. The concentration of Fe and Zn in rice were < 50 µg/g, but because of consume level is high enough 0.3 kg/day, so Fe and Zn intake from rice is high enough. Zn and Fe content in spinach is 119 µg/g and 248 µg/g, Zn and Fe content in Kangkung is 54.84 µg/g, and 337 µg/g, and with consume level of ~0.015 kg/day it is good source of Zn arid Fe intake i.e 0.8 - 3.5 mg/day. The concentration of Zn in egg was 39.0184 µg/g and Fe was 74.45 µg/g because of level consume is higher than chicken flesh, so Zn and Fe intake from egg is higher than from chicken flesh, i.e. 0.85 - 1.64 mg/day. By knowing Fe and Zn concentration in foodstuff, supported with its consume level, Zn and Fe intake every day can be estimated. (author)

  10. Chemical characterization of archaeological ceramics using k{sub 0} based INAA: A study in the production and distribution of middle horizon pottery from Cuzco, Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, E; Glowacki, M; Zapata, J; Mendoza, P [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru)

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this research was to establish, in general terms, the provenance of certain pottery styles that are found in the Peruvian southern highlands, in the Cuzco region. Previous work allowed identification of ceramic influences from outside Cuzco, namely from the Peruvian central highlands, the heartland of the Wari culture, and from the high plateau region of Bolivia and Peru (the Altiplano), the centre of Tiwanaku society. One of the goals was to determine which of these ceramic styles were made in other regions and brought to Cuzco, and which of them were locally manufactured imitations. In addition, an attempt was made to compare their patterns of production and distribution with those of local ceramic styles. These data, in turn, were found helpful in understanding some aspects of the social, economic and political dynamics of the Middle Horizon period at Cuzco. To realize this objective, a set of about 350 ceramic samples was chemically analysed using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and the results processed by multivariate statistical methods. From the pioneering works of Sayre, INAA has become a major tool in multielement compositional characterization of archaeological ceramics. One of the best ways to carry out INAA is the k{sub 0} standardization method, first developed by De Corte et al. [De Corte, F., Habil. Thesis, University of Gent (1987), De Corte, F., et al., J. Radioanal. Chem. 62 (1981) 209 pp.]. It was very effective in accurate multielement analysis of large numbers of samples and has been employed in the Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (IPEN) laboratory since 1993. Special care was taken in our research to maintain quality control of the analytical results, which were produced in duplicate for every sample, and for repeated analysis of NIST SRM-2704 (Buffalo River Sediment) and other reference materials such as the well known Old Ohio Red Clay. (author)

  11. Improvement of the Ca determination accuracy with k (0)-INAA using an HPGe coaxial detector with extended energy range efficiency calibration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jan; Kubešová, Marie; Lebeda, Ondřej

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 315, č. 3 (2018), s. 671-675 ISSN 0236-5731. [7th International K0-Users Workshop. Montreal, 03.09.2017-08.09.2017] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : k(0)-INAA * Ca determination * HPGe detector * High-energy efficiency calibration * Co-56 activity standard Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  12. Study on the correlation between mercury contents in hair of lying-in women and their new-born babies by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Weiyue; Qian Qinfang; Chai Zhifang

    1994-01-01

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been performed on 27 pairs of scalp hair samples for mothers and their new-born babies living in Haidian District, Beijing. The transfer of mercury in pregnant women and its accumulation in new-born babies were studied. The results showed that a significant positive correlation exists between the mercury contents in maternal and infant hair (γ = + 0.856, P < 0.001), and the infant level exceeded the maternal level by 12%. It was found that the concentration of mercury in maternal hair was gradually decreased during pregnancy

  13. Investigation of sediment movement in the North Navigation Channel Area of the estuary of the Yangtze river using natural radiotracers and INAA methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yunhui; Li Guiqun; Zhang Qixing, Sun Maoyi

    1996-01-01

    This is a preliminary investigation of sediment in the North Navigation Channel Area of the estuary of the Yangtze river, which has been made by determining the natural radioisotopes and the INAA of 30 natural sand samples. Multivariate statistical method was used to process and analyze the data obtained. It can be seen that there are tow sediment movement routes in the investigation area. The orientation of the main sediment movement is from northwest to southeast in accordance with the results obtained from the field submarine drag-monitorings after the radiotracer injection. Besides, there is also another sand movement route existed. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Trace-element measurements in atmospheric biomonitors--A look at the relative performance of INAA and PIXE on olive-tree bark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, Adriano M.G.; Freitas, Maria do Carmo; Reis, Miguel A.

    2003-01-01

    As part of an ongoing evaluation of its suitability for atmospheric biomonitoring, bark from olive trees (Olea europaea Linn.) has been collected and searched for trace elements by means of two nuclear-analytical techniques--instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The sampling for the present study was carried out across two separate sections of an established grid for air-quality surveys in mainland Portugal. The dual location comprises 58 collection sites--littoral-north (29 sites) and littoral-centre (29 sites). Both techniques are intrinsically accurate and may be seen to complement each other in the way that, as a whole, they yield 46 elements, with an overlap of 16 elements. Among the latter, this paper focuses on four of them and looks into their joint determination. Descriptive statistics for soil-related Al and Ti, and for sea-related Cl and Br, show results for each element to be fairly comparable. The degree of association between elemental patterns by either technique, as seen through nonparametric tests (Kendall's R K ), is outstanding. No statistical evidence (Wilcoxon's T) for relative bias in correlated samples--consistently higher or lower results by one technique--could be found as well. As far as this study goes, INAA and PIXE may be used interchangeably for determining the present elements in olive-tree bark

  15. Measurement of inclusion size by laser ablation ICP mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasev, Andrey V.; Suito, Hideaki

    2004-01-01

    By using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), the measurement of particle size has been made for one component oxide (Al 2 O 3 and MgO) and multicomponent oxide (12CaO·7Al 2 O 3 and CaO-Al 2 O 3 -MgO) located on surface of iron or glass sample. The method of particle size estimation by LA-ICP-MS has been developed coupled with a new method of making samples with particles. The size calibration lines for Al 2 O 3 , MgO and CaO particles have been obtained. The results of particle size measurement by LA-ICP-MS are compared with those by SEM and single-particle optical sensing (SPOS) methods. It was confirmed that LA-ICP-MS has the perspective to be used for the quick measurement of inclusion composition and size in metal and other materials. The size frequency distributions of Al 2 O 3 particles measured by LA-ICP-MS in iron samples with particles agree reasonably well with those by SEM and SPOS in the range of particle diameter from 2 to 20 μm. The size of Al 2 O 3 , MgO and complex oxide (12CaO·7Al 2 O 3 and CaO-Al 2 O 3 -MgO) particles measured by LA-ICP-MS is in good agreement with that by SEM in the range of particle diameter from 10 to 40 μm. (author)

  16. Laser Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Describes lasers and indicates that learning about laser technology and creating laser technology activities are among the teacher enhancement processes needed to strengthen technology education. (JOW)

  17. Application of elemental bioimaging using laser ablation ICP-MS in forest pathology: distribution of elements in the bark of Picea sitchensis following wounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebold, Magdalena; Leidich, Patrick; Bertini, Martina; Deflorio, Giuliana; Feldmann, Jörg; Krupp, Eva M; Halmschlager, Erhard; Woodward, Steve

    2012-04-01

    Element distribution in the bark of two 20-year-old clones of Picea sitchensis following wounding was studied using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Bark was sampled at 0, 3, and 43 days after wounding and analysed using a focused Nd:YAG laser (266 nm). Intensities of (13)C, (25)Mg, (27)Al, (31)P, (32)S, (39)K, (48)Ca, (55)Mn, (57)Fe, (63)Cu and (64)Zn were measured by ICP-MS to study elemental distribution across the bark samples during the wound repair process. A clear accumulation of Mg, P and K at the boundary zone between the lesion and healthy tissue was detected in the wounded samples and was more distinctive at 43 than at 3 days after treatment. This zone of accumulation mapped onto the position of formation of the ligno-suberised boundary zone and differentiation of the wound periderm. These accumulations suggest major roles for Mg, P and K in the non-specific response of Sitka spruce both to wounding, possibly as co-factors to enzymes and energy utilisation. The LA-ICP-MS method developed in this work proved useful to study spatial element distribution across bark samples and has great potential for applications in other areas of plant pathology research.

  18. Application of elemental bioimaging using laser ablation ICP-MS in forest pathology: distribution of elements in the bark of Picea sitchensis following wounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebold, Magdalena; Leidich, Patrick; Bertini, Martina; Feldmann, Joerg; Deflorio, Giuliana; Woodward, Steve; Krupp, Eva M.; Halmschlager, Erhard

    2012-01-01

    Element distribution in the bark of two 20-year-old clones of Picea sitchensis following wounding was studied using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Bark was sampled at 0, 3, and 43 days after wounding and analysed using a focused Nd:YAG laser (266 nm). Intensities of 13 C, 25 Mg, 27 Al, 31 P, 32 S, 39 K, 48 Ca, 55 Mn, 57 Fe, 63 Cu and 64 Zn were measured by ICP-MS to study elemental distribution across the bark samples during the wound repair process. A clear accumulation of Mg, P and K at the boundary zone between the lesion and healthy tissue was detected in the wounded samples and was more distinctive at 43 than at 3 days after treatment. This zone of accumulation mapped onto the position of formation of the ligno-suberised boundary zone and differentiation of the wound periderm. These accumulations suggest major roles for Mg, P and K in the non-specific response of Sitka spruce both to wounding, possibly as co-factors to enzymes and energy utilisation. The LA-ICP-MS method developed in this work proved useful to study spatial element distribution across bark samples and has great potential for applications in other areas of plant pathology research. (orig.)

  19. Evaluation of elemental profiling methods, including laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), for the differentiation of Cannabis plant material grown in different nutrient solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Deftar, Moteaa M; Robertson, James; Foster, Simon; Lennard, Chris

    2015-06-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging atomic emission based solid sampling technique that has many potential forensic applications. In this study, the analytical performance of LIBS, as well as that of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and X-ray microfluorescence (μXRF), was evaluated for the ability to conduct elemental analyses on Cannabis plant material, with a specific investigation of the possible links between hydroponic nutrients and elemental profiles from associated plant material. No such study has been previously published in the literature. Good correlation among the four techniques was observed when the concentrations or peak areas of the elements of interest were monitored. For Cannabis samples collected at the same growth time, the elemental profiles could be related to the use of particular commercial nutrients. In addition, the study demonstrated that ICP-MS, LA-ICP-MS and LIBS are suitable techniques for the comparison of Cannabis samples from different sources, with high discriminating powers being achieved. On the other hand, μXRF method was not suitable for the discrimination of Cannabis samples originating from different growth nutrients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of elemental bioimaging using laser ablation ICP-MS in forest pathology: distribution of elements in the bark of Picea sitchensis following wounding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebold, Magdalena [University of Aberdeen, Department of Plant and Soil Science, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences Vienna, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Institute of Forest Entomology, Forest Pathology and Forest Protection, Vienna (Austria); Georg-August University Goettingen, Division of Plant Pathology and Crop Protection, Department of Crop Sciences, Goettingen (Germany); Leidich, Patrick; Bertini, Martina; Feldmann, Joerg [University of Aberdeen, TESLA, Trace Element Speciation Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Deflorio, Giuliana; Woodward, Steve [University of Aberdeen, Department of Plant and Soil Science, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Krupp, Eva M. [University of Aberdeen, TESLA, Trace Element Speciation Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); University of Aberdeen, ACES, Aberdeen Centre of Environmental Sustainability, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Halmschlager, Erhard [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences Vienna, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Institute of Forest Entomology, Forest Pathology and Forest Protection, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-04-15

    Element distribution in the bark of two 20-year-old clones of Picea sitchensis following wounding was studied using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Bark was sampled at 0, 3, and 43 days after wounding and analysed using a focused Nd:YAG laser (266 nm). Intensities of {sup 13} C, {sup 25}Mg, {sup 27}Al, {sup 31}P, {sup 32}S, {sup 39}K, {sup 48}Ca, {sup 55}Mn, {sup 57}Fe, {sup 63}Cu and {sup 64}Zn were measured by ICP-MS to study elemental distribution across the bark samples during the wound repair process. A clear accumulation of Mg, P and K at the boundary zone between the lesion and healthy tissue was detected in the wounded samples and was more distinctive at 43 than at 3 days after treatment. This zone of accumulation mapped onto the position of formation of the ligno-suberised boundary zone and differentiation of the wound periderm. These accumulations suggest major roles for Mg, P and K in the non-specific response of Sitka spruce both to wounding, possibly as co-factors to enzymes and energy utilisation. The LA-ICP-MS method developed in this work proved useful to study spatial element distribution across bark samples and has great potential for applications in other areas of plant pathology research. (orig.)

  1. Analysis of trace elements in power plant and industrial incinerator fly ashes by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Areqi, Wadeeah M.; Amran Abdul Majid; Sukiman Sarmani

    2008-01-01

    An elemental analysis of fly ash samples from Selangor and Perak coal-fired power plants and an industrial incinerator from Negeri Sembilan were carried out using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). All samples were irradiated at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency laboratory PUSPATI Reactor for 6 hours and later counted at the Nuclear Science Program, UKM using an HPGe detector with a relative efficiency of 10% and resolution of 1.8 KeV (FWHM) at 1.33 MeV. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) coal fly ash 1633a reference material (SRM) was used as a standard for quantitative analysis. A total of 11 elements (i.e. As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Cr, Co, Fe, Hf, Sc, Th and U) were determined in all three types of fly ashes. The concentration range of environmentally concern elements, As and Cr in the Selangor coal-fired power plant samples are 11.17 - 23.24 and 160.28 - 867.97 μg.g -1 respectively. The concentration range of radioactive elements U and Th are 4.79 - 10.29 and 14.6 - 61.29 μg.g -1 respectively, and the concentration range of Co, Hf, Fe, Sc, Ba, Ce, Ca are 11.88-83.61, 3.24 - 10.48, 30338 - 53885, 16.62 - 28.48, 178.97 - 8491, 127.41 - 217.2 and 10447 -20647 μg.g -1 respectively. The concentration range of As, Cr, U, Th in the Perak samples were found to be 22.16 - 48.38, 44.37 - 74.78, 4.18 - 6.85, 8.71 - 11.43 μg.g -1 respectively, whereas the concentration range of Co, Fe, Sc, Ba, Ce and Ca are 23.21 -29.66, 54621 - 71099, 30.9 - 31.77, 100.34 - 116.61 and 11533 -16423 μg.g -1 respectively. Differences exist in the elemental concentrations of both power plant fly ash samples due to the different feed coal and combustion temperature used. The concentration of Cr, Th and Ce in the Selangor fly ash samples was generally higher compared to the samples obtained from the Perak power plant. This study also shows that only As and Ca were detected in the Negeri Sembilan samples with the concentration ranging from 36.66 - 98.67 and 31709.10 - 45606 μg.g -1

  2. Age dynamics of zinc and iron contents in human hair determined by INAA and ICP-ES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In last decades, the determination of chemical element levels in human hair has been a subject of continual interest in the forensic, clinical, occupational and environmental medicine. Hair has been increasingly used as a monitor for many elements and has been proposed for assessing environmental exposure, nutritional status, and for diagnosis of disease. It has many advantages for assessment over the more traditional kinds of medical objects such as blood and urine because of ease of collection, transport and storage. Also, trace element concentrations in hair samples represent an integrated response over time compared with blood and urine levels, which can rapidly fluctuate in response to variations of nutritional and environmental conditions. The fact that contents of many chemical elements in hair are relatively high also facilitates the analysis. It is known that the result of the hair analysis may not directly relate to the intake amount, nor does it always reflect the amount actually absorbed. Despite these limitations, the analysis of human hair can still provide a basis for estimating ambient exposure to certain elements. The first step in construction of such basis is investigations the national population normal levels of chemical element contents in hair related to sex, age and some other factors under quality control of results. The objectives of this analytical work were to evaluate the reference range of Zn and Fe in adult scalp hair and to evaluate the effect of age and sex on elemental contents. In this study, head hair samples from adult health persons living in or near Obninsk (the small city in rural region 105 km south-west Moscow), were analysed by two methods in three analytical laboratories: instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA - one laboratory) and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ISP-AES - two laboratories). Scalp hair samples were obtained at necropsy from eighty-three cadavers (38 women

  3. INAA at the top of the world: Elemental characterization and analysis of airborne particulate matter collected in the Himalayas at 5,100 m high

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaveri, G.; Bergamaschi, L.; Rizzio, E.; Brandone, A.; Profumo, A.; Gallorini, M.; Zambelli, G.; Baudo, R.; Tartari, G.

    2005-01-01

    In 1990, following an agreement with the Royal Nepal Academy of Science, the Italian National Research Council (CNR) installed a scientific laboratory (Pyramid) at 5,050 m (s.l.) in the Himalayan region. Among the environmental related researches, the task project RATEAP (Remote Areas Trace Elements Atmospheric Pollution), started in 2001, aims at obtaining information about the chemical composition of the high altitude airborne particulate matter. During the period of March-April 2002 series of samplings have been carried out by pump aspiration. Samples of total suspended particles (TSP) as well as of the particles size fraction PM10 and PM 2.5 have been collected and submitted to INAA for the determination of more than 30 elements present, at nanogram levels, in few micrograms of air dust. Data quality assurance has been performed by the analysis of different NIST SRMs and, in particular, the SRM 2783 Air particulate on Filter Media. (author)

  4. Application of INAA in the characterisation and quantification of Dy-labeled ceramic spheres and their use as inert tracers in soil studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, M.J.M.; Plante, A.F.; McGill, W.B.

    2000-01-01

    An inert, activated tracer method, using sized ceramic spheres custom labeled with ∼15% Dy 2 O 3 manufacture, has been developed to study soil aggregation. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with a Slowpoke reactor, using 165m Dy (T 1/2 = 1.26 min), provides an extremely rapid means with which to characterise the Dy-content of the various size fractions of labeled spheres from different production runs. In contrast, the Dy-content (and hence number of spheres) of 5-8 g soil/sphere mixtures is determined using the longer-lived 165 Dy (T 1/2 = 2.33 hrs) following a ∼30-minute decay period during which the otherwise interfering 28 Al (T 1/2 = 2.24 min) preferentially decays. The method is expected to find many applications. (author)

  5. INAA and ICP-MSHS: Metal pollutants in fish tissues Nile tilapia (Oreochromic niloticus) in Pampulha Lake, Belo Horizonte city, Minas, Gerais State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veado, M.A.R.V.; Heeren, A.O.; Arantes, I.A.; Severo, M.I.; Grenier-Loustalot, M.F.; Cabaleiro, H.L.; Almeida, M.R.M.G.

    2005-01-01

    Intense mining activities in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Iron Quadrangle, the central region of Minas Gerais State- Brazil, has important mineral reserves of Fe (the World's second largest iron ore producer), Mn, Cu, Sb, As, Au, Al, and U. The intense mining activities in Minas Gerais State throw out tons of waste in the open air, water, sediment and soil. The considerable accumulated concentrations of heavy metals and toxic elements penetrate the soil, underground waters, rivers, and lakes jeopardizing the environment quality. A great amount of heavy metals enter Pampulha Reservoir via it's main tributaries (Sarandi and Ressaca). Although no water quality classification has been carried out for these tributaries, the reservoir is expected to be in class 2 of the CONAMA-86 system. The Pampulha Lake is a depth of 8 m and an area of 43 km 2 , in a hot, humid climate with a summer rainy season, >18 degree C in the coldest months. A great number of persons use the water for fishing and swimming in the contaminated water. The figure l localizes the Pampulha Lake in Brazil. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, INAA, and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry-High Resolution, ICP-MSHR, were applied to determine Al, As, B, Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Pb, Rb, Zn and Ti. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis - INAA is based in a simultaneous irradiation compareson between standard and studied samples in a nuclear reactor. The irradiation characteristics are chosen to determine the isotopes in the best conditions. In this work the INAA, was applied using the TRIGA MARK I IPR - Rl reactor at the Nuclear Technology Development Center from the National Committee of Nuclear Energy (CDTN/CNEN), in Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. At 100 kW of potency the flux of neutrons is 6.6 1011 ri.cm -2 .s -l . After the necessary decay time for the interfering radioisotopes, the gamma spectrometry was applied in the high-purity germanium (HPGe

  6. Simultaneous determinations of U-Pb age and REE abundances for zircons using AfF excimer laser ablation-ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Tsuyoshi; Hirata, Takafumi

    2004-01-01

    Using a laser-ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICPMS), U-Pb age and rare earth element (REE) abundances have been determined simultaneously from a single 20 μm ablation pit of zircon. The laser ablation system utilizing 193 nm wave-length ArF excimer laser produces stable and reproducible signal intensities resulted in good precisions on measurements of element concentrations and isotopic ratios. Because of the higher energy density of the deep ultra-violet laser beam, ablation fractionation between Pb and U were reduced even with the prolonged ablation, and thus accuracy of Pb-U age was improved significantly. A chicane-type ion lens system was applied to a quadrupole-based ICPMS instrument. With the chicane ion lens, higher elemental sensitivity (4 times or light mass range and 3 times for mid to heavy mass range) and lower white background ( 238 U- 206 Pb ages for Nancy standard zircon (Nancy 91500), SHRIMP calibration standard zircon (SL13) and Antarctic zircon (PMA7) obtained in this study were 1064 ± 24 Ma, 569 ± 78 Ma and 2438 ± 101 Ma (2-sigma), respectively. Relative age differences from previous reports were 0.2%, 0.4% and 3.2% respectively, demonstrative of high reliability of the method. The REE abundances in zircon samples were calibrated using a NIST 610 glass standard reference material. The resulting REE abundance data for zircons (Nancy 91500 and SL13) show good agreement with those for literature values within the analytical precision of ∼20%. The matrix effect that may occur between the synthetic glass standard and zircon crystals is obviously smaller than the precision and thus negligible for this precision levels. The data presented here demonstrate clearly that the combination of ArF excimer laser an ICPMS equipped with the chicane ion lens has a potential to become a significant tool for zircon geochemistry. (author)

  7. Application of the k{sub 0}-INAA method for analysis of biological samples at the pneumatic station of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puerta, Daniel C.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Semmler, Renato, E-mail: dcpuerta@hotmail.com, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br, E-mail: rsemmler@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Jacimovic, Radojko, E-mail: radojko.jacimovic@ijs.si [Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Ljubljana, LJU (Slovenia). Department of Environmental Sciences

    2013-07-01

    As part of the process of implementation of the k{sub 0}-INAA standardization method at the Neutron Activation Laboratory (LAN-IPEN), Sao Paulo, Brazil, this study presents the results obtained for the analysis of short and medium-lived nuclides in biological samples by k{sub 0}-INAA using the program k{sub 0}-IAEA, provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The elements Al, Ba, Br, Na, K, Mn, Mg, Sr and V were determined with respect to gold ({sup 197}Au) using the pneumatic station facility of the IEA-R1 4.5 MW swimming pool nuclear research reactor, Sao Paulo. Characterization of the pneumatic station was carried out by using the 'bare triple-monitor' method with {sup 197}Au-{sup 96}Zr-{sup 94}Zr. The Certified Reference Material IRMM-530R Al-0.1%Au alloy and high purity zirconium comparators were used. The efficiency curves of the gamma-ray spectrometer used were determined by measuring calibrated radioactive sources at the usually utilized counting geometries. The method was validated by analyzing the reference materials NIST SRM 1547 Peach Leaves, INCT-MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST SRM 1573a Tomato Leaves. The concentration results obtained agreed with certified, reference and recommended values, showing relative errors (bias, %) less than 30% for most elements. The Coefficients of Variation were below 20%, showing a good reproducibility of the results. The E{sub n}-number showed that all results, except Na in NIST SRM 1547 and NIST SRM 1573a and Al in INCT-MPH-2, were within 95% confidence interval. (author)

  8. FAAS and k/sub 0/-INAA analysis protocols for the determination of essential and toxic metals in fresh and packed milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasim, M.; Rahman, S.

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the intake adequacy of elements determined in fresh, ultra high temperature (UHT) treated and powder milk samples. The samples were analyzed for fourteen elements (Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Rb, Sn, Sr and Zn) by semi-absolute k/sub 0/ instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) with proper method validation. NAA and AAS methodologies were validated by analyzing three reference materials. The results of 10 elements (Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Sc and Zn) determined in IAEA-336 by k/sub 0/-INAA, iodine in NIST-SRM-1572 (citrus leaves) by ENAA and 4 elements (Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb) by AAS are presented with 95% confidence intervals. The daily intakes were compared with the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) defined for male of age group 31-50 years. This comparison reveals that fresh milk is best in providing most of the essential elements (Ca, I, P, Zn, Mg). UHT treated and powder samples are slightly better in Cu and Fe. It can be said that fresh milk is good source of Ca, I, P and Zn but poor source of Fe. The daily intake of lead, identified in only two samples, was compared with the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) defined by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO), which is 25 mu g/(kg body weight). Lead was evaluated for a person drinking 250 ml of milk/day and weighing 70 kg. It produced weekly intake of 3.1 mu g, a value well below the PTWI. (Orig./A.B.)

  9. k{sub 0}-INAA method at the pneumatic station of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. Application to geological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, Davi B.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Semmler, Renato, E-mail: davimariano@usp.br, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br, E-mail: rsemmler@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    There is a significant number of analytically important elements, when geological samples are concerned, whose activation products are short-lived (seconds to minutes) or medium-lived radioisotopes (minutes to hours). As part of the process of implementation of the k{sub 0}-INAA standardization method at the Neutron Activation Laboratory (LAN-IPEN), Sao Paulo, Brazil, this study presents the results obtained for the analysis of short and medium-lived nuclides in geological samples by k{sub 0}-INAA using the program k{sub 0}-IAEA, provided by The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The elements Al, Dy, Eu, Na, K, Mn, Mg, Sr, V and Ti were determined with respect to gold ({sup 197}Au) using the pneumatic station facility of the IEA-R1 5 MW swimming pool nuclear research reactor, Sao Paulo. Characterization of the pneumatic station was carried out by using the -bare triple-monitor- method with {sup 197}Au-{sup 96}Zr-{sup 94}Zr. The Certified Reference Material IRMM-530R Al-0,1% Au alloy, high purity zirconium, Ni and Lu comparators were irradiated. The efficiency curves of the gamma-ray spectrometer used were determined by measuring calibrated radioactive sources at the usually utilized counting geometries. The method was validated by analyzing the reference materials basalt BE-N (IWG-GIT), basalt JB- 1 (GSJ), andesite AGV-1 (USGS), granite GS-N (IWG-GIT), SOIL-7 (IAEA) and sediment Buffalo River Sediment (NIST-BRS-8704), which represent different geological matrices. The concentration results obtained agreed with certified, reference and recommended values, showing relative errors less than 10% for most elements. (author)

  10. Trace element quantification of lead based roof sheets of historical monuments by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syvilay, D., E-mail: delphine.syvilay@culture.gouv.fr [LRMH USR 3224, 29 rue de Paris, 77420 Champs-sur-Marne (France); Texier, A. [LRMH USR 3224, 29 rue de Paris, 77420 Champs-sur-Marne (France); Arles, A.; Gratuze, B. [IRAMAT, 3D, rue de la Férollerie, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Wilkie-Chancellier, N.; Martinez, L.; Serfaty, S. [SATIE, UMR CNRS 8029, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, ENS Cachan, 95000 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); Detalle, V. [LRMH USR 3224, 29 rue de Paris, 77420 Champs-sur-Marne (France)

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the different periods of construction or restoration of the lead roof of a historic monument. Trace elements in a lead matrix can be a signature of the metallurgical processes, allowing identification of a specific time period for the production of the lead used to build the roof. The ability of LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) to detect such trace elements in a lead matrix is therefore explored and checked by comparing its results with LA-ICP-MS as a reference method (Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry). Concentrations of 263 samples were compared between LIBS and LA-ICP-MS data and their correlation was evaluated. Another way to compare their results is also suggested by combining PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and GIS (Geographic Information System). As a result statistical mappings were created, highlighting metallurgical groups of samples across the roof of the building. This innovative approach links concentration and spatial location resulting in an easily interpretable graphical presentation of the data. The results of both spectrometry methods lead to similar conclusions with distinctive areas of different lead compositions and by extension different lead dating across the roof. But since LIBS is portable we can conclude that it is a suitable and reliable instrument for in-situ applications on historic monuments. - Highlights: • Quantification of trace elements (Ag, Bi, Cu and Sn) in a lead matrix by LIBS and LA-ICP-MS • Low limit of detection for Ag, Bi, Cu and Sn by using LIBS portable instrumentation • Set up a specific data processing combining PCA and GIS for cultural heritage application • Comparison of LIBS and LA-ICP-MS results with 263 samples • 488 samples analyzed by LIBS.

  11. Multielement analytical procedure coupling INAA, ICP-MS and ICP-AES: Application to the determination of major and trace elements in sediment samples of the Bouregreg river (Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounouira, H.; CEA - CNRS/UMR, Centre de Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette; Choukri, A.; Hakam, O.K.; Cherkaoui, R.; Gaudry, A.; Delmas, R.; Mariet, C.; Chakiri, S.

    2008-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) were used for the determination of major and trace elements in sediment samples of the Bouregreg river (Morocco). The reliability of the results was checked, by using IAEA Soil-7 certified reference material. Results obtained by the three techniques were compared to control digestions efficiencies. A general good agreement was found between INAA and both ICP-MS and ICP-AES after alkaline fusion (ICPf). The ICP-MS technique used after acid attack (ICPa) was satisfactory for a few elements. A principal component analysis (PCA) has been used for analyzing the variability of concentrations, and defining the most influential sites with respect to the general variation trends. Three groups of elements could be distinguished. For these groups a normalization of concentrations to the central element concentration (that means Mn, Si or Al) is proposed. (author)

  12. Uncertainty determination of analysis of Ti, V, Cl, Ce, Cr, Cs, Sc, Co, Fe and Ca in solid samples by INAA method using standard addition according to ISO - guide 17025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumining; Agus Taftazani

    2003-01-01

    Uncertainty of analysis of Ti, V, Cl, Ce, Cr, Cs, Sc, Co, Fe and Ca in solid samples by INAA (/instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis) method using comparative technique and standard addition have been carried out at INAA laboratory of P3TM BATAN. The calculation of Ti have been presented as the example. Uncertainty sources of INAA are sampling, sample and standard preparation, irradiation and counting. Sample were come from IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) which had ready for analyzed therefore only for sample and standard preparation, irradiation and counting factors were determined. Analysis were done by relative technique, that sample and standard were irradiated together in same capsule therefore irradiation time, neutron flux, irradiation geometry and isotopic properties. will be eliminated. Uncertainty of counting factors were covering radioactivity decay during the counting, pulse losses caused by random counting, counting geometry, and counting rate. Relative technique makes the uncertainty come from counting time for sample and standard that was settled by same counting equipment can be neglected. Uncertainty of counting geometry and thickness of uranium was not detected so there is no contribution come from The fission product. Variation of fuel target nuclides number didn't occurred because the combustion was not occurred during irradiation, and analytical results were not influenced by the chemical status. (author)

  13. The Newest Laser Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Baek Yeon

    2007-01-01

    This book mentions laser processing with laser principle, laser history, laser beam property, laser kinds, foundation of laser processing such as laser oscillation, characteristic of laser processing, laser for processing and its characteristic, processing of laser hole including conception of processing of laser hole and each material, and hole processing of metal material, cut of laser, reality of cut, laser welding, laser surface hardening, application case of special processing and safety measurement of laser.

  14. Onboard calibration igneous targets for the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and the Chemistry Camera laser induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabre, C., E-mail: cecile.fabre@g2r.uhp-nancy.fr [G2R, Nancy Universite (France); Maurice, S.; Cousin, A. [IRAP, Toulouse (France); Wiens, R.C. [LANL, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Forni, O. [IRAP, Toulouse (France); Sautter, V. [MNHN, Paris (France); Guillaume, D. [GET, Toulouse (France)

    2011-03-15

    Accurate characterization of the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on-board composition targets is of prime importance for the ChemCam instrument. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) science and operations teams expect ChemCam to provide the first compositional results at remote distances (1.5-7 m) during the in situ analyses of the Martian surface starting in 2012. Thus, establishing LIBS reference spectra from appropriate calibration standards must be undertaken diligently. Considering the global mineralogy of the Martian surface, and the possible landing sites, three specific compositions of igneous targets have been determined. Picritic, noritic, and shergottic glasses have been produced, along with a Macusanite natural glass. A sample of each target will fly on the MSL Curiosity rover deck, 1.56 m from the ChemCam instrument, and duplicates are available on the ground. Duplicates are considered to be identical, as the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the composition dispersion is around 8%. Electronic microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) analyses give evidence that the chemical composition of the four silicate targets is very homogeneous at microscopic scales larger than the instrument spot size, with RSD < 5% for concentration variations > 0.1 wt.% using electronic microprobe, and < 10% for concentration variations > 0.01 wt.% using LA ICP-MS. The LIBS campaign on the igneous targets performed under flight-like Mars conditions establishes reference spectra for the entire mission. The LIBS spectra between 240 and 900 nm are extremely rich, hundreds of lines with high signal-to-noise, and a dynamical range sufficient to identify unambiguously major, minor and trace elements. For instance, a first LIBS calibration curve has been established for strontium from [Sr] = 284 ppm to [Sr] = 1480 ppm, showing the potential for the future calibrations for other major or minor

  15. Onboard calibration igneous targets for the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and the Chemistry Camera laser induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre, C.; Maurice, S.; Cousin, A.; Wiens, R.C.; Forni, O.; Sautter, V.; Guillaume, D.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate characterization of the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on-board composition targets is of prime importance for the ChemCam instrument. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) science and operations teams expect ChemCam to provide the first compositional results at remote distances (1.5-7 m) during the in situ analyses of the Martian surface starting in 2012. Thus, establishing LIBS reference spectra from appropriate calibration standards must be undertaken diligently. Considering the global mineralogy of the Martian surface, and the possible landing sites, three specific compositions of igneous targets have been determined. Picritic, noritic, and shergottic glasses have been produced, along with a Macusanite natural glass. A sample of each target will fly on the MSL Curiosity rover deck, 1.56 m from the ChemCam instrument, and duplicates are available on the ground. Duplicates are considered to be identical, as the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the composition dispersion is around 8%. Electronic microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) analyses give evidence that the chemical composition of the four silicate targets is very homogeneous at microscopic scales larger than the instrument spot size, with RSD 0.1 wt.% using electronic microprobe, and 0.01 wt.% using LA ICP-MS. The LIBS campaign on the igneous targets performed under flight-like Mars conditions establishes reference spectra for the entire mission. The LIBS spectra between 240 and 900 nm are extremely rich, hundreds of lines with high signal-to-noise, and a dynamical range sufficient to identify unambiguously major, minor and trace elements. For instance, a first LIBS calibration curve has been established for strontium from [Sr] = 284 ppm to [Sr] = 1480 ppm, showing the potential for the future calibrations for other major or minor elements.

  16. Geochemical wolframite fingerprinting - the likelihood ratio approach for laser ablation ICP-MS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyna, Agnieszka; Gäbler, Hans-Eike; Bahr, Andreas; Zadora, Grzegorz

    2018-05-01

    Wolframite has been specified as a 'conflict mineral' by a U.S. Government Act, which obliges companies that use these minerals to report their origin. Minerals originating from conflict regions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo shall be excluded from the market as their illegal mining, trading, and taxation are supposed to fuel ongoing violent conflicts. The German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) developed a geochemical fingerprinting method for wolframite based on laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Concentrations of 46 elements in about 5300 wolframite grains from 64 mines were determined. The issue of verifying the declared origins of the wolframite samples may be framed as a forensic problem by considering two contrasting hypotheses: the examined sample and a sample collected from the declared mine originate from the same mine (H 1 ), and the two samples come from different mines (H 2 ). The solution is found using the likelihood ratio (LR) theory. On account of the multidimensionality, the lack of normal distribution of data within each sample, and the huge within-sample dispersion in relation to the dispersion between samples, the classic LR models had to be modified. Robust principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were used to characterize samples. The similarity of two samples was expressed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov distances, which were interpreted in view of H 1 and H 2 hypotheses within the LR framework. The performance of the models, controlled by the levels of incorrect responses and the empirical cross entropy, demonstrated that the proposed LR models are successful in verifying the authenticity of the wolframite samples. Graphical abstract Geochemical wolframite fingerprinting.

  17. Evaluation and distribution of metals, trace elements and rare earths in sediments profiles of Promissão Reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, Matheus; Rocha, Flavio R.; Fávaro, Deborah I.T.; Franklin, Robson L.

    2017-01-01

    The concentration of elements at two points in the reservoir (1 and 3) was evaluated. Two profiles of fractionated sediments were collected in the field every 2.5 cm, generating 14 and 20 fractions, respectively, according to their depths (35 and 50 cm). The concentrations of the elements: As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Th, U, Zn and the rare earth elements (Ce, Eu, Gd, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) were determined using the technique of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The validation of the methodology was done through the analysis of certified reference materials. The values of the North American Shale Composite (NASC) were used as reference values for calculation of Enrichment Factor (FE) and Geoacumulation Index (IGeo), tools used to evaluate pollution levels. The concentration of the As, Cr and Zn elements was also compared with the Guideline values TEL (Treshold Effect Level) and PEL (Probable Effect Level), values that provide concentration ranges for these elements indicating the presence or not of probable effects in aquatic biota from these concentrations

  18. Evaluation of the metal contamination associated to the leachate in the Chururupe-Ilheus (Bahia State, Brazil) river by using INAA and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmazio, Ilza; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Silva, Mario R. de S.; Vasconcelos, Danilo C.; Santos, Balbino L. dos

    2002-01-01

    The site of this research is in Ilheus city located at Bahia State in Brazil. Residues generated by the urban activities from this city are collected and disposed at a place without sanitary control called ' Lixao do Cururupe' close to Cururupe river. The leachate from the water drainage through the mass of garbage flows into the river. This solution is rich in organic and inorganic pollutants. There is not any information about the environmental impact caused by this dump. The objective of this study is to evaluate the contamination caused by metals due to the presence of leachate into Rio Cururupe. Water, sediment and crustaceans (Ucides cordatus) samples were collected in different points considering the dump location. Extra samples were also taken in Rio Acuipe 20 km from Rio Cururupe for comparison. After appropriate treatment the samples were analyzed using the technique Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The parameters pH, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and Biochemistry Oxygen Demand from the water samples were also determined. (author)

  19. 232-Th and 238-U radioactive contaminations of sediments along the South China Sea of East Coast Peninsular Malaysia by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadijeh Rezaee Ebrahim Saraee; Elias Saion; Naghavi, K.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of 232 Th and 238 U were determined in 30 sediment samples, collected from the South China Sea bed of the east coast peninsular Malaysia. The samples were dried in an oven for 10 days at 65 C and stored in polyethylene bottles for future analysis. INAA used to analyse surficial sediments. The 232 Th and 238 U activities in surficial sediments determined. These activities increased from 14.02 to 30.17 Bq Kg -1 and from 47.49 to 113.69 Bq Kg -1 for 232 Th and 238 U , respectively. Results show diffuse distribution of 232 Th and 238 U actinides in studied area. The Th/Sc and U/Sc ratios of the suricial sediments have same distribution and the highest their values are in station EC12. The radioactive contamination of the investigated sector is compared with the results obtained of other coastal sediments of Malaysia. Results show activity contamination in coastal sediments of the South China Sea is lower than the Straits of Malacca and is the same with the Straits of Johor. (Author)

  20. True-coincidence correction when using an LEPD for the determination of the lanthanides in the environment via k0-based INAA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, M C; De Corte, F

    1994-01-01

    As part of a recent study on the environmental effects caused by the operation of a coal-fired power station at Sines, Portugal, k0-based instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used for the determination of the lanthanides (and also of tantalum and uranium) in plant leaves and lichens. In view of the accuracy and sensitivity of the determinations, it was advantageous to make use of a low-energy photon detector (LEPD). To begin with, in the present article, a survey is given of the former developments leading to user-friendly procedures for detection efficiency calibration of the LEPD and for correction for true-coincidence (cascade summing) effects. As a continuation of this, computer coincidence correction factors are now tabulated for the relevant low-energetic gamma-rays of the analytically interesting lanthanide, tantalum, and uranium radionuclides. Also the 140.5-keV line of 99Mo/99mTc is included, molybdenum being the comparator chosen when counting using an LEPD.

  1. Metal and trace element concentration evaluation in sediment profiles of the TietÊ River, State Of SÃO Paulo, by INAA and ICP OES techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Josiane S., E-mail: josi.s@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnológicas do Estado de São Paulo (LAQ- CQuiM/IPT), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Análises Químicas; Rocha, Flavio R.; Fávaro, Déborah I. T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (LAN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Análise por Ativação Neutrônica

    2017-07-01

    The present study presents concentration results for heavy metals, major and trace elements, in two sediment cores collected along the Tietê River: Salto de Itu to Porto Feliz ( Core 4 at point T-5) and Laras to Anhembi (Core 6 at point T18). As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Th, U and Zn concentrations by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn concentrations by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES) were determined. The enrichment factor (EF), to assess the presence of anthropogenic pollution sources, was calculated and showed FE > 1.5 values for As, Br, Cs, Hf, Rb, Ta, Th, U and Zn, confirming the anthropogenic contribution for these elements, in all fractions from both cores. As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were compared to guideline values (TEL and PEL) from the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) and adopted by the São Paulo State Environmental Company (CETESB) and concentration values between TEL and PEL were found, for all fractions from both cores, presenting good and or regular sediment quality classification, the worst being Core 6. (author)

  2. Application of k0-based INAA method in the studies of rare earth and other elements in manganese nodules from Indian Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, R.K.; Chakravortty, V.; Acharya, R.; Nair, A.G.C.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Manohar, S.B.; Chintalapudi, S.N.

    2005-01-01

    Five manganese nodules obtained from different locations with varying water depths of the Indian Ocean were analysed by k 0 -based instrumental neutron activation analysis (k 0 -INAA) method. A total of 22 elements were estimated including nine rare earth elements (REE). The accuracy of the method has been evaluated by analysing USGS manganese nodule reference material NOD P1. The nodules have been classified into hydrogenous and diagenetic on the basis of their Mn/Fe ratios. Data on elemental concentrations were used to explain the possible differences in the trace element distribution. The minor elements were found to be enriched in the hydrogenous nodules compared to the diagenetic one. An attempt was made to characterise the distribution of these minor elements in the light of known geochemical evidences of Pacific Ocean nodules. The dissimilarity of the geochemistry of Ce and Mn in the Indian Ocean nodules has been discussed. The manganese nodules under investigation exhibit a positive cerium anomaly, indicating an oxidising environment. The possible mechanism of incorporation of elements like REE into the iron oxyhydroxide phase has been discussed. (author)

  3. Archaeometric investigation of red-figured pottery fragments from Gioiosa Guardia (Messina, Sicily) by INAA, FT-IR and TOF-ND techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barilaro, D.; Crupi, V.; Interdonato, S.

    2008-01-01

    The present work is addressed to the study of some precious ancient pottery fragments, coming from the archaeological site of Gioiosa Guardia, in the Tirrenean Coast of Sicily. On the basis of historical and aesthetic considerations, the findings are dated back to 6.-5. Century b.C. and show a surface entirely decorated by red-figured technique, typical of Attic production. Many doubts arise about the real provenance of the artefacts. On one side, they could come directly from Greece, as attested by trading patterns between Greece and Southern Italy, on the other side, they could be produced in Sicily under the Greek artistic influence. In order to obtain a detailed characterization of the samples, a microdistruttive investigation was performed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), Fourier transform infrared absorption (FT-IR) and a non-invasive analysis by time-of-flight neutron diffraction (TOF-ND). Starting from the identification of the mineralogical and geochemical composition, a correct classification of the shards can be achieved.

  4. The Byzantine ceramics from Pergamon excavations. Characterization of local and imported productions by elementary analysis using PIXE and INAA methods and by petrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waksman, S.Y.

    1995-01-01

    An important ceramics material dated back to the 12th-14th centuries has been excavated in Pergamon (Turkey). Among these findings, wasters, tripod stilts and unfinished ware attest to local production in the Byzantine period. Elemental analysis by the methods PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis) has been performed on a representative sampling of 160 sherds, including attested local material. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to classify the sherds into groups of similar composition and thus to distinguish ceramics made in Pergamon from imported wares. Several groups of local production have been constituted, which correspond to wares differing in date and fabric. The geochemical characterization of the pastes, complemented with petrographical and mineralogical data, shows that specific raw materials have been used to manufacture each ware. The analytical data related to ceramics made in Pergamon will serve as reference data for future provenance studies. Such reference groups of Byzantine ceramics are very rare, and therefore the ceramics imported into Pergamon cannot be attributed as to their origin. Among the ceramics widely diffused in the Byzantine world, some importations belonging to the ''fine sgraffito'' and ''Zeuxippus ware'' types have been identified. The latter type has been a source of stylistic influence for the workshops of Pergamon, since the analyses show that imitated ''Zeuxippus ware'' has been produced there. These imitations were probably themselves diffused on a regional scale. (author). 238 refs., 48 figs., 53 tabs., 22 photos., 8 appends

  5. Metal and trace element concentration evaluation in sediment profiles of the TietÊ River, State Of SÃO Paulo, by INAA and ICP OES techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Josiane S.; Rocha, Flavio R.; Fávaro, Déborah I. T.

    2017-01-01

    The present study presents concentration results for heavy metals, major and trace elements, in two sediment cores collected along the Tietê River: Salto de Itu to Porto Feliz ( Core 4 at point T-5) and Laras to Anhembi (Core 6 at point T18). As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Th, U and Zn concentrations by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn concentrations by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES) were determined. The enrichment factor (EF), to assess the presence of anthropogenic pollution sources, was calculated and showed FE > 1.5 values for As, Br, Cs, Hf, Rb, Ta, Th, U and Zn, confirming the anthropogenic contribution for these elements, in all fractions from both cores. As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were compared to guideline values (TEL and PEL) from the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) and adopted by the São Paulo State Environmental Company (CETESB) and concentration values between TEL and PEL were found, for all fractions from both cores, presenting good and or regular sediment quality classification, the worst being Core 6. (author)

  6. Are lower epiphytes really that better than higher plants for indicating airborne contaminants? An insight into the elemental contents of lichen thalli and tree bark by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, A.M.G.; Freitas, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Few dedicated attempts at comparing the monitoring performance of lower and higher plants have been carried out so far. As a contribution to such an issue, the relative magnitude of elemental signals from epiphytic lichens (Parmelia spp.) and olive tree (Olea europaea Linn.) bark, determined by INAA is studied. A representative set of 12 elements - As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sr, V, Zn - was used for an ab initio comparison between raw data and Rb-normalized data, using distribution-free statistics. Correlation analysis shows an overall improvement in the degree of association between bark and lichen signals when proceeding from raw data to relative enrichment. Apart from Cl, no element is enriched in lichens to a higher extent than in bark. Sign tests are quite conclusive: bark factors are either statistically greater than or equal to lichens'. These findings prompt a word of caution when dealing with biological monitoring data, without accounting for soil, rock or litter inputs into the biomonitors' elemental pools. (author)

  7. Application of INAA for chemical quality control analysis of C-C composite and high purity graphite by determining trace elemental concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, Amol D.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Acharya, R.; Venugopalan, Ramani

    2015-01-01

    Carbon based materials like graphite and C-C composites are used for various scientific and technological applications. Owing to its low neutron capture cross section and good moderating properties, graphite is used as a moderator or reflector in nuclear reactors. For high temperature reactors like CHTR, graphite and C-C composites are proposed as structural materials. Studies are in progress to use C-C composites as prospective candidate instead of graphite due to their excellent mechanical and thermal properties. The advantage of carbon-carbon composite is that the microstructure and the properties can be tailor made. Impurities like rare earth elements and neutron poisons which have high neutron absorption cross section and elements whose activation products of have longer half-lives like 60 Co (5.27 y), 65 Zn (244.3 d) and 59 Fe (44.5 d) are not desired in structural materials. For chemical quality control (CQC) it is necessary to evaluate accurately the impurity concentrations using a suitable non-destructive analytical technique. In the present work, two carbon/carbon composite samples and two high purity graphite samples were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using high-flux reactor neutrons. Samples, sealed in Al foil, were irradiated in tray-rod position of Dhruva reactor, BARC at a neutron flux of ∼ 5 x 10 13 cm -2 s -1 . Radioactive assay was carried out using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry using 40% HPGe detector

  8. Development and application of a calibration technique for laser ablation - ICP - MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boue-Bigne, F

    2000-08-20

    Laser Ablation - Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is a powerful analytical technique for the direct elemental analysis of solid samples, with spatial resolution down to a few microns. However, calibration remains the limiting factor in obtaining quantitative analysis by LA-ICP-MS for a wide range of sample types. No universal method exists as yet and the ones that are currently used tend to employ matrix-matched solid standards. Matrix-matched solid standards are not available for many types of sample, such as polymers, biological materials, fluid inclusions, etc. The need for a universal method of calibration that involves standards that are easy to prepare and suitable for any type of sample is required. Additional to matrix-matching, internal standards are widely used in LA-ICP-MS for quantitative analyses. The internal standard compensates for the different ablation yields from the sample and the standard and for the laser shot-to-shot variation. Given that the use of an internal standard is required to obtain reliable results, the need for matrix-matching might be regarded as questionable. This project has focused on the development and application of a new method of calibration for LA-ICP-MS. It involves the use of aqueous standards whose absorption characteristics are modified by the addition of a chromophore to the solution. Additives were selected for ablation with KrF excimer, and Nd:YAG lasers. The influence of the additive concentration on the ablation yield was investigated for different laser energies. Response curves were obtained showing that as the additive concentration was increased, less energy was required to ablate the modified standard solutions efficiently. A general procedure was then defined for the preparation and use of the modified standard solutions for a given sample. The new method of calibration was used for the quantitative analysis of different sample types: low density polyethylene (LDPE), polyketone (PK

  9. Development and application of a calibration technique for laser ablation - ICP - MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boue-Bigne, F.

    2000-01-01

    Laser Ablation - Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is a powerful analytical technique for the direct elemental analysis of solid samples, with spatial resolution down to a few microns. However, calibration remains the limiting factor in obtaining quantitative analysis by LA-ICP-MS for a wide range of sample types. No universal method exists as yet and the ones that are currently used tend to employ matrix-matched solid standards. Matrix-matched solid standards are not available for many types of sample, such as polymers, biological materials, fluid inclusions, etc. The need for a universal method of calibration that involves standards that are easy to prepare and suitable for any type of sample is required. Additional to matrix-matching, internal standards are widely used in LA-ICP-MS for quantitative analyses. The internal standard compensates for the different ablation yields from the sample and the standard and for the laser shot-to-shot variation. Given that the use of an internal standard is required to obtain reliable results, the need for matrix-matching might be regarded as questionable. This project has focused on the development and application of a new method of calibration for LA-ICP-MS. It involves the use of aqueous standards whose absorption characteristics are modified by the addition of a chromophore to the solution. Additives were selected for ablation with KrF excimer, and Nd:YAG lasers. The influence of the additive concentration on the ablation yield was investigated for different laser energies. Response curves were obtained showing that as the additive concentration was increased, less energy was required to ablate the modified standard solutions efficiently. A general procedure was then defined for the preparation and use of the modified standard solutions for a given sample. The new method of calibration was used for the quantitative analysis of different sample types: low density polyethylene (LDPE), polyketone (PK

  10. LA-ICP-MS Results: 3 Siple Dome A Glacial Age Archives, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the results of Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) performed on an archive of the Siple Dome A ice core...

  11. Laser Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Laser Resurfacing Uses for Laser Resurfacing Learn more ...

  12. Lasers technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Laser Technology Program of IPEN is developed by the Center for Lasers and Applications (CLA) and is committed to the development of new lasers based on the research of new optical materials and new resonator technologies. Laser applications and research occur within several areas such as Nuclear, Medicine, Dentistry, Industry, Environment and Advanced Research. Additional goals of the Program are human resource development and innovation, in association with Brazilian Universities and commercial partners

  13. YCOB lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Martin; Hammons, Dennis; Eichenholz, Jason; Chai, Bruce; Ye, Qing; Jang, Won; Shah, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    We review new developments with a new laser host material, YCa 4 O(BO 3 ) 3 or YCOB. Lasers based on this host material will open new opportunities for the development of compact, high-power, frequency-agile visible and near IR laser sources, as well as sources for ultrashort pulses. Efficient diode-pumped laser action with both Nd-doped and Yb-doped YCOB has already been demonstrated. Moreover, since these materials are biaxial, and have high nonlinear optical coefficients, they have become the first laser materials available as efficient self-frequency-doubled lasers, capable of providing tunable laser emission in several regions of the visible spectrum. Self-frequency doubling eliminates the need for inclusion of a nonlinear optical element within or external to the laser resonator. These laser materials possess excellent thermal and optical properties, have high laser-damage thresholds, and can be grown to large sizes. In addition they are non-hygroscopic. They therefore possess all the characteristics necessary for laser materials required in rugged, compact systems. Here we summarize the rapid progress made in the development of this new class of lasers, and review their potential for a number of applications. (author)

  14. Laser sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatenko, A A; Revina, E I

    2015-01-01

    The review is devoted to the major advances in laser sampling. The advantages and drawbacks of the technique are considered. Specific features of combinations of laser sampling with various instrumental analytical methods, primarily inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, are discussed. Examples of practical implementation of hybrid methods involving laser sampling as well as corresponding analytical characteristics are presented. The bibliography includes 78 references

  15. HF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuya; Iwasaki, Matae

    1977-01-01

    A review is made of the research and development of HF chemical laser and its related work. Many gaseous compounds are used as laser media successfully; reaction kinetics and technological problems are described. The hybrid chemical laser of HF-CO 2 system and the topics related to the isotope separation are also included. (auth.)

  16. PGAA, INAA and luminescence to trace the 'history' of 'The Panoramic View of Lisbon'. Lisbon before the earthquake of 1755 in painted tiles (Portugal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prudencio, M.I.; Dias, M.I.; Burbidge, Ch.I.; Marques, Rosa; Marques, J.G.; Cardoso, G.J.O.; Trindade, M.J.; Kasztovszky, Zsolt; Maroti, Boglarka; Ruiz, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    'The Panoramic View of Lisbon' is a unique masterpiece of Portuguese glazed tiles which depicts the city before the earthquake of 1755. Compositional analysis was done by PGAA, INAA and XRD. The first absolute dating by luminescence was done, including a reconstruction of the history of radiation exposure of the pieces. Compositional patterns of the tiles suggest the use of carbonated clays from downtown Lisbon to manufacture the ceramic bodies at high firing temperatures (900-1100 deg C). Luminescence dating results point to the manufacture of 'The Panoramic View of Lisbon' in the late 17th-early 18th centuries. (author)

  17. Application of isotope-dilution laser ablation ICP-MS for direct determination of Pu concentrations in soils at pg g(-1) levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulyga, Sergei F; Tibi, Markus; Heumann, Klaus G

    2004-01-01

    The methods available for determination of environmental contamination by plutonium at ultra-trace levels require labor-consuming sample preparation including matrix removal and plutonium extraction in both nuclear spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In this work, laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was applied for direct analysis of Pu in soil and sediment samples. Application of a LINA-Spark-Atomizer system (a modified laser ablation system providing high ablation rates) coupled with a sector-field ICP-MS resulted in detection limits as low as 3x10(-13) g g(-1) for Pu isotopes in soil samples containing uranium at a concentration of a few microg g(-1). The isotope dilution (ID) technique was used for quantification, which compensated for matrix effects in LA-ICP-MS. Interferences by UH+ and PbO2+ ions and by the peak tail of 238U+ ions were reduced or separated by use of dry plasma conditions and a mass resolution of 4000, respectively. No other effects affecting measurement accuracy, except sample inhomogeneity, were revealed. Comparison of results obtained for three contaminated soil samples by use of alpha-spectrometry, ICP-MS with sample decomposition, and LA-ICP-IDMS showed, in general, satisfactory agreement of the different methods. The specific activity of (239+240)Pu (9.8 +/- 3.0 mBq g(-1)) calculated from LA-ICP-IDMS analysis of SRM NIST 4357 coincided well with the certified value of 10.4 +/- 0.2 mBq g(-1). However, the precision of LA-ICP-MS for determination of plutonium in inhomogeneous samples, i.e. if "hot" particles are present, is limited. As far as we are aware this paper reports the lowest detection limits and element concentrations yet measured in direct LA-ICP-MS analysis of environmental samples.

  18. Application of isotope-dilution laser ablation ICP-MS for direct determination of Pu concentrations in soils at pg g-1 levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulyga, Sergei F.; Tibi, Markus; Heumann, Klaus G.

    2004-01-01

    The methods available for determination of environmental contamination by plutonium at ultra-trace levels require labor-consuming sample preparation including matrix removal and plutonium extraction in both nuclear spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In this work, laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was applied for direct analysis of Pu in soil and sediment samples. Application of a LINA-Spark-Atomizer system (a modified laser ablation system providing high ablation rates) coupled with a sector-field ICP-MS resulted in detection limits as low as 3 x 10 -13 g g -1 for Pu isotopes in soil samples containing uranium at a concentration of a few μg g -1 . The isotope dilution (ID) technique was used for quantification, which compensated for matrix effects in LA-ICP-MS. Interferences by UH + and PbO 2 + ions and by the peak tail of 238 U + ions were reduced or separated by use of dry plasma conditions and a mass resolution of 4000, respectively. No other effects affecting measurement accuracy, except sample inhomogeneity, were revealed. Comparison of results obtained for three contaminated soil samples by use of α-spectrometry, ICP-MS with sample decomposition, and LA-ICP-IDMS showed, in general, satisfactory agreement of the different methods. The specific activity of 239+240 Pu (9.8±3.0 mBq g -1 ) calculated from LA-ICP-IDMS analysis of SRM NIST 4357 coincided well with the certified value of 10.4±0.2 mBq g -1 . However, the precision of LA-ICP-MS for determination of plutonium in inhomogeneous samples, i.e. if ''hot'' particles are present, is limited. As far as we are aware this paper reports the lowest detection limits and element concentrations yet measured in direct LA-ICP-MS analysis of environmental samples. (orig.)

  19. Performance of laser ablation. Quadrupole-based ICP-MS coupling for the analysis of single micrometric uranium particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabien Pointurier; Amelie Hubert; Anne-Claire Pottin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe the application of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) coupling to particle analysis, i.e., the determination of the isotopic composition of micrometric uranium particles. The performances of this analysis technique are compared with those of the two reference particle analysis techniques: secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and fission track-thermo-ionization mass spectrometry (FT-TIMS), based on the measurement of the isotopic ratios of 235 U/ 238 U in particles present in an inter-comparison particulate sample. The agreement of the results obtained using LA-ICP-MS with target values and with the results obtained using FT-TIMS and SIMS was good. Accuracy was equivalent to that of the other two techniques (±3 % deviation). However, relative experimental uncertainties present with LA-ICP-MS (7 %) were higher than those present with FT-TIMS (4.5 %) and SIMS (3 %). Furthermore, measurement yield of LA-ICP-MS coupling was close to that obtained with the same quadrupole ICP-MS for the measurement of a liquid sample (∼10 -4 ), but lower than that obtained with FT-TIMS and SIMS, respectively, by a factor of 10 and 20, although the particles analyzed using LA-ICP-MS were most likely smaller (diameter ∼0.6 μm, containing 4-7 fg of 235 U). Nevertheless, thanks to the brevity of the signals obtained, the detection capacity for low isotopic concentrations by LA-ICP-MS coupling is equivalent to that of FT-TIMS, although it remains well below that of SIMS (x 15). However, with more sensitive double focusing ICP-MS, performances equivalent to those achieved using SIMS could be obtained. (author)

  20. The Byzantine ceramics from Pergamon excavations. Characterization of local and imported productions by elementary analysis using PIXE and INAA methods and by petrography; Les ceramiques byzantines des fouilles de Pergame. Caracterisation des productions locales et importees par analyse elementaire par les methodes PIXE et INAA et par petrographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waksman, S Y

    1995-01-12

    An important ceramics material dated back to the 12th-14th centuries has been excavated in Pergamon (Turkey). Among these findings, wasters, tripod stilts and unfinished ware attest to local production in the Byzantine period. Elemental analysis by the methods PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis) has been performed on a representative sampling of 160 sherds, including attested local material. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to classify the sherds into groups of similar composition and thus to distinguish ceramics made in Pergamon from imported wares. Several groups of local production have been constituted, which correspond to wares differing in date and fabric. The geochemical characterization of the pastes, complemented with petrographical and mineralogical data, shows that specific raw materials have been used to manufacture each ware. The analytical data related to ceramics made in Pergamon will serve as reference data for future provenance studies. Such reference groups of Byzantine ceramics are very rare, and therefore the ceramics imported into Pergamon cannot be attributed as to their origin. Among the ceramics widely diffused in the Byzantine world, some importations belonging to the ``fine sgraffito`` and ``Zeuxippus ware`` types have been identified. The latter type has been a source of stylistic influence for the workshops of Pergamon, since the analyses show that imitated ``Zeuxippus ware`` has been produced there. These imitations were probably themselves diffused on a regional scale. (author). 238 refs., 48 figs., 53 tabs., 22 photos., 8 appends.

  1. k{sub 0}-INAA application at IPEN Neutron Activation Laboratory by using the k{sub 0}-IAEA program: biological sample analysis; Aplicacao do metodo k{sub 0}-INAA no Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao com Neutrons do IPEN utilizando o programa k{sub 0}-IAEA: analise de amostras biologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puerta, Daniel Correa

    2013-07-01

    The results obtained in the application of the k{sub 0}-standardization method at LAN-IPEN for biological matrices analysis, by using the k{sub 0}-IAEA software, provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), are presented. The flux parameters f and a of the IEA-R1 reactor were determined for the pneumatic irradiation facility and for one selected irradiation position, 24B/shelf2, for short and long irradiations, respectively. In order to obtain these parameters, the bare triple-monitor method with {sup 197}Au-{sup 96}Zr-{sup 94}Zr was used. In order to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the methodology, the biological reference materials Peach Leaves (NIST SRM 1547), Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT-MPH-2) e Tomato Leaves (NIST SRM 1573a) were analyzed. The statistical criteria Relative Errors (bias, %), Coefficient of Variation (CV) and U-score were applied to the obtained results (mean of six replicates). The relative errors (bias, %) in relation to certified values, were, for most elements, in the range of 0 e 30. The Coefficients of Variation were below 20%, showing a good reproducibility of the results. The U-score test showed that all results, except Na in Peach Leaves and in Tomato Leaves, were within 95% confidence interval. These results point out to a promising use of the k{sub 0}-INAA method at LAN-IPEN for biological sample analysis. (author)

  2. Evaluation of the metal contamination associated to the leachate in the Chururupe-Ilheus (Bahia State, Brazil) river by using INAA and ICP-MS; Avaliacao da contaminacao por metais associada ao despejo de chorume no rio Cururupe-Ilheus-BA utilizando INAA e ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmazio, Ilza; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radioquimica; Silva, Mario R. de S.; Vasconcelos, Danilo C.; Santos, Balbino L. dos [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas

    2002-07-01

    The site of this research is in Ilheus city located at Bahia State in Brazil. Residues generated by the urban activities from this city are collected and disposed at a place without sanitary control called ' Lixao do Cururupe' close to Cururupe river. The leachate from the water drainage through the mass of garbage flows into the river. This solution is rich in organic and inorganic pollutants. There is not any information about the environmental impact caused by this dump. The objective of this study is to evaluate the contamination caused by metals due to the presence of leachate into Rio Cururupe. Water, sediment and crustaceans (Ucides cordatus) samples were collected in different points considering the dump location. Extra samples were also taken in Rio Acuipe 20 km from Rio Cururupe for comparison. After appropriate treatment the samples were analyzed using the technique Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The parameters pH, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and Biochemistry Oxygen Demand from the water samples were also determined. (author)

  3. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliezer, S.

    1982-02-01

    In this paper, the physics of laser fusion is described on an elementary level. The irradiated matter consists of a dense inner core surrounded by a less dense plasma corona. The laser radiation is mainly absorbed in the outer periphery of the plasma. The absorbed energy is transported inward to the ablation surface where plasma flow is created. Due to this plasma flow, a sequence of inward going shock waves and heat waves are created, resulting in the compression and heating of the core to high density and temperature. The interaction physics between laser and matter leading to thermonuclear burn is summarized by the following sequence of events: Laser absorption → Energy transport → Compression → Nuclear Fusion. This scenario is shown in particular for a Nd:laser with a wavelength of 1 μm. The wavelength scaling of the physical processes is also discussed. In addition to the laser-plasma physics, the Nd high power pulsed laser is described. We give a very brief description of the oscillator, the amplifiers, the spatial filters, the isolators and the diagnostics involved. Last, but not least, the concept of reactors for laser fusion and the necessary laser system are discussed. (author)

  4. Biocavity Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourley, P.L.; Gourley, M.F.

    2000-10-05

    Laser technology has advanced dramatically and is an integral part of today's healthcare delivery system. Lasers are used in the laboratory analysis of human blood samples and serve as surgical tools that kill, burn or cut tissue. Recent semiconductor microtechnology has reduced the size o f a laser to the size of a biological cell or even a virus particle. By integrating these ultra small lasers with biological systems, it is possible to create micro-electrical mechanical systems that may revolutionize health care delivery.

  5. Direct determination of halogens in powdered geological and environmental samples using isotope dilution laser ablation ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulyga, Sergei F.; Heumann, Klaus G.

    2005-04-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma isotope dilution mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-IDMS) with a special laser ablation system for bulk analyses (LINA-Spark(TM)-Atomiser) was applied for direct determinations of chlorine, bromine, and iodine in rock and sediment samples. Special attention was focused on possible inter-halogen fractionations and analyte/spike isotope fractionations by using LA-ICP-MS and LA-ICP-IDMS, respectively. A variation of Br/Cl and I/Cl element intensity ratios by a factor of 1.3-3 was observed when changing the nebulizer gas flow rate in the range of 0.84-1.0 L min-1 and the laser power density in the range of 2-10 GW cm-2, respectively. When using an internal standard for halogen quantification in LA-ICP-MS, this inter-element fractionation can cause systematic errors, which can be avoided by applying the isotope dilution technique. However, at high laser power densities (>5.7 GW cm-2 for iodine and >4.0 GW cm-2 for bromine and chlorine) the corresponding measured isotope ratio of the isotope-diluted sample deviates significantly from the target value. Under optimised conditions concentrations in the range of 30 [mu]g g-1-16 × 103 [mu]g g-1 for chlorine, <2-140 [mu]g g-1 for bromine, and <0.1-31 [mu]g g-1 for iodine were determined by LA-ICP-IDMS in two sediment reference materials (SRM 1646, SRM 2704) and three rock reference samples (GS-N, Granite; BX-N, Bauxite; DT-N, Disthene), which have not been certified for these halogens. The sediment results agree well within the given uncertainties with indicative values by different methods and the results of the rock samples with those obtained by negative thermal ionisation isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The detection limits of LA-ICP-IDMS are 8 [mu]g g-1 for chlorine, 1.7 [mu]g g-1 for bromine, and 0.1 [mu]g g-1 for iodine.

  6. High power lasers & systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chatwin, Chris; Young, Rupert; Birch, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Some laser history;\\ud Airborne Laser Testbed & Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL);\\ud Laser modes and beam propagation;\\ud Fibre lasers and applications;\\ud US Navy Laser system – NRL 33kW fibre laser;\\ud Lockheed Martin 30kW fibre laser;\\ud Conclusions

  7. Laser Dyes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    amplification or generation of coherent light waves in the UV,. VIS, and near IR region. .... ciency in most flashlamp pumped dye lasers. It is used as reference dye .... have led to superior laser dyes with increased photostabilities. For instance ...

  8. Laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., frequency doubling in external cavities, reliable cw-parametric oscillators, tunable narrow-band UV sources, more sensitive detection techniques, tunable femtosecond and sub-femtosecond lasers (X-ray region and the attosecond range), control of atomic and molecular excitations, frequency combs able to synchronize independent femtosecond lasers, coherent matter waves, and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.

  9. Laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., ultrafast lasers (atto- and femto-second lasers) and parametric oscillators, coherent matter waves, Doppler-free Fourier spectroscopy with optical frequency combs, interference spectroscopy, quantum optics, the interferometric detection of gravitational waves and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.

  10. Usefulness of laser ablation ICP-MS for analysis of metallic particles released to oral mucosa after insertion of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajnóg, Adam; Hanć, Anetta; Koczorowski, Ryszard; Makuch, Krzysztof; Barałkiewicz, Danuta

    2018-03-01

    Despite the fact that titanium is considered highly biocompatible, its presence in the oral cavity (an environment of frequently changing pH and temperature) may result in the release of titanium from intraosseous implants into the oral mucosa, causing a range of reactions from the human body. Fragments of oral mucosa collected from patients after dental implant insertion were analyzed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The study revealed an elevated content of elements (Ti, Al, V) which are components of the metal implants and temporary cover screws. Dynamic ablation of the tissue surface was used in order to obtain maps of the content and distribution of analyzed elements. The material consisted of 30 oral mucosa tissue fragments collected 3-5 months after implantation and 10 samples collected before implantation (control group). The application of optical microscope allowed for indication and confirmation of the location of metal particles prior to LA-ICP-MS analysis. The so-obtained map permitted location of regions containing metal particles. LA-ICP-MS analysis revealed groups of samples with similar properties of metal particles, thus confirming that those metal particles were the main source of the elevated content of metals (Ti, Al, V) in the tissue after implantation. A calibration strategy based on matrix matched solid standards with powdered egg white proteins as matrix material was applied with 34 S as an internal standard. The accuracy of the analytical method was verified by ablating pellets of certified reference material ERM-BB422 Fish muscle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Imaging of metal bioaccumulation in Hay-scented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula) rhizomes growing on contaminated soils by laser ablation ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelmel, Jeremy; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri

    2012-01-01

    Understanding Pb removal from the translocation stream is vital to engineering Pb hyperaccumulation in above ground organs, which would enhance the economic feasibility of Pb phytoextraction technologies. We investigated Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn distributions in Hay-scented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula) rhizomes on shooting range soils by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), analyzing digested rhizomes, stems, and fronds using ICP-MS. Nutrients Cu and Zn concentrated in fronds while toxic elements Pb and Sb did not, showing potential Pb and Sb sequestration in the rhizome. Frond and rhizome concentration of Pb was 0.17 ± 0.10% and 0.32 ± 0.21% of dry biomass, respectively. The 208 Pb/ 13 C and 121 Sb/ 13 C determined by LA-ICP-MS increased from inner sclerotic cortex to the epidermis, while Pb concentrated in the starchy cortex only in contaminated sites. These results suggest that concentration dependent bioaccumulation in the rhizome outer cortex removes Pb from the vascular transport stream. - Highlights: ► Bioimaged Cu, Pb, Sb, Zn across fern rhizomes from shooting ranges using LA-ICP-MS. ► Pb levels were highest in the outer starchy cortex. ► Pb seemed to displace nutrients Cu and Zn in contaminated site rhizomes. ► [Pb] and [Sb] were correlated across organs suggesting similar transport factors. - Using LA-ICP-MS we determined elemental distributions in Hay-scented fern rhizomes including concentration dependent Pb sequestration patterns in the outer cortex.

  12. Study on the uptake and distribution of gadolinium based contrast agents in biological samples using laser ablation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingott, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Gadolinium based contrast agents are used for magnetic resonance imaging. After their excretion by medicated patients they reach surface water passing waste water treatment plants where they are not removed sufficiently. The behavior of the contrast agents in the environment and the interaction with organisms was investigated in this work due to the toxicity of the free Gd 3+ ion and the associated risks, such as accumulation in the human food chain. In this work, the two elemental analytical imaging methods laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SRXRF) have been used to investigate the uptake, distribution, and excretion of Gd-based contrast agents by various biological systems. Both methods were analytically characterized and compared for this application. The detection limits of gadolinium were determined under optimized conditions by LA-ICP-MS and SRXRF. With calibration by remains of dried elemental standard droplets detection limits of 0.78 pg absolute amount of gadolinium (LA-ICP-MS), respectively 89 pg (SRXRF) were reached. Based on filamentous algae as water plants the uptake and the excretion of Gd-based contrast agents were revealed. The dependence on concentration of the contrast agent in the exposition solution and the independence of temporal uptake within one to seven days were studied for duckweed. By LA-ICP-MS gadolinium was quantified in a leaf of cress plant. The verification of the results was performed by SRXRF and ICP-MS after digestion. Furthermore, the uptake and distribution of Gd-based contrast agents in higher organisms (water flea) were observed. The exact location of gadolinium was resolved by three-dimensional μ-computed tomography by the comparison of an exposed with a Gd-free water flea. In all studies, gadolinium was detected in the investigated exposed model organisms. It can be concluded that the contrast agents were taken from the environment.

  13. Il laser

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, William V

    1974-01-01

    Verso il 1960, il laser era ancora "una soluzione alla ricerca di un problema", ma fin dagli anni immediatamente successivi si è rivelato uno strumento insostituibile per le applicazioni più svariate.

  14. Laser Refractography

    CERN Document Server

    Rinkevichyus, B.S; Raskovskaya, I.L

    2010-01-01

    This book describes the basic principles of laser refractography, a flexible new diagnostic tool for measuring optically inhomogeneous media and flows. Laser refractography is based on digital imaging and computer processing of structured laser beam refraction (SLR) in inhomogeneous transparent media. Laser refractograms provide both qualitative and quantitative measurements and can be used for the study of fast and transient processes. In this book, the theoretical basis of refractography is explored in some detail, and experimental setups are described for measurement of transparent media using either 2D (passed radiation) or 3D (scattered radiation) refractograms. Specific examples and applications are discussed, including visualization of the boundary layer near a hot or cold metallic ball in water, and observation of edge effects and microlayers in liquids and gases. As the first book to describe this new and exciting technique, this monograph has broad cross-disciplinary appeal and will be of interest t...

  15. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, D.E.T.F.

    1976-01-01

    A short survey is given on laser fusion its basic concepts and problems and the present theoretical and experimental methods. The future research program of the USA in this field is outlined. (WBU) [de

  16. Laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letokhov, V.S.

    1981-01-01

    This article describes recent progress in the application of laser atomic spectroscopy to study parameters of nuclei available in very small quantities; radioactive nuclei, rare isotopes, nuclear isomers, etc, for which study by conventional spectroscopic methods is difficult. (author)

  17. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M.H.; Oxford Univ.

    1990-04-01

    The use of lasers to drive implosions for the purpose of inertially confined fusion is an area of intense activity where progress compares favourably with that made in magnetic fusion and there are significant prospects for future development. In this brief review the basic concept is summarised and the current status is outlined both in the area of laser technology and in the most recent results from implosion experiments. Prospects for the future are also considered. (author)

  18. Laser Resurfacing

    OpenAIRE

    Janik, Joseph P.; Markus, Jodi L.; Al-Dujaili, Zeena; Markus, Ramsey F.

    2007-01-01

    In a society desiring images of beauty and youthfulness, the world of cutaneous surgery offers the gifts of facial rejuvenation for those determined to combat the signs of aging. With the development of novel laser and plasma technology, pigmentary changes, scarring, and wrinkles can be conquered providing smoother, healthier, younger-looking skin. This review highlights five of the most popular resurfacing technologies in practice today including the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser, the erbium:yt...

  19. Green lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2010-01-01

    Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range......Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range...

  20. Laser material processing

    CERN Document Server

    Steen, William

    2010-01-01

    This text moves from the basics of laser physics to detailed treatments of all major materials processing techniques for which lasers are now essential. New chapters cover laser physics, drilling, micro- and nanomanufacturing and biomedical laser processing.

  1. Laser therapy for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000905.htm Laser therapy for cancer To use the sharing features ... Lasers are also used on the skin. How Laser Therapy is Used Laser therapy can be used ...

  2. Lasers in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the advantages of laser therapy? What are the disadvantages of laser therapy? What does the future hold ... therapy is appropriate for them. What are the disadvantages of laser therapy? Laser therapy also has several ...

  3. Practical laser safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winburn, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    This book includes discussions of the following topics: characteristics of lasers; eye components; skin damage thresholds; classification of lasers by ANSI Z136.1; selecting laser-protective eyewear; hazards associated with lasers; and, an index

  4. Laser acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fundamental idea of Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wakefields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ˜ c and ultrafastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nanomaterials is also emerging.

  5. Laser acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental idea of LaserWakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wake fields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ∼ c and ultra fastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nano materials is also emerging.

  6. Laser Heterodyning

    CERN Document Server

    Protopopov, Vladimir V

    2009-01-01

    Laser heterodyning is now a widespread optical technique, based on interference of two waves with slightly different frequencies within the sensitive area of a photo-detector. Its unique feature – preserving phase information about optical wave in the electrical signal of the photo-detector – finds numerous applications in various domains of applied optics and optoelectronics: in spectroscopy, polarimetry, radiometry, laser radars and Lidars, microscopy and other areas. The reader may be surprised by a variety of disciplines that this book covers and satisfied by detailed explanation of the phenomena. Very well illustrated, this book will be helpful for researches, postgraduates and students, working in applied optics.

  7. THERMAL NEUTRON FLUX MAPPING ON A TARGET CAPSULE AT RABBIT FACILITY OF RSG-GAS REACTOR FOR USE IN k0-INAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutisna Sutisna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Instrumental neutron activation analysis based on the k0 method (k0-INAA requires the availability of the accurate reactor parameter data, in particular a thermal neutron flux that interact with a targets inside the target capsule. This research aims to determine and map the thermal neutron flux inside the capsule and irradiation channels used for the elemental quantification using the k0-AANI. Mapping of the thermal neutron flux (фth on two type of irradiation capsule have been done for RS01 and RS02 facilities of RSG-GAS reactor. Thermal neutron flux determined using Al-0,1%Au alloy through 197Au(n,g 198Au nuclear reaction, while the flux mapping done using statistics R. Thermal neutron flux are calculated using k0-IAEA software provided by IAEA. The results showed the average thermal neutron flux is (5.6±0.3×10+13 n.cm-2.s-1; (5.6±0.4×10+13 n.cm-2.s-1; (5.2±0.4×10+13 n.cm-2.s-1 and (5.3±0.4×10+13 n.cm-2.s-1 for Polyethylene capsule of 1st , 2nd, 3rd and 4th layer respectively. In the case of Aluminum capsule, the thermal neutron flux was lower compared to that on Polyethylene capsule. There were (3.0±0.2×10+13 n.cm-2.s-1; (2.8±0.1×10+13 n.cm-2.s-1; (3.2±0.3×10+13 n.cm-2.s-1 for 1st, 2nd and 3rd layers respectively. For each layer in the capsule, the thermal neutron flux is not uniform and it was no degradation flux in the axial direction, both for polyethylene and aluminum capsules. Contour map of eight layer on polyethylene capsule and six layers on aluminum capsule for RS01 and RS02 irradiation channels had a similar pattern with a small diversity for all type of the irradiation capsule. Keywords: thermal neutron, flux, capsule, NAA   Analisis aktivasi neutron instrumental berbasis metode k0 (k0-AANI memerlukan ketersediaan data parameter reaktor yang akurat, khususnya data fluks neutron termal yang berinteraksi dengan inti sasaran di dalam kapsul target. Penelitian ini bertujuan menentukan dan memetakan fluks neutron termal

  8. Laser polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    Polarimetry, or transmission ellipsometry, is an important experimental technique for the determination of polarization properties of bulk materials. In this technique, source radiation of known polarization is passed through bulk samples to determine, for example, natural or induced birefringence and dichroism. The laser is a particularly appropriate source for this technique because of its monochromaticity, collimation, and radiant intensity. Lasers of many different wavelengths in different spectral regions are now available. Laser polarimetry can be done in any of these wavelength regions where polarizing elements are available. In this paper, polarimetry is reviewed with respect to applications, sources used, and polarization state generator and analyzer configurations. Scattering ellipsometry is also discussed insofar as the forward scattering measurement is related to polarimetry. The authors then describe an infrared laser polarimeter which we have designed and constructed. This instrument can operate over large wavelength regions with only a change in source. Polarization elements of the polarimeter are in a dual rotating retarder configuration. Computer controlled rotary stages and computer monitored detectors automate the data collection. The Mueller formulation is used to process the polarization information. Issues and recent progress with this instrument are discussed

  9. excimer laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-07

    Jan 7, 2014 ... is necessary to deposit one order higher input electric power into gas medium than ... cross-sectional view of the laser system is shown in figure 2A. The system mainly consists ... Considering the simplicity and reliability of the.

  10. Laser device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides a light source for light circuits on a silicon platform. A vertical laser cavity is formed by a gain region arranged between a first mirror structure and a second mirror structure, both acting as mirrors, by forming a grating region including an active material...

  11. Nanowire Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couteau C.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We review principles and trends in the use of semiconductor nanowires as gain media for stimulated emission and lasing. Semiconductor nanowires have recently been widely studied for use in integrated optoelectronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs, solar cells, and transistors. Intensive research has also been conducted in the use of nanowires for subwavelength laser systems that take advantage of their quasione- dimensional (1D nature, flexibility in material choice and combination, and intrinsic optoelectronic properties. First, we provide an overview on using quasi-1D nanowire systems to realize subwavelength lasers with efficient, directional, and low-threshold emission. We then describe the state of the art for nanowire lasers in terms of materials, geometry, andwavelength tunability.Next,we present the basics of lasing in semiconductor nanowires, define the key parameters for stimulated emission, and introduce the properties of nanowires. We then review advanced nanowire laser designs from the literature. Finally, we present interesting perspectives for low-threshold nanoscale light sources and optical interconnects. We intend to illustrate the potential of nanolasers inmany applications, such as nanophotonic devices that integrate electronics and photonics for next-generation optoelectronic devices. For instance, these building blocks for nanoscale photonics can be used for data storage and biomedical applications when coupled to on-chip characterization tools. These nanoscale monochromatic laser light sources promise breakthroughs in nanophotonics, as they can operate at room temperature, can potentially be electrically driven, and can yield a better understanding of intrinsic nanomaterial properties and surface-state effects in lowdimensional semiconductor systems.

  12. Excimer Laser Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Basting, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive survey on Excimer Lasers investigates the current range of the technology, applications and devices of this commonly used laser source, as well as the future of new technologies, such as F2 laser technology. Additional chapters on optics, devices and laser systems complete this compact handbook. A must read for laser technology students, process application researchers, engineers or anyone interested in excimer laser technology. An effective and understandable introduction to the current and future status of excimer laser technology.

  13. Laser ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykovskij, Yu

    1979-02-01

    The characteristics a laser source of multiply-ionized ions are described with regard to the interaction of laser radiation and matter, ion energy spectrum, angular ion distribution. The amount of multiple-ionization ions is evaluated. Out of laser source applications a laser injector of multiple-ionization ions and nuclei, laser mass spectrometry, laser X-ray microradiography, and a laser neutron generators are described.

  14. A novel strategy for preparing calibration standards for the analysis of plant materials by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: A case study with pellets of sugar cane leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Gomes, Marcos da [Universidade de São Paulo, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Laboratório de Química Analítica, Caixa Postal 96, CEP 13416-000, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Química, Rodovia Washington Luiz km 235, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Gustinelli Arantes de Carvalho, Gabriel [Universidade de São Paulo, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Laboratório de Química Analítica, Caixa Postal 96, CEP 13416-000, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Santos, Dário [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, Rua Professor Arthur Riedel 275, Diadema, SP (Brazil); Krug, Francisco José, E-mail: fjkrug@cena.usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Laboratório de Química Analítica, Caixa Postal 96, CEP 13416-000, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-08-01

    Calibration is still a challenging task when dealing with the direct analysis of solids. This is particularly true for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry/mass spectrometry, when the calibrations are matrix-dependent and/or appropriate certified reference materials are generally not available. Looking at the analysis of plant materials in the form of pressed pellets by LIBS, a new method to overcome and/or minimize this difficulty is proposed by keeping the matrix constant in order to produce matrix-matched calibration pellets. To achieve this goal and to test this novel approach, ground sugar cane leaves were chosen and submitted to acid extractions for obtaining the corresponding blank or a material containing very low concentrations of the analytes. The resulting dried solid material was used either as a blank or a low concentration standard, and also homogeneously mixed with the original plant material at appropriate ratios as well. The corresponding pellets were used as calibration standards and ablated at 30 different sites by applying 25 laser pulses per site with a Q-switched Nd:YAG at 1064 nm. The plasma emission collected by lenses was directed through an optical fiber towards a spectrometer equipped with Echelle optics and intensified charge-coupled device. Delay time and integration time gate were fixed at 2.0 and 5.0 μs, respectively. This calibration strategy was tested for the determination of Ca, Mg, K, P, Cu, Mn, and Zn by LIBS in pellets of leaves from 17 varieties of sugar cane and good correlations were obtained with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry results in the corresponding acid digests. The proposed approach was also useful to estimate the limits of detection based on measurements of blanks, as recommended by IUPAC, or with the aid of a low concentration standard. - Highlights: • Blanks and/or low concentration standards of plant

  15. Multivariate methods for analysis of environmental reference materials using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Awasthi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of emission from laser-induced plasma has a unique capability for quantifying the major and minor elements present in any type of samples under optimal analysis conditions. Chemometric techniques are very effective and reliable tools for quantification of multiple components in complex matrices. The feasibility of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS in combination with multivariate analysis was investigated for the analysis of environmental reference materials (RMs. In the present work, different (Certified/Standard Reference Materials of soil and plant origin were analyzed using LIBS and the presence of Al, Ca, Mg, Fe, K, Mn and Si were identified in the LIBS spectra of these materials. Multivariate statistical methods (Partial Least Square Regression and Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis were employed for quantitative analysis of the constituent elements using the LIBS spectral data. Calibration models were used to predict the concentrations of the different elements of test samples and subsequently, the concentrations were compared with certified concentrations to check the authenticity of models. The non-destructive analytical method namely Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA using high flux reactor neutrons and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry was also used for intercomparison of results of two RMs by LIBS.

  16. Dermatological laser treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moerk, N.J.; Austad, J.; Helland, S.; Thune, P.; Volden, G.; Falk, E.

    1991-01-01

    The article reviews the different lasers used in dermatology. Special emphasis is placed on the treatment of naevus flammeus (''portwine stain'') where lasers are the treatment of choice. Argon laser and pulsed dye laser are the main lasers used in vascular skin diseases, and the article focuses on these two types. Copper-vapour laser, neodymium-YAG laser and CO 2 laser are also presented. Information is provided about the availability of laser technology in the different health regions in Norway. 5 refs., 2 figs

  17. CO2-laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, E.E. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The basic concept of laser fusion is described, with a set of requirements on the laser system. Systems and applications concepts are presented and discussed. The CO 2 laser's characteristics and advantages for laser fusion are described. Finally, technological issues in the development of CO 2 laser systems for fusion applications are discussed

  18. Project LASER

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    NASA formally launched Project LASER (Learning About Science, Engineering and Research) in March 1990, a program designed to help teachers improve science and mathematics education and to provide 'hands on' experiences. It featured the first LASER Mobile Teacher Resource Center (MTRC), is designed to reach educators all over the nation. NASA hopes to operate several MTRCs with funds provided by private industry. The mobile unit is a 22-ton tractor-trailer stocked with NASA educational publications and outfitted with six work stations. Each work station, which can accommodate two teachers at a time, has a computer providing access to NASA Spacelink. Each also has video recorders and photocopy/photographic equipment for the teacher's use. MTRC is only one of the five major elements within LASER. The others are: a Space Technology Course, to promote integration of space science studies with traditional courses; the Volunteer Databank, in which NASA employees are encouraged to volunteer as tutors, instructors, etc; Mobile Discovery Laboratories that will carry simple laboratory equipment and computers to provide hands-on activities for students and demonstrations of classroom activities for teachers; and the Public Library Science Program which will present library based science and math programs.

  19. Laser Research Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laser Research lab is thecenter for the development of new laser sources, nonlinear optical materials, frequency conversion processes and laser-based sensors for...

  20. Laser therapy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laser is used for many medical purposes. Because the laser beam is so small and precise, it enables ... without injuring surrounding tissue. Some uses of the laser are retinal surgery, excision of lesions, and cauterization ...

  1. Laser fusion: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, K.

    1975-01-01

    The laser fusion concept is described along with developments in neodymium and carbon dioxide lasers. Fuel design and fabrication are reviewed. Some spin-offs of the laser fusion program are discussed. (U.S.)

  2. Laser power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, D.

    1975-01-01

    The laser power supply includes a regulator which has a high voltage control loop based on a linear approximation of a laser tube negative resistance characteristic. The regulator has independent control loops for laser current and power supply high voltage

  3. Bleaching Dengan Teknologi Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Eliwaty

    2008-01-01

    Penulisan tentang bleaching dengan laser dimaksudkan untuk menambah wawasan serta pengetahuan dari pembaca di bidang kedokteran gigi. Macam-macam laser yang dipergunakan dalam bleaching yaitu argon, CO2 serta dioda laser. Contoh merek produk laser yaitu Blulaze, Dentcure untuk argonlaser, Novapulse untuk C02 serta Opus 5 untuk dioda laser. Laser bleaching hasilnya dapat dicapai dalam satu kunjungan saja, cepat, efisien namun biayanya relatif mahal, dapat menimbulkan burn, sensitivitas se...

  4. Laser safety at high profile laser facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, K.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Laser safety has been an active concern of laser users since the invention of the laser. Formal standards were developed in the early 1970's and still continue to be developed and refined. The goal of these standards is to give users guidance on the use of laser and consistent safety guidance and requirements for laser manufacturers. Laser safety in the typical research setting (government laboratory or university) is the greatest challenge to the laser user and laser safety officer. This is due to two factors. First, the very nature of research can put the user at risk; consider active manipulation of laser optics and beam paths, and user work with energized systems. Second, a laser safety culture that seems to accept laser injuries as part of the graduate student educational process. The fact is, laser safety at research settings, laboratories and universities still has long way to go. Major laser facilities have taken a more rigid and serious view of laser safety, its controls and procedures. Part of the rationale for this is that these facilities draw users from all around the world presenting the facility with a work force of users coming from a wide mix of laser safety cultures. Another factor is funding sources do not like bad publicity which can come from laser accidents and a poor safety record. The fact is that injuries, equipment damage and lost staff time slow down progress. Hence high profile/large laser projects need to adapt a higher safety regimen both from an engineering and administrative point of view. This presentation will discuss all these points and present examples. Acknowledgement. This work has been supported by the University of California, Director, Office of Science.

  5. Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory is equipped to investigate and characterize the lasing properties of semiconductor diode lasers. Lasing features such...

  6. Laser Protection TIL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laser Protection TIL conducts research and analysis of laser protection materials along with integration schemes. The lab's objectives are to limit energy coming...

  7. Comparative study for essential elements determination in milk products samples by INAA and ICP-AES; Estudo comparativo na determinacao de elementos essenciais em amostras de produtos lacteos por AANI e ICP-AES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kira, Carmen S. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Equipamentos Especializados; Maihara, Vera A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2002-07-01

    The mineral elements Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na and Zn were analyzed in milk products by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The study included four types of cheese (mozzarella, minas, prato, parmesan), chocolate milk and yogurt. The samples were purchased from the local markets. Average concentrations ranged from 3668 (chocolate milk) to 16558 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Ca; from 2.61 (parmesan cheese) to 28.9 (chocolate milk) mg/kg for Fe; from 673 (mozzarella cheese) to 10492 (chocolate milk) mg/kg for K; from 398 (yogurt) to 2280 (minas cheese) mg/kg for Mg; from 1681 (yogurt) to 15248 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Na; from 12.1 (chocolate milk) to 71.8 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Zn. Two National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference materials (SRM 8435 Whole Milk Powder and SRM 1549 Non Fat Milk Powder) were analyzed to verify method accuracy. The statistic test used to determine the significance of the difference between the techniques was based on Unpaired t-Student test. Statistical test revealed no significance differences (P< 0,05) between the average values provided by the two methods for the most of determined elements. (author)

  8. Laser Photochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    inverted by the first, i.e., at the moment of time t = T, such that i = (2n+)lT, where 0 is the Rabi frequency (Oraevski et al., 1976). . classical... anisotropic molecule present. CW HeNe, Ar+ and Kr+ lasers are used, and the filter method is necessary because of time-scales lo8 - 10ll Hz. Some general...e.g., truncated harmonic oscillator, square well, spherically symmetric Morse or Lennard-Jones, anisotropic (angle-dependent) Morse or Lennard-Jones

  9. Matrix-Matched Iron-Oxide Laser Ablation ICP-MS U–Pb Geochronology Using Mixed Solution Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Courtney-Davies

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available U–Pb dating of the common iron-oxide hematite (α-Fe2O3, using laser-ablation inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS, provides unparalleled insight into the timing and processes of mineral deposit formation. Until now, the full potential of this method has been negatively impacted by the lack of suitable matrix-matched standards. To achieve matrix-matching, we report an approach in which a U–Pb solution and ablated material from 99.99% synthetic hematite are simultaneously mixed in a nebulizer chamber and introduced to the ICP-MS. The standard solution contains fixed U- and Pb-isotope ratios, calibrated independently, and aspiration of the isotopically homogeneous solution negates the need for a matrix-matched, isotopically homogenous natural iron-oxide standard. An additional advantage of using the solution is that the individual U–Pb concentrations and isotope ratios can be adjusted to approximate that in the unknown, making the method efficient for dating hematite containing low (~10 ppm to high (>1 wt % U concentrations. The above-mentioned advantage to this solution method results in reliable datasets, with arguably-better accuracy in measuring U–Pb ratios than using GJ-1 Zircon as the primary standard, which cannot be employed for such low U concentrations. Statistical overlaps between 207Pb/206Pb weighted average ages (using GJ-1 Zircon and U–Pb upper intercept ages (using the U–Pb mixed solution method of two samples from iron-oxide copper-gold (IOCG deposits in South Australia demonstrate that, although fractionation associated with a non-matrix matched standard does occur when using GJ-1 Zircon as the primary standard, it does not impact the 207Pb/206Pb or upper intercept age. Thus, GJ-1 Zircon can be considered reliable for dating hematite using LA-ICP-MS. Downhole fractionation of 206Pb/238U is observed to occur in spot analyses of hematite. The use of rasters in future studies will hopefully minimize

  10. Laser Propulsion - Quo Vadis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, Willy L.

    2008-01-01

    First, an introductory overview of the different types of laser propulsion techniques will be given and illustrated by some historical examples. Second, laser devices available for basic experiments will be reviewed ranging from low power lasers sources to inertial confinement laser facilities. Subsequently, a status of work will show the impasse in which the laser propulsion community is currently engaged. Revisiting the basic relations leads to new avenues in ablative and direct laser propulsion for ground based and space based applications. Hereby, special attention will be devoted to the impact of emerging ultra-short pulse lasers on the coupling coefficient and specific impulse. In particular, laser sources and laser propulsion techniques will be tested in microgravity environment. A novel approach to debris removal will be discussed with respect to the Satellite Laser Ranging (SRL) facilities. Finally, some non technical issues will be raised aimed at the future prospects of laser propulsion in the international community

  11. Application of isotope-dilution laser ablation ICP-MS for direct determination of Pu concentrations in soils at pg g{sup -1} levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulyga, Sergei F.; Tibi, Markus; Heumann, Klaus G. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55099, Mainz (Germany)

    2004-01-01

    The methods available for determination of environmental contamination by plutonium at ultra-trace levels require labor-consuming sample preparation including matrix removal and plutonium extraction in both nuclear spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In this work, laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was applied for direct analysis of Pu in soil and sediment samples. Application of a LINA-Spark-Atomizer system (a modified laser ablation system providing high ablation rates) coupled with a sector-field ICP-MS resulted in detection limits as low as 3 x 10{sup -13} g g{sup -1} for Pu isotopes in soil samples containing uranium at a concentration of a few {mu}g g{sup -1}. The isotope dilution (ID) technique was used for quantification, which compensated for matrix effects in LA-ICP-MS. Interferences by UH{sup +} and PbO{sub 2}{sup +} ions and by the peak tail of {sup 238}U{sup +} ions were reduced or separated by use of dry plasma conditions and a mass resolution of 4000, respectively. No other effects affecting measurement accuracy, except sample inhomogeneity, were revealed. Comparison of results obtained for three contaminated soil samples by use of {alpha}-spectrometry, ICP-MS with sample decomposition, and LA-ICP-IDMS showed, in general, satisfactory agreement of the different methods. The specific activity of {sup 239+240}Pu (9.8{+-}3.0 mBq g{sup -1}) calculated from LA-ICP-IDMS analysis of SRM NIST 4357 coincided well with the certified value of 10.4{+-}0.2 mBq g{sup -1}. However, the precision of LA-ICP-MS for determination of plutonium in inhomogeneous samples, i.e. if ''hot'' particles are present, is limited. As far as we are aware this paper reports the lowest detection limits and element concentrations yet measured in direct LA-ICP-MS analysis of environmental samples. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation and distribution of metals, trace elements and rare earths in sediments profiles of Promissão Reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by INAA; Avaliação e distribuição de metais, elementos traço e terras raras em perfis de sedimentos do reservatório de Promissão, Estado de São Paulo, por INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelini, Matheus; Rocha, Flavio R.; Fávaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: angelinimatheus@icloud.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Franklin, Robson L., E-mail: rfranklin@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (CETESB), SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The concentration of elements at two points in the reservoir (1 and 3) was evaluated. Two profiles of fractionated sediments were collected in the field every 2.5 cm, generating 14 and 20 fractions, respectively, according to their depths (35 and 50 cm). The concentrations of the elements: As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Th, U, Zn and the rare earth elements (Ce, Eu, Gd, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) were determined using the technique of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The validation of the methodology was done through the analysis of certified reference materials. The values of the North American Shale Composite (NASC) were used as reference values for calculation of Enrichment Factor (FE) and Geoacumulation Index (IGeo), tools used to evaluate pollution levels. The concentration of the As, Cr and Zn elements was also compared with the Guideline values TEL (Treshold Effect Level) and PEL (Probable Effect Level), values that provide concentration ranges for these elements indicating the presence or not of probable effects in aquatic biota from these concentrations.

  13. Laser safety and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, K.S.

    1995-01-01

    Lasers are finding increasing routine applications in many areas of science, medicine and industry. Though laser radiation is non-ionizing in nature, the usage of high power lasers requires specific safety procedures. This paper briefly outlines the properties of laser beams and various safety procedures necessary in their handling and usage. (author)

  14. Diode lasers and arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streifer, W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the principles of operation of III-V semiconductor diode lasers, the use of distributed feedback, and high power laser arrays. The semiconductor laser is a robust, miniature, versatile device, which directly converts electricity to light with very high efficiency. Applications to pumping solid-state lasers and to fiber optic and point-to-point communications are reviewed

  15. Laser cladding with powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, M.F.; Schneider, Marcel Fredrik

    1998-01-01

    This thesis is directed to laser cladding with powder and a CO2 laser as heat source. The laser beam intensity profile turned out to be an important pa6 Summary rameter in laser cladding. A numerical model was developed that allows the prediction of the surface temperature distribution that is

  16. Semiconductor laser shearing interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Hai; Li Ming; Chen Nong; Xie Jiaping

    1988-03-01

    The application of semiconductor laser on grating shearing interferometry is studied experimentally in the present paper. The method measuring the coherence of semiconductor laser beam by ion etching double frequency grating is proposed. The experimental result of lens aberration with semiconductor laser shearing interferometer is given. Talbot shearing interferometry of semiconductor laser is also described. (author). 2 refs, 9 figs

  17. Visible Solid State Lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hikmet, R.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Diode lasers can be found in various applications most notably in optical communication and optical storage. Visible lasers were until recently were all based on IR diode lasers. Using GaN, directly blue and violet emitting lasers have also been introduced to the market mainly in the area of optical

  18. Laser Microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Andra R; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin; Siegal, Gene P; Emmert-Buck, Michael R; Tangrea, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    Laser microdissection (LM) offers a relatively rapid and precise method of isolating and removing specified cells from complex tissues for subsequent analysis of their RNA, DNA, protein or metabolite content, thereby allowing assessment of the role of different cell types in the normal physiological or disease processes being studied. In this unit, protocols for the preparation of mammalian frozen tissues, fixed tissues, and cytologic specimens for LM, including tissue freezing, tissue processing and paraffin embedding, histologic sectioning, cell processing, hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry, and image-guided cell targeting are presented. Also provided are recipes for generating lysis buffers for the recovery of nucleic acids and proteins. The Commentary section addresses the types of specimens that can be utilized for LM and approaches to staining of specimens for cell visualization. Emphasis is placed on the preparation of tissue or cytologic specimens as this is critical to effective LM. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Laser EXAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Schwenzel, R.E.; Campbell, B.E.

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus for obtaining EXAFS data of a material, comprising means for directing radiant energy from a laser onto a target in such manner as to produce X-rays at the target of a selected spectrum and intensity, suitable for obtaining the EXAFS spectrum of the material, means for directing X-rays from the target onto spectral dispersive means so located as to direct the spectrally resolved X-rays therefrom onto recording means, and means for positioning a sample of material in the optical path of the X-rays, the recording means providing a reference spectrum of X-rays not affected by the sample and absorption spectrum of X-rays modified by transmission through the sample

  20. Multibeam Fibre Laser Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fibre laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating cutting laser, the CO2-laser. However, quality problems in fibre......-laser cutting have until now limited its application in metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multi beam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from 2 single mode fibre lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W of single...

  1. Multibeam fiber laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Hansen, Klaus Schütt; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2009-01-01

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fiber laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating Cutting laser, the CO2 laser. However, quality problems in fiber......-laser cutting have until now limited its application to metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle Studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness and short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multibeam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from two single mode fiber lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W...

  2. History and principle of lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townes, Ch.H.; Schwob, C.; Julien, J.; Forget, S.; Robert-Philip, I.; Balcou, Ph.

    2010-01-01

    In the first article C.H. Townes, the inventor of the maser, describes the work and ideas that led to the invention of the laser. The second article explains how a laser operate and the third article reviews the main different types of laser: solid lasers, gas lasers, diode lasers and dye lasers

  3. Chemical and physical analysis on hard tissues after irradiation with short pulse Nd:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Andrea Antunes

    2003-01-01

    This work reports on a study that was designed to investigate chemical, physical and morphological alterations in the dental enamel surface. The influence of application of laser in enamel surface by microscopic technical, X-ray fluorescence for chemical analysis, physical property as well as hardness and thermal analysis with Nd:YAG laser is also pointed out. A prototype of Nd:YAG (Q-switched) laser developed at the Center of Lasers and Applications - Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research, aiming applications in the Medical Sciences that typical wavelength of 1.064 nm was used. The modifications in human dental enamel chemical composition for major and trace elements are here outlined. The accuracy of procedures was performed by analysis of natural hydroxyapatite as standard reference material. The identification and quantification of the chemical elements presented in the dental tissue samples were performed trough EDS, XRF and INAA. We determined the rate Calcium/Phosphorus (Ca/P) for different techniques. We performed an analysis in different regions of the surface and for different areas allowing a description of the chemical change in the total area of the specimen and the assessment of the compositional homogeneity of the each specimen. A comparison between XRF and INAA is presented. Based on morphological analysis of the irradiated surfaces with short pulse Nd:YAG laser we determined the area surrounded by the irradiation for the parameters for this thesis, and this technique allowed us to visualize the regions of fusion and re-solidification. The energy densities ranged from 10 J/cm 2 to 40 J/cm 2 , with pulse width of 6, 10 e 200 ns, and repetition rates of 5 and 7 Hz. In this thesis, FTIR-spectroscopy is used to analyze powder of mineralized tissue as well as enamel, dentine, root and cementum for human and bovine teeth after irradiation with short-pulse Nd:YAG laser. Characteristic spectra were obtained for the proteins components and mineral

  4. Technological laser application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shia, D.O.; Kollen, R.; Rods, U.

    1980-01-01

    Problems of the technological applications of lasers are stated in the popular form. Main requirements to a technological laser as well as problems arising in designing any system using lasers have been considered. Areas of the laser applications are described generally: laser treatment of materials, thermal treatment, welding, broach and drilling of holes, scribing, microtreatment and adjustment of resistors, material cutting, investigations into controlled thermonuclear fussion

  5. Laser ablation principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    Laser Ablation provides a broad picture of the current understanding of laser ablation and its many applications, from the views of key contributors to the field. Discussed are in detail the electronic processes in laser ablation of semiconductors and insulators, the post-ionization of laser-desorbed biomolecules, Fourier-transform mass spectroscopy, the interaction of laser radiation with organic polymers, laser ablation and optical surface damage, laser desorption/ablation with laser detection, and laser ablation of superconducting thin films.

  6. New power lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Masanobu; Daido, Hiroyuki; Imasaki, Kazuo.

    1989-01-01

    As the new power lasers which are expected to exert large extending effect to the fields of advanced science and technology including precision engineering as well as laser nuclear fusion, LD-excited solid laser, X-ray laser and free electron laser are taken up and outlined. Recently, the solid laser using high power output, high efficiency semiconductor laser as the exciting beam source has been developed. This is called laser diode (LD)-excited solid laser, and the heightening of power output and efficiency and the extension of life are planned. Its present status and application to medical use, laser machining, laser soldering and so on are described. In 1960, the laser in visible region appeared, however in 1985, the result of observing induced emission beam by electron collision exciting method was reported in USA. In the wavelength range of 200 A, holography and contact X-ray microscope applications were verified. The various types of soft X-ray laser and the perspective hereafter are shown. The principle of free electron laser is explained. In the free electron laser, wavelength can be changed by varying electron beam energy, the period of wiggler magnetic field and the intensity of magnetic field. Further, high efficiency and large power output are possible. Its present status, application and the perspective hereafter are reported. (K.I.)

  7. Study on the uptake and distribution of gadolinium based contrast agents in biological samples using laser ablation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; Untersuchungen zur Aufnahme und Verteilung von gadoliniumbasierten Kontrastmitteln in biologischen Proben mittels Laserablation mit induktiv gekoppelter Plasma-Massenspektrometrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingott, Jana

    2016-01-05

    Gadolinium based contrast agents are used for magnetic resonance imaging. After their excretion by medicated patients they reach surface water passing waste water treatment plants where they are not removed sufficiently. The behavior of the contrast agents in the environment and the interaction with organisms was investigated in this work due to the toxicity of the free Gd{sup 3+} ion and the associated risks, such as accumulation in the human food chain. In this work, the two elemental analytical imaging methods laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SRXRF) have been used to investigate the uptake, distribution, and excretion of Gd-based contrast agents by various biological systems. Both methods were analytically characterized and compared for this application. The detection limits of gadolinium were determined under optimized conditions by LA-ICP-MS and SRXRF. With calibration by remains of dried elemental standard droplets detection limits of 0.78 pg absolute amount of gadolinium (LA-ICP-MS), respectively 89 pg (SRXRF) were reached. Based on filamentous algae as water plants the uptake and the excretion of Gd-based contrast agents were revealed. The dependence on concentration of the contrast agent in the exposition solution and the independence of temporal uptake within one to seven days were studied for duckweed. By LA-ICP-MS gadolinium was quantified in a leaf of cress plant. The verification of the results was performed by SRXRF and ICP-MS after digestion. Furthermore, the uptake and distribution of Gd-based contrast agents in higher organisms (water flea) were observed. The exact location of gadolinium was resolved by three-dimensional μ-computed tomography by the comparison of an exposed with a Gd-free water flea. In all studies, gadolinium was detected in the investigated exposed model organisms. It can be concluded that the contrast agents were taken from the

  8. Characterization of toners and inkjets by laser ablation spectrochemical methods and Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejos, Tatiana; Corzo, Ruthmara; Subedi, Kiran; Almirall, José

    2014-02-01

    Detection and sourcing of counterfeit currency, examination of counterfeit security documents and determination of authenticity of medical records are examples of common forensic document investigations. In these cases, the physical and chemical composition of the ink entries can provide important information for the assessment of the authenticity of the document or for making inferences about common source. Previous results reported by our group have demonstrated that elemental analysis, using either Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) or Laser Ablation Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), provides an effective, practical and robust technique for the discrimination of document substrates and writing inks with minimal damage to the document. In this study, laser-based methods and Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) methods were developed, optimized and validated for the forensic analysis of more complex inks such as toners and inkjets, to determine if their elemental composition can differentiate documents printed from different sources and to associate documents that originated from the same printing source. Comparison of the performance of each of these methods is presented, including the analytical figures of merit, discrimination capability and error rates. Different calibration strategies resulting in semi-quantitative and qualitative analysis, comparison methods (match criteria) and data analysis and interpretation tools were also developed. A total of 27 black laser toners originating from different manufacturing sources and/or batches were examined to evaluate the discrimination capability of each method. The results suggest that SEM-EDS offers relatively poor discrimination capability for this set (~ 70.7% discrimination of all the possible comparison pairs or a 29.3% type II error rate). Nonetheless, SEM-EDS can still be used as a complementary method of analysis since it has

  9. Characterization of toners and inkjets by laser ablation spectrochemical methods and Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trejos, Tatiana; Corzo, Ruthmara; Subedi, Kiran; Almirall, José

    2014-01-01

    Detection and sourcing of counterfeit currency, examination of counterfeit security documents and determination of authenticity of medical records are examples of common forensic document investigations. In these cases, the physical and chemical composition of the ink entries can provide important information for the assessment of the authenticity of the document or for making inferences about common source. Previous results reported by our group have demonstrated that elemental analysis, using either Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) or Laser Ablation Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), provides an effective, practical and robust technique for the discrimination of document substrates and writing inks with minimal damage to the document. In this study, laser-based methods and Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) methods were developed, optimized and validated for the forensic analysis of more complex inks such as toners and inkjets, to determine if their elemental composition can differentiate documents printed from different sources and to associate documents that originated from the same printing source. Comparison of the performance of each of these methods is presented, including the analytical figures of merit, discrimination capability and error rates. Different calibration strategies resulting in semi-quantitative and qualitative analysis, comparison methods (match criteria) and data analysis and interpretation tools were also developed. A total of 27 black laser toners originating from different manufacturing sources and/or batches were examined to evaluate the discrimination capability of each method. The results suggest that SEM-EDS offers relatively poor discrimination capability for this set (∼ 70.7% discrimination of all the possible comparison pairs or a 29.3% type II error rate). Nonetheless, SEM-EDS can still be used as a complementary method of analysis since it has

  10. Characterization of toners and inkjets by laser ablation spectrochemical methods and Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trejos, Tatiana, E-mail: trejost@fiu.edu; Corzo, Ruthmara, E-mail: rcorz001@fiu.edu; Subedi, Kiran, E-mail: ksube001@fiu.edu; Almirall, José, E-mail: almirall@fiu.edu

    2014-02-01

    Detection and sourcing of counterfeit currency, examination of counterfeit security documents and determination of authenticity of medical records are examples of common forensic document investigations. In these cases, the physical and chemical composition of the ink entries can provide important information for the assessment of the authenticity of the document or for making inferences about common source. Previous results reported by our group have demonstrated that elemental analysis, using either Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) or Laser Ablation Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), provides an effective, practical and robust technique for the discrimination of document substrates and writing inks with minimal damage to the document. In this study, laser-based methods and Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) methods were developed, optimized and validated for the forensic analysis of more complex inks such as toners and inkjets, to determine if their elemental composition can differentiate documents printed from different sources and to associate documents that originated from the same printing source. Comparison of the performance of each of these methods is presented, including the analytical figures of merit, discrimination capability and error rates. Different calibration strategies resulting in semi-quantitative and qualitative analysis, comparison methods (match criteria) and data analysis and interpretation tools were also developed. A total of 27 black laser toners originating from different manufacturing sources and/or batches were examined to evaluate the discrimination capability of each method. The results suggest that SEM-EDS offers relatively poor discrimination capability for this set (∼ 70.7% discrimination of all the possible comparison pairs or a 29.3% type II error rate). Nonetheless, SEM-EDS can still be used as a complementary method of analysis since it has

  11. Laser applications in materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ready, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The seminar focused on laser annealing of semiconductors, laser processing of semiconductor devices and formation of coatings and powders, surface modification with lasers, and specialized laser processing methods. Papers were presented on the theoretical analysis of thermal and mass transport during laser annealing, applications of scanning continuous-wave and pulsed lasers in silicon technology, laser techniques in photovoltaic applications, and the synthesis of ceramic powders from laser-heated gas-phase reactants. Other papers included: reflectance changes of metals during laser irradiation, surface-alloying using high-power continuous lasers, laser growth of silicon ribbon, and commercial laser-shock processes

  12. Raman fiber lasers

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book serves as a comprehensive, up-to-date reference about this cutting-edge laser technology and its many new and interesting developments. Various aspects and trends of Raman fiber lasers are described in detail by experts in their fields. Raman fiber lasers have progressed quickly in the past decade, and have emerged as a versatile laser technology for generating high power light sources covering a spectral range from visible to mid-infrared. The technology is already being applied in the fields of telecommunication, astronomy, cold atom physics, laser spectroscopy, environmental sensing, and laser medicine. This book covers various topics relating to Raman fiber laser research, including power scaling, cladding and diode pumping, cascade Raman shifting, single frequency operation and power amplification, mid-infrared laser generation, specialty optical fibers, and random distributed feedback Raman fiber lasers. The book will appeal to scientists, students, and technicians seeking to understand the re...

  13. Ceramic Laser Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Villalobos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic laser materials have come a long way since the first demonstration of lasing in 1964. Improvements in powder synthesis and ceramic sintering as well as novel ideas have led to notable achievements. These include the first Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG ceramic laser in 1995, breaking the 1 KW mark in 2002 and then the remarkable demonstration of more than 100 KW output power from a YAG ceramic laser system in 2009. Additional developments have included highly doped microchip lasers, ultrashort pulse lasers, novel materials such as sesquioxides, fluoride ceramic lasers, selenide ceramic lasers in the 2 to 3 μm region, composite ceramic lasers for better thermal management, and single crystal lasers derived from polycrystalline ceramics. This paper highlights some of these notable achievements.

  14. Infrared laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrell, C.D.; Carbone, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    An infrared laser system and method for isotope separation may comprise a molecular gas laser oscillator to produce a laser beam at a first wavelength, Raman spin flip means for shifting the laser to a second wavelength, a molecular gas laser amplifier to amplify said second wavelength laser beam to high power, and optical means for directing the second wavelength, high power laser beam against a desired isotope for selective excitation thereof in a mixture with other isotopes. The optical means may include a medium which shifts the second wavelength high power laser beam to a third wavelength, high power laser beam at a wavelength coincidental with a corresponding vibrational state of said isotope and which is different from vibrational states of other isotopes in the gas mixture

  15. Ceramic Laser Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghera, Jasbinder; Kim, Woohong; Villalobos, Guillermo; Shaw, Brandon; Baker, Colin; Frantz, Jesse; Sadowski, Bryan; Aggarwal, Ishwar

    2012-01-01

    Ceramic laser materials have come a long way since the first demonstration of lasing in 1964. Improvements in powder synthesis and ceramic sintering as well as novel ideas have led to notable achievements. These include the first Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) ceramic laser in 1995, breaking the 1 KW mark in 2002 and then the remarkable demonstration of more than 100 KW output power from a YAG ceramic laser system in 2009. Additional developments have included highly doped microchip lasers, ultrashort pulse lasers, novel materials such as sesquioxides, fluoride ceramic lasers, selenide ceramic lasers in the 2 to 3 μm region, composite ceramic lasers for better thermal management, and single crystal lasers derived from polycrystalline ceramics. This paper highlights some of these notable achievements. PMID:28817044

  16. Spectroscopic and imaging diagnostics of pulsed laser deposition laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thareja, Raj K.

    2002-01-01

    An overview of laser spectroscopic techniques used in the diagnostics of laser ablated plumes used for thin film deposition is given. An emerging laser spectroscopic imaging technique for the laser ablation material processing is discussed. (author)

  17. Lasers in periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavarasu, Sugumari; Naveen, Devisree; Thangavelu, Arthiie

    2012-08-01

    Laser is one of the most captivating technologies in dental practice since Theodore Maiman in 1960 invented the ruby laser. Lasers in dentistry have revolutionized several areas of treatment in the last three and a half decades of the 20(th) century. Introduced as an alternative to mechanical cutting device, laser has now become an instrument of choice in many dental applications. Evidence suggests its use in initial periodontal therapy, surgery, and more recently, its utility in salvaging implant opens up a wide range of applications. More research with better designs are a necessity before lasers can become a part of dental armamentarium. This paper gives an insight to laser in periodontics.

  18. Excimer laser applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantoni, R.

    1988-01-01

    This lecture deals with laser induced material photoprocessing, especially concerning those processes which are initiated by u.v. lasers (mostly excimer laser). Advantages of using the u.v. radiation emitted by excimer lasers, both in photophysical and photochemical processes of different materials, are discussed in detail. Applications concerning microelectronics are stressed with respect to other applications in different fields (organic chemistry, medicine). As further applications of excimer lasers, main spectroscopic techniques for ''on line'' diagnostics which employ excimer pumped dye lasers, emitting tunable radiation in the visible and near u.v. are reviewed

  19. Lasers in chemical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.I.

    1982-01-01

    The high cost of laser energy is the crucial issue in any potential laser-processing application. It is expensive relative to other forms of energy and to most bulk chemicals. We show those factors that have previously frustrated attempts to find commercially viable laser-induced processes for the production of materials. Having identified the general criteria to be satisfied by an economically successful laser process and shown how these imply the laser-system requirements, we present a status report on the uranium laser isotope separation (LIS) program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  20. Laser in urology. Laser i urologien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breisland, H.O. (Aker Sykehus, Oslo (Norway))

    1991-09-01

    The neodymium YAG laser is particularly suited for endoscopic urologic surgery because the YAG laser light can be conducted in flexible fibers. Superficial bladder tumours can be treated under local anaesthesia in the outpatient department. The frequency of local recurrences is low, significantly lower than after electrosection or electrocoagulation. Selected cases of T2-muscle invasive bladder tumours can be cured with laser coagulation applied subsequently to transurethral resection. Combined treatment with electrosection and laser coagulation of localized prostatic cancer is a promising method which compares favourably with results obtained by other treatment modalities. Tumours in the upper urinary tract can be laser-treated through ureteroscopes or nephroscopes, but the treatment should be limited to low stage, low grade tumours. Laser is the treatment of choice for intraurethral condylomatas. Laser treatment of penil carcinoma gives excellent cosmetic and functional results and few local recurrences. Laser lithotripsy is a new technique for treatment of ureteric stones and photodynamic laser therapy is a promising tecnique for treatment of carcinoma in situ in the bladder empithelium. However, neither of these techniques are available for clinical use in Norway as yet. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tabs.

  1. Laser materials processing with diode lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lin; Lawrence, Jonathan; Spencer, Julian T.

    1996-01-01

    Laser materials processing is currently dominated by CO2, Nd-YAG and Excimer lasers. Continuous advances in semiconductor laser technology over the last decade have increased the average power output of the devices annualy by two fold, resulting in the commercial availability of the diode lasers today with delivery output powers in excess of 60W in CW mode and 5kW in qasi-CW mode. The advantages of compactness, high reliability, high efficiency and potential low cost, due to the mass producti...

  2. 1982 laser program annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.; Grow, G.R.

    1983-08-01

    This annual report covers the following eight sections: (1) laser program review, (2) laser systems and operation, (3) target design, (4) target fabrication, (5) fusion experiments program, (6) Zeus laser project, (7) laser research and development, and (8) energy applications

  3. Photonic bandgap fiber lasers and multicore fiber lasers for next generation high power lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirakawa, A.; Chen, M.; Suzuki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Photonic bandgap fiber lasers are realizing new laser spectra and nonlinearity mitigation that a conventional fiber laser cannot. Multicore fiber lasers are a promising tool for power scaling by coherent beam combination. © 2014 OSA....

  4. Laser in operative dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yasini

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Today laser has a lot of usage in medicine and dentistry. In the field of dentistry, laser is used in soft tissue surgery, sterilization of canals (in root canal therapy and in restorative dentistry laser is used for cavity preparation, caries removal, sealing the grooves (in preventive dentistry, etching enamel and dentin, composite polymerization and removal of tooth sensitivity. The use of Co2 lasers and Nd: YAG for cavity preparation, due to creating high heat causes darkness and cracks around the region of laser radiation. Also due to high temperature of these lasers, pulp damage is inevitable. So today, by using the Excimer laser especially the argon floride type with a wavelength of 193 nm, the problem of heat stress have been solved, but the use of lasers in dentistry, especially for cavity preparation needs more researches and evaluations.

  5. Laser for fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzrichter, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Solid state lasers have proven to be very versatile tools for the study and demonstration of inertial confinement fusion principles. When lasers were first contemplated to be used for the compression of fusion fuel in the late 1950s, the laser output energy levels were nominally one joule and the power levels were 10 3 watts (pulse duration's of 10 -3 sec). During the last 25 years, lasers optimized for fusion research have been increased in power to typically 100,000 joules with power levels approaching 10 14 watts. As a result of experiments with such lasers at many locations, DT target performance has been shown to be consistent with high gain target output. However, the demonstration of ignition and gain requires laser energies of several megajoules. Laser technology improvements demonstrated over the past decade appear to make possible the construction of such multimegajoule lasers at affordable costs. (author)

  6. Radiological protection against lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballereau, P

    1974-04-01

    A brief description of the biological effects of laser beams is followed by a review of the factors involved in eye and skin damage (factors linked with the nature of lasers and those linked with the organ affected) and a discussion of the problems involved in the determination of threshold exposure levels. Preventive measures are recommended, according to the type of laser (high-energy pulse laser, continuous laser, gas laser). No legislation on the subject exists in France or in Europe. Types of lasers marketed, threshold exposure levels for eye and skin, variations of admissible exposure levels according to wavelength, etc. are presented in tabular form. Nomogram for determination of safe distance for direct vision of a laser is included.

  7. Advances in Fiber Lasers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morse, T

    1999-01-01

    Most of the time of this contract has been devoted toward improvements in optical fiber lasers and toward gathering experience to improve our program in high power, cladding pumped optical fiber lasers...

  8. Laser Processing and Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bäuerle, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    This book gives an overview of the fundamentals and applications of laser-matter interactions, in particular with regard to laser material processing. Special attention is given to laser-induced physical and chemical processes at gas-solid, liquid-solid, and solid-solid interfaces. Starting with the background physics, the book proceeds to examine applications of lasers in “standard” laser machining and laser chemical processing (LCP), including the patterning, coating, and modification of material surfaces. This fourth edition has been enlarged to cover the rapid advances in the understanding of the dynamics of materials under the action of ultrashort laser pulses, and to include a number of new topics, in particular the increasing importance of lasers in various different fields of surface functionalizations and nanotechnology. In two additional chapters, recent developments in biotechnology, medicine, art conservation and restoration are summarized. Graduate students, physicists, chemists, engineers, a...

  9. Fiber Laser Array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    ...., field-dependent, loss within the coupled laser array. During this program, Jaycor focused on the construction and use of an experimental apparatus that can be used to investigate the coherent combination of an array of fiber lasers...

  10. ISTEF Laser Radar Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stryjewski, John

    1998-01-01

    The BMDO Innovative Science and Technology Experimentation Facility (BMDO/ISTEF) laser radar program is engaged in an ongoing program to develop and demonstrate advanced laser radar concepts for Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD...

  11. Wavelength sweepable laser source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Wavelength sweepable laser source is disclosed, wherein the laser source is a semiconductor laser source adapted for generating laser light at a lasing wavelength. The laser source comprises a substrate, a first reflector, and a second reflector. The first and second reflector together defines...... and having a rest position, the second reflector and suspension together defining a microelectromechanical MEMS oscillator. The MEMS oscillator has a resonance frequency and is adapted for oscillating the second reflector on either side of the rest position.; The laser source further comprises electrical...... connections adapted for applying an electric field to the MEMS oscillator. Furthermore, a laser source system and a method of use of the laser source are disclosed....

  12. Laser surgery - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bleeding Problem not going away Infection Pain Scarring Skin color changes Some laser surgery is done when you are asleep and ... TG, Elston DM, eds. Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical ... lasers, lights, and tissue interactions. In: Hruza GJ, Avram ...

  13. Laser in operative dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    E. Yasini; Gh. Rahbari; A. Matorian

    1994-01-01

    Today laser has a lot of usage in medicine and dentistry. In the field of dentistry, laser is used in soft tissue surgery, sterilization of canals (in root canal therapy) and in restorative dentistry laser is used for cavity preparation, caries removal, sealing the grooves (in preventive dentistry), etching enamel and dentin, composite polymerization and removal of tooth sensitivity. The use of Co2 lasers and Nd: YAG for cavity preparation, due to creating high heat causes darkness and cracks...

  14. Tunable laser optics

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, FJ

    2015-01-01

    This Second Edition of a bestselling book describes the optics and optical principles needed to build lasers. It also highlights the optics instrumentation necessary to characterize laser emissions and focuses on laser-based optical instrumentation. The book emphasizes practical and utilitarian aspects of relevant optics including the essential theory. This revised, expanded, and improved edition contains new material on tunable lasers and discusses relevant topics in quantum optics.

  15. Laser cutting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J

    2015-03-03

    A workpiece cutting apparatus includes a laser source, a first suction system, and a first finger configured to guide a workpiece as it moves past the laser source. The first finger includes a first end provided adjacent a point where a laser from the laser source cuts the workpiece, and the first end of the first finger includes an aperture in fluid communication with the first suction system.

  16. Application of Various Lasers to Laser Trimming Resistance System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ji-feng

    2007-01-01

    Though the laser trimming resistance has been an old laser machining industry for over 30 years, the development of technology brings new alternative lasers which can be used for the traditional machining. The paper describes application of various lasers to laser trimming resistance system including early traditional krypton arc lamp pumped Nd:YAG to laser, modern popular diode pumped solid state laser and the present advanced harmonic diode pumped solid state laser. Using the new alternative lasers in the laser trimming resistance system can dramatically improve the yields and equipment performance.

  17. Laser technologies for laser accelerators. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The primary result of the work reported is the determination of laser system architectures that satsify the requirements of high luminosity, high energy (about 1 TeV), electron accelerators. It has been found that high laser efficiency is a very hard driver for these accelerators as the total average laser output optical power is likely to fall above 10 MW. The luminosity requires rep rates in the kHz range, and individual pulse lengths in the 1-10 psec range are required to satisfy acceleration gradient goals. CO 2 and KrF lasers were chosen for study because of their potential to simultaneously satisfy the given requirements. Accelerator luminosity is reviewed, and requirements on laser system average power and rep rate are determined as a function of electron beam bunch parameters. Laser technologies are reviewed, including CO 2 , excimers, solid state, and free electron lasers. The proposed accelerator mechanisms are summarized briefly. Work on optical transport geometries for near and far field accelerators are presented. Possible exploitation of the CO 2 and DrF laser technology to generate the required pulse lengths, rep rates, and projected efficiencies is illustrated and needed development work is suggested. Initial efforts at developing a 50 GeV benchmark conceptual design and a 100 MeV demonstration experiment conceptual design are presented

  18. Laser induced pyrolysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderborgh, N.E.

    1976-01-01

    The application of laser pyrolysis techniques to the problems of chemical analysis is discussed. The processes occurring during laser pyrolysis are first briefly reviewed. The problems encountered in laser pyrolysis gas chromatography are discussed using the analysis of phenanthrene and binary hydrocarbons. The application of this technique to the characterization of naturally occurring carbonaceous material such as oil shales and coal is illustrated

  19. Solar pumped laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Hohl, F.; Weaver, W. R. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A solar pumped laser is described in which the lasant is a gas that will photodissociate and lase when subjected to sunrays. Sunrays are collected and directed onto the gas lasant to cause it to lase. Applications to laser propulsion and laser power transmission are discussed.

  20. Introducing the Yellow Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2018-01-01

    The author has acquired a yellow laser with the specific wavelength of 589 nm. Because this is the first time such a laser has been discussed in this journal, I feel it is appropriate to provide a discussion of its function and capabilities. Normal laser safety should be employed, such as not pointing it into eyes or at people, and using eye…