WorldWideScience

Sample records for in-situ surface passivation

  1. GaAs nanopillar-array solar cells employing in situ surface passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Giacomo; Scofield, Adam C.; Hung, Chung-Hong; Huffaker, Diana L.

    2013-01-01

    Arrays of III–V direct-bandgap semiconductor nanopillars represent promising photovoltaic candidates due to their inherent high optical absorption coefficients and minimized reflection arising from light trapping, efficient charge collection in the radial direction and the ability to synthesize them on low-cost platforms. However, the increased surface area results in surface states that hamper the power conversion efficiency. Here, we report the first demonstration of GaAs nanopillar-array photovoltaics employing epitaxial passivation with air mass 1.5 global power conversion efficiencies of 6.63%. High-bandgap epitaxial InGaP shells are grown in situ and cap the radial p–n junctions to alleviate surface-state effects. Under light, the photovoltaic devices exhibit open-circuit voltages of 0.44 V, short-circuit current densities of 24.3 mA cm−2 and fill factors of 62% with high external quantum efficiencies >70% across the spectral regime of interest. A novel titanium/indium tin oxide annealed alloy is exploited as transparent ohmic anode. PMID:23422665

  2. In-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization of Si interlayer based surface passivation process for AlGaAs/GaAs quantum wire transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akazawa, Masamichi; Hasegawa, Hideki; Jia, Rui [Research Center for Integrated Quantum Electronics and Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, N-13, W-8, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2007-04-15

    Detailed properties of the Si interface control layer (Si ICL)-based surface passivation structure are characterized by in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in an ultra-high vacuum multi-chamber system. Si ICLs were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on GaAs and AlGaAs(001) and (111)B surfaces, and were partially converted to SiN{sub x} by nitrogen radical beam. Freshly MBE-grown clean GaAs and AlGaAs surfaces showed strong Fermi level pinning. Large shifts of the surface Fermi level position corresponding to reduction of pinning took place after Si ICL growth, particularly on (111)B surface (around 500 meV). However, subsequent surface nitridation increased pinning again. Then, a significant reduction of pinning was obtained by changing SiN{sub x} to silicon oxynitride by intentional air-exposure and subsequent annealing. This has led to realization of a stable passivation structure with an ultrathin oxynitride/Si ICL structure which prevented subcutaneous oxidation during further device processing under air-exposure. The Si-ICL-based passivation process was applied to surface passivation of quantum wire (QWR) transistors where anomalously large side-gating phenomenon was completely eliminated. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Electrochemical and in-situ Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopic (SERS) study of passive films formed on low-carbon steel in highly alkaline environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancio, Mauricio

    In reinforced concrete, a passive layer forms because of the alkaline conditions in the pores of the cement paste, where large concentrations of hydroxides create a solution with pH typically between 12 and 14. The corrosion resistance of the material depends on the characteristics and integrity of the passive film; however, currently very limited information is available about the passive films formed on carbon steel under such conditions. This work presents an electrochemical and in-situ Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopic (SERS) study of passive films formed on low-carbon steel in highly alkaline environments. More specifically, the study focuses on the characterization of the films formed on ASTM A36 steel reinforcing bar exposed to aqueous solutions that aim to reproduce the chemistry of the environment typically found within the cement paste. Electrochemical techniques such as cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves, galvanostatic cathodic polarization and linear polarization resistance were employed, in addition to in-situ Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). The experimental setup was built in a way that SERS experiments could be performed simultaneously with potentiodynamic polarization curves, enabling a detailed analysis of the formation and reduction of the surface films as a function of applied potential. Three solutions with different pH levels were used for the polarization and SERS experiments, namely 0.55M KOH + 0.16M NaOH ([OH-]=0.71), 0.08M KOH + 0.02M NaOH ([OH-]=0.10) and 0.008M KOH + 0.002M NaOH ([OH-]=0.01). Additional NaOH solutions in which the pH was varied from 13 to 9 and the ionic strength from 10 -5 to 10-1 were prepared for a pilot study using linear polarization resistance. Results show that the features observed in the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves correlated well with the potential arrests observed in the GCP plots as well as with the changes observed in the SERS spectra, providing valuable information about

  4. In situ passivation of GaAsP nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himwas, C; Collin, S; Rale, P; Chauvin, N; Patriarche, G; Oehler, F; Julien, F H; Travers, L; Harmand, J-C; Tchernycheva, M

    2017-12-08

    We report on the structural and optical properties of GaAsP nanowires (NWs) grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. By adjusting the alloy composition in the NWs, the transition energy was tuned to the optimal value required for tandem III-V/silicon solar cells. We discovered that an unintentional shell was also formed during the GaAsP NW growth. The NW surface was passivated by an in situ deposition of a radial Ga(As)P shell. Different shell compositions and thicknesses were investigated. We demonstrate that the optimal passivation conditions for GaAsP NWs (with a gap of 1.78 eV) are obtained with a 5 nm thick GaP shell. This passivation enhances the luminescence intensity of the NWs by 2 orders of magnitude and yields a longer luminescence decay. The luminescence dynamics changes from single exponential decay with a 4 ps characteristic time in non-passivated NWs to a bi-exponential decay with characteristic times of 85 and 540 ps in NWs with GaP shell passivation.

  5. In situ passivation of GaAsP nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himwas, C.; Collin, S.; Rale, P.; Chauvin, N.; Patriarche, G.; Oehler, F.; Julien, F. H.; Travers, L.; Harmand, J.-C.; Tchernycheva, M.

    2017-12-01

    We report on the structural and optical properties of GaAsP nanowires (NWs) grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. By adjusting the alloy composition in the NWs, the transition energy was tuned to the optimal value required for tandem III-V/silicon solar cells. We discovered that an unintentional shell was also formed during the GaAsP NW growth. The NW surface was passivated by an in situ deposition of a radial Ga(As)P shell. Different shell compositions and thicknesses were investigated. We demonstrate that the optimal passivation conditions for GaAsP NWs (with a gap of 1.78 eV) are obtained with a 5 nm thick GaP shell. This passivation enhances the luminescence intensity of the NWs by 2 orders of magnitude and yields a longer luminescence decay. The luminescence dynamics changes from single exponential decay with a 4 ps characteristic time in non-passivated NWs to a bi-exponential decay with characteristic times of 85 and 540 ps in NWs with GaP shell passivation.

  6. In situ-synthesized cadmium sulfide nanowire photosensor with a parylene passivation layer for chemiluminescent immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Ju-Hee; Kim, Hong-Rae; An, Byoung-Gi; Chang, Young Wook; Kang, Min-Jung; Lee, Tae-Geol; Son, Jin Gyeng; Park, Jae-Gwan; Pyun, Jae-Chul

    2017-06-15

    The direct in situ synthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanowires (NWs) was presented by direct synthesis of CdS NWs on the gold surface of an interdigitated electrode (IDE). In this work, we investigated the effect of a strong oxidant on the surfaces of the CdS NWs using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. We also fabricated a parylene-C film as a surface passivation layer for in situ-synthesized CdS NW photosensors and investigated the influence of the parylene-C passivation layer on the photoresponse during the coating of parylene-C under vacuum using a quartz crystal microbalance and a photoanalyzer. Finally, we used the in situ-synthesized CdS NW photosensor with the parylene-C passivation layer to detect the chemiluminescence of horseradish peroxidase and luminol and applied it to medical detection of carcinoembryonic antigen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. In-situ IR reflexion spectroscopy characterization of the passivation layer developed on the surface of lithium electrodes in organic medium; Passivation de surface: une nouvelle voie pour reduire l`autodecharge dans les batteries rechargeables a ions lithium LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barusseau, S. [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France); Perton, F. [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France); Rakotondrainibe, A.; Lamy, C. [Poitiers Univ., 86 (France). Laboratoire de Chimie 1, ``Electrochimie et Interactions``

    1996-12-31

    the development of lithium metal batteries is hindered by the bad reversibility of the Li{sup +}/Li pair, due to dendrites formation which limits the amount of active matter and can generate short-circuits. The chemical and electrochemical phenomena which take place at the electrode/organic electrolyte interface lead to the formation of a complex passivation film which is of prime importance for the functioning of this type of batteries. The in-situ infrared reflection spectroscopy is well adapted to the chemical study of the passivation layer. Two different techniques were used: the substraction normalized interfacial transform infrared spectroscopy (SNIFTIRS) and the electro-chemically modulated infrared reflectance spectroscopy. These methods have shown that the passivation layer that develops on the surface of the lithium electrode in contact with organic solutions (propylene carbonate, ethylene carbonate and dimethoxyethane) is mainly made of lithium alkyl carbonates (ROCO{sub 2}Li) and lithium carbonates (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}). (J.S.) 14 refs.

  8. In-situ IR reflexion spectroscopy characterization of the passivation layer developed on the surface of lithium electrodes in organic medium; Passivation de surface: une nouvelle voie pour reduire l`autodecharge dans les batteries rechargeables a ions lithium LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barusseau, S [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France); Perton, F [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France); Rakotondrainibe, A; Lamy, C [Poitiers Univ., 86 (France). Laboratoire de Chimie 1, ` ` Electrochimie et Interactions` `

    1997-12-31

    the development of lithium metal batteries is hindered by the bad reversibility of the Li{sup +}/Li pair, due to dendrites formation which limits the amount of active matter and can generate short-circuits. The chemical and electrochemical phenomena which take place at the electrode/organic electrolyte interface lead to the formation of a complex passivation film which is of prime importance for the functioning of this type of batteries. The in-situ infrared reflection spectroscopy is well adapted to the chemical study of the passivation layer. Two different techniques were used: the substraction normalized interfacial transform infrared spectroscopy (SNIFTIRS) and the electro-chemically modulated infrared reflectance spectroscopy. These methods have shown that the passivation layer that develops on the surface of the lithium electrode in contact with organic solutions (propylene carbonate, ethylene carbonate and dimethoxyethane) is mainly made of lithium alkyl carbonates (ROCO{sub 2}Li) and lithium carbonates (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}). (J.S.) 14 refs.

  9. Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} layers for the in-situ passivation of GaN-based HEMT structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunin, P. A., E-mail: yunin@ipmras.ru; Drozdov, Yu. N.; Drozdov, M. N.; Korolev, S. A.; Okhapkin, A. I.; Khrykin, O. I.; Shashkin, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    A method for the in situ passivation of GaN-based structures with silicon nitride in the growth chamber of a metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) reactor is described. The structural and electrical properties of the obtained layers are investigated. The in situ and ex situ passivation of transistor structures with silicon nitride in an electron-beam-evaporation device are compared. It is shown that ex situ passivation changes neither the initial carrier concentration nor the mobility. In situ passivation makes it possible to protect the structure surface against uncontrollable degradation upon the finishing of growth and extraction to atmosphere. In the in situ passivated structure, the carrier concentration increases and the mobility decreases. This effect should be taken into account when manufacturing passivated GaN-based transistor structures.

  10. In situ biodenitrification of nitrate surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, G.C.; Ballew, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project has successfully operated a full-scale in situ biodenitrification system to treat water with elevated nitrate levels in abandoned raffinate pits. Bench- and pilot-scale studies were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the process and to support its full-scale design and application. Bench testing evaluated variables that would influence development of an active denitrifying biological culture. The variables were carbon source, phosphate source, presence and absence of raffinate sludge, addition of a commercially available denitrifying microbial culture, and the use of a microbial growth medium. Nitrate levels were reduced from 750 mg/L NO 3 -N to below 10 mg/L NO 3 -N within 17 days. Pilot testing simulated the full-scale process to determine if nitrate levels could be reduced to less than 10 mg/L NO 3 -N when high levels are present below the sludge surface. Four separate test systems were examined along with two control systems. Nitrates were reduced from 1,200 mg/L NO 3 -N to below 2 mg/L NO 3 -N within 21 days. Full-scale operation has been initiated to denitrify 900,000-gal batches alternating between two 1-acre ponds. The process used commercially available calcium acetate solution and monosodium/disodium phosphate solution as a nutrient source for indigenous microorganisms to convert nitrates to molecular nitrogen and water

  11. Reducing the cytotoxicity of inhalable engineered nanoparticles via in situ passivation with biocompatible materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byeon, Jeong Hoon; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M.; Roberts, Jeffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The cytotoxicity of model welding particles was modulated through in situ passivation. • Model welding particles were incorporated with chitosan nanoparticles for passivation. • In vitro assay revealed that the passivated particles had a lower cytotoxicity. • Passivation with chitosan adhesive or graphite paste could also reduce cytotoxicity. • This method would be suitable for efficient reduction of inhalable toxic components. - Abstract: The cytotoxicity of model welding nanoparticles was modulated through in situ passivation with soluble biocompatible materials. A passivation process consisting of a spark discharge particle generator coupled to a collison atomizer as a co-flow or counter-flow configuration was used to incorporate the model nanoparticles with chitosan. The tested model welding nanoparticles are inhaled and that A549 cells are a human lung epithelial cell line. Measurements of in vitro cytotoxicity in A549 cells revealed that the passivated nanoparticles had a lower cytotoxicity (>65% in average cell viability, counter-flow) than the untreated model nanoparticles. Moreover, the co-flow incorporation between the nanoparticles and chitosan induced passivation of the nanoparticles, and the average cell viability increased by >80% compared to the model welding nanoparticles. As a more convenient way (additional chitosan generation and incorporation devices may not be required), other passivation strategies through a modification of the welding rod with chitosan adhesive and graphite paste did also enhance average cell viability (>58%). The approach outlined in this work is potentially generalizable as a new platform, using only biocompatible materials in situ, to treat nanoparticles before they are inhaled

  12. Reducing the cytotoxicity of inhalable engineered nanoparticles via in situ passivation with biocompatible materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byeon, Jeong Hoon, E-mail: postjb@yu.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, University of Iowa, IA 52242 (United States); Roberts, Jeffrey T., E-mail: jtrob@purdue.edu [Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The cytotoxicity of model welding particles was modulated through in situ passivation. • Model welding particles were incorporated with chitosan nanoparticles for passivation. • In vitro assay revealed that the passivated particles had a lower cytotoxicity. • Passivation with chitosan adhesive or graphite paste could also reduce cytotoxicity. • This method would be suitable for efficient reduction of inhalable toxic components. - Abstract: The cytotoxicity of model welding nanoparticles was modulated through in situ passivation with soluble biocompatible materials. A passivation process consisting of a spark discharge particle generator coupled to a collison atomizer as a co-flow or counter-flow configuration was used to incorporate the model nanoparticles with chitosan. The tested model welding nanoparticles are inhaled and that A549 cells are a human lung epithelial cell line. Measurements of in vitro cytotoxicity in A549 cells revealed that the passivated nanoparticles had a lower cytotoxicity (>65% in average cell viability, counter-flow) than the untreated model nanoparticles. Moreover, the co-flow incorporation between the nanoparticles and chitosan induced passivation of the nanoparticles, and the average cell viability increased by >80% compared to the model welding nanoparticles. As a more convenient way (additional chitosan generation and incorporation devices may not be required), other passivation strategies through a modification of the welding rod with chitosan adhesive and graphite paste did also enhance average cell viability (>58%). The approach outlined in this work is potentially generalizable as a new platform, using only biocompatible materials in situ, to treat nanoparticles before they are inhaled.

  13. Reducing the cytotoxicity of inhalable engineered nanoparticles via in situ passivation with biocompatible materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Jeong Hoon; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M; Roberts, Jeffrey T

    2015-07-15

    The cytotoxicity of model welding nanoparticles was modulated through in situ passivation with soluble biocompatible materials. A passivation process consisting of a spark discharge particle generator coupled to a collison atomizer as a co-flow or counter-flow configuration was used to incorporate the model nanoparticles with chitosan. The tested model welding nanoparticles are inhaled and that A549 cells are a human lung epithelial cell line. Measurements of in vitro cytotoxicity in A549 cells revealed that the passivated nanoparticles had a lower cytotoxicity (>65% in average cell viability, counter-flow) than the untreated model nanoparticles. Moreover, the co-flow incorporation between the nanoparticles and chitosan induced passivation of the nanoparticles, and the average cell viability increased by >80% compared to the model welding nanoparticles. As a more convenient way (additional chitosan generation and incorporation devices may not be required), other passivation strategies through a modification of the welding rod with chitosan adhesive and graphite paste did also enhance average cell viability (>58%). The approach outlined in this work is potentially generalizable as a new platform, using only biocompatible materials in situ, to treat nanoparticles before they are inhaled. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Offset-gated poly-Si TFTs using in-situ fluorine passivation and excimer laser doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sang Hoon; Kim, Cheon Hong; Yoo, Juhn Suk; Han, Min Koo

    2000-01-01

    A new low-temperature poly-Si thin film transistor (TFT) fabrication method employing in-situ fluorine passivation and excimer-laser doping is proposed to fabricate offset-gated poly-Si TFTs. In the new process, the crystallization, the in-situ fluorine passivation of the active layer, and the doping of the source/drain region are performed simultaneously with only one step of excimer laser annealing while the conventional fabrication method requires two laser annealing steps. Employing phosphosilicate glass (PSG) films as a diffusion source, we successfully accomplished excimer laser doping. The subthreshold and the on-state characteristics of the device with in-situ fluorine passivation were considerably improved. This improvement was due to the fluorine passivation effects, which cured dangling bonds and strained bonds in the poly-Si channel, the offset region, and the SiO 2 /poly-Si interface

  15. Offset-gated poly-Si TFTs using in-situ fluorine passivation and excimer laser doping

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, S H; Yoo, J S; Han, M K

    2000-01-01

    A new low-temperature poly-Si thin film transistor (TFT) fabrication method employing in-situ fluorine passivation and excimer-laser doping is proposed to fabricate offset-gated poly-Si TFTs. In the new process, the crystallization, the in-situ fluorine passivation of the active layer, and the doping of the source/drain region are performed simultaneously with only one step of excimer laser annealing while the conventional fabrication method requires two laser annealing steps. Employing phosphosilicate glass (PSG) films as a diffusion source, we successfully accomplished excimer laser doping. The subthreshold and the on-state characteristics of the device with in-situ fluorine passivation were considerably improved. This improvement was due to the fluorine passivation effects, which cured dangling bonds and strained bonds in the poly-Si channel, the offset region, and the SiO sub 2 /poly-Si interface.

  16. Thermal stability and in situ SiN passivation of InAlN/GaN high electron mobility heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugani, L.; Carlin, J.-F.; Py, M. A.; Grandjean, N. [ICMP, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-09-15

    We investigate the thermal stability of nearly lattice-matched InAlN layers under metal organic vapor phase epitaxy conditions for temperatures >800 °C and show that they are not fully stable. In particular, InAlN top layers undergo degradation during high temperature annealing due to a surface related process, which causes the loss of crystal quality. This strongly impacts the transport properties of InAlN/GaN HEMT heterostructures; in particular, the mobility is significantly reduced. However, we demonstrate that high thermal stability can be achieved by capping with a GaN layer as thin as 0.5 nm. Those findings enabled us to realize in situ passivated HEMT heterostructures with state of the art transport properties.

  17. A new application of passive samplers as indicators of in-situ biodegradation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belles, Angel; Alary, Claire; Criquet, Justine; Billon, Gabriel

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a method for evaluating the in-situ degradation of nitro polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAH) in sediments is presented. The methodology is adapted from the passive sampler technique, which commonly uses the dissipation rate of labeled compounds loaded in passive sampler devices to sense the environmental conditions of exposure. In the present study, polymeric passive samplers (made of polyethylene strips) loaded with a set of labeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-PAH were immersed in sediments (in field and laboratory conditions) to track the degradation processes. This approach is theoretically based on the fact that a degradation process induces a steeper concentration gradient of the labeled compounds in the surrounding sediment, thereby increasing their compound dissipation rates compared with their dissipation in abiotic conditions. Postulating that the degradation magnitude is the same for the labeled compounds loaded in polyethylene strips and for their native homologs that are potentially present in the sediment, the field degradation of 3 nitro-PAH (2-nitro-fluorene, 1-nitro-pyrene, 6-nitro-chrysene) was semi-quantitatively analyzed using the developed method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. In situ surface roughness measurement using a laser scattering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, C. J.; Wang, S. H.; Quan, C.; Shang, H. M.

    2003-03-01

    In this paper, the design and development of an optical probe for in situ measurement of surface roughness are discussed. Based on this light scattering principle, the probe which consists of a laser diode, measuring lens and a linear photodiode array, is designed to capture the scattered light from a test surface with a relatively large scattering angle ϕ (=28°). This capability increases the measuring range and enhances repeatability of the results. The coaxial arrangement that incorporates a dual-laser beam and a constant compressed air stream renders the proposed system insensitive to movement or vibration of the test surface as well as surface conditions. Tests were conducted on workpieces which were mounted on a turning machine that operates with different cutting speeds. Test specimens which underwent different machining processes and of different surface finish were also studied. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of surface roughness measurement using the proposed method.

  19. The Role of Surface Passivation in Controlling Ge Nanowire Faceting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamalski, A D; Tersoff, J; Kodambaka, S; Zakharov, D N; Ross, F M; Stach, E A

    2015-12-09

    In situ transmission electron microscopy observations of nanowire morphologies indicate that during Au-catalyzed Ge nanowire growth, Ge facets can rapidly form along the nanowire sidewalls when the source gas (here, digermane) flux is decreased or the temperature is increased. This sidewall faceting is accompanied by continuous catalyst loss as Au diffuses from the droplet to the wire surface. We suggest that high digermane flux and low temperatures promote effective surface passivation of Ge nanowires with H or other digermane fragments inhibiting diffusion and attachment of Au and Ge on the sidewalls. These results illustrate the essential roles of the precursor gas and substrate temperature in maintaining nanowire sidewall passivation, necessary to ensure the growth of straight, untapered, ⟨111⟩-oriented nanowires.

  20. In situ ellipsometric study of surface immobilization of flagellar filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurunczi, S., E-mail: kurunczi@mfa.kfki.hu [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Nemeth, A.; Huelber, T. [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Kozma, P. [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Department of Nanotechnology, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, Veszprem, H-8200 (Hungary); Petrik, P. [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Jankovics, H. [Department of Nanotechnology, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, Veszprem, H-8200 (Hungary); Sebestyen, A. [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Department of Nanotechnology, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, Veszprem, H-8200 (Hungary); Vonderviszt, F. [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Department of Nanotechnology, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, Veszprem, H-8200 (Hungary); Institute of Enzymology, Karolina ut 29-33, Budapest, H-1113 (Hungary); and others

    2010-10-15

    Protein filaments composed of thousands of subunits are promising candidates as sensing elements in biosensors. In this work in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry is applied to monitor the surface immobilization of flagellar filaments. This study is the first step towards the development of layers of filamentous receptors for sensor applications. Surface activation is performed using silanization and a subsequent glutaraldehyde crosslinking. Structure of the flagellar filament layers immobilized on activated and non-activated Si wafer substrates is determined using a two-layer effective medium model that accounted for the vertical density distribution of flagellar filaments with lengths of 300-1500 nm bound to the surface. The formation of the first interface layer can be explained by the multipoint covalent attachment of the filaments, while the second layer is mainly composed of tail pinned filaments floating upwards with the free parts. As confirmed by atomic force microscopy, covalent immobilization resulted in an increased surface density compared to absorption.

  1. In-situ photoluminescence imaging for passivation-layer etching process control for photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. Z.; Michaelson, L.; Munoz, K.; Tyson, T.; Gallegos, A.; Sullivan, J. T.; Buonassisi, T.

    2014-07-01

    Light-induced plating (LIP) of solar-cell metal contacts is a scalable alternative to silver paste. However, LIP requires an additional patterning step to create openings in the silicon nitride (SiNx) antireflection coating (ARC) layer prior to metallization. One approach to pattern the SiNx is masking and wet chemical etching. In-situ real-time photoluminescence imaging (PLI) is demonstrated as a process-monitoring method to determine when SiNx has been fully removed during etching. We demonstrate that the change in PLI signal intensity during etching is caused by a combination of (1) decreasing light absorption from the reduction in SiNx ARC layer thickness and (2) decreasing surface lifetime as the SiNx/Si interface transitions to an etch-solution/Si. Using in-situ PLI to guide the etching process, we demonstrate a full-area plated single-crystalline silicon device. In-situ PLI has the potential to be integrated into a commercial processing line to improve process control and reliability.

  2. Surface passivation for CdTe devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Matthew O.; Perkins, Craig L.; Burst, James M.; Gessert, Timothy A.; Barnes, Teresa M.; Metzger, Wyatt K.

    2017-08-01

    In one embodiment, a method for surface passivation for CdTe devices is provided. The method includes adjusting a stoichiometry of a surface of a CdTe material layer such that the surface becomes at least one of stoichiometric or Cd-rich; and reconstructing a crystalline lattice at the surface of the CdTe material layer by annealing the adjusted surface.

  3. Chalcogen passivation: an in-situ method to manipulate the morphology and electrical property of GaAs nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zai-Xing; Yin, Yanxue; Sun, Jiamin; Bian, Luozhen; Han, Ning; Zhou, Ziyao; Shu, Lei; Wang, Fengyun; Chen, Yunfa; Song, Aimin; Ho, Johnny C

    2018-05-02

    Recently, owing to the large surface-area-to-volume ratio of nanowires (NWs), manipulation of their surface states becomes technologically important and being investigated for various applications. Here, an in-situ surfactant-assisted chemical vapor deposition is developed with various chalcogens (e.g. S, Se and Te) as the passivators to enhance the NW growth and to manipulate the controllable p-n conductivity switching of fabricated NW devices. Due to the optimal size effect and electronegativity matching, Se is observed to provide the best NW surface passivation in diminishing the space charge depletion effect induced by the oxide shell and yielding the less p-type (i.e. inversion) or even insulating conductivity, as compared with S delivering the intense p-type conductivity for thin NWs with the diameter of ~30 nm. Te does not only provide the surface passivation, but also dopes the NW surface into n-type conductivity by donating electrons. All of the results can be extended to other kinds of NWs with similar surface effects, resulting in careful device design considerations with appropriate surface passivation for achieving the optimal NW device performances.

  4. A novel passive water sampler for in situ sampling of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Er; Zhang, Hao; Jones, Kevin C

    2012-05-01

    Passive water sampling has several advantages over active methods; it provides time-integrated data, can save on time and cost compared to active methods, and yield high spatial resolution data through co-deployment of simple, cheap units. However, one problem with many sampler designs in current use is that their uptake rates for trace substances of interest are flow-rate dependent, thereby requiring calibration data and other information to enable water concentrations to be derived from the mass per sampler. However, the 'family' of samplers employing the principle of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) provides an in situ means of quantitatively measuring labile species in aquatic systems without field calibration. So far, this technique has only been tested and applied in inorganic substances: metals, radionuclides, nutrients, etc. Design and applications of DGT to trace organic contaminants ('o-DGT') would be of widespread interest. This study describes the laboratory testing and performance characteristics of o-DGT, with the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) as a model compound and XAD18 as the novel binding agent. o-DGT uptake of SMX increased with time and decreased with diffusion layer thickness, confirming the principle for SMX. XAD18 showed sufficiently high capacity for SMX for routine field applications. o-DGT measurement of SMX was independent of pH (6-9) and ionic strength (0.001-0.1 M) and not affected by flow rate once above static conditions. The diffusion coefficient of SMX in the sampler was measured using an independent diffusion cell and information is presented to allow temperature correction and derivation of aqueous concentrations from deployed samplers. The potential use of o-DGT for in situ measurement of pharmaceutical antibiotics is confirmed by this study and applications are briefly discussed.

  5. Superacid Passivation of Crystalline Silicon Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, James; Kiriya, Daisuke; Grant, Nicholas; Azcatl, Angelica; Hettick, Mark; Kho, Teng; Phang, Pheng; Sio, Hang C; Yan, Di; Macdonald, Daniel; Quevedo-Lopez, Manuel A; Wallace, Robert M; Cuevas, Andres; Javey, Ali

    2016-09-14

    The reduction of parasitic recombination processes commonly occurring within the silicon crystal and at its surfaces is of primary importance in crystalline silicon devices, particularly in photovoltaics. Here we explore a simple, room temperature treatment, involving a nonaqueous solution of the superacid bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide, to temporarily deactivate recombination centers at the surface. We show that this treatment leads to a significant enhancement in optoelectronic properties of the silicon wafer, attaining a level of surface passivation in line with state-of-the-art dielectric passivation films. Finally, we demonstrate its advantage as a bulk lifetime and process cleanliness monitor, establishing its compatibility with large area photoluminescence imaging in the process.

  6. Nanolayer surface passivation schemes for silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, G.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with nanolayer surface passivation schemes and corresponding deposition processes, for envisaged applications in crystalline silicon solar cells. Surface passivation, i.e. the reduction of electronic recombination processes at semiconductor surfaces, is essential for

  7. In situ Raman spectroscopy studies of bulk and surface metal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Wachs, I.E.; Jehng, J.M.; Deo, G.; Guliants, V.V.; Benziger, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    Bulk V-P-O and model supported vanadia catalysts were investigated with in situ Raman spectroscopy during n-butane oxidation to maleic anhydride in order to determine the fundamental molecular structure-reactivity/selectivity insights that can be obtained from such experiments. The in situ Raman

  8. Surface passivation process of compound semiconductor material using UV photosulfidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Carol I. H.

    1995-01-01

    A method for passivating compound semiconductor surfaces by photolytically disrupting molecular sulfur vapor with ultraviolet radiation to form reactive sulfur which then reacts with and passivates the surface of compound semiconductors.

  9. In Situ Passivation for Efficient PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cells by Precursor Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjie; Lu, Kunyuan; Han, Lu; Liu, Zeke; Shi, Guozheng; Fang, Honghua; Chen, Si; Wu, Tian; Yang, Fan; Gu, Mengfan; Zhou, Sijie; Ling, Xufeng; Tang, Xun; Zheng, Jiawei; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Ma, Wanli

    2018-04-01

    Current efforts on lead sulfide quantum dot (PbS QD) solar cells are mostly paid to the device architecture engineering and postsynthetic surface modification, while very rare work regarding the optimization of PbS synthesis is reported. Here, PbS QDs are successfully synthesized using PbO and PbAc 2  · 3H 2 O as the lead sources. QD solar cells based on PbAc-PbS have demonstrated a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.82% (and independently certificated values of 10.62%), which is significantly higher than the PCE of 9.39% for PbO-PbS QD based ones. For the first time, systematic investigations are carried out on the effect of lead precursor engineering on the device performance. It is revealed that acetate can act as an efficient capping ligands together with oleic acid, providing better surface coverage and replace some of the harmful hydroxyl (OH) ligands during the synthesis. Then the acetate on the surface can be exchanged by iodide and lead to desired passivation. This work demonstrates that the precursor engineering has great potential in performance improvement. It is also pointed out that the initial synthesis is an often neglected but critical stage and has abundant room for optimization to further improve the quality of the resultant QDs, leading to breakthrough efficiency. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Supercritical synthesis and in situ deposition of PbS nanocrystals with oleic acid passivation for quantum dot solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavakoli, M.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Simchi, A., E-mail: simchi@sharif.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aashuri, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Colloidal quantum dot solar cells have recently attracted significant attention due to their low-processing cost and surging photovoltaic performance. In this paper, a novel, reproducible, and simple solution-based process based on supercritical fluid toluene is presented for in situ growth and deposition PbS nanocrystals with oleic-acid passivation. A lead precursor containing sulfur was mixed with oleic acid in toluene and processed in a supercritical fluid condition at different temperatures of 140, 270 and 330 °C for 20 min. The quantum dots were deposited on a fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate inside the supercritical reactor. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, absorption and dynamic light scattering showed that the nanocrystals processed at the supercritical condition (330 °C) are fully crystalline with a narrow size distribution of ∼3 nm with an absorption wavelength of 915 nm (bandgap of 1.3 eV). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that the PbS quantum dots are passivated by oleic acid molecules during the growth. Photovoltaic characteristics of Schottky junction solar cells showed an improvement over devices prepared by spin-coating. - Highlights: • Supercritical fluid processing and in situ deposition of PbS QDs are presented. • The prepared nanocrystals are mono-dispersed with an optical bandgap of 1.3 eV. • Photovoltaic performance of the in situ deposited nanocrystals is reported. • An improved PV performance compared to spin coated Schottky solar cells is shown.

  11. Surface Passivation in Empirical Tight Binding

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yu; Tan, Yaohua; Jiang, Zhengping; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard; Kubis, Tillmann

    2015-01-01

    Empirical Tight Binding (TB) methods are widely used in atomistic device simulations. Existing TB methods to passivate dangling bonds fall into two categories: 1) Method that explicitly includes passivation atoms is limited to passivation with atoms and small molecules only. 2) Method that implicitly incorporates passivation does not distinguish passivation atom types. This work introduces an implicit passivation method that is applicable to any passivation scenario with appropriate parameter...

  12. A Low-Cost Energy-Efficient Cableless Geophone Unit for Passive Surface Wave Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Kaoshan; Li, Xiaofeng; Lu, Chuan; You, Qingyu; Huang, Zhenhua; Wu, H Felix

    2015-09-25

    The passive surface wave survey is a practical, non-invasive seismic exploration method that has increasingly been used in geotechnical engineering. However, in situ deployment of traditional wired geophones is labor intensive for a dense sensor array. Alternatively, stand-alone seismometers can be used, but they are bulky, heavy, and expensive because they are usually designed for long-term monitoring. To better facilitate field applications of the passive surface wave survey, a low-cost energy-efficient geophone system was developed in this study. The hardware design is presented in this paper. To validate the system's functionality, both laboratory and field experiments were conducted. The unique feature of this newly-developed cableless geophone system allows for rapid field applications of the passive surface wave survey with dense array measurements.

  13. Evaluation of MODIS Land Surface Temperature with In Situ Snow Surface Temperature from CREST-SAFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Diaz, C. L.; Lakhankar, T.; Romanov, P.; Munoz, J.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Yu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the procedure and results of a temperature-based validation approach for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Land Surface Temperature (LST) product provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Terra and Aqua Earth Observing System satellites using in situ LST observations recorded at the Cooperative Remote Sensing Science and Technology Center - Snow Analysis and Field Experiment (CREST-SAFE) during the years of 2013 (January-April) and 2014 (February-April). A total of 314 day and night clear-sky thermal images, acquired by the Terra and Aqua satellites, were processed and compared to ground-truth data from CREST-SAFE with a frequency of one measurement every 3 min. Additionally, this investigation incorporated supplementary analyses using meteorological CREST-SAFE in situ variables (i.e. wind speed, cloud cover, incoming solar radiation) to study their effects on in situ snow surface temperature (T-skin) and T-air. Furthermore, a single pixel (1km2) and several spatially averaged pixels were used for satellite LST validation by increasing the MODIS window size to 5x5, 9x9, and 25x25 windows for comparison. Several trends in the MODIS LST data were observed, including the underestimation of daytime values and nighttime values. Results indicate that, although all the data sets (Terra and Aqua, diurnal and nocturnal) showed high correlation with ground measurements, day values yielded slightly higher accuracy ( 1°C), both suggesting that MODIS LST retrievals are reliable for similar land cover classes and atmospheric conditions. Results from the CREST-SAFE in situ variables' analyses indicate that T-air is commonly higher than T-skin, and that a lack of cloud cover results in: lower T-skin and higher T-air minus T-skin difference (T-diff). Additionally, the study revealed that T-diff is inversely proportional to cloud cover, wind speed, and incoming solar radiation. Increasing the MODIS window size

  14. In-situ position and vibration measurement of rough surfaces using laser Doppler distance sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarske, J.; Pfister, T.; Günther, P.; Büttner, L.

    2009-06-01

    In-situ measurement of distances and shapes as well as dynamic deformations and vibrations of fast moving and especially rotating objects, such as gear shafts and turbine blades, is an important task at process control. We recently developed a laser Doppler distance frequency sensor, employing two superposed fan-shaped interference fringe systems with contrary fringe spacing gradients. Via two Doppler frequency evaluations the non-incremental position (i.e. distance) and the tangential velocity of rotating bodies are determined simultaneously. The distance uncertainty is in contrast to e.g. triangulation in principle independent of the object velocity. This unique feature allows micrometer resolutions of fast moved rough surfaces. The novel sensor was applied at turbo machines in order to control the tip clearance. The measurements at a transonic centrifugal compressor were performed during operation at up to 50,000 rpm, i.e. 586 m/s velocity of the blade tips. Due to the operational conditions such as temperatures of up to 300 °C, a flexible and robust measurement system with a passive fiber-coupled sensor, using diffractive optics, has been realized. Since the tip clearance of individual blades could be temporally resolved an analysis of blade vibrations was possible. A Fourier transformation of the blade distances results in an average period of 3 revolutions corresponding to a frequency of 1/3 of the rotary frequency. Additionally, a laser Doppler distance sensor using two tilted fringe systems and phase evaluation will be presented. This phase sensor exhibits a minimum position resolution of σz = 140 nm. It allows precise in-situ shape measurements at grinding and turning processes.

  15. Polystyrene/magnesium hydroxide nanocomposite particles prepared by surface-initiated in-situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hui; Yi Jianhong

    2009-01-01

    In order to avoid their agglomeration and incompatibility with hydrophobic polystyrene substrate, magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles were encapsulated by surface-initiated in-situ polymerization of styrene. The process contained two steps: electrostatic adsorption of initiator and polymerization of monomer on the surface of magnesium hydroxide. It was found that high adsorption ratio in the electrostatic adsorption of initiator could be attained only in acidic region, and the adsorption belonged to typical physical process. Compared to traditional in-situ polymerization, higher grafting ratio was obtained in surface-initiated in-situ polymerization, which can be attributed to weaker steric hindrance. Both Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that polystyrene/magnesium hydroxide nanocomposite particles had been successfully prepared by surface-initiated in-situ polymerization. The resulting samples were also analyzed and characterized by means of contact angle testing, dispersibility evaluation and thermogravimetric analysis

  16. Surface Passivation in Empirical Tight Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu; Tan, Yaohua; Jiang, Zhengping; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard; Kubis, Tillmann

    2016-03-01

    Empirical Tight Binding (TB) methods are widely used in atomistic device simulations. Existing TB methods to passivate dangling bonds fall into two categories: 1) Method that explicitly includes passivation atoms is limited to passivation with atoms and small molecules only. 2) Method that implicitly incorporates passivation does not distinguish passivation atom types. This work introduces an implicit passivation method that is applicable to any passivation scenario with appropriate parameters. This method is applied to a Si quantum well and a Si ultra-thin body transistor oxidized with SiO2 in several oxidation configurations. Comparison with ab-initio results and experiments verifies the presented method. Oxidation configurations that severely hamper the transistor performance are identified. It is also shown that the commonly used implicit H atom passivation overestimates the transistor performance.

  17. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry as a surface sensitive tool to probe thin film growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.

    1999-01-01

    Sputtered thin film and multilayer x-ray mirrors are made routinely at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) for the APS users. Precise film growth control and characterization are very critical in fabricating high-quality x-ray mirrors. Film thickness calibrations are carried out using in situ and ex situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, interferometry, and x-ray scattering. To better understand the growth and optical properties of different thin film systems, we have carried out a systematic study of sputtered thin films of Au, Rh, Pg Pd, Cu, and Cr, using in situ ellipsometry. Multiple data sets were obtained in situ for each film material with incremental thicknesses and were analyzed with their correlation in mind. We found that in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry as a surface-sensitive tool can also be used to probe the growth and morphology of the thin film system. This application of in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry for metal thin film systems will be discussed

  18. Stability of gas atomized reactive powders through multiple step in-situ passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iver E.; Steinmetz, Andrew D.; Byrd, David J.

    2017-05-16

    A method for gas atomization of oxygen-reactive reactive metals and alloys wherein the atomized particles are exposed as they solidify and cool in a very short time to multiple gaseous reactive agents for the in-situ formation of a protective reaction film on the atomized particles. The present invention is especially useful for making highly pyrophoric reactive metal or alloy atomized powders, such as atomized magnesium and magnesium alloy powders. The gaseous reactive species (agents) are introduced into the atomization spray chamber at locations downstream of a gas atomizing nozzle as determined by the desired powder or particle temperature for the reactions and the desired thickness of the reaction film.

  19. Passive PE Sampling in Support of In Situ Remediation of Contaminated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    biodegradation . As discussed in Fernandez et al. (2009b), target compounds like PCBs and PAHs diffuse through the surrounding environmental media... biodegradation . The PE passive sampling technique may also offer significant cost savings per site for sample collection and analysis cost. When compared with...water, detergent), Nitrile gloves, aluminum foil, plastic sheeting, rope, paper towels, garbage bags , bubble wrap, Ziplock bags , and ice. • Non

  20. Thermal stability studies on atomically clean and sulphur passivated InGaAs surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Lalit; Hughes, Greg [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2013-03-15

    High resolution synchrotron radiation core level photoemission measurements have been used to study the high temperature stability of sulphur passivated InGaAs surfaces and comparisons made with atomically clean surfaces subjected to the same annealing temperatures. Sulphur passivation of clean InGaAs surfaces prepared by the thermal removal of an arsenic capping layer was carried out using an in situ molecular sulphur treatment in ultra high vacuum. The elemental composition of the surfaces of these materials was measured at a series of annealing temperatures up to 530 C. Following a 480 C anneal In:Ga ratio was found to have dropped by 33% on sulphur passivated surface indicating a significant loss of indium, while no drop in indium signal was recorded at this temperature on the atomically InGaAs surface. No significant change in the As surface concentration was measured at this temperature. These results reflect the reduced thermal stability of the sulphur passivated InGaAs compared to the atomically clean surface which has implications for device fabrication. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. DGT Passive Sampling for Quantitative in Situ Measurements of Compounds from Household and Personal Care Products in Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Li, Yanying; Chen, Chang-Er; Sweetman, Andrew J; Zhang, Hao; Jones, Kevin C

    2017-11-21

    Widespread use of organic chemicals in household and personal care products (HPCPs) and their discharge into aquatic systems means reliable, robust techniques to monitor environmental concentrations are needed. The passive sampling approach of diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) is developed here and demonstrated to provide in situ quantitative and time-weighted average (TWA) measurement of these chemicals in waters. The novel technique is developed for HPCPs, including preservatives, antioxidants and disinfectants, by evaluating the performance of different binding agents. Ultrasonic extraction of binding gels in acetonitrile gave good and consistent recoveries for all test chemicals. Uptake by DGT with HLB (hydrophilic-lipophilic-balanced) as the binding agent was relatively independent of pH (3.5-9.5), ionic strength (0.001-0.1 M) and dissolved organic matter (0-20 mg L -1 ), making it suitable for applications across a wide range of environments. Deployment time and diffusion layer thickness dependence experiments confirmed DGT accumulated chemicals masses are consistent with theoretical predictions. The technique was further tested and applied in the influent and effluent of a wastewater treatment plant. Results were compared with conventional grab-sampling and 24-h-composited samples from autosamplers. DGT provided TWA concentrations over up to 18 days deployment, with minimal effects from biofouling or the diffusive boundary layer. The field application demonstrated advantages of the DGT technique: it gives in situ analyte preconcentration in a simple matrix, with more quantitative measurement of the HPCP analytes.

  2. In situ investigation of the mechanisms of the transport to tissues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed onto the root surface of Kandelia obovata seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ruilong; Zhu, Yaxian; Zhang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A novel method for in situ determination of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) adsorbed onto the root surface of Kandelia obovata seedlings was established using laser-induced time-resolved nanosecond fluorescence spectroscopy (LITRF). The linear dynamic ranges for the established method were 1.5–1240 ng/spot for phenanthrene, 1.0–1360 ng/spot for pyrene and 5.0–1220 ng/spot for benzo[a]pyrene. Then, the mechanisms of PAHs transport from the Ko root surface to tissues were investigated. The three-phase model including fast, slow and very slow fractions was superior to the single or dual-phase model to describe the PAHs transport processes. Moreover, the fast fraction of PAHs transport process was mainly due to passive movement, while the slow and very slow fractions were not. Passive movement was the main process of B[a]P adsorbed onto Ko root surface transport to tissues. In addition, the extent of the PAHs transport to Ko root tissues at different salinity were evaluated. - Highlights: • A novel method in situ determination PAHs adsorbed onto root surface was established. • The mechanisms of PAHs transport from root surface to tissues are investigated. • Passive movement is the main process of B[a]P transport from root surface to tissues. • Effects of salinity on the PAHs transport from root surface to tissues are evaluated. - Passive movement for the PAHs adsorbed onto Kandelia obovata root surface to tissues was observed by a newly established in situ LITRF method

  3. Cell surface hydrophobicity of dental plaque microorganisms in situ.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, M; Judes, H; Weiss, E

    1983-01-01

    The cell surface hydrophobicity of bacteria obtained directly from human tooth surfaces was assayed by measuring their adherence to liquid hydrocarbons. Fresh samples of supragingival dental plaque were washed and dispersed in buffer. Adherence of the plaque microorganisms to hexadecane, octane, and xylene was tested turbidimetrically and by direct microscopic observation. The results clearly show that the vast majority of bacteria comprising dental plaque exhibit pronounced cell surface hydr...

  4. In-situ surface hardening of cast iron by surface layer metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Sebastian F.; Muschna, Stefan; Bührig-Polaczek, Andreas; Bünck, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Abrasive wear is a serious problem in many cast iron castings used in industry. To minimize failure and repair of these components, different strategies exist to improve their surface microhardness thus enhancing their wear resistance. However, most of these methods lead to very brittle and/or expensive castings. In the current work a new method for surface hardening is presented which utilizes surface layer metallurgy to generate in-situ a boron-enriched white cast iron surface layer with a high microhardness on a gray cast iron casting. To do this, sand molds are coated with a ferroboron suspension and cast with a cast iron melt. After solidification, a 100–900 µm thick layer of boron-enriched ledeburite is formed on the surface of the casting which produces an increase in the average microhardness from 284 HV 0.1 ±52 HV 0.1 to 505 HV 0.1 ±87 HV 0.1 . Analyses of the samples' core reveal a typical cast iron microstructure which leads to the conclusion that the coating mainly affects the castings' surface. By varying the grain size of the ferroboron powder in the coatings, it is shown that a powder size ≤100 µm is most suitable to create a boron-enriched ledeburite surface layer possessing high hardness values

  5. Surface phenomena revealed by in situ imaging: studies from adhesion, wear and cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Koushik; Mahato, Anirban; Yeung, Ho; Chandrasekar, Srinivasan

    2017-03-01

    Surface deformation and flow phenomena are ubiquitous in mechanical processes. In this work we present an in situ imaging framework for studying a range of surface mechanical phenomena at high spatial resolution and across a range of time scales. The in situ framework is capable of resolving deformation and flow fields quantitatively in terms of surface displacements, velocities, strains and strain rates. Three case studies are presented demonstrating the power of this framework for studying surface deformation. In the first, the origin of stick-slip motion in adhesive polymer interfaces is investigated, revealing a intimate link between stick-slip and surface wave propagation. Second, the role of flow in mediating formation of surface defects and wear particles in metals is analyzed using a prototypical sliding process. It is shown that conventional post-mortem observation and inference can lead to erroneous conclusions with regard to formation of surface cracks and wear particles. The in situ framework is shown to unambiguously capture delamination wear in sliding. Third, material flow and surface deformation in a typical cutting process is analyzed. It is shown that a long-standing problem in the cutting of annealed metals is resolved by the imaging, with other benefits such as estimation of energy dissipation and power from the flow fields. In closure, guidelines are provided for profitably exploiting in situ observations to study large-strain deformation, flow and friction phenomena at surfaces that display a variety of time-scales.

  6. Applications of a nanocomposite-inspired in-situ broadband ultrasonic sensor to acousto-ultrasonics-based passive and active structural health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Menglong; Zeng, Zhihui; Xu, Hao; Liao, Yaozhong; Zhou, Limin; Zhang, Zhong; Su, Zhongqing

    2017-07-01

    A novel nanocomposite-inspired in-situ broadband ultrasonic sensor previously developed, with carbon black as the nanofiller and polyvinylidene fluoride as the matrix, was networked for acousto-ultrasonic wave-based passive and active structural health monitoring (SHM). Being lightweight and small, this kind of sensor was proven to be capable of perceiving strain perturbation in virtue of the tunneling effect in the formed nanofiller conductive network when acousto-ultrasonic waves traverse the sensor. Proof-of-concept validation was implemented, to examine the sensor performance in responding to acousto-ultrasonic waves in a broad frequency regime: from acoustic emission (AE) of lower frequencies to guided ultrasonic waves (GUWs) of higher frequencies. Results have demonstrated the high fidelity, ultrafast response and high sensitivity of the sensor to acousto-ultrasonic waves up to 400kHz yet with an ultra-low magnitude (of the order of micro-strain). The sensor is proven to possess sensitivity and accuracy comparable with commercial piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers, whereas with greater flexibility in accommodating curved structural surfaces. Application paradigms of using the sensor for damage evaluation have spotlighted the capability of the sensor in compromising "sensing cost" with "sensing effectiveness" for passive AE- or active GUW-based SHM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Surface passivation technology for III-V semiconductor nanoelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Hideki; Akazawa, Masamichi

    2008-01-01

    The present status and key issues of surface passivation technology for III-V surfaces are discussed in view of applications to emerging novel III-V nanoelectronics. First, necessities of passivation and currently available surface passivation technologies for GaAs, InGaAs and AlGaAs are reviewed. Then, the principle of the Si interface control layer (ICL)-based passivation scheme by the authors' group is introduced and its basic characterization is presented. Ths Si ICL is a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)-grown ultrathin Si layer inserted between III-V semiconductor and passivation dielectric. Finally, applications of the Si ICL method to passivation of GaAs nanowires and GaAs nanowire transistors and to realization of pinning-free high-k dielectric/GaAs MOS gate stacks are presented

  8. In-Situ Extended Lateral Range Surface Metrology, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an extended lateral range capability for a dynamic optical profiling system to enable non-contact, surface roughness measurement of large and...

  9. Extrinsic passivation of silicon surfaces for solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla, R.S.; Reichel, C.; Hermle, M.; Martins, G.; Wilshaw, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work we study the extent to which extrinsic chemical and field effect passivation can improve the overall electrical passivation quality of silicon dioxide on silicon. Here we demonstrate that, when optimally applied, extrinsic passivation can produce surface recombination velocities below 1.2 cm/s in planar 1 Omega cm n-type Si. This is largely due to the additional field effect passivation component which reduces the recombination velocity below 2.13 cm/s. On textured surface...

  10. In Situ Growth of Mesoporous Silica with Drugs on Titanium Surface and Its Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Mimi; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Qi; Zhan, Shuyue; Chen, Xudong; Mao, Chun; Liu, Yuhong; Shen, Jian

    2017-06-07

    Mesoporous silica has been developed for the modification of titanium surfaces that are used as implant materials. Yet, the traditional modification methods failed to effectively construct mesoporous silica on the titanium surface evenly and firmly, in which the interaction between mesoporous silica and titanium was mainly physical. Here, in situ growth of mesoporous silica on a titanium surface was performed using a simple evaporation-induced self-assembly strategy. Meantime, in situ introduction of drugs (heparin and vancomycin) to mesoporous silica was also adopted to improve the drug-loading amount. Both the above-mentioned processes were completed at the same time. Transmission electron microscopy, N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and water contact angle measurements were used to characterize the structure of the mesoporous silica film. Results indicated that the mesoporous silica film that in situ grew on the titanium surface was smooth, thin, transparent, and stable. Cytotoxicity, proliferation performance of osteoblast cells, and in vitro and in vivo studies of the antibacterial activity of the coating were tested. This is the first study to modify the titanium surface by the in situ growth of a mesoporous silica coating with two kinds of drugs. The stability of the mesoporous silica coating can be attributed to the chemical bonding between dopamine and silicon hydroxyl of the mesoporous silica coating, and the smooth surface of mesoporous silica is a result of the method of in situ growth. The large amount of drug-loading also could be ascribed to the in situ introduction of drugs during the synthetic process. The strategy proposed in this work will bring more possibilities for the preparation of advanced functional materials based on the combination of mesoporous structure and metallic materials.

  11. Organic carbon amendments for passive in situ treatment of mine drainage: Field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, Matthew B.J., E-mail: mbjlindsay@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Blowes, David W.; Condon, Peter D.; Ptacek, Carol J. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > Organic carbon amendments can support passive treatment of mine drainage. > Decreased transport of sulfide-oxidation products under sulfate-reducing conditions. > Treatment effectiveness dependent on organic carbon source and amendment rate. - Abstract: A field-scale experiment was conducted to evaluate various organic C sources as amendments for passive treatment of tailings pore water. Varied mixtures of peat, spent-brewing grain (SBG) and municipal biosolids (MB) were assessed for the potential to promote dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR) and metal-sulfide precipitation. Five amended cells and one control were constructed in the vadose zone of a sulfide- and carbonate-rich tailings deposit, and the geochemistry, microbiology and mineralogy were monitored for 4 a. Increases in pore-water concentrations of dissolved organic C (DOC) and decreases in aqueous SO{sub 4} concentrations of >2500 mg L{sup -1} were observed in cells amended with peat + SBG and peat + SBG + MB. Removal of SO{sub 4} was accompanied by shifts in {delta}{sup 34}S-SO{sub 4} values of >+30 per mille, undersaturation of pore water with respect to gypsum [CaSO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O], and increased populations of SO{sub 4}-reducing bacteria (SRB). Decreases in aqueous concentrations of Zn, Mn, Ni, Sb and Tl were observed for these cells relative to the control. Organic C introduction also supported growth of Fe-reducing bacteria (IRB) and increases in Fe and As concentrations. Enhanced Fe and As mobility occurred in all cells; however, maximum concentrations were observed in cells amended with MB. Subsequent decreases in Fe and As concentrations were attributed to DSR and metal-sulfide precipitation. The common presence of secondary Zn-S and Fe-S phases was observed by field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) spectroscopy. Selective extractions indicated that large decreases in water-soluble SO{sub 4} occurred in cells that supported DSR

  12. Organic carbon amendments for passive in situ treatment of mine drainage: Field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, Matthew B.J.; Blowes, David W.; Condon, Peter D.; Ptacek, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Organic carbon amendments can support passive treatment of mine drainage. → Decreased transport of sulfide-oxidation products under sulfate-reducing conditions. → Treatment effectiveness dependent on organic carbon source and amendment rate. - Abstract: A field-scale experiment was conducted to evaluate various organic C sources as amendments for passive treatment of tailings pore water. Varied mixtures of peat, spent-brewing grain (SBG) and municipal biosolids (MB) were assessed for the potential to promote dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR) and metal-sulfide precipitation. Five amended cells and one control were constructed in the vadose zone of a sulfide- and carbonate-rich tailings deposit, and the geochemistry, microbiology and mineralogy were monitored for 4 a. Increases in pore-water concentrations of dissolved organic C (DOC) and decreases in aqueous SO 4 concentrations of >2500 mg L -1 were observed in cells amended with peat + SBG and peat + SBG + MB. Removal of SO 4 was accompanied by shifts in δ 34 S-SO 4 values of >+30 per mille, undersaturation of pore water with respect to gypsum [CaSO 4 .2H 2 O], and increased populations of SO 4 -reducing bacteria (SRB). Decreases in aqueous concentrations of Zn, Mn, Ni, Sb and Tl were observed for these cells relative to the control. Organic C introduction also supported growth of Fe-reducing bacteria (IRB) and increases in Fe and As concentrations. Enhanced Fe and As mobility occurred in all cells; however, maximum concentrations were observed in cells amended with MB. Subsequent decreases in Fe and As concentrations were attributed to DSR and metal-sulfide precipitation. The common presence of secondary Zn-S and Fe-S phases was observed by field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) spectroscopy. Selective extractions indicated that large decreases in water-soluble SO 4 occurred in cells that supported DSR. Furthermore, amendments that supported

  13. In situ control of As dimer orientation on Ge(100) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brückner, Sebastian; Döscher, Henning; Supplie, Oliver; Luczak, Johannes; Barrigón, Enrique; Rey-Stolle, Ignacio; Kleinschmidt, Peter; Hannappel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the preparation of single domain Ge(100):As surfaces in a metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy reactor. In situ reflection anisotropy spectra (RAS) of vicinal substrates change when arsenic is supplied either by tertiarybutylarsine or by background As 4 during annealing. Low energy electron diffraction shows mutually perpendicular orientations of dimers, scanning tunneling microscopy reveals distinct differences in the step structure, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms differences in the As coverage of the Ge(100):As samples. Their RAS signals consist of contributions related to As dimer orientation and to step structure, enabling precise in situ control over preparation of single domain Ge(100):As surfaces.

  14. In situ control of As dimer orientation on Ge(100) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckner, Sebastian; Doescher, Henning [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, Institut fuer Physik, Postfach 10 05 65, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Supplie, Oliver; Luczak, Johannes [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Barrigon, Enrique; Rey-Stolle, Ignacio [Instituto de Energia Solar, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kleinschmidt, Peter [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); CiS Forschungsinstitut fuer Mikrosensorik und Photovoltaik GmbH, Konrad-Zuse-Strasse 14, 99099 Erfurt (Germany); Hannappel, Thomas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, Institut fuer Physik, Postfach 10 05 65, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); CiS Forschungsinstitut fuer Mikrosensorik und Photovoltaik GmbH, Konrad-Zuse-Strasse 14, 99099 Erfurt (Germany)

    2012-09-17

    We investigated the preparation of single domain Ge(100):As surfaces in a metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy reactor. In situ reflection anisotropy spectra (RAS) of vicinal substrates change when arsenic is supplied either by tertiarybutylarsine or by background As{sub 4} during annealing. Low energy electron diffraction shows mutually perpendicular orientations of dimers, scanning tunneling microscopy reveals distinct differences in the step structure, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms differences in the As coverage of the Ge(100):As samples. Their RAS signals consist of contributions related to As dimer orientation and to step structure, enabling precise in situ control over preparation of single domain Ge(100):As surfaces.

  15. Comparative Demonstration of Active and Semi-Passive In Situ Bioremediation Approaches for Perchlorate Impacted Groundwater: Active In Situ Bioremediation Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    http://www.itrcweb.org/Documents/PERC-1.pdf • ITRC Perchlorate Team. 2008. Remediation Technologies for Perchlorate Contamination in Water and Soil ...pdf • Solutions EIS. 2006. Protocol for Enhanced In Situ Bioremediation Using Emulsified Vegetable Oil . Prepared for ESTCP. May 2006. • http...Air Force. 2007. Protocol for In Situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents Using Edible Oil . Prepared for AFCEC - Environmental Science Division

  16. Determination of near surface in-situ stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garritty, P.; Irvin, R.

    1983-06-01

    One of the major unknowns affecting aspects of underground construction and the geohydrology of rock masses is the magnitude and direction of the geostatic principal stresses in the earth's crust. This is particularly the case in near surface rocks where there are indications that high horizontal stresses may exist. The techniques, experiences and results of a preliminary rock stress measurement programme conducted at shallow depth in the Carnmenellis Granite, Cornwall, using C.S.I.R.O. triaxial hollow inclusion cells are described. (author)

  17. Application of various surface passivation layers in solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Youn; Lee, Soo Hong

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we have used different techniques for surface passivation: conventional thermal oxidation (CTO), rapid thermal oxidation (RTO), and plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). The surface passivation qualities of eight different single and combined double layers have been investigated both on phosphorus non-diffused p-type Float Zone (FZ) silicon wafers and on diffused emitters (100 Ω/□ and 40 Ω/□). CTO/SiN 1 passivates very well not only on a non-diffused surface (τ eff = 1361 μs) but also on an emitter (τ eff = 414 μs). However, we concluded that RTO/SiN 1 and RTO/SiN 2 stacks were more suitable than CTO/SiN stacks for surface passivation in solar cells since those stacks had relatively good passivation qualities and suitable optical reflections. RTO/SiN 1 for rear-surface passivation and RTO/SiN 2 for front-surface passivation were applied to the fabrication of solar cells. We achieved efficiencies of 18.5 % and 18.8 % on 0.5 Ω-cm (FZ) silicon with planar and textured front surfaces, respectively. An excellent open circuit voltage (V oc ) of 675.6 mV was obtained for the planar cell.

  18. In-situ oxidation study of Pd(100) by surface x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, Volkan; Franz, Dirk; Stierle, Andreas [AG Grenzflaechen, Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Martin, Natalia; Lundgren, Edvin [Department of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University (Sweden); Mantilla, Miguel [MPI fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The oxidation of the Pd(100) surface at oxygen pressures in the 10{sup -6} mbar to 10{sup 3} mbar range and temperatures up to 1000 K has been studied in-situ by surface x-ray diffraction (SXRD). The SXRD experiments were performed at the MPI beamline at the Angstrom Quelle Karlsruhe (ANKA). We present the surface and crystal truncation rod (CTR) data from the ({radical}(5) x {radical}(5)) surface layer. We show that the transformation from the surface oxide to PdO bulk oxide can be observed in-situ under specific pressure and temperature conditions. We compare our results with previously proposed structure models based on low energy electron diffraction (LEED) I(V) curves and density functional theory calculations. Finally, we elucidate the question of commensurability of the surface oxide layer with respect to the Pd(100) substrate.

  19. Development and Validation of a SPME-GC-MS Method for In situ Passive Sampling of Root Volatiles from Glasshouse-Grown Broccoli Plants Undergoing Below-Ground Herbivory by Larvae of Cabbage Root Fly, Delia radicum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, William; Shepherd, Tom; Alexander, Colin J; Birch, A Nicholas E; Evans, K Andrew

    2016-11-01

    Research on plant root chemical ecology has benefited greatly from recent developments in analytical chemistry. Numerous reports document techniques for sampling root volatiles, although only a limited number describe in situ collection. To demonstrate a new method for non-invasive in situ passive sampling using solid phase micro extraction (SPME), from the immediate vicinity of growing roots. SPME fibres inserted into polyfluorotetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sampling tubes located in situ which were either perforated, covered with stainless steel mesh or with microporous PTFE tubing, were used for non-invasive sub-surface sampling of root volatiles from glasshouse-grown broccoli. Sampling methods were compared with above surface headspace collection using Tenax TA. The roots were either mechanically damaged or infested with Delia radicum larvae. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate the effect of damage on the composition of volatiles released by broccoli roots. Analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with SPME and automated thermal desorption (ATD) confirmed that sulphur compounds, showing characteristic temporal emission patterns, were the principal volatiles released by roots following insect larval damage. Use of SPME with in situ perforated PTFE sampling tubes was the most robust method for out-of-lab sampling. This study describes a new method for non-invasive passive sampling of volatiles in situ from intact and insect damaged roots using SPME. The method is highly suitable for remote sampling and has potential for wide application in chemical ecology/root/soil research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. In situ spectroscopy of ligand exchange reactions at the surface of colloidal gold and silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkel, Rebecca; Peukert, Wolfgang; Braunschweig, Björn

    2017-01-01

    Gold and silver nanoparticles with their tunable optical and electronic properties are of great interest for a wide range of applications. Often the ligands at the surface of the nanoparticles have to be exchanged in a second step after particle formation in order to obtain a desired surface functionalization. For many techniques, this process is not accessible in situ . In this review, we present second-harmonic scattering (SHS) as an inherently surface sensitive and label-free optical technique to probe the ligand exchange at the surface of colloidal gold and silver nanoparticles in situ and in real time. First, a brief introduction to SHS and basic features of the SHS of nanoparticles are given. After that, we demonstrate how the SHS intensity decrease can be correlated to the thiol coverage which allows for the determination of the Gibbs free energy of adsorption and the surface coverage. (topical review)

  1. Arctic surface temperatures from Metop AVHRR compared to in situ ocean and land data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dybkjær

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The ice surface temperature (IST is an important boundary condition for both atmospheric and ocean and sea ice models and for coupled systems. An operational ice surface temperature product using satellite Metop AVHRR infra-red data was developed for MyOcean. The IST can be mapped in clear sky regions using a split window algorithm specially tuned for sea ice. Clear sky conditions prevail during spring in the Arctic, while persistent cloud cover limits data coverage during summer. The cloud covered regions are detected using the EUMETSAT cloud mask. The Metop IST compares to 2 m temperature at the Greenland ice cap Summit within STD error of 3.14 °C and to Arctic drifting buoy temperature data within STD error of 3.69 °C. A case study reveals that the in situ radiometer data versus satellite IST STD error can be much lower (0.73 °C and that the different in situ measurements complicate the validation. Differences and variability between Metop IST and in situ data are analysed and discussed. An inter-comparison of Metop IST, numerical weather prediction temperatures and in situ observation indicates large biases between the different quantities. Because of the scarcity of conventional surface temperature or surface air temperature data in the Arctic, the satellite IST data with its relatively good coverage can potentially add valuable information to model analysis for the Arctic atmosphere.

  2. In situ surface enhanced resonance Raman scattering analysis of a reactive dye covalently bound to cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P C; Munro, C H; Smith, W E

    1996-06-01

    An in situ surface enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) procedure is described for the analysis of a reactive dye covalently bound to a single strand of a cotton fibre. This procedure can be completed in 5 h, whereas an alternative enzyme digestion method takes approximately 21 h. These two fibre preparation methods give similar spectra from picogram quantities of dye present on a 2-5 mm length of fibre. The in situ nature of the analysis and the small sample size make this method particularly suitable for forensic applications.

  3. Development of a Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor for In-Situ Monitoring of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome L. Wright

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a surface-acoustic-wave (SAW sensor that is designed to be operated continuously and in situ to detect volatile organic compounds. A ruggedized stainless-steel package that encases the SAW device and integrated circuit board allows the sensor to be deployed in a variety of media including air, soil, and even water. Polymers were optimized and chosen based on their response to chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (e.g., trichloroethylene, which are common groundwater contaminants. Initial testing indicates that a running-average data-logging algorithm can reduce the noise and increase the sensitivity of the in-situ sensor.

  4. Surface Passivation for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deligiannis, D.

    2017-01-01

    Silicon heterojunction solar cells (SHJ) are currently one of the most promising solar cell technologies in the world. The SHJ solar cell is based on a crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafer, passivated on both sides with a thin intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) layer. Subsequently, p-type

  5. PDS Lunar Data Node Restoration of Apollo In-Situ Surface Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent; Guinness, Edward A.; Lowman, Paul D.; Taylor, Patrick T.

    2010-01-01

    The Apollo missions between 1969 and 1972 deployed scientific instruments on the Moon's surface which made in-situ measurements of the lunar environment. Apollo II had the short-term Early Apollo Surface Experiments Package (EASEP) and Apollos 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 each set up an Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). Each ALSEP package contained a different suite of instruments which took measurements and radioed the results back to Earth over periods from 5 to 7 years until they were turned off on 30 September 1977. To this day the ALSEP data remain the only long-term in-situ information on the Moon's surface environment. The Lunar Data Node (LDN) has been formed under the auspices of the Planetary Data System (PDS) Geosciences Node to put relevant, scientifically important Apollo data into accessible digital form for use by researchers and mission planners. We will report on progress made since last year and plans for future data restorations.

  6. An in situ study of zirconium-based conversion treatment on zinc surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, P. [Materials innovation institute (M2i), Elektronicaweg 25, 2628 XG Delft (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Laha, P. [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Electrochemical and Surface Engineering, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Terryn, H. [Delft University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Electrochemical and Surface Engineering, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Mol, J.M.C., E-mail: J.M.C.Mol@tudelft.nl [Delft University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-11-30

    Highlights: • We investigated the deposition mechanism of zirconium conversion layer on zinc. • In situ FTIR and electrochemical measurements are conducted. • The initial hydroxyl fraction plays an important role in the deposition process. • Deposition starts with hydroxyl removal by fluoride ions. • An increase of alkalinity adjacent to the surface promotes deposition of Zr. - Abstract: This study is focused on the deposition process of zirconium-based conversion layers on Zn surfaces. The analysis approach is based on a Kretschmann configuration in which in situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopy is combined with open circuit potential (OCP) and near surface pH measurements. Differently pretreated Zn surfaces were subjected to conversion treatments, while the Zr-based deposition mechanism was probed in situ. It was found that the initial hydroxyl fraction promotes the overall Zr conversion process as the near surface pH values are influenced by the initial hydroxyl fraction. Kinetics of the early surface activation and the subsequent Zr-based conversion process are discussed and correlated to the initial hydroxyl fractions.

  7. In situ EC-AFM study of the effect of nanocrystals on the passivation and pit initiation in an Al-based metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.D.; Liu, Z.W.; Wang, Z.M.; Wang, J.Q.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The nanoscale corrosion on Al-rich glass was characterised by in situ EC-AFM. • The nanocrystals were identified from amorphous matrix by tapping mode AFM. • The formation of corrosion products is associated with the galvanic coupling. • The nanocrystals changed the local structure and component of the passive film. - Abstract: The effect of nanocrystals on pit initiation in metallic glasses is an unresolved issue. The passive film formation and pit initiation in the Al–Ni–Ce metallic glass were investigated using in situ electrochemical atomic force microscope (EC-AFM). The α-Al nanophases were identified from the amorphous matrix based upon the phase imaging in the tapping mode AFM. In the early stage of the passive film formation, the corrosion products Al(OH) 3 formed on the α-Al nanoparticles due to the galvanic coupling. The corrosion products incorporated into the passive film changed the local structure and component of the passive film, lowering its stability

  8. Synthesis in situ of gold nanoparticles by a dialkynyl Fischer carbene complex anchored to glass surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolino, María Candelaria; Granados, Alejandro Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fischer carbene 1-W reacts via cycloaddition without Cu(I) with azide terminal surface. • This reaction on the surface is regioselective to internal triple bond of 1-W. • 1-W bound to glass surface produce AuNps in situ fixed to the surface. • This ability is independent of how 1-W is bonded to the surface. • This hybrid surface can be valuable as SERS substrate or in heterogeneous catalysis. - Abstract: In this work we present a detailed study of classic reactions such as “click reaction” and nucleophilic substitution reaction but on glass solid surface (slides). We used different reactive center of a dialkynylalcoxy Fischer carbene complex of tungsten(0) to be anchored to modified glass surface with amine, to obtain aminocarbene, and azide terminal groups. These cycloaddition reaction showed regioselectivity to internal triple bond of dialkynyl Fischer carbene complex without Cu(I) as catalyst. Anyway the carbene anchored was able to act as a reducing agent to produce in situ very stable gold nanoparticles fixed on surface. We showed the characterization of modified glasses by contact angle measurements and XPS. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, XPS, EDS and UV–vis. The modified glasses showed an important enhancement Raman-SERS. This simple, fast and robust method to create a polifunctional and hybrid surfaces can be valuable in a wide range of applications such as Raman-SERS substrates and other optical fields.

  9. Synthesis in situ of gold nanoparticles by a dialkynyl Fischer carbene complex anchored to glass surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolino, María Candelaria, E-mail: cbertolino@fcq.unc.edu.ar; Granados, Alejandro Manuel, E-mail: ale@fcq.unc.edu.ar

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Fischer carbene 1-W reacts via cycloaddition without Cu(I) with azide terminal surface. • This reaction on the surface is regioselective to internal triple bond of 1-W. • 1-W bound to glass surface produce AuNps in situ fixed to the surface. • This ability is independent of how 1-W is bonded to the surface. • This hybrid surface can be valuable as SERS substrate or in heterogeneous catalysis. - Abstract: In this work we present a detailed study of classic reactions such as “click reaction” and nucleophilic substitution reaction but on glass solid surface (slides). We used different reactive center of a dialkynylalcoxy Fischer carbene complex of tungsten(0) to be anchored to modified glass surface with amine, to obtain aminocarbene, and azide terminal groups. These cycloaddition reaction showed regioselectivity to internal triple bond of dialkynyl Fischer carbene complex without Cu(I) as catalyst. Anyway the carbene anchored was able to act as a reducing agent to produce in situ very stable gold nanoparticles fixed on surface. We showed the characterization of modified glasses by contact angle measurements and XPS. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, XPS, EDS and UV–vis. The modified glasses showed an important enhancement Raman-SERS. This simple, fast and robust method to create a polifunctional and hybrid surfaces can be valuable in a wide range of applications such as Raman-SERS substrates and other optical fields.

  10. Surface-passivation-induced optical changes in Ge quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboredo, F. A.; Zunger, Alex

    2001-01-01

    One of the most interesting properties of quantum dots is the possibility to tune the band gap as a function of their size. Here we explore the possibility of changing the lifetime of the lowest-energy excited state by altering the surface passivation. We show that a moderately electronegative passivation potential can induce long-lived excitons without appreciable changes to the band gap. In addition, for such passivation the symmetry of the valence-band maximum is γ 8# sub v# (t 1 derived) instead of the more usual γ 8v (t 2 derived). This reverses the effect of the exchange interaction on the bright-dark exciton splitting

  11. Surface passivation of liquid phase epitaxial GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexiev, D.; Butcher, K.S.A.; Mo, L.; Edmondson, M.

    1995-10-01

    Passivation of the liquid phase epitaxial GaAs surface was attempted using aqueous P 2 S 5 -NH 4 OH, (NH 4 ) 2 S x and plasma nitrogenation and hydrogenation. Results indicate that plasma nitrogenation with pretreatment of plasma hydrogenation produced consistent reduction in reverse leakage current at room temperature for all p and n type Schottky diodes. Some diodes showed an order of magnitude improvement in current density. (NH 4 ) 2 S x passivation also results in improved I-V characteristics, though the long term stability of this passivation is questionable. 26 refs., 6 figs

  12. Electrografting of in situ generated pyrrole derivative diazonium salt for the surface modification of nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, A.; Devillers, S.; Delhalle, J.; Mekhalif, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrografting of in situ generated 4-pyrrolylphenyldiazonium (Py-PD) on Ni. • Generation of Py-PD from 4-pyrrolylaniline in 3 acidic conditions followed by UV. • XPS and SEM confirm efficiency, reproducibility and homogeneity of the grafting. • Electrografting process assessed by CV. • Barrier properties of the grafted film evidenced by CV. -- Abstract: This work reports for the first time on the modification of nickel surfaces by cathodic electrografting of in situ generated diazonium. An original diazonium salt (the 4-pyrrolylphenyldiazonium called Py-PD hereafter) was electrografted on nickel after its generation from 4-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)aniline (Py-A) in presence of three acidic conditions (1, 2 and 10 equiv. of HClO 4 /Py-A) has been investigated by UV–vis spectroscopy. Results show that the potentiostatic electrografting of Py-PD is concomitant with nickel and proton reduction. This electrografting leads to the formation of multilayered films in each of the studied in situ generation conditions. The use of 1 equiv. of HClO 4 /Py-A for the in situ generation results in the formation of inhomogeneous and irreproducible coatings while 2 and 10 equiv. lead to the formation of highly covering, homogeneous and reproducible films. These films present good electrochemical barrier properties toward the ferri/ferrocyanide couple. The use of gentle stoichiometric acidic conditions for in situ diazonium generation widens the application field of this one-step procedure to the surface modification of oxidizable materials presenting an unstable oxide layer

  13. Carrier population control and surface passivation in solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cuevas, Andres

    2018-05-02

    Controlling the concentration of charge carriers near the surface is essential for solar cells. It permits to form regions with selective conductivity for either electrons or holes and it also helps to reduce the rate at which they recombine. Chemical passivation of the surfaces is equally important, and it can be combined with population control to implement carrier-selective, passivating contacts for solar cells. This paper discusses different approaches to suppress surface recombination and to manipulate the concentration of carriers by means of doping, work function and charge. It also describes some of the many surface-passivating contacts that are being developed for silicon solar cells, restricted to experiments performed by the authors.

  14. In situ generation of diazonium cations in organic electrolyte for electrochemical modification of electrode surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranton, Steve; Belanger, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The modification of glassy carbon electrode was achieved by electrochemical reduction of in situ generated diazonium cations in acetonitrile. The in situ generation of 4-nitrophenyl diazonium cations in acetonitrile was investigated by spectroscopic methods. UV-visible spectroscopy revealed slow kinetics for the reaction of 4-nitroaniline with tert-butylnitrite in acetonitrile to form the corresponding diazonium cation. As a result, a coupling reaction, which implies a consumption of the amine and loss of the already formed diazonium cations, was evidenced by 1 H NMR spectroscopy. This spectroscopic study allowed the optimization of the in situ diazonium cations generation prior to the modification step. The electrochemical modification of the carbon electrodes with 4-nitrophenyl, 4-bromophenyl and anthraquinone groups was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the resulting grafted layer were characterized by electrochemical techniques. The cyclic voltammetric behaviour during the electrochemical grafting was very similar to the one observed for an isolated diazonium salt dissolved in acetonitrile. In the case of the anthraquinone-modified electrode, the use of acetonitrile, into which the corresponding amine is soluble but not in aqueous media, allowed for its grafting by the in situ approach. The barrier properties of these grafted layers are similar to those obtained from isolated diazonium salts. Finally, the chemical composition of the grafted layers was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and surface coverage in the range 5-7 x 10 -10 mol cm -2 was estimated for films grown in our experimental conditions

  15. In situ generation of diazonium cations in organic electrolyte for electrochemical modification of electrode surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranton, Steve [Departement de Chimie, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Case Postale 8888, succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal (Quebec), H3C 3P8 (Canada); Belanger, Daniel [Departement de Chimie, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Case Postale 8888, succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal (Quebec), H3C 3P8 (Canada)], E-mail: belanger.daniel@uqam.ca

    2008-10-01

    The modification of glassy carbon electrode was achieved by electrochemical reduction of in situ generated diazonium cations in acetonitrile. The in situ generation of 4-nitrophenyl diazonium cations in acetonitrile was investigated by spectroscopic methods. UV-visible spectroscopy revealed slow kinetics for the reaction of 4-nitroaniline with tert-butylnitrite in acetonitrile to form the corresponding diazonium cation. As a result, a coupling reaction, which implies a consumption of the amine and loss of the already formed diazonium cations, was evidenced by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. This spectroscopic study allowed the optimization of the in situ diazonium cations generation prior to the modification step. The electrochemical modification of the carbon electrodes with 4-nitrophenyl, 4-bromophenyl and anthraquinone groups was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the resulting grafted layer were characterized by electrochemical techniques. The cyclic voltammetric behaviour during the electrochemical grafting was very similar to the one observed for an isolated diazonium salt dissolved in acetonitrile. In the case of the anthraquinone-modified electrode, the use of acetonitrile, into which the corresponding amine is soluble but not in aqueous media, allowed for its grafting by the in situ approach. The barrier properties of these grafted layers are similar to those obtained from isolated diazonium salts. Finally, the chemical composition of the grafted layers was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and surface coverage in the range 5-7 x 10{sup -10} mol cm{sup -2} was estimated for films grown in our experimental conditions.

  16. Amine treatment induced perovskite nanowire network in perovskite solar cells: efficient surface passivation and carrier transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ke; Cui, Can; Wang, Peng; Lin, Ping; Qiang, Yaping; Xu, Lingbo; Xie, Jiangsheng; Yang, Zhengrui; Zhu, Xiaodong; Yu, Xuegong; Yang, Deren

    2018-02-01

    In the fabrication of high efficiency organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs), an additional interface modifier is usually applied for enhancing the interface passivation and carrier transport. In this paper, we develop an innovative method with in-situ growth of one-dimensional perovskite nanowire (1D PNW) network triggered by Lewis amine over the perovskite films. To our knowledge, this is the first time to fabricate PSCs with shape-controlled perovskite surface morphology, which improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 14.32% to 16.66% with negligible hysteresis. The amine molecule can passivate the trap states on the polycrystalline perovskite surface to reduce trap-state density. Meanwhile, as a fast channel, the 1D PNWs would promote carrier transport from the bulk perovskite film to the electron transport layer. The PSCs with 1D PNW modification not only exhibit excellent photovoltaic performances, but also show good stability with only 4% PCE loss within 30 days in the ambient air without encapsulation. Our results strongly suggest that in-situ grown 1D PNW network provides a feasible and effective strategy for nanostructured optoelectronic devices such as PSCs to achieve superior performances.

  17. Rain detection over land surfaces using passive microwave satellite data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, P.; Burose, D.; Schulz, J.

    2002-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for the detection of surface rainfall using passive microwave measurements by satellite radiometers. The technique consists of a two-stage approach to distinguish precipitation signatures from other effects: (1) Contributions from slowly varying parameters (surface type and

  18. In situ electrochemical-mass spectroscopic investigation of solid electrolyte interphase formation on the surface of a carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourdin, Gerald; Zheng, Dong; Smith, Patricia H.; Qu, Deyang

    2013-01-01

    The energy density of an electrochemical capacitor can be significantly improved by utilizing a lithiated negative electrode and a high surface area positive electrode. During lithiation of the negative carbon electrode, the electrolyte reacts with the electrode surface and undergoes decomposition to form a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer that passivates the surface of the carbon electrode from further reactions between Li and the electrolyte. The reduction reactions that the solvent undergoes also form insoluble and gaseous by-products. In this work, those gaseous by-products generated by reductive decomposition of a carbonate-based electrolyte, 1.2 M LiPF 6 in EC/PC/DEC (3:1:4), were analyzed at different stages during the lithiation process of an amorphous carbon electrode. The stages in the generation of gaseous by-products were determined to come as a result of two, 1-electron reduction steps of the cyclic carbonate components of the electrolyte. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was also used to investigate the two distinct electrochemical processes and the development of the two phases of the SEI structure. This is the first time that the state of an electrochemical cell during the formation of the SEI layer has been systematically correlated with theoretical reaction mechanisms through the use of in situ electrochemical-MS and impedance spectroscopy analyses

  19. Surface Passivation for Single-molecule Protein Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandradoss, Stanley D.; Haagsma, Anna C.; Lee, Young Kwang; Hwang, Jae-Ho; Nam, Jwa-Min; Joo, Chirlmin

    2014-01-01

    Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy has proven to be instrumental in understanding a wide range of biological phenomena at the nanoscale. Important examples of what this technique can yield to biological sciences are the mechanistic insights on protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions. When interactions of proteins are probed at the single-molecule level, the proteins or their substrates are often immobilized on a glass surface, which allows for a long-term observation. This immobilization scheme may introduce unwanted surface artifacts. Therefore, it is essential to passivate the glass surface to make it inert. Surface coating using polyethylene glycol (PEG) stands out for its high performance in preventing proteins from non-specifically interacting with a glass surface. However, the polymer coating procedure is difficult, due to the complication arising from a series of surface treatments and the stringent requirement that a surface needs to be free of any fluorescent molecules at the end of the procedure. Here, we provide a robust protocol with step-by-step instructions. It covers surface cleaning including piranha etching, surface functionalization with amine groups, and finally PEG coating. To obtain a high density of a PEG layer, we introduce a new strategy of treating the surface with PEG molecules over two rounds, which remarkably improves the quality of passivation. We provide representative results as well as practical advice for each critical step so that anyone can achieve the high quality surface passivation. PMID:24797261

  20. Surface passivation of high purity granular metals: zinc, cadmium, lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirozhenko L. A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For the high purity metals (99.9999%, such as zinc, cadmium, and lead, which are widely used as initial components in growing semiconductor and scintillation crystals (CdTe, CdZnTe, ZnSe, (Cd, Zn, Pb WO4, (Cd, Zn, Pb MoO4 et al., it is very important to ensure reliable protection of the surface from oxidation and adsorption of impurities from the atmosphere. The specific features of surface passivation of high purity cadmium, lead and zinc are not sufficiently studied and require specific methodologies for further studies. The use of organic solutions in the schemes of chemical passivation of the investigated metals avoids hydrolysis of the obtained protective films. The use of organic solvents with pure cation and anion composition as the washing liquid prevents chemisorption of ions present in the conventionally used distilled water. This keeps the original purity of the granular metals. Novel compositions of etchants and etching scheme providing simultaneous polishing and passivation of high purity granular Zn, Cd and Pb are developed. Chemical passivation allows storing metals in the normal atmospheric conditions for more than half a year for Zn and Cd and up to 30 days for Pb without changing the state of the surface. The use of the glycerol-DMF solution in the processes for obtaining Pb granules provides self-passivation of metal surfaces and eliminates the additional chemical processing while maintaining the quality of corrosion protection.

  1. In-situ polymerization of polyaniline on the surface of graphene oxide for high electrochemical capacitance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xinlu; Zhong, Qineng; Zhang, Xinlin; Li, Tongtao; Huang, Jiamu

    2015-01-01

    Conducting polymer polyaniline (PANI) was in-situ polymerized on the surface of graphene oxide (GO) to form PANI encapsulating GO nanocomposites. The morphology and microstructure were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and N 2 absorption/desorption analysis. Electrochemical properties were tested by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Experimental results showed that ethanol assisted the dispersion of GO in water and facilitated the diffusion of polymer monomers on GO. GO as a support material can provide sufficient reaction sites for the deposition of aniline to form the film-like GO/PANI composites. Capacitive performance illustrated that the in-situ polymerization of PANI on GO was effective in improving the specific capacitance and cycling stability. - Highlights: • GO/PANI nanocomposites were achieved by in-situ polymerization. • PANI was uniformly coated on the surface of GO with addition of ethanol. • GO/PANI show high specific capacitance and cycling stability

  2. Improvement of crystalline silicon surface passivation by hydrogen plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, I.; Vetter, M.; Orpella, A.; Voz, C.; Puigdollers, J.; Alcubilla, R.; Kharchenko, A.V.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P.

    2004-01-01

    A completely dry low-temperature process has been developed to passivate 3.3 Ω cm p-type crystalline silicon surface with excellent results. Particularly, we have investigated the use of a hydrogen plasma treatment, just before hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC x :H) deposition, without breaking the vacuum. We measured effective lifetime, τ eff , through a quasi-steady-state photoconductance technique. Experimental results show that hydrogen plasma treatment improves surface passivation compared to classical HF dip. S eff values lower than 19 cm s -1 were achieved using a hydrogen plasma treatment and an a-SiC x :H film deposited at 300 deg. C

  3. In situ AFM investigation of electrochemically induced surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Yu, Bo; Zhou, Feng

    2013-02-12

    Electrochemically induced surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization is traced by in situ AFM technology for the first time, which allows visualization of the polymer growth process. It affords a fundamental insight into the surface morphology and growth mechanism simultaneously. Using this technique, the polymerization kinetics of two model monomers were studied, namely the anionic 3-sulfopropyl methacrylate potassium salt (SPMA) and the cationic 2-(metharyloyloxy)ethyltrimethylammonium chloride (METAC). The growth of METAC is significantly improved by screening the ammonium cations by the addition of ionic liquid electrolyte in aqueous solution. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Simulated plasma facing component measurements for an in situ surface diagnostic on Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Z. S.; Whyte, D. G.

    2010-10-01

    The ideal in situ plasma facing component (PFC) diagnostic for magnetic fusion devices would perform surface element and isotope composition measurements on a shot-to-shot (˜10 min) time scale with ˜1 μm depth and ˜1 cm spatial resolution over large areas of PFCs. To this end, the experimental adaptation of the customary laboratory surface diagnostic—nuclear scattering of MeV ions—to the Alcator C-Mod tokamak is being guided by ACRONYM, a Geant4 synthetic diagnostic. The diagnostic technique and ACRONYM are described, and synthetic measurements of film thickness for boron-coated PFCs are presented.

  5. In situ metalation of free base phthalocyanine covalently bonded to silicon surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Lupo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Free 4-undecenoxyphthalocyanine molecules were covalently bonded to Si(100 and porous silicon through thermic hydrosilylation of the terminal double bonds of the undecenyl chains. The success of the anchoring strategy on both surfaces was demonstrated by the combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with control experiments performed adopting the commercially available 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octakis(octyloxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine, which is not suited for silicon anchoring. Moreover, the study of the shape of the XPS N 1s band gave relevant information on the interactions occurring between the anchored molecules and the substrates. The spectra suggest that the phthalocyanine ring interacts significantly with the flat Si surface, whilst ring–surface interactions are less relevant on porous Si. The surface-bonded molecules were then metalated in situ with Co by using wet chemistry. The efficiency of the metalation process was evaluated by XPS measurements and, in particular, on porous silicon, the complexation of cobalt was confirmed by the disappearance in the FTIR spectra of the band at 3290 cm−1 due to –NH stretches. Finally, XPS results revealed that the different surface–phthalocyanine interactions observed for flat and porous substrates affect the efficiency of the in situ metalation process.

  6. Plasma modification of polypropylene surfaces and its alloying with styrene in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Guiqiu, E-mail: magq@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Liu Ben; Li Chen; Huang Dinghai; Sheng Jing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China)

    2012-01-15

    The treatment of polypropylene surfaces has been studied by dielectric barrier discharges plasma of Ar. The structure and morphology of polypropylene surfaces of Ar plasma modification are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometers and scanning electron microscope. The modified by plasma treatment of iPP (isotactic polypropylene) surface properties have been examined in a determination of free radicals. The modified active surfaces of polypropylene can induce grafting copolymerization of styrene onto polypropylene. The structure of grafting copolymer is characterized and the grafting percent of styrene onto polypropylene is calculated. The homopolymer of styrene can be formed under grafting copolymerization of styrene onto polypropylene, which follows that the alloying of polypropylene with styrene is achieved in situ.

  7. CoMet: an airborne mission to simultaneously measure CO2 and CH4 using lidar, passive remote sensing, and in-situ techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Andreas; Amediek, Axel; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Ehret, Gerhard; Gerbig, Christoph; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Roiger, Anke; Zöger, Martin

    2018-04-01

    TIn order to improve our current knowledge on the budgets of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases, CO2 and CH4, an airborne mission on board the German research aircraft HALO in coordination with two smaller Cessna aircraft is going to be conducted in April/May 2017. The goal of CoMet is to combine a suite of the best currently available active (lidar) and passive remote sensors as well as in-situ instruments to provide regional-scale data of greenhouse gases which are urgently required.

  8. Management of the ocular surface and tear film before, during, and after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albietz, Julie M; Lenton, Lee M

    2004-01-01

    To identify evidence-based, best practice strategies for managing the ocular surface and tear film before, during, and after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). After a comprehensive review of relevant published literature, evidence-based recommendations for best practice management strategies are presented. Symptoms of ocular irritation and signs of dysfunction of the integrated lacrimal gland/ocular surface functional gland unit are common before and after LASIK. The status of the ocular surface and tear film before LASIK can impact surgical outcomes in terms of potential complications during and after surgery, refractive outcome, optical quality, patient satisfaction, and the severity and duration of dry eye after LASIK. Before LASIK, the health of the ocular surface should be optimized and patients selected appropriately. Dry eye before surgery and female gender are risk factors for developing chronic dry eye after LASIK. Management of the ocular surface during LASIK can minimize ocular surface damage and the risk of adverse outcomes. Long-term management of the tear film and ocular surface after LASIK can reduce the severity and duration of dry eye symptoms and signs. Strategies to manage the integrated ocular surface/lacrimal gland functional unit before, during, and after LASIK can optimize outcomes. As problems with the ocular surface and tear film are relatively common, attention should focus on the use and improvement of evidence-based management strategies.

  9. Surface Passivation of CIGS Solar Cells Using Gallium Oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Garud, Siddhartha

    2018-02-27

    This work proposes gallium oxide grown by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition, as a surface passivation material at the CdS buffer interface of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells. In preliminary experiments, a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure is used to compare aluminium oxide, gallium oxide, and hafnium oxide as passivation layers at the CIGS-CdS interface. The findings suggest that gallium oxide on CIGS may show a density of positive charges and qualitatively, the least interface trap density. Subsequent solar cell results with an estimated 0.5 nm passivation layer show an substantial absolute improvement of 56 mV in open-circuit voltage (VOC), 1 mA cm−2 in short-circuit current density (JSC), and 2.6% in overall efficiency as compared to a reference (with the reference showing 8.5% under AM 1.5G).

  10. Dynamics of Plasma-Surface Interactions using In-situ Ion Beam Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, D.G.

    2009-01-01

    The overall goal of this proposal was to develop an innovative experimental facility that would allow for the measurement of real-time response of a material surface to plasma bombardment by employing in-situ high-energy ion beam analysis. This facility was successfully developed and deployed at U. Wisconsin-Madison and was named DIONISOS (Dynamics of IONic Implantation and Sputtering on Surfaces). There were several major highlights to the DIONISOS research which we will briefly highlight below. The full technical details of the DIONISOS development, deployment and research results are contained in the Appendices which contain several peer-reviewed publications and a PhD thesis devoted to DIONISOS. The DIONISOS results on deuterium retention in molybdenum were chosen as an invited talk at the 2008 International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions in Toledo, Spain.

  11. In situ surface X-ray diffraction study of ultrathin epitaxial Co films on Au(111) in alkaline solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reikowski, Finn; Maroun, Fouad; Di, Nan; Allongue, Philippe; Ruge, Martin; Stettner, Jochim; Magnussen, Olaf M.

    2016-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of ultrathin electrodeposited Co films on Au(111) in alkaline electrolyte was studied using in situ surface X-ray scattering techniques employing synchrotron radiation and complementary optical reflectivity and electrochemical measurements. The films are formed at pH 4 and consist of (001)-oriented hcp Co crystallites that are several nm high, a few ten nm in diameter, and remain largely unchanged after electrolyte exchange to pH 12 solution. In the pre-oxidation peak only minor changes were observed in the diffraction studies, excluding the formation of Co(OH)_2 layers. In the potential regime of Co hydroxide formation a rapid reduction of the amount of Co is observed, while the characteristic height of the islands decreases only slightly. On longer times scales, growth of 3D crystals of Co(OH)_2 occurs as well as irreversible Co dissolution into the electrolyte is found. On the basis of the structural observations oxidation of the Co film is proposed to proceed via fast formation of an ultrathin passivating layer, followed by nucleation and growth of 3D hydroxide crystals at the grain boundaries in the Co deposit.

  12. Potential dependence of surface crystal structure of iron passive films in borate buffer solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Huihua; Nanjo, Hiroshi; Qian, Pu; Santosa, Arifin; Ishikawa, Ikuo; Kurata, Yoshiaki

    2007-01-01

    The effect of passivation potential on surface crystal structure, apparent thickness and passivity of oxide films formed on pure iron prepared by plasma sputter deposition was investigated. The crystallinity was improved with passivation potential and the width of atomically flat terraces was expanded to 6 nm when passivating at 750 mV for 15 min, as observed by ex situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) after aging in air (<30% RH). Apparent thickness and passivity are linearly dependent on passivation potential. The former weakly depends on passivation duration, the latter strongly depends on passivation duration. This is well explained by the correlation between crystal structure and passivity

  13. Evaluation of surface layer flux parameterizations using in-situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jeremy; Zhu, Ping

    2017-09-01

    Appropriate calculation of surface turbulent fluxes between the atmosphere and the underlying ocean/land surface is one of the major challenges in geosciences. In practice, the surface turbulent fluxes are estimated from the mean surface meteorological variables based on the bulk transfer model combined with the Monnin-Obukhov Similarity (MOS) theory. Few studies have been done to examine the extent to which such a flux parameterization can be applied to different weather and surface conditions. A novel validation method is developed in this study to evaluate the surface flux parameterization using in-situ observations collected at a station off the coast of Gulf of Mexico. The main findings are: (a) the theoretical prediction that uses MOS theory does not match well with those directly computed from the observations. (b) The largest spread in exchange coefficients is shown in strong stable conditions with calm winds. (c) Large turbulent eddies, which depend strongly on the mean flow pattern and surface conditions, tend to break the constant flux assumption in the surface layer.

  14. In situ diffraction studies of electrode surface structure during gold electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnussen, O.M.; Krug, K.; Ayyad, A.H.; Stettner, J.

    2008-01-01

    Surface X-ray scattering (SXS) in transmission geometry provides a valuable tool for in situ structural studies of electrochemical interfaces under reaction conditions, as illustrated here for homoepitaxial electrodeposition on Au(1 0 0) and Au(1 1 1) electrodes. Employing diffusion-limited deposition conditions to separate the effects of potential and deposition rate, a mutual interaction between the interface structure and the growth behavior is found. Time-dependent SXS measurements during Au(1 0 0) homoepitaxy show with decreasing potential transitions from step flow to layer-by-layer growth, then to multilayer growth, and finally back to layer-by-layer growth. This complex growth behavior can be explained within the framework of kinetic growth theory by the effect of potential, Cl adsorbates and the Au surface structure, specifically the presence of the surface reconstruction, on the Au surface mobility. Conversely, the electrodeposition process influences the structure of the reconstructed Au surface, as illustrated for Au(1 1 1), where a significant deposition-induced compression of the Au surface layer as compared to Au(1 1 1) surfaces under ultrahigh vacuum conditions or in Au-free electrolyte is found. This compression increases towards more negative potentials, which may be explained by a release of potential-induced surface stress

  15. In situ mapping of radionuclides in subsurface and surface soils: 1994 Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilk, A.J.; Hubbard, C.W.; Knopf, M.A.; Abel, K.H.

    1995-04-01

    Uranium production and support facilities at several DOE sites occasionally caused local contamination of some surface and subsurface soils. The thorough cleanup of these sites is a major public concern and a high priority for the US Department of Energy, but before any effective remedial protocols can be established, the three-dimensional distributions of target contaminants must be characterized. Traditional means of measuring radionuclide activities in soil are cumbersome, expensive, time-consuming, and often do not accurately reflect conditions over very large areas. New technologies must be developed, or existing ones improved, to allow cheaper, faster, and safer characterization of radionuclides in soils at these sites. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was tasked with adapting, developing, and demonstrating technologies to measure uranium in surface and subsurface soils. In partial completion of this effort, PNL developed an improved in situ gamma-ray spectrometry system to satisfy the technical requirements. This document summarizes fiscal-year 1994 efforts at PNL to fulfill requirements for TTP number-sign 321103 (project number-sign 19307). These requirements included (a) developing a user-friendly software package for reducing field-acquired gamma-ray spectra, (b) constructing an improved data-acquisition hardware system for use with high-purity germanium detectors, (c) ensuring readiness to conduct field mapping exercises as specified by the sponsor, (d) evaluating the in situ gamma-ray spectrometer for the determination of uranium depth distribution, and (e) documenting these efforts

  16. Does equilibrium passive sampling reflect actual in situ bioaccumulation of PAHs and petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in aquatic worms?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijs, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/194995526; Jonker, M.T.O.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/175518793

    2012-01-01

    Over the past couple of years, several analytical methods have been developed for assessing the bioavailability of environmental contaminants in sediments and soils. Comparison studies suggest that equilibrium passive sampling methods generally provide the better estimates of internal concentrations

  17. Airflow resistivity instrument for in situ measurement on the earth's ground surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    An airflow resistivity instrument features a novel specimen holder, especially designed for in situ measurement on the earth's ground surface. This capability eliminates the disadvantages of prior intrusive instruments, which necessitate the removal of a test specimen from the ground. A prototype instrument can measure airflow resistivities in the range 10-5000 cgs rayl/cm, at specimen depths up to 15.24 cm (6 in.), and at differential pressures up to 2490.8 dyn sq cm (1 in. H2O) across the specimen. Because of the close relationship between flow resistivity and acoustic impedance, this instrument should prove useful in acoustical studies of the earth's ground surface. Results of airflow resistivity measurements on an uncultivated grass field for varying values of moisture content are presented.

  18. Analysis and Calibration of in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy Images with atomic Resolution Influenced by Surface Drift Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Møller, Per

    1994-01-01

    The influence of surface drift velocities on in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) experiments with atomic resolution is analysed experimentally and mathematically. Constant drift velocities much smaller than the speed of scanning can in many in situ STM experiments with atomic resolution ...... as well as the vectors of the non-distorted surface lattice can be determined. The calibration of distances can thus be carried out also when the image is influenced by drift. Results with gold surfaces and graphite surfaces are analysed and discussed....

  19. Surface passivation for tight-binding calculations of covalent solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, N

    2007-01-01

    Simulation of a cluster representing a finite portion of a larger covalently bonded system requires the passivation of the cluster surface. We compute the effects of an explicit hybrid orbital passivation (EHOP) on the atomic structure in a model bulk, three-dimensional, narrow gap semiconductor, which is very different from the wide gap, quasi-one-dimensional organic molecules where most passivation schemes have been studied in detail. The EHOP approach is directly applicable to minimal atomic orbital basis methods such as tight-binding. Each broken bond is passivated by a hybrid created from an explicitly expressed linear combination of basis orbitals, chosen to represent the contribution of the missing neighbour, e.g. a sp 3 hybrid for a single bond. The method is tested by computing the forces on atoms near a point defect as a function of cluster geometry. We show that, compared to alternatives such as pseudo-hydrogen passivation, the force on an atom converges to the correct bulk limit more quickly as a function of cluster radius, and that the force is more stable with respect to perturbations in the position of the cluster centre. The EHOP method also obviates the need for parameterizing the interactions between the system atoms and the passivating atoms. The method is useful for cluster calculations of non-periodic defects in large systems and for hybrid schemes that simulate large systems by treating finite regions with a quantum-mechanical model, coupled to an interatomic potential description of the rest of the system

  20. Stable water isotope and surface heat flux simulation using ISOLSM: Evaluation against in-situ measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Mick Y.; Wang, Lixin; Parkes, Stephen; Strauss, Josiah; McCabe, Matthew; Evans, Jason P.; Griffiths, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    The stable isotopes of water are useful tracers of water sources and hydrological processes. Stable water isotope-enabled land surface modeling is a relatively new approach for characterizing the hydrological cycle, providing spatial and temporal variability for a number of hydrological processes. At the land surface, the integration of stable water isotopes with other meteorological measurements can assist in constraining surface heat flux estimates and discriminate between evaporation (E) and transpiration (T). However, research in this area has traditionally been limited by a lack of continuous in-situ isotopic observations. Here, the National Centre for Atmospheric Research stable isotope-enabled Land Surface Model (ISOLSM) is used to simulate the water and energy fluxes and stable water isotope variations. The model was run for a period of one month with meteorological data collected from a coastal sub-tropical site near Sydney, Australia. The modeled energy fluxes (latent heat and sensible heat) agreed reasonably well with eddy covariance observations, indicating that ISOLSM has the capacity to reproduce observed flux behavior. Comparison of modeled isotopic compositions of evapotranspiration (ET) against in-situ Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measured bulk water vapor isotopic data (10. m above the ground), however, showed differences in magnitude and temporal patterns. The disparity is due to a small contribution from local ET fluxes to atmospheric boundary layer water vapor (~1% based on calculations using ideal gas law) relative to that advected from the ocean for this particular site. Using ISOLSM simulation, the ET was partitioned into E and T with 70% being T. We also identified that soil water from different soil layers affected T and E differently based on the simulated soil isotopic patterns, which reflects the internal working of ISOLSM. These results highlighted the capacity of using the isotope-enabled models to discriminate

  1. Stable water isotope and surface heat flux simulation using ISOLSM: Evaluation against in-situ measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Mick Y.

    2015-04-01

    The stable isotopes of water are useful tracers of water sources and hydrological processes. Stable water isotope-enabled land surface modeling is a relatively new approach for characterizing the hydrological cycle, providing spatial and temporal variability for a number of hydrological processes. At the land surface, the integration of stable water isotopes with other meteorological measurements can assist in constraining surface heat flux estimates and discriminate between evaporation (E) and transpiration (T). However, research in this area has traditionally been limited by a lack of continuous in-situ isotopic observations. Here, the National Centre for Atmospheric Research stable isotope-enabled Land Surface Model (ISOLSM) is used to simulate the water and energy fluxes and stable water isotope variations. The model was run for a period of one month with meteorological data collected from a coastal sub-tropical site near Sydney, Australia. The modeled energy fluxes (latent heat and sensible heat) agreed reasonably well with eddy covariance observations, indicating that ISOLSM has the capacity to reproduce observed flux behavior. Comparison of modeled isotopic compositions of evapotranspiration (ET) against in-situ Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measured bulk water vapor isotopic data (10. m above the ground), however, showed differences in magnitude and temporal patterns. The disparity is due to a small contribution from local ET fluxes to atmospheric boundary layer water vapor (~1% based on calculations using ideal gas law) relative to that advected from the ocean for this particular site. Using ISOLSM simulation, the ET was partitioned into E and T with 70% being T. We also identified that soil water from different soil layers affected T and E differently based on the simulated soil isotopic patterns, which reflects the internal working of ISOLSM. These results highlighted the capacity of using the isotope-enabled models to discriminate

  2. In Situ Laser Coating of Calcium Phosphate on TC4 Surface for Enhancing Bioactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Chi; WANG Yong; ZHANG Ya-ping; GAO Jia-cheng

    2007-01-01

    Titanium alloy has been a successful implant material owing to its excellent ratio of strength to weight,toughness, and bio-inert oxide surface. Significant progress has been made in improving the bioactivity of titanium alloy by coating its oxide surface with calcium phosphates. In the present study, in situ coating was reported on Ti6Al4V(TC4) surface with calcium phosphate (Ca-P) bioceramics synthesized and synchronously cladded by laser beam. This coating was grown by first preplacing directly the raw powders, which contain 80% of CaHPO4 ·2H2O, 20% of CaCO3, and dram of rare earth (RE), on the TC4 surfaces, and then exposing the surfaces to the laser beam with a power density of 12. 73-15.27 MW · m-2 and a scanning velocity of 10. 5 m/s. The resultant coating was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis and Different-thermal Scanning (TG-DSC), and Energy Dispersive X-ray Detection (EDX). The results show that these laser ceramics include hydroxyapatite (HA), tricalcium phosphate (TCP), Ca2P2O7, and other Ca-P phases, and the interface between the coating and the TC4 substrate has tighter fixation, in which the chemical bonding is approved. These laser hybrid coatings are useful in enhancing the bioactivity of titanium alloy surfaces.

  3. In situ measurement of fixed charge evolution at silicon surfaces during atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Ling; Watt, Morgan R.; Strandwitz, Nicholas C.

    2015-01-01

    Interfacial fixed charge or interfacial dipoles are present at many semiconductor-dielectric interfaces and have important effects upon device behavior, yet the chemical origins of these electrostatic phenomena are not fully understood. We report the measurement of changes in Si channel conduction in situ during atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide using trimethylaluminum and water to probe changes in surface electrostatics. Current-voltage data were acquired continually before, during, and after the self-limiting chemical reactions that result in film growth. Our measurements indicated an increase in conductance on p-type samples with p + ohmic contacts and a decrease in conductance on analogous n-type samples. Further, p + contacted samples with n-type channels exhibited an increase in measured current and n + contacted p-type samples exhibited a decrease in current under applied voltage. Device physics simulations, where a fixed surface charge was parameterized on the channel surface, connect the surface charge to changes in current-voltage behavior. The simulations and analogous analytical relationships for near-surface conductance were used to explain the experimental results. Specifically, the changes in current-voltage behavior can be attributed to the formation of a fixed negative charge or the modification of a surface dipole upon chemisorption of trimethylaluminum. These measurements allow for the observation of fixed charge or dipole formation during ALD and provide further insight into the electrostatic behavior at semiconductor-dielectric interfaces during film nucleation

  4. Nitridation of SiO2 for surface passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, S. K. C.

    1985-01-01

    An attempt is made to relate the electrical properties of silicon dioxide film to the process history. A model is proposed to explain some of the observed results. It is shown that with our present knowledge of the dielectric, silicon dioxide film shows a lot of promise for its use in surface passivation, both for its resistance to impurity diffusion and for its resistance to radiation damage effects.

  5. Nitride surface passivation of GaAs nanowires: impact on surface state density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Prokhor A; Dunaevskiy, Mikhail S; Ulin, Vladimir P; Lvova, Tatiana V; Filatov, Dmitriy O; Nezhdanov, Alexey V; Mashin, Aleksander I; Berkovits, Vladimir L

    2015-01-14

    Surface nitridation by hydrazine-sulfide solution, which is known to produce surface passivation of GaAs crystals, was applied to GaAs nanowires (NWs). We studied the effect of nitridation on conductivity and microphotoluminescence (μ-PL) of individual GaAs NWs using conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) and confocal luminescent microscopy (CLM), respectively. Nitridation is found to produce an essential increase in the NW conductivity and the μ-PL intensity as well evidence of surface passivation. Estimations show that the nitride passivation reduces the surface state density by a factor of 6, which is of the same order as that found for GaAs/AlGaAs nanowires. The effects of the nitride passivation are also stable under atmospheric ambient conditions for six months.

  6. Dual Electrolytic Plasma Processing for Steel Surface Cleaning and Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L.; Zhang, P.; Shi, J.; Liang, J.; Tian, W. B.; Zhang, Y. M.; Sun, Z. M.

    2017-10-01

    To remove the rust on rebars and passivate the fresh surfaces, electrodes reversing electrolytic plasma processing (EPP) was proposed and conducted in a 10 wt.% Na2CO3 aqueous solution. The morphology and the composition of the surface were investigated by SEM and XPS. Experimental results show that the rust on the surface was removed effectively by cathode EPP, and a passive film containing Cr2O3 was achieved by the succeeding anode EPP treatment, by a simple operation of reversing the bias. The corrosion resistance was evaluated in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solution using an electrochemical workstation. In comparison, the corrosion resistance was improved by the succeeding anode EPP treatment, which is evidenced by a positive shift of the open-circuit potential, an increase in the electrochemical impedance representing the inner layer by 76.8% and the decrease in the corrosion current density by 49.6%. This is an effective and environment-friendly technique to clean and passivate rebars and similar steel materials.

  7. Analysis of surface dark current dependent upon surface passivation in APD based on GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hong Joo; Roh, Cheong Hyun; Lee, Jun Ho; Choi, Hong Goo; Hahn, Cheol-Koo; Kim, Dong Ho; Park, Jung Ho

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the dependence of reverse dark current on two types of surface passivation, one of which is polyimide and the other is SiN x , for InAs quantum dots/GaAs separate absorption, charge, multiplication avalanche photodiode (SACM APD). From the experimental results, we found that dark current was dominated by surface current, and not bulk current. It was also noted that SiN x passivation has a surface current that is lower by three to nine times in magnitude than that in polyimide passivation in the whole range of bias. To analyze the difference in dark current due to the passivation types, we propose the theoretical current components. This shows that the dark current of both passivation types is mainly composed of generation–recombination (G–R) and tunneling components, originating from the surface. However, each component has a different magnitude for passivation types, which can be explained by carrier concentration and trap density. The dependence of dark current on temperature shows the different behaviors between passivation types and supports a theoretical description of current components

  8. Passive anti-frosting surfaces using microscopic ice arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Farzad; Nath, Saurabh; Iliff, Grady; Boreyko, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Despite exceptional advances in surface chemistry and micro/nanofabrication, no engineered surface has been able to passively suppress the in-plane growth of frost occurring in humid, subfreezing environments. Motivated by this, and inspired by the fact that ice itself can evaporate nearby liquid water droplets, we present a passive anti-frosting surface in which the majority of the surface remains dry indefinitely. We fabricated an aluminum surface exhibiting an array of small metallic fins, where a wicking micro-groove was laser-cut along the top of each fin to produce elevated water ``stripes'' that freeze into ice. As the saturation vapor pressure of ice is less than that of supercooled liquid water, the ice stripes serve as overlapping humidity sinks that siphon all nearby moisture from the air and prevent condensation and frost from forming anywhere else on the surface. Our experimental results show that regions between stripes remain dry even after 24 hours of operation under humid and supercooled conditions. We believe that the presented anti-frosting technology has the potential to help solve the world's multi-billion dollar frosting problem that adversely affects transportation, power generation, and HVAC systems.

  9. The protective nature of passivation films on zinc: surface charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muster, Tim H.; Cole, Ivan S.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of oxide surface charge on the corrosion performance of zinc metals was investigated. Oxidised zinc species (zinc oxide, zinc hydroxychloride, zinc hydroxysulfate and zinc hydroxycarbonate) with chemical compositions similar to those produced on zinc during atmospheric corrosion were formed as particles from aqueous solution, and as passive films deposited onto zinc powder, and rolled zinc, surfaces. Synthesized oxides were characterised by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The zeta potentials of various oxide particles, as determined by microelectrophoresis, are reported as a function of pH. Particulates containing a majority of zinc hydroxycarbonate and zinc hydroxysulfate crystallites were found to possess a negative surface charge below pH 6, whilst zinc oxide-hydroxide and zinc hydroxychloride crystallites possessed isoelectric points (IEP's) higher than pH 8. The ability of chloride species to pass through a bed of 3 μm diameter zinc powder was found to increase for surfaces possessing carboxy and sulfate surface species, suggesting that negatively charged surfaces can aid in the repulsion of chloride ions. Electrochemical analysis of the open-circuit potential as a function of time at a fixed pH of 6.5 showed that the chemical composition of passive films on zinc plates influenced the ability of chloride ions to access anodic sites for periods of approximately 1 h

  10. In-Situ Imaging and Quantification of Tritium Surface Contamination via Coherent Fiber Bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, Charles A.; Parker, John J.; Zweben, Stewart J.

    2001-01-01

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) has developed a method of imaging tritium on in-situ surfaces for the purpose of real-time data collection. This method expands upon a previous tritium imaging concept, also developed at PPPL. Enhancements include an objective lens coupled to the entry aperture of a coherent fiber optic (CFO) bundle, and a relay lens connecting the exit aperture of the fiber bundle to an intensifier tube and a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The system has been specifically fabricated for use in determining tritium concentrations on first wall materials. One potential complication associated with the development of D-T [deuterium-tritium] fueled fusion reactors is the deposition of tritium (i.e., co-deposited layer) on the surface of the primary wall of the vacuum vessel. It would be advantageous to implement a process to accurately determine tritium distribution on these inner surfaces. This fiber optic imaging device provides a highly practical method for determining the location, concentration, and activity of surface tritium deposition. In addition, it can be employed for detection of tritium ''hot-spots'' and ''hide-out'' regions present on the surfaces being imaged

  11. In situ bioavailability of DDT and Hg in sediments of the Toce River (Lake Maggiore basin, Northern Italy): accumulation in benthic invertebrates and passive samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanello, Francesca; Marziali, Laura; Rosignoli, Federica; Poma, Giulia; Roscioli, Claudio; Pozzoni, Fiorenzo; Guzzella, Licia

    2016-06-01

    DDT and mercury (Hg) contamination in the Toce River (Northern Italy) was caused by a factory producing technical DDT and using a mercury-cell chlor-alkali plant. In this study, DDT and Hg contamination and bioavailability were assessed by using different approaches: (1) direct evaluation of sediment contamination, (2) assessment of bioaccumulation in native benthic invertebrates belonging to different taxonomic/functional groups, and (3) evaluation of the in situ bioavailability of DDT and Hg using passive samplers. Sampling sites were selected upstream and downstream the industrial plant along the river axis. Benthic invertebrates (Gammaridae, Heptageniidae, and Diptera) and sediments were collected in three seasons and analyzed for DDT and Hg content and the results were used to calculate the biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF). Polyethylene passive samplers (PEs) for DDT and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGTs) for Hg were deployed in sediments to estimate the concentration of the toxicants in pore water. Analysis for (DDx) were performed using GC-MS. Accuracy was within ±30 % of the certified values and precision was >20 % relative standard deviation (RSD). Total mercury concentrations were determined using an automated Hg mercury analyzer. Precision was >5 % and accuracy was within ±10 % of certified values. The results of all the approaches (analysis of sediment, biota, and passive samplers) showed an increasing contamination from upstream to downstream sites. BSAF values revealed the bioavailability of both contaminants in the study sites, with values up to 49 for DDx and up to 3.1 for Hg. No correlation was found between values in sediments and the organisms. Concentrations calculated using passive samplers were correlated with values in benthic invertebrates, while no correlation was found with concentrations in sediments. Thus, direct analysis of toxicant in sediments does not provide a measurement of bioavailability. On the contrary

  12. In situ treatment of concrete surfaces by organic impregnation and polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursella, P.; Moretti, G.; Pellecchia, V.

    1990-01-01

    The impregnation by resins of concrete structures is a process well known at PIC (Polymer Impregnated Concrete). This process improves the physical-chemical features of concrete matrixes in order to extend their durability when severe environmental conditions may occur. The main objective of this research contract has been the verification of a proper impregnation 'in situ' of existing concrete surfaces, of any laying in the space, by means of a prototype machine, expressly designed and implemented, and verification of the increase of mechanical resistance, leach resistance, durability of treated material. In a nuclear facility this goal is very important in relation to the long term integrity of concrete structures during operating lifetime and, in particular, after final shutdown. (author)

  13. Quality assurance of in-situ measurements of land surface albedo: A model-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jennifer; Gobron, Nadine; Widlowski, Jean-Luc; Mio, Corrado

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the development of a model-based framework for assessing the quality of in-situ measurements of albedo used to validate land surface albedo products. Using a 3D Monte Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) radiative transfer model, a quality assurance framework is built based on simulated field measurements of albedo within complex 3D canopies and under various illumination scenarios. This method provides an unbiased approach in assessing the quality of field measurements, and is also able to trace the contributions of two main sources of uncertainty in field-measurements of albedo; those resulting from 1) the field measurement protocol, such as height or placement of field measurement within the canopy, and 2) intrinsic factors of the 3D canopy under specific illumination characteristics considered, such as the canopy structure and landscape heterogeneity, tree heights, ecosystem type and season.

  14. In situ X-ray probing reveals fingerprints of surface platinum oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebel, Daniel; Miller, Daniel J; O'Grady, Christopher P; Anniyev, Toyli; Bargar, John; Bergmann, Uwe; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Wikfeldt, Kjartan Thor; Pettersson, Lars G M; Nilsson, Anders

    2011-01-07

    In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Pt L(3) edge is a useful probe for Pt-O interactions at polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cathodes. We show that XAS using the high energy resolution fluorescence detection (HERFD) mode, applied to a well-defined monolayer Pt/Rh(111) sample where the bulk penetrating hard X-rays probe only surface Pt atoms, provides a unique sensitivity to structure and chemical bonding at the Pt-electrolyte interface. Ab initio multiple-scattering calculations using the FEFF code and complementary extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) results indicate that the commonly observed large increase of the white-line at high electrochemical potentials on PEMFC cathodes originates from platinum oxide formation, whereas previously proposed chemisorbed oxygen-containing species merely give rise to subtle spectral changes.

  15. Solid oxide electrode kinetics in light of in situ surface studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    The combination of in situ and in particular in operando characterization methods such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) on both technical and model electrode are well known ways to gain some practical insight in electrode reaction kinetics. Yet, is has become clear that in spite...... of the strengths it is not sufficient to reveal much details of the electrode mechanisms mainly because it provide average values only. Therefore it has to be combined with surface science methods in order to reveal the interface structure and composition. Ex situ methods have been very useful over the latest....... Furthermore, it seems that detailed mathematical modeling using new tools like COMSOL is necessary for the synthesis of the large amount of data for a well-characterized electrode into one physical meaningful picture. A brief review of literature an own data will be presented with a practical example of SOFC...

  16. Magnetization of individual yeast cells by in situ formation of iron oxide on cell surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jinsu; Lee, Hojae; Choi, Insung S.; Yang, Sung Ho

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic functionalization of living cells has intensively been investigated with the aim of various bioapplications such as selective separation, targeting, and localization of the cells by using an external magnetic field. However, the magnetism has not been introduced to individual living cells through the in situ chemical reactions because of harsh conditions required for synthesis of magnetic materials. In this work, magnetic iron oxide was formed on the surface of living cells by optimizing reactions conditions to be mild sufficiently enough to sustain cell viability. Specifically, the reactive LbL strategy led to formation of magnetically responsive yeast cells with iron oxide shells. This facile and direct post-magnetization method would be a useful tool for remote manipulation of living cells with magnetic interactions, which is an important technique for the integration of cell-based circuits and the isolation of cell in microfluidic devices.

  17. Long Alkyl Chain Organophosphorus Coupling Agents for in Situ Surface Functionalization by Reactive Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Betke

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Innovative synthetic approaches should be simple and environmentally friendly. Here, we present the surface modification of inorganic submicrometer particles with long alkyl chain organophosphorus coupling agents without the need of a solvent, which makes the technique environmentally friendly. In addition, it is of great benefit to realize two goals in one step: size reduction and, simultaneously, surface functionalization. A top-down approach for the synthesis of metal oxide particles with in situ surface functionalization is used to modify titania with long alkyl chain organophosphorus coupling agents. A high energy planetary ball mill was used to perform reactive milling using titania as inorganic pigment and long alkyl chain organophosphorus coupling agents like dodecyl and octadecyl phosphonic acid. The final products were characterized by IR, NMR and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, thermal and elemental analysis as well as by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The process entailed a tribochemical phase transformation from the starting material anatase to a high-pressure modification of titania and the thermodynamically more stable rutile depending on the process parameters. Furthermore, the particles show sizes between 100 nm and 300 nm and a degree of surface coverage up to 0.8 mmol phosphonate per gram.

  18. Development of Additive Construction Technologies for Application to Development of Lunar/Martian Surface Structures Using In-Situ Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkheiser, Niki J.; Fiske, Michael R.; Edmunson, Jennifer E.; Khoshnevis, Berokh

    2015-01-01

    For long-duration missions on other planetary bodies, the use of in situ materials will become increasingly critical. As human presence on these bodies expands, so must the breadth of the structures required to accommodate them including habitats, laboratories, berms, radiation shielding for natural radiation and surface reactors, garages, solar storm shelters, greenhouses, etc. Planetary surface structure manufacturing and assembly technologies that incorporate in situ resources provide options for autonomous, affordable, pre-positioned environments with radiation shielding features and protection from micrometeorites, exhaust plume debris, and other hazards. The ability to use in-situ materials to construct these structures will provide a benefit in the reduction of up-mass that would otherwise make long-term Moon or Mars structures cost prohibitive. The ability to fabricate structures in situ brings with it the ability to repair these structures, which allows for the self-sufficiency and sustainability necessary for long-duration habitation. Previously, under the auspices of the MSFC In-Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) project and more recently, under the jointly-managed MSFC/KSC Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project, the MSFC Surface Structures Group has been developing materials and construction technologies to support future planetary habitats with in-situ resources. One such additive construction technology is known as Contour Crafting. This paper presents the results to date of these efforts, including development of novel nozzle concepts for advanced layer deposition using this process. Conceived initially for rapid development of cementitious structures on Earth, it also lends itself exceptionally well to the automated fabrication of planetary surface structures using minimally processed regolith as aggregate, and binders developed from in situ materials as well. This process has been used successfully in the fabrication of

  19. In Situ Investigation of Electrochemically Mediated Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization by Electrochemical Surface Plasmon Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daqun; Hu, Weihua

    2017-04-18

    Electrochemically mediated atom transfer radical polymerization (eATRP) initiates/controls the controlled/living ATRP chain propagation process by electrochemically generating (regenerating) the activator (lower-oxidation-state metal complex) from deactivator (higher-oxidation-state metal complex). Despite successful demonstrations in both of the homogeneous polymerization and heterogeneous systems (namely, surface-initiated ATRP, SI-ATRP), the eATRP process itself has never been in situ investigated, and important information regarding this process remains unrevealed. In this work, we report the first investigation of the electrochemically mediated SI-ATRP (eSI-ATRP) by rationally combining the electrochemical technique with real-time surface plasmon resonance (SPR). In the experiment, the potential of a SPR gold chip modified by the self-assembled monolayer of the ATRP initiator was controlled to electrochemically reduce the deactivator to activator to initiate the SI-ATRP, and the whole process was simultaneously monitored by SPR with a high time resolution of 0.1 s. It is found that it is feasible to electrochemically trigger/control the SI-ATRP and the polymerization rate is correlated to the potential applied to the gold chip. This work reveals important kinetic information for eSI-ATRP and offers a powerful platform for in situ investigation of such complicated processes.

  20. Passivation of hexagonal SiC surfaces by hydrogen termination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyller, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Surface hydrogenation is a well established technique in silicon technology. It is easily accomplished by wet-chemical procedures and results in clean and unreconstructed surfaces, which are extremely low in charged surface states and stable against oxidation in air, thus constituting an ideal surface preparation. As a consequence, methods for hydrogenation have been sought for preparing silicon carbide (SiC) surfaces with similar well defined properties. It was soon recognized, however, that due to different surface chemistry new ground had to be broken in order to find a method leading to the desired monatomic hydrogen saturation. In this paper the results of H passivation of SiC surfaces by high-temperature hydrogen annealing will be discussed, thereby placing emphasis on chemical, structural and electronic properties of the resulting surfaces. In addition to their unique properties, hydrogenated hexagonal SiC {0001} surfaces offer the interesting possibility of gaining insight into the formation of silicon- and carbon-rich reconstructions as well. This is due to the fact that to date hydrogenation is the only method providing oxygen-free surfaces with a C to Si ratio of 1:1. Last but not least, the electronic properties of hydrogen-free SiC {0001} surfaces will be alluded to. SiC {0001} surfaces are the only known semiconductor surfaces that can be prepared in their unreconstructed (1 x 1) state with one dangling bond per unit cell by photon induced hydrogen desorption. These surfaces give indications of a Mott-Hubbard surface band structure

  1. Surface Defect Passivation and Reaction of c-Si in H2S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsiang-Yu; Das, Ujjwal K; Birkmire, Robert W

    2017-12-26

    A unique passivation process of Si surface dangling bonds through reaction with hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is demonstrated in this paper. A high-level passivation quality with an effective minority carrier lifetime (τ eff ) of >2000 μs corresponding to a surface recombination velocity of passivation by monolayer coverage of S on the Si surface. However, S passivation of the Si surface is highly unstable because of thermodynamically favorable reaction with atmospheric H 2 O and O 2 . This instability can be eliminated by capping the S-passivated Si surface with a protective thin film such as low-temperature-deposited amorphous silicon nitride.

  2. Chemical and electrical passivation of Si(1 1 1) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Fangyuan; Yang Dan; Opila, Robert L.; Teplyakov, Andrew V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen-passivated Si(1 1 1) single crystalline surfaces prepared by two main chemical preparation procedures. The modified RCA cleaning is commonly used to prepare atomically flat stable surfaces that are easily identifiable spectroscopically and are the standard for chemical functionalization of silicon. On the other hand electronic properties of these surfaces are sometimes difficult to control. A much simpler silicon surface preparation procedure includes HF dipping for a short period of time. This procedure yields an atomically rough surface, whose chemical identity is not well-defined. However, the surfaces prepared by this approach often exhibit exceptionally attractive electronic properties as determined by long charge carrier lifetimes. This work utilizes infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to investigate chemical modification of the surfaces prepared by these two different procedures with PCl 5 (leading to surface chlorination) and with short- and long-alkyl-chain alkenes (1-decene and 1-octodecene, respectively) and follows the electronic properties of the starting surfaces produced by measuring charge-carrier lifetimes.

  3. Chemical and electrical passivation of Si(1 1 1) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fangyuan; Yang, Dan; Opila, Robert L.; Teplyakov, Andrew V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen-passivated Si(1 1 1) single crystalline surfaces prepared by two main chemical preparation procedures. The modified RCA cleaning is commonly used to prepare atomically flat stable surfaces that are easily identifiable spectroscopically and are the standard for chemical functionalization of silicon. On the other hand electronic properties of these surfaces are sometimes difficult to control. A much simpler silicon surface preparation procedure includes HF dipping for a short period of time. This procedure yields an atomically rough surface, whose chemical identity is not well-defined. However, the surfaces prepared by this approach often exhibit exceptionally attractive electronic properties as determined by long charge carrier lifetimes. This work utilizes infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to investigate chemical modification of the surfaces prepared by these two different procedures with PCl5 (leading to surface chlorination) and with short- and long-alkyl-chain alkenes (1-decene and 1-octodecene, respectively) and follows the electronic properties of the starting surfaces produced by measuring charge-carrier lifetimes.

  4. A Facile in Situ and UV Printing Process for Bioinspired Self-Cleaning Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A. González Lazo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A facile in situ and UV printing process was demonstrated to create self-cleaning synthetic replica of natural petals and leaves. The process relied on the spontaneous migration of a fluorinated acrylate surfactant (PFUA within a low-shrinkage acrylated hyperbranched polymer (HBP and its chemical immobilization at the polymer-air interface. Dilute concentrations of 1 wt. % PFUA saturated the polymer-air interface within 30 min, leading to a ten-fold increase of fluorine concentration at the surface compared with the initial bulk concentration and a water contact angle (WCA of 108°. A 200 ms flash of UV light was used to chemically crosslink the PFUA at the HBP surface prior to UV printing with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS negative template of red and yellow rose petals and lotus leaves. This flash immobilization hindered the reverse migration of PFUA within the bulk HBP upon contacting the PDMS template, and enabled to produce texturized surfaces with WCA well above 108°. The synthetic red rose petal was hydrophobic (WCA of 125° and exhibited the adhesive petal effect. It was not superhydrophobic due to insufficient concentration of fluorine at its surface, a result of the very large increase of the surface of the printed texture. The synthetic yellow rose petal was quasi-superhydrophobic (WCA of 143°, roll-off angle of 10° and its self-cleaning ability was not good also due to lack of fluorine. The synthetic lotus leaf did not accurately replicate the intricate nanotubular crystal structures of the plant. In spite of this, the fluorine concentration at the surface was high enough and the leaf was superhydrophobic (WCA of 151°, roll-off angle below 5° and also featured self-cleaning properties.

  5. In-situ imaging of tungsten surface modification under ITER-like transient heat loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Vasilyev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research on behavior of rolled tungsten plates under intense transient heat loads generated by a powerful (a total power of up to 7 MW long-pulse (0.1–0.3ms electron beam with full irradiation area of 2 cm2 was carried out. Imaging of the sample by the fast CCD cameras in the NIR range and with illumination by the 532nm continuous-wave laser was applied for in-situ surface diagnostics during exposure. In these experiments tungsten plates were exposed to heat loads 0.5–1MJ/m2 with a heat flux factor (Fhf close to and above the melting threshold of tungsten at initial room temperature. Crack formation and crack propagation under the surface layer were observed during multiple exposures. Overheated areas with excessive temperature over surrounding surface of about 500K were found on severely damaged samples more than 5ms after beam ending. The application of laser illumination enables to detect areas of intense tungsten melting near crack edges and crack intersections.

  6. Mechanical Properties and Tribological Behavior of In Situ NbC/Fe Surface Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaolong; Zhong, Lisheng; Xu, Yunhua

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical properties and tribological behavior of the niobium carbide (NbC)-reinforced gray cast iron surface composites prepared by in situ synthesis have been investigated. Composites are comprised of a thin compound layer and followed by a deep diffusion zone on the surface of gray cast iron. The graded distributions of the hardness and elastic modulus along the depth direction of the cross section of composites form in the ranges of 6.5-20.1 and 159.3-411.2 GPa, respectively. Meanwhile, dry wear tests for composites were implemented on pin-on-disk equipment at sliding speed of 14.7 × 10-2 m/s and under 5 or 20 N, respectively. The result indicates that tribological performances of composites are considerably dependent on the volume fraction and the grain size of the NbC as well as the mechanical properties of the matrices in different areas. The surface compound layer presents the lowest coefficient of friction and wear rate, and exhibits the highest wear resistance, in comparison with diffusion zone and substrate. Furthermore, the worn morphologies observed reveal the dominant wear mechanism is abrasive wear feature in compound layer and diffusion zone.

  7. DeepPIV: Measuring in situ Biological-Fluid Interactions from the Surface to Benthos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katija, K.; Sherman, A.; Graves, D.; Kecy, C. D.; Klimov, D.; Robison, B. H.

    2015-12-01

    The midwater region of the ocean (below the euphotic zone and above the benthos) is one of the largest ecosystems on our planet, yet it remains one of the least explored. Little known marine organisms that inhabit midwater have developed strategies for swimming and feeding that ultimately contributes to their evolutionary success, and may inspire engineering solutions for societally relevant challenges. Fluid mechanics governs the interactions that midwater organisms have with their physical environment, but limited access to midwater depths and lack of non-invasive methods to measure in situ small-scale fluid motions prevent these interactions from being better understood. Significant advances in underwater vehicle technologies have only recently improved access to midwater. Unfortunately, in situ small-scale fluid mechanics measurement methods are still lacking in the oceanographic community. Here we present DeepPIV, an instrumentation package that can be affixed to remotely operated underwater vehicles that quantifies small-scale fluid motions from the surface of the ocean down to 4000 m depths. Utilizing ambient, suspended particulate in the coastal regions of Monterey Bay, fluid-structure interactions are evaluated on a range of marine organisms in midwater. Initial science targets include larvaceans, biological equivalents of flapping flexible foils, that create mucus houses to filter food. Little is known about the structure of these mucus houses and the function they play in selectively filtering particles, and these dynamics can serve as particle-mucus models for human health. Using DeepPIV, we reveal the complex structures and flows generated within larvacean mucus houses, and elucidate how these structures function.

  8. In situ emulsion cationic polymerization of isoprene onto the surface of graphite oxide sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazat, Alice [Ingénierie des Matériaux Polymères, IMP, CNRS UMR 5223, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 and INSA de Lyon, 15 boulevard Latarjet, 69122 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Laboratoire de Recherches et de Contrôle du Caoutchouc et des Plastiques, LRCCP, 60 rue Auber, 94408 Vitry-sur-Seine cedex (France); Beyou, Emmanuel, E-mail: beyou@univ-lyon1.fr [Ingénierie des Matériaux Polymères, IMP, CNRS UMR 5223, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 and INSA de Lyon, 15 boulevard Latarjet, 69122 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Barrès, Claire [Ingénierie des Matériaux Polymères, IMP, CNRS UMR 5223, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 and INSA de Lyon, 15 boulevard Latarjet, 69122 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Bruno, Florence; Janin, Claude [Laboratoire de Recherches et de Contrôle du Caoutchouc et des Plastiques, LRCCP, 60 rue Auber, 94408 Vitry-sur-Seine cedex (France)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Graphite oxide sheets were functionalized by polyisoprene in a two steps procedure. • The polyisoprene chains were grafted onto functionalized GO sheets by the grafting through technique. • A polyisoprene weight content of 50% was calculated from TGA measurements. • A decrease of the air permeability coefficient of 27% for the vulcanized PI composites has been reached. - Abstract: Grafting of polymers onto graphite oxide sheets (GO) has been widely studied in recent years due to the numerous applications of GO-based composites. Herein, polyisoprene (PI) chains were anchored on the surface of GO by in situ cationic polymerization using a “grafting through” approach with allyltrimethoxysilane-modified GO (GO-ATMS). First, the functionalization of GO sheets through the hydrolysis-condensation of allyltrimethoxysilane (ATMS) molecules was qualitatively evidenced by infra-red spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry and a weight content of 4% grafted ATMS was calculated from thermogravimetric analysis. Then, isoprene was in situ polymerized through a one-pot cationic mechanism by using a highly water-dispersible Lewis acid surfactant combined catalyst. For comparison, it was shown that the cationic polymerization of isoprene in presence of un-functionalized GO sheets led to a polyisoprene weight content on the solid filler divided by 3 compared to GO-ATMS. Finally, the compounding of the modified GO/PI composites was performed at a processing temperature of 80 °C with 2 phr and 15 phr loadings and it was shown a decrease of the air permeability coefficient of 27% for the vulcanizates with 15 phr loading.

  9. In situ emulsion cationic polymerization of isoprene onto the surface of graphite oxide sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazat, Alice; Beyou, Emmanuel; Barrès, Claire; Bruno, Florence; Janin, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphite oxide sheets were functionalized by polyisoprene in a two steps procedure. • The polyisoprene chains were grafted onto functionalized GO sheets by the grafting through technique. • A polyisoprene weight content of 50% was calculated from TGA measurements. • A decrease of the air permeability coefficient of 27% for the vulcanized PI composites has been reached. - Abstract: Grafting of polymers onto graphite oxide sheets (GO) has been widely studied in recent years due to the numerous applications of GO-based composites. Herein, polyisoprene (PI) chains were anchored on the surface of GO by in situ cationic polymerization using a “grafting through” approach with allyltrimethoxysilane-modified GO (GO-ATMS). First, the functionalization of GO sheets through the hydrolysis-condensation of allyltrimethoxysilane (ATMS) molecules was qualitatively evidenced by infra-red spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry and a weight content of 4% grafted ATMS was calculated from thermogravimetric analysis. Then, isoprene was in situ polymerized through a one-pot cationic mechanism by using a highly water-dispersible Lewis acid surfactant combined catalyst. For comparison, it was shown that the cationic polymerization of isoprene in presence of un-functionalized GO sheets led to a polyisoprene weight content on the solid filler divided by 3 compared to GO-ATMS. Finally, the compounding of the modified GO/PI composites was performed at a processing temperature of 80 °C with 2 phr and 15 phr loadings and it was shown a decrease of the air permeability coefficient of 27% for the vulcanizates with 15 phr loading.

  10. In-situ investigations of surface modifications by swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolse, W.; Sankarakumar, A.; Ferhati, R.; Garmatter, D.; Haag, M.; Dautel, K.; Asdi, M.; Srivastava, N.; Widmann, B.; Bauer, M.

    2014-01-01

    We are running a High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscope in the beam line of the UNILAC ion accelerator at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Danustadt, Germany, which has recently been extended also with an EDX-system and two micro-manipulators. This instrument allows us to in-situ investigate the structural and compositional development of individual objects and structures in the μm- and nm-range under swift heavy ion bombardment, from the very first ion impact up to high fluences of the order of several 10 15 /cm 2 . The sample under investigation is irradiated in small fluence steps and in between SEM-images (and EDX-scans) of one and the same surface area are taken. The irradiation can be carried out at any incidence angle between 0° and 90° and also under stepwise or continuous azimuthal rotation of the sample. The micro-manipulator system allows us to perform additional analysis like electrical and mechanical characterization as well as substrate-free EDX at sub-μm objects. We are now also able to irradiate almost free standing sub-μm structures (pasted on a nanoscale tip or held in micro-tweezers). In this report an overview over this unique instrument and its capabilities and advantages will be given, illustrated by the results of our recent in-situ studies on ion induced modification of thin films (dewetting and self-organisation) and on shaping of sub-μm objects with swift heavy ions (by taking advantage of ion sputtering, ion hammering and ion induced visco-elastic flow). (author)

  11. In Situ SIMS and IR Spectroscopy of Well-Defined Surfaces Prepared by Soft Landing of Mass-Selected Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Grant E.; Gunaratne, Kalupathirannehelage Don D.; Laskin, Julia

    2014-06-16

    Soft landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces is a powerful approach for the highly-controlled preparation of materials that are inaccessible using conventional synthesis techniques. Coupling soft landing with in situ characterization using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) enables analysis of well-defined surfaces under clean vacuum conditions. The capabilities of three soft-landing instruments constructed in our laboratory are illustrated for the representative system of surface-bound organometallics prepared by soft landing of mass-selected ruthenium tris(bipyridine) dications, [Ru(bpy)3]2+, onto carboxylic acid terminated self-assembled monolayer surfaces on gold (COOH-SAMs). In situ time-of-flight (TOF)-SIMS provides insight into the reactivity of the soft-landed ions. In addition, the kinetics of charge reduction, neutralization and desorption occurring on the COOH-SAM both during and after ion soft landing are studied using in situ Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR)-SIMS measurements. In situ IRRAS experiments provide insight into how the structure of organic ligands surrounding metal centers is perturbed through immobilization of organometallic ions on COOH-SAM surfaces by soft landing. Collectively, the three instruments provide complementary information about the chemical composition, reactivity and structure of well-defined species supported on surfaces.

  12. Investigation of the fabrication processes of AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs with in situ Si3N4 passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomosh, K. N.; Pavlov, A. Yu.; Pavlov, V. Yu.; Khabibullin, R. A.; Arutyunyan, S. S.; Maltsev, P. P.

    2016-01-01

    The optimum mode of the in situ plasma-chemical etching of a Si 3 N 4 passivating layer in C 3 F 8 /O 2 medium is chosen for the case of fabricating AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs. It is found that a bias of 40–50 V at a high-frequency electrode provides anisotropic etching of the insulator through a resist mask and introduces no appreciable radiation-induced defects upon overetching of the insulator films in the region of gate-metallization formation. To estimate the effect of in situ Si 3 N 4 growth together with the heterostructure in one process on the AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMT characteristics, transistors with gates without the insulator and with gates through Si 3 N 4 slits are fabricated. The highest drain current of the AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMT at 0 V at the gate is shown to be 1.5 times higher in the presence of Si 3 N 4 than without it.

  13. Investigation of the fabrication processes of AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs with in situ Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} passivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomosh, K. N., E-mail: sky77781@mail.ru; Pavlov, A. Yu.; Pavlov, V. Yu.; Khabibullin, R. A.; Arutyunyan, S. S.; Maltsev, P. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultra-High-Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    The optimum mode of the in situ plasma-chemical etching of a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} passivating layer in C{sub 3}F{sub 8}/O{sub 2} medium is chosen for the case of fabricating AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs. It is found that a bias of 40–50 V at a high-frequency electrode provides anisotropic etching of the insulator through a resist mask and introduces no appreciable radiation-induced defects upon overetching of the insulator films in the region of gate-metallization formation. To estimate the effect of in situ Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} growth together with the heterostructure in one process on the AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMT characteristics, transistors with gates without the insulator and with gates through Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} slits are fabricated. The highest drain current of the AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMT at 0 V at the gate is shown to be 1.5 times higher in the presence of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} than without it.

  14. In situ droplet surface tension and viscosity measurements in gas metal arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, B; Siewert, E; Schein, J

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an adaptation of a drop oscillation technique that enables in situ measurements of thermophysical properties of an industrial pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process. Surface tension, viscosity, density and temperature were derived expanding the portfolio of existing methods and previously published measurements of surface tension in pulsed GMAW. Natural oscillations of pure liquid iron droplets are recorded during the material transfer with a high-speed camera. Frame rates up to 30000 fps were utilized to visualize iron droplet oscillations which were in the low kHz range. Image processing algorithms were employed for edge contour extraction of the droplets and to derive parameters such as oscillation frequencies and damping rates along different dimensions of the droplet. Accurate surface tension measurements were achieved incorporating the effect of temperature on density. These are compared with a second method that has been developed to accurately determine the mass of droplets produced during the GMAW process which enables precise surface tension measurements with accuracies up to 1% and permits the study of thermophysical properties also for metals whose density highly depends on temperature. Thermophysical properties of pure liquid iron droplets formed by a wire with 1.2 mm diameter were investigated in a pulsed GMAW process with a base current of 100 A and a pulse current of 600 A. Surface tension and viscosity of a sample droplet were 1.83 ± 0.02 N m -1 and 2.9 ± 0.3 mPa s, respectively. The corresponding droplet temperature and density are 2040 ± 50 K and 6830 ± 50 kg m -3 , respectively. (paper)

  15. Sulfur as a surface passivation for InP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, R.; Chang, R. R.; Lile, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    The use of liquid and gas phase sulfur pretreatment of the surface of InP as a way to form a near-ideal passivated surface prior to chemical vapor deposition of SiO2 was investigated. Results of high-frequency and quasi-static capacitance-voltage measurements, as well as enhancement mode insulated gate field-effect transistor (FET) transductance and drain current stability studies, all support the efficacy of this approach for metal-insulator-semiconductor application of this semiconductor. In particular, surface state values in the range of 10 to the 10th to a few 10 to the 11th/sq cm per eV and enhancement mode FET drain current drifts of less than 5 percent over a 12 h test period were measured.

  16. Pesticide monitoring in surface water and groundwater using passive samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodes, V.; Grabic, R.

    2009-04-01

    Passive samplers as screening devices have been used within a czech national water quality monitoring network since 2002 (SPMD and DGT samplers for non polar substances and metals). The passive sampler monitoring of surface water was extended to polar substances, in 2005. Pesticide and pharmaceutical POCIS samplers have been exposed in surface water at 21 locations and analysed for polar pesticides, perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals. Pesticide POCIS samplers in groundwater were exposed at 5 locations and analysed for polar pesticides. The following active substances of plant protection products were analyzed in surface water and groundwater using LC/MS/MS: 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D, Acetochlor, Alachlor, Atrazine, Atrazine_desethyl, Azoxystrobin, Bentazone, Bromacil, Bromoxynil, Carbofuran, Clopyralid, Cyanazin, Desmetryn, Diazinon, Dicamba, Dichlobenil, Dichlorprop, Dimethoat, Diuron, Ethofumesate, Fenarimol, Fenhexamid, Fipronil, Fluazifop-p-butyl, Hexazinone, Chlorbromuron, Chlorotoluron, Imazethapyr, Isoproturon, Kresoxim-methyl, Linuron, MCPA, MCPP, Metalaxyl, Metamitron, Methabenzthiazuron, Methamidophos, Methidathion, Metobromuron, Metolachlor, Metoxuron, Metribuzin, Monolinuron, Nicosulfuron, Phorate, Phosalone, Phosphamidon, Prometryn, Propiconazole, Propyzamide, Pyridate, Rimsulfuron, Simazine, Tebuconazole, Terbuthylazine, Terbutryn, Thifensulfuron-methyl, Thiophanate-methyl and Tri-allate. The POCIS samplers performed very well being able to provide better picture than grab samples. The results show that polar pesticides and also perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals as well occur in hydrosphere of the Czech republic. Acknowledgment: Authors acknowledge the financial support of grant No. 2B06095 by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports.

  17. In situ formation of graphene layers on graphite surfaces for efficient anodes of microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiahuan; Chen, Shanshan; Yuan, Yong; Cai, Xixi; Zhou, Shungui

    2015-09-15

    Graphene can be used to improve the performance of the anode in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) due to its good biocompatibility, high electrical conductivity and large surface area. However, the chemical production and modification of the graphene on the anode are environmentally hazardous because of the use of various harmful chemicals. This study reports a novel method based on the electrochemical exfoliation of a graphite plate (GP) for the in situ formation of graphene layers on the surface of a graphite electrode. When the resultant graphene-layer-based graphite plate electrode (GL/GP) was used as an anode in an MFC, a maximum power density of 0.67 ± 0.034 W/m(2) was achieved. This value corresponds to 1.72-, 1.56- and 1.26-times the maximum power densities of the original GP, exfoliated-graphene-modified GP (EG/GP) and chemically-reduced-graphene-modified GP (rGO/GP) anodes, respectively. Electrochemical measurements revealed that the high performance of the GL/GP anode was attributable to its macroporous structure, improved electron transfer and high electrochemical capacitance. The results demonstrated that the proposed method is a facile and environmentally friendly synthesis technique for the fabrication of high-performance graphene-based electrodes for use in microbial energy harvesting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. An in situ vapour phase hydrothermal surface doping approach for fabrication of high performance Co3O4 electrocatalysts with an exceptionally high S-doped active surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhijin; Liu, Porun; Zhang, Haimin; Wang, Yun; Al-Mamun, Mohammad; Yang, Hua Gui; Wang, Dan; Tang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Huijun

    2015-04-04

    A facile in situ vapour phase hydrothermal (VPH) surface doping approach has been developed for fabrication of high performance S-doped Co3O4 electrocatalysts with an unprecedentedly high surface S content (>47%). The demonstrated VPH doping approach could be useful for enrichment of surface active sites for other metal oxide electrocatalysts.

  19. Multi-channel Analysis of Passive Surface Waves (MAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J.; Cheng, F. Mr; Xu, Z.; Wang, L.; Shen, C.; Liu, R.; Pan, Y.; Mi, B.; Hu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Urbanization is an inevitable trend in modernization of human society. In the end of 2013 the Chinese Central Government launched a national urbanization plan—"Three 100 Million People", which aggressively and steadily pushes forward urbanization. Based on the plan, by 2020, approximately 100 million people from rural areas will permanently settle in towns, dwelling conditions of about 100 million people in towns and villages will be improved, and about 100 million people in the central and western China will permanently settle in towns. China's urbanization process will run at the highest speed in the urbanization history of China. Environmentally friendly, non-destructive and non-invasive geophysical assessment method has played an important role in the urbanization process in China. Because human noise and electromagnetic field due to industrial life, geophysical methods already used in urban environments (gravity, magnetics, electricity, seismic) face great challenges. But humanity activity provides an effective source of passive seismic methods. Claerbout pointed out that wavefileds that are received at one point with excitation at the other point can be reconstructed by calculating the cross-correlation of noise records at two surface points. Based on this idea (cross-correlation of two noise records) and the virtual source method, we proposed Multi-channel Analysis of Passive Surface Waves (MAPS). MAPS mainly uses traffic noise recorded with a linear receiver array. Because Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves can produces a shear (S) wave velocity model with high resolution in shallow part of the model, MPAS combines acquisition and processing of active source and passive source data in a same flow, which does not require to distinguish them. MAPS is also of ability of real-time quality control of noise recording that is important for near-surface applications in urban environment. The numerical and real-world examples demonstrated that MAPS can be

  20. Analysis and suppression of passive noise in surface microseismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forghani-Arani, Farnoush

    Surface microseismic surveys are gaining popularity in monitoring the hydraulic fracturing process. The effectiveness of these surveys, however, is strongly dependent on the signal-to-noise ratio of the acquired data. Cultural and industrial noise generated during hydraulic fracturing operations usually dominate the data, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of using these data in identifying and locating microseismic events. Hence, noise suppression is a critical step in surface microseismic monitoring. In this thesis, I focus on two important aspects in using surface-recorded microseismic seismic data: first, I take advantage of the unwanted surface noise to understand the characteristics of these noise and extract information about the propagation medium from the noise; second, I propose effective techniques to suppress the surface noise while preserving the waveforms that contain information about the source of microseisms. Automated event identification on passive seismic data using only a few receivers is challenging especially when the record lengths span over long durations of time. I introduce an automatic event identification algorithm that is designed specifically for detecting events in passive data acquired with a small number of receivers. I demonstrate that the conventional STA/LTA (Short-term Average/Long-term Average) algorithm is not sufficiently effective in event detection in the common case of low signal-to-noise ratio. With a cross-correlation based method as an extension of the STA/LTA algorithm, even low signal-to-noise events (that were not detectable with conventional STA/LTA) were revealed. Surface microseismic data contains surface-waves (generated primarily from hydraulic fracturing activities) and body-waves in the form of microseismic events. It is challenging to analyze the surface-waves on the recorded data directly because of the randomness of their source and their unknown source signatures. I use seismic interferometry to extract

  1. Observations of Bathymetry-Induced Ocean Roughness Modulation in In-situ Surface Slope Measurements and Coincident Airborne SAR Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommenginger, C.P.; Robinson, I.S.; Willoughby, J.; Greidanus, H.S.F.; Taylor, V.

    1999-01-01

    Empirical results from a field experiment in the southern North Sea have demonstrated the possibility to detect bathymetry-induced sea surface roughness modulation in the coastal zone using high frequency in-situ slope measurements provided by the Towed Laser Slopemeter. A strong correlation between

  2. Micro-four-point probes in a UHV scanning electron microscope for in-situ surface-conductivity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiraki, I.; Nagao, T.; Hasegawa, S.

    2000-01-01

    For in-situ measurements of surface conductivity in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV), we have installed micro-four-point probes (probe spacings down to 4 mum) in a UHV scanning electron microscope (SEM) combined with scanning reflection-high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). With the aid of piezoactuators...

  3. In situ crosslinking of surface-initiated ring opening metathesis polymerization of polynorbornene for improved stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fursule, Ishan A; Abtahi, Ashkan; Watkins, Charles B; Graham, Kenneth R; Berron, Brad J

    2018-01-15

    In situ crosslinking is expected to increase the solvent stability of coatings formed by surface-initiated ring opening metathesis polymerization (SI ROMP). Solvent-associated degradation limits the utility of SI ROMP coatings. SI ROMP coatings have a unique capacity for post-functionalization through reaction of the unsaturated site on the polymer backbone. Any post-reaction scheme which requires a liquid solvent has the potential to degrade the coating and lower the thickness of the resulting film. We designed a macromolecular crosslinking group based on PEG dinorbornene. The PEG length is tailored to the expected mean chain to chain distance during surface-initiated polymerization. This crosslinking macromer is randomly copolymerized with norbornene through SI ROMP on a gold coated substrate. The solvent stability of polynorbornene coatings with and without PEG dinorbornene is quantitatively determined, and the mechanism of degradation is further supported through XPS and AFM analyses. The addition of the 0.25mol% PEG dinorbornene significantly increases the solvent stability of the SI ROMP coatings. The crosslinker presence in the more stable films is supported with observable PEG absorbances by FTIR and an increase in contact angle hysteresis when compared to non-crosslinked coatings. The oxidation of the SI ROMP coatings is supported by the observation of carbonyl oxygen in the polynorbornene coatings. The rapid loss of the non-crosslinked SI ROMP coating corresponds to nanoscale pitting across the surface and micron-scale regions of widespread film loss. The crosslinked coatings have uniform nanoscale pitting, but the crosslinked films show no evidence of micron-scale film damage. In all, the incorporation of minimal crosslinking content is a simple strategy for improving the solvent stability of SI ROMP coatings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An ion-sputtering gun to clean crystal surfaces in-situ in an ultra-high-vacuum electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Etsuo; Takayanagi, Kunio; Kobayashi, Kunio; Yagi, Katsumichi; Honjo, Goro

    1980-01-01

    The design and performance of an ion-sputtering gun for cleaning crystal surfaces in-situ in an ultra-high-vacuum electron microscope are reported. The electron microscopic aspects of ion-bombardment damage to ionic magnesium oxide, covalent germanium and silicon, and metallic gold and copper crystals, and the effects of annealing after and during sputtering are described. The growth of various kinds of films deposited in-situ on crystals cleaned by ion-sputtering are described and discussed. (author)

  5. Correlation between Photoluminescence and Carrier Transport and a Simple In Situ Passivation Method for High-Bandgap Hybrid Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Ryan J; Eickemeyer, Felix T; Katahara, John K; Hillhouse, Hugh W

    2017-07-20

    High-bandgap mixed-halide hybrid perovskites have higher open-circuit voltage deficits and lower carrier diffusion lengths than their lower-bandgap counterparts. We have developed a ligand-assisted crystallization (LAC) technique that introduces additives in situ during the solvent wash and developed a new method to dynamically measure the absolute intensity steady-state photoluminescence and the mean carrier diffusion length simultaneously. The measurements reveal four distinct regimes of material changes and show that photoluminescence brightening often coincides with losses in carrier transport, such as in degradation or phase segregation. Further, the measurements enabled optimization of LAC on the 1.75 eV bandgap FA 0.83 Cs 0.17 Pb(I 0.66 Br 0.34 ) 3 , resulting in an enhancement of the photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of over an order of magnitude, an increase of 80 meV in the quasi-Fermi level splitting (to 1.29 eV), an increase in diffusion length by a factor of 3.5 (to over 1 μm), and enhanced open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current from photovoltaics fabricated from the LAC-treated films.

  6. Laboratory studies and model simulations of sorbent material behavior for an in-situ passive treatment barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloysius, D.; Fuhrmann, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a study combining laboratory experiments and model simulations in support of the design and construction of a passive treatment barrier (or filter wall) for retarding the migration of Sr-90 within a water-bearing surficial sand and gravel layer. Preliminary evaluation was used to select materials for column testing. A one-dimensional finite-difference model was used to simulate the laboratory column results and extrapolation of the calibrated model was then used to assess barrier performance over extended time frames with respect to Sr-90 breakthrough and loading on the filter media. The final results of the study showed that 20 by 50 mesh clinoptilolite will attenuate Sr-90 with a maximum life expentancy of approximately 10 years. This time period is based on allowable limits of Sr-90 activity on the filter media and is also a function of site-specific conditions

  7. In situ analysis of dynamic laminar flow extraction using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Hua-Lin; Qiu, Yang; Chang, Yu-Long; Long, Yi-Tao

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we performed micro-scale dynamic laminar flow extraction and site-specific in situ chloride concentration measurements. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy was utilized to investigate the diffusion process of chloride ions from an oil phase to a water phase under laminar flow. In contrast to common logic, we used SERS intensity gradients of Rhodamine 6G to quantitatively calculate the concentration of chloride ions at specific positions on a microfluidic chip. By varying the fluid flow rates, we achieved different extraction times and therefore different chloride concentrations at specific positions along the microchannel. SERS spectra from the water phase were recorded at these different positions, and the spatial distribution of the SERS signals was used to map the degree of nanoparticle aggregation. The concentration of chloride ions in the channel could therefore be obtained. We conclude that this method can be used to explore the extraction behaviour and efficiency of some ions or molecules that enhance the SERS intensity in water or oil by inducing nanoparticle aggregation.

  8. Nanocapsule of cationic liposomes obtained using "in situ" acrylic acid polymerization: stability, surface charge and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarioti, Giovana Danieli; Lubambo, Adriana; Feitosa, Judith P A; Sierakowski, Maria Rita; Bresolin, Tania M B; de Freitas, Rilton Alves

    2011-10-15

    In this work, didecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) (2.5:1) were used to prepare liposomes coated with polyacrylic acid (PAA) using "in situ" polymerization with 2.5, 5 and 25 mM of acrylic acid (AA). The PAA concentrations were chosen to achieve partially to fully covered capsules, and the polymerization reaction was observed with real-time monitoring using dynamic light scattering (NanoDLS). The DDAB:DOPE liposomes showed stability in the tested temperature range (25-70°C), whereas the results confirmed the success of the polymerization according to superficial charge (zeta potential of +66.7±1.2 mV) results and AFM images. For the liposomes that were fully coated with PAA (zeta potential of +0.3±3.9 mV), cytotoxicity was independent of the concentration of albumin. Cationic liposomes and nanocapsules of the stable liposomes coated with PAA were obtained by controlling the surface charge, which was the most important factor related to cytotoxicity. Thus, a potential, safe drug nanocarrier was successfully developed in this work. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Localized in situ polymerization on graphene surfaces for stabilized graphene dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sriya; Wajid, Ahmed S; Shelburne, John L; Liao, Yen-Chih; Green, Micah J

    2011-06-01

    We demonstrate a novel in situ polymerization technique to develop localized polymer coatings on the surface of dispersed pristine graphene sheets. Graphene sheets show great promise as strong, conductive fillers in polymer nanocomposites; however, difficulties in dispersion quality and interfacial strength between filler and matrix have been a persistent problem for graphene-based nanocomposites, particularly for pristine graphene. With this in mind, a physisorbed polymer layer is used to stabilize graphene sheets in solution. To create this protective layer, we formed an organic microenvironment around dispersed graphene sheets in surfactant solutions, and created a nylon 6, 10 or nylon 6, 6 coating via interfacial polymerization. Technique lies at the intersection of emulsion and admicellar polymerization; a similar technique was originally developed to protect luminescent properties of carbon nanotubes in solution. These coated graphene dispersions are aggregation-resistant and may be reversibly redispersed in water even after freeze-drying. The coated graphene holds promise for a number of applications, including multifunctional graphene-polymer nanocomposites. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. Combining periodic hydraulic tests and surface tilt measurements to explore in situ fracture hydromechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuite, Jonathan; Longuevergne, Laurent; Bour, Olivier; Guihéneuf, Nicolas; Becker, Matthew W.; Cole, Matthew; Burbey, Thomas J.; Lavenant, Nicolas; Boudin, Frédéric

    2017-08-01

    Fractured bedrock reservoirs are of socio-economical importance, as they may be used for storage or retrieval of fluids and energy. In particular, the hydromechanical behavior of fractures needs to be understood as it has implications on flow and governs stability issues (e.g., microseismicity). Laboratory, numerical, or field experiments have brought considerable insights to this topic. Nevertheless, in situ hydromechanical experiments are relatively uncommon, mainly because of technical and instrumental limitations. Here we present the early stage development and validation of a novel approach aiming at capturing the integrated hydromechanical behavior of natural fractures. It combines the use of surface tiltmeters to monitor the deformation associated with the periodic pressurization of fractures at depth in crystalline rocks. Periodic injection and withdrawal advantageously avoids mobilizing or extracting significant amounts of fluid, and it hinders any risk of reservoir failure. The oscillatory perturbation is intended to (1) facilitate the recognition of its signature in tilt measurements and (2) vary the hydraulic penetration depth in order to sample different volumes of the fractured bedrock around the inlet and thereby assess scale effects typical of fractured systems. By stacking tilt signals, we managed to recover small tilt amplitudes associated with pressure-derived fracture deformation. Therewith, we distinguish differences in mechanical properties between the three tested fractures, but we show that tilt amplitudes are weakly dependent on pressure penetration depth. Using an elastic model, we obtain fracture stiffness estimates that are consistent with published data. Our results should encourage further improvement of the method.

  11. Development of a reaction cell for in-situ/operando studies of surface of a catalyst under a reaction condition and during catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Luan; Tao, Franklin, E-mail: franklin.tao.2011@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Tracking surface chemistry of a catalyst during catalysis is significant for fundamental understanding of catalytic performance of the catalyst since it allows for establishing an intrinsic correlation between surface chemistry of a catalyst at its working status and its corresponding catalytic performance. Ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy can be used for in-situ studies of surfaces of different materials or devices in a gas. To simulate the gaseous environment of a catalyst in a fixed-bed a flowing gaseous environment of reactants around the catalyst is necessary. Here, we report the development of a new flowing reaction cell for simulating in-situ study of a catalyst surface under a reaction condition in gas of one reactant or during catalysis in a mixture of reactants of a catalytic reaction. The homemade reaction cell is installed in a high vacuum (HV) or ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment of a chamber. The flowing gas in the reaction cell is separated from the HV or UHV environment through well sealings at three interfaces between the reaction cell and X-ray window, sample door and aperture of front cone of an energy analyzer. Catalyst in the cell is heated through infrared laser beam introduced through a fiber optics interfaced with the reaction cell through a homemade feedthrough. The highly localized heating on the sample holder and Au-passivated internal surface of the reaction cell effectively minimizes any unwanted reactions potentially catalyzed by the reaction cell. The incorporated laser heating allows a fast heating and a high thermal stability of the sample at a high temperature. With this cell, a catalyst at 800 °C in a flowing gas can be tracked readily.

  12. Development of a reaction cell for in-situ/operando studies of surface of a catalyst under a reaction condition and during catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Luan; Tao, Franklin

    2016-01-01

    Tracking surface chemistry of a catalyst during catalysis is significant for fundamental understanding of catalytic performance of the catalyst since it allows for establishing an intrinsic correlation between surface chemistry of a catalyst at its working status and its corresponding catalytic performance. Ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy can be used for in-situ studies of surfaces of different materials or devices in a gas. To simulate the gaseous environment of a catalyst in a fixed-bed a flowing gaseous environment of reactants around the catalyst is necessary. Here, we report the development of a new flowing reaction cell for simulating in-situ study of a catalyst surface under a reaction condition in gas of one reactant or during catalysis in a mixture of reactants of a catalytic reaction. The homemade reaction cell is installed in a high vacuum (HV) or ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment of a chamber. The flowing gas in the reaction cell is separated from the HV or UHV environment through well sealings at three interfaces between the reaction cell and X-ray window, sample door and aperture of front cone of an energy analyzer. Catalyst in the cell is heated through infrared laser beam introduced through a fiber optics interfaced with the reaction cell through a homemade feedthrough. The highly localized heating on the sample holder and Au-passivated internal surface of the reaction cell effectively minimizes any unwanted reactions potentially catalyzed by the reaction cell. The incorporated laser heating allows a fast heating and a high thermal stability of the sample at a high temperature. With this cell, a catalyst at 800 °C in a flowing gas can be tracked readily.

  13. Physical deoxygenation of graphene oxide paper surface and facile in situ synthesis of graphene based ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Jijun; Wang, Minqiang; Zhang, Xiangyu; Ran, Chenxin; Shao, Jinyou; Ding, Yucheng

    2014-01-01

    In-situ sputtering ZnO films on graphene oxide (GO) paper are used to fabricate graphene based ZnO films. Crystal structure and surface chemical states are investigated. Results indicated that GO paper can be effectively deoxygenated by in-situ sputtering ZnO on them without adding any reducing agent. Based on the principle of radio frequency magnetron sputtering, we propose that during magnetron sputtering process, plasma streams contain large numbers of electrons. These electrons not only collide with argon atoms to produce secondary electrons but also they are accelerated to bombard the substrates (GO paper) resulting in effective deoxygenation of oxygen-containing functional groups. In-situ sputtering ZnO films on GO paper provide an approach to design graphene-semiconductor nanocomposites

  14. Deep and surface circulation in the Northwest Indian Ocean from Argo, surface drifter, and in situ profiling current observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, S. A.; Dimarco, S. F.; Stoessel, M. M.; Wang, Z.

    2010-12-01

    The northwest Indian Ocean is a region of complex circulation and atmospheric influence. The Persian (Arabian) Gulf and Red Sea contribute toward the complexity of the region. This study encompasses the surface and deep circulation in the region ranging from 0°N-35°N and 40°E-80°E from January 2002-December 2009. Emphasis is in the Persian Gulf, Oman Sea and Arabian Sea (roughly from 21°N-26°N and 56°E-63°E) using a variety of in situ and observation data sets. While there is a lot known about the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea, little is known about the Oman Sea. Circulation in the northwest Indian Ocean is largely influenced by seasonal monsoon winds. From the winter monsoon to the summer monsoon, current direction reverses. Marginal sea inflow and outflow are also seasonally variable, which greatly impacts the physical water mass properties in the region. In situ and observation data sets include data from Argo floats (US GODAE), surface drifters (AOML) and an observation system consisting of 4 independent moorings and a cabled ocean observatory in the Oman Sea. The observing system in the Oman Sea was installed by Lighthouse R & D Enterprises, Inc. beginning in 2005, and measures current, temperature, conductivity, pressure, dissolved oxygen and turbidity, using the Aanderaa Recording Doppler Current Profiler (RDCP) 600 and the Aanderaa Recording Current Meter (RCM) 11. The cabled ocean observatory measures dissolved oxygen, temperature and salinity between 65 m and 1000 m and reports in real-time. Argo floats in the region have a parking depth range from 500 m to 2000 m. At 1000 m depth, 98% of the velocity magnitudes range from less than 1 cm/s to 20 cm/s. The Somali Current and Northeast/Southwest Monsoon Currents are present, reversing from summer to winter. At 2000 m depth, the Somali and Monsoon Currents are still present but have smaller velocities with 98% ranging from less than 1 cm/s to 13 cm/s. At both 1000 m and 2000 m, larger velocities occur

  15. Invited Article: In situ comparison of passive radon-thoron discriminative monitors at subsurface workplaces in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kávási, Norbert, E-mail: norbert@fml.nirs.go.jp [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Social Organization for Radioecological Cleanliness, Veszprém (Hungary); Vigh, Tamás [Social Organization for Radioecological Cleanliness, Veszprém (Hungary); Manganese Mining Process Ltd., Úrkút (Hungary); Németh, Csaba [Social Organization for Radioecological Cleanliness, Veszprém (Hungary); University of Pannonia, Veszprém (Hungary); Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Omori, Yasutaka; Janik, Miroslaw; Yonehara, Hidenori [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    During a one-year long measurement period, radon and thoron data obtained by two different passive radon-thoron discriminative monitors were compared at subsurface workplaces in Hungary, such as mines (bauxite and manganese ore) and caves (medical and touristic). These workplaces have special environmental conditions, such as, stable and high relative humidity (100%), relatively stable temperature (12°C–21°C), low or high wind speed (max. 2.4 m s{sup −1}) and low or elevated aerosol concentration (130–60 000 particles m{sup −3}). The measured radon and thoron concentrations fluctuated in a wide range among the different workplaces. The respective annual average radon concentrations and their standard deviations (in brackets) measured by the passive radon-thoron discriminative monitor with cellulose filter (CF) and the passive radon-thoron discriminative monitor with sponge filter (SF) were: 350(321) Bq m{sup −3} and 550(497) Bq m{sup −3} in the bauxite mine; 887(604) Bq m{sup −3} and 1258(788) Bq m{sup −3} in the manganese ore mine; 2510(2341) Bq m{sup −3} and 3403(3075) Bq m{sup −3} in the medical cave (Hospital Cave of Tapolca); and 6239(2057) Bq m{sup −3} and 8512(1955) Bq m{sup −3} in the touristic cave (Lake Cave of Tapolca). The respective average thoron concentrations and their standard deviation (in brackets) measured by CF and SF monitors were: 154(210) Bq m{sup −3} and 161(148) Bq m{sup −3} in the bauxite mine; 187(191) Bq m{sup −3} and 117(147) Bq m{sup −3} in the manganese-ore mine; 360(524) Bq m{sup −3} and 371(789) Bq m{sup −3} in the medical cave (Hospital Cave of Tapolca); and 1420(1184) Bq m{sup −3} and 1462(3655) Bq m{sup −3} in the touristic cave (Lake Cave of Tapolca). Under these circumstances, comparison of the radon data for the SF and CF monitors showed the former were consistently 51% higher in the bauxite mine, 38% higher in the manganese ore mine, and 34% higher in the caves

  16. Invited Article: In situ comparison of passive radon-thoron discriminative monitors at subsurface workplaces in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kávási, Norbert; Vigh, Tamás; Németh, Csaba; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Omori, Yasutaka; Janik, Miroslaw; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2014-01-01

    During a one-year long measurement period, radon and thoron data obtained by two different passive radon-thoron discriminative monitors were compared at subsurface workplaces in Hungary, such as mines (bauxite and manganese ore) and caves (medical and touristic). These workplaces have special environmental conditions, such as, stable and high relative humidity (100%), relatively stable temperature (12°C–21°C), low or high wind speed (max. 2.4 m s −1 ) and low or elevated aerosol concentration (130–60 000 particles m −3 ). The measured radon and thoron concentrations fluctuated in a wide range among the different workplaces. The respective annual average radon concentrations and their standard deviations (in brackets) measured by the passive radon-thoron discriminative monitor with cellulose filter (CF) and the passive radon-thoron discriminative monitor with sponge filter (SF) were: 350(321) Bq m −3 and 550(497) Bq m −3 in the bauxite mine; 887(604) Bq m −3 and 1258(788) Bq m −3 in the manganese ore mine; 2510(2341) Bq m −3 and 3403(3075) Bq m −3 in the medical cave (Hospital Cave of Tapolca); and 6239(2057) Bq m −3 and 8512(1955) Bq m −3 in the touristic cave (Lake Cave of Tapolca). The respective average thoron concentrations and their standard deviation (in brackets) measured by CF and SF monitors were: 154(210) Bq m −3 and 161(148) Bq m −3 in the bauxite mine; 187(191) Bq m −3 and 117(147) Bq m −3 in the manganese-ore mine; 360(524) Bq m −3 and 371(789) Bq m −3 in the medical cave (Hospital Cave of Tapolca); and 1420(1184) Bq m −3 and 1462(3655) Bq m −3 in the touristic cave (Lake Cave of Tapolca). Under these circumstances, comparison of the radon data for the SF and CF monitors showed the former were consistently 51% higher in the bauxite mine, 38% higher in the manganese ore mine, and 34% higher in the caves. Consequently, correction is required on previously obtained radon data acquired by CF

  17. Invited Article: In situ comparison of passive radon-thoron discriminative monitors at subsurface workplaces in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kávási, Norbert; Vigh, Tamás; Németh, Csaba; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Omori, Yasutaka; Janik, Miroslaw; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2014-02-01

    During a one-year long measurement period, radon and thoron data obtained by two different passive radon-thoron discriminative monitors were compared at subsurface workplaces in Hungary, such as mines (bauxite and manganese ore) and caves (medical and touristic). These workplaces have special environmental conditions, such as, stable and high relative humidity (100%), relatively stable temperature (12°C-21°C), low or high wind speed (max. 2.4 m s-1) and low or elevated aerosol concentration (130-60 000 particles m-3). The measured radon and thoron concentrations fluctuated in a wide range among the different workplaces. The respective annual average radon concentrations and their standard deviations (in brackets) measured by the passive radon-thoron discriminative monitor with cellulose filter (CF) and the passive radon-thoron discriminative monitor with sponge filter (SF) were: 350(321) Bq m-3 and 550(497) Bq m-3 in the bauxite mine; 887(604) Bq m-3 and 1258(788) Bq m-3 in the manganese ore mine; 2510(2341) Bq m-3 and 3403(3075) Bq m-3 in the medical cave (Hospital Cave of Tapolca); and 6239(2057) Bq m-3 and 8512(1955) Bq m-3 in the touristic cave (Lake Cave of Tapolca). The respective average thoron concentrations and their standard deviation (in brackets) measured by CF and SF monitors were: 154(210) Bq m-3 and 161(148) Bq m-3 in the bauxite mine; 187(191) Bq m-3 and 117(147) Bq m-3 in the manganese-ore mine; 360(524) Bq m-3 and 371(789) Bq m-3 in the medical cave (Hospital Cave of Tapolca); and 1420(1184) Bq m-3 and 1462(3655) Bq m-3 in the touristic cave (Lake Cave of Tapolca). Under these circumstances, comparison of the radon data for the SF and CF monitors showed the former were consistently 51% higher in the bauxite mine, 38% higher in the manganese ore mine, and 34% higher in the caves. Consequently, correction is required on previously obtained radon data acquired by CF monitors at subsurface workplaces to gain comparable data for SF monitors. In the

  18. Band-structure tailoring and surface passivation for highly efficient near-infrared responsive PbS quantum dot photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ru; Niu, Haihong; Ji, Fengwei; Wan, Lei; Mao, Xiaoli; Guo, Huier; Xu, Jinzhang; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-11-01

    PbS is a promising light harvester for near-infrared (NIR) responsive quantum dot (QD) photovoltaics due to its narrow bulk band gap (0.41 eV) and large exciton Bohr radius (18 nm). However, the relatively low conduction band (CB) and high-density surface defects of PbS as two major drawbacks for its use in solar cells severely hamper the photovoltaic performance enhancement. In this work, a modified solution-based successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) utilizing mixed cationic precursors of Pb2+ and Cd2+ is explored, and such a scheme offers two benefits, band-structure tailoring and surface passivation. In-situ deposited CdS suppresses the excessive growth of PbS in the mesopores, thereby facilitating the favorable electron injection from PbS to TiO2 in view of the up-shifted CB level of QDs; the intimate interpenetration of two sulfides with each other leads to superior passivation of trap state defects on PbS, which suppresses the interfacial charge recombination. With the construction of photovoltaics based on such a hybrid (Pb,Cd)S/CdS configuration, impressive power conversion efficiency up to 4.08% has been reached, outperforming that of the conventional PbS/CdS pattern (2.95%). This work highlights the great importance of band-structure tailoring and surface passivation for constructing highly efficient PbS QD photovoltaics.

  19. Effect of Cl2- and HBr-based inductively coupled plasma etching on InP surface composition analyzed using in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchoule, S.; Vallier, L.; Patriarche, G.; Chevolleau, T.; Cardinaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    A Cl 2 -HBr-O 2 /Ar inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching process has been adapted for the processing of InP-based heterostructures in a 300-mm diameter CMOS etching tool. Smooth and anisotropic InP etching is obtained at moderate etch rate (∼600 nm/min). Ex situ x-ray energy dispersive analysis of the etched sidewalls shows that the etching anisotropy is obtained through a SiO x passivation mechanism. The stoichiometry of the etched surface is analyzed in situ using angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is observed that Cl 2 -based ICP etching results in a significantly P-rich surface. The phosphorous layer identified on the top surface is estimated to be ∼1-1.3-nm thick. On the other hand InP etching in HBr/Ar plasma results in a more stoichiometric surface. In contrast to the etched sidewalls, the etched surface is free from oxides with negligible traces of silicon. Exposure to ambient air of the samples submitted to Cl 2 -based chemistry results in the complete oxidation of the P-rich top layer. It is concluded that a post-etch treatment or a pure HBr plasma step may be necessary after Cl 2 -based ICP etching for the recovery of the InP material.

  20. Assessment of the SMAP Level-4 Surface and Root-Zone Soil Moisture Product Using In Situ Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.; Liu, Qing; Ardizzone, Joseph V.; Colliander, Andreas; Conaty, Austin; Crow, Wade; Jackson, Thomas J.; Jones, Lucas A.; Kimball, John S.; Koster, Randal D.; Mahanama, Sarith P.; Smith, Edmond B.; Berg, Aaron; Bircher, Simone; Bosch, David; Caldwell, Todd G.; Cosh, Michael; Holifield Collins, Chandra D.; Jensen, Karsten H.; Livingston, Stan; Lopez-baeza, Ernesto; Martínez-fernández, José; Mcnairn, Heather; Moghaddam, Mahta; Pacheco, Anna; Pellarin, Thierry; Prueger, John; Rowlandson, Tracy; Seyfried, Mark; Starks, Patrick; Su, Bob; Thibeault, Marc; Van Der Velde, Rogier; Walker, Jeffrey; Wu, Xiaoling; Zeng, Yijian

    2017-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission Level-4 Surface and Root-Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) data product is generated by assimilating SMAP L-band brightness temperature observations into the NASA Catchment land surface model. The L4_SM product is available from 31 March 2015 to present

  1. In Situ Evaluation of Density, Viscosity and Thickness of Adsorbed Soft Layers by Combined Surface Acoustic Wave and Surface Plasmon Resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, L.; Friedt, J. -M.; Zhou, C.; Bertrand, P.

    2003-01-01

    We show the theoretical and experimental combination of acoustic and optical methods for the in situ quantitative evaluation of the density, the viscosity and the thickness of soft layers adsorbed on chemically tailored metal surfaces. For the highest sensitivity and an operation in liquids, a Love mode surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor with a hydrophobized gold coated sensing area is the acoustic method, while surface plasmon resonance (SPR) on the same gold surface as the optical method is...

  2. Chlorine and Sulfur Volatiles from in Situ Measurements of Martian Surface Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    A sentinel discovery by the first in situ measurements on Mars was the high sulfur and chlorine content of global-wide soils. A variety of circumstantial evidence led to the conclusion that soil S is in the form of sulfate, and the Cl is probably chloride. An early hypothesis states that these volatiles are emitted as gases from magmas, and quickly react with dust, soil, and exposed rocks. Subsequent determination that SNC meteorites are also samples of the martian crust revealed a significantly higher S content, as sulfide, than terrestrial igneous rocks but substantially less than in soils. The ensuing wet chemical analyses by the high-latitude Phoenix mission discovered not only chloride but also perchlorate and possibly chlorate. MSL data now also implicate perchlorate at low latitudes. Gaseous interactions may have produced amorphous material on grain surfaces without forming stoichiometric salts. Yet, when exposed to liquid water, Phoenix samples released electrolytes, indicating that the soils have not been leached by rain or fresh groundwater. Sulfate occurrences at many locations on Mars, as well as some chloride enrichments, have now been discovered by remote sensing, Landed missions have discovered Cl-enrichments and ferric, Mg, Ca and more complex sulfates as duricrust, subsurface soil horizons, sandstone evaporites, and rock coatings - most of which cannot be detected from orbit. Salt-forming volatiles affect habitability wherever they are in physical contact: physicochemical parameters (ionic strength, freezing point, water activity); S is an essential element for terrestrial organisms; perchlorate is an oxidant which can degrade some organics but also can be utilized as an energy source; the entire valence range of S-compounds has been exploited by diverse microbiota on Earth. Whether such salt-induced conditions are "extremes" of habitability depends on the relative abundance of liquid H2O.

  3. Novel in situ mechanical testers to enable integrated metal surface micro-machines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follstaedt, David Martin; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Hearne, Sean Joseph; Foiles, Stephen Martin; Buchheit, Thomas Edward; Dyck, Christopher William

    2005-10-01

    The ability to integrate metal and semiconductor micro-systems to perform highly complex functions, such as RF-MEMS, will depend on developing freestanding metal structures that offer improved conductivity, reflectivity, and mechanical properties. Three issues have prevented the proliferation of these systems: (1) warpage of active components due to through-thickness stress gradients, (2) limited component lifetimes due to fatigue, and (3) low yield strength. To address these issues, we focus on developing and implementing techniques to enable the direct study of the stress and microstructural evolution during electrodeposition and mechanical loading. The study of stress during electrodeposition of metal thin films is being accomplished by integrating a multi-beam optical stress sensor into an electrodeposition chamber. By coupling the in-situ stress information with ex-situ microstructural analysis, a scientific understanding of the sources of stress during electrodeposition will be obtained. These results are providing a foundation upon which to develop a stress-gradient-free thin film directly applicable to the production of freestanding metal structures. The issues of fatigue and yield strength are being addressed by developing novel surface micromachined tensile and bend testers, by interferometry, and by TEM analysis. The MEMS tensile tester has a ''Bosch'' etched hole to allow for direct viewing of the microstructure in a TEM before, during, and after loading. This approach allows for the quantitative measurements of stress-strain relations while imaging dislocation motion, and determination of fracture nucleation in samples with well-known fatigue/strain histories. This technique facilitates the determination of the limits for classical deformation mechanisms and helps to formulate a new understanding of the mechanical response as the grain sizes are refined to a nanometer scale. Together, these studies will result in a science

  4. Fabrication of Cheap Optical Transducers (CHOTs) on film carriers for in-situ application and generation of surface acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageeva, V; Stratoudaki, T; Clark, M; Somekh, M G

    2015-01-01

    Cheap optical transducers (CHOTs) are patterns on the surface of a component activated by lasers to generate and detect ultrasound. Excited optically, with minimal surface impact, and fully customizable, CHOTs provide a simple alternative to conventional piezoelectric transducers, offering wireless, remote operation. Of particular interest is application of CHOTs for in-situ ultrasonic inspection of hard-to reach and complex-geometry components such as those of aero-engines. A suitable fabrication method has been developed to allow in-situ application of CHOTs onto large size and curved components, as well as those already in service, challenging for current laboratory-based micro-patterning methods. This work describes the fabrication of a transferable g-CHOT for generation of ultrasound. The g- CHOT has been made on an SU8 carrier film using a sacrificial polystyrene layer, allowing the transducer to be transferred from the substrate and subsequently delivered and applied to the surface of the sample in-situ. The functionality of the fabricated transducer is demonstrated by detection of the Surface Acoustic Waves (SAW) generated by the g-CHOT transferred onto glass and aluminium samples

  5. Use of passive repeaters for tunnel surface communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capista, D.; McDowell, D.

    1996-04-01

    Many times there is a need to establish ratio communication between the surface and a beam enclosure. When one solicits communication companies for solutions, the answer is often to purchase expensive communication equipment such as repeaters or radiax type cable which can cost in the tens of thousands of dollars. This TM will describe an inexpensive solution to this problem and the results that can be expected. The cost of a passive repeater is $100--$200 depending on how elaborate one wants to be. A passive repeater system consists of two antennas connected together with a transmission line. When using VHF or UHF transceivers, one can use 5/8 wave mobile antennas, such as the Larson NMO406-CK for the 400--420 MHz range, with the antenna connected to a 19 inch square piece of aluminum to act as a ground plane. This type of antenna has reasonably good gain, seems to be adequate, and is inexpensive. Another antenna choice is to cut a dipole out of bus wire and solder this wire to a female N connector. Using a dipole seems to work OK in the tunnel and avoids the problem of having a wire sticking down for people to poke their eye with. The cable connecting the antennas should be of good quality so that the signal lost in the cable is minimal. The authors chose Belden 9913 coax. This cable has a characteristic impedance of 50 ohms and has 2.7 dB/100 ft. of attenuation at 400 MHz

  6. Electrochemical passivation behaviour of nanocrystalline Fe80Si20 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Passivation behaviour of nanocrystalline coating (Fe80Si20) obtained by in situ mechanical alloying route .... is controlled by the iron oxide film in case of alloys with ..... the surface is covered, thus, producing effective protection of.

  7. In situ anodization of aluminum surfaces studied by x-ray reflectivity and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertram, F.; Evertsson, J.; Messing, M. E.; Mikkelsen, A.; Lundgren, E.; Zhang, F.; Pan, J.; Carlà, F.; Nilsson, J.-O.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from the anodization of an aluminum single crystal [Al(111)] and an aluminum alloy [Al 6060] studied by in situ x-ray reflectivity, in situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and ex situ scanning electron microscopy. For both samples, a linear increase of oxide film thickness with increasing anodization voltage was found. However, the slope is much higher in the single crystal case, and the break-up of the oxide film grown on the alloy occurs at a lower anodization potential than on the single crystal. The reasons for these observations are discussed as are the measured differences observed for x-ray reflectivity and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  8. Thermal surface characteristics of coal fires 1 results of in-situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Kuenzer, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    Natural underground coal fires are fires in coal seams occurring subsurface. The fires are ignited through a process named spontaneous combustion, which occurs based on a natural reaction but is usually triggered through human interaction. Coal mining activities expose coal to the air. This leads to the exothermal oxidation of the carbon in the coal with the air's oxygen to CO 2 and - under certain circumstances - to spontaneous combustion. Coal fires occur in many countries world wide - however, currently the Chinese coal mining industry faces the biggest problems with coal fires. Coal fires destroy the valuable resource coal and furthermore lead to many environmental degradation phenomena such as the deterioration of surrounding vegetation, land subsidence and the emission of toxic gasses (CO, N 2O). They additionally contribute to the emission of green house relevant gasses such as CO 2 and CH 4 to the atmosphere. In this paper we present thermal characteristics of coal fires as measured in-situ during a field campaign to the Wuda coal fire area in south-central Inner Mongolia, China. Thermal characteristics include temperature anomaly measurements at the surface, spatial surface temperature profiles of fire areas and unaffected background areas, diurnal temperature profiles, and temperature measurements inside of coal fire induced cracks in the overlying bedrock. For all the measurements the effects of uneven solar heating through influences of slope and aspect are considered. Our findings show that coal fires result in strong or subtle thermal surface anomalies. Especially the latter can easily be influenced by heating of the surrounding background material through solar influences. Temperature variation of background rocks with different albedo, slope, aspect or vegetation cover can substantially influence the detectability of thermal anomalies. In the worst case coal fire related thermal anomalies can be completely masked by solar patterns during the daytime

  9. In-situ degradation of sulphur mustard and its simulants on the surface of impregnated carbon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Abha; Saxena, Amit; Singh, Beer; Sharma, Mamta; Suryanarayana, Malladi Venkata Satya; Semwal, Rajendra Prasad; Ganeshan, Kumaran; Sekhar, Krishnamurthy

    2006-01-01

    Bis-2-chloroethyl sulphide (sulphur mustard or HD) is an extremely toxic and persistent chemical warfare agent. For in situ degradation of HD and its analogues (simulants), i.e., dibutyl sulphide (DBS) and ethyl 2-hydroxyethyl sulphide (HEES), different carbon systems such as 11-molybdo-1-vanadophosphoric acid impregnated carbon (V 1 /C), ruthenium chloride impregnated carbon (Ru/C) and combination of these two (V 1 /Ru/C) were prepared. These carbons were characterized for cumulative micropore volume and surface area by N 2 BET. The kinetics of the in situ degradation of HD and its simulants were studied and found to be following the first order kinetics. Kinetic rate constants and t 1/2 values were determined. Products were characterized using NMR, IR and GC-MS. Reaction products were found to be sulphoxide and sulphone. The combined system, i.e., 11-molybdo-1-vanadophosphoric acid plus ruthenium chloride (V 1 /Ru/C) was found to be best for in-situ degradation of HD and its simulants. In-situ degradation by polyoxometalate based system was found to be stoichiometry based while Ru/C oxidized HD in presence of chemisorbed oxygen. In combined system of V 1 /Ru/C ruthenium worked as a catalyst and polyoxometalate acted as a source of oxygen. Effect of moisture was also studied in combined system. Rate of degradation of HD was found to be increasing with increased percentage of moisture content

  10. PEGylated graphene oxide elicits strong immunological responses despite surface passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Nana; Weber, Jeffrey K.; Wang, Shuang; Luan, Binquan; Yue, Hua; Xi, Xiaobo; Du, Jing; Yang, Zaixing; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Ruhong; Ma, Guanghui

    2017-02-01

    Engineered nanomaterials promise to transform medicine at the bio-nano interface. However, it is important to elucidate how synthetic nanomaterials interact with critical biological systems before such products can be safely utilized in humans. Past evidence suggests that polyethylene glycol-functionalized (PEGylated) nanomaterials are largely biocompatible and elicit less dramatic immune responses than their pristine counterparts. We here report results that contradict these findings. We find that PEGylated graphene oxide nanosheets (nGO-PEGs) stimulate potent cytokine responses in peritoneal macrophages, despite not being internalized. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations support a mechanism by which nGO-PEGs preferentially adsorb onto and/or partially insert into cell membranes, thereby amplifying interactions with stimulatory surface receptors. Further experiments demonstrate that nGO-PEG indeed provokes cytokine secretion by enhancing integrin β8-related signalling pathways. The present results inform that surface passivation does not always prevent immunological reactions to 2D nanomaterials but also suggest applications for PEGylated nanomaterials wherein immune stimulation is desired.

  11. Microwave assisted in situ synthesis of Ag–NaCMC films and their reproducible surface-enhanced Raman scattering signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Tao; Li, Junpeng; Zhang, Li; Wang, Binbing; Zhou, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Two kinds of Ag–NaCMC films for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) were prepared by conventional heating and microwave assisted in situ reduction methods without any additional capping or reducing agents. A relatively narrow and symmetric surface plasmon resonance band was observed in the absorption spectra of the films fabricated by the microwave assisted in situ reduction method. More uniform silver nanoparticles (NPs) implied by the symmetric absorption spectrum were further confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy images. After the simulation of the E-field intensity distribution around the silver NPs in NaCMC film, the Raman scattering enhancement factors (EFs) of these films were then investigated with 4-mercaptobenzoic acid molecule as a SERS reporter. Improved reproducibility of SERS signal was obtained in the microwave assisted synthesized Ag–NaCMC film, although it maintained an EF as only 1.11 × 10 8 . The reproducible SERS signal of the Ag–NaCMC film is particularly attractive and this microwave assisted in situ reduction method is suitable for the production of excellent substrate for biosensor application. - Highlights: • The synthesis of Ag–NaCMC films was successfully fulfilled by a low-cost microwave method. • More uniform silver nanoparticles were observed in Ag–NaCMC film synthesized by microwave. • Improved reproducibility of SERS signal was obtained in microwave synthesized Ag–NaCMC film. - Abstract: Two kinds of Ag–NaCMC films for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) were prepared by conventional heating and microwave assisted in situ reduction methods without any additional capping or reducing agents. A relatively narrow and symmetric surface plasmon resonance band was observed in the absorption spectra of the films fabricated by the microwave assisted in situ reduction method. More uniform silver nanoparticles (NPs) implied by the symmetric absorption spectrum were further confirmed by

  12. Sulfidic photochemical passivation of GaAs surfaces in alcoholic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonsmeier, T.; Ivankov, A.; Bauhofer, W.

    2005-01-01

    We report on a remarkable enhancement of the passivation effect of sulfidic solutions through illumination with above band gap light. Luminescence measurements on GaAs surfaces which have been illuminated during chemical passivation reveal in comparison to nonilluminated samples a further reduction of their surface density of states as well as a significantly increased stability of the passivation. Investigations with photoelectron spectroscopy show that illumination leads to a nearly complete removal of oxides on the surface. Measurements on Schottky diodes which have been manufactured with photochemically passivated GaAs indicate a noticeable decrease in band bending and a depinning of the Fermi level

  13. Cytochrome C Dynamics at Gold and Glassy Carbon Surfaces Monitored by in Situ Scanning Tunnel Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Møller, Per; Pedersen, Marianne Vind

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the absorption of cytochrome c on gold and glassy carbon substrates by in situ scanning tunnel microscopy under potentiostatic control of both substrate and tip. Low ionic strength and potential ranges where no Faradaic current flows were used. Cyt c aggregates into flat...

  14. In situ QCM and TM-AFM investigations of the early stages of degradation of silver and copper surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleber, Ch.; Hilfrich, U.; Schreiner, M.

    2007-01-01

    The early stages of atmospheric corrosion of pure copper and pure silver specimens were investigated performing in situ tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM), in situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The information obtained by TM-AFM is the change of the topography of the sample surfaces with emphasis on the shape and lateral distribution of the corrosion products grown within the first hours of weathering. The simultaneously performed in situ QCM measurements are indicating the mass changes due to possibly occurring corrosive processes on the surface during weathering and are therefore a valuable tool for the determination of corrosion rates. Investigations were carried out in synthetic air at different levels of relative humidity (RH) with and without addition of 250 ppb SO 2 as acidifying agent. On a polished copper surface the growth of corrosion products could be observed by TM-AFM analysis at 60% RH without any addition of acidifying gases [M. Wadsak, M. Schreiner, T. Aastrup, C. Leygraf, Surf. Sci. 454-456 (2000) 246-250]. On a weathered copper surface the addition of SO 2 to the moist air stream leads to the formation of additional features as already described in the literature [M. Wadsak, M. Schreiner, T. Aastrup, C. Leygraf, Surf. Sci. 454-456 (2000) 246-250; Ch. Kleber, J. Weissenrieder, M. Schreiner, C. Leygraf, Appl. Surf. Sci. 193 (2002) 245-253]. Exposing a silver specimen to humidity leads to the degradation of the surface structure as well as to a formation of corrosion products, which could be detected by in situ QCM measurements. After addition of 250 ppb SO 2 to the moist gas stream an increase of the formed feature's volume on the silver surface could be observed by TM-AFM measurements. The results obtained additionally from the in situ QCM measurements confirm the influence of SO 2 due to a further increase of the mass of the formed corrosion layer (and therefore an increase of the

  15. Efficiency enhancement in dye-sensitized solar cells by in situ passivation of the sensitized nanoporous electrode with Li2CO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingbo; Zaban, Arie

    2008-01-01

    This work entails a method to improve the performance of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO 2 solar cells by adding surface passivating elements to the electrolyte. The presence of either CO 2 , Li 2 CO 3 or K 2 CO 3 in electrolyte increases both the photocurrent and the photovoltage, resulting in higher overall conversion efficiency of these solar cells. The additives are used to form a passivation layer of lithium carbonate on the dye free surface of the TiO 2 nanoparticles and the conductive substrate. This layer suppresses the rate of the main recombination reaction between the photoinjected electrons and the oxidized ions in the electrolyte solution. While blocking part of the recombination, the lithium carbonate layer allows motion of the Li + ions towards the TiO 2 surface for charge screening. Consequently using this simple treatment, the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell most improved by 17.2% (from 6.4% to 7.5%)

  16. Impurity diffusion, point defect engineering, and surface/interface passivation in germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander I.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Dimoulas, Athanasios Dimoulas

    2012-01-01

    in view of recent results. The importance of electrically active defects on the Ge surface and interfaces is addressed considering strategies to suppress them and to passivate the surfaces/interfaces, bearing in mind their importance for advanced devices

  17. Evaluation of OMI operational standard NO2 column retrievals using in situ and surface-based NO2 observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Lamsal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We assess the standard operational nitrogen dioxide (NO2 data product (OMNO2, version 2.1 retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI onboard NASA's Aura satellite using a combination of aircraft and surface in~situ measurements as well as ground-based column measurements at several locations and a bottom-up NOx emission inventory over the continental US. Despite considerable sampling differences, NO2 vertical column densities from OMI are modestly correlated (r = 0.3–0.8 with in situ measurements of tropospheric NO2 from aircraft, ground-based observations of NO2 columns from MAX-DOAS and Pandora instruments, in situ surface NO2 measurements from photolytic converter instruments, and a bottom-up NOx emission inventory. Overall, OMI retrievals tend to be lower in urban regions and higher in remote areas, but generally agree with other measurements to within ± 20%. No consistent seasonal bias is evident. Contrasting results between different data sets reveal complexities behind NO2 validation. Since validation data sets are scarce and are limited in space and time, validation of the global product is still limited in scope by spatial and temporal coverage and retrieval conditions. Monthly mean vertical NO2 profile shapes from the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI chemistry-transport model (CTM used in the OMI retrievals are highly consistent with in situ aircraft measurements, but these measured profiles exhibit considerable day-to-day variation, affecting the retrieved daily NO2 columns by up to 40%. This assessment of OMI tropospheric NO2 columns, together with the comparison of OMI-retrieved and model-simulated NO2 columns, could offer diagnostic evaluation of the model.

  18. In-situ investigations of corrosion processes on glass and metal surfaces by scanning probe microscopy (SPM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolussi-Leck, G.

    1996-09-01

    The corrosion of potash-lime-silica glass was observed in-situ by AFM (atomic force microscopy) for the first time. The topographic changes with time due to the interaction of a replica glass with the ambient atmosphere were studied. A comparison of dynamic mode AFM and static mode AFM has demonstrated their potential for the investigation of soft, sensitive specimens. A combination of both methods yielded a correlation between structural changes during the corrosion process and different corrosion products on glass. The activation of surface reactions by the tip touching the surface could be observed with dynamic mode AFM. In-situ sample preparation and introduction of a defined atmosphere consisting of nitrogen with adjustable amounts of relative humidity and varying contents of SO 2 and NO 2 allowed model studies of the atmospheric corrosion. A replica glass with medieval composition was used in order to investigate the impact of the above described conditions. Besides the influence of the relative humidity the effects of SO 2 and NO 2 as well as their, synergistic effects could be studied. The evaluation of the phase signal in dynamic mode AFM in addition to the topographic information allowed the identification of humid domains in and on corrosion products, respectively. The observed contrast and thus the adhesion forces, are mainly related to the different water coverage of the surface regions or the hydroscopic properties, respectively. Furthermore, the topographic changes of copper-nickel, and palladium surfaces exposed to humidified nitrogen with SO 2 have been observed in-situ. Contrary to the assumption of the metal surfaces being covered by a homogeneous layer of corrosion products, distinct clusters of products could be observed. In case of different kinds of products these clusters were arranged adjacent to each other rather than in different stacked layers. (author)

  19. Surface exposure history using in-situ cosmogenic 10Be, 26Al and 36Cl - applications to the Australian environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, D.

    1999-01-01

    Production of the long-lived cosmogenic radionuclides, 10 Be (T 1/2 =1.5Ma), 26 Al (0.7Ma) and 36 Cl (0.3Ma), is dominated by the interaction of cosmic-rays with the upper atmosphere. They are also produced in exposed surface rocks and within the first meter or so of the Earth's crust. This is called in-situ production and although only a million atoms or so of 10 Be are produced within a ten thousand year exposure period per gram of surface rock, the technique of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) can be applied to measure this tell-tale signal. The build-up over time of these radionuclides can be utilised as radiometric clocks to elucidate the exposure history of geomorphic formations and surfaces that have experienced some event or process that delivers previously unexposed material to cosmic-ray irradiation. Hence the reconstruction of glacial chronologies (ie time a bedrock surface was uncovered by ice retreat, or deposition age of glacial moraines), development of raised river terraces and paleo-beach ridges, age of meteorite impact craters and volcanic eruptions have been addressed with the in-situ method. Moreover, geomorphological processes of landscape evolution such as surface erosion rates, continental weathering, sediment transport and deposition, uplift rates can also be studied. The in-situ method is described along with examples of cosmogenic dating projects at ANSTO. It is estimated that it works best over the time period from 5 ka to 5 Ma and can identify erosion rates ranging from 0.1 to 10 mm/ka

  20. The Modern Near-Surface Martian Climate: A Review of In-Situ Meteorological Data from Viking to Curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, G. M.; Newman, C. N.; De Vicente-Retortillo, A.; Fischer, E.; Renno, N. O.; Richardson, M. I.; Fairén, A. G.; Genzer, M.; Guzewich, S. D.; Haberle, R. M.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the complete set of in-situ meteorological data obtained from the Viking landers in the 1970s to todays Curiosity rover to review our understanding of the modern near-surface climate of Mars, with focus on the dust, CO2 and H2O cycles and their impact on the radiative and thermodynamic conditions near the surface. In particular, we provide values of the highest confidence possible for atmospheric opacity, atmospheric pressure, near-surface air temperature, ground temperature, near-surface wind speed and direction, and near-surface air relative humidity and water vapor content. Then, we study the diurnal, seasonal and interannual variability of these quantities over a span of more than twenty Martian years. Finally, we propose measurements to improve our understanding of the Martian dust and H2O cycles, and discuss the potential for liquid water formation under Mars present day conditions and its implications for future Mars missions.

  1. Ambient plasma treatment of silicon wafers for surface passivation recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jia; Prinz, Markus; Markert, Thomas; Aberle, Armin G.; Mueller, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the effect of an ambient plasma treatment powered by compressed dry air on the passivation quality of silicon wafers coated with intrinsic amorphous silicon sub-oxide is investigated. While long-time storage deteriorates the effective lifetime of all samples, a short ambient plasma treatment improves their passivation qualities. By studying the influence of the plasma treatment parameters on the passivation layers, an optimized process condition was identified which even boosted the passivation quality beyond its original value obtained immediately after deposition. On the other hand, the absence of stringent requirement on gas precursors, vacuum condition and longtime processing makes the ambient plasma treatment an excellent candidate to replace conventional thermal annealing in industrial heterojunction solar cell production.

  2. In situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy exploring molecular changes of drug-treated cancer cell nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lijia; Huang, Dianshuai; Wang, Hailong; Li, Haibo; Xu, Shuping; Chang, Yixin; Li, Hui; Yang, Ying-Wei; Liang, Chongyang; Xu, Weiqing

    2015-02-17

    Investigating the molecular changes of cancer cell nucleus with drugs treatment is crucial for the design of new anticancer drugs, the development of novel diagnostic strategies, and the advancement of cancer therapy efficiency. In order to better understand the action effects of drugs, accurate location and in situ acquisition of the molecular information of the cell nuclei are necessary. In this work, we report a microspectroscopic technique called dark-field and fluorescence coimaging assisted surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy, combined with nuclear targeting nanoprobes, to in situ study Soma Gastric Cancer (SGC-7901) cell nuclei treated with two model drugs, e.g., DNA binder (Hoechst33342) and anticancer drug (doxorubicin, Dox) via spectral analysis at the molecular level. Nuclear targeting nanoprobes with an assembly structure of thiol-modified polyethylene glycol polymers (PEG) and nuclear localizing signal peptides (NLS) around gold nanorods (AuNRs) were prepared to achieve the amplified SERS signals of biomolecules in the cell nuclei. With the assistance of dark field/fluorescence imaging with simultaneous location, in situ SERS spectra in one cell nucleus were measured and analyzed to disclose the effects of Hoechst33342 and Dox on main biomolecules in the cell nuclei. The experimental results show that this method possesses great potential to investigate the targets of new anticancer drugs and the real-time monitoring of the dynamic changes of cells caused by exogenous molecules.

  3. In situ characterization of Ti-peroxy gel during formation on titanium surfaces in hydrogen peroxide containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muyco, Julie J.; Gray, Jeremy J.; Ratto, Timothy V.; Orme, Christine A.; McKittrick, Joanna; Frangos, John

    2006-01-01

    Three possible functions of Ti-peroxy gel are: reduction of the inflammatory response through the reduction of hydrogen peroxide and other reactive oxygen species; creation of a favorable surface for calcium phosphate nucleation; and as a transitional layer between the compliant surrounding tissue and the stiff titanium. Traditional surface characterization techniques operate in high vacuum environments that alter the actual sample-solution interface. Our studies used techniques that allowed samples to remain in solution and be observed over time. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) force-distance curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and Raman spectroscopy were each used in situ to define kinetic and mechanical properties of Ti-peroxy gel as it formed over time on titanium during exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Our studies enabled us to monitor real-time changes in the native oxide layer on titanium in hydrogen peroxide containing solution, including the formation of a Ti-peroxy gel layer above the native oxide. Peaks attributed to Ti-peroxy gel were seen to emerge over the course of several hours using in situ Raman spectroscopy. Force-distance curves suggest a layer that thickens with time on the titanium sample surface. EIS data showed that changes in the surface layers could be monitored in solution over time

  4. Controlling charges distribution at the surface of a single GaN nanowire by in-situ strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Effect of the strain on the charge distribution at the surface of a GaN semiconductor nanowire (NW has been investigated inside transmission electron microscope (TEM by in-situ off-axis electron holography. The outer and inner surfaces of the NW bent axially under compression of two Au electrodes were differently strained, resulting in difference of their Fermi levels. Consequently, the free electrons flow from the high Fermi level to the low level until the two Fermi levels aligned in a line. The potential distributions induced by charge redistribution in the two vacuum sides of the bent NW were examined respectively, and the opposite nature of the bounded charges on the outer and inner surfaces of the bent NW was identified. The results provide experimental evidence that the charge distribution at the surfaces of a single GaN NW can be controlled by different strains created along the NW.

  5. In-situ degradation of sulphur mustard and its simulants on the surface of impregnated carbon systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Abha [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior, MP (India); Saxena, Amit [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior, MP (India); Singh, Beer [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior, MP (India)]. E-mail: beerbs5@rediffmail.com; Sharma, Mamta [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior, MP (India); Suryanarayana, Malladi Venkata Satya [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior, MP (India); Semwal, Rajendra Prasad [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior, MP (India); Ganeshan, Kumaran [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior, MP (India); Sekhar, Krishnamurthy [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior, MP (India)

    2006-05-20

    Bis-2-chloroethyl sulphide (sulphur mustard or HD) is an extremely toxic and persistent chemical warfare agent. For in situ degradation of HD and its analogues (simulants), i.e., dibutyl sulphide (DBS) and ethyl 2-hydroxyethyl sulphide (HEES), different carbon systems such as 11-molybdo-1-vanadophosphoric acid impregnated carbon (V{sub 1}/C), ruthenium chloride impregnated carbon (Ru/C) and combination of these two (V{sub 1}/Ru/C) were prepared. These carbons were characterized for cumulative micropore volume and surface area by N{sub 2} BET. The kinetics of the in situ degradation of HD and its simulants were studied and found to be following the first order kinetics. Kinetic rate constants and t {sub 1/2} values were determined. Products were characterized using NMR, IR and GC-MS. Reaction products were found to be sulphoxide and sulphone. The combined system, i.e., 11-molybdo-1-vanadophosphoric acid plus ruthenium chloride (V{sub 1}/Ru/C) was found to be best for in-situ degradation of HD and its simulants. In-situ degradation by polyoxometalate based system was found to be stoichiometry based while Ru/C oxidized HD in presence of chemisorbed oxygen. In combined system of V{sub 1}/Ru/C ruthenium worked as a catalyst and polyoxometalate acted as a source of oxygen. Effect of moisture was also studied in combined system. Rate of degradation of HD was found to be increasing with increased percentage of moisture content.

  6. Temporary surface passivation for characterisation of bulk defects in silicon : a review

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Nicholas E.; Murphy, John D.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate measurements of the bulk minority carrier lifetime in high-quality silicon materials is challenging due to the influence of surface recombination. Conventional surface passivation processes such as thermal oxidation or dielectric deposition often modify the bulk lifetime significantly before measurement. Temporary surface passivation processes at room or very low temperatures enable a more accurate measurement of the true bulk lifetime, as they limit thermal reconfiguration of bulk d...

  7. Electrical passivation of the silicon surface by organic monolayers of 1-octadecene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonova, I. V.; Soots, R. A.; Seleznev, V. A.; Prints, V. Ya.

    2007-01-01

    The electrical properties of structures consisting of a monolayer of 1-octadecene deposited on the Si surface are investigated depending on the method of passivation of the surface prior to the deposition of the film (hydrogen and ion passivation) and the intensity of illumination which activates the addition reaction of molecules of 1-octadecene to the Si atoms. The monolayer of 1-octadecene on the Si surface is stable and provides the chemical passivation of the surface. Two types of traps are found, namely, traps for holes and electrons, whose density can be varied during deposition of the monolayer by the choice of intensity of illumination and by the method of passivation of the surface. In the case of a low level of illumination and/or the use of the iodine passivation of the surface, the electron traps prevail, and, in the case of high intensity of illumination and/or hydrogen passivation of the surface, the hole traps prevail. It is shown that the use of these films provides conductivity in thin near-surface layers of Si due to providing the mode of flat bands or accumulation of carriers near the surface

  8. Husbandry Emissions Estimation: Fusion of Mobile Surface and Airborne Remote Sensing and Mobile Surface In Situ Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, I.; Hall, J. L.; Melton, C.; Tratt, D. M.; Chang, C. S.; Buckland, K. N.; Frash, J.; Leen, J. B.; Van Damme, M.; Clarisse, L.

    2017-12-01

    Emissions of methane and ammonia from intensive animal husbandry are important drivers of climate and photochemical and aerosol pollution. Husbandry emission estimates are somewhat uncertain because of their dependence on practices, temperature, micro-climate, and other factors, leading to variations in emission factors up to an order-of-magnitude. Mobile in situ measurements are increasingly being applied to derive trace gas emissions by Gaussian plume inversion; however, inversion with incomplete information can lead to erroneous emissions and incorrect source location. Mobile in situ concentration and wind data and mobile remote sensing column data from the Chino Dairy Complex in the Los Angeles Basin were collected near simultaneously (within 1-10 s, depending on speed) while transecting plumes, approximately orthogonal to winds. This analysis included airborne remote sensing trace gas information. MISTIR collected vertical column FTIR data simultaneously with in situ concentration data acquired by the AMOG-Surveyor while both vehicles traveled in convoy. The column measurements are insensitive to the turbulence characterization needed in Gaussian plume inversion of concentration data and thus provide a flux reference for evaluating in situ data inversions. Four different approaches were used on inversions for a single dairy, and also for the aggregate dairy complex plume. Approaches were based on differing levels of "knowledge" used in the inversion from solely the in situ platform and a single gas to a combination of information from all platforms and multiple gases. Derived dairy complex fluxes differed significantly from those estimated by other studies of the Chino complex. Analysis of long term satellite data showed that this most likely results from seasonality effects, highlighting the pitfalls of applying annualized extensions of flux measurements to a single campaign instantiation.

  9. Soil surface stabilization using an in situ plutonium coating techniuqe at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, J.; Snipes, R.; Tamura, T.

    1996-01-01

    The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), in collaboration with the University of Nevada at Reno (UNR), has developed and is investigating an in situ plutonium treatment for soils at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The concept, conceived by Dr. T. Tamura and refined at HAZWRAP, was developed during the Nevada Applied Ecology Program investigation. In analyzing for plutonium in soils, it was noted that the alpha emanation of plutonium was greatly attenuated if traces of iron or manganese oxides were present in the final electroplating stage. The technique would reduce resuspension of alpha particles into the air by coating the contaminants in soils in situ with an environmentally compatible, durable, and nontoxic material. The coating materials (calcium hydroxide, ferrous sulfate) reduce resuspension by providing a cementitious barrier against radiation penetration while retaining soil porosity. This technique not only stabilizes plutonium-contaminated soils, but also provides an additional protection from worker exposure to radiation during remediation activities. Additionally, the coating would decrease the water solubility of the contaminant and, thus, reduce its migration through soil and uptake by plants

  10. In situ surface/interface x-ray diffractometer for oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. H.; Freeland, J. W.; Hong, Hawoong, E-mail: hhong@aps.anl.gov [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Tung, I. C. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Chang, S.-H.; Bhattacharya, A.; Fong, D. D. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    In situ studies of oxide molecular beam epitaxy by synchrotron x-ray scattering has been made possible by upgrading an existing UHV/molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) six-circle diffractometer system. For oxide MBE growth, pure ozone delivery to the chamber has been made available, and several new deposition sources have been made available on a new 12 in. CF (ConFlat, a registered trademark of Varian, Inc.) flange. X-ray diffraction has been used as a major probe for film growth and structures for the system. In the original design, electron diffraction was intended for the secondary diagnostics available without the necessity of the x-ray and located at separate positions. Deposition of films was made possible at the two diagnostic positions. And, the aiming of the evaporation sources is fixed to the point between two locations. Ozone can be supplied through two separate nozzles for each location. Also two separate thickness monitors are installed. Additional features of the equipment are also presented together with the data taken during typical oxide film growth to illustrate the depth of information available via in situ x-ray techniques.

  11. In situ surface/interface x-ray diffractometer for oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. H.; Freeland, J. W.; Hong, Hawoong; Tung, I. C.; Chang, S.-H.; Bhattacharya, A.; Fong, D. D.

    2016-01-01

    In situ studies of oxide molecular beam epitaxy by synchrotron x-ray scattering has been made possible by upgrading an existing UHV/molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) six-circle diffractometer system. For oxide MBE growth, pure ozone delivery to the chamber has been made available, and several new deposition sources have been made available on a new 12 in. CF (ConFlat, a registered trademark of Varian, Inc.) flange. X-ray diffraction has been used as a major probe for film growth and structures for the system. In the original design, electron diffraction was intended for the secondary diagnostics available without the necessity of the x-ray and located at separate positions. Deposition of films was made possible at the two diagnostic positions. And, the aiming of the evaporation sources is fixed to the point between two locations. Ozone can be supplied through two separate nozzles for each location. Also two separate thickness monitors are installed. Additional features of the equipment are also presented together with the data taken during typical oxide film growth to illustrate the depth of information available via in situ x-ray techniques

  12. Accessing the application of in situ cosmogenic 14C to surface exposure dating of amorphous SiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesta, J. M.; Goehring, B. M.; Ward, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    We assess the feasibility and utility of in situ cosmogenic 14C as a geochronometer for landforms composed of amorphous SiO2 through the comparison of 14C surface exposure ages to independently determined eruption ages on Obsidian Dome, California. Landforms composed of amorphous SiO2 phases are difficult to date by conventional cosmogenic nuclide methods due to several complications that may arise (e.g., inability to remove meteoric contamination). The onset of an increased understanding of production rates and analytical measurement of in situ 14C in SiO2 provides an opportunity to address this limitation. Obsidian Dome is a 600-year-old phreatomagmatic dome of the Mono-Inyo Craters located in Inyo County, California, and consists of vesicular pumice, obsidian, and rhyolite. Exposure ages from eight obsidian and banded pumice and obsidian surface samples range from 3947 ± 678 to 914 ± 134 years, all significantly older than the accepted radiocarbon age of 650-550 years. δ13C values for the samples range between +2.65‰ and +1.34‰ and show a negative correlation with CO2 yield. The `too old' exposure ages coupled with this negative correlation between δ13C and CO2 yield suggests the incorporation of an atmospheric component of 14C. Measurement of 14C concentrations in shielded, subsurface samples will assist in isolating the atmospheric 14C component and aid in correcting the surface exposure ages.

  13. Surface monitoring for pitting evolution into uniform corrosion on Cu-Ni-Zn ternary alloy in alkaline chloride solution: ex-situ LCM and in-situ SECM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Decheng; Dong, Chaofang; Zheng, Zhaoran; Mao, Feixiong; Xu, Aoni; Ni, Xiaoqing; Man, Cheng; Yao, Jizheng; Xiao, Kui; Li, Xiaogang

    2018-05-01

    The evolution of the corrosion process on Cu-Ni-Zn alloy in alkaline chloride solution was investigated by in-situ scanning electrochemical microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ex-situ laser confocal microscopy, and the effects of ambient temperature and polarization time were also discussed. The results demonstrated a higher pitting nucleation rate and lower pit growth rate at low temperature. The ratio of pit depth to mouth diameter decreased with increasing pit volume and temperature, indicating that pits preferentially propagate in the horizontal direction rather than the vertical direction owing to the presence of corrosion products and deposited copper. The surface current was uniform and stabilized at approximately 2.2 nA during the passive stage, whereas the current increased after the pits were formed with the maximum approaching 3 nA. Increasing the temperature led to an increase in porous corrosion products (CuO, Zn(OH)2, and Ni(OH)2) and significantly increased the rate of transition from pitting to uniform corrosion. Dezincification corrosion was detected by energy dispersive spectrometry, and a mechanism for pitting transition into uniform corrosion induced by dezincification at the grain boundaries is proposed.

  14. Silicon surface passivation using thin HfO2 films by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gope, Jhuma; Vandana; Batra, Neha; Panigrahi, Jagannath; Singh, Rajbir; Maurya, K.K.; Srivastava, Ritu; Singh, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • HfO 2 films using thermal ALD are studied for silicon surface passivation. • As-deposited thin film (∼8 nm) shows better passivation with surface recombination velocity (SRV) <100 cm/s. • Annealing improves passivation quality with SRV ∼20 cm/s for ∼8 nm film. - Abstract: Hafnium oxide (HfO 2 ) is a potential material for equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) scaling in microelectronics; however, its surface passivation properties particularly on silicon are not well explored. This paper reports investigation on passivation properties of thermally deposited thin HfO 2 films by atomic layer deposition system (ALD) on silicon surface. As-deposited pristine film (∼8 nm) shows better passivation with <100 cm/s surface recombination velocity (SRV) vis-à-vis thicker films. Further improvement in passivation quality is achieved with annealing at 400 °C for 10 min where the SRV reduces to ∼20 cm/s. Conductance measurements show that the interface defect density (D it ) increases with film thickness whereas its value decreases after annealing. XRR data corroborate with the observations made by FTIR and SRV data.

  15. In situ surface and interface study of crystalline (3×1)-O on InAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Xiaoye, E-mail: xxq102020@utdallas.edu; Wallace, Robert M., E-mail: rmwallace@utdallas.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Wang, Wei-E.; Rodder, Mark S. [Advanced Logic Lab, Samsung Semiconductor, Inc., Austin, Texas 78754 (United States)

    2016-07-25

    The oxidation behavior of de-capped InAs (100) exposed to O{sub 2} gas at different temperatures is investigated in situ with high resolution of monochromatic x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction. The oxide chemical states and structure change dramatically with the substrate temperature. A (3 × 1) crystalline oxide layer on InAs is generated in a temperature range of 290–330 °C with a coexistence of In{sub 2}O and As{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The stability of the crystalline oxide upon the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of HfO{sub 2} is studied as well. It is found that the generated (3 × 1) crystalline oxide is stable upon ALD HfO{sub 2} growth at 100 °C.

  16. DOTS: A High Resolution Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer for In Situ Analysis of the surface samples of Airless Planetary Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briois, Christelle; Thissen, Roland; Engrand, Cécile; Altwegg, Kathrin; Bouabdellah, Abdel; Boukrara, Amirouche; Carrasco, Nathalie; Chapuis, Claude; Cottin, Hervé; Grün, Eberhard; Grand, Noel; Henkel, Hartmut; Kempf, Sascha; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Makarov, Alexander A.; Postber, Frank; Srama, Ralf; Schmidt, Jürgen; Szopa, Cyril; Thirkell, Laurent; Tobie, Gabriel; Wurz, Peter; Zolotov, Mikhail Yu

    2013-04-01

    The dust detectors on board the Ulysses and Galileo spacecraft have shown that the Galilean satellites are surrounded by clouds of sub-micrometer size grains generated by impacts of interplanetary (micro-) meteoroids [1, 2]. In situ chemical analysis from orbit of these ballistic grains ejected from the surface of airless bodies provides a unique opportunity to remotely access the chemical composition of the Jovian moons' surface and subsurface. For Saturn, in situ identification by the Cassini Dust Analyzer (CDA) of sodium in icy grains in the E-Ring and in Enceladus plumes have proven a subsurface liquid water reservoir inside Enceladus [3, 4]. Noticeably, this was not accessible to other in situ or traditional remote sensing techniques. In situ measurements, either during a flyby or from orbit, of grains ejected from the surface, or emerging from the subsurface, of an airless body is a powerful tool to remotely study its surface composition and the nature of its geological activity. Crucial constraints on habitability can thus be determined. Our consortium of laboratories, in collaboration with Thermo Fischer Scientific [5, 6], is currently developing a high mass resolution Fourier Transform (FT) Orbitrap-based mass spectrometer optimized for in situ analysis of dust and icy grains in the environment of Solar System airless bodies. This new generation of dust mass spectrometer was studied in the framework of the Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) instrument study in 2010-2012 and proposed in response to ESA's AO for the JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission [7]. This mass analyser can provide very high mass resolution analysis (M/ΔM reaching 50 000 at m/z 50 Da). DOTS would allow identification of elemental and molecular species with excellent accuracy, in the 20-1000 Da mass range. In the context of the JUICE mission, DOTS would provide decisive information on the surface composition and on the putative liquid oceans in the subsurface of Ganymede

  17. Long Term Validation of Land Surface Temperature Retrieved from MSG/SEVIRI with Continuous in-Situ Measurements in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank-M. Göttsche

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 2005, the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Application Facility (LSA SAF operationally retrieves Land Surface Temperature (LST for the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI on board Meteosat Second Generation (MSG. The high temporal resolution of the Meteosat satellites and their long term availability since 1977 make their data highly valuable for climate studies. In order to ensure that the LSA SAF LST product continuously meets its target accuracy of 2 °C, it is validated with in-situ measurements from four dedicated LST validation stations. Three stations are located in highly homogenous areas in Africa (semiarid bush, desert, and Kalahari semi-desert and typically provide thousands of monthly match-ups with LSA SAF LST, which are used to perform seasonally resolved validations. An uncertainty analysis performed for desert station Gobabeb yielded an estimate of total in-situ LST uncertainty of 0.8 ± 0.12 °C. Ignoring rainy seasons, the results for the period 2009–2014 show that LSA SAF LST consistently meets its target accuracy: the highest mean root-mean-square error (RMSE for LSA SAF LST over the African stations was 1.6 °C while mean absolute bias was 0.1 °C. Nighttime and daytime biases were up to 0.7 °C but had opposite signs: when evaluated together, these partially compensated each other.

  18. Deposition of functionalized polymer layers in surface plasmon resonance immunosensors by in-situ polymerization in the evanescent wave field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegel, Vladimir; Whitcombe, Michael J; Turner, Nicholas W; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, the integration of sensing gel layers in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is achieved via "bulk" methods, such as precipitation, spin-coating or in-situ polymerization onto the total surface of the sensor chip, combined with covalent attachment of the antibody or receptor to the gel surface. This is wasteful in terms of materials as the sensing only occurs at the point of resonance interrogated by the laser. By isolating the sensing materials (antibodies, enzymes, aptamers, polymers, MIPs, etc.) to this exact spot a more efficient use of these recognition elements will be achieved. Here we present a method for the in-situ formation of polymers, using the energy of the evanescent wave field on the surface of an SPR device, specifically localized at the point of interrogation. Using the photo-initiator couple of methylene blue (sensitizing dye) and sodium p-toluenesulfinate (reducing agent) we polymerized a mixture of N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide and methacrylic acid in water at the focal point of SPR. No polymerization was seen in solution or at any other sites on the sensor surface. Varying parameters such as monomer concentration and exposure time allowed precise control over the polymer thickness (from 20-200 nm). Standard coupling with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide was used for the immobilization of protein G which was used to bind IgG in a typical biosensor format. This model system demonstrated the characteristic performance for this type of immunosensor, validating our deposition method.

  19. Surface Passivation for 3-5 Semiconductor Processing: Stable Gallium Sulphide Films by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinnes, Andrew N.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Power, Michael B.; Kang, Soon; Barron, Andrew R.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Tabib-Azar, Massood

    1994-01-01

    Gallium sulphide (GaS) has been deposited on GaAs to form stable, insulating, passivating layers. Spectrally resolved photoluminescence and surface recombination velocity measurements indicate that the GaS itself can contribute a significant fraction of the photoluminescence in GaS/GaAs structures. Determination of surface recombination velocity by photoluminescence is therefore difficult. By using C-V analysis of metal-insulator-semiconductor structures, passivation of the GaAs with GaS films is quantified.

  20. Passivation of phosphorus diffused silicon surfaces with Al2O3: Influence of surface doping concentration and thermal activation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Armin; Benick, Jan; Kimmerle, Achim; Hermle, Martin; Glunz, Stefan W.

    2014-01-01

    Thin layers of Al 2 O 3 are well known for the excellent passivation of p-type c-Si surfaces including highly doped p + emitters, due to a high density of fixed negative charges. Recent results indicate that Al 2 O 3 can also provide a good passivation of certain phosphorus-diffused n + c-Si surfaces. In this work, we studied the recombination at Al 2 O 3 passivated n + surfaces theoretically with device simulations and experimentally for Al 2 O 3 deposited with atomic layer deposition. The simulation results indicate that there is a certain surface doping concentration, where the recombination is maximal due to depletion or weak inversion of the charge carriers at the c-Si/Al 2 O 3 interface. This pronounced maximum was also observed experimentally for n + surfaces passivated either with Al 2 O 3 single layers or stacks of Al 2 O 3 capped by SiN x , when activated with a low temperature anneal (425 °C). In contrast, for Al 2 O 3 /SiN x stacks activated with a short high-temperature firing process (800 °C) a significant lower surface recombination was observed for most n + diffusion profiles without such a pronounced maximum. Based on experimentally determined interface properties and simulation results, we attribute this superior passivation quality after firing to a better chemical surface passivation, quantified by a lower interface defect density, in combination with a lower density of negative fixed charges. These experimental results reveal that Al 2 O 3 /SiN x stacks can provide not only excellent passivation on p + surfaces but also on n + surfaces for a wide range of surface doping concentrations when activated with short high-temperature treatments

  1. In situ Raman scattering study on a controllable plasmon-driven surface catalysis reaction on Ag nanoparticle arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Z G; Xiao, X H; Zhang, Y P; Ren, F; Wu, W; Zhang, S F; Zhou, J; Jiang, C Z; Mei, F

    2012-01-01

    Control of the plasmon-driven chemical reaction for the transformation of 4-nitrobenzenethiol to p,p′-dimercaptoazobenzene by Ag nanoparticle arrays was studied. The Ag nanoparticle arrays were fabricated by means of nanosphere lithography. By changing the PS particle size, the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peaks of the Ag nanoparticle arrays can be tailored from 460 to 560 nm. The controlled reaction process was monitored by in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The reaction can be dramatically influenced by varying the duration of laser exposure, Ag nanoparticle size, laser power and laser excitation wavelength. The maximum reaction speed was achieved when the LSPR wavelength of the Ag nanoparticle arrays matched the laser excitation wavelength. The experimental results reveal that the strong LSPR can effectively drive the transfer of the ‘hot’ electrons that decay from the plasmon to the reactants. The experimental results were confirmed by theoretical calculations. (paper)

  2. In situ surface treatment of nanocrystalline MFe2O4 (M = Co, Mg, Mn, Ni) spinel ferrites using linseed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gherca, Daniel; Cornei, Nicoleta; Mentré, Olivier; Kabbour, Houria; Daviero-Minaud, Sylvie; Pui, Aurel

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis by coprecipitation method of MFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles using linseed oil as the in-situ surfactant. The decomposition process of the precursors and the formation process of MFe 2 O 4 were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). The crystal structure and surface morphology were examined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The results demonstrate that the surface of MFe 2 O 4 with a diameter in the range 5–13 nm, is activated with hydrophilic groups of the surfactant which coat them and enhance the stability. Magnetic properties are discussed.

  3. Integrated in situ characterization of molten salt catalyst surface: Evidence of sodium peroxide and OH radical formation

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Khan, Abdulaziz M.; Tang, Yu; Nguyen, Luan; Ziani, Ahmed; Jacobs, Benjamin W; Elbaz, Ayman M.; Sarathy, S Mani; Tao, Franklin Feng

    2017-01-01

    Na-based catalysts (i.e., Na2WO4) were proposed to selectively catalyze OH radical formation from H2O and O2 at high temperatures. This reaction may proceed on molten salt state surfaces due to the lower melting point of the used Na salts compared to the reaction temperature. This study provides direct evidence of the molten salt state of Na2WO4, which can form OH radicals, using in situ techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrometer, and ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS). As a result, Na2O2 species, which were hypothesized to be responsible for the formation of OH radicals, has been identified on the outer surfaces at temperatures ≥800°C, and these species are useful for various gas-phase hydrocarbon reactions including the selective transformation of methane to ethane.

  4. Adsorption of human insulin on single-crystal gold surfaces investigated by in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy and electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welinder, Anna Christina; Zhang, Jingdong; Steensgaard, D.B.

    2010-01-01

    sweep, LSV, cyclic, CV, and square wave (SQWV) voltammetry. Multifarious electrochemical patterns were observed. Most attention was given to reductive desorption caused by insulin binding to the Au-surfaces via up to three disulfide groups per insulin monomer, presumably converted to single Au-S links....... SQWV suggested the Au-S bond strength order Au(111) > Au(110) > Au(100) based on the reductive desorption potentials. The voltammetric diversity was paralleled by different in situ STM insulin adsorption modes on the three surfaces. Single-molecule resolution was achieved in all cases. The coverage...... followed the order Au(110) > Au(100) > Au(111) and differs from the reductive desorption order that records the Au-S bonding element. Evenly distributed single molecules were scattered over large Au(111)-terraces, with intriguing molecular arrays disclosed near the terrace edges. In comparison, high...

  5. Morphological study and thermal analysis of surface modified α-FeOOH via in situ polymerization of methyl methacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yaoxing; Ma Xinsheng; Cao Hongming; Zhang Haiying; Wu Qiufang

    2004-01-01

    Considering the interfacial characteristics of goethite (α-FeOOH, iron oxide yellow), the in situ polymerization of methyl methacrylate was employed to modify the surfaces of α-FeOOH pigments in aqueous slurry. The scanning electron micrographs indicated that the poly(methyl methacrylate) anchored on the surfaces of the particle homogeneously. From this study, it was found that one of the key requirements in the synthesis of the α-FeOOH-PMMA composite was to enhance interfacial compatibility between inorganic particles and organic monomer. Moreover, polymer-treated α-FeOOH particles were easily dispersed in organic medium to form a stable colloid and the heat resistance of α-FeOOH particles was improved

  6. Integrated in situ characterization of molten salt catalyst surface: Evidence of sodium peroxide and OH radical formation

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2017-06-26

    Na-based catalysts (i.e., Na2WO4) were proposed to selectively catalyze OH radical formation from H2O and O2 at high temperatures. This reaction may proceed on molten salt state surfaces due to the lower melting point of the used Na salts compared to the reaction temperature. This study provides direct evidence of the molten salt state of Na2WO4, which can form OH radicals, using in situ techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrometer, and ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS). As a result, Na2O2 species, which were hypothesized to be responsible for the formation of OH radicals, has been identified on the outer surfaces at temperatures ≥800°C, and these species are useful for various gas-phase hydrocarbon reactions including the selective transformation of methane to ethane.

  7. In situ surface treatment of nanocrystalline MFe2O4 (M = Co, Mg, Mn, Ni) spinel ferrites using linseed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherca, Daniel; Cornei, Nicoleta; Mentré, Olivier; Kabbour, Houria; Daviero-Minaud, Sylvie; Pui, Aurel

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports the synthesis by coprecipitation method of MFe2O4 nanoparticles using linseed oil as the in-situ surfactant. The decomposition process of the precursors and the formation process of MFe2O4 were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). The crystal structure and surface morphology were examined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The results demonstrate that the surface of MFe2O4 with a diameter in the range 5-13 nm, is activated with hydrophilic groups of the surfactant which coat them and enhance the stability. Magnetic properties are discussed.

  8. In Situ Studies of Surface Mobility on Noble Metal Model Catalysts Using STM and XPS at Ambient Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, Derek Robert [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-06-01

    are present on the Pt(100) hex reconstructed phase, but not the (100)-(1x1) surface. The increase in ethylene pressure caused the adsorbate interactions to dominate the crystal morphology and imposed a surface layer structure that matched the ethylidyne binding geometry. The STM results also showed that the surface was reversibly deformed during imaging due to increases in Pt mobility at high pressure. The size dependence on the activity and surface chemistry of Rh nanoparticles was studied using AP-XPS. The activity was found to increase with particle size. The XPS spectra show that in reaction conditions the particle surface has an oxide layer which is chemically distinct from the surface structure formed by heating in oxygen alone. This surface oxide which is stabilized in the catalytically active CO oxidation conditions was found to be more prevalent on the smaller nanoparticles. The reaction-induced surface segregation behavior of bimetallic noble metal nanoparticles was observed with APXPS. Monodisperse 15 nm RhPd and PdPt nanoparticles were synthesized with well controlled Rh/Pd and Pd/Pt compositions. In-situ XPS studies showed that at 300 C in the presence of an oxidizing environment (100 mTorr NO or O2) the surface concentration of the more easily oxidized element (Rh in RhPd and Pd in PdPt) was increased. Switching the gas environment to more reducing conditions (100 mTorr NO and 100 mTorr CO) caused the surface enrichment of the element with the lowest surface energy in its metallic state. Using in-situ characterization, the redox chemistry and the surface composition of bimetallic nanoparticle samples were monitored in reactive conditions. The particle surfaces were shown to reversibly restructure in response to the gas environment at high temperature. The oxidation behavior of the Pt(110) surface was studied using surface sensitive in-situ characterization by APXPS and STM. In the presence of 500 mTorr O2 and temperatures between 25

  9. Electrical properties of GaAs metal–oxide–semiconductor structure comprising Al2O3 gate oxide and AlN passivation layer fabricated in situ using a metal–organic vapor deposition/atomic layer deposition hybrid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Aoki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a compressive study on the fabrication and optimization of GaAs metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS structures comprising a Al2O3 gate oxide, deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD, with an AlN interfacial passivation layer prepared in situ via metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD. The established protocol afforded self-limiting growth of Al2O3 in the atmospheric MOCVD reactor. Consequently, this enabled successive growth of MOCVD-formed AlN and ALD-formed Al2O3 layers on the GaAs substrate. The effects of AlN thickness, post-deposition anneal (PDA conditions, and crystal orientation of the GaAs substrate on the electrical properties of the resulting MOS capacitors were investigated. Thin AlN passivation layers afforded incorporation of optimum amounts of nitrogen, leading to good capacitance–voltage (C–V characteristics with reduced frequency dispersion. In contrast, excessively thick AlN passivation layers degraded the interface, thereby increasing the interfacial density of states (Dit near the midgap and reducing the conduction band offset. To further improve the interface with the thin AlN passivation layers, the PDA conditions were optimized. Using wet nitrogen at 600 °C was effective to reduce Dit to below 2 × 1012 cm−2 eV−1. Using a (111A substrate was also effective in reducing the frequency dispersion of accumulation capacitance, thus suggesting the suppression of traps in GaAs located near the dielectric/GaAs interface. The current findings suggest that using an atmosphere ALD process with in situ AlN passivation using the current MOCVD system could be an efficient solution to improving GaAs MOS interfaces.

  10. Surface Passivation of Silicon Using HfO2 Thin Films Deposited by Remote Plasma Atomic Layer Deposition System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Ying; Hsu, Chia-Hsun; Lien, Shui-Yang; Chen, Song-Yan; Huang, Wei; Yang, Chih-Hsiang; Kung, Chung-Yuan; Zhu, Wen-Zhang; Xiong, Fei-Bing; Meng, Xian-Guo

    2017-12-01

    Hafnium oxide (HfO 2 ) thin films have attracted much attention owing to their usefulness in equivalent oxide thickness scaling in microelectronics, which arises from their high dielectric constant and thermodynamic stability with silicon. However, the surface passivation properties of such films, particularly on crystalline silicon (c-Si), have rarely been reported upon. In this study, the HfO 2 thin films were deposited on c-Si substrates with and without oxygen plasma pretreatments, using a remote plasma atomic layer deposition system. Post-annealing was performed using a rapid thermal processing system at different temperatures in N 2 ambient for 10 min. The effects of oxygen plasma pretreatment and post-annealing on the properties of the HfO 2 thin films were investigated. They indicate that the in situ remote plasma pretreatment of Si substrate can result in the formation of better SiO 2 , resulting in a better chemical passivation. The deposited HfO 2 thin films with oxygen plasma pretreatment and post-annealing at 500 °C for 10 min were effective in improving the lifetime of c-Si (original lifetime of 1 μs) to up to 67 μs.

  11. Europa's surface radiation environment and considerations for in-situ sampling and biosignature detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordheim, T.; Paranicas, C.; Hand, K. P.

    2017-12-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa is embedded deep within the Jovian magnetosphere and is thus exposed to bombardment by charged particles, from thermal plasma to more energetic particles at radiation belt energies. In particular, energetic charged particles are capable of affecting the uppermost layer of surface material on Europa, in some cases down to depths of several meters (Johnson et al., 2004; Paranicas et al., 2009, 2002). Examples of radiation-induced surface alteration include sputtering, radiolysis and grain sintering; processes that are capable of significantly altering the physical properties of surface material. Radiolysis of surface ices containing sulfur-bearing contaminants from Io has been invoked as a possible explanation for hydrated sulfuric acid detected on Europa's surface (Carlson et al., 2002, 1999) and radiolytic production of oxidants represents a potential source of energy for life that could reside within Europa's sub-surface ocean (Chyba, 2000; Hand et al., 2007; Johnson et al., 2003; Vance et al., 2016). Accurate knowledge of Europa's surface radiation environment is essential to the interpretation of space and Earth-based observations of Europa's surface and exosphere. Furthermore, future landed missions may seek to sample endogenic material emplaced on Europa's surface to investigate its chemical composition and to search for biosignatures contained within. Such material would likely be sampled from the shallow sub-surface, and thus, it becomes crucial to know to which degree this material is expected to have been radiation processed.Here we will present modeling results of energetic electron and proton bombardment of Europa's surface, including interactions between these particles and surface material. In addition, we will present predictions for biosignature destruction at different geographical locations and burial depths and discuss the implications of these results for surface sampling by future missions to Europa's surface.

  12. Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Very Low Hysteresis Prepared by Aggregation of Silica Nanoparticles During In Situ Urea-Formaldehyde Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Anubhav; Jensen, David S; Gupta, Vipul; Johnson, Brian I; Evans, Delwyn; Telford, Clive; Linford, Matthew R

    2015-12-01

    We present a new method for the preparation of superhydrophobic materials by in situ aggregation of silica nanoparticles on a surface during a urea-formaldehyde (UF) polymerization. This is a one-step process in which a two-tier topography is obtained. The polymerization is carried out for 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min on silicon shards. Silicon surfaces are sintered to remove the polymer. SEM and AFM show both an increase in the area covered by the nanoparticles and their aggregation with increasing polymerization time. Chemical vapor deposition of a fluorinated silane in the presence of a basic catalyst gives these surfaces hydrophobicity. Deposition of this low surface energy silane is confirmed by the F 1s signal in XPS. The surfaces show advancing water contact angles in excess of 160 degrees with very low hysteresis (polymerization times for 7 nm and 14 nm silica, respectively. Depositions are successfully demonstrated on glass substrates after they are primed with a UF polymer layer. Superhydrophobic surfaces can also be prepared on unsintered substrates.

  13. In situ X-ray scattering studies of protein solution droplets drying on micro- and nanopatterned superhydrophobic PMMA surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardo, Angelo; Gentile, Francesco; Mecarini, Federico; De Angelis, Francesco; Burghammer, Manfred; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Riekel, Christian

    2010-09-21

    Superhydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) surfaces with contact angles of ∼170° and high optical and X-ray transparencies have been fabricated through the use of optical lithography and plasma etching. The surfaces contain either a microscale pattern of micropillars or a random nanofibrillar pattern. Nanoscale asperities on top of the micropillars closely resemble Nelumbo nucifera lotus leaves. The evolution of the contact angle of water and lysozyme solution droplets during evaporation was studied on the micro- and nanopatterned surfaces, showing in particular contact-line pinning for the protein solution droplet on the nanopatterned surface. The microstructural evolution of lysozyme solution droplets was studied on both types of surfaces in situ under nearly contact-free conditions by synchrotron radiation microbeam wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering revealing the increasing protein concentration and the onset of precipitation. The solid residuals show hollow sphere morphologies. Rastermicrodiffraction of the detached residuals suggests about a 1/3 volume fraction of ≥17 nm lysozyme nanocrystalline domains and about a 2/3 short-range-order volume fraction. About 5-fold larger nanocrystalline domains were observed at the attachment points of the sphere to the substrates, which is attributed to particle growth in a shear flow. Such surfaces represent nearly contact-free sample supports for studies of inorganic and organic solution droplets, which find applications in biochips.

  14. Induction heating to trigger the nickel surface modification by in situ generated 4-carboxybenzene diazonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrotin, Bastien; Jacques, Amory; Devillers, Sébastien; Delhalle, Joseph; Mekhalif, Zineb

    2016-05-01

    Nickel is commonly used in numerous applications and is one of the few materials that present strong ferromagnetic properties. These make it a suitable material for induction heating which can be used to activate the grafting of organic species such as diazonium salts onto the material. Diazonium compounds are often used for the modification of metals and alloys thanks to their easy chemical reduction onto the substrates and the possibility to apply a one-step in situ generation process of the diazonium species. This work focuses on the grafting of 4-aminocarboxybenzene on nickel substrates in the context of a spontaneous grafting conducted either at room temperature or by thermal assistance through conventional heating and induction heating. These modifications are also carried out with the goal of maintaining the oxides layer as much as possible unaffected. The benefits of using induction heating with respect to conventional heating are an increase of the grafting rate, a better control of the reaction and a slighter impact on the oxides layer.

  15. Examining the free radical bonding mechanism of benzoquinone– and hydroquinone–methanol passivation of silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotulak, Nicole A.; Chen, Meixi; Schreiber, Nikolas; Jones, Kevin; Opila, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Photons are required for high levels of c-Si passivation by both BQ/ME and HQ/ME solutions. • Protons are required for high levels of c-Si passivation by both BQ/ME and HQ/ME solutions. • The free radical QH· is the likely passivating species for c-Si surfaces from BQ/ME and HQ/ME solutions. - Abstract: The surface passivation of p-benzoquinone (BQ) and hydroquinone (HQ) when dissolved in methanol (ME) has been examined through effective lifetime testing of crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafers treated with the aforementioned solutions. Changes in the availability of both photons and protons in the solutions were demonstrated to affect the level of passivation achieved. The requirement of both excess protons and ambient light exposure to maintain high effective lifetimes supports the presence of a free radical species that drives the surface passivation. Surface analysis suggests a 1:1 ratio of HQ-like bonds to methoxy bonds on the c-Si surface after treatment with a BQ/ME solution.

  16. In-Situ Measurement of Chirality of Molecules and Molecular Assemblies with Surface Nonlinear Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hongfei

    2012-01-01

    Developments in quantitative measurement and analysis in nonlinear surface spectroscopy, namely, second harmonic generation linear dichroism (SHG-LD) and sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy linear dichroism (SFG-VS-LD), provide new opportunities for probing the surface chirality of monolayers and thin films. In this book chapter, the up-to-date theoretical background and experimental methodology, as well as examples and future perspectives on the developments with surface nonlinear spectroscopy in surface chirality studies are to be summarized and outlined for general readers.

  17. Reconstructions of the sulfur-passivated InSb (100) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciochoń, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.ciochon@doctoral.uj.edu.pl; Olszowska, Natalia; Wróbel, Sonia; Kołodziej, Jacek

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Two new surface reconstructions of a S-passivated InSb (001) surface are reported. • The reconstructions are obtained through partial loss of surface sulfur. • They are characterized by the thickness of ∼4 Å and good crystallographic ordering. • The reconstructions provide adequate electronic passivation of the surface. - Abstract: We have studied the properties of the InSb (100) surface passivated with sulfur dimers emitted by the solid-state electrochemical cell in ultra-high vacuum. Annealing the passivated surface in the temperature equal to T = 326 °C led to the formation of the c(4 × 8) surface reconstruction, while increasing the temperature to T = 348 °C resulted in the transition to c(4 × 12) reconstruction. To the best of our knowledge these reconstructions have not been reported to date and are characterized by the exceptionally good crystallographic order. XPS studies revealed that there are at least 4 different chemical species of sulfur present on the surface and the estimated thickness of the sulfur layers is equal to around 4 Å. The surface reconstructions are characterized by the lowered intensity of the surface electronic states and resonances near the Fermi level, compared to the clean InSb surface, making them potentially very useful for the fabrication of InSb-based electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  18. Cross-evaluation of modelled and remotely sensed surface soil moisture with in situ data in southwestern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Albergel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The SMOSMANIA soil moisture network in Southwestern France is used to evaluate modelled and remotely sensed soil moisture products. The surface soil moisture (SSM measured in situ at 5 cm permits to evaluate SSM from the SIM operational hydrometeorological model of Météo-France and to perform a cross-evaluation of the normalised SSM estimates derived from coarse-resolution (25 km active microwave observations from the ASCAT scatterometer instrument (C-band, onboard METOP, issued by EUMETSAT and resampled to the Discrete Global Grid (DGG, 12.5 km gridspacing by TU-Wien (Vienna University of Technology over a two year period (2007–2008. A downscaled ASCAT product at one kilometre scale is evaluated as well, together with operational soil moisture products of two meteorological services, namely the ALADIN numerical weather prediction model (NWP and the Integrated Forecasting System (IFS analysis of Météo-France and ECMWF, respectively. In addition to the operational SSM analysis of ECMWF, a second analysis using a simplified extended Kalman filter and assimilating the ASCAT SSM estimates is tested. The ECMWF SSM estimates correlate better with the in situ observations than the Météo-France products. This may be due to the higher ability of the multi-layer land surface model used at ECMWF to represent the soil moisture profile. However, the SSM derived from SIM corresponds to a thin soil surface layer and presents good correlations with ASCAT SSM estimates for the very first centimetres of soil. At ECMWF, the use of a new data assimilation technique, which is able to use the ASCAT SSM, improves the SSM and the root-zone soil moisture analyses.

  19. Mesoscale Elucidation of Surface Passivation in the Li-Sulfur Battery Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhixiao; Mukherjee, Partha P

    2017-02-15

    The cathode surface passivation caused by Li 2 S precipitation adversely affects the performance of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Li 2 S precipitation is a complicated mesoscale process involving adsorption, desorption and diffusion kinetics, which are affected profoundly by the reactant concentration and operating temperature. In this work, a mesoscale interfacial model is presented to study the growth of Li 2 S film on carbon cathode surface. Li 2 S film growth experiences nucleation, isolated Li 2 S island growth and island coalescence. The slow adsorption rate at small S 2- concentration inhibits the formation of nucleation seeds and the lateral growth of Li 2 S islands, which deters surface passivation. An appropriate operating temperature, especially in the medium-to-high temperature range, can also defer surface passivation. Fewer Li 2 S nucleation seeds form in such an operating temperature range, thereby facilitating heterogeneous growth and potentially inhibiting the lateral growth of the Li 2 S film, which may ultimately result in reduced surface passivation. The high specific surface area of the cathode microstructure is expected to mitigate the surface passivation.

  20. The Modern Near-Surface Martian Climate: A Review of In-situ Meteorological Data from Viking to Curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, G. M.; Newman, C. N.; De Vicente-Retortillo, A.; Fischer, E.; Renno, N. O.; Richardson, M. I.; Fairén, A. G.; Genzer, M.; Guzewich, S. D.; Haberle, R. M.; Harri, A.-M.; Kemppinen, O.; Lemmon, M. T.; Smith, M. D.; de la Torre-Juárez, M.; Vasavada, A. R.

    2017-10-01

    We analyze the complete set of in-situ meteorological data obtained from the Viking landers in the 1970s to today's Curiosity rover to review our understanding of the modern near-surface climate of Mars, with focus on the dust, CO2 and H2O cycles and their impact on the radiative and thermodynamic conditions near the surface. In particular, we provide values of the highest confidence possible for atmospheric opacity, atmospheric pressure, near-surface air temperature, ground temperature, near-surface wind speed and direction, and near-surface air relative humidity and water vapor content. Then, we study the diurnal, seasonal and interannual variability of these quantities over a span of more than twenty Martian years. Finally, we propose measurements to improve our understanding of the Martian dust and H2O cycles, and discuss the potential for liquid water formation under Mars' present day conditions and its implications for future Mars missions. Understanding the modern Martian climate is important to determine if Mars could have the conditions to support life and to prepare for future human exploration.

  1. Surface modification of magnesium aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles with poly(methyl methacrylate) via one-pot in situ polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Xiaojun, E-mail: guoxj6906@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, 967 Anning East Road, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Zhao Leihua; Zhang Li; Li Jing [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, 967 Anning East Road, Lanzhou 730070 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Hydrophobic magnesium aluminum hydroxide composite particles (PMMA-MAH) were obtained by means of grafting poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) onto the surface of magnesium aluminum hydroxide(MAH) nanoparticles after a novel type of phosphate coupling agent (DN-27) modification. The introduction of functional double bonds was firstly conducted on the surface of nanoparticles by DN-27 modification, followed by one-pot in situ polymerization on the particles surface using methyl methacrylate (MMA) as monomer, azoisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as stabilizer to graft PMMA on the surface of DN-27-modified MAH particles. The obtained composite particles were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The results show that the organic macromolecule PMMA could be successfully grafted on the surface of DN-27-modified MAH nanoparticles and the thermal stability of the PMMA-MAH composite particles had been improved. Compared with unmodified blank MAH sample, the product obtained with this method possesses better hydrophobic properties such as a higher water contact angle of 108 Degree-Sign and a well dispersion.

  2. Determination of surface concentrations of individual molecule-layers used in nanoscale biosensors by in situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Punzet, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    For the development of nanowire sensors for chemical and medical detection purposes, the optimal functionalization of the surface is a mandatory component. Quantitative ATR-FTIR spectroscopy was used in situ to investigate the step-by-step layer formation of typical functionalization protocols and to determine the respective molecule surface concentrations. BSA, anti-TNF-α and anti-PSA antibodies were bound via 3-(trimethoxy)butylsilyl aldehyde linkers to silicon-oxide surfaces in order to investigate surface functionalization of nanowires. Maximum determined surface concentrations were 7.17 × 10 -13 mol cm -2 for BSA, 1.7 × 10 -13 mol cm -2 for anti-TNF-α antibody, 6.1 × 10 -13 mol cm -2 for anti-PSA antibody, 3.88 × 10 -13 mol cm -2 for TNF-α and 7.0 × 10 -13 mol cm -2 for PSA. Furthermore we performed antibody-antigen binding experiments and determined the specific binding ratios. The maximum possible ratio of 2 was obtained at bulk concentrations of the antigen in the μg ml -1 range for TNF-α and PSA. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Atmospheric characterization through fused mobile airborne and surface in situ surveys: methane emissions quantification from a producing oil field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Ira; Melton, Christopher; Fischer, Marc L.; Fladeland, Matthew; Frash, Jason; Gore, Warren; Iraci, Laura T.; Marrero, Josette E.; Ryoo, Ju-Mee; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Yates, Emma L.

    2018-03-01

    Methane (CH4) inventory uncertainties are large, requiring robust emission derivation approaches. We report on a fused airborne-surface data collection approach to derive emissions from an active oil field near Bakersfield, central California. The approach characterizes the atmosphere from the surface to above the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and combines downwind trace gas concentration anomaly (plume) above background with normal winds to derive flux. This approach does not require a well-mixed PBL; allows explicit, data-based, uncertainty evaluation; and was applied to complex topography and wind flows. In situ airborne (collected by AJAX - the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment) and mobile surface (collected by AMOG - the AutoMObile trace Gas - Surveyor) data were collected on 19 August 2015 to assess source strength. Data included an AMOG and AJAX intercomparison transect profiling from the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) floor into the Sierra Nevada (0.1-2.2 km altitude), validating a novel surface approach for atmospheric profiling by leveraging topography. The profile intercomparison found good agreement in multiple parameters for the overlapping altitude range from 500 to 1500 m for the upper 5 % of surface winds, which accounts for wind-impeding structures, i.e., terrain, trees, buildings, etc. Annualized emissions from the active oil fields were 31.3 ± 16 Gg methane and 2.4 ± 1.2 Tg carbon dioxide. Data showed the PBL was not well mixed at distances of 10-20 km downwind, highlighting the importance of the experimental design.

  4. In Situ Nondestructive Analysis of Kalanchoe pinnata Leaf Surface Structure by Polarization-Modulation Infrared Reflection-Absorption Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Tetsuya; Kouchi, Akira; Watanabe, Naoki; Enami, Shinichi; Shimoaka, Takafumi; Hasegawa, Takeshi

    2017-12-14

    The outermost surface of the leaves of land plants is covered with a lipid membrane called the cuticle that protects against various stress factors. Probing the molecular-level structure of the intact cuticle is highly desirable for understanding its multifunctional properties. We report the in situ characterization of the surface structure of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves using polarization-modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). Without sample pretreatment, PM-IRRAS measures the IR spectra of the leaf cuticle of a potted K. pinnata plant. The peak position of the CH 2 -related modes shows that the cuticular waxes on the leaf surface are mainly crystalline, and the alkyl chains are highly packed in an all-trans zigzag conformation. The surface selection rule of PM-IRRAS revealed the average orientation of the cuticular molecules, as indicated by the positive and negative signals of the IR peaks. This unique property of PM-IRRAS revealed that the alkyl chains of the waxes and the main chains of polysaccharides are oriented almost perpendicular to the leaf surface. The nondestructive, background-free, and environmental gas-free nature of PM-IRRAS allows the structure and chemistry of the leaf cuticle to be studied directly in its native environment.

  5. In-situ γ spectrometry of the Chernobyl fallout using soil-sample independent corrections for surface roughness and migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlberg, O.

    1993-12-01

    The 661 keV gamma and 32 keV X-ray fluences from Cs-137 were measured in-situ with a Gamma-X Ge detector on different types of urban and rural surfaces. In comparison with a model calculation, the 661 keV fluence was used to estimate the surface activity assuming an ideal, infinite surface and the quotient between the 32 and 661 fluences was used to estimate the correction factors for the surfaces due to migration and surface roughness. As an alternative to the X-ray method, the use of a collimator for ordinary measurements of the 661 keV peak was analysed, and compared with the X-ray method and with measurements without a collimator. The X-ray method with the optimal soil distribution and composition gives the best results, but ordinary measurements with use of a collimator with a constant correction factor seems to be an appropriate method, when soil profiles for determination of a more exact calibration factor are not available

  6. Kaolinite as an in situ dosimeter for past radionuclide migration at the Earth's surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, T.; Muller, J.-P.

    1998-01-01

    The origin of 3 types of point defects (A-, Aminutes or feet- and B-centers) in kaolinite, due to natural irradiation and detected by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), has been demonstrated by artificial irradiation. The potential use of tracing the dynamics of the transfer of radionuclides through A-centers (i.e. the most stable centers) was qualitatively tested on different low-temperature alteration systems, some associated with U-concentrations. This paper proposes a quantitative approach to the reconstruction of the past migration of radionuclides by dosimetry of A-centers. With this aim in mind, the efficiency of α- and γ-radiations to produce A-centers was determined by experimental irradiation. Parameters extracted from A-center growth curves, together with their relationship with a parameter describing the degree of order of kaolinite, permitted (i) a definition to be made of the dose range in which a given kaolinite could be used as a dosimeter and (ii) the quantitative derivation of U-concentration from the cumulative dose (paleodose) of kaolinites. This was achieved by a formalism that accounted for the contribution of natural radiosources to the production of A-centers. The formalism was applied to the Nopal I U-deposit (Chihuhua, Mexico), considered as a natural analogue of a high level nuclear waste repository. Irrespective of the scenario considered, in terms of kaolinite age and of degree of isotopic disequilibrium in the system, A-center dosimetry permitted the determination of past occurrences of U which were several orders of magnitude higher than the present-day measured U-concentrations. Furthermore, this approach also provided evidence for several previous episodes of U-migration. EPR spectroscopy is thus a unique tool for the quantitative, indirect assessment of past radionuclide migration in the geosphere and kaolinite is a reliable in-situ dosimeter. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights

  7. Distinct kinetics and mechanisms of mZVI particles aging in saline and fresh groundwater: H2 evolution and surface passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Jia; Tang, Fenglin; Zheng, Xilai; Shao, Haibing; Kolditz, Olaf; Lu, Xin

    2016-09-01

    Application of microscale zero-valent iron (mZVI) is a promising technology for in-situ contaminated groundwater remediation; however, its longevity is negatively impacted by surface passivation, especially in saline groundwater. In this study, the aging behavior of mZVI particles was investigated in three media (milli-Q water, fresh groundwater and saline groundwater) using batch experiments to evaluate their potential corrosion and passivation performance under different field conditions. The results indicated that mZVI was reactive for 0-7 days of exposure to water and then gradually lost H2-generating capacity over the next hundred days in all of the tested media. In comparison, mZVI in saline groundwater exhibited the fastest corrosion rate during the early phase (0-7 d), followed by the sharpest kinetic constant decline in the latter phases. The SEM-EDS and XPS analyses demonstrated that in the saline groundwater, a thin and compact oxide film was immediately formed on the surface and significantly shielded the iron reactive site. Nevertheless, in fresh groundwater and milli-Q water, a passive layer composed of loosely and unevenly distributed precipitates slowly formed, with abundant reactive sites available to support continuous iron corrosion. These findings provide insight into the molecular-scale mechanism that governs mZVI passivation and provide implications for long-term mZVI application in saline contaminated groundwater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Surface-Passivated AlGaN Nanowires for Enhanced Luminescence of Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Haiding

    2017-12-19

    Spontaneously-grown, self-aligned AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet light emitting diodes still suffer from low efficiency partially because of the strong surface recombination caused by surface states, i.e., oxidized surface and high density surface states. Several surface passivation methods have been introduced to reduce surface non-radiative recombination by using complex and toxic chemicals. Here, we present an effective method to suppress such undesirable surface recombination of the AlGaN nanowires via diluted potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution; a commonly used chemical process in semiconductor fabrication which is barely used as surface passivation solution in self-assembled nitride-based nanowires. The transmission electron microscopy investigation on the samples reveals almost intact nanowire structures after the passivation process. We demonstrated an approximately 49.7% enhancement in the ultraviolet light output power after 30-s KOH treatment on AlGaN nanowires grown on titanium-coated silicon substrates. We attribute such a remarkable enhancement to the removal of the surface dangling bonds and oxidized nitrides (Ga-O or Al-O bonds) at the surface as we observe the change of the carrier lifetime before and after the passivation. Thus, our results highlight the possibility of employing this process for the realization of high performance nanowire UV emitters.

  9. Increased preference of surface ablation over laser in situ keratomileusis between 2008–2011 is correlated to risk of ecatasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisseiev E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Elad Moisseiev,1,3 Tzahi Sela,2 Liza Minkev,2 David Varssano1,31Department of Ophthalmology, Tel-Aviv Medical Center, Tel-Aviv, Israel; 2Care Vision, Tel Aviv, Israel; 3Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, IsraelPurpose: To evaluate the trends in corneal refractive procedure selection for the correction of myopia, focusing on the relative proportions of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK and surface ablation procedures.Methods: Only eyes that underwent LASIK or surface ablation for the correction of myopia between 2008–2011 were included in this retrospective study. Additional recorded parameters included patient age, preoperative manifest refraction, corneal thickness, and calculated residual corneal bed thickness. A risk score was given to each eye, based on these parameters, according to the Ectasia Risk Factor Score System (ERFSS, without the preoperative corneal topography.Results: This study included 16,163 eyes, of which 38.4% underwent LASIK and 61.6% underwent surface ablation. The risk score correlated with procedure selection, with LASIK being preferred in eyes with a score of 0 and surface ablation in eyes with a score of 2 or higher. When controlling for age, preoperative manifest refraction, corneal thickness, and all parameters, the relative proportion of surface ablation compared with LASIK was found to have grown significantly during the study period.Conclusions: Our results indicate that with time, surface ablation tended to be performed more often than LASIK for the correction of myopia in our cohort. Increased awareness of risk factors and preoperative risk assessment tools, such as the ERFSS, have shifted the current practice of refractive surgery from LASIK towards surface ablation despite the former's advantages, especially in cases in which the risk for ectasia is more than minimal (risk score 2 and higher.Keywords: surface ablation, LASIK, PRK, myopia correction, ectasia

  10. In-situ investigation of laser surface modifications of WC-Co hard metals inside a scanning electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, H.; Wetzig, K.; Schultrich, B.; Pompe, Wolfgang; Chapliev, N. I.; Konov, Vitaly I.; Pimenov, S. M.; Prokhorov, Alexander M.

    1989-05-01

    The investigation of laser interaction with solid surfaces and of the resulting mechanism of surface modification are of technical interest to optimize technological processes, and they are also of fundamental scientific importance. Most instructive indormation is available with the ail of the in-situ techniques. For instance, measuring of the photon emission of the irradiated surface ane the plasma torch (if it is produced) simultaneously to laser action, makes it possible to gain a global characterization of the laser-solid interaction. In order to obtain additional information about surface and structure modifications in microscopic detail , a laser and scanning electron microscope were combined in to a tandem equipment (LASEM). Inside this eqiipment the microscopic observation is carried out directly at the laser irradiated area without any displacement of the sample. In this way, the stepwise development of surface modification during multipulse irradiation is visible in microscopic details and much more reliable information about the surface modification process is obtainable in comparison to an external laser irradiation. Such kind of equipments were realized simultaneously and independently in the Institut of General Physics (Moscow) and the Central Institute of Solid State Physics and Material Research (Dresden) using a CO2 and a LTd-glass-laser, respectively. In the following the advantages and possibilities of a LASEM shall be demonstrated by some selected investigations of WC-CO hardmeta. The results were obtained in collaboration by both groups with the aid of the pulsed CO2-laser. The TEA CO2 laser was transmitted through a ZnSe-window into the sample chamber of the SEM and focused ofAo tfte sample surface. It was operated in TEM - oo mode with a repetition rate of about 1 pulse per second. A peak power density of about 160 MW/cm2 was achieved in front of the sample surface.

  11. Evolution of Western Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperature between 1985 and 2005: a complementary study in situ, satellite and modelling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupin, C.; Lenartz, F.; Sirjacobs, D.; Alvera-Azcárate, A.; Barth, A.; Ouberdous, M.; Beckers, J.-M.

    2009-04-01

    In order to evaluate the variability of the sea surface temperature (SST) in the Western Mediterranean Sea between 1985 and 2005, an integrated approach combining geostatistical tools and modelling techniques has been set up. The objectives are: underline the capability of each tool to capture characteristic phenomena, compare and assess the quality of their outputs, infer an interannual trend from the results. Diva (Data Interpolating Variationnal Analysis, Brasseur et al. (1996) Deep-Sea Res.) was applied on a collection of in situ data gathered from various sources (World Ocean Database 2005, Hydrobase2, Coriolis and MedAtlas2), from which duplicates and suspect values were removed. This provided monthly gridded fields in the region of interest. Heterogeneous time data coverage was taken into account by computing and removing the annual trend, provided by Diva detrending tool. Heterogeneous correlation length was applied through an advection constraint. Statistical technique DINEOF (Data Interpolation with Empirical Orthogonal Functions, Alvera-Azc

  12. Preparation of poly(methyl methacrylate) microcapsules by in situ polymerization on the surface of calcium carbonate particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Katsuhiko; Nakajima, Tatsuya; Anzai, Jun-ichi

    2012-12-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microcapsules were prepared by the in situ polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide on the surface of calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) particles, followed by the dissolution of the CaCO(3) core in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution. The microcapsules were characterized using fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The average sizes of the CaCO(3) particles and PMMA capsules were 3.8±0.6 and 4.0±0.6 μm, respectively. A copolymer consisting of MMA and rhodamine B-bearing MMA was also used to prepare microcapsules for fluorescent microscopy observations. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin was enclosed in the PMMA microcapsules and its release properties were studied. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Voltammetry and In Situ Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy of De Novo Designed Heme Protein Monolayers on Au(111)-Electrode Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecht, Tim; Li, Wu; Haehnel, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    to the tunnelling current, apparently due to slow electron transfer kinetics. As a consequence, STM images of heme-containing and heme-free MOP-C did not reveal any notable differences in apparent height or physical extension. The apparent height of heme-containing MOP-C did not show any dependence on the substrate...... potential being varied around the redox potential of the protein. The mere presence of an accessible molecular energy level is not sufficient to result in detectable tunnelling current modulation. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......In the present work, we report the electrochemical characterization and in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) studies of monolayers of an artificial de novo designed heme protein MOP-C, covalently immobilized on modified Au(111) surfaces. The protein forms closely packed monolayers, which...

  14. A new structure for comparing surface passivation materials of GaAs solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desalvo, Gregory C.; Barnett, Allen M.

    1989-01-01

    The surface recombination velocity (S sub rec) for bare GaAs is typically as high as 10 to the 6th power to 10 to the 7th power cm/sec, which dramatically lowers the efficiency of GaAs solar cells. Early attempts to circumvent this problem by making an ultra thin junction (xj less than .1 micron) proved unsuccessful when compared to lowering S sub rec by surface passivation. Present day GaAs solar cells use an GaAlAs window layer to passivate the top surface. The advantages of GaAlAs in surface passivation are its high bandgap energy and lattice matching to GaAs. Although GaAlAs is successful in reducing the surface recombination velocity, it has other inherent problems of chemical instability (Al readily oxidizes) and ohmic contact formation. The search for new, more stable window layer materials requires a means to compare their surface passivation ability. Therefore, a device structure is needed to easily test the performance of different passivating candidates. Such a test device is described.

  15. Wet-chemical passivation of InAs: toward surfaces with high stability and low toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Scott A; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2012-09-18

    In a variety of applications where the electronic and optical characteristics of traditional, siliconbased materials are inadequate, recently researchers have employed semiconductors made from combinations of group III and V elements such as InAs. InAs has a narrow band gap and very high electron mobility in the near-surface region, which makes it an attractive material for high performance transistors, optical applications, and chemical sensing. However, silicon-based materials remain the top semiconductors of choice for biological applications, in part because of their relatively low toxicity. In contrast to silicon, InAs forms an unstable oxide layer under ambient conditions, which can corrode over time and leach toxic indium and arsenic components. To make InAs more attractive for biological applications, researchers have investigated passivation, chemical and electronic stabilization, of the surface by adlayer adsorption. Because of the simplicity, low cost, and flexibility in the type of passivating molecule used, many researchers are currently exploring wet-chemical methods of passivation. This Account summarizes much of the recent work on the chemical passivation of InAs with a particular focus on the chemical stability of the surface and prevention of oxide regrowth. We review the various methods of surface preparation and discuss how crystal orientation affects the chemical properties of the surface. The correct etching of InAs is critical as researchers prepare the surface for subsequent adlayer adsorption. HCl etchants combined with a postetch annealing step allow the tuning of the chemical properties in the near-surface region to either arsenic- or indium-rich environments. Bromine etchants create indium-rich surfaces and do not require annealing after etching; however, bromine etchants are harsh and potentially destructive to the surface. The simultaneous use of NH(4)OH etchants with passivating molecules prevents contact with ambient air that can

  16. Behind the Nature of Titanium Oxide Excellent Surface Passivation and Carrier Selectivity of c-Si

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plakhotnyuk, Maksym; Crovetto, Andrea; Hansen, Ole

    We present an expanded study of the passivation properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) on p-type crystalline silicon (c-Si). We report a low surface recombination velocity (16 cm/s) for TiO2 passivation layers with a thin tunnelling oxide interlayer (SiO2 or Al2O3) on p-type crystalline silicon (c-Si......), and post-deposition annealing temperature were investigated. We have observed that that SiO2 and Al2O3 interlayers enhance the TiO2 passivation of c-Si. TiO2 thin film passivation layers alone result in lower effective carrier lifetime. Further annealing at 200  ̊C in N2 gas enhances the surface...

  17. Comparison between remotely-sensed sea-surface temperature (AVHRR and in situ records in San Matías Gulf (Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela N Williams

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In situ records of sea surface temperature collected between 2005 and 2009 were used to compare, for the first time, the temperature estimated by the Multichannel algorithms (MCSST of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR sensors in San Matías Gulf, in the north of the Argentinean Patagonian Continental Shelf (between 40°47'-42°13'S. Match-ups between in situ records and satellite sea surface temperature (SST were analyzed. In situ records came from fixed stations and oceanographic cruises, while satellite data came from different NOAA satellites. The fitting of temperature data to a Standard Major Axis (SMA type II regression model indicated that a high proportion of the total variance (0.53< r² <0.99 was explained by this model showing a high correlation between in situ data and satellite estimations. The mean differences between satellite and in situ data for the full data set were 1.64 ± 1.49°C. Looking separately into in situ data from different sources and day and night estimates from different NOAA satellites, the differences were between 0.30 ± 0.60°C and 2.60 ± 1.50°C. In this paper we discuss possible reasons for the above-mentioned performance of the MCSST algorithms in the study area.

  18. Fate of the herbicides 2,4,5-T, atrazine, and DNOC in a shallow, anaerobic aquifer investigated by in situ passive diffusive emitters and laboratory batch experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arildskov, N.P.; Pedersen, Philip Grinder; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    simultaneously with tritiated water (HTO) as tracer in the depth interval 3 to 4 rubs (meters below surface) by use of passive diffusive emitters. Atrazine and 2,4,5-T were persistent during the approximately 18 days residence time in the aquifer. In contrast, DNOC was rapidly removed from the water phase...... to 4 rubs and from 8 to 9 rubs. In these incubations, formation of Fe2+ and depletion of sulfate showed iron and sulfate reduction in sediment from 3 to 3.5 rubs and sulfate reduction in 3.5 to 4 rubs sediment. In sediment from 8 to 9 rubs, the dominant redox process was methane formation. In sediment...... first-order kinetics, and when normalized to the sediment/water-ratio, the field and laboratory derived rate constants compared well. The DNOC degradation in the methanogenic incubations (8 to 9 rubs) was up to 50 times faster than in the sediments from 3 to 4 rubs, likely due to the low redox potential....

  19. In situ spectroscopic evidence for neptunium(V)-carbonate inner-sphere and outer-sphere ternary surface complexes on hematite surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yuji; Moran, P B; Honeyman, B D; Davis, J A

    2007-06-01

    Np(V) surface speciation on hematite surfaces at pH 7-9 under pC2 = 10(-3.45) atm was investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). In situ XAS analyses suggest that bis-carbonato inner-sphere and tris-carbonato outer-sphere ternary surface species coexist at the hematite-water interface at pH 7-8.8, and the fraction of outer-sphere species gradually increases from 27 to 54% with increasing pH from 7 to 8.8. The results suggest that the heretofore unknown Np(V)-carbonato ternary surface species may be important in predicting the fate and transport of Np(V) in the subsurface environment down gradient of high-level nuclear waste respositories.

  20. Biofilm three-dimensional architecture influences in situ pH distribution pattern on the human enamel surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jin; Hara, Anderson T; Kim, Dongyeop; Zero, Domenick T; Koo, Hyun; Hwang, Geelsu

    2017-06-01

    To investigate how the biofilm three-dimensional (3D) architecture influences in situ pH distribution patterns on the enamel surface. Biofilms were formed on human tooth enamel in the presence of 1% sucrose or 0.5% glucose plus 0.5% fructose. At specific time points, biofilms were exposed to a neutral pH buffer to mimic the buffering of saliva and subsequently pulsed with 1% glucose to induce re-acidification. Simultaneous 3D pH mapping and architecture of intact biofilms was performed using two-photon confocal microscopy. The enamel surface and mineral content characteristics were examined successively via optical profilometry and microradiography analyses. Sucrose-mediated biofilm formation created spatial heterogeneities manifested by complex networks of bacterial clusters (microcolonies). Acidic regions (pHinterior of microcolonies, which impedes rapid neutralization (taking more than 120 min for neutralization). Glucose exposure rapidly re-created the acidic niches, indicating formation of diffusion barriers associated with microcolonies structure. Enamel demineralization (white spots), rougher surface, deeper lesion and more mineral loss appeared to be associated with the localization of these bacterial clusters at the biofilm-enamel interface. Similar 3D architecture was observed in plaque-biofilms formed in vivo in the presence of sucrose. The formation of complex 3D architectures creates spatially heterogeneous acidic microenvironments in close proximity of enamel surface, which might correlate with the localized pattern of the onset of carious lesions (white spot like) on teeth.

  1. Characterization of boron carbide particulate reinforced in situ copper surface composites synthesized using friction stir processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathiskumar, R., E-mail: sathiscit2011@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Coimbatore Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, 641 014 Tamil Nadu (India); Murugan, N., E-mail: murugan@cit.edu.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Coimbatore Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, 641 014 Tamil Nadu (India); Dinaharan, I., E-mail: dinaweld2009@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, V V College of Engineering, Tisaiyanvilai, 627 657 Tamil Nadu (India); Vijay, S.J., E-mail: vijayjoseph@karunya.edu [Centre for Research in Metallurgy (CRM), School of Mechanical Sciences, Karunya University, Coimbatore, 641 114 Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-10-15

    Friction stir processing has evolved as a novel solid state technique to fabricate surface composites. The objective of this work is to apply the friction stir processing technique to fabricate boron carbide particulate reinforced copper surface composites and investigate the effect of B{sub 4}C particles and its volume fraction on microstructure and sliding wear behavior of the same. A groove was prepared on 6 mm thick copper plates and packed with B{sub 4}C particles. The dimensions of the groove was varied to result in five different volume fractions of B{sub 4}C particles (0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 vol.%). A single pass friction stir processing was done using a tool rotational speed of 1000 rpm, travel speed of 40 mm/min and an axial force of 10 kN. Metallurgical characterization of the Cu/B{sub 4}C surface composites was carried out using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The sliding wear behavior was evaluated using a pin-on-disk apparatus. Results indicated that the B{sub 4}C particles significantly influenced the area, dispersion, grain size, microhardness and sliding wear behavior of the Cu/B{sub 4}C surface composites. When the volume fraction of B{sub 4}C was increased, the wear mode changed from microcutting to abrasive wear and wear debris was found to be finer. Highlights: • Fabrication of Cu/B{sub 4}C surface composite by friction stir processing • Analyzing the effect of B{sub 4}C particles on the properties of Cu/B4C surface composite • Increased volume fraction of B{sub 4}C particles reduced the area of surface composite. • Increased volume fraction of B{sub 4}C particles enhanced the microhardness and wear rate. • B{sub 4}C particles altered the wear mode from microcutting to abrasive.

  2. Surface Snow Density of East Antarctica Derived from In-Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y.; Zhang, S.; Du, W.; Chen, J.; Xie, H.; Tong, X.; Li, R.

    2018-04-01

    Models based on physical principles or semi-empirical parameterizations have used to compute the firn density, which is essential for the study of surface processes in the Antarctic ice sheet. However, parameterization of surface snow density is often challenged by the description of detailed local characterization. In this study we propose to generate a surface density map for East Antarctica from all the filed observations that are available. Considering that the observations are non-uniformly distributed around East Antarctica, obtained by different methods, and temporally inhomogeneous, the field observations are used to establish an initial density map with a grid size of 30 × 30 km2 in which the observations are averaged at a temporal scale of five years. We then construct an observation matrix with its columns as the map grids and rows as the temporal scale. If a site has an unknown density value for a period, we will set it to 0 in the matrix. In order to construct the main spatial and temple information of surface snow density matrix we adopt Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) method to decompose the observation matrix and only take first several lower-order modes, because these modes already contain most information of the observation matrix. However, there are a lot of zeros in the matrix and we solve it by using matrix completion algorithm, and then we derive the time series of surface snow density at each observation site. Finally, we can obtain the surface snow density by multiplying the modes interpolated by kriging with the corresponding amplitude of the modes. Comparative analysis have done between our surface snow density map and model results. The above details will be introduced in the paper.

  3. In situ study of nitrobenzene grafting on Si(111)-H surfaces by infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rappich, J. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Institut fuer Silizium-Photovoltaik, Kekulestr. 5, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hinrichs, K. [ISAS - Institute for Analytical Sciences, Department Berlin, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    The binding of nitrobenzene (NB) molecules from a solution of 4-nitrobenzene-diazonium-tetrafluoroborate on a Si(111)-H surface was investigated during the electrochemical processing in diluted sulphuric acid by means of infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry (IR-SE). The grafting was monitored by an increase in specific IR absorption bands due to symmetric and anti-symmetric NO{sub 2} stretching vibrations in the 1400-1700 cm{sup -1} regime. The p- and s-polarized reflectances were recorded within 20 s for each spectrum only. NB molecules were detected when bonded to the Si(111) surface but not in the 2 mM solution itself. Oxide formation on the NB grafted Si surface was observed after drying in inert atmosphere and not during the grafting process in the aqueous solution. (author)

  4. In situ studies of the kinetics of surface topography development during ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinskas, R.; Pranevicius, L.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of the mechanical properties of the materials affected by 25-200 keV H + , He + , Ne + and Ar + ion irradiation in the range of fluences up to 2 · 10 17 cm -2 based on the analysis of acoustic emission signals, kinetics of the surface deformations measured by laser interferometric technique and the variations of the surface acoustic waves propagation velocity are conducted. The acoustic emissions source mechanisms under various ion irradiation conditions are discussed and relative contribution various possible mechanism are indicated. The correlation of experimental results obtained by different methods of analysis is done. (author). 11 refs, 5 figs

  5. In Situ X-Ray Diffraction Study on Surface Melting of Bi Nanoparticles Embedded in a SiO2 Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiao-Ming; Huo Kai-Tuo; Liu Peng

    2014-01-01

    Bi nanoparticles embedded in a SiO 2 matrix were prepared via the high energy ball milling method. The melting behavior of Bi nanoparticles was studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and high-temperature in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). DSC cannot distinguish the surface melting from ‘bulk’ melting of the Bi nanoparticles. The XRD intensity of the Bi nanoparticles decreases progressively during the in situ heating process. The variation in the normalized integrated XRD intensity versus temperature is related to the average grain size of Bi nanoparticles. Considering the effects of temperature on Debye—Waller factor and Lorentz-polarization factor, we discuss the XRD results in accordance with surface melting. Our results show that the in situ XRD technique is effective to explore the surface melting of nanoparticles

  6. Effect of passive film on electrochemical surface treatment for indium tin oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yung-Fu; Chen, Chi-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Oxalic, tartaric, and citric acid baths accompanying with applied voltages were used to treat the ITO surface. ► We investigated the changes in ITO surfaces by examining the potentiodynamic behavior of ITO films. ► AFM analysis showed the formation of a passive layer could assist to planarize surface. ► XPS analysis indicated this passive layer was mainly composed of SnO 2. ► A better planarization was obtained by treating in 3.0 wt.% tartaric acid at 0.5 V due to weak complexation strength. - Abstract: Changes in indium tin oxide (ITO) film surface during electrochemical treatment in oxalic acid, tartaric acid, and citric acid were investigated. Controlling the voltage applied on ITO film allows the formation of a passive layer, effectively protecting the film surface. X-ray photoelectron spectrometry showed that the passive layer composition was predominantly SnO 2 in tartaric acid, while a composite of tin oxide and tin carboxylate in citric or oxalic acid. Even though the passive films on ITO surface generated in these organic acids, the indium or tin could complex with the organic acid anions, enhancing the dissolution of ITO films. The experimental results show that the interaction between the dissolution and passivation could assist to planarize the ITO surface. We found that the optimal treatment at 0.5 V in 3 wt.% tartaric acid could provide the ITO surface with root-mean-squared roughness less than 1.0 nm, due to the weak complexing characteristics of tartaric acid.

  7. Surface Passivation by Quantum Exclusion Using Multiple Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A semiconductor device has a multilayer doping to provide improved passivation by quantum exclusion. The multilayer doping includes at least two doped layers fabricated using MBE methods. The dopant sheet densities in the doped layers need not be the same, but in principle can be selected to be the same sheet densities or to be different sheet densities. The electrically active dopant sheet densities are quite high, reaching more than 1.times.10.sup.14 cm.sup.-2, and locally exceeding 10.sup.22 per cubic centimeter. It has been found that silicon detector devices that have two or more such dopant layers exhibit improved resistance to degradation by UV radiation, at least at wavelengths of 193 nm, as compared to conventional silicon p-on-n devices.

  8. Terahertz emission from semi-insulating GaAs with octadecanthiol-passivated surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaojun; Xu, Xinlong; Lu, Xinchao; Wang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) emission from octadecanthiol (ODT) passivated (1 0 0) surface of the semi-insulating GaAs was measured, and compared with those from the native oxidized and the fresh surfaces. It was shown that the self-assembled ODT monolayer can stabilize the GaAs (1 0 0) surface, and maintain a THz surface emission 1.4 times as efficient as the native oxidized surface under equal conditions. Surface passivation can reduce the built-in electric field in the depletion region of the GaAs (1 0 0), resulting in the suppression of the THz radiation to a different extent. Oxidation of GaAs surface reduces the THz amplitude mainly in the low-frequency region. These results indicate that GaAs can be made a more effective THz source by choosing molecular passivation technique. Conversely, the THz emission features such as polarity, amplitude, and phase from molecule-passivated surfaces may be used to characterize the attached molecules.

  9. High temperature in operando and in situ spectroscopy on electrified surfaces and interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Hansen, Karin Vels; Holtappels, Peter

    electrodes without contaminants have demanded a better insight into the electrode surface reactions and chemistries. Spectroscopic techniques can be applied to these cells but are still experimentally challenging due to the high temperature operation conditions. DTU Energy has in the recent years invested...

  10. In situ characterization of local elastic properties of thin shape memory films by surface acoustic waves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grabec, T.; Sedlák, Petr; Stoklasová, Pavla; Thomasová, M.; Shilo, D.; Kabla, M.; Seiner, Hanuš; Landa, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 12 (2016), č. článku 127002. ISSN 0964-1726 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-15264S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : thin films * shape memory alloys * surface acoustic waves Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.909, year: 2016

  11. In situ micro Raman spectroscopy for characterization of oxide film formed on the new surface and for measurements of the stress of oxide film formed on 304L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kai, A.; Takegoshi, M.; Shoji, T. [Fracture Research Inst., Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) consists of two distinct events viz., i) crack initiation and ii) crack propagation. On a smooth surface, the EAC initiates by the rupture or by the degradation of the surface film due to the combined action of stress and an electrochemical reaction of the materials with the environment. The mechanical properties of the surface oxide films are also important considerations when determining the susceptibility to EAC. In this research, Micro Raman Spectroscopy (MRS) was applied for in-situ oxides characterization and for in-situ measurements of the stress in oxide film formed on the surface of 304L stainless steel during the scratching electrode and the slow strain rate test (SSRT), respectively. The passive oxide film growth formed on the bare surface was continuously monitored by MRS as a function of time. For stress measurements, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} was focused on and raman shift at Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} peak of Raman spectrum was measured continuously. The strain rate was 8.2 x 10{sup -7}/sec. In the initial stage of SSRT, the Raman shift of surface film decreased gradually with strain. At 5% strain, the Raman shift of surface film increased rapidly to around the initial value of Raman shift. It is considered that the surface film was ruptured at this time. At 5% strain, the shift value of Raman peak of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} reached to 5 cm{sup -1}. This value (5 cm{sup -1}) corresponds to 1.2 GPa which value of tensile stress is calculated from reference data. These characteristics of oxide film will be implemented into the theoretical formulation of EAC and their implication to EAC growth rate will be discussed. (orig.)

  12. In Situ Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Cobalt Perovskite Surfaces under Cathodic Polarization at High Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Crumlin, Ethan J.; Mutoro, Eva; Hong, Wesley T.; Biegalski, Michael D.; Christen, Hans M.; Liu, Zhi; Bluhm, Hendrik; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Heterostructured oxide interfaces have demonstrated enhanced oxygen reduction reaction rates at elevated temperatures (∼500-800 C); however, the physical origin underlying this enhancement is not well understood. By using synchrotron-based in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS), we focus on understanding the surface electronic structure, elemental composition, and chemical nature of epitaxial La0.8Sr 0.2CoO3-δ (LSC113), (La 0.5Sr0.5)2CoO4±δ (LSC214), and LSC214-decorated LSC113 (LSC 113/214) thin films as a function of applied electrical potentials (0 to -800 mV) at 520 C and p(O2) of 1 × 10-3 atm. Shifts in the top of the valence band binding energy and changes in the Sr 3d and O 1s spectral components under applied bias reveal key differences among the film chemistries, most notably in the degree of Sr segregation to the surface and quantity of active oxygen sites in the perovskite termination layer. These differences help to identify important factors governing the enhanced activity of oxygen electrocatalysis observed for the LSC113/214 heterostructured surface. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  13. In situ immobilization on the silica gel surface and adsorption capacity of polymer-based azobenzene on toxic metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, Irina; Yanovska, Elina; Sternik, Dariusz; Kychkyruk, Olga; Ol'khovik, Lidiya; Polonska, Yana

    2018-03-01

    In situ immobilization of poly[(4-methacryloyloxy-(4'-carboxy)azobenzene] on silica gel surface has been performed by radical polymerization of monomer. The fact of polymer immobilization is confirmed by IR spectroscopy. TG and DSC-MS analysis showed that the mass of the immobilized polymer was 10.61%. The SEM-microphotograph-synthesized composite analysis showed that the immobilized polymer on the silica gel surface is placed in the form of fibers. It has been found that the synthesized composite exhibits the sorption ability in terms of microquantities of Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Mn(II) and Fe(III) ions in a neutral aqueous medium. The quantitative sorption of microquantities of Pb(II) and Fe(III) ions has been recorded. It has been found that immobilization of the silica gel surface leads to an increase in its sorption capacitance for Fe(III), Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions by half.

  14. In Situ Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Cobalt Perovskite Surfaces under Cathodic Polarization at High Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Crumlin, Ethan J.

    2013-08-08

    Heterostructured oxide interfaces have demonstrated enhanced oxygen reduction reaction rates at elevated temperatures (∼500-800 C); however, the physical origin underlying this enhancement is not well understood. By using synchrotron-based in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS), we focus on understanding the surface electronic structure, elemental composition, and chemical nature of epitaxial La0.8Sr 0.2CoO3-δ (LSC113), (La 0.5Sr0.5)2CoO4±δ (LSC214), and LSC214-decorated LSC113 (LSC 113/214) thin films as a function of applied electrical potentials (0 to -800 mV) at 520 C and p(O2) of 1 × 10-3 atm. Shifts in the top of the valence band binding energy and changes in the Sr 3d and O 1s spectral components under applied bias reveal key differences among the film chemistries, most notably in the degree of Sr segregation to the surface and quantity of active oxygen sites in the perovskite termination layer. These differences help to identify important factors governing the enhanced activity of oxygen electrocatalysis observed for the LSC113/214 heterostructured surface. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  15. The measurement of in-situ stress in near surface environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garritty, P.; Irvin, R.A.

    1984-04-01

    One of the major unknowns affecting aspects of underground construction and the geohydrology of rock masses is the magnitude and direction of the geostatic principal stresses in the earth's crust. This is particularly the case in near surface rocks where there are indications that high horizontal stresses may exist. The measurement of stress in near surface environments is particularly difficult. The techniques, experience and results of a geostatic stress measurement programme using four commercially available devices at shallow depth in the Carnmenellis Granite are critically discussed and compared. This report also brings together some of the conclusions of two previous reports in the series, Garritty (1983) and Garritty and Irvin (1983), and emphasises the fundamental relationship between the state of stress in the earth's crust and the geohydrology of rock masses. (author)

  16. In Situ Radiometric and Exposure Age Dating of the Martian Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, K. A.; Malespin, C.; Mahaffy, P.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Vasconcelos, P. M.; Milliken, R. E.; Malin, M.; Edgett, K. S.; Pavlov, A. A.; Hurowitz, J. A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We determined radiogenic and cosmogenic noble gases in a mudstone on the floor of Gale Crater. A K-Ar age of 4.21 +/- 0.35 billion years represents a mixture of detrital and authigenic components and confirms the expected antiquity of rocks comprising the crater rim. Cosmic-ray-produced 3He, 21Ne, and 36Ar yield concordant surface exposure ages of 78 T 30 million years. Surface exposure occurred mainly in the present geomorphic setting rather than during primary erosion and transport. Our observations are consistent with mudstone deposition shortly after the Gale impact or possibly in a later event of rapid erosion and deposition. The mudstone remained buried until recent exposure by wind-driven scarp retreat. Sedimentary rocks exposed by this mechanism may thus offer the best potential for organic biomarker preservation against destruction by cosmic radiation.

  17. Adherence of platelets to in situ albumin-binding surfaces under flow conditions: role of surface-adsorbed albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guha Thakurta, Sanjukta; Miller, Robert; Subramanian, Anuradha

    2012-01-01

    Surfaces that preferentially bind human serum albumin (HSA) were generated by grafting albumin-binding linear peptide (LP1) onto silicon surfaces. The research aim was to evaluate the adsorption pattern of proteins and the adhesion of platelets from platelet-poor plasma and platelet-rich plasma, respectively, by albumin-binding surfaces under physiological shear rate (96 and 319 s −1 ) conditions. Bound proteins were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A ratio of ∼1000:100:1 of adsorbed HSA, human immunoglobulin (HIgG) and human fibrinogen (HFib) was noted, respectively, on LP1-functionalized surfaces, and a ratio of ∼5:2:1 of the same was noted on control surfaces, as confirmed by ELISAs. The surface-adsorbed von Willebrand factor was undetectable by sensitive ELISAs. The amount of adhered platelets correlated with the ratio of adsorbed HSA/HFib. Platelet morphology was more rounded on LP1-functionalized surfaces when compared to control surfaces. The platelet adhesion response on albumin-binding surfaces can be explained by the reduction in the co-adsorption of other plasma proteins in a surface environment where there is an excess of albumin molecules, coupled with restrictions in the conformational transitions of other surface-adsorbed proteins into hemostatically active forms. (paper)

  18. Radiolysis of water in the vicinity of passive surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, S.; Fenart, M.; Renault, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • HO° production through water radiolysis is enhanced near metal surfaces. • Hastelloy and Stainless steel surfaces can also produce HO° radicals through hydrogen peroxide activation. • There is a deficit in solvated electron production compared to hydroxyl radicals near metal surfaces. - Abstract: Porous metals were used to describe the water radiolysis in the vicinity of metal surfaces. The hydroxyl radical production under gamma irradiation was measured by benzoate scavenging in water confined in a 200 nm porous Ni base alloy or in Stainless steel. The presence of the metallic surfaces changed drastically the HO° production level and lifetime. The solvated electron production was measured via glycylglycine scavenging for Stainless steel and was found to be significantly smaller than hydroxyl production. These observations imply that interfacial radiolysis may deeply impact the corrosion behavior of the SS and Ni based alloys

  19. 2D layered insulator hexagonal boron nitride enabled surface passivation in dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Mariyappan; Jacobs-Gedrim, Robin; Durcan, Chris; Yu, Bin

    2013-11-21

    A two-dimensional layered insulator, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), is demonstrated as a new class of surface passivation materials in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to reduce interfacial carrier recombination. We observe ~57% enhancement in the photo-conversion efficiency of the DSSC utilizing h-BN coated semiconductor TiO2 as compared with the device without surface passivation. The h-BN coated TiO2 is characterized by Raman spectroscopy to confirm the presence of highly crystalline, mixed monolayer/few-layer h-BN nanoflakes on the surface of TiO2. The passivation helps to minimize electron-hole recombination at the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interfaces. The DSSC with h-BN passivation exhibits significantly lower dark saturation current in the low forward bias region and higher saturation in the high forward bias region, respectively, suggesting that the interface quality is largely improved without impeding carrier transport at the material interface. The experimental results reveal that the emerging 2D layered insulator could be used for effective surface passivation in solar cell applications attributed to desirable material features such as high crystallinity and self-terminated/dangling-bond-free atomic planes as compared with high-k thin-film dielectrics.

  20. Chemical and electrical properties of (NH4)2S passivated GaSb surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Dongyan; Cheng Yu; Liu Jingming; Su Jie; Liu Tong; Yang Fengyun; Wang Fenghua; Cao Kewei; Dong Zhiyuan; Zhao Youwen

    2015-01-01

    The surface chemical properties of gallium antimonide (GaSb) after ammonium sulfide ((NH 4 ) 2 S) solution passivation have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) and I–V measurement. An advantage of neutral (NH 4 ) 2 S + S solution over pure (NH 4 ) 2 S solution and alkaline (NH 4 ) 2 S + S solution has been found in the ability to passivate the GaSb surface by contrast and comparison. It has been found that alkaline (NH 4 ) 2 S + S solution passivation effectively removes oxides of the GaSb surface and forms sulfide products to improve device performance. TOF-SIMS complementally demonstrates that pure (NH 4 ) 2 S passivation did form sulfide products, which are too soluble to really exist. The lowest roughness determined using a 3D optical profilometer and the highest improved SBD quality proved that neutral (NH 4 ) 2 S + S solution passivation worked much better in improving the surface properties of GaSb. (paper)

  1. X-ray in-situ study of copper electrodeposition on UHV prepared GaAs(001) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruender, Yvonne

    2008-06-02

    For this work a unique setup for in-situ electrochemical studies was employed and improved. This setup permits UHV preparation of the GaAs(001) surface with a defined surface termination (arsenic-rich or gallium-rich) and its characterization by SXRD in UHV, under ambient pressure in inert gas and in electrolyte under potential control without passing through air. The GaAs(001) surfaces were capped by amorphous arsenic. This permitted to ship them through ambient air. Afterwards smooth well defined GaAs(001) surfaces could be recovered by thermal annealing in UHV. A first investigation of the arsenic capped sample was done by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Surface X-Ray Diffraction (SXRD). The non bulk like termination of the arsenic buried GaAs(001) surface was revealed. For the electrochemical metal deposition, arsenic terminated (2 x 4) reconstructed and gallium terminated (4 x 2) reconstructed GaAs(001) surfaces were employed. These surfaces were characterized by STM, LEED and a first time by SXRD. The surfaces are smooth, however, a higher degree of disorder than for MBE prepared reconstructed GaAs(001) is found. After exposure of the sample to nitrogen, the surfaces were then again studied by SXRD. These two steps characterizing the bare GaAs(001) surfaces permitted us to get a better knowledge of the starting surface and its influence on the later electrodeposited copper. At ambient pressure both reconstructions are lifted, but the surface is not bulk-like terminated as can be deduced from the crystal truncation rods. Epitaxial copper clusters grow upon electrodeposition on the UHV prepared GaAs(001) surface. The copper lattice is rotated and inclined with respect to the GaAs substrate lattice, leading to eight symmetry equivalent domains. The influence of the surface termination as well as the nucleation potential on the structure of the electrodeposited copper were investigated. The tilt and rotation angles do not depend on the deposition potential but

  2. A variable temperature cryostat that produces in situ clean-up germanium detector surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pehl, R.H.; Madden, N.W.; Malone, D.F.; Cork, C.P.; Landis, D.A.; Xing, J.S.; Friesel, D.L.

    1988-11-01

    Variable temperature cryostats that can maintain germanium detectors at temperatures from 82 K to about 400 K while the thermal shield surrounding the detectors remains much colder when the detectors are warmed have been developed. Cryostats such as these offer the possibility of cryopumping material from the surface of detectors to the colder thermal shield. The diode characteristics of several detectors have shown very significant improvement following thermal cycles up to about 150 K in these cryostats. Important applications for cryostats having this attribute are many. 4 figs

  3. Effects of surface passivation on twin-free GaAs nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Shermin; Chi, Chun-Yung; Shi, Teng; Wang, Yuda; Dapkus, Daniel P; Jackson, Howard E; Smith, Leigh M; Cronin, Stephen B

    2015-02-24

    Unlike nanowires, GaAs nanosheets exhibit no twin defects, stacking faults, or dislocations even when grown on lattice mismatched substrates. As such, they are excellent candidates for optoelectronic applications, including LEDs and solar cells. We report substantial enhancements in the photoluminescence efficiency and the lifetime of passivated GaAs nanosheets produced using the selected area growth (SAG) method with metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Measurements are performed on individual GaAs nanosheets with and without an AlGaAs passivation layer. Both steady-state photoluminescence and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy are performed to study the optoelectronic performance of these nanostructures. Our results show that AlGaAs passivation of GaAs nanosheets leads to a 30- to 40-fold enhancement in the photoluminescence intensity. The photoluminescence lifetime increases from less than 30 to 300 ps with passivation, indicating an order of magnitude improvement in the minority carrier lifetime. We attribute these enhancements to the reduction of nonradiative recombination due to the compensation of surface states after passivation. The surface recombination velocity decreases from an initial value of 2.5 × 10(5) to 2.7 × 10(4) cm/s with passivation.

  4. Atmospheric characterization through fused mobile airborne and surface in situ surveys: methane emissions quantification from a producing oil field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Leifer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 inventory uncertainties are large, requiring robust emission derivation approaches. We report on a fused airborne–surface data collection approach to derive emissions from an active oil field near Bakersfield, central California. The approach characterizes the atmosphere from the surface to above the planetary boundary layer (PBL and combines downwind trace gas concentration anomaly (plume above background with normal winds to derive flux. This approach does not require a well-mixed PBL; allows explicit, data-based, uncertainty evaluation; and was applied to complex topography and wind flows. In situ airborne (collected by AJAX – the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment and mobile surface (collected by AMOG – the AutoMObile trace Gas – Surveyor data were collected on 19 August 2015 to assess source strength. Data included an AMOG and AJAX intercomparison transect profiling from the San Joaquin Valley (SJV floor into the Sierra Nevada (0.1–2.2 km altitude, validating a novel surface approach for atmospheric profiling by leveraging topography. The profile intercomparison found good agreement in multiple parameters for the overlapping altitude range from 500 to 1500 m for the upper 5 % of surface winds, which accounts for wind-impeding structures, i.e., terrain, trees, buildings, etc. Annualized emissions from the active oil fields were 31.3 ± 16 Gg methane and 2.4 ± 1.2 Tg carbon dioxide. Data showed the PBL was not well mixed at distances of 10–20 km downwind, highlighting the importance of the experimental design.

  5. In Situ Monitoring of Pb2+ Leaching from the Galvanic Joint Surface in a Prepared Chlorinated Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiangmeng; Armas, Stephanie M; Soliman, Mikhael; Lytle, Darren A; Chumbimuni-Torres, Karin; Tetard, Laurene; Lee, Woo Hyoung

    2018-02-20

    A novel method using a micro-ion-selective electrode (micro-ISE) technique was developed for in situ lead monitoring at the water-metal interface of a brass-leaded solder galvanic joint in a prepared chlorinated drinking water environment. The developed lead micro-ISE (100 μm tip diameter) showed excellent performance toward soluble lead (Pb 2+ ) with sensitivity of 22.2 ± 0.5 mV decade -1 and limit of detection (LOD) of 1.22 × 10 -6 M (0.25 mg L -1 ). The response time was less than 10 s with a working pH range of 2.0-7.0. Using the lead micro-ISE, lead concentration microprofiles were measured from the bulk to the metal surface (within 50 μm) over time. Combined with two-dimensional (2D) pH mapping, this work clearly demonstrated that Pb 2+ ions build-up across the lead anode surface was substantial, nonuniform, and dependent on local surface pH. A large pH gradient (ΔpH = 6.0) developed across the brass and leaded-tin solder joint coupon. Local pH decreases were observed above the leaded solder to a pH as low as 4.0, indicating it was anodic relative to the brass. The low pH above the leaded solder supported elevated lead levels where even small local pH differences of 0.6 units (ΔpH = 0.6) resulted in about four times higher surface lead concentrations (42.9 vs 11.6 mg L -1 ) and 5 times higher fluxes (18.5 × 10 -6 vs 3.5 × 10 -6 mg cm -2 s -1 ). Continuous surface lead leaching monitoring was also conducted for 16 h.

  6. Protective capping and surface passivation of III-V nanowires by atomic layer deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veer Dhaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature (∼200 °C grown atomic layer deposition (ALD films of AlN, TiN, Al2O3, GaN, and TiO2 were tested for protective capping and surface passivation of bottom-up grown III-V (GaAs and InP nanowires (NWs, and top-down fabricated InP nanopillars. For as-grown GaAs NWs, only the AlN material passivated the GaAs surface as measured by photoluminescence (PL at low temperatures (15K, and the best passivation was achieved with a few monolayer thick (2Å film. For InP NWs, the best passivation (∼2x enhancement in room-temperature PL was achieved with a capping of 2nm thick Al2O3. All other ALD capping layers resulted in a de-passivation effect and possible damage to the InP surface. Top-down fabricated InP nanopillars show similar passivation effects as InP NWs. In particular, capping with a 2 nm thick Al2O3 layer increased the carrier decay time from 251 ps (as-etched nanopillars to about 525 ps. Tests after six months ageing reveal that the capped nanostructures retain their optical properties. Overall, capping of GaAs and InP NWs with high-k dielectrics AlN and Al2O3 provides moderate surface passivation as well as long term protection from oxidation and environmental attack.

  7. Protective capping and surface passivation of III-V nanowires by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhaka, Veer, E-mail: veer.dhaka@aalto.fi; Perros, Alexander; Kakko, Joona-Pekko; Haggren, Tuomas; Lipsanen, Harri [Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Micronova, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13500, FI-00076 (Finland); Naureen, Shagufta; Shahid, Naeem [Research School of Physics & Engineering, Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Jiang, Hua; Kauppinen, Esko [Department of Applied Physics and Nanomicroscopy Center, Aalto University, P.O. Box 15100, FI-00076 (Finland); Srinivasan, Anand [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, S-164 40 Kista (Sweden)

    2016-01-15

    Low temperature (∼200 °C) grown atomic layer deposition (ALD) films of AlN, TiN, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, GaN, and TiO{sub 2} were tested for protective capping and surface passivation of bottom-up grown III-V (GaAs and InP) nanowires (NWs), and top-down fabricated InP nanopillars. For as-grown GaAs NWs, only the AlN material passivated the GaAs surface as measured by photoluminescence (PL) at low temperatures (15K), and the best passivation was achieved with a few monolayer thick (2Å) film. For InP NWs, the best passivation (∼2x enhancement in room-temperature PL) was achieved with a capping of 2nm thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. All other ALD capping layers resulted in a de-passivation effect and possible damage to the InP surface. Top-down fabricated InP nanopillars show similar passivation effects as InP NWs. In particular, capping with a 2 nm thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer increased the carrier decay time from 251 ps (as-etched nanopillars) to about 525 ps. Tests after six months ageing reveal that the capped nanostructures retain their optical properties. Overall, capping of GaAs and InP NWs with high-k dielectrics AlN and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} provides moderate surface passivation as well as long term protection from oxidation and environmental attack.

  8. Ultrahigh surface area carbon from carbonated beverages: Combining self-templating process and in situ activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Zhiyong; Chen, Jihua; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-01

    Ultrahigh surface area carbons (USACs, e.g., >2000 m2/g) are attracting tremendous attention due to their outstanding performance in energy-related applications. The state-of-art approaches to USACs involve templating or activation methods and all these techniques show certain drawbacks. In this work, a series of USACs with specific surface areas up to 3633 m2/g were prepared in two steps: hydrothermal carbonization (200 °C) of carbonated beverages (CBs) and further thermal treatment in nitrogen (600–1000 °C). The rich inner porosity is formed by a self-templated process during which acids and polyelectrolyte sodium salts in the beverage formulas make some contribution. This strategy covers various CBs such as Coca Cola®, Pepsi Cola®, Dr. Pepper®, and Fanta® and it enables an acceptable product yield (based on sugars), for example: 21 wt% for carbon (2940 m2/g) from Coca Cola®. Being potential electrode materials for supercapacitors, those carbon materials possessed a good specific capacitance (57.2–185.7 F g-1) even at a scan rate of 1000 mV s-1. Thus, a simple and efficient strategy to USACs has been presented.

  9. Optimization of the Surface Structure on Black Silicon for Surface Passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaojie; Zhou, Chunlan; Wang, Wenjing

    2017-12-01

    Black silicon shows excellent anti-reflection and thus is extremely useful for photovoltaic applications. However, its high surface recombination velocity limits the efficiency of solar cells. In this paper, the effective minority carrier lifetime of black silicon is improved by optimizing metal-catalyzed chemical etching (MCCE) method, using an Al 2 O 3 thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a passivation layer. Using the spray method to eliminate the impact on the rear side, single-side black silicon was obtained on n-type solar grade silicon wafers. Post-etch treatment with NH 4 OH/H 2 O 2 /H 2 O mixed solution not only smoothes the surface but also increases the effective minority lifetime from 161 μs of as-prepared wafer to 333 μs after cleaning. Moreover, adding illumination during the etching process results in an improvement in both the numerical value and the uniformity of the effective minority carrier lifetime.

  10. Preparation of surface conductive and highly reflective silvered polyimide films by surface modification and in situ self-metallization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhanpeng; Wu Dezhen; Qi Shengli; Zhang Teng; Jin Riguang

    2005-01-01

    Double surface conductive and reflective flexible silvered polyimide films have been prepared by alkali hydroxylation of polyimide film surface and incorporation of silver ions through subsequent ion exchange. Thermal curing of silver(I) polyamate precursor leads to re-cycloimidization of modified surface with concomitant silver reduction, yielding a reflective and conductive silver surface approaching that of native metal. The reflective and conductive surface evolves only when the cure temperature rises to 300 deg. C. The metallized films usually retain the essential mechanical properties of the parent films. Films were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy and tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM demonstrates that the diameter of close-packed silver particles of the silver layers was about 50-150 nm. TEM shows that thickness of silver layer on the polyimide film surface is about 400-600 nm

  11. Carrier population control and surface passivation in solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cuevas, Andres; Wan, Yimao; Yan, Di; Samundsett, Christian; Allen, Thomas; Zhang, Xinyu; Cui, Jie; Bullock, James

    2018-01-01

    Controlling the concentration of charge carriers near the surface is essential for solar cells. It permits to form regions with selective conductivity for either electrons or holes and it also helps to reduce the rate at which they recombine

  12. Frequency-Wavenumber (FK)-Based Data Selection in High-Frequency Passive Surface Wave Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Xia, Jianghai; Xu, Zongbo; Hu, Yue; Mi, Binbin

    2018-04-01

    Passive surface wave methods have gained much attention from geophysical and civil engineering communities because of the limited application of traditional seismic surveys in highly populated urban areas. Considering that they can provide high-frequency phase velocity information up to several tens of Hz, the active surface wave survey would be omitted and the amount of field work could be dramatically reduced. However, the measured dispersion energy image in the passive surface wave survey would usually be polluted by a type of "crossed" artifacts at high frequencies. It is common in the bidirectional noise distribution case with a linear receiver array deployed along roads or railways. We review several frequently used passive surface wave methods and derive the underlying physics for the existence of the "crossed" artifacts. We prove that the "crossed" artifacts would cross the true surface wave energy at fixed points in the f-v domain and propose a FK-based data selection technique to attenuate the artifacts in order to retrieve the high-frequency information. Numerical tests further demonstrate the existence of the "crossed" artifacts and indicate that the well-known wave field separation method, FK filter, does not work for the selection of directional noise data. Real-world applications manifest the feasibility of the proposed FK-based technique to improve passive surface wave methods by a priori data selection. Finally, we discuss the applicability of our approach.

  13. Frequency-Wavenumber (FK)-Based Data Selection in High-Frequency Passive Surface Wave Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Xia, Jianghai; Xu, Zongbo; Hu, Yue; Mi, Binbin

    2018-07-01

    Passive surface wave methods have gained much attention from geophysical and civil engineering communities because of the limited application of traditional seismic surveys in highly populated urban areas. Considering that they can provide high-frequency phase velocity information up to several tens of Hz, the active surface wave survey would be omitted and the amount of field work could be dramatically reduced. However, the measured dispersion energy image in the passive surface wave survey would usually be polluted by a type of "crossed" artifacts at high frequencies. It is common in the bidirectional noise distribution case with a linear receiver array deployed along roads or railways. We review several frequently used passive surface wave methods and derive the underlying physics for the existence of the "crossed" artifacts. We prove that the "crossed" artifacts would cross the true surface wave energy at fixed points in the f- v domain and propose a FK-based data selection technique to attenuate the artifacts in order to retrieve the high-frequency information. Numerical tests further demonstrate the existence of the "crossed" artifacts and indicate that the well-known wave field separation method, FK filter, does not work for the selection of directional noise data. Real-world applications manifest the feasibility of the proposed FK-based technique to improve passive surface wave methods by a priori data selection. Finally, we discuss the applicability of our approach.

  14. SERS and in situ SERS spectroscopy of riboflavin adsorbed on silver, gold and copper substrates. Elucidation of variability of surface orientation based on both experimental and theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendisová-Vyškovská, Marcela; Kokaislová, Alžběta; Ončák, Milan; Matějka, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra have been collected to study influences of (i) used metal and (ii) applied electrode potential on orientation of adsorbed riboflavin molecules. Special in situ SERS spectroelectrochemical cell was used to obtain in situ SERS spectra of riboflavin adsorbed on silver, gold and copper nanostructured surfaces. Varying electrode potential was applied in discrete steps forming a cycle from positive values to negative and backward. Observed spectral features in in situ SERS spectra, measured at alternate potentials, have been changing very significantly and the spectra have been compared with SERS spectra of riboflavin measured ex situ. Raman spectra of single riboflavin molecule in the vicinity to metal (Ag, Au and Cu) clusters have been calculated for different mutual positions. The results demonstrate significant changes of bands intensities which can be correlated with experimental spectra measured at different potentials. Thus, the orientation of riboflavin molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces can be elucidated. It is influenced definitely by the value of applied potential. Furthermore, the riboflavin adsorption orientation on the surface depends on the used metal. Adsorption geometries on the copper substrates are more diverse in comparison with the orientations on silver and gold substrates.

  15. In situ SEM and ToF-SIMS analysis of IgG conjugated gold nanoparticles at aqueous surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Li; Zhu, Zihua; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Rodek, Gene; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Cowin, James P.

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we report new results of in situ study of 5 nm goat anti-mouse IgG gold nanoparticles in a novel portable vacuum compatible microfluidic device using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The unique feature of the liquid flow cell is that the detection window is open to the vacuum allowing direct probing of the liquid surface. The flow cell is composed of a silicon nitride (SiN) membrane and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and it is fully compatible with vacuum operations for surface analysis. The aperture can be drilled through the 100 nm SiN membrane using a focused ion beam. Characteristic signals of the conjugated gold nanoparticles were successfully observed through the aperture by both energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) in SEM and ToF-SIMS. Comparison was also made among wet samples, dry samples, and liquid sample in the flow cell using SEM/EDX. Stronger gold signal can be observed in our novel portable device by SEM/EDX compared with the wet or dry samples, respectively. Our results indicate that analyses of the nanoparticle components are better made in their native liquid environment. This is made possible using our unique microfluidic flow cell.

  16. Estimation of production rates for in-situ cosmogenic isotopes and application to surface exposure dating: certitudes and uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, I.J.

    1996-01-01

    Cosmogenic nuclides, produced in-situ in rocks by the action of cosmic rays on target nuclei, are increasingly being employed by earth scientists in a wide variety of applications. For example, surface exposure dating is used to determine erosion rates, the age of debris flows, alluvial fans, volcanic eruptions, meteoritic impact craters, and glacial deposits, and the timing of recent movement along faults and tectonic uplift. The technique can thus play a vital role in the study of potential hazards from geological processes, by establishing recurrence intervals between them, and establish chronologies and periodicities for major paleoclimatic events. Before surface exposure dating methods using cosmogenic isotopes can be applied even more widely, production rates of the main nuclides of interest must be better known, and their temporal and spatial variabilities determined. This paper summarises the present state of knowledge on production rates of the currently most useful nuclides ( 10 Be, 26 Al, 36 Cl, 14 C, 3 He and 21 Ne), discusses the main areas of concern, and makes suggestions for future improvement. (author). 83 refs., 7 tabs., 11 figs

  17. Intermatrix Synthesis as a rapid, inexpensive and reproducible methodology for the in situ functionalization of nanostructured surfaces with quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos-Arrieta, Julio, E-mail: julio.bastos@upc.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Muñoz, Jose, E-mail: josemaria.munoz@uab.cat [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Stenbock-Fermor, Anja, E-mail: stenbock@dwi.rwth-aachen.de [DWI – Leibniz-Institut für Interaktive Materialien, Aachen 52056 (Germany); Muñoz, Maria, E-mail: Maria.Munoz@uab.cat [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Muraviev, Dmitri N., E-mail: Dimitri.Muraviev@uab.es [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Céspedes, Francisco, E-mail: francisco.cespedes@uab.cat [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Tsarkova, Larisa A., E-mail: tsarkova@dwi.rwth-aachen.de [DWI – Leibniz-Institut für Interaktive Materialien, Aachen 52056 (Germany); Baeza, Mireia, E-mail: MariaDelMar.Baeza@uab.cat [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanodiamond functionalization with CdS quantum dots. • Approach for carbon nanotube detection in water samples. • Simple functionalization of thin polymeric nanolayers with quantum dots. - Abstract: Intermatrix Synthesis (IMS) technique has proven to be a valid methodology for the in situ incorporation of quantum dots (QDs) in a wide range of nanostructured surfaces for the preparation of advanced hybrid-nanomaterials. In this sense, this communication reports the recent advances in the application of IMS for the synthesis of CdS-QDs with favourable distribution on sulfonated polyetherether ketone (SPEEK) membrane thin films (TFs), multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nanodiamonds (NDs). The synthetic route takes advantage of the ion exchange functionality of the reactive surfaces for the loading of the QDs precursor and consequent QDs appearance by precipitation. The benefits of such modified nanomaterials were studied using CdS-QDs@MWCNTs hybrid-nanomaterials. CdS-QDs@MWCNTs has been used as conducting filler for the preparation of electrochemical nanocomposite sensors, which present electrocatalytic properties. Finally, the optical properties of the QDs contained on MWCNTs could allow a new procedure for the analytical detection of nanostructured carbon allotropes in water.

  18. Intermatrix Synthesis as a rapid, inexpensive and reproducible methodology for the in situ functionalization of nanostructured surfaces with quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos-Arrieta, Julio; Muñoz, Jose; Stenbock-Fermor, Anja; Muñoz, Maria; Muraviev, Dmitri N.; Céspedes, Francisco; Tsarkova, Larisa A.; Baeza, Mireia

    2016-04-01

    Intermatrix Synthesis (IMS) technique has proven to be a valid methodology for the in situ incorporation of quantum dots (QDs) in a wide range of nanostructured surfaces for the preparation of advanced hybrid-nanomaterials. In this sense, this communication reports the recent advances in the application of IMS for the synthesis of CdS-QDs with favourable distribution on sulfonated polyetherether ketone (SPEEK) membrane thin films (TFs), multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nanodiamonds (NDs). The synthetic route takes advantage of the ion exchange functionality of the reactive surfaces for the loading of the QDs precursor and consequent QDs appearance by precipitation. The benefits of such modified nanomaterials were studied using CdS-QDs@MWCNTs hybrid-nanomaterials. CdS-QDs@MWCNTs has been used as conducting filler for the preparation of electrochemical nanocomposite sensors, which present electrocatalytic properties. Finally, the optical properties of the QDs contained on MWCNTs could allow a new procedure for the analytical detection of nanostructured carbon allotropes in water.

  19. Intermatrix Synthesis as a rapid, inexpensive and reproducible methodology for the in situ functionalization of nanostructured surfaces with quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos-Arrieta, Julio; Muñoz, Jose; Stenbock-Fermor, Anja; Muñoz, Maria; Muraviev, Dmitri N.; Céspedes, Francisco; Tsarkova, Larisa A.; Baeza, Mireia

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanodiamond functionalization with CdS quantum dots. • Approach for carbon nanotube detection in water samples. • Simple functionalization of thin polymeric nanolayers with quantum dots. - Abstract: Intermatrix Synthesis (IMS) technique has proven to be a valid methodology for the in situ incorporation of quantum dots (QDs) in a wide range of nanostructured surfaces for the preparation of advanced hybrid-nanomaterials. In this sense, this communication reports the recent advances in the application of IMS for the synthesis of CdS-QDs with favourable distribution on sulfonated polyetherether ketone (SPEEK) membrane thin films (TFs), multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nanodiamonds (NDs). The synthetic route takes advantage of the ion exchange functionality of the reactive surfaces for the loading of the QDs precursor and consequent QDs appearance by precipitation. The benefits of such modified nanomaterials were studied using CdS-QDs@MWCNTs hybrid-nanomaterials. CdS-QDs@MWCNTs has been used as conducting filler for the preparation of electrochemical nanocomposite sensors, which present electrocatalytic properties. Finally, the optical properties of the QDs contained on MWCNTs could allow a new procedure for the analytical detection of nanostructured carbon allotropes in water.

  20. In situ STM imaging and direct electrochemistry of Pyrococcus furiosus ferredoxin assembled on thiolate-modified Au(111) surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingdong; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager; Ooi, Bee Lean

    2004-01-01

    We have addressed here electron transfer (ET) of Pyrococcus furiosus ferredoxin (PfFd, 7.5 kDa) in both homogeneous solution using edge plane graphite (EPG) electrodes and in the adsorbed state by electrochemistry on surface-modified single-crystal Au(111) electrodes, This has been supported...... by surface microscopic structures of PfFd monolayers, as revealed by scanning tunneling microscopy under potential control (in situ STM). Direct ET between PfFd in phosphate buffer solution, pH 7.9, and EPG electrodes is observed in the presence of promoters. Neomycin gives rise to a pair of redox peaks...... with a formal potential of ca -430 mV (vs SCE), corresponding to [3Fe-4S](1+/0). The presence of an additional promoter, which can be propionic acid, alanine, or cysteine, induces a second pair of redox peaks at similar to-900 mV (vs SCE) arising from [3Fe-4S](0/1-). A robust neomycin-PfFd complex was detected...

  1. In situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy effect in zeolite due to Ag_2Se quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Nuñez, C. E.; Cortez-Valadez, M.; Delgado-Beleño, Y.; Flores-López, N. S.; Román-Zamorano, J. F.; Flores-Valenzuela, J.; Flores-Acosta, M.

    2017-01-01

    This study shows the presence of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) effect caused by Ag_2Se quantum dots embedded in the zeolite matrix. The quantum dots that were synthesised and stabilised in the matrix of F9-NaX zeolite show a size of 5 nm and a quasi-spherical morphology. The calculated interplanar distances confirm the presence of quantum dots in cubic phase Im-m. We suppose that the in situ SERS effect in the material is caused by chemical-enhancement mechanism (CEM). The density functional theory (DFT) is undertaken to corroborate our hypothesis. The structure H_8Si_8Al_8O_1_2 represents the zeolite cavity unit, and small clusters of (Ag_2Se)_n represent the quantum dots. Both structures interact in the cavity to obtain the local minimum of the potential energy surface, leading to new molecular orbitals. After the analysis of the predicted Raman spectrum, the Raman bands increase significantly, agreeing with the experimental results at low wavenumbers in F9-NaX zeolite.

  2. In situ targeting TEM8 via immune response and polypeptide recognition by wavelength-modulated surface plasmon resonance biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yimin; Luo, Zewei; Liu, Kunping; Wang, Jie; Duan, Yixiang

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in real-time and in situ monitoring of living cell activities in life science and medicine. This paper reports a whole cell sensing protocol over the interface of Au film coupled in a wavelength-modulated surface plasmon resonance (WMSPR) biosensor. With dual parabolic mirrors integrated in the sensor, the compact and miniaturized instrument shows satisfactory refractive index sensitivity (2220 nm/RIU) and a high resolution of resonance wavelength shift of 0.3 nm to liquid samples. The affinity interactions between the biomarker of human tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) and antibody (Ab) or specific polypeptide (PEP) were firstly introduced to WMSPR biosensor analysis. Both the interaction events of Ab-cell and PEP-cell over the Au film interface can be recognized by the sensor and the balance time of interactions is about 20 min. The concentration range of Ab for quantitative monitoring of the TEM8 expression on human colon carcinoma SW620 cells was investigated. The present low-cost and time-saving method provides a time resolution of binding specificity between Ab/PEP and TEM8 for real-time analysis of antigen on living tumor cell surface. PMID:26822761

  3. In situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy effect in zeolite due to Ag{sub 2}Se quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Nuñez, C. E. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigación en Física (Mexico); Cortez-Valadez, M., E-mail: jose.cortez@unison.mx, E-mail: manuelcortez@live.com [Universidad de Sonora, CONACYT-Departamento de Investigación en Física (Mexico); Delgado-Beleño, Y.; Flores-López, N. S. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigación en Física (Mexico); Román-Zamorano, J. F. [Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico en Electroquímica (Mexico); Flores-Valenzuela, J. [Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa (Mexico); Flores-Acosta, M. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigación en Física (Mexico)

    2017-02-15

    This study shows the presence of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) effect caused by Ag{sub 2}Se quantum dots embedded in the zeolite matrix. The quantum dots that were synthesised and stabilised in the matrix of F9-NaX zeolite show a size of 5 nm and a quasi-spherical morphology. The calculated interplanar distances confirm the presence of quantum dots in cubic phase Im-m. We suppose that the in situ SERS effect in the material is caused by chemical-enhancement mechanism (CEM). The density functional theory (DFT) is undertaken to corroborate our hypothesis. The structure H{sub 8}Si{sub 8}Al{sub 8}O{sub 12} represents the zeolite cavity unit, and small clusters of (Ag{sub 2}Se){sub n} represent the quantum dots. Both structures interact in the cavity to obtain the local minimum of the potential energy surface, leading to new molecular orbitals. After the analysis of the predicted Raman spectrum, the Raman bands increase significantly, agreeing with the experimental results at low wavenumbers in F9-NaX zeolite.

  4. Estimation of surface heat and moisture fluxes over a prairie grassland. I - In situ energy budget measurements incorporating a cooled mirror dew point hygrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.; Crosson, William L.; Tanner, Bertrand D.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is focused on in situ measurements taken during FIFE required to support the development and validation of a biosphere model. Seasonal time series of surface flux measurements obtained from two surface radiation and energy budget stations utilized to support the FIFE surface flux measurement subprogram are examined. Data collection and processing procedures are discussed along with the measurement analysis for the complete 1987 test period.

  5. ''In-situ'' spectro-electrochemical studies of radionuclide-contaminated surface films on metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melendres, C.A.; Mini, S.; Mansour, A.N.

    2000-01-01

    The incorporation of heavy metal ions and radioactive contaminants into hydrous oxide films has been investigated in order to provide fundamental knowledge that could lead to the technological development of cost-effective processes and techniques for the decontamination of storage tanks, piping systems, surfaces, etc., in DOE nuclear facilities. The formation of oxide/hydroxide films was simulated by electrodeposition onto a graphite substrate from solutions of the appropriate metal salt. Synchrotron X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), supplemented by Laser Raman Spectroscopy (LRS), was used to determine the structure and composition of the host oxide film, as well as the impurity ion. Results have been obtained for the incorporation of Ce, Sr, Cr, Fe, and U into hydrous nickel oxide films. Ce and Sr oxides/hydroxides are co-precipitated with the nickel oxides in separate phase domains. Cr and Fe, on the other hand, are able to substitute into Ni lattice sites or intercalate in the interlamellar positions of the brucite structure of Ni(OH) 2 . U was found to co-deposit as a U(VI) hydroxide. The mode of incorporation of metal ions depends both on the size and charge of the metal ion. The structure of iron oxide (hydroxide) films prepared by both anodic and cathodic deposition has also been extensively studied. The structure of Fe(OH) 2 was determined to be similar to that of α-Ni(OH) 2 . Anodic deposition from solutions containing Fe 2+ results in a film with a structure similar to γ-FeOOH. From the knowledge gained from the present studies, principles and methods for decontamination have become apparent. Contaminants sorbed on oxide surfaces or co-precipitated may be removed by acid wash and selective dissolution or complexation. Ions incorporated into lattice sites and interlamellar layers will require more drastic cleaning procedures. Electropolishing and the use of an electrochemical brush are among concepts that should be considered seriously for the latter

  6. A miniaturized laser-ablation mass spectrometer for in-situ measurements of isotope composition on solar body surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedo, A.; Meyer, S.; Tulej, M.; Neuland, M.; Bieler, A.; Iakovleva, M.; Wurz, P.

    2012-04-01

    The in-situ analysis of extraterrestrial material onboard planetary rovers and landers is of considerable interest for future planetary space missions. Due to the low detection sensitivity of spectroscopic instruments, e.g. α-particle X-ray, γ-ray or neutron spectrometers, it is frequently possible to measure only major/minor elements in extraterrestrial materials. Nevertheless, the knowledge of minor/trace elements is of considerable interest to cosmochemistry. Chemistry puts constraints on the origin of solar system and its evolution enabling also a deeper inside to planetary transformation processes (e.g. volcanic surface alteration, space weathering). The isotopes play special role in analysis of the origin and transformation of planetary matter. They are robust tracers of the early events because their abundances are less disturbed as the elemental once. Nevertheless, if the isotope abundance ratios are fractionated, the underlying chemical and physical processes can be then encoded from the variations of abundance ratios. A detailed analysis of isotopic patterns of radiogenic elements can allow age dating of minerals and temporal evolution of planetary matter. High accuracy and sensitive measurements of isotopic pattern of bio-relevant elements, i.e., sulfur, found on planetary surfaces can be helpful for the identification of possible past and present extraterrestrial life in terms of biomarker identification. Our group has designed a self-optimizing miniaturized laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LMS) for in situ planetary measurements (Wurz et al., 2012; Rohner et al., 2003). Initial studies utilizing IR laser radiation for ablation, atomization and ionization of solid materials indicated a high instrumental performance in terms of sensitivity and mass resolution (Tulej et al., 2011). Current studies are conducted with a UV radiation and a high spatial resolution is achieved by focussing the laser beam to 20µm spots onto the sample. The

  7. Germanium nitride and oxynitride films for surface passivation of Ge radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggioni, G., E-mail: maggioni@lnl.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia G. Galilei, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell’Universita’2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Carturan, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia G. Galilei, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell’Universita’2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Fiorese, L. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell’Universita’2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e delle Tecnologie Industriali, Università di Trento, Via Mesiano 77, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Pinto, N.; Caproli, F. [Scuola di Scienze e Tecnologie, Sezione di Fisica, Università di Camerino, Via Madonna delle Carceri 9, Camerino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Napoli, D.R. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell’Universita’2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Giarola, M.; Mariotto, G. [Dipartimento di Informatica—Università di Verona, Strada le Grazie 15, I-37134 Verona (Italy)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • A surface passivation method for HPGe radiation detectors is proposed. • Highly insulating GeNx- and GeOxNy-based layers are deposited at room temperature. • Deposition parameters affect composition and electrical properties of the layers. • The improved performance of a GeNx-coated HPGe diode is assessed. - Abstract: This work reports a detailed investigation of the properties of germanium nitride and oxynitride films to be applied as passivation layers to Ge radiation detectors. All the samples were deposited at room temperature by reactive RF magnetron sputtering. A strong correlation was found between the deposition parameters, such as deposition rate, substrate bias and atmosphere composition, and the oxygen and nitrogen content in the film matrix. We found that all the films were very poorly crystallized, consisting of very small Ge nitride and oxynitride nanocrystallites, and electrically insulating, with the resistivity changing from three to six orders of magnitude as a function of temperature. A preliminary test of these films as passivation layers was successfully performed by depositing a germanium nitride film on the intrinsic surface of a high-purity germanium (HPGe) diode and measuring the improved performance, in terms of leakage current, with respect to a reference passivated diode. All these interesting results allow us to envisage the application of this coating technology to the surface passivation of germanium-based radiation detectors.

  8. In situ processing of concrete surface by impregnation and polymerization of an organic resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellecchia, V.; Ursella, P.; Moretto, G.

    1990-01-01

    The impregnation by resins of concrete structures is widely known as PIC (Polymer Impregnated Concrete). This process is normally used to improve the physical-chemical features of prefabricated items in particular to raise their lifetime under severe environmental conditions. The main target of this research contract was the verification of the possibility of a proper impregnation of existing concrete surfaces, of any dimensions and position, by comparing the obtained characteristics with those of untreated original material to check the improvement of chemical-physical properties and durability. In a nuclear facility, this goal is very important with reference to the long-term integrity of concrete walls during plant operative lifetime and after the final shutdown and decommissioning of the plant, if its dismantling is deferred. The operative steps of the research were the design, manufacturing and implementation of a tailored prototype equipment, the setting-up of the machine, the project and erection of a walling unit made of different density sectors in nuclear grade concrete and optimisation of the PIC process phases (dehydration, degassing, monomer injection, thermal cycles) during the experimental campaign. The data collected from samples gathered from field application gave results very similar to laboratory impregnated samples, thus confirming the satisfactory running of the prototype unit. Particularly the resin penetration, in spite of low porosity of nuclear grade concrete matrix, reached depths well beyond 50 mm with a significant increase of mechanical features, leaching resistance to aggressive agents and an appreciable sealing of concrete porosity

  9. Spectroscopic study of a DNA brush synthesized in situ by surface initiated enzymatic polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Nuruzzaman; Tjong, Vinalia; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Zharnikov, Michael

    2013-08-29

    We used a combination of synchrotron-based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and angle-resolved near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy to study the chemical integrity, purity, and possible internal alignment of single-strand (ss) adenine deoxynucleotide (poly(A)) DNA brushes. The brushes were synthesized by surface-initiated enzymatic polymerization (SIEP) on a 25-mer of adenine self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on gold (A25-SH), wherein the terminal 3'-OH of the A25-SH serve as the initiation sites for SIEP of poly(A). XPS and NEXAFS spectra of poly(A) brushes were found to be almost identical to those of A25-SH initiator, with no unambiguous traces of contamination. Apart from the well-defined chemical integrity and contamination-free character, the brushes were found to have a high degree of orientational order, with an upright orientation of individual strands, despite their large thickness up to ~55 nm, that corresponds to a chain length of at least several hundred nucleotides for individual ssDNA molecules. The orientational order exhibited by these poly(A) DNA brushes, mediated presumably by base stacking, was found to be independent of the brush thickness as long as the packing density was high enough. The well-defined character and orientational ordering of the ssDNA brushes make them a potentially promising system for different applications.

  10. In situ preparation, electrical and surface analytical characterization of pentacene thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassnig, R.; Striedinger, B.; Hollerer, M.; Fian, A.; Stadlober, B.; Winkler, A.

    2015-01-01

    The fabrication of organic thin film transistors with highly reproducible characteristics presents a very challenging task. We have prepared and analyzed model pentacene thin film transistors under ultra-high vacuum conditions, employing surface analytical tools and methods. Intentionally contaminating the gold contacts and SiO2 channel area with carbon through repeated adsorption, dissociation, and desorption of pentacene proved to be very advantageous in the creation of devices with stable and reproducible parameters. We mainly focused on the device properties, such as mobility and threshold voltage, as a function of film morphology and preparation temperature. At 300 K, pentacene displays Stranski-Krastanov growth, whereas at 200 K fine-grained, layer-like film growth takes place, which predominantly influences the threshold voltage. Temperature dependent mobility measurements demonstrate good agreement with the established multiple trapping and release model, which in turn indicates a predominant concentration of shallow traps in the crystal grains and at the oxide-semiconductor interface. Mobility and threshold voltage measurements as a function of coverage reveal that up to four full monolayers contribute to the overall charge transport. A significant influence on the effective mobility also stems from the access resistance at the gold contact-semiconductor interface, which is again strongly influenced by the temperature dependent, characteristic film growth mode. PMID:25814770

  11. In situ remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Marozas, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to develop cost-efficient techniques for remediating uranium contaminated groundwater at DOE Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites nationwide, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) deployed a pilot scale research project at an UMTRA site in Durango, CO. Implementation included design, construction, and subsequent monitoring of an in situ passive reactive barrier to remove Uranium from the tailings pile effluent. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment various forms of metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. Conceptually the iron media reduces and/or adsorbs uranium in situ to acceptable regulatory levels. In addition, other metals such as Se, Mo, and As have been removed by the reductive/adsorptive process. The primary objective of the experiment was to eliminate the need for surface treatment of tailing pile effluent. Experimental design, and laboratory and field results are discussed with regard to other potential contaminated groundwater treatment applications

  12. SiN sub x passivation of silicon surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, L. C.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives were to perform surface characterization of high efficiency n+/p and p+/n silicon cells, to relate surface density to substrate dopant concentration, and to identify dominant current loss mechanisms in high efficiency cells. The approach was to measure density of states on homogeneously doped substrates with high frequency C-V and Al/SiN sub x/Si structures; to investigate density of states and photoresponse of high efficiency N+/P and P+/N cells; and to conduct I-V-T studies to identify current loss nechanisms in high efficiency cells. Results are given in tables and graphs.

  13. Spatiotemporal Evaluation of Reanalysis and In-situ Surface Air Temperature over Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, T.

    2017-12-01

    Tewodros Woldemariam Tesfaye*1, C.T. Dhanya 2,and A.K. Gosain3 1Research Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110016, India 2Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110016, India 3 Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110016, India, *e-mail: tewodros2002@gmail.com Abstract: Water resources management and modelling studies are often constrained by the scarcity of observed data, especially of the two major variables i.e., precipitation and temperature. Modellers, hence, rely on reanalysis datasets as a substitute; though its performance heavily vary depending on the data availability and regional characteristics. The present study aims at examining the ability of frequently used reanalysis datasets in capturing the spatiotemporal characteristics of maximum and minimum surface temperatures over Ethiopia and to highlight the biases, if any, in these over Ethiopian region. We considered ERA-Interim, NCEP 2, MERRA and CFSR reanalysis datasets and compared these with temperature observations from 15 synoptic stations spread over Ethiopia. In addition to the long term averages and annual cycle, a critical comparison of various extreme indices such as diurnal temperature range, warm days, warm nights, cool days, cool nights, summer days and tropical nights are also undertaken. Our results indicate that, the performance of CFSR followed by NCEP 2 is better in capturing majority of the aspects. ERA-Interim suffers a huge additive bias in the simulation of various aspects of minimum temperature in all the stations considered; while its performance is better for maximum temperature. The inferior performance of ERA-Interim is noted to be only because of the difficulty in simulating minimum temperature. Key words: ERA Interim; NCEP Reanalysis; MERRA; CFSR; Diurnal temperature range; reanalysis performance.

  14. Potassium ions in SiO2: electrets for silicon surface passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Ruy S.; Wilshaw, Peter R.

    2018-01-01

    This manuscript reports an experimental and theoretical study of the transport of potassium ions in thin silicon dioxide films. While alkali contamination was largely researched in the context of MOSFET instability, recent reports indicate that potassium ions can be embedded into oxide films to produce dielectric materials with permanent electric charge, also known as electrets. These electrets are integral to a number of applications, including the passivation of silicon surfaces for optoelectronic devices. In this work, electric field assisted migration of ions is used to rapidly drive K+ into SiO2 and produce effective passivation of silicon surfaces. Charge concentrations of up to ~5  ×  1012 e cm-2 have been achieved. This charge was seen to be stable for over 1500 d, with decay time constants as high as 17 000 d, producing an effectively passivated oxide-silicon interface with SRV  industrial manufacture of silicon optoelectronic devices.

  15. In situ surface X-ray diffraction studies of the copper-electrolyte interface. Atomic structure and homoepitaxial grwoth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golks, Frederik

    2011-05-19

    Copper electrodeposition is the predominantly used technique for on-chip wiring in the fabrication of ultra-large scale integrated (ULSI) microchips. In this 'damascene copper electroplating' process, multicomponent electrolytes containing organic additives realize void-free filling of trenches with high aspect ratio ('superconformal deposition'). Despite manifold studies, motivated by the continuous trend to shrink wiring dimensions and thus the demand of optimized plating baths, detailed knowledge on the growth mechanism - in presence and absence of additives - is still lacking. Using a recently developed hanging meniscus X-ray transmission cell, brilliant synchrotron x-rays and a fast, one-dimensional detector system, unique real-time in situ surface X-ray diffraction studies of copper electrodeposition were performed under realistic reaction conditions, approaching rates of technological relevance. Preparatory measurements of the electrochemical dissolution of Au(001) in chloride-containing electrolyte demonstrated the capability of this powerful technique, specifically the possibility to follow atomic-scale deposition or dissolution processes with a time resolution down to five milliseconds. The electrochemical as well as structural characterization of the Cu(001)- and Cu(111)-electrolyte interfaces provided detailed insight into the complex atomic-scale structures in presence of specifically adsorbed chloride on these surfaces. The interface of Cu(001) in chloride-containing electrolyte exhibits a continuous surface phase transition of a disordered Cl adlayer to a c(2 x 2) Cl adlayer with increasing potential. The latter was found to induce a small vertical corrugation of substrate atoms, which can be ascribed to lattice relaxations induced by the presence of coadsorbed water molecules and cations in the outer part of the electrochemical double layer. The study of the specific adsorption of chloride on Cu(111) from acidic aqueous

  16. In situ surface X-ray diffraction studies of the copper-electrolyte interface. Atomic structure and homoepitaxial grwoth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golks, Frederik

    2011-05-19

    Copper electrodeposition is the predominantly used technique for on-chip wiring in the fabrication of ultra-large scale integrated (ULSI) microchips. In this 'damascene copper electroplating' process, multicomponent electrolytes containing organic additives realize void-free filling of trenches with high aspect ratio ('superconformal deposition'). Despite manifold studies, motivated by the continuous trend to shrink wiring dimensions and thus the demand of optimized plating baths, detailed knowledge on the growth mechanism - in presence and absence of additives - is still lacking. Using a recently developed hanging meniscus X-ray transmission cell, brilliant synchrotron x-rays and a fast, one-dimensional detector system, unique real-time in situ surface X-ray diffraction studies of copper electrodeposition were performed under realistic reaction conditions, approaching rates of technological relevance. Preparatory measurements of the electrochemical dissolution of Au(001) in chloride-containing electrolyte demonstrated the capability of this powerful technique, specifically the possibility to follow atomic-scale deposition or dissolution processes with a time resolution down to five milliseconds. The electrochemical as well as structural characterization of the Cu(001)- and Cu(111)-electrolyte interfaces provided detailed insight into the complex atomic-scale structures in presence of specifically adsorbed chloride on these surfaces. The interface of Cu(001) in chloride-containing electrolyte exhibits a continuous surface phase transition of a disordered Cl adlayer to a c(2 x 2) Cl adlayer with increasing potential. The latter was found to induce a small vertical corrugation of substrate atoms, which can be ascribed to lattice relaxations induced by the presence of coadsorbed water molecules and cations in the outer part of the electrochemical double layer. The study of the specific adsorption of chloride on Cu(111) from acidic aqueous electrolyte revealed a

  17. Preparation of Atomically Flat Si(111)-H Surfaces in Aqueous Ammonium Fluoride Solutions Investigated by Using Electrochemical, In Situ EC-STM and ATR-FTIR Spectroscopic Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Sang Eun; Oh, Mi Kyung; Min, Nam Ki; Paek, Se Hwan; Hong, Suk In; Lee, Chi-Woo J.

    2004-01-01

    Electrochemical, in situ electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope (EC-STM), and attenuated total reflectance-FTIR (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopic methods were employed to investigate the preparation of atomically flat Si(111)-H surface in ammonium fluoride solutions. Electrochemical properties of atomically flat Si(111)-H surface were characterized by anodic oxidation and cathodic hydrogen evolution with the open circuit potential (OCP) of ca. .0.4 V in concentrated ammonium fluoride solutions. As soon as the natural oxide-covered Si(111) electrode was immersed in fluoride solutions, OCP quickly shifted to near .1 V, which was more negative than the flat band potential of silicon surface, indicating that the surface silicon oxide had to be dissolved into the solution. OCP changed to become less negative as the oxide layer was being removed from the silicon surface. In situ EC-STM data showed that the surface was changed from the initial oxide covered silicon to atomically rough hydrogen-terminated surface and then to atomically flat hydrogen terminated surface as the OCP moved toward less negative potentials. The atomically flat Si(111)-H structure was confirmed by in situ EC-STM and ATR-FTIR data. The dependence of atomically flat Si(111)-H terrace on mis-cut angle was investigated by STM, and the results agreed with those anticipated by calculation. Further, the stability of Si(111)-H was checked by STM in ambient laboratory conditions

  18. Effect of ozone concentration on silicon surface passivation by atomic layer deposited Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastrow, Guillaume von; Li, Shuo; Putkonen, Matti; Laitinen, Mikko; Sajavaara, Timo; Savin, Hele

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The ALD Al 2 O 3 passivation quality can be controlled by the ozone concentration. • Ozone concentration affects the Si/Al 2 O 3 interface charge and defect density. • A surface recombination velocity of 7 cm/s is reached combining ozone and water ALD. • Carbon and hydrogen concentrations correlate with the surface passivation quality. - Abstract: We study the impact of ozone-based Al 2 O 3 Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) on the surface passivation quality of crystalline silicon. We show that the passivation quality strongly depends on the ozone concentration: the higher ozone concentration results in lower interface defect density and thereby improved passivation. In contrast to previous studies, our results reveal that too high interface hydrogen content can be detrimental to the passivation. The interface hydrogen concentration can be optimized by the ozone-based process; however, the use of pure ozone increases the harmful carbon concentration in the film. Here we demonstrate that low carbon and optimal hydrogen concentration can be achieved by a single process combining the water- and ozone-based reactions. This process results in an interface defect density of 2 × 10 11 eV −1 cm −2 , and maximum surface recombination velocities of 7.1 cm/s and 10 cm/s, after annealing and after an additional firing at 800 °C, respectively. In addition, our results suggest that the effective oxide charge density can be optimized in a simple way by varying the ozone concentration and by injecting water to the ozone process.

  19. Characterization of Al2O3 surface passivation of silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albadri, Abdulrahman M.

    2014-01-01

    A study of the passivation of silicon surface by aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) is reported. A correlation of fixed oxide charge density (Q f ) and interface trap density (D it ) on passivation efficiency is presented. Low surface recombination velocity (SRV) was obtained even by as-deposited Al 2 O 3 films and this was found to be associated to the passivation of interface states. Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy spectra show the existence of an interfacial silicon oxide thin layer in both as-deposited and annealed Al 2 O 3 films. Q f is found positive in as-deposited films and changing to negative upon subsequent annealing, providing thus an enhancement of the passivation in p-type silicon wafers, associated to field effects. Secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis confirms the correlation between D it and hydrogen concentration at the Al 2 O 3 /Si interface. A lowest SRV of 15 cm/s was obtained after an anneal at 400 °C in nitrogen atmosphere. - Highlights: • Al 2 O 3 provides superior passivation for silicon surfaces. • Atomic layer deposition-Al 2 O 3 was deposited at a low temperature of 200 °C. • A lowest surface passivation velocity of 15 cm/s was obtained after an anneal at 400 °C in nitrogen. • As-deposited Al 2 O 3 films form very thin SiO 2 layer responsible of low interface trap densities. • High negative fixed charge density of (− 2 × 10 12 cm −2 ) was achieved upon annealing at 400 °C

  20. In-situ buildup of cosmogenic isotopes at the earth`s surface: measurement of erosion rates and exposure times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L K; Allan, G L; Stone, J O.H.; Evans, J M; Cresswell, R G; Ophel, T R [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Cosmic rays produce a number of nuclides in rocks that can be used to determine the geomorphic history of surfaces. The most useful are the radioactive isotopes {sup 10}Be (t{sub 1/2} = 1.5Ma), {sup 26}Al (0.7Ma) and {sup 36}Cl (0.3Ma). Within the top 2m of the surface, these are produced principally by fast neutrons. At greater depths, production is dominated by the capture of negative muons. Measurements of a single nuclide produced in situ can be used to determine total exposure times or erosion rates. The use of multiple nuclides with different half-lives makes it possible to determine more complex histories, such as exposures interrupted by periods of burial. At the ANU, all three of the isotopes above are being used to study a variety of problems in geomorphology and paleoclimatology, although to date, most of the work has concentrated on {sup 36}Cl. The accumulation of cosmogenic {sup 36}Cl in calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) provides a means of measuring erosion rates on limestone surfaces. Sensitivity is achieved over a wide range of erosion rates due to the high production rate of {sup 36}Cl in calcite (typically greater than 30 atoms/g/yr) and a detection limit of ca. 5000 atoms/g attainable with the ANU AMS system. The method is simplified by the predominance of Ca reactions (principally spallation) over other sources of {sup 36}Cl in calcite, and the ease of sample preparation. This presentation discuss the results of measurements of {sup 36}Cl in calcite from limestone samples from Australia and Papua New Guinea. Erosion rates derived from these measurements range from 3 microns per year (Australia) to over 200 microns per year in the New Guinea highlands. 3 refs.

  1. In-situ buildup of cosmogenic isotopes at the earth's surface: measurement of erosion rates and exposure times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Stone, J.O.H.; Evans, J.M.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    Cosmic rays produce a number of nuclides in rocks that can be used to determine the geomorphic history of surfaces. The most useful are the radioactive isotopes 10 Be (t 1/2 = 1.5Ma), 26 Al (0.7Ma) and 36 Cl (0.3Ma). Within the top 2m of the surface, these are produced principally by fast neutrons. At greater depths, production is dominated by the capture of negative muons. Measurements of a single nuclide produced in situ can be used to determine total exposure times or erosion rates. The use of multiple nuclides with different half-lives makes it possible to determine more complex histories, such as exposures interrupted by periods of burial. At the ANU, all three of the isotopes above are being used to study a variety of problems in geomorphology and paleoclimatology, although to date, most of the work has concentrated on 36 Cl. The accumulation of cosmogenic 36 Cl in calcite (CaCO 3 ) provides a means of measuring erosion rates on limestone surfaces. Sensitivity is achieved over a wide range of erosion rates due to the high production rate of 36 Cl in calcite (typically greater than 30 atoms/g/yr) and a detection limit of ca. 5000 atoms/g attainable with the ANU AMS system. The method is simplified by the predominance of Ca reactions (principally spallation) over other sources of 36 Cl in calcite, and the ease of sample preparation. This presentation discuss the results of measurements of 36 Cl in calcite from limestone samples from Australia and Papua New Guinea. Erosion rates derived from these measurements range from 3 microns per year (Australia) to over 200 microns per year in the New Guinea highlands. 3 refs

  2. In-situ buildup of cosmogenic isotopes at the earth`s surface: measurement of erosion rates and exposure times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Stone, J.O.H.; Evans, J.M.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Cosmic rays produce a number of nuclides in rocks that can be used to determine the geomorphic history of surfaces. The most useful are the radioactive isotopes {sup 10}Be (t{sub 1/2} = 1.5Ma), {sup 26}Al (0.7Ma) and {sup 36}Cl (0.3Ma). Within the top 2m of the surface, these are produced principally by fast neutrons. At greater depths, production is dominated by the capture of negative muons. Measurements of a single nuclide produced in situ can be used to determine total exposure times or erosion rates. The use of multiple nuclides with different half-lives makes it possible to determine more complex histories, such as exposures interrupted by periods of burial. At the ANU, all three of the isotopes above are being used to study a variety of problems in geomorphology and paleoclimatology, although to date, most of the work has concentrated on {sup 36}Cl. The accumulation of cosmogenic {sup 36}Cl in calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) provides a means of measuring erosion rates on limestone surfaces. Sensitivity is achieved over a wide range of erosion rates due to the high production rate of {sup 36}Cl in calcite (typically greater than 30 atoms/g/yr) and a detection limit of ca. 5000 atoms/g attainable with the ANU AMS system. The method is simplified by the predominance of Ca reactions (principally spallation) over other sources of {sup 36}Cl in calcite, and the ease of sample preparation. This presentation discuss the results of measurements of {sup 36}Cl in calcite from limestone samples from Australia and Papua New Guinea. Erosion rates derived from these measurements range from 3 microns per year (Australia) to over 200 microns per year in the New Guinea highlands. 3 refs.

  3. Surface Passivation and Junction Formation Using Low Energy Hydrogen Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonash, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    New applications for high current, low energy hydrogen ion implants on single crystal and polycrystal silicon grain boundaries are discussed. The effects of low energy hydrogen ion beams on crystalline Si surfaces are considered. The effect of these beams on bulk defects in crystalline Si is addressed. Specific applications of H+ implants to crystalline Si processing are discussed. In all of the situations reported on, the hydrogen beams were produced using a high current Kaufman ion source.

  4. Early Career. Harnessing nanotechnology for fusion plasma-material interface research in an in-situ particle-surface interaction facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allain, Jean Paul [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2014-08-08

    This project consisted of fundamental and applied research of advanced in-situ particle-beam interactions with surfaces/interfaces to discover novel materials able to tolerate intense conditions at the plasma-material interface (PMI) in future fusion burning plasma devices. The project established a novel facility that is capable of not only characterizing new fusion nanomaterials but, more importantly probing and manipulating materials at the nanoscale while performing subsequent single-effect in-situ testing of their performance under simulated environments in fusion PMI.

  5. Excellent Silicon Surface Passivation Achieved by Industrial Inductively Coupled Plasma Deposited Hydrogenated Intrinsic Amorphous Silicon Suboxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an alternative method of depositing a high-quality passivation film for heterojunction silicon wafer solar cells, in this paper. The deposition of hydrogenated intrinsic amorphous silicon suboxide is accomplished by decomposing hydrogen, silane, and carbon dioxide in an industrial remote inductively coupled plasma platform. Through the investigation on CO2 partial pressure and process temperature, excellent surface passivation quality and optical properties are achieved. It is found that the hydrogen content in the film is much higher than what is commonly reported in intrinsic amorphous silicon due to oxygen incorporation. The observed slow depletion of hydrogen with increasing temperature greatly enhances its process window as well. The effective lifetime of symmetrically passivated samples under the optimal condition exceeds 4.7 ms on planar n-type Czochralski silicon wafers with a resistivity of 1 Ωcm, which is equivalent to an effective surface recombination velocity of less than 1.7 cms−1 and an implied open-circuit voltage (Voc of 741 mV. A comparison with several high quality passivation schemes for solar cells reveals that the developed inductively coupled plasma deposited films show excellent passivation quality. The excellent optical property and resistance to degradation make it an excellent substitute for industrial heterojunction silicon solar cell production.

  6. Electrical and optical characterization of surface passivation in GaAs nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Chi; Chi, Chun-Yung; Yao, Maoqing; Huang, Ningfeng; Chen, Chun-Chung; Theiss, Jesse; Bushmaker, Adam W; Lalumondiere, Stephen; Yeh, Ting-Wei; Povinelli, Michelle L; Zhou, Chongwu; Dapkus, P Daniel; Cronin, Stephen B

    2012-09-12

    We report a systematic study of carrier dynamics in Al(x)Ga(1-x)As-passivated GaAs nanowires. With passivation, the minority carrier diffusion length (L(diff)) increases from 30 to 180 nm, as measured by electron beam induced current (EBIC) mapping, and the photoluminescence (PL) lifetime increases from sub-60 ps to 1.3 ns. A 48-fold enhancement in the continuous-wave PL intensity is observed on the same individual nanowire with and without the Al(x)Ga(1-x)As passivation layer, indicating a significant reduction in surface recombination. These results indicate that, in passivated nanowires, the minority carrier lifetime is not limited by twin stacking faults. From the PL lifetime and minority carrier diffusion length, we estimate the surface recombination velocity (SRV) to range from 1.7 × 10(3) to 1.1 × 10(4) cm·s(-1), and the minority carrier mobility μ is estimated to lie in the range from 10.3 to 67.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for the passivated nanowires.

  7. Effect of pulsed laser parameters on in-situ TiC synthesis in laser surface treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, M. J.; Torkamany, M. J.; Sabbaghzadeh, J.

    2011-04-01

    Commercial titanium sheets pre-coated with 300-μm thick graphite layer were treated by employing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser in order to enhance surface properties such as wear and erosion resistance. Laser in-situ alloying method produced a composite layer by melting the titanium substrate and dissolution of graphite in the melt pool. Correlations between pulsed laser parameters, microstructure and microhardness of the synthesized composite coatings were investigated. Effects of pulse duration and overlapping factor on the microstructure and hardness of the alloyed layer were deduced from Vickers micro-indentation tests, XRD, SEM and metallographic analyses of cross sections of the generated layer. Results show that the composite cladding layer was constituted with TiC intermetallic phase between the titanium matrix in particle and dendrite forms. The dendritic morphology of composite layer was changed to cellular grain structure by increasing laser pulse duration and irradiated energy. High values of the measured hardness indicate that deposited titanium carbide increases in the conditions with more pulse duration and low process speed. This occurs due to more dissolution of carbon into liquid Ti by heat input increasing and positive influence of the Marangoni flow in the melted zone.

  8. In situ photoelectrochemistry and Raman spectroscopic characterization on the surface oxide film of nickel electrode in 30 wt.% KOH solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan Junmin; Yang Yong; Lin Zugeng

    2006-01-01

    The oxide films of nickel electrode formed in 30 wt.% KOH solution under potentiodynamic conditions were characterized by means of electrochemical, in situ PhotoElectrochemistry Measurement (PEM) and Confocal Microprobe Raman spectroscopic techniques. The results showed that a composite oxide film was produced on nickel electrode, in which aroused cathodic or anodic photocurrent depending upon polarization potentials. The cathodic photocurrent at -0.8 V was raised from the amorphous film containing nickel hydroxide and nickel monoxide, and mainly attributed to the formation of NiO through the separation of the cavity and electron when laser light irradiates nickel electrode. With the potential increasing to more positive values, Ni 3 O 4 and high-valence nickel oxides with the structure of NiO 2 were formed successively. The composite film formed in positive potential aroused anodic photocurrent from 0.33 V. The anodic photocurrent was attributed the formation of oxygen through the cavity reaction with hydroxyl on solution interface. In addition, it is demonstrated that the reduction resultants of high-valence nickel oxides were amorphous, and the oxide film could not be reduced completely. A stable oxide film could be gradually formed on the surface of nickel electrode with the cycling and aging in 30 wt.% KOH solution

  9. In Situ Analysis of a Silver Nanoparticle-Precipitating Shewanella Biofilm by Surface Enhanced Confocal Raman Microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Schkolnik

    Full Text Available Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is an electroactive bacterium, capable of reducing extracellular insoluble electron acceptors, making it important for both nutrient cycling in nature and microbial electrochemical technologies, such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrosynthesis. When allowed to anaerobically colonize an Ag/AgCl solid interface, S. oneidensis has precipitated silver nanoparticles (AgNp, thus providing the means for a surface enhanced confocal Raman microscopy (SECRaM investigation of its biofilm. The result is the in-situ chemical mapping of the biofilm as it developed over time, where the distribution of cytochromes, reduced and oxidized flavins, polysaccharides and phosphate in the undisturbed biofilm is monitored. Utilizing AgNp bio-produced by the bacteria colonizing the Ag/AgCl interface, we could perform SECRaM while avoiding the use of a patterned or roughened support or the introduction of noble metal salts and reducing agents. This new method will allow a spatially and temporally resolved chemical investigation not only of Shewanella biofilms at an insoluble electron acceptor, but also of other noble metal nanoparticle-precipitating bacteria in laboratory cultures or in complex microbial communities in their natural habitats.

  10. Enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting performance of anodic TiO(2) nanotube arrays by surface passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Qunfang; Xu, Zhen; Zhang, Haifeng; Cheng, Chuanwei; Zhu, Xufei; Yin, Min; Song, Ye; Lu, Linfeng; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Li, Dongdong

    2014-10-08

    One-dimensional anodic titanium oxide nanotube (TONT) arrays provide a direct pathway for charge transport, and thus hold great potential as working electrodes for electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices. However, the prominent surface recombination due to the large amount surface defects hinders the performance improvement. In this work, the surface states of TONTs were passivated by conformal coating of high-quality Al2O3 onto the tubular structures using atomic layer deposition (ALD). The modified TONT films were subsequently employed as anodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. The photocurrent (0.5 V vs Ag/AgCl) recorded under air mass 1.5 global illumination presented 0.8 times enhancement on the electrode with passivation coating. The reduction of surface recombination rate is responsible for the substantially improved performance, which is proposed to have originated from a decreased interface defect density in combination with a field-effect passivation induced by a negative fixed charge in the Al2O3 shells. These results not only provide a physical insight into the passivation effect, but also can be utilized as a guideline to design other energy conversion devices.

  11. Recent progress in the development and understanding of silicon surface passivation by aluminum oxide for photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, G.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    In the recent years, considerable progress has been made in the understanding of the unique silicon surface passivation properties of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) films including its underlying mechanisms. Containing a high fixed negative charge density located close to the Si interface, Al2O3 provides a

  12. Dynamic stability of passive dynamic walking on an irregular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jimmy Li-Shin; Dingwell, Jonathan B

    2007-12-01

    Falls that occur during walking are a significant health problem. One of the greatest impediments to solve this problem is that there is no single obviously "correct" way to quantify walking stability. While many people use variability as a proxy for stability, measures of variability do not quantify how the locomotor system responds to perturbations. The purpose of this study was to determine how changes in walking surface variability affect changes in both locomotor variability and stability. We modified an irreducibly simple model of walking to apply random perturbations that simulated walking over an irregular surface. Because the model's global basin of attraction remained fixed, increasing the amplitude of the applied perturbations directly increased the risk of falling in the model. We generated ten simulations of 300 consecutive strides of walking at each of six perturbation amplitudes ranging from zero (i.e., a smooth continuous surface) up to the maximum level the model could tolerate without falling over. Orbital stability defines how a system responds to small (i.e., "local") perturbations from one cycle to the next and was quantified by calculating the maximum Floquet multipliers for the model. Local stability defines how a system responds to similar perturbations in real time and was quantified by calculating short-term and long-term local exponential rates of divergence for the model. As perturbation amplitudes increased, no changes were seen in orbital stability (r(2)=2.43%; p=0.280) or long-term local instability (r(2)=1.0%; p=0.441). These measures essentially reflected the fact that the model never actually "fell" during any of our simulations. Conversely, the variability of the walker's kinematics increased exponentially (r(2)>or=99.6%; psimulated conditions, the walker remained orbitally stable, while exhibiting substantial local instability. This was because very small initial perturbations diverged away from the limit cycle, while larger

  13. Effective surface passivation of InP nanowires by atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 with POx interlayer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Black, L.E.; Cavalli, A.; Verheijen, M.A.; Haverkort, J.E.M.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2017-01-01

    III/V semiconductor nanostructures have significant potential in device applications, but effective surface passivation is critical due to their large surface-to-volume ratio. For InP such passivation has proven particularly difficult, with substantial depassivation generally observed following

  14. Layered insulator hexagonal boron nitride for surface passivation in quantum dot solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugam, Mariyappan; Jain, Nikhil; Jacobs-Gedrim, Robin; Yu, Bin; Xu, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Single crystalline, two dimensional (2D) layered insulator hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), is demonstrated as an emerging material candidate for surface passivation on mesoporous TiO 2 . Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dot based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell employed h-BN passivated TiO 2 as an electron acceptor exhibits photoconversion efficiency ∼46% more than BHJ employed unpassivated TiO 2 . Dominant interfacial recombination pathways such as electron capture by TiO 2 surface states and recombination with hole at valence band of CdSe are efficiently controlled by h-BN enabled surface passivation, leading to improved photovoltaic performance. Highly crystalline, confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, dangling bond-free 2D layered h-BN with self-terminated atomic planes, achieved by chemical exfoliation, enables efficient passivation on TiO 2 , allowing electronic transport at TiO 2 /h-BN/CdSe interface with much lower recombination rate compared to an unpassivated TiO 2 /CdSe interface

  15. In situ determination of the depuration of three- and four-ringed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons co-adsorbed onto mangrove leaf surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Haifeng; Shi, Jing; Guo, Shuai; Zhang, Yong; Duan, Lusha

    2016-01-01

    A dual-wavelength fiber-optic fluorimetry for the in situ simultaneous determinations of fluorene (Flu), phenanthrene (Phe) and pyrene (Pyr) adsorbed onto the leaf surfaces of living Avicennia marina (Am) seedling were developed and used to study the depuration kinetics of the three PAHs, adsorbed individually or mixed together, onto living Am leaf surfaces. Limits of detection for the in situ measurements of adsorbed Flu, Phe and Pyr were 4.62, 2.75 and 1.38 ng spot"−"1, respectively. The depuration kinetics of the three selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are divided into rapid and slow phases; both phases followed the same first-order kinetics with relative clearance rates of Flu > Phe > Pyr during the rapid phase, and a clearance rate order of Pyr > Flu > Phe during the slow phase. For the three PAHs co-adsorbed on living Am leaf surfaces, a significant synergistic effect was detected during the rapid phase clearance; conversely, an antagonistic effect was observed during the slow phase. However, the synergistic effect dominated during both phases of the depuration process, and the co-adsorption of PAHs promoted the clearance of all three compounds from the mangrove leaf surfaces. These findings demonstrate a novel analytical method for in situ characterization of multiple PAHs adsorbed onto the plant surfaces. - Highlights: • A novel method for the in situ determination of multi-component PAHs was developed. • Synergistic and antagonistic effects separately occurred over rapid and slow phases. • The clearance of all three PAHs from leaf surfaces was promoted by co-adsorption. - The co-adsorption of PAHs promoted the depuration of all three compounds from the mangrove leaf surfaces.

  16. Surface Passivation and Antireflection Behavior of ALD on n-Type Silicon for Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing-Song Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomic layer deposition, a method of excellent step coverage and conformal deposition, was used to deposit TiO2 thin films for the surface passivation and antireflection coating of silicon solar cells. TiO2 thin films deposited at different temperatures (200°C, 300°C, 400°C, and 500°C on FZ n-type silicon wafers are in the thickness of 66.4 nm ± 1.1 nm and in the form of self-limiting growth. For the properties of surface passivation, Si surface is effectively passivated by the 200°C deposition TiO2 thin film. Its effective minority carrier lifetime, measured by the photoconductance decay method, is improved 133% at the injection level of  cm−3. Depending on different deposition parameters and annealing processes, we can control the crystallinity of TiO2 and find low-temperature TiO2 phase (anatase better passivation performance than the high-temperature one (rutile, which is consistent with the results of work function measured by Kelvin probe. In addition, TiO2 thin films on polished Si wafer serve as good ARC layers with refractive index between 2.13 and 2.44 at 632.8 nm. Weighted average reflectance at AM1.5G reduces more than half after the deposition of TiO2. Finally, surface passivation and antireflection properties of TiO2 are stable after the cofire process of conventional crystalline Si solar cells.

  17. Passive remote sensing of large-scale methane emissions from Oil Fields in California's San Joaquin Valley and validation by airborne in-situ measurements - Results from COMEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krautwurst, Sven; Thompson, David R.; Thorpe, Andrew K.; Kolyer, Richard W.; Jonsson, Haflidi; Krings, Thomas; Frankenberg, Christian; Horstjann, Markus; Leifer, Ira; Eastwood, Michael; Green, Robert O.; Vigil, Sam; Fladeland, Matthew; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Burrows, John P.; Bovensmann, Heinrich

    2016-04-01

    The CO2 and MEthane EXperiment (COMEX) was a NASA and ESA funded campaign in support of the HyspIRI and CarbonSat mission definition activities. As a part of this effort, seven flights were performed between June 3 and September 4, 2014 with the Methane Airborne MAPper (MAMAP) remote sensing instrument (operated by the University of Bremen in cooperation with the German Research Centre for Geosciences - GFZ) over the Kern River, Kern Front, and Poso Creek Oil Fields located in California's San Joaquin Valley. MAMAP was installed for the flights aboard the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft, together with: a Picarro fast in-situ greenhouse gas (GHG) analyzer operated by the NASA Ames Research Center, ARC; a 5-hole turbulence probe; and an atmospheric measurement package operated by CIRPAS measuring aerosols, temperature, dew-point, and other atmospheric parameters. Three of the flights were accompanied by the Next Generation Airborne Visual InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG), operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, installed aboard a second Twin Otter aircraft. Large-scale, high-concentration CH4 plumes were detected by the MAMAP instrument over the fields and tracked over several kilometers. The spatial distribution of the MAMAP observed plumes was compared to high spatial resolution CH4 anomaly maps derived by AVIRIS-NG imaging spectroscopy data. Remote sensing data collected by MAMAP was used to infer CH4 emission rates and their distributions over the three fields. Aggregated emission estimates for the three fields were compared to aggregated emissions inferred by subsequent airborne in-situ validation measurements collected by the Picarro instrument. Comparison of remote sensing and in-situ flux estimates will be presented, demonstrating the ability of airborne remote sensing data to provide accurate emission estimates for concentrations above the

  18. Impurity diffusion, point defect engineering, and surface/interface passivation in germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander I.

    2012-01-26

    In recent years germanium has been emerging as a mainstream material that could have important applications in the microelectronics industry. The principle aim of this study is to review investigations of the diffusion of technologically important p- and n-type dopants as well as surface and interface passivation issues in germanium. The diffusion of impurities in germanium is interrelated to the formation of clusters whenever possible, and possibilities for point defect engineering are discussed in view of recent results. The importance of electrically active defects on the Ge surface and interfaces is addressed considering strategies to suppress them and to passivate the surfaces/interfaces, bearing in mind their importance for advanced devices. © 2012 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. In situ measurement of the effect of LiOH on the stability of zircaloy-2 surface film in PWR water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saario, T.; Taehtinen, S.

    1997-01-01

    Surface films on the metals play a major role in corrosion assisted cracking. A new method called Contact Electric Resistance (CER) method has been recently developed for in situ measurement of the electric resistance of surface films in high temperature and high pressure environments. The technique has been used to determine in situ the electric resistance of films on metals when in contact with water and dissolved anions, during formation and destruction of oxides and hydrides and during electroplating of metals. Electric resistance data can be measured with a frequency of the order of one hertz, which makes it possible to investigate in situ the kinetics of surface film related processes which are dependent on the environment, temperature, pH and electrochemical potential. This paper presents the results of the CER investigation on the effects of LiOH on the stability of Zircaloy-2 surface film in water with 2000 ppm H 3 BO 3 . At 300 deg. C the LiOH concentrations higher than 10 -2 M (roughly 70 ppm of Li + ) were found to markedly reduce the electric resistance of the Zircaloy-2 surface film during a test period of less than two hours. The decrease of the film resistance is very abrupt, possibly indicating a phase transformation. Moreover, the advantages of the CER technique over the other competing techniques which rely on the measurement of current are discussed. (author)

  20. In situ measurement of the effect of LiOH on the stability of zircaloy-2 surface film in PWR water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saario, T; Taehtinen, S [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-02-01

    Surface films on the metals play a major role in corrosion assisted cracking. A new method called Contact Electric Resistance (CER) method has been recently developed for in situ measurement of the electric resistance of surface films in high temperature and high pressure environments. The technique has been used to determine in situ the electric resistance of films on metals when in contact with water and dissolved anions, during formation and destruction of oxides and hydrides and during electroplating of metals. Electric resistance data can be measured with a frequency of the order of one hertz, which makes it possible to investigate in situ the kinetics of surface film related processes which are dependent on the environment, temperature, pH and electrochemical potential. This paper presents the results of the CER investigation on the effects of LiOH on the stability of Zircaloy-2 surface film in water with 2000 ppm H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}. At 300 deg. C the LiOH concentrations higher than 10{sup -2} M (roughly 70 ppm of Li{sup +}) were found to markedly reduce the electric resistance of the Zircaloy-2 surface film during a test period of less than two hours. The decrease of the film resistance is very abrupt, possibly indicating a phase transformation. Moreover, the advantages of the CER technique over the other competing techniques which rely on the measurement of current are discussed. (author).

  1. The Potential and Challenges of Using Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP Sea Surface Salinity to Monitor Arctic Ocean Freshwater Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Tang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea surface salinity (SSS links various components of the Arctic freshwater system. SSS responds to freshwater inputs from river discharge, sea ice change, precipitation and evaporation, and oceanic transport through the open straits of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. However, in situ SSS data in the Arctic Ocean are very sparse and insufficient to depict the large-scale variability to address the critical question of how climate variability and change affect the Arctic Ocean freshwater. The L-band microwave radiometer on board the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP mission has been providing SSS measurements since April 2015, at approximately 60 km resolution with Arctic Ocean coverage in 1–2 days. With improved land/ice correction, the SMAP SSS algorithm that was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL is able to retrieve SSS in ice-free regions 35 km of the coast. SMAP observes a large-scale contrast in salinity between the Atlantic and Pacific sides of the Arctic Ocean, while retrievals within the Arctic Circle vary over time, depending on the sea ice coverage and river runoff. We assess the accuracy of SMAP SSS through comparative analysis with in situ salinity data collected by Argo floats, ships, gliders, and in field campaigns. Results derived from nearly 20,000 pairs of SMAP and in situ data North of 50°N collocated within a 12.5-km radius and daily time window indicate a Root Mean Square Difference (RMSD less than ~1 psu with a correlation coefficient of 0.82 and a near unity regression slope over the entire range of salinity. In contrast, the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM has a smaller RMSD with Argo. However, there are clear systematic biases in the HYCOM for salinity in the range of 25–30 psu, leading to a regression slope of about 0.5. In the region North of 65°N, the number of collocated samples drops more than 70%, resulting in an RMSD of about 1.2 psu. SMAP SSS in the Kara Sea shows a consistent

  2. Surface Passivation of GaN Nanowires for Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Water-Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Varadhan, Purushothaman; Fu, Hui-chun; Priante, Davide; Duran Retamal, Jose Ramon; Zhao, Chao; Ebaid, Mohamed; Ng, Tien Khee; Ajia, Idris A.; Mitra, Somak; Roqan, Iman S.; Ooi, Boon S.; He, Jr-Hau

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen production via photoelectrochemical water-splitting is a key source of clean and sustainable energy. The use of one-dimensional nanostructures as photoelectrodes is desirable for photoelectrochemical water-splitting applications due to the ultralarge surface areas, lateral carrier extraction schemes, and superior light-harvesting capabilities. However, the unavoidable surface states of nanostructured materials create additional charge carrier trapping centers and energy barriers at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, which severely reduce the solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency. In this work, we address the issue of surface states in GaN nanowire photoelectrodes by employing a simple and low-cost surface treatment method, which utilizes an organic thiol compound (i.e., 1,2-ethanedithiol). The surface-treated photocathode showed an enhanced photocurrent density of −31 mA/cm at −0.2 V versus RHE with an incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 18.3%, whereas untreated nanowires yielded only 8.1% efficiency. Furthermore, the surface passivation provides enhanced photoelectrochemical stability as surface-treated nanowires retained ∼80% of their initial photocurrent value and produced 8000 μmol of gas molecules over 55 h at acidic conditions (pH ∼ 0), whereas the untreated nanowires demonstrated only <4 h of photoelectrochemical stability. These findings shed new light on the importance of surface passivation of nanostructured photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical applications.

  3. Surface Passivation of GaN Nanowires for Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Water-Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Varadhan, Purushothaman

    2017-02-08

    Hydrogen production via photoelectrochemical water-splitting is a key source of clean and sustainable energy. The use of one-dimensional nanostructures as photoelectrodes is desirable for photoelectrochemical water-splitting applications due to the ultralarge surface areas, lateral carrier extraction schemes, and superior light-harvesting capabilities. However, the unavoidable surface states of nanostructured materials create additional charge carrier trapping centers and energy barriers at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, which severely reduce the solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency. In this work, we address the issue of surface states in GaN nanowire photoelectrodes by employing a simple and low-cost surface treatment method, which utilizes an organic thiol compound (i.e., 1,2-ethanedithiol). The surface-treated photocathode showed an enhanced photocurrent density of −31 mA/cm at −0.2 V versus RHE with an incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 18.3%, whereas untreated nanowires yielded only 8.1% efficiency. Furthermore, the surface passivation provides enhanced photoelectrochemical stability as surface-treated nanowires retained ∼80% of their initial photocurrent value and produced 8000 μmol of gas molecules over 55 h at acidic conditions (pH ∼ 0), whereas the untreated nanowires demonstrated only <4 h of photoelectrochemical stability. These findings shed new light on the importance of surface passivation of nanostructured photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical applications.

  4. Passivation of Si(111) surfaces with electrochemically grafted thin organic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roodenko, K.; Yang, F.; Hunger, R.; Esser, N.; Hinrichs, K.; Rappich, J.

    2010-09-01

    Ultra thin organic films (about 5 nm thick) of nitrobenzene and 4-methoxydiphenylamine were deposited electrochemically on p-Si(111) surfaces from benzene diazonium compounds. Studies based on atomic force microscopy, infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that upon exposure to atmospheric conditions the oxidation of the silicon interface proceed slower on organically modified surfaces than on unmodified hydrogen passivated p-Si(111) surfaces. Effects of HF treatment on the oxidized organic/Si interface and on the organic layer itself are discussed.

  5. [In situ thin layer chromatography-fourier transform-surface-enhanced Raman spectrum study on ingredients of berberine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Guo, Zhan-sheng; Wang, Ying-feng; Wang, Song-ying; Ren, Gui-fen; Zhang, Xiang-lan; Han, Xiu-lan

    2002-10-01

    Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) combined with Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) has been used for studying characteristic spectrum of molecules in situ in micrograms samples. There are very few report for applying the SERS-TCL method in the study of the effective ingredients of Chinese traditional herbs. Coptis Chinensis France is an often-used clinic Chinese traditional medicine. Its main effective components include berberine and so on, which have antibiotic very wide and also have curative effect on improving the functions of heart vascular cycles. Therefore the concentrations of berberine are very important for the quality control of the medicine. In this work, the ethanol extract of Coptis Chinensis France was first separated by TLC, the SERS was then measure directly after dropping silver gel on the separated spots. The method can be used for the finger print analysis of the berberine. 3 microL of alcohol extract of Coptis Chinensis France with total alkaloids concentration of 1.0 mg.mL was placed on silicon GF254 TLC plate. The sample was separated by developing solvent of n bulanol-Acitic acid-H2O (7:2:1 V/V). The positions of berberine in the sample were confirmed by the standard alkaloid solutions. The Rf values for berberine are 0.29. The silver gel was used as surface enhanced substrate and placed on the separated berberine spots. FT-SERS was measured directly by a Nicolet FT-Raman 910 spectrometer. Berberine belong to isoquinoline alkaloids. His structure can be found in reference. The date of spectrum of berberine can be seen that the band at 1,396 cm-1 due to Ar-OCH3 deformation vibrations was greatly enhanced, indicating that the molecule was absorbed on silver gel strongly through lone-pair electron in Ar-OCH3. The ring stretching mode occurring around 1,548 cm-1 represents isoquinoline ring in the molecule. The band at 727 cm-1 due to CH (ring) deformation vibrations was also enhanced.

  6. Efficiency improvement of multicrystalline silicon solar cells after surface and grain boundaries passivation using vanadium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derbali, L., E-mail: rayan.slat@yahoo.fr [Photovoltaiec Laboratory, Research and Technology Center of Energy, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Ezzaouia, H. [Photovoltaiec Laboratory, Research and Technology Center of Energy, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2012-08-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaporation of vanadium pentoxide onto the front surface leads to reduce the surface reflectivity considerably. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An efficient surface passivation can be obtained after thermal treatment of obtained films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficiency of the obtained solar cells has been improved noticeably after thermal treatment of deposited thin films. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of vanadium oxide deposition onto the front surface of multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) substrat, without any additional cost in the fabrication process and leading to an efficient surface and grain boundaries (GBs) passivation that have not been reported before. The lowest reflectance of mc-Si coated with vanadium oxide film of 9% was achieved by annealing the deposited film at 600 Degree-Sign C. Vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) were thermally evaporated onto the surface of mc-Si substrates, followed by a short annealing duration at a temperature ranging between 600 Degree-Sign C and 800 Degree-Sign C, under O{sub 2} atmosphere. The chemical composition of the films was analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Surface and cross-section morphology were determined by atomic force microscope (AFM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The deposited vanadium oxide thin films make the possibility of combining in one processing step an antireflection coating deposition along with efficient surface state passivation, as compared to a reference wafer. Silicon solar cells based on untreated and treated mc-Si wafers were achieved. We showed that mc-silicon solar cells, subjected to the above treatment, have better short circuit currents and open-circuit voltages than those made from untreated wafers. Thus, the efficiency of obtained solar cells has been improved.

  7. Efficiency improvement of multicrystalline silicon solar cells after surface and grain boundaries passivation using vanadium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbali, L.; Ezzaouia, H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Evaporation of vanadium pentoxide onto the front surface leads to reduce the surface reflectivity considerably. ► An efficient surface passivation can be obtained after thermal treatment of obtained films. ► Efficiency of the obtained solar cells has been improved noticeably after thermal treatment of deposited thin films. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of vanadium oxide deposition onto the front surface of multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) substrat, without any additional cost in the fabrication process and leading to an efficient surface and grain boundaries (GBs) passivation that have not been reported before. The lowest reflectance of mc-Si coated with vanadium oxide film of 9% was achieved by annealing the deposited film at 600 °C. Vanadium pentoxide (V 2 O 5 ) were thermally evaporated onto the surface of mc-Si substrates, followed by a short annealing duration at a temperature ranging between 600 °C and 800 °C, under O 2 atmosphere. The chemical composition of the films was analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Surface and cross-section morphology were determined by atomic force microscope (AFM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The deposited vanadium oxide thin films make the possibility of combining in one processing step an antireflection coating deposition along with efficient surface state passivation, as compared to a reference wafer. Silicon solar cells based on untreated and treated mc-Si wafers were achieved. We showed that mc-silicon solar cells, subjected to the above treatment, have better short circuit currents and open-circuit voltages than those made from untreated wafers. Thus, the efficiency of obtained solar cells has been improved.

  8. A 14-year dataset of in situ glacier surface velocities for a tidewater and a land-terminating glacier in Livingston Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machío, Francisco; Rodríguez-Cielos, Ricardo; Navarro, Francisco; Lapazaran, Javier; Otero, Jaime

    2017-10-01

    We present a 14-year record of in situ glacier surface velocities determined by repeated global navigation satellite system (GNSS) measurements in a dense network of 52 stakes distributed across two glaciers, Johnsons (tidewater) and Hurd (land-terminating), located on Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The measurements cover the time period 2000-2013 and were collected at the beginning and end of each austral summer season. A second-degree polynomial approximation is fitted to each stake position, which allows estimating the approximate positions and associated velocities at intermediate times. This dataset is useful as input data for numerical models of glacier dynamics or for the calibration and validation of remotely sensed velocities for a region where very scarce in situ glacier surface velocity measurements have been available so far. The link to the data repository is as follows: pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.846791" target="_blank">http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.846791.

  9. A 14-year dataset of in situ glacier surface velocities for a tidewater and a land-terminating glacier in Livingston Island, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Machío

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a 14-year record of in situ glacier surface velocities determined by repeated global navigation satellite system (GNSS measurements in a dense network of 52 stakes distributed across two glaciers, Johnsons (tidewater and Hurd (land-terminating, located on Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The measurements cover the time period 2000–2013 and were collected at the beginning and end of each austral summer season. A second-degree polynomial approximation is fitted to each stake position, which allows estimating the approximate positions and associated velocities at intermediate times. This dataset is useful as input data for numerical models of glacier dynamics or for the calibration and validation of remotely sensed velocities for a region where very scarce in situ glacier surface velocity measurements have been available so far. The link to the data repository is as follows: http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.846791.

  10. In situ observation of the impact of surface oxidation on the crystallization mechanism of GeTe phase-change thin films by scanning transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, R.; Bernier, N.; Cooper, D.; Sabbione, C.; Hippert, F.; Noé, P.

    2017-09-01

    The crystallization mechanisms of prototypical GeTe phase-change material thin films have been investigated by in situ scanning transmission electron microscopy annealing experiments. A novel sample preparation method has been developed to improve sample quality and stability during in situ annealing, enabling quantitative analysis and live recording of phase change events. Results show that for an uncapped 100 nm thick GeTe layer, exposure to air after fabrication leads to composition changes which promote heterogeneous nucleation at the oxidized surface. We also demonstrate that protecting the GeTe layer with a 10 nm SiN capping layer prevents nucleation at the surface and allows volume nucleation at a temperature 50 °C higher than the onset of crystallization in the oxidized sample. Our results have important implications regarding the integration of these materials in confined memory cells.

  11. An In-Situ Root-Imaging System in the Context of Surface Detection of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, M. E.; Prince, J. B.; Bradley, A. R.; Zhou, X.; Lakkaraju, V. R.; Male, E. J.; Pickles, W.; Thordsen, J. J.; Dobeck, L.; Cunningham, A.; Spangler, L.

    2009-12-01

    Carbon sequestration is a valuable method of spatially confining CO2 belowground. The Zero Emissions Research Technology, (ZERT), site is an experimental facility in a former agricultural field on the Montana State University campus in Bozeman, Montana, where CO2 was experimentally released at a rate of 200kg/day in 2009 into a 100 meter underground injection well running parallel to the ground surface. This injection well, or pipe, has deliberate leaks at intervals, and CO2 travels from these leaks upward to the surface of the ground. The ZERT site is a model system designed with the purpose of testing methods of surface detection of CO2. One important aspect of surface detection is the determination of the effects of CO2 on the above and belowground portions of plants growing above sequestration fields. At ZERT, these plants consist of a pre-existing mixture of herbaceous species present at the agricultural field. Species growing at the ZERT site include several grasses, Dactylis glomerata (Orchard Grass), Poa pratensis (Kentucky Bluegrass), and Bromus japonicus (Japanese Brome); the nitrogen-fixing legumes Medicago sativa, (Alfalfa), and Lotus corniculatus, (Birdsfoot trefoil); and an abundance of Taraxacum officinale, (Dandelion). Although the aboveground parts of the plants at high CO2 are stressed, as indicated by changes in hyperspectral plant signatures, leaf fluorescence and leaf chlorophyll content, we are interested in determining whether the roots are also stressed. To do so, we are combining measurements of soil conductivity and soil moisture with root imaging. We are using an in-situ root-imaging system manufactured by CID, Inc. (Camas, WA), along with image analysis software (Image-J) to analyze morphometric parameters in the images and to determine what effects, if any, the presence of leaking and subsequently upwelling CO2 has on the phenology of root growth, growth and turnover of individual fine and coarse roots, branching patterns, and root

  12. Surface Passivation of GaN Nanowires for Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Water-Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadhan, Purushothaman; Fu, Hui-Chun; Priante, Davide; Retamal, Jose Ramon Duran; Zhao, Chao; Ebaid, Mohamed; Ng, Tien Khee; Ajia, Idirs; Mitra, Somak; Roqan, Iman S; Ooi, Boon S; He, Jr-Hau

    2017-03-08

    Hydrogen production via photoelectrochemical water-splitting is a key source of clean and sustainable energy. The use of one-dimensional nanostructures as photoelectrodes is desirable for photoelectrochemical water-splitting applications due to the ultralarge surface areas, lateral carrier extraction schemes, and superior light-harvesting capabilities. However, the unavoidable surface states of nanostructured materials create additional charge carrier trapping centers and energy barriers at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, which severely reduce the solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency. In this work, we address the issue of surface states in GaN nanowire photoelectrodes by employing a simple and low-cost surface treatment method, which utilizes an organic thiol compound (i.e., 1,2-ethanedithiol). The surface-treated photocathode showed an enhanced photocurrent density of -31 mA/cm 2 at -0.2 V versus RHE with an incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 18.3%, whereas untreated nanowires yielded only 8.1% efficiency. Furthermore, the surface passivation provides enhanced photoelectrochemical stability as surface-treated nanowires retained ∼80% of their initial photocurrent value and produced 8000 μmol of gas molecules over 55 h at acidic conditions (pH ∼ 0), whereas the untreated nanowires demonstrated only passivation of nanostructured photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical applications.

  13. Optical absorption and oxygen passivation of surface states in III-nitride photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Ian; Callsen, Gordon; Jacopin, Gwénolé; Carlin, Jean-François; Butté, Raphaël; Grandjean, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    III-nitride surface states are expected to impact high surface-to-volume ratio devices, such as nano- and micro-wire light-emitting diodes, transistors, and photonic integrated circuits. In this work, reversible photoinduced oxygen desorption from III-nitride microdisk resonator surfaces is shown to increase optical attenuation of whispering gallery modes by 100 cm-1 at λ = 450 nm. Comparison of photoinduced oxygen desorption in unintentionally and n+-doped microdisks suggests that the spectral changes originate from the unpinning of the surface Fermi level, likely taking place at etched nonpolar III-nitride sidewalls. An oxygen-rich surface prepared by thermal annealing results in a broadband Q improvement to state-of-the-art values exceeding 1 × 104 at 2.6 eV. Such findings emphasize the importance of optically active surface states and their passivation for future nanoscale III-nitride optoelectronic and photonic devices.

  14. Optical and electrical study of CdZnTe surfaces passivated by KOH and NH{sub 4}F solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zázvorka, J., E-mail: zazvorka.jakub@gmail.com [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Franc, J.; Statelov, M.; Pekárek, J.; Veis, M.; Moravec, P. [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Mašek, K. [Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, CZ, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Surface of CdZnTe samples was passivated after chemical etching. • KOH and NH{sub 4}F solutions were used as passivation agents. • Growth of surface oxide after passivation is observed. • Surface oxide thickness was evaluated over time after chemical treatment. • Oxidation of the sample correlates with decreased leakage current. - Abstract: Performance of CdZnTe-based detectors is highly related to surface preparation. Mechanical polishing, chemical etching and passivation are routinely employed for this purpose. However, the relation between these processes and the detector performance in terms of underlying physical phenomena has not been fully explained. The dynamics and properties of CdZnTe surface oxide layers, created by passivation with KOH and NH4F/H2O2 solutions, were studied by optical ellipsometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Thicknesses and growth rates of the surface oxide layers differed for each of the passivation methods. Leakage currents which influence the final spectral resolution of the detector were measured simultaneously with ellipsometry. Results of both optical and electrical investigation showed the same trends in the time evolution and correlated to each other. NH4F/H2O2 passivation showed to be a method which produces the most desirable properties of the surface oxide layer.

  15. Characterization of a complex near-surface structure using well logging and passive seismic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjumea, Beatriz; Macau, Albert; Gabàs, Anna; Figueras, Sara

    2016-04-01

    We combine geophysical well logging and passive seismic measurements to characterize the near-surface geology of an area located in Hontomin, Burgos (Spain). This area has some near-surface challenges for a geophysical study. The irregular topography is characterized by limestone outcrops and unconsolidated sediments areas. Additionally, the near-surface geology includes an upper layer of pure limestones overlying marly limestones and marls (Upper Cretaceous). These materials lie on top of Low Cretaceous siliciclastic sediments (sandstones, clays, gravels). In any case, a layer with reduced velocity is expected. The geophysical data sets used in this study include sonic and gamma-ray logs at two boreholes and passive seismic measurements: three arrays and 224 seismic stations for applying the horizontal-to-vertical amplitude spectra ratio method (H/V). Well-logging data define two significant changes in the P-wave-velocity log within the Upper Cretaceous layer and one more at the Upper to Lower Cretaceous contact. This technique has also been used for refining the geological interpretation. The passive seismic measurements provide a map of sediment thickness with a maximum of around 40 m and shear-wave velocity profiles from the array technique. A comparison between seismic velocity coming from well logging and array measurements defines the resolution limits of the passive seismic techniques and helps it to be interpreted. This study shows how these low-cost techniques can provide useful information about near-surface complexity that could be used for designing a geophysical field survey or for seismic processing steps such as statics or imaging.

  16. In situ evaluation of density, viscosity, and thickness of adsorbed soft layers by combined surface acoustic wave and surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Laurent A; Friedt, Jean-Michel; Zhou, Cheng; Bertrand, Patrick

    2006-06-15

    We show the theoretical and experimental combination of acoustic and optical methods for the in situ quantitative evaluation of the density, the viscosity, and the thickness of soft layers adsorbed on chemically tailored metal surfaces. For the highest sensitivity and an operation in liquids, a Love mode surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor with a hydrophobized gold-coated sensing area is the acoustic method, while surface plasmon resonance (SPR) on the same gold surface as the optical method is monitored simultaneously in a single setup for the real-time and label-free measurement of the parameters of adsorbed soft layers, which means for layers with a predominant viscous behavior. A general mathematical modeling in equivalent viscoelastic transmission lines is presented to determine the correlation between experimental SAW signal shifts and the waveguide structure including the presence of the adsorbed layer and the supporting liquid from which it segregates. A methodology is presented to identify from SAW and SPR simulations the parameters representatives of the soft layer. During the absorption of a soft layer, thickness or viscosity changes are observed in the experimental ratio of the SAW signal attenuation to the SAW signal phase and are correlated with the theoretical model. As application example, the simulation method is applied to study the thermal behavior of physisorbed PNIPAAm, a polymer whose conformation is sensitive to temperature, under a cycling variation of temperature between 20 and 40 degrees C. Under the assumption of the bulk density and the bulk refractive index of PNIPAAm, thickness and viscosity of the film are obtained from simulations; the viscosity is correlated to the solvent content of the physisorbed layer.

  17. Impact of In Situ Stress Distribution Characteristics on Jointed Surrounding Rock Mass Stability of an Underground Cavern near a Hillslope Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangxiang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a series of numerical simulations are performed to analyze the in situ stress distribution characteristics of the rock mass near different slope angles hillslope surfaces, which are subjected to the vertical gravity stress and different horizontal lateral stresses and the influence which the in situ stress distribution characteristics of 45° hillslope to the integral stability of surrounding rock mass when an underground cavern is excavated considering three different horizontal distances from the underground cavern to the slope surface. It can be concluded from the numerical results that different slope angles and horizontal lateral stresses have a strong impact on the in situ stress distribution and the integral surrounding rock mass stability of the underground cavern when the horizontal distance from the underground cavern to the slope surface is approximately 100 m to 200 m. The relevant results would provide some important constructive suggestions to the engineering site selection and optimization of large-scale underground caverns in hydropower stations.

  18. A new contact electric resistance technique for in-situ measurement of the electric resistance of surface films on metals in electrolytes at high temperatures and pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saario, T.; Marichev, V.A.

    1993-01-01

    Surface films play a major role in corrosion assisted cracking. A new Contact Electric Resistance (CER) method has been recently developed for in situ measurement of the electric resistance of surface films. The method has been upgraded for high temperature high pressure application. The technique can be used for any electrically conductive material in any environment including liquid, gas or vacuum. The technique has been used to determine in situ the electric resistance of films on metals during adsorption of water and anions, formation and destruction of oxides and hydrides, electroplating of metals and to study the electric resistance of films on semiconductors. The resolution of the CER technique is 10 -9 Ω, which corresponds to about 0.03 monolayers of deposited copper during electrochemical deposition Cu/Cu 2+ . Electric resistance data can be measured with a frequency of the order of one hertz, which enables one to follow in situ the kinetics of surface film related processes. The kinetics of these processes and their dependence on the environment, temperature, pH and electrochemical potential can be investigated

  19. Assessment of Laser Induced Ablation Spectroscopy (LIAS) as a method for quantitative in situ surface diagnostic in plasma environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierse, Niels Hannes Gustav

    2014-01-01

    In this work Laser Induced Ablation Spectroscopy (LIAS) is investigated as an in situ plasma surface interaction diagnostic for fusion reactors and fusion experiments. In LIAS an intensive laser pulse is used to ablate the material under investigation during plasma operation. Ablation products penetrate into the edge region of the plasma and are excited and ionized. In case of molecules and clusters additionally dissociation occurs. The emitted line radiation is observed by radiometric calibrated spectroscopy. Results from LIAS of W/C/Al/D-mixed layers and amorphous hydrocarbon layers are presented. Using a fast camera system time resolved measurements of the LIAS.process could be performed, allowing investigation of the temporal behavior of excitation, dissociation and ionization processes. For Tungsten, 90% of the LIAS light is observed within 10±3 μs after the laser pulse. In case of carbon within 20±3 μs. Additionally separation in time of LIAS emission and the LIBS emission caused by the laser pulse at the surface within single measurements was demonstrated. This allows the separate analysis of both processes in a coaxial setup which is foreseen for future experiments. The inverse photon efficiency of the Balmer D_α-emission from LIAS of a-C:D-layers was found to be [(D)/(XB)]"a"-"C":"D""L""I""A""S"_→"D_D__α=71±7. The plasma perturbation due to LIAS was investigated by laser energy density variation when ablating W/C/Al/D.mixed layers. Local plasma perturbation is found to increase with laser energy density. Balmer H_γ/H_δ - line intensity ratio measurements only show for ohmic discharges and the case of the lowest central density signs of local plasma perturbation in LIAS of graphite samples. A simple analytical model for local plasma perturbation during LIAS is introduced and evaluated. Qualitative agreement between the model and the above reported experimental observations is found; a stronger influence on local conditions is found by tungsten

  20. Chemical and toxicologic assessment of organic contaminants in surface water using passive samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, D.A.; Cranor, W.L.; Perkins, S.D.; Clark, R.C.; Smith, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    Passive sampling methodologies were used to conduct a chemical and toxicologic assessment of organic contaminants in the surface waters of three geographically distinct agricultural watersheds. A selection of current-use agrochemicals and persistent organic pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides, were targeted using the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and the semipermeable membrane device passive samplers. In addition to the chemical analysis, the Microtox assay for acute toxicity and the yeast estrogen screen (YES) were conducted as potential assessment tools in combination with the passive samplers. During the spring of 2004, the passive samplers were deployed for 29 to 65 d at Leary Weber Ditch, IN; Morgan Creek, MD; and DR2 Drain, WA. Chemical analysis of the sampler extracts identified the agrochemicals predominantly used in those areas, including atrazine, simazine, acetochlor, and metolachlor. Other chemicals identified included deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine, trifluralin, fluoranthene, pyrene, cis- and trans-nonachlor, and pentachloroanisole. Screening using Microtox resulted in no acutely toxic samples. POCIS samples screened by the YES assay failed to elicit a positive estrogenic response. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  1. Adsorption of molecular additive onto lead halide perovskite surfaces: A computational study on Lewis base thiophene additive passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Yu, Fengxi; Chen, Lihong; Li, Jingfa

    2018-06-01

    Organic additives, such as the Lewis base thiophene, have been successfully applied to passivate halide perovskite surfaces, improving the stability and properties of perovskite devices based on CH3NH3PbI3. Yet, the detailed nanostructure of the perovskite surface passivated by additives and the mechanisms of such passivation are not well understood. This study presents a nanoscopic view on the interfacial structure of an additive/perovskite interface, consisting of a Lewis base thiophene molecular additive and a lead halide perovskite surface substrate, providing insights on the mechanisms that molecular additives can passivate the halide perovskite surfaces and enhance the perovskite-based device performance. Molecular dynamics study on the interactions between water molecules and the perovskite surfaces passivated by the investigated additive reveal the effectiveness of employing the molecular additives to improve the stability of the halide perovskite materials. The additive/perovskite surface system is further probed via molecular engineering the perovskite surfaces. This study reveals the nanoscopic structure-property relationships of the halide perovskite surface passivated by molecular additives, which helps the fundamental understanding of the surface/interface engineering strategies for the development of halide perovskite based devices.

  2. Effects of surface passivation on α-Si_3N_4 nanobelts: A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Li; Dai, Jianhong; Song, Yan; Wen, Guangwu; Qin, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The stability and electronic properties of α-Si_3N_4 nanobelts are theoretically studied. • The surface of α-Si_3N_4 nanobelts are passivated with H, OH, F and Cl atoms. • The structural stability of nanobelts decreases in the order of OH, F, Cl, and H passivations. • The surface passivation greatly changes the electronic structures of α-Si_3N_4 nanobelts. - Abstract: The energetic stability and electronic structures of H, OH, F, or Cl passivated α-Si_3N_4 nanobelts orientating along various directions are systematically investigated via first-principles calculations. The results show that the stability of nanobelts is more sensitive to the surface passivation than growth direction. It decreases in the order of (100% OH), (50% H, 50% OH), (50% H, 50% F), (100% F), (50% H, 50% Cl), (100% Cl), (100% H), and unpassivation. H atoms prefer to bond with surface N atoms of nanobelts, while OH, F and Cl prefer to bond with Si atoms of nanobelts. In addition, the surface passivation greatly changes the electronic structures of nanobelts. The OH and F passivations result in the larger band gaps than the Cl passivation. While the coverage of OH, F or Cl increases to 100%, their band gaps decrease significantly, indicating an improvement of electrical properties, which is good agreement with the experimental findings. The 100% Cl-passivated nanobelt orientating along the [011] direction possesses the smallest band gap of 1.038 eV. The band gaps are found to be affected by a competition between quantum confinement effect and the role of the surface passivated groups or atoms at the band-gap edges.

  3. Surface passivation of HgCdTe by CdZnTe and its characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T. S.; Choi, K. K.; Jeoung, Y. T.; Kim, H. K.; Kim, J. M.; Kim, Y. H.; Chang, J. M.; Song, W. S.; Kim, S. U.; Park, M. J.; Lee, S. D.

    1997-06-01

    In this paper, we report the results of capacitance-voltage measurements conducted on several metal-insulator semiconductor (MIS) capacitors in which HgCdTe surfaces are treated with various surface etching and oxidation processes. CdZnTe passivation layers were deposited on HgCdTe surfaces by thermal evaporation after the surfaces were etched with 0.5-2.0% bromine in methanol solution, or thin oxide layers (tox ˜ few ten Å) were grown on the surfaces, in order to investigate effects of the surface treatments on the electrical properties of the surfaces, as determined from capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements at 80K and 1 MHz. A negative flat band voltage has been observed for MIS capacitors fabricated after etching of HgCdTe surfaces with bromine in methanol solutions, which is reported to make the surface Te-rich. It is inferred that residual Te on the surface is a positive charge, Te4+. C-V characteristics for MIS capacitors fabricated on oxide surfaces grown by air-exposure and electrolytic process have shown large hysteresis effects, from which it is inferred that imperfect and electrically active oxide compounds and HgTe particles near the surface become slow interface states.

  4. In situ MeV ion beam analysis of ceramic surfaces modified by 100-400 keV ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.J.; Yu, N.; Sickafus, K.E.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes use of the in situ ion beam analysis facility developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the study of irradiation effects in ceramic materials. In this facility, an analytical beamline of 3 MV tandem accelerator and an irradiation bean-dine of 200 kV ion implanter are connected at 60 degrees to a common target chamber. This facility provides a fast, efficient, and quantitative measurement tool to monitor changes of composition and crystallinity of materials irradiated by 100-400 keV ions, through sequential measurement of backscattering events of MeV ions combined with ion channeling techniques. We will describe the details of the in situ ion beam analysis and ion irradiation and discuss some of the important issues and their solutions associated with the in situ experiment. These issues include (1) the selection of axial ion channeling direction for the measurement of radiation damage; (2) surface charging and charge collection for data acquisition; (3) surface sputtering during ion irradiation; (4) the effects of MeV analytical beam on the materials; and (5) the sample heating effect on ion beam analysis

  5. Comparison of surface doses from spot scanning and passively scattered proton therapy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arjomandy, Bijan; Sahoo, Narayan; Gillin, Michael; Cox, James; Lee, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Proton therapy for the treatment of cancer is delivered using either passively scattered or scanning beams. Each technique delivers a different amount of dose to the skin, because of the specific feature of their delivery system. The amount of dose delivered to the skin can play an important role in choosing the delivery technique for a specific site. To assess the differences in skin doses, we measured the surface doses associated with these two techniques. For the purpose of this investigation, the surface doses in a phantom were measured for ten prostate treatment fields planned with passively scattered proton beams and ten patients planned with spot scanning proton beams. The measured doses were compared to evaluate the differences in the amount of skin dose delivered by using these techniques. The results indicate that, on average, the patients treated with spot scanning proton beams received lower skin doses by an amount of 11.8% ± 0.3% than did the patients treated with passively scattered proton beams. That difference could amount to 4 CGE per field for a prescribed dose of 76 CGE in 38 fractions treated with two equally weighted parallel opposed fields. (note)

  6. Surface protection during plasma hydrogenation for acceptor passivation in InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopata, J.; Dautremont-Smith, W.C.; Pearton, S.J.; Lee, J.W.; Ha, N.T.; Luftman, H.S.

    1990-01-01

    Various dielectric and metallic films were examined as H-permeable surface protection layers on InP during H 2 or D 2 plasma exposure for passivation of acceptors in the InP. Plasma deposited SiN x , SiO 2 , and a-Si(H) films ranging in thickness from 85 to 225 angstrom were used to protect p-InP during d 2 plasma exposure at 250 degrees C. Optimum protective layer thicknesses were determined by a trade-off between the effectiveness of the layer to prevent P loss from the wafer surface and the ability to diffuse atomic H or D at a rate greater than or equal to that in the underlying InP. SIMS and capacitance-voltage depth profiling were used to determine the extent of D in-diffusion and acceptor passivation respectively. Sputter deposited W and e-beam evaporated Ti films ∼100 Angstrom thick were also evaluated. The W coated sample yielded similar results to those with dielectric films in that acceptors in p-InP were passivated to a similar depth for the same plasma exposure. The 100 Angstrom Ti film, however, did not allow the D to diffuse into the InP substrate. It is surmised that the Ti film trapped the D, thus preventing diffusion into the substrate

  7. Enhancing Efficiency of Perovskite Solar Cells via Surface Passivation with Graphene Oxide Interlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Tao, Leiming; Huang, Feihong; Sun, Qiang; Zhao, Xiaojuan; Han, Junbo; Shen, Yan; Wang, Mingkui

    2017-11-08

    Perovskite solar cells have been demonstrated as promising low-cost and highly efficient next-generation solar cells. Enhancing V OC by minimization the interfacial recombination kinetics can further improve device performance. In this work, we for the first time reported on surface passivation of perovskite layers with chemical modified graphene oxides, which act as efficient interlayer to reduce interfacial recombination and enhance hole extraction as well. Our modeling points out that the passivation effect mainly comes from the interaction between functional group (4-fluorophenyl) and under-coordinated Pb ions. The resulting perovskite solar cells achieved high efficient power conversion efficiency of 18.75% with enhanced high open circuit V OC of 1.11 V. Ultrafast spectroscopy, photovoltage/photocurrent transient decay, and electronic impedance spectroscopy characterizations reveal the effective passivation effect and the energy loss mechanism. This work sheds light on the importance of interfacial engineering on the surface of perovskite layers and provides possible ways to improve device efficiency.

  8. On The Development of Additive Construction Technologies for Application to Development of Lunar/Martian Surface Structures Using In-Situ Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkheiser, Niki; Fiske, Michael; Edmunson, Jennifer; Khoshnevis, Behrokh

    2015-01-01

    For long-duration missions on other planetary bodies, the use of in-situ materials will become increasingly critical. As man's presence on these bodies expands, so must the breadth of the structures required to accommodate them including habitats, laboratories, berms, radiation shielding for natural radiation and surface reactors, garages, solar storm shelters, greenhouses, etc. Planetary surface structure manufacturing and assembly technologies that incorporate in-situ resources provide options for autonomous, affordable, pre-positioned environments with radiation shielding features and protection from micrometeorites, exhaust plume debris, and other hazards. This is important because gamma and particle radiation constitute a serious but reducible threat to long-term survival of human beings, electronics, and other materials in space environments. Also, it is anticipated that surface structures will constitute the primary mass element of lunar or Martian launch requirements. The ability to use in-situ materials to construct these structures will provide a benefit in the reduction of up-mass that would otherwise make long-term Moon or Mars structures cost prohibitive. The ability to fabricate structures in situ brings with it the ability to repair these structures, which allows for self-sufficiency necessary for long-duration habitation. Previously, under the auspices of the MSFC In Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) project and more recently, under the joint MSFC/KSC Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project, the MSFC Surface Structures Group has been developing materials and construction technologies to support future planetary habitats with in situ resources. One such technology, known as Contour Crafting (additive construction), is shown in Figure 1, along with a typical structure fabricated using this technology. This paper will present the results to date of these efforts, including development of novel nozzle concepts for advanced layer

  9. Analysis of surface leaching processes in vitrified high-level nuclear wastes using in-situ raman imaging and atomistic modeling. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.E.; Simmons, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    'The research objective was to test and develop optical methods for real-time, remote and in-situ testing of corrosion processes on the surface of vitrified nuclear wastes. This report summarizes the research conducted in the first 1.5 years of a 3 year grant. At this point, the authors have identified the conditions for optimal tests and demonstrated that both IR reflection and Raman spectroscopies can be used to determine the dealkalization process in the surface of simple glasses in real time.'

  10. Surface polymerization of (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) probed by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy on Au(111) in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shahzada; Carstens, Timo; Berger, Rüdiger; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Endres, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The electropolymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) to poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was investigated in the air and water-stable ionic liquids 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophosphate [HMIm]FAP and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) amide [EMIm]TFSA. In situ scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) results show that the electropolymerization of EDOT in the ionic liquid can be probed on the nanoscale. In contrast to present understanding, it was observed that the EDOT can be oxidised in ionic liquids well below its oxidation potential and the under potential growth of polymer was visualized by in situ STM. These results serve as the first study to confirm the under potential growth of conducting polymers in ionic liquids. Furthermore, ex situ microscopy measurements were performed. Quite a high current of 670 nA was observed on the nanoscale by conductive scanning force microscopy (CSFM).

  11. Landscape preservation under ice? In-situ 10Be and 26Al from summit surfaces along Sognefjord, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jane Lund; Egholm, David Lundbek; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou

    then be used to determine the total Quaternary bedrock erosion between the summits. However, the amount of Quaternary erosion of these summit flats remains debated (e.g. Steer, 2012) Here, we present an extensive new dataset of in-situ produced cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al in bedrock and boulders from high...... and flat summits along a 200 km long transect from the coast to the inner parts of Sognefjorden. Our results indicate substantial glacial modification of the summits within the last 50 ka. Close to the coast, at an elevation of around 700 meters, the cosmogenic nuclide signal was reset around the Younger...... et al. Landscape preservation under Fennoscandian ice sheets determined from in situ produced 10 Be and 26 Al. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 201(2), 397-406, 2002. Gjermundsen et al. Minimal erosion of Arctic alpine topography during late Quaternary glaciation. Nature Geoscience 8(10), 789...

  12. Surface correlation behaviors of metal-organic Langmuir-Blodgett films on differently passivated Si(001) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, J. K.; Kundu, Sarathi

    2013-03-01

    Langmuir-Blodgett films of standard amphiphilic molecules like nickel arachidate and cadmium arachidate are grown on wet chemically passivated hydrophilic (OH-Si), hydrophobic (H-Si), and hydrophilic plus hydrophobic (Br-Si) Si(001) surfaces. Top surface morphologies and height-difference correlation functions g(r) with in-plane separation (r) are obtained from the atomic force microscopy studies. Our studies show that deposited bilayer and trilayer films have self-affine correlation behavior irrespective of different passivations and different types of amphiphilic molecules, however, liquid like correlation coexists only for a small part of r, which is located near the cutoff length (1/κ) or little below the correlation length ξ obtained from the liquid like and self-affine fitting, respectively. Thus, length scale dependent surface correlation behavior is observed for both types of Langmuir-Blodgett films. Metal ion specific interactions (ionic, covalent, etc.,) in the headgroup and the nature of the terminated bond (polar, nonpolar, etc.,) of Si surface are mainly responsible for having different correlation parameters.

  13. Surface passivation of high-purity germanium gamma-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexiev, D.; Butcher, K.S.A.; Edmondson, M.; Lawson, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    The experimental work consists of two parts. The first involves fabrication of hyper-pure germanium gamma ray detectors using standard surface treatment, chemical etchings and containment in a suitable cryostat. Then, after cooling the detectors to 77 K, γ-ray emissions from radioisotopes are resolved, resolution, depletion depth, V R versus I R characteristics and /N A -N D / of the germanium are measured. The second part of the work involves investigation of surface states in an effort to achieve long-term stability of operating characteristics. Several methods are used: plasma hydrogenation, a-Si and a-Ge pinch-off effect and simple oxidation. A-Ge and a-Si thicknesses were measured using Rutherford backscattering techniques; surface states were measured with deep level transient spectroscopy and diode reverse current versus reverse voltage plots. Some scanning electron microscope measurements were used in determining major film contaminants during backscattering of a-Si and a-Ge films. Surface passivation studies revealed unexpected hole trapping defects generated when a-Ge:H film is applied. The a-Si:H films were found to be mechanically strong, no defect traps were found and preliminary results suggest that such films will be good passivants. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs., 13 ills

  14. Immobilization of serum albumin and peptide aptamer for EPC on polydopamine coated titanium surface for enhanced in-situ self-endothelialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhuoyue; Li, Quanli; Chen, Jialong; Luo, Rifang; Maitz, Manfred F.; Huang, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Restenosis and thrombosis are two major complications associated with vascular stents and grafts. The homing of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) onto implant surfaces brings a new strategy to solve these problems by accelerating self -endothelialization in situ. Peptide aptamers with high affinity and specific recognition of EPCs can be immobilized to capture EPCs from the circulating blood. In this study, a biotinylated peptide aptamer (TPSLEQRTVYAK-GGGC-K-Biotin) for EPC, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were co-immobilized onto titanium surface through avidin–biotin recognition to endow the surface with specific affinity for EPC and anti-platelet adhesion properties. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and water contact angle measuring were adopted for coating characterization. EPC affinity and hemocompatibility of the coating were also investigated in vitro. The results demonstrated that aptamer and BSA co-immobilized surface significantly reduced platelet adhesion and fibrinogen adsorption/activation. Besides, such functional surface could remarkably enhance EPC adhesion, without affecting the behavior of endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) obviously. The result shows the possibility of utilizing such a multifunctional surface in cardiovascular implants. - Highlights: • We construct a multifunctional surface based on immobilization of BSA and aptamer. • It can significantly reduce platelet adhesion and fibrinogen adsorption/activation. • Such functional surface could remarkably enhance EPC adhesion in vitro. • It can induce rapid self-endothelialization of the implant surface in situ in vivo. • It is possible to use such a multifunctional surface in cardiovascular implants.

  15. Immobilization of serum albumin and peptide aptamer for EPC on polydopamine coated titanium surface for enhanced in-situ self-endothelialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhuoyue, E-mail: 362947953@qq.com [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Education Ministry, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); RegeMed Lab of Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Life Science, Northwest University, Xi' an, 710069 (China); Li, Quanli [College of Stomology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Chen, Jialong [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Education Ministry, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); College of Stomology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Luo, Rifang [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Education Ministry, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Maitz, Manfred F. [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Education Ministry, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden, Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, Dresden (Germany); Huang, Nan, E-mail: huangnan1956@163.com [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Education Ministry, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China)

    2016-03-01

    Restenosis and thrombosis are two major complications associated with vascular stents and grafts. The homing of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) onto implant surfaces brings a new strategy to solve these problems by accelerating self -endothelialization in situ. Peptide aptamers with high affinity and specific recognition of EPCs can be immobilized to capture EPCs from the circulating blood. In this study, a biotinylated peptide aptamer (TPSLEQRTVYAK-GGGC-K-Biotin) for EPC, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were co-immobilized onto titanium surface through avidin–biotin recognition to endow the surface with specific affinity for EPC and anti-platelet adhesion properties. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and water contact angle measuring were adopted for coating characterization. EPC affinity and hemocompatibility of the coating were also investigated in vitro. The results demonstrated that aptamer and BSA co-immobilized surface significantly reduced platelet adhesion and fibrinogen adsorption/activation. Besides, such functional surface could remarkably enhance EPC adhesion, without affecting the behavior of endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) obviously. The result shows the possibility of utilizing such a multifunctional surface in cardiovascular implants. - Highlights: • We construct a multifunctional surface based on immobilization of BSA and aptamer. • It can significantly reduce platelet adhesion and fibrinogen adsorption/activation. • Such functional surface could remarkably enhance EPC adhesion in vitro. • It can induce rapid self-endothelialization of the implant surface in situ in vivo. • It is possible to use such a multifunctional surface in cardiovascular implants.

  16. Evaluating Coral Health in La Parguera, Puerto Rico, and Southeastern Florida: Comparison of Satellite-Based Sea Surface Temperature to In Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, A. M.; McDonald, K. C.; Shein, K. A.; Devries, S. L.; Armstrong, R.; Carlo, M.

    2017-12-01

    The third global coral bleaching event, which began in mid-2014, is a major environmental stressor that has been causing significant documented damage to coral reefs in all tropical ocean basins. This worldwide phenomenon is the longest and largest coral bleaching event on record and now finally appears to be ending. During this event, some coral colonies proved to be more resilient to increased ocean temperatures while others bleached severely. This research investigates the spatial and temporal variability of bleaching stress on coral reefs in La Parguera, Puerto Rico, and Southeastern Florida to help further understand the role of temperature and light in coral bleaching. We examine the microclimate within two coral reef systems, using in situ collections of temperature and light data from data loggers deployed throughout Cayo Enrique and Cayo Mario in La Parguera, and Lauderdale-By-The-Sea in FLorida. The in situ measurements are compared to NOAA Coral Reef Watch's 5-km sea surface temperature data as well as to the associated Light Stress Damage Product. Research outcomes include statistical analyses of in situ measurements with satellite datasets supporting enhanced interpretation of satellite-based SST and light products, and ecological niche modeling to assess where corals could potentially survive under future climate conditions. Additional understanding of the microclimate encompassing coral reefs and improved satellite SST and light data will ultimately help coral reef ecosystem managers and policy makers in prioritizing resources toward the monitoring and protection of coral reef ecosystems.

  17. Simulation of surface temperature and ice cover of large northern lakes with 1-D models: a comparison with MODIS satellite data and in situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kheyrollah Pour

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Lake surface temperature (LST and ice phenology were simulated for various points differing in depth on Great Slave Lake and Great Bear Lake, two large lakes located in the Mackenzie River Basin in Canada's Northwest Territories, using the 1-D Freshwater Lake model (FLake and the Canadian Lake Ice Model (CLIMo over the 2002–2010 period, forced with data from three weather stations (Yellowknife, Hay River and Deline. LST model results were compared to those derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS aboard the Earth Observing System Terra and Aqua satellite platforms. Simulated ice thickness and freeze-up/break-up dates were also compared to in situ observations. Both models showed a good agreement with daily average MODIS LSTs on an annual basis (0.935  ≤  relative index of agreement  ≤  0.984 and 0.94  ≤  mean bias error  ≤  4.83. The absence of consideration of snow on lake ice in FLake was found to have a large impact on estimated ice thicknesses (25 cm thicker on average by the end of winter compared to in situ measurements; 9 cm thicker for CLIMo and break-up dates (6 d earlier in comparison with in situ measurements; 3 d later for CLIMo. The overall agreement between the two models and MODIS LST products during both the open water and ice seasons was good. Remotely sensed data are a promising data source for assimilation into numerical weather prediction models, as they provide the spatial coverage that is not captured by in situ data.

  18. Temporal observations of surface soil moisture using a passive microwave sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, T.J.; O'Neill, P.

    1987-01-01

    A series of 10 aircraft flights was conducted over agricultural fields to evaluate relationships between observed surface soil moisture and soil moisture predicted using passive microwave sensor observations. An a priori approach was used to predict values of surface soil moisture for three types of fields: tilled corn, no-till corn with soybean stubble, and idle fields with corn stubble. Acceptable predictions were obtained for the tilled corn fields, while poor results were obtained for the others. The source of error is suspected to be the density and orientation of the surface stubble layer; however, further research is needed to verify this explanation. Temporal comparisons between observed, microwave predicted, and soil water-simulated moisture values showed similar patterns for tilled well-drained fields. Divergences between the observed and simulated measurements were apparent on poorly drained fields. This result may be of value in locating and mapping hydrologic contributing areas

  19. Surface Passivation of CdZnTe Detector by Hydrogen Peroxide Solution Etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, M.; Chen, H.; Chattopadhyay, K.; Burger, A.; James, R. B.

    1998-01-01

    The spectral resolution of room temperature nuclear radiation detectors such as CdZnTe is usually limited by the presence of conducting surface species that increase the surface leakage current. Studies have shown that the leakage current can be reduced by proper surface preparation. In this study, we try to optimize the performance of CdZnTe detector by etching the detector with hydrogen peroxide solution as function of concentration and etching time. The passivation effect that hydrogen peroxide introduces have been investigated by current-voltage (I-V) measurement on both parallel strips and metal-semiconductor-metal configurations. The improvements on the spectral response of Fe-55 and 241Am due to hydrogen peroxide treatment are presented and discussed.

  20. Surface blemish detection from passive imagery using learned fuzzy set concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurbuz, S.; Carver, A.; Schalkoff, R.

    1997-12-01

    An image analysis method for real-time surface blemish detection using passive imagery and fuzzy set concepts is described. The method develops an internal knowledge representation for surface blemish characteristics on the basis of experience, thus facilitating autonomous learning based upon positive and negative exemplars. The method incorporates fuzzy set concepts in the learning subsystem and image segmentation algorithms, thereby mimicking human visual perception. This enables a generic solution for color image segmentation. This method has been applied in the development of ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System), designed to inspect DOE warehouse waste storage drums for rust. In this project, the ARIES vision system is used to acquire drum surface images under controlled conditions and subsequently perform visual inspection leading to the classification of the drum as acceptable or suspect

  1. Multiple-scattering and DV-Xα analyses of a Cl-passivated Ge(111) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, S; Tang, J-C; Shen, S-L

    2003-01-01

    The multiple-scattering cluster and DV-Xα methods have been employed to analyse the chlorine 1s near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) of a Cl-passivated Ge(111) surface. Our detailed analysis demonstrates how the chlorine atoms form a perfect monochloride structure with Cl bonding to the topmost Ge atom. Our calculation reveals the interaction in the chlorine layer is multipolar electrostatic forces. Furthermore, the DV-Xα cluster calculation shows that the orbital contour of the sharp Cl-Ge resonance exhibits a global symmetry, which confirms it to be σ * -like. The above studies are found to enrich previous experimental NEXAFS investigations

  2. Optical near-field lithography on hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Steen; Müllenborn, Matthias; Birkelund, Karen

    1996-01-01

    by the optical near field, were observed after etching in potassium hydroxide. The uncoated fibers can also induce oxidation without light exposure, in a manner similar to an atomic force microscope, and linewidths of 50 nm have been achieved this way. (C) 1996 American Institute of Physics.......We report on a novel lithography technique for patterning of hydrogen-passivated amorphous silicon surfaces. A reflection mode scanning near-field optical microscope with uncoated fiber probes has been used to locally oxidize a thin amorphous silicon layer. Lines of 110 nm in width, induced...

  3. Extruded Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites formed in situ during consolidation of ultrafine Al powders: Effect of the powder surface area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balog, Martin, E-mail: martin.balog@savba.sk [Institute of Materials and Machine Mechanics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia); Simancik, Frantisek [Institute of Materials and Machine Mechanics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia); Walcher, Martin; Rajner, Walter [NMD - New Materials Development GmbH, St. Pantaleon (Austria); Poletti, Cecilia [Institute of Materials Science and Welding, Graz University of Technology, Kopernikusgasse 24/I, A8010 Graz (Austria)

    2011-11-25

    Highlights: {yields} 25 gas atomised Al 99.5% powders with particle size <10 {mu}m were hot extruded. {yields} The strength of compacts was closely related to powder surface area. {yields} Grain boundary strengthening was enhanced by the presence of in situ Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersoids. {yields} Compacts showed good thermal stability due to grain pinning of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersoids. - Abstract: Twenty-five samples of commercially available, gas-atomised Al (99.5%) powders with particle sizes <10 {mu}m were hot extruded into Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites formed in situ during extrusion. The effect of particle size, surface area, oxygen content and atomisation atmosphere of the powder on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the extruded compacts were studied by Brunauer, Emmett, Teller (BET) analysis, hot gas extraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and tensile tests. Thermal stability of the compacts and the individual strengthening mechanisms operating in the compacts were discussed. It was found that the properties of the compacts stemmed from the extraordinary grain boundary strengthening effect of the ultrafine-grained compacts due to their microstructures. The efficiency of the grain boundary strengthening was significantly enhanced by the presence of nano-metric Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersoids introduced in situ. The strength of the compacts was closely related to the surface area of the powder particles. In addition, the entrapped gasses and chemically bonded humidity had a negative effect on the mechanical properties of the compacts.

  4. Cosmic ray exposure dating of geo-morphic surface features using in situ-produced 10Be: tectonic and climatic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siame, L.; Bellier, O.; Sebrier, M.; Braucher, R.; Bourles, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of continental landforms is mainly modulated by the impact of climatic and tectonic processes. Because of their distinctive morphology and the periodicity of their deposition, climatically induced landforms such as alluvial fans or terraces are well suited to infer rates of tectonic and continental climatic processes. Within tectonically active regions, an important step consists in dating displaced geomorphic features to calculate slip rates on active faults. Dating is probably the most critical tool because it is generally much more simpler to measure deformation resulting from tectonic activity than it is to accurately date when that deformation occurred. Recent advances in analytical chemistry and nuclear physics (accelerator mass spectrometry) now allow quantitative abundance measurements of the extremely rare isotopes produced by the interaction of cosmic rays with surface rocks and soils, the so-called in situ-produced cosmogenic nuclides ( 3 He, 10 Be, 21 Ne, 26 Al, 36 Cl), and allow to directly date the duration that a landform has been exposed to cosmic rays at the Earth's surface (Lal, 1991; Nishiizumi et al., 1993; Cerling and Craig, 1994; Clark et al., 1995]. In fact, the abundance of these cosmo-nuclides is proportional to landscape stability and, under favorable circumstances, their abundance within surface rocks can be used as a proxy for erosion rate or exposure age. These cosmo-nuclides thus provide geomorphologists with the opportunity to constrain rates of landscape evolution. This paper presents a new approach that combines cosmic ray exposure (CRE) dating using in situ-produced 10 Be and geomorphic as well as structural analyse. This approach has been applied on two active strike-slip and reverse faults located in the Andean fore-land of western Argentina. These two case studies illustrate how CRE dating using in situ-produced 10 Be is particularly well suited for geomorphic studies that aim to estimate the respective control of

  5. Improved DC performance of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors using hafnium oxide for surface passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chang; Chor, Eng Fong; Tan, Leng Seow

    2007-01-01

    Improved DC performance of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have been demonstrated using reactive-sputtered hafnium oxide (HfO 2 ) thin film as the surface passivation layer. Hall data indicate a significant increase in the product of sheet carrier concentration (n s ) and electron mobility (μ n ) in the HfO 2 -passivated HEMTs, compared to the unpassivated HEMTs. This improvement in electron carrier characteristics gives rise to a 22% higher I Dmax and an 18% higher g mmax in HEMTs with HfO 2 passivation relative to the unpassivated devices. On the other hand, I gleak of the HEMTs decreases by nearly one order of magnitude when HfO 2 passivation is applied. In addition, drain current is measured in the subthreshold regime. Compared to the unpassivated HEMTs, HfO 2 -passivated HEMTs exhibit a much smaller off-state I D , indicating better turn-off characteristics

  6. Si surface passivation by SiOx:H films deposited by a low-frequency ICP for solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, H P; Wei, D Y; Xu, S; Xiao, S Q; Xu, L X; Huang, S Y; Guo, Y N; Khan, S; Xu, M

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogenated silicon suboxide (SiO x :H) thin films are fabricated by a low-frequency inductively coupled plasma of hydrogen-diluted SiH 4 + CO 2 at a low temperature (100 °C). Introduction of a small amount of oxygen into the film results in a predominantly amorphous structure, wider optical bandgap, increased H content, lower conductivity and higher activation energy. The minority carrier lifetime in the SiO x :H-passivated p-type Si substrate is up to 428 µs with a reduced incubation layer at the interface. The associated surface recombination velocity is as low as 70 cm s -1 . The passivation behaviour dominantly originates from the H-related chemical passivation. The passivation effect is also demonstrated by the excellent photovoltaic performance of the heterojunction solar cell with the SiO x :H-based passivation and emitter layers.

  7. Arbitrary beam control using passive lossless metasurfaces enabled by orthogonally polarized custom surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Do-Hoon; Tretyakov, Sergei A.

    2018-01-01

    For passive, lossless impenetrable metasurfaces, a design technique for arbitrary beam control of receiving, guiding, and launching is presented. Arbitrary control is enabled by a custom surface wave in an orthogonal polarization such that its addition to the incident (input) and the desired scattered (output) fields is supported by a reactive surface impedance everywhere on the reflecting surface. Such a custom surface wave (SW) takes the form of an evanescent wave propagating along the surface with a spatially varying envelope. A growing SW appears when an illuminating beam is received. The SW amplitude stays constant when power is guided along the surface. The amplitude diminishes as a propagating wave (PW) is launched from the surface as a leaky wave. The resulting reactive tensor impedance profile may be realized as an array of anisotropic metallic resonators printed on a grounded dielectric substrate. Illustrative design examples of a Gaussian beam translator-reflector, a probe-fed beam launcher, and a near-field focusing lens are provided.

  8. Observation of an electron band above the Fermi level in FeTe0.55Se0.45 from in-situ surface doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, P.; Ma, J.; Qian, T.; Richard, P.; Ding, H.; Xu, N.; Xu, Y.-M.; Fedorov, A. V.; Denlinger, J. D.; Gu, G. D.

    2014-01-01

    We used in-situ potassium (K) evaporation to dope the surface of the iron-based superconductor FeTe 0.55 Se 0.45 . The systematic study of the bands near the Fermi level confirms that electrons are doped into the system, allowing us to tune the Fermi level of this material and to access otherwise unoccupied electronic states. In particular, we observe an electron band located above the Fermi level before doping that shares similarities with a small three-dimensional pocket observed in the cousin, heavily electron-doped KFe 2−x Se 2 compound.

  9. Electrochemistry and in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy of pure and redox-marked DNA- and UNA-based oligonucleotides on Au(111)-electrode surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan Glargaard; Salvatore, Princia; Karlsen, K.

    2013-01-01

    the strongest and in accord with multiple site Ru-attachment. In situ STM disclosed molecular scale features in varying coverage on addition of the metal ions. The Ru-derivatives showed a bias voltage dependent broad maximum in the tunnelling current–overpotential correlation which could be correlated......We have studied adsorption and electrochemical electron transfer of several 13- and 15-base DNA and UNA (unlocked nucleic acids) oligonucleotides (ONs) linked to Au(111)-electrode surfaces via a 50-C6-SH group using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and scanning tunnelling microscopy in aqueous buffer under...

  10. Real time nanoscale structural evaluation of gold structures on Si (100) surface using in-situ transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, A.; Juluri, R. R.; Satyam, P. V.

    2014-01-01

    Transport behavior of gold nanostructures on Si(100) substrate during annealing under high vacuum has been investigated using in-situ real time transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A comparative study has been done on the morphological changes due to annealing under different vacuum environments. Au thin films of thickness ∼2.0 nm were deposited on native oxide covered silicon substrate by using thermal evaporation system. In-situ real time TEM measurements at 850 °C showed the isotropic growth of rectangular/square shaped gold-silicon alloy structures. During the growth, it is observed that the alloying occurs in liquid phase followed by transformation into the rectangular shapes. For similar system, ex-situ annealing in low vacuum (10 −2 millibars) at 850 °C showed the spherical gold nanostructures with no Au-Si alloy formation. Under low vacuum annealing conditions, the rate of formation of the oxide layer dominates the oxide desorption rate, resulting in the creation of a barrier layer between Au and Si, which restricts the inter diffusion of Au in to Si. This work demonstrates the important role of interfacial oxide layer on the growth of nanoscale Au-Si alloy structures during the initial growth. The time dependent TEM images are presented to offer a direct insight into the fundamental dynamics of the sintering process at the nanoscale

  11. Enhanced Cyclability of Lithium-Oxygen Batteries with Electrodes Protected by Surface Films Induced via In-Situ Electrochemical Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Wu; Tao, Jinhui; Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Engelhard, Mark H.; Lu, Dongping; Wang, Chongmin; Zhang, Jiguang

    2018-04-16

    Although the rechargeable lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries have extremely high theoretical specific energy, the practical application of these batteries is still limited by the instability of their carbon-based air-electrode, Li metal anode, and electrolytes towards reduced oxygen species. Here we demonstrate a simple one-step in-situ electrochemical pre-charging strategy to generate thin protective films on both carbon nanotubes (CNTs) air-electrode and Li metal anode simultaneously under an inert atmosphere. Li-O2 cells after such pre-treatment demonstrate significantly extended cycle life of 110 and 180 cycles under the capacity-limited protocol of 1000 mAh g-1 and 500 mAh g-1, respectively, which is far more than those without pre-treatment. The thin-films formed from decomposition of electrolyte during in-situ electrochemical pre-charging process in an inert environment can protect both CNTs air-electrode and Li metal anode prior to conventional Li-O2 discharge/charge cycling where reactive reduced oxygen species are formed. This work provides a new approach for protections of carbon-based air-electrode and Li metal anode in practical Li-O2 batteries, and may also be applied to other battery systems.

  12. Carbon nanotube surface modification with polyelectrolyte brushes endowed with quantum dots and metal oxide nanoparticles through in situ synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llarena, Irantzu; Romero, Gabriela; Moya, Sergio E; Ziolo, Ronald F

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been successfully coated with a covalently bonded polymer brush of negatively charged poly(3-sulfopropylamino methacrylate) (PSPM) by in situ polymerization employing atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) from initiating silanes attached to the CNTs before the polymerization. The CNT-bonded brush forms a polymer layer or shell-like structure around the CNTs and provides colloidal stabilization for the CNTs in aqueous media. In situ syntheses of nanocrystalline CdS and magnetic iron oxide in the polymer brushes lead to the formation of hybrid nanocomposites consisting of nanoparticle-containing PSPM-coated CNTs that remain readily dispersible and stable in aqueous media. The hybrid nanostructures are synthesized by ion exchange with the cations of the sulfonate groups of the PSPM followed by precipitation and were followed by stepwise zeta potential measurements and TEM. Such structures could have applications in the design of more complex structures and devices. The general synthetic scheme can be extended to include other nanoparticles as brush cargo to broaden the utility or functionality of the CNTs. TEM data shows nanocrystalline CdS in the range of 5-8 nm embedded in the PSPM brush and nanocrystalline iron oxide with a size between 2 and 4 nm, with the former consistent with UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorescence measurements.

  13. Strategies for Reduced Acid and Metalliferous Drainage by Pyrite Surface Passivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gujie Qian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Acid and metalliferous drainage (AMD is broadly accepted to be a major global environmental problem facing the mining industry, requiring expensive management and mitigation. A series of laboratory-scale kinetic leach column (KLC experiments, using both synthetic and natural mine wastes, were carried out to test the efficacy of our pyrite passivation strategy (developed from previous research for robust and sustainable AMD management. For the synthetic waste KLC tests, initial treatment with lime-saturated water was found to be of paramount importance for maintaining long-term circum-neutral pH, favourable for the formation and preservation of the pyrite surface passivating layer and reduced acid generation rate. Following the initial lime-saturated water treatment, minimal additional alkalinity (calcite-saturated water was required to maintain circum-neutral pH for the maintenance of pyrite surface passivation. KLC tests examining natural potentially acid forming (PAF waste, with much greater peak acidity than that of the synthetic waste, blended with lime (≈2 wt % with and without natural non-acid-forming (NAF waste covers, were carried out. The addition of lime and use of NAF covers maintained circum-neutral leachate pH up to 24 weeks. During this time, the net acidity generated was found to be significantly reduced by the overlying NAF cover. If the reduced rate of acidity production from the natural PAF waste is sustained, the addition of smaller (more economically-feasible amounts of lime, together with application of NAF wastes as covers, could be trialled as a potential cost-effective AMD mitigation strategy.

  14. Reverse Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Demonstrate That Surface Passivation Controls Thermal Transport at Semiconductor-Solvent Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Daniel C; Gezelter, J Daniel; Schaller, Richard D; Schatz, George C

    2015-06-23

    We examine the role played by surface structure and passivation in thermal transport at semiconductor/organic interfaces. Such interfaces dominate thermal transport in semiconductor nanomaterials owing to material dimensions much smaller than the bulk phonon mean free path. Utilizing reverse nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we calculate the interfacial thermal conductance (G) between a hexane solvent and chemically passivated wurtzite CdSe surfaces. In particular, we examine the dependence of G on the CdSe slab thickness, the particular exposed crystal facet, and the extent of surface passivation. Our results indicate a nonmonotonic dependence of G on ligand-grafting density, with interfaces generally exhibiting higher thermal conductance for increasing surface coverage up to ∼0.08 ligands/Å(2) (75-100% of a monolayer, depending on the particular exposed facet) and decreasing for still higher coverages. By analyzing orientational ordering and solvent penetration into the ligand layer, we show that a balance of competing effects is responsible for this nonmonotonic dependence. Although the various unpassivated CdSe surfaces exhibit similar G values, the crystal structure of an exposed facet nevertheless plays an important role in determining the interfacial thermal conductance of passivated surfaces, as the density of binding sites on a surface determines the ligand-grafting densities that may ultimately be achieved. We demonstrate that surface passivation can increase G relative to a bare surface by roughly 1 order of magnitude and that, for a given extent of passivation, thermal conductance can vary by up to a factor of ∼2 between different surfaces, suggesting that appropriately tailored nanostructures may direct heat flow in an anisotropic fashion for interface-limited thermal transport.

  15. In Situ Mapping of the Molecular Arrangement of Amphiphilic Dye Molecules at the TiO 2 Surface of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Voïtchovsky, Kislon

    2015-05-27

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Amphiphilic sensitizers are central to the function of dye-sensitized solar cells. It is known that the cell\\'s performance depends on the molecular arrangement and the density of the dye on the semiconductor surface, but a molecular-level picture of the cell-electrolyte interface is still lacking. Here, we present subnanometer in situ atomic force microscopy images of the Z907 dye at the surface of TiO2 in a relevant liquid. Our results reveal changes in the conformation and the lateral arrangement of the dye molecules, depending on their average packing density on the surface. Complementary quantitative measurements on the ensemble of the film are obtained by the quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation technique. An atomistic picture of the dye coverage-dependent packing, the effectiveness of the hydrophobic alkyl chains as blocking layer, and the solvent accessibility is obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. (Figure Presented).

  16. Development of an autoclave with zirconia crystal windows for in-situ observation of sample surface under primary water conditions of pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumura, Takuya; Totsuka, Nobuo; Arioka, Koji [Inst. of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan); Nakajima, Nobuo

    2002-09-01

    Elucidating the mechanism for primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) is important for improving the reliability of structural materials in the primary system of pressurized water reactors (PWR). For this purpose, visualization of corrosion material surface in the primary coolant environment is effective, but it was impossible because of lack of suitable window material. Yttria stabilized zirconia was newly selected as a candidate for in-situ window material in the primary coolant environment of PWR. Its sufficient corrosion resistance was proved by measuring the transmissivity of light after being immersed in the primary coolant environment. A new autoclave with two windows of yttria-stabilized zirconia was developed. The corrosion material surfaces of Alloy600 and SUS304 in the primary coolant environment were clearly observed with this autoclave. Observations of cracks generated on the surface of SUS304 specimen, suggest that its generation time depends on temperature. (author)

  17. Mass Spectrometric Determination of the Effect of Surface Deactivation on Membranes Used for In-Situ Sampling of Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torgny Undin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a strategy for structured monitoring of surface modifications to control protein adsorption to membrane structures is presented. The already established on-surface enzymatic digestion (oSED method combined with nano-liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analysis was employed for the analysis of proteins in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (vCSF from neurointensive care patients. Protein adsorption was studied by in-situ sampling in a temporally resolved manner on both immobilized native and Pluronic-deactivated membranes. Deactivation was significantly reducing the protein adsorption but it also induced novel selective properties of the surface. The proposed versatile strategy will facilitate protein-biomaterial, protein-polymer, protein-protein interaction studies in the future.

  18. Passive monitoring for near surface void detection using traffic as a seismic source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Kuzma, H. A.; Rector, J.; Nazari, S.

    2009-12-01

    In this poster we present preliminary results based on our several field experiments in which we study seismic detection of voids using a passive array of surface geophones. The source of seismic excitation is vehicle traffic on nearby roads, which we model as a continuous line source of seismic energy. Our passive seismic technique is based on cross-correlation of surface wave fields and studying the resulting power spectra, looking for "shadows" caused by the scattering effect of a void. High frequency noise masks this effect in the time domain, so it is difficult to see on conventional traces. Our technique does not rely on phase distortions caused by small voids because they are generally too tiny to measure. Unlike traditional impulsive seismic sources which generate highly coherent broadband signals, perfect for resolving phase but too weak for resolving amplitude, vehicle traffic affords a high power signal a frequency range which is optimal for finding shallow structures. Our technique results in clear detections of an abandoned railroad tunnel and a septic tank. The ultimate goal of this project is to develop a technology for the simultaneous imaging of shallow underground structures and traffic monitoring near these structures.

  19. Surface Passivation for Reliable Measurement of Bulk Electronic Properties of Heterojunction Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissig, Benjamin; Guerra-Nunez, Carlos; Carron, Romain; Nishiwaki, Shiro; La Mattina, Fabio; Pianezzi, Fabian; Losio, Paolo A; Avancini, Enrico; Reinhard, Patrick; Haass, Stefan G; Lingg, Martina; Feurer, Thomas; Utke, Ivo; Buecheler, Stephan; Tiwari, Ayodhya N

    2016-10-01

    Quantum efficiency measurements of state of the art Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) thin film solar cells reveal current losses in the near infrared spectral region. These losses can be ascribed to inadequate optical absorption or poor collection of photogenerated charge carriers. Insight on the limiting mechanism is crucial for the development of more efficient devices. The electron beam induced current measurement technique applied on device cross-sections promises an experimental access to depth resolved information about the charge carrier collection probability. Here, this technique is used to show that charge carrier collection in CIGS deposited by multistage co-evaporation at low temperature is efficient over the optically active region and collection losses are minor as compared to the optical ones. Implications on the favorable absorber design are discussed. Furthermore, it is observed that the measurement is strongly affected by cross-section surface recombination and an accurate determination of the collection efficiency is not possible. Therefore it is proposed and shown that the use of an Al 2 O 3 layer deposited onto the cleaved cross-section significantly improves the accuracy of the measurement by reducing the surface recombination. A model for the passivation mechanism is presented and the passivation concept is extended to other solar cell technologies such as CdTe and Cu 2 (Zn,Sn)(S,Se) 4 . © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Passivation of Titanium Oxide in Polyethylene Matrices using Polyelectrolytes as Titanium Dioxide Surface Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Vallejo-Montesinos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges of the polyolefins nowadays is the ability of those to resist weathering conditions, specially the photodegradation process that suffer any polyolefin. A common way to prevent this, is the use of hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS are employed. An alternative route to avoid photodegradation is using polyelectrolites as coating of fillers such as metal oxides. Composites of polyethylene were made using titanium dioxide (TiO2 as a filler with polyelectrolytes (polyethylenimine and sodium polystyrene sulfonate attached to its surface, to passivate its photocatalytic activity. We exposed the samples to ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis light to observe the effect of radiation on the degradation of coated samples, compared to those without the polyelectrolyte coating. From the experimental results, we found that polyethylenimine has a similar carbonyl signal area to the sample coated with hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS while sodium polystyrene sulfonate exhibit more degradation than the HALS coated samples, but it passivates the photocatalytic effect when compared with the non-coated TiO2 samples. Also, using AFM measurements, we confirmed that the chemical nature of polyethylenimine causes the TiO2 avoid the migration to the surface during the extrusion process, inhibiting the photodegradation process and softening the sample. On this basis, we found that polyethylenimine is a good choice for reducing the degradation caused by TiO2 when it is exposed to UV-Vis light.

  1. Facile synthesis of surface N-doped Bi_2O_2CO_3: Origin of visible light photocatalytic activity and in situ DRIFTS studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Ying; Zhao, Ziyan; Wang, Fang; Cao, Kun; Doronkin, Dmitry E.; Dong, Fan; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Surfactant (CTAB) can induce nitrogen interstitially doping in the Bi_2O_2CO_3 surface, leading to the formation of localized states from N−O bond, which probably account for the origin of the visible light activity. Moreover, the photocatalytic NO oxidation processes over Bi_2O_2CO_3 were successfully monitored for the first time by in situ DRIFTS. - Highlights: • Interstitially doping N in the Bi_2O_2CO_3 surface was achieved at room temperature. • N-doped Bi_2O_2CO_3 exhibited significantly enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity compared to the pristine Bi_2O_2CO_3. • The formation of localized states from N−O bond could account for the visible light activity of Bi_2O_2CO_3. • The photocatalytic NO oxidation process was monitored by in situ DRIFTS. - Abstract: Bi_2O_2CO_3 nanosheets with exposed {001} facets were prepared by a facile room temperature chemical method. Due to the high oxygen atom density in {001} facets of Bi_2O_2CO_3, the addition of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) does not only influence the growth of crystalline Bi_2O_2CO_3, but also modifies the surface properties of Bi_2O_2CO_3 through the interaction between CTAB and Bi_2O_2CO_3. Nitrogen from CTAB as dopant interstitially incorporates in the Bi_2O_2CO_3 surface evidenced by both experimental and theoretical investigations. Hence, the formation of localized states from N−O bond improves the visible light absorption and charge separation efficiency, which leads to an enhancement of visible light photocatalytic activity toward to the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and oxidation of NO. In addition, the photocatalytic NO oxidation over Bi_2O_2CO_3 nanosheets was successfully monitored for the first time using in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Both bidentate and monodentate nitrates were identified on the surface of catalysts during the photocatalytic reaction process. The application of this strategy to

  2. Passive control of flow structure interaction between a sphere and free-surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akilli Huseyin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Flow characteristics for both a smooth and a vented sphere such as velocity vectors, patterns of streamlines, vorticity contours, stream-wise fluctuations, cross-stream velocity fluctuations and Reynolds stress correlations between a sphere and free-surface for various submerged ratio at Re =5,000 are studied by using dye visualization and the particle image velocimetry technique. Passive control of flow structure interaction between sphere and free surface was examined by using a modified geometry which has a 15% sphere diameter hole passing through the sphere equator. Both of the spheres were separately placed beneath the free surface with different positions from touching to the free surface to two sphere diameters below the free surface. It is demonstrated that reattachment point of the separated flow to the free surface varies for both of the sphere cases as the sphere position alters vertically through the water flow while the flow structure for the vented sphere occurs considerably symmetrical due to forming of a pair of counter-rotating ring vortices.

  3. Husbandry Emissions at the Sub-Facility Scale by Fused Mobile Surface In Situ and Airborne Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, I.; Melton, C.; Tratt, D. M.; Hall, J. L.; Buckland, K. N.; Frash, J.; Leen, J. B.; Lundquist, T.; Vigil, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Husbandry methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) are strong climate and air pollution drivers. Husbandry emission factors have significant uncertainty and can differ from lab estimates as real-world practices affect emissions including where and how husbandry activities occur, their spatial and temporal relationship to micro-climate (winds, temperature, insolation, rain, and lagoon levels, which vary diurnally and seasonally), and animal care. Research dairies provide a unique opportunity to combine insights on sub-facility scale emissions to identify best practices. Two approaches with significant promise for quantifying husbandry emissions are airborne remote sensing and mobile in situ trace gas with meteorological measurements. Both capture snapshot data to allow deconvolution of temporal and spatial variability, which challenges stationary measurements, while also capturing micro-scale processes, allowing connection of real-world practices to emissions. Mobile in situ concentration data on trace gases and meteorology were collected by AMOG (AutoMObile trace Gas) Surveyor on 10 days spanning 31 months at the California Polytechnic State University Research Dairy, San Luis Obispo, CA. AMOG Surveyor is a commuter vehicle modified for atmospheric science. CH4, NH3, H2O, COS, CO, CO2, H2S, O3, NO, NO2, SO2, NOX, solar spectra, temperature, and winds were measured. The airborne hyperspectral thermal infrared sensor, Mako, collected data on 28 Sept. 2015. Research dairies allow combining insights on sub-facility scale emissions to identify best practices holistically - i.e., considering multiple trace gases. In situ data were collected while transecting plumes, approximately orthogonal to winds. Emission strength and source location were estimated by Gaussian plume inversion, validated by airborne data. Good agreement was found on source strength and location at meter length-scales. Data revealed different activities produced unique emissions with distinct trace gas

  4. Effect of low thermal budget annealing on surface passivation of silicon by ALD based aluminum oxide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandana; Batra, Neha; Gope, Jhuma; Singh, Rajbir; Panigrahi, Jagannath; Tyagi, Sanjay; Pathi, P; Srivastava, S K; Rauthan, C M S; Singh, P K

    2014-10-21

    Thermal ALD deposited Al2O3 films on silicon show a marked difference in surface passivation quality as a function of annealing time (using a rapid thermal process). An effective and quality passivation is realized in short anneal duration (∼100 s) in nitrogen ambient which is reflected in the low surface recombination velocity (SRV passivation. Both as-deposited and low thermal budget annealed films show the presence of positive fixed charges and this is never been reported in the literature before. The role of field and chemical passivation is investigated in terms of fixed charge and interface defect densities. Further, the importance of the annealing step sequence in the MIS structure fabrication protocol is also investigated from the view point of its effect on the nature of fixed charges.

  5. Passivating surface states on water splitting hematite photoanodes with alumina overlayers

    KAUST Repository

    Le Formal, Florian; Té treault, Nicolas; Cornuz, Maurin; Moehl, Thomas; Grä tzel, Michael; Sivula, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Hematite is a promising material for inexpensive solar energy conversion via water splitting but has been limited by the large overpotential (0.5-0.6 V) that must be applied to afford high water oxidation photocurrent. This has conventionally been addressed by coating it with a catalyst to increase the kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction. However, surface recombination at trapping states is also thought to be an important factor for the overpotential, and herein we investigate a strategy to passivate trapping states using conformal overlayers applied by atomic layer deposition. While TiO2 overlayers show no beneficial effect, we find that an ultra-thin coating of Al2O3 reduces the overpotential required with state-of-the-art nano-structured photo-anodes by as much as 100 mV and increases the photocurrent by a factor of 3.5 (from 0.24 mA cm-2 to 0.85 mA cm-2) at +1.0 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) under standard illumination conditions. The subsequent addition of Co2+ ions as a catalyst further decreases the overpotential and leads to a record photocurrent density at 0.9 V vs. RHE (0.42 mA cm-2). A detailed investigation into the effect of the Al2O3 overlayer by electrochemical impedance and photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals a significant change in the surface capacitance and radiative recombination, respectively, which distinguishes the observed overpotential reduction from a catalytic effect and confirms the passivation of surface states. Importantly, this work clearly demonstrates that two distinct loss processes are occurring on the surface of high-performance hematite and suggests a viable route to individually address them. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

  6. Passivating surface states on water splitting hematite photoanodes with alumina overlayers

    KAUST Repository

    Le Formal, Florian

    2011-01-24

    Hematite is a promising material for inexpensive solar energy conversion via water splitting but has been limited by the large overpotential (0.5-0.6 V) that must be applied to afford high water oxidation photocurrent. This has conventionally been addressed by coating it with a catalyst to increase the kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction. However, surface recombination at trapping states is also thought to be an important factor for the overpotential, and herein we investigate a strategy to passivate trapping states using conformal overlayers applied by atomic layer deposition. While TiO2 overlayers show no beneficial effect, we find that an ultra-thin coating of Al2O3 reduces the overpotential required with state-of-the-art nano-structured photo-anodes by as much as 100 mV and increases the photocurrent by a factor of 3.5 (from 0.24 mA cm-2 to 0.85 mA cm-2) at +1.0 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) under standard illumination conditions. The subsequent addition of Co2+ ions as a catalyst further decreases the overpotential and leads to a record photocurrent density at 0.9 V vs. RHE (0.42 mA cm-2). A detailed investigation into the effect of the Al2O3 overlayer by electrochemical impedance and photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals a significant change in the surface capacitance and radiative recombination, respectively, which distinguishes the observed overpotential reduction from a catalytic effect and confirms the passivation of surface states. Importantly, this work clearly demonstrates that two distinct loss processes are occurring on the surface of high-performance hematite and suggests a viable route to individually address them. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

  7. Record Charge Carrier Diffusion Length in Colloidal Quantum Dot Solids via Mutual Dot-To-Dot Surface Passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Graham H; Levina, Larissa; Comin, Riccardo; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-06-03

    Through a combination of chemical and mutual dot-to-dot surface passivation, high-quality colloidal quantum dot solids are fabricated. The joint passivation techniques lead to a record diffusion length for colloidal quantum dots of 230 ± 20 nm. The technique is applied to create thick photovoltaic devices that exhibit high current density without losing fill factor. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Excitation of waves in plasma near the ion cyclotron frequency using surface-wave antennas with auxillary passive gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longinov, A.V.; Lukinov, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    It is proposed to use a system of auxiliary passive gaps to excite waves in a plasma traveling in one direction parallel to the magnetic field, in order to localize the radiating surface of a surface-wave antenna. Using excitation of ion Bernstein waves in the plasma as an example the main properties of such an antenna system have been studied. It is shown that the use of passive gaps permits high directionality to be achieved for the radiation and allows the size of the radiating surface of the antenna to be controlled. 10 refs., 6 figs

  9. Active and Passive Remote Sensing Data Time Series for Flood Detection and Surface Water Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioresita, Filsa; Puissant, Anne; Stumpf, André; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2017-04-01

    As a consequence of environmental changes surface waters are undergoing changes in time and space. A better knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of surface waters resources becomes essential to support sustainable policies and development activities. Especially because surface waters, are not only a vital sweet water resource, but can also pose hazards to human settlements and infrastructures through flooding. Floods are a highly frequent disaster in the world and can caused huge material losses. Detecting and mapping their spatial distribution is fundamental to ascertain damages and for relief efforts. Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an effective way to monitor surface waters bodies over large areas since it provides excellent temporal coverage and, all-weather day-and-night imaging capabilities. However, emergent vegetation, trees, wind or flow turbulence can increase radar back-scatter returns and pose problems for the delineation of inundated areas. In such areas, passive remote sensing data can be used to identify vegetated areas and support the interpretation of SAR data. The availability of new Earth Observation products, for example Sentinel-1 (active) and Sentinel-2 (passive) imageries, with both high spatial and temporal resolution, have the potential to facilitate flood detection and monitoring of surface waters changes which are very dynamic in space and time. In this context, the research consists of two parts. In the first part, the objective is to propose generic and reproducible methodologies for the analysis of Sentinel-1 time series data for floods detection and surface waters mapping. The processing chain comprises a series of pre-processing steps and the statistical modeling of the pixel value distribution to produce probabilistic maps for the presence of surface waters. Images pre-processing for all Sentinel-1 images comprise the reduction SAR effect like orbit errors, speckle noise, and geometric effects. A modified

  10. Spatially-Dependent Measurements of Surface and Near-Surface Radioactive Material Using In situ Gamma Ray Spectrometry (ISGRS) For Final Status Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. A. Chapman, A. J. Boerner, E. W. Abelquist

    2006-11-15

    In-situ, high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry (ISGRS) measurements were conducted at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) field laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of these tests was to provide analytical data for assessing how “fit for use” this technology is for detecting discrete particles in soil.

  11. Spatially-Dependent Measurements of Surface and Near-Surface Radioactive Material Using In situ Gamma Ray Spectrometry (ISGRS) For Final Status Surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. A. Chapman, A. J. Boerner, E. W. Abelquist

    2006-01-01

    In-situ, high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry (ISGRS) measurements were conducted at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education ORISE field laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of these tests was to provide analytical data for assessing how 'fit for use' this technology is for detecting discrete particles in soil

  12. Transparent, flexible surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates based on Ag-coated structured PET (polyethylene terephthalate) for in-situ detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Zewen; Zhu, Kai; Gu, Chuan; Wen, Yibing; Cui, Guanglei; Qu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Transparent, flexible SERS substrates were prepared using techniques compatible with well-established silicon device technologies. • The SERS substrates exhibit high sensitivity and good reproducibility. • The high performance is related with the quasi-three-dimensional structure of the PET. • In-situ detection of analyte on irregular objects was achieved by this SERS substrate. - Abstract: Transparent, flexible surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates were fabricated by metalization of structured polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheets. The resultant Ag-coated structured PET SERS substrates were revealed to be highly sensitive with good reproducibility and stability, an enhancement factor of 3 × 10 6 was acquired, which can be attributed mainly to the presence of plentiful multiple-type hot spots within the quasi-three-dimensional surface of the structured PET obtained by oxygen plasma etching. In addition, detections of model molecules on fruit skin were also carried out, demonstrating the great potential of the Ag-coated structured PET in in-situ detection of analyte on irregular objects. Importantly, the technique used for the preparation of such substrate is completely compatible with well-established silicon device technologies, and large-area fabrication with low cost can be readily realized.

  13. Transparent, flexible surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates based on Ag-coated structured PET (polyethylene terephthalate) for in-situ detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Zewen, E-mail: zuozewen@mail.ahnu.edu.cn; Zhu, Kai; Gu, Chuan; Wen, Yibing; Cui, Guanglei; Qu, Jun

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Transparent, flexible SERS substrates were prepared using techniques compatible with well-established silicon device technologies. • The SERS substrates exhibit high sensitivity and good reproducibility. • The high performance is related with the quasi-three-dimensional structure of the PET. • In-situ detection of analyte on irregular objects was achieved by this SERS substrate. - Abstract: Transparent, flexible surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates were fabricated by metalization of structured polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheets. The resultant Ag-coated structured PET SERS substrates were revealed to be highly sensitive with good reproducibility and stability, an enhancement factor of 3 × 10{sup 6} was acquired, which can be attributed mainly to the presence of plentiful multiple-type hot spots within the quasi-three-dimensional surface of the structured PET obtained by oxygen plasma etching. In addition, detections of model molecules on fruit skin were also carried out, demonstrating the great potential of the Ag-coated structured PET in in-situ detection of analyte on irregular objects. Importantly, the technique used for the preparation of such substrate is completely compatible with well-established silicon device technologies, and large-area fabrication with low cost can be readily realized.

  14. Extruded Al-Al2O3 composites formed in situ during consolidation of ultrafine Al powders: Effect of the powder surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balog, Martin; Simancik, Frantisek; Walcher, Martin; Rajner, Walter; Poletti, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → 25 gas atomised Al 99.5% powders with particle size 2 O 3 dispersoids. → Compacts showed good thermal stability due to grain pinning of Al 2 O 3 dispersoids. - Abstract: Twenty-five samples of commercially available, gas-atomised Al (99.5%) powders with particle sizes 2 O 3 composites formed in situ during extrusion. The effect of particle size, surface area, oxygen content and atomisation atmosphere of the powder on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the extruded compacts were studied by Brunauer, Emmett, Teller (BET) analysis, hot gas extraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and tensile tests. Thermal stability of the compacts and the individual strengthening mechanisms operating in the compacts were discussed. It was found that the properties of the compacts stemmed from the extraordinary grain boundary strengthening effect of the ultrafine-grained compacts due to their microstructures. The efficiency of the grain boundary strengthening was significantly enhanced by the presence of nano-metric Al 2 O 3 dispersoids introduced in situ. The strength of the compacts was closely related to the surface area of the powder particles. In addition, the entrapped gasses and chemically bonded humidity had a negative effect on the mechanical properties of the compacts.

  15. Polymer Nanocomposite Film with Metal Rich Surface Prepared by In Situ Single-Step Formation of Palladium Nanoparticles: An Interesting Way to Combine Specific Functional Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Thompson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a continuous single-step route that permits preparation of a thermostable polymer/metal nanocomposite film and to combine different functional properties in a unique material. More precisely, palladium nanoparticles are in situ generated in a polyimide matrix thanks to a designed curing cycle which is applied to a polyamic acid/metal precursor solution cast on a glass plate. A metal-rich surface layer which is strongly bonded to the bulk film is formed in addition to homogeneously dispersed metal nanoparticles. This specific morphology leads to obtaining an optically reflective film. The metal nanoparticles act as gas diffusion barriers for helium, oxygen, and carbon dioxide; they induce a tortuosity effect which allows dividing the gas permeation coefficients by a factor near to 2 with respect to the neat polyimide matrix. Moreover, the ability of the in situ synthesized palladium nanoparticles to entrap hydrogen is evidenced. The nanocomposite film properties can be modulated as a function of the location of the film metal-rich surface with respect to the hydrogen feed. The synthesized nanocomposite could represent a major interest for a wide variety of applications, from specific coatings for aerospace or automotive industry, to catalysis applications or sensors.

  16. In situ loading of well-dispersed silver nanoparticles on nanocrystalline magnesium oxide for real-time monitoring of catalytic reactions by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaige; Li, Gongke; Hu, Yuling

    2015-10-28

    The surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technique is of great importance for insight into the transient reaction intermediates and mechanistic pathways involved in heterogeneously catalyzed chemical reactions under actual reaction conditions, especially in water. Herein, we demonstrate a facile method for in situ synthesis of nanocrystalline magnesium oxide-Ag(0) (nano MgO-Ag(0)) hybrid nanomaterials with dispersed Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on the surface of nanocrystalline magnesium oxide (nano MgO) via Sn(2+) linkage and reduction. As a benefit from the synergy effect of nano MgO and Ag NPs, the nano MgO-Ag(0) exhibited both excellent SERS and catalytic activities for the reduction of 4-nitrothiophenol in the presence of NaBH4. The nano MgO-Ag(0) was used for real-time monitoring of the catalytic reaction process of 4-nitrothiophenol to 4-aminothiophenol in an aqueous medium by observing the SERS signals of the reactant, intermediate and final products. The intrinsic reaction kinetics and reaction mechanism of this reaction were also investigated. This SERS-based synergy technique provides a novel approach for quantitative in situ monitoring of catalytic chemical reaction processes.

  17. Surface-related reduction of photoluminescence in GaAs quantum wires and its recovery by new passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiozaki, Nanako; Anantathanasarn, Sanguan; Sato, Taketomo; Hashizume, Tamotsu; Hasegawa, Hideki

    2005-01-01

    Etched GaAs quantum wires (QWRs) and selectively grown (SG) QWRs were fabricated, and dependence of their photoluminescence (PL) properties on QWR width (W) and QWR distance to surface (d) were investigated. PL intensity greatly reduced with reduction of W and d, due to non-radiative recombination through surface states. Surface passivation by growing a Si interface control layer (Si-ICL) on group III-terminated surfaces greatly improved PL properties

  18. In situ deposition of graphene nanosheets on wood surface by one-pot hydrothermal method for enhanced UV-resistant ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Caichao; Jiao, Yue; Li, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The graphene/wood nanocomposites were fabricated via a mild fast one-pot hydrothermal method. • Graphene nanosheets were in situ deposited on the surface of the wood matrix. • The incorporation of graphene nanosheets results in the improvement in the thermal stability of the graphene/wood. • The graphene/wood exhibits superior UV resistance performance. - Abstract: Graphene nanosheets were successfully in situ deposited on the surface of the wood matrix via a mild fast one-pot hydrothermal method, and the resulting hybrid graphene/wood (GW) were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). According to the results, the wood matrix was evenly coated by dense uninterrupted multilayer graphene membrane structure, which was formed by layer-by-layer self-assembly of graphene nanosheets. Meanwhile, the graphene coating also induced significant improvement in the thermal stability of GW in comparison with that of the original wood (OW). Accelerated weathering tests were employed to measure and determine the UV-resistant ability of OW and GW. After about six hundred hours of experiments, the surface color change of GW was much less than that of OW; besides, the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis also proved the less significant changes in surface chemical compositions of GW. The results both indicated that the graphene coating effectively protected wood surface from UV damage. Therefore, this class of GW composite might be expected to be served as high-performance wooden building material for outdoor or some particular harsh environments like strong UV radiation regions use

  19. Excellent Passivation of p-Type Si Surface by Sol-Gel Al2O3 Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai-Qing, Xiao; Chun-Lan, Zhou; Xiao-Ning, Cao; Wen-Jing, Wang; Lei, Zhao; Hai-Ling, Li; Hong-Wei, Diao

    2009-01-01

    Al 2 O 3 films with a thickness of about 100 nm synthesized by spin coating and thermally treated are applied for field-induced surface passivation of p-type crystalline silicon. The level of surface passivation is determined by techniques based on photoconductance. An effective surface recombination velocity below 100 cm/s is obtained on 10Ω ·cm p-type c-Si wafers (Cz Si). A high density of negative fixed charges in the order of 10 12 cm −2 is detected in the Al 2 O 3 films and its impact on the level of surface passivation is demonstrated experimentally. Furthermore, a comparison between the surface passivation achieved for thermal SiO 2 and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition SiN x :H films on the same c-Si is presented. The high negative fixed charge density explains the excellent passivation of p-type c-Si by Al 2 O 3 . (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  20. On the c-Si surface passivation mechanism by the negative-charge-dielectric Al2O3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoex, B.; Gielis, J.J.H.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Al2 O3 is a versatile high- ¿ dielectric that has excellent surface passivation properties on crystalline Si (c-Si), which are of vital importance for devices such as light emitting diodes and high-efficiency solar cells. We demonstrate both experimentally and by simulations that the surface

  1. Surface passivity largely governs the bioaccessibility of nickel-based powder particles at human exposure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Yolanda S; Herting, Gunilla; Latvala, Siiri; Elihn, Karine; Karlsson, Hanna L; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger

    2016-11-01

    The European chemical framework REACH requires that hazards and risks posed by chemicals, including alloys and metals, are identified and proven safe for humans and the environment. Therefore, differences in bioaccessibility in terms of released metals in synthetic biological fluids (different pH (1.5-7.4) and composition) that are relevant for different human exposure routes (inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact) have been assessed for powder particles of an alloy containing high levels of nickel (Inconel 718, 57 wt% nickel). This powder is compared with the bioaccessibility of two nickel-containing stainless steel powders (AISI 316L, 10-12% nickel) and with powders representing their main pure alloy constituents: two nickel metal powders (100% nickel), two iron metal powders and two chromium metal powders. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, microscopy, light scattering, and nitrogen absorption were employed for the particle and surface oxide characterization. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to quantify released amounts of metals in solution. Cytotoxicity (Alamar blue assay) and DNA damage (comet assay) of the Inconel powder were assessed following exposure of the human lung cell line A549, as well as its ability to generate reactive oxygen species (DCFH-DA assay). Despite its high nickel content, the Inconel alloy powder did not release any significant amounts of metals and did not induce any toxic response. It is concluded, that this is related to the high surface passivity of the Inconel powder governed by its chromium-rich surface oxide. Read-across from the pure metal constituents is hence not recommended either for this or any other passive alloy. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Solar chimney integrated with passive evaporative cooler applied on glazing surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Touma, Albert; Ghali, Kamel; Ghaddar, Nesreen; Ismail, Nagham

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the performance of a hybrid system applied on glazing surfaces for reducing the space cooling load and radiation asymmetry. The proposed system combines the principles of passive evaporative cooling with the natural buoyant flow in solar chimneys to entrain outdoor air and attenuate the window surface temperature. A predictive heat and mass transport model combining the evaporative cooler, glazing section, solar chimney and an office space is developed to study the system performance in harshly hot climates. The developed model was validated through experiments conducted in a twin climatic chamber for given ambient temperature, humidity, and solar radiation conditions. Good agreement was found between the measured and the predicted window temperatures and space loads at maximum discrepancy lower than 4.3%. The proposed system is applied to a typical office space to analyze its effectiveness in reducing the window temperature, the space load and radiation asymmetry, while maintaining the indoor comfort conditions. Results have shown that the system is reduced the space load by −19.8% and attenuated the radiation asymmetry significantly for office spaces having window-to-wall ratio of 40% in climate of Riyadh, KSA. The system performance diminished when applied in locations suffering from humid weather climates. - Highlights: • A passive evaporative-cooled solar chimney system is introduced to decrease window temperature. • A mathematical model is developed of the system to predict induce air flow and window surface temperature. • The model is validated with experiments in twin room climatic chamber and using artificial solar lamps. • The system reduces window maximum temperature by 5 °C in the hot dry climate of Riyadh, KSA. • It reduced the space load by 19.4% for office spaces at window-to-wall ratio of 40% in Riyadh, KSA.

  3. Determination of surface concentrations of individual molecule-layers used in nanoscale biosensors by in situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Punzet, Manuel; Baurecht, Dieter; Varga, Franz; Karlic, Heidrun; Heitzinger, Clemens

    2012-01-01

    formation of typical functionalization protocols and to determine the respective molecule surface concentrations. BSA, anti-TNF-α and anti-PSA antibodies were bound via 3-(trimethoxy)butylsilyl aldehyde linkers to silicon-oxide surfaces in order

  4. Investigations on in situ diagnostics by an infrared camera to distinguish between the plasma facing tiles with carbonaceous surface layer and defect in the underneath junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Laizhong; Gauthier, Eric; Corre, Yann; Liu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Both a deposition surface layer and a delamination underneath junction existing on plasma facing components (PFCs) can result in abnormal high surface temperature under normal heating conditions. The tile with delamination has to be replaced to prevent from a critical failure (complete delamination) during plasma operation while the carbon deposit can be removed without any repairing. Therefore, distinguishing in situ deposited tiles and junction defect tiles is crucial to avoid the critical failure without unwanted shutdown. In this paper, the thermal behaviors of junction defect tiles and carbon deposit tiles are simulated numerically. A modified time constant method is then introduced to analyze the thermal behaviors of deposited tiles and junction defect tiles. The feasibility of discrimination by analyzing the thermal behaviors of tiles is discussed and the requirements of this method for discrimination are described. Finally, the time resolution requirement of IR cameras to do the discrimination is mentioned

  5. Frequency selective surface based passive wireless sensor for structural health monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Sang-Dong; Kang, Byung-Woo; Kim, Jaehwan

    2013-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks or ubiquitous sensor networks are a promising technology giving useful information to people. In particular, the chipless passive wireless sensor is one of the most important developments in wireless sensor technology because it is compact and does not need a battery or chip for the sensor operation. So it has many possibilities for use in various types of sensor system with economical efficiency and robustness in harsh environmental conditions. This sensor uses an electromagnetic resonance frequency or phase angle shift associated with a geometrical change of the sensor tag or an impedance change of the sensor. In this paper, a chipless passive wireless structural health monitoring (SHM) sensor is made using a frequency selective surface (FSS). The cross type FSS is introduced, and its SHM principle is explained. The electromagnetic characteristics of the FSS are simulated in terms of transmission and reflection coefficients using simulation software, and an experimental verification is conducted. The electromagnetic characteristic change of the FSS in the presence of mechanical strain or a structural crack is investigated by means of simulation and experiment. Since large-area structures can be covered by deploying FSS, it is possible to detect the location of any cracks. (paper)

  6. Ab-initio modeling of oxygen on the surface passivation of 3C-SiC nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuevas, J.L.; Trejo, A.; Calvino, M.; Carvajal, E.; Cruz-Irisson, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this work the effect of OH on the electronic states of H-passivated 3C-SiC nanostructures, was studied by means of Density Functional Theory. We compare the electronic band structure for a [1 1 1]-oriented nanowire with total H, OH passivation and a combination of both. Also the electronic states of a porous silicon carbide case (PSiC) a C-rich pore surface in which the dangling bonds on the surface are saturated with H and OH was studied. The calculations show that the surface replacement of H with OH radicals is always energetically favorable and more stable. In all cases the OH passivation produced a similar effect than the H passivation, with electronic band gap of lower energy value than the H-terminated phase. When the OH groups are attached to C atoms, the band gap feature is changed from direct to indirect. The results indicate the possibility of band gap engineering on SiC nanostructures through the surface passivation species.

  7. Influence of deposition temperature of thermal ALD deposited Al2O3 films on silicon surface passivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Batra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of deposition temperature (Tdep and subsequent annealing time (tanl of atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide (Al2O3 films on silicon surface passivation (in terms of surface recombination velocity, SRV is investigated. The pristine samples (as-deposited show presence of positive fixed charges, QF. The interface defect density (Dit decreases with increase in Tdep which further decreases with tanl up to 100s. An effective surface passivation (SRV<8 cm/s is realized for Tdep ≥ 200 °C. The present investigation suggests that low thermal budget processing provides the same quality of passivation as realized by high thermal budget process (tanl between 10 to 30 min.

  8. False-positive result when a diphenylcarbazide spot test is used on trivalent chromium-passivated zinc surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reveko, Valeriia; Lampert, Felix; Din, Rameez Ud

    2018-01-01

    chromium passivation on zinc; however, subsequent analysis by XPS could not confirm the presence of chromium in a hexavalent state. Conclusions Unintended oxidation of DPC induced by atmospheric corrosion is suggested as a possible reason for the false-positive reaction of the DPC test on a trivalent......A colorimetric 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC)-based spot test can be used to identify hexavalent chromium on various metallic and leather surfaces. DPC testing on trivalent chromium-passivated zinc surfaces has unexpectedly given positive results in some cases, apparently indicating the presence...... of hexavalent chromium; however, the presence of hexavalent chromium has never been confirmed with more sensitive and accurate test methods. Objectives To examine the presence of hexavalent chromium on trivalent chromium-passivated zinc surfaces with a DPC-based spot test. Methods A colorimetric DPC spot test...

  9. Incorporation of low energy activated nitrogen onto HOPG surface: Chemical states and thermal stability studies by in-situ XPS and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Maneesh; Shasha, Michal; Michaelson, Shaul; Hoffman, Alon

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we report the chemical states analysis of activated nitrogen incorporated highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface under well-controlled conditions. Nitrogen incorporation is carried out by two different processes: an indirect RF nitrogen plasma and low energy (1 keV) N2+ implantation. Bonding configuration, concentration and thermal stability of the incorporated nitrogen species by aforesaid processes are systematically compared by in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Relatively large concentration of nitrogen is incorporated onto RF nitride HOPG surface (16.2 at.%), compared to N2+ implanted HOPG surface (7.7 at.%). The evolution of N 1s components (N1, N2, N3) with annealing temperature is comprehensively discussed, which indicates that the formation and reorganization of local chemical bonding states are determined by the process of nitridation and not by the prior chemical conditioning (i.e., amorphization or hydrogenation) of the HOPG surface. A combined XPS and Raman spectroscopy studies revealed that N2+ implantation process resulted in a high level of defects to the HOPG surface, which cannot be annealed-out by heat treatment up to 1000 °C. On the other hand, the RF nitrogen plasma process did not produce a high level of surface defects, while incorporating nearly the same amount of stable nitrogen species.

  10. Influence of different light-curing units on the surface roughness of restorative materials: in situ study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Cristina Ciccone-Nogueira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different light sources (LED and Halogen lamp on the roughness (superficial of composite resin (Filtek Z250, Filtek P60, Charisma and Durafill varying post-irradiation times, in an in situ experiment. For this purpose, 80 specimens were made in polyurethane moulds. Ten volunteers without medicament use and good oral condition were selected and from them study moulds were obtained. A palatal intra-oral acrylic resin appliance was made for each of the subjects of the experiment. In each appliance, two specimens of each material were fixed (LED/Halogen lamp - control group. Roughness tests were performed immediately and 30 days after initial light-curing. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA. Statistically significant difference was observed only between post-irradiation times, where the 30th day showed the highest roughness values. It be concluded that roughness was influenced only by post-irradiation times, presenting the 30- days period inferior behavior.

  11. Sensing local pH and ion concentration at graphene electrode surfaces using in situ Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haotian; Poudel, Nirakar; Hou, Bingya; Shen, Lang; Chen, Jihan; Benderskii, Alexander V; Cronin, Stephen B

    2018-02-01

    We report a novel approach to probe the local ion concentration at graphene/water interfaces using in situ Raman spectroscopy. Here, the upshifts observed in the G band Raman mode under applied electrochemical potentials are used to determine the charge density in the graphene sheet. For voltages up to ±0.8 V vs. NHE, we observe substantial upshifts in the G band Raman mode by as much as 19 cm -1 , which corresponds to electron and hole carrier densities of 1.4 × 10 13 cm -2 and Fermi energy shifts of ±430 meV. The charge density in the graphene electrode is also measured independently using the capacitance-voltage characteristics (i.e., Q = CV), and is found to be consistent with those measured by Raman spectroscopy. From charge neutrality requirements, the ion concentration in solution per unit area must be equal and opposite to the charge density in the graphene electrode. Based on these charge densities, we estimate the local ion concentration as a function of electrochemical potential in both pure DI water and 1 M KCl solutions, which span a pH range from 3.8 to 10.4 for pure DI water and net ion concentrations of ±0.7 mol L -1 for KCl under these applied voltages.

  12. Surface passivation of GaInAsSb photodiodes with thioacetamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salesse, A.; Joullie, A.; Chevrier, F.; Cuminal, Y.; Ferblantier, G.; Christol, P. [Institut d' Electronique du Sud (IES-CEM2), UMR CNRS 5507, Case 067, Universite Montpellier 2, 34 095 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France); Calas, P. [UMR CNRS 5073 CHIMIE, Case 017, Universite Montpellier 2, 34 095 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France); Nieto, J. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica (IICO), Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2007-04-15

    AlGaAsSb/GaInAsSb heterojunction mesa photodiodes having 2.2 {mu}m cutoff wavelength, grown by MBE on (p) GaSb substrates, have been passivated using thioacetamide CH{sub 4}CSNH{sub 2} and ammonium sulphide (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S. Superior characteristics were obtained from devices processed with thioacetamide in acid medium (pH=2.4). At room temperature the surface leakage currents were suppressed, and the photodiodes showed R{sub 0}A product as high as 16 {omega}cm{sup 2} and detectivity D{sup *}(2 {mu}m,0 V){proportional_to}10{sup 10} cmHz{sup 1/2}W{sup -1}. A model explaining sulfuration mechanisms with thioacetamide and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S is proposed. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Surface passivation function of indium-tin-oxide-based nanorod structural sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Tzu-Shun; Lee, Ching-Ting; Lee, Hisn-Ying; Lin, Chih-Chien

    2012-01-01

    Employing self-shadowing traits of an oblique-angle electron-beam deposition system, various indium tin oxide (ITO) nanorod arrays were deposited on a silicon substrate and used as extended-gate field-effect-transistor (EGFET) pH sensors. The length and morphology of the deposited ITO nanorod arrays could be changed and controlled under different deposition conditions. The ITO nanorod structural EGFET pH sensors exhibited high sensing performances owing to the larger sensing surface area. The sensitivity of the pH sensors with 150-nm-length ITO nanorod arrays was 53.96 mV/pH. By using the photoelectrochemical treatment of the ITO nanorod arrays, the sensitivity of the pH sensors with 150-nm-length passivated ITO nanorod arrays was improved to 57.21 mV/pH.

  14. In situ stress determination by the overcoring of large surface strain gauge rosettes on the walls of a raise-bored shaft at the Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, N.A.

    1991-08-01

    AECL Research is conducting a series of experiments to examine the influence of scale on measured in situ stresses in granite rock. The ventilation raise rosette overcoring experiment is one such test. This experiment, modelled on a previous test conducted in Australia, consisted of overcoring four 120-mm strain gauge rosettes glued to the surface of a 1.8-m-diameter bored raise. The in situ stresses were calculated from the measured strains using the equations for stresses around a cylindrical excavation in an elastic material. The possibility of excavation disturbance around the ventilation raise was investigated using overcore stress measurements, elastic modulus tests on retrieved core, and visual inspection of thin sections obtained from removed core. The effect of a stress-dependent elastic modulus (referred to as non-linear elastic behaviour) is also addressed. Results from the ventilation raise rosette overcoring experiment suggest that rosette overcoring in a bored raise is an acceptable stress-measurement method. The effects of scale and excavation damage on the stress measurements were not considered to be significant; however, if the elastic modulus of the rock is strongly stress-dependent, non-linear elastic behaviour may have a small effect on the measured stresses

  15. The Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier on an oxide surface: a combined Monte-Carlo and in situ scanning tunneling microscopy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianfrancesco, Anthony G; Tselev, Alexander; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V; Vasudevan, Rama K

    2015-11-13

    The controlled growth of epitaxial films of complex oxides requires an atomistic understanding of key parameters determining final film morphology, such as termination dependence on adatom diffusion, and height of the Ehrlich-Schwoebel (ES) barrier. Here, through an in situ scanning tunneling microscopy study of mixed-terminated La5/8Ca3/8MnO3 (LCMO) films, we image adatoms and observe pile-up at island edges. Image analysis allows determination of the population of adatoms at the edge of islands and fractions on A-site and B-site terminations. A simple Monte-Carlo model, simulating the random walk of adatoms on a sinusoidal potential landscape using Boltzmann statistics is used to reproduce the experimental data, and provides an estimate of the ES barrier as ∼0.18 ± 0.04 eV at T = 1023 K, similar to those of metal adatoms on metallic surfaces. These studies highlight the utility of in situ imaging, in combination with basic Monte-Carlo methods, in elucidating the factors which control the final film growth in complex oxides.

  16. In situ, accurate, surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection of cancer cell nucleus with synchronous location by an alkyne-labeled biomolecular probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Liang, Lijia; Guan, Xin; Deng, Rong; Qu, Huixin; Huang, Dianshuai; Xu, Shuping; Liang, Chongyang; Xu, Weiqing

    2018-01-01

    A surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) method for in situ detection and analysis of the intranuclear biomolecular information of a cell has been developed based on a small, biocompatible, nuclear-targeting alkyne-tagged deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probe (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine, EDU) that can specially accumulate in the cell nucleus during DNA replications to precisely locate the nuclear region without disturbance in cell biological activities and functions. Since the specific alkyne group shows a Raman peak in the Raman-silent region of cells, it is an interior label to visualize the nuclear location synchronously in real time when measuring the SERS spectra of a cell. Because no fluorescent-labeled dyes were used for locating cell nuclei, this method is simple, nondestructive, non- photobleaching, and valuable for the in situ exploration of vital physiological processes with DNA participation in cell organelles. Graphical abstract A universal strategy was developed to accurately locate the nuclear region and obtain precise molecular information of cell nuclei by SERS.

  17. The Ehrlich–Schwoebel barrier on an oxide surface: a combined Monte-Carlo and in situ scanning tunneling microscopy approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianfrancesco, Anthony G; Tselev, Alexander; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V; Vasudevan, Rama K

    2015-01-01

    The controlled growth of epitaxial films of complex oxides requires an atomistic understanding of key parameters determining final film morphology, such as termination dependence on adatom diffusion, and height of the Ehrlich–Schwoebel (ES) barrier. Here, through an in situ scanning tunneling microscopy study of mixed-terminated La_5_/_8Ca_3_/_8MnO_3 (LCMO) films, we image adatoms and observe pile-up at island edges. Image analysis allows determination of the population of adatoms at the edge of islands and fractions on A-site and B-site terminations. A simple Monte-Carlo model, simulating the random walk of adatoms on a sinusoidal potential landscape using Boltzmann statistics is used to reproduce the experimental data, and provides an estimate of the ES barrier as ∼0.18 ± 0.04 eV at T = 1023 K, similar to those of metal adatoms on metallic surfaces. These studies highlight the utility of in situ imaging, in combination with basic Monte-Carlo methods, in elucidating the factors which control the final film growth in complex oxides. (paper)

  18. In situ fabrication of nanostructured titania coating on the surface of titanium wire: A new approach for preparation of solid-phase microextraction fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Dandan; Lue Jianxia; Liu Jingfu; Jiang Guibin

    2008-01-01

    Nanostructured titania-based solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers were fabricated through the in situ oxidation of titanium wires with H 2 O 2 (30%, w/w) at 80 deg. C for 24 h. The obtained SPME fibers possess a ∼1.2 μm thick nanostructured coating consisting of ∼100 nm titania walls and 100-200 nm pores. The use of these fibers for headspace SPME coupled with gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) resulted in improved analysis of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its degradation products. The presented method to detect DDT and its degradation products has high sensitivity (0.20-0.98 ng L -1 ), high precision (relative standard deviation R.S.D. = 9.4-16%, n = 5), a wide linear range (5-5000 ng L -1 ), and good linearity (coefficient of estimation R 2 = 0.991-0.998). As the nanostructured titania was in situ formed on the surface of a titanium wire, the coating was uniformly and strongly adhered on the titanium wire. Because of the inherent chemical stability of the titania coating and the mechanical durability of the titanium wire substrate, this new SPME fiber exhibited long life span (over 150 times)

  19. In situ fabrication of nanostructured titania coating on the surface of titanium wire: A new approach for preparation of solid-phase microextraction fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Dandan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Environmental Science Division, School of Earth and Space Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui Province 230026 (China); Lue Jianxia [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Liu Jingfu [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: jfliu@rcees.ac.cn; Jiang Guibin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2008-03-17

    Nanostructured titania-based solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers were fabricated through the in situ oxidation of titanium wires with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (30%, w/w) at 80 deg. C for 24 h. The obtained SPME fibers possess a {approx}1.2 {mu}m thick nanostructured coating consisting of {approx}100 nm titania walls and 100-200 nm pores. The use of these fibers for headspace SPME coupled with gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) resulted in improved analysis of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its degradation products. The presented method to detect DDT and its degradation products has high sensitivity (0.20-0.98 ng L{sup -1}), high precision (relative standard deviation R.S.D. = 9.4-16%, n = 5), a wide linear range (5-5000 ng L{sup -1}), and good linearity (coefficient of estimation R{sup 2} = 0.991-0.998). As the nanostructured titania was in situ formed on the surface of a titanium wire, the coating was uniformly and strongly adhered on the titanium wire. Because of the inherent chemical stability of the titania coating and the mechanical durability of the titanium wire substrate, this new SPME fiber exhibited long life span (over 150 times)

  20. The Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier on an oxide surface: a combined Monte-Carlo and in situ scanning tunneling microscopy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianfrancesco, Anthony G.; Tselev, Alexander; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Vasudevan, Rama K.

    2015-11-01

    The controlled growth of epitaxial films of complex oxides requires an atomistic understanding of key parameters determining final film morphology, such as termination dependence on adatom diffusion, and height of the Ehrlich-Schwoebel (ES) barrier. Here, through an in situ scanning tunneling microscopy study of mixed-terminated La5/8Ca3/8MnO3 (LCMO) films, we image adatoms and observe pile-up at island edges. Image analysis allows determination of the population of adatoms at the edge of islands and fractions on A-site and B-site terminations. A simple Monte-Carlo model, simulating the random walk of adatoms on a sinusoidal potential landscape using Boltzmann statistics is used to reproduce the experimental data, and provides an estimate of the ES barrier as ˜0.18 ± 0.04 eV at T = 1023 K, similar to those of metal adatoms on metallic surfaces. These studies highlight the utility of in situ imaging, in combination with basic Monte-Carlo methods, in elucidating the factors which control the final film growth in complex oxides.

  1. Interface chemistry and surface morphology evolution study for InAs/Al2O3 stacks upon in situ ultrahigh vacuum annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinglu; Qin, Xiaoye; Wang, Wen; Liu, Yue; Shi, Xiaoran; Sun, Yong; Liu, Chen; Zhao, Jiali; Zhang, Guanhua; Liu, Hui; Cho, Kyeongjae; Wu, Rui; Wang, Jiaou; Zhang, Sen; Wallace, Robert M.; Dong, Hong

    2018-06-01

    A systematic study of the interfacial chemistry for the HCl pretreated and native oxide InAs(100) samples upon atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3, and the post deposition annealing (PDA) process has been carried out, using in situ synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy. The "clean up" effect for the native oxide sample is detected, but it is not observed for the HCl pretreated sample. The out-diffusion and desorption of both In and As oxides have been characterized during the ALD process and the following PDA process. The surface morphology evolution during the PDA process is studied by in situ photo-emission electron microscopy. The bubbles emerged after PDA at 360 °C and grew up at 370 °C. After PDA at 400 °C and at higher temperatures, pits are seen in some areas, and the tear up of the Al2O3 film is seen in other areas with the formation of indium droplets. This study gives insight in the mechanism of elemental diffusion/desorption, which may associate the reliability of III-V semiconductor based devices.

  2. S-wave velocity measurements along levees in New Orleans using passive surface wave methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K.; Lorenzo, J. M.; Craig, M. S.; Gostic, A.

    2017-12-01

    In order to develop non-invasive methods for levee inspection, geophysical investigations were carried out at four sites along levees in the New Orleans area: 17th Street Canal, London Avenue Canal, Marrero Levee, and Industrial Canal. Three of the four sites sustained damage from Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and have since been rebuilt. The geophysical methods used include active and passive surface wave methods, and capacitively coupled resistivity. This paper summarizes the acquisition and analysis of the 1D and 2D passive surface wave data. Twelve wireless seismic data acquisition units with 2 Hz vertical component geophones were used to record data. Each unit includes a GPS receiver so that all units can be synchronized over any distance without cables. The 1D passive method used L shaped arrays of three different sizes with geophone spacing ranging from 5 to 340 m. Ten minutes to one hour of ambient noise was recorded with each array, and total data acquisition took approximately two hours at each site. The 2D method used a linear array with a geophone spacing of 5m. Four geophones were moved forward every 10 minutes along 400 1000 m length lines. Data acquisition took several hours for each line. Recorded ambient noise was processed using the spatial autocorrelation method and clear dispersion curves were obtained at all sites (Figure 1a). Minimum frequencies ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 Hz and maximum frequencies ranged from 10 to 30 Hz depending on the site. Non-linear inversion was performed and 1D and 2D S-wave velocity models were obtained. The 1D method penetrated to depths ranging from 200 to 500 m depending on the site (Figure 1b). The 2D method penetrated to a depth of 40 60 m and provided 400 1000 m cross sections along the levees (Figure 2). The interpretation focused on identifying zones beneath the levees or canal walls having low S-wave velocities corresponding to saturated, unconsolidated sands, or low-rigidity clays. Resultant S-wave velocity profiles

  3. In situ determination of layer thickness and elastic moduli of asphalt pavement systems by spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Azmi Ismail; Sri Atmaja Rosyidi; Abdul Rahim Samsudin; Abdul Ghani Rafek; Khairul Anuar Mohd Nayan

    2003-01-01

    Spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) is a non-destructive and in situ method for determining the stiffness profile of soil and pavement sites. The method consists of generation, measurement, and processing of dispersive elastic waves in layered systems. The test is performed on the pavement surface at strain level below 0.001%, where the elastic properties are considered independent of strain amplitude. During an SASW test, the surface of the medium under investigation is subject to an impact to generate energy at various frequencies. Two vertical acceleration transducers are set up near the impact source to detect the energy transmitted through the testing media. By recording signals in digitised form using a data acquisition system and processing them, surface wave velocities can be determined by constructing a dispersion curve. Through forward modeling, the shear wave velocities can be obtained, which can be related to the variation of stiffness with depth. This paper presents the results of two case studies for near?surface profiling of two different asphalt pavement sites. (Author)

  4. Propagation of PAMAM dendrimers on the carbon fiber surface by in situ polymerization: a novel methodology for fiber/matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, R.L.; Gao, B.; Zhang, J.; Cui, H.Z.; Li, D.W.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The manuscript has the following obvious new contributions. • A facile strategy to generating dendrimers onto carbon fibers to functionalize conventional carbon fibers was reported. The density and type of the functional groups on the fiber surface can be easily adjusted by changing the reaction conditions. • The hierarchical reinforcement formed using this novel method improved the composite interface bonding through supplying sufficient chemical bonding and strong mechanical interlocking. • We can generate dendrimers with different side groups (unsaturated groups or hydroxyl groups, and others) and chain length to meet the requirements according to different matrices and applications. - Abstract: A facile strategy for generating dendrimers onto carbon fibers, in order to functionalize them, was reported. Dendrimers were propagated on the surface of carbon fibers by in situ polymerization with Michael addition. The changes in morphology, surface composition and surface energy, which were studied by atomic force microscope (AFM), dynamic contact angle analysis test (DCAT) and x-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS), were related to the interfacial performance of model composites. In addition, the level of fiber-matrix adhesion was determined by the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) test. Experimental results indicated that some dendritic polymer was successfully grown on the fiber surface through the chemical reaction, and this significantly enhanced the interfacial bonding of the carbon fiber composites.

  5. In situ investigation of helium fuzz growth on tungsten in relation to ion flux, fluence, surface temperature and ion energy using infrared imaging in PSI-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Möller, S; Kachko, O; Rasinski, M; Kreter, A; Linsmeier, Ch

    2017-01-01

    Tungsten is a candidate material for plasma-facing components in nuclear fusion reactors. In operation it will face temperatures >800 K together with an influx of helium ions. Previously, the evolution of special surface nanostructures called fuzz was found under these conditions in a limited window of surface temperature, ion flux and ion energy. Fuzz potentially leads to lower heat load tolerances, enhanced erosion and dust formation, hence should be avoided in a fusion reactor. Here the fuzz growth is reinvestigated in situ during its growth by considering its impact on the surfaces infrared emissivity at 4 μ m wavelength with an infrared camera in the linear plasma device PSI-2. A hole in the surface serves as an emissivity reference to calibrate fuzz thickness versus infrared emissivity. Among new data on the above mentioned relations, a lower fuzz growth threshold of 815 ± 24 K is found. Fuzz is seen to grow on rough and polished surfaces and even on the hole’s side walls alike. Literature scalings for thickness, flux and time relations of the fuzz growth rate could not be reproduced, but for the temperature scaling a good agreement to the Arrhenius equation was found. (paper)

  6. Engineering durable hydrophobic surfaces on porous alumina ceramics using in-situ formed inorganic-organic hybrid nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Jianqiang; Wang, Junwei; Li, Yanan; Xu, Xin; Chen, Chusheng; Winnubst, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Hydrophobic surfaces are required for a variety of applications owing to their water repellent and self-cleaning properties. In this work, we present a novel approach to prepare durable hydrophobic surfaces on porous ceramics. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film was applied to a porous alumina wafer,

  7. Characterization of as-grown and adsorbate-covered N-polar InN surfaces using in situ photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhardt, Anja; Himmerlich, Marcel; Krischok, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The surface electronic properties and adsorption behaviour of as-grown and oxidized N-polar InN films are characterized by photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, UPS). The epitaxial growth of the InN layers was performed by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on GaN/6H-SiC(000-1). After growth and in situ characterization the InN surfaces were exposed to molecular oxygen to evaluate the adsorption behaviour of O 2 on N-polar InN and to study its impact on the surface electronic properties of the III-nitride material. The results are compared with studies on In-polar InN on GaN/sapphire templates. The as-grown N-polar InN surface exhibits a pronounced surface state at a binding energy of ∝1.6 eV. The valence band minimum lies about 0.8-1.0 eV below the surface Fermi level. Additionally, the XPS core level binding energies for InN(000-1) are reduced compared to InN(0001) films, indicating different surface band bending for clean N-polar and In-polar InN, respectively. The interaction of molecular oxygen with the InN(000-1) surface leads to a downward band bending by 0.1 eV compared to the initial state. Additional adsorption of species from the residual gas of the UHV chamber increases the surface downward band bending. Furthermore two pronounced oxygen related states with an energy distance of ∝5 eV could be detected in the valence band region. The adsorbed oxygen results in an additional component in the N1s core level spectra, which is interpreted as formation of NO x bonds. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Colossal positive magnetoresistance in surface-passivated oxygen-deficient strontium titanite

    KAUST Repository

    David, Adrian

    2015-05-15

    Modulation of resistance by an external magnetic field, i.e. magnetoresistance effect, has been a long-lived theme of research due to both fundamental science and device applications. Here we report colossal positive magnetoresistance (CPMR) (>30,000% at a temperature of 2 K and a magnetic field of 9 T) discovered in degenerate semiconducting strontium titanite (SrTiO3) single crystals capped with ultrathin SrTiO3/LaAlO3 bilayers. The low-pressure high-temperature homoepitaxial growth of several unit cells of SrTiO3 introduces oxygen vacancies and high-mobility carriers in the bulk SrTiO3, and the three-unit-cell LaAlO3 capping layer passivates the surface and improves carrier mobility by suppressing surface-defect-related scattering. The coexistence of multiple types of carriers and inhomogeneous transport lead to the emergence of CPMR. This unit-cell-level surface engineering approach is promising to be generalized to others oxides, and to realize devices with high-mobility carriers and interesting magnetoelectronic properties.

  9. Passivation of CdZnTe surfaces by oxidation in low energy atomic oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.; Chattopadhyay, K.; Chen, K.; Burger, A.; George, M.A.; Gregory, J.C.; Nag, P.K.; Weimer, J.J.; James, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    A method of surface passivation of Cd 1-x Zn x Te (CZT) x-ray and gamma ray detectors has been established by using microwave-assisted atomic oxygen bombardment. Detector performance is significantly enhanced due to the reduction of surface leakage current. CZT samples were exposed to an atomic oxygen environment at the University of Alabama in Huntsville close-quote s Thermal Atomic Oxygen Facility. This system generates neutral atomic oxygen species with kinetic energies of 0.1 - 0.2 eV. The surface chemical composition and its morphology modification due to atomic oxygen exposure were studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy and the results were correlated with current-voltage measurements and with room temperature spectral responses to 133 Ba and 241 Am radiation. A reduction of leakage current by about a factor of 2 is reported, together with significant improvement in the gamma-ray line resolution. copyright 1999 American Vacuum Society

  10. Effect of Ultrasonic Nano-Crystal Surface Modification (UNSM) on the Passivation Behavior of Aged 316L Stainless Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Tae; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kim, Young-Sik

    2017-06-27

    Stainless steels have good corrosion resistance in many environments but welding or aging can decrease their resistance. This work focused on the effect of aging time and ultrasonic nano-crystal surface modification on the passivation behavior of 316L stainless steel. In the case of slightly sensitized 316L stainless steel, increasing the aging time drastically decreased the pitting potential, increased the passive current density, and decreased the resistance of the passive film, even though aging did not form chromium carbide and a chromium depletion zone. This behavior is due to the micro-galvanic corrosion between the matrix and carbon segregated area, and this shows the importance of carbon segregation in grain boundaries to the pitting corrosion resistance of stainless steel, in addition to the formation of the chromium depletion zone. UNSM (Ultrasonic Nano Crystal Surface Modification)-treatment to the slightly sensitized 316L stainless steel increased the pitting potential, decreased the passive current density, and increased the resistance of the passive film. However, in the case of heavily sensitized 316L stainless steel, UNSM-treatment decreased the pitting potential, increased the passive current density, and decreased the resistance of the passive film. This behavior is due to the dual effects of the UNSM-treatment. That is, the UNSM-treatment reduced the carbon segregation, regardless of whether the stainless steel 316L was slightly or heavily sensitized. However, since this treatment made mechanical flaws in the outer surface in the case of the heavily sensitized stainless steel, UNSM-treatment may eliminate chromium carbide, and this flaw can be a pitting initiation site, and therefore decrease the pitting corrosion resistance.

  11. Malignant mesothelioma in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churg, Andrew; Hwang, Harry; Tan, Larry; Qing, Gefei; Taher, Altaf; Tong, Amy; Bilawich, Ana M; Dacic, Sanja

    2018-05-01

    The existence of malignant mesothelioma in situ (MIS) is often postulated, but there are no accepted morphological criteria for making such a diagnosis. Here we report two cases that appear to be true MIS on the basis of in-situ genomic analysis. In one case the patient had repeated unexplained pleural unilateral effusions. Two thoracoscopies 9 months apart revealed only visually normal pleura. Biopsies from both thoracoscopies showed only a single layer of mildly reactive mesothelial cells. However, these cells had lost BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) and showed loss of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2 (CDKN2A) (p16) by fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH). NF2 was not deleted by FISH but 28% of the mesothelial cells showed hyperploidy. Six months after the second biopsy the patient has persisting effusions but no evidence of pleural malignancy on imaging. The second patient presented with ascites and minimal omental thickening on imaging, but no visual evidence of tumour at laparoscopy. Omental biopsy showed a single layer of minimally atypical mesothelial cells with rare tiny foci of superficial invasion of fat. BAP1 immunostain showed loss of nuclear BAP1 in all the surface mesothelial cells and the invasive cells. There was CDKN2A deletion, but no deletion of NF2 by FISH. These cases show that morphologically bland single-layered surface mesothelial proliferations with molecular alterations seen previously only in invasive malignant mesotheliomas exist, and presumably represent malignant MIS. More cases are need to understand the frequency of such changes and the time-course over which invasive tumour develops. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Surface Engineering for Bone Implants: A Trend from Passive to Active Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jansen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical and biological properties of bone implants need to be optimal to form a quick and firm connection with the surrounding environment in load bearing applications. Bone is a connective tissue composed of an organic collagenous matrix, a fine dispersion of reinforcing inorganic (calcium phosphate nanocrystals, and bone-forming and -degrading cells. These different components have a synergistic and hierarchical structure that renders bone tissue properties unique in terms of hardness, flexibility and regenerative capacity. Metallic and polymeric materials offer mechanical strength and/or resilience that are required to simulate bone tissue in load-bearing applications in terms of maximum load, bending and fatigue strength. Nevertheless, the interaction between devices and the surrounding tissue at the implant interface is essential for success or failure of implants. In that respect, coatings can be applied to facilitate the process of bone healing and obtain a continuous transition from living tissue to the synthetic implant. Compounds that are inspired by inorganic (e.g., hydroxyapatite crystals or organic (e.g., collagen, extracellular matrix components, enzymes components of bone tissue, are the most obvious candidates for application as implant coating to improve the performance of bone implants. This review provides an overview of recent trends and strategies in surface engineering that are currently investigated to improve the biological performance of bone implants in terms of functionality and biological efficacy.

  13. Reassessing biases and other uncertainties in sea surface temperature observations measured in situ since 1850: 2. Biases and homogenization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J. J.; Rayner, N. A.; Smith, R. O.; Parker, D. E.; Saunby, M.

    2011-07-01

    Changes in instrumentation and data availability have caused time-varying biases in estimates of global and regional average sea surface temperature. The size of the biases arising from these changes are estimated and their uncertainties evaluated. The estimated biases and their associated uncertainties are largest during the period immediately following the Second World War, reflecting the rapid and incompletely documented changes in shipping and data availability at the time. Adjustments have been applied to reduce these effects in gridded data sets of sea surface temperature and the results are presented as a set of interchangeable realizations. Uncertainties of estimated trends in global and regional average sea surface temperature due to bias adjustments since the Second World War are found to be larger than uncertainties arising from the choice of analysis technique, indicating that this is an important source of uncertainty in analyses of historical sea surface temperatures. Despite this, trends over the twentieth century remain qualitatively consistent.

  14. Controlling adsorption and passivation properties of bovine serum albumin on silica surfaces by ionic strength modulation and cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Sut, Tun Naw; Jackman, Joshua A; Ferhan, Abdul Rahim; Yoon, Bo Kyeong; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2017-03-29

    Understanding the physicochemical factors that influence protein adsorption onto solid supports holds wide relevance for fundamental insights into protein structure and function as well as for applications such as surface passivation. Ionic strength is a key parameter that influences protein adsorption, although how its modulation might be utilized to prepare well-coated protein adlayers remains to be explored. Herein, we investigated how ionic strength can be utilized to control the adsorption and passivation properties of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on silica surfaces. As protein stability in solution can influence adsorption kinetics, the size distribution and secondary structure of proteins in solution were first characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. A non-monotonic correlation between ionic strength and protein aggregation was observed and attributed to colloidal agglomeration, while the primarily α-helical character of the protein in solution was maintained in all cases. Quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation (QCM-D) experiments were then conducted in order to track protein adsorption onto silica surfaces as a function of ionic strength, and the measurement responses indicated that total protein uptake at saturation coverage is lower with increasing ionic strength. In turn, the QCM-D data and the corresponding Voigt-Voinova model analysis support that the surface area per bound protein molecule is greater with increasing ionic strength. While higher protein uptake under lower ionic strengths by itself did not result in greater surface passivation under subsequent physiologically relevant conditions, the treatment of adsorbed protein layers with a gluteraldehyde cross-linking agent stabilized the bound protein in this case and significantly improved surface passivation. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that ionic strength modulation influences BSA adsorption

  15. Research and development of photovoltaic power system. Research on surface passivation for high-efficiency silicon solar cells; Taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Hyomen passivation no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Technology

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the result obtained during fiscal 1994 on research on surface passivation of high-efficiency silicon solar cells. In research on carrier recombination on SiO2/doped silicon interface, measurements were carried out on minority carrier life with respect to p-type silicon substrates with which phosphorus with high and low concentrations are diffused uniformly on the surface and non-uniformly on the back and then oxidized. The measurements were performed for the purpose of evaluating the carrier recombination at p-n junctions. Effective life time of oxidized test samples increased longer than that of prior to the oxidization as a result of effect of surface passivation contributing remarkably. In research on reduction in carrier recombination on SiO2/Si interface by using H radical annealing, experiments were conducted by using a method that uses more active H-atoms. As a result, it was revealed that the reduction effect is recognized at as low temperature as 200{degree}C, and photo-bias effect is also noticeable. Other research activities included analytic research on minority carrier recombination on micro crystalline silicon/crystalline silicon interface, and experimental research on evaluation of minority carrier life of poly-crystalline silicon wafers. 6 figs.

  16. In-situ spectro-electrochemical studies of radionuclide contaminated surface films on metals and the mechanism of their formation and dissolution. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melendres, C.A.; Mini, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    'The objective of this research program is to gain a fundamental understanding of the structure, composition, and mechanism of formation of radionuclide-containing surface films on metals that are relevant to the problem of decontamination of piping systems and waste storage tanks at DOE nuclear processing facilities. As of May 1998, after about a year and a half of work towards implementing this project, considerable progress has been made in understanding the mechanism and structure of heavy metal ions incorporated into simulated corrosion films of nickel. The nature of iron and chromium oxide films, which are used to model the other components of steels used in piping systems and waste storage tanks in nuclear facilities, has also been elucidated. The principal techniques used in these investigations consist of coupled electrochemical and in-situ synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy, as well as vibrational spectroscopy (infrared and laser Raman).'

  17. Instrumentation for in situ sampling and analysis of compounds of interest to Astrobiology in the lower atmosphere and surface of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Paul M.; Kojiro, Daniel R.; Stimac, Robert; Kaye, William; Takeuchi, Nori

    2006-01-01

    Instrumentation for exploration of the solar system will require new enabling technology for in situ sample acquisition and analysis of pre-biotic chemistry in extreme planetary environments, such as that encountered at the surface of Titan. The potential use of balloon aero-rovers for Titan places special emphasis on the importance of miniaturization, low power and low usage of consumables. To help meet this need, we are developing a miniature gas chromatograph coupled with a new Mini-Cell ion mobility spectrometer (GC-IMS), and one of us (PMH) has begun development work on a miniaturized cryogenic inlet system with sampling probes for Titan. This instrumentation, and its approach for meeting measurement needs for the analysis of prebiotic chemistry on Titan, will be discussed.

  18. Evaluation of two reverse passive haemagglutination techniques and a solid-phase radioimmunoassay for detection of hepatitis B surface antigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, H [Beijing Medical College (China); Coulepis, A G; Gust, I D [Fairfield Hospital for Communicable Diseases, Melbourne (Australia)

    1972-08-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of two commercially available reverse passive haemagglutination tests (Hepatest and Raphadex B) for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen, were compared with the most widely used radioimmunoassay (Ausria II-125). A selected group of 282 sera were tested: these included the Australian hepatitis B reference panel, and a batch of 257 sera collected from patients with acute hepatitis B, chronic carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen and two populations in which hepatitis B virus infection is known to be endemic. The two reverse passive haemagglutination techniques were of comparable sensitivity but slightly less sensitive than radioimmunoassay. While radioimmunoassay still remains the test of choice for blood transfusion services, the reverse passive haemagglutination techniques are of great value for smaller laboratories and for field studies because of their longer shelf life, the absence of radioactive reagents and the lack of need to acquire a gammacounter.

  19. Using machine learning to produce near surface soil moisture estimates from deeper in situ records at U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) locations: Analysis and applications to AMSR-E satellite validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface soil moisture is critical parameter for understanding the energy flux at the land atmosphere boundary. Weather modeling, climate prediction, and remote sensing validation are some of the applications for surface soil moisture information. The most common in situ measurement for these purpo...

  20. The use of in situ Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for the study of surface phenomena on electrodes in selected lithium battery electrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurbach, D.; Chusid, O.

    This paper presents some examples of surface studies of noble metals and Li electrodes in Li battery electrolyte solutions using in situ FT-IR spectroscopic techniques. These examples include the study of a mixture of solvents, the role of the reduction of salt in the build-up of surface films on the electrodes and the impact of contaminants such as traces of oxgen and water. The techniques included multiple and single internal reflectance modes and external reflectance (SNIFTIRS-type) mode. The following conclusions were drawn from this study: (i) salts containing the -SO 2CF 3 group are much more reactive on Li than LiAsF 6. Their reduction dominates the surface chemistry developed on Li in ethereal solutions; (ii) water reduction on Li in wet 1,3-dioxolane solution may not form stable LiOH films due to the further reaction of the hydroxy group with the solvent; (iii) in spite of its low solubility, oxygen dissolved in propylene carbonate and tetrahydrofuran solutions has some impact on the surface chemistry developed on Li in these solutions (probably due to Li 2O formation).

  1. In-situ determination of electronic surface and volume defect density of amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and silicon alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebke, F.

    1992-07-01

    The density of localized gap states in the bulk and in the near-surface region of amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H) was measured for non oxidized undoped, B-doped and P-doped samples as well as for films with low carbon (C) and germanium (Ge) content. Also the influence of light soaking on the bulk and surface density of states was investigated. The samples were prepared by rf glow discharge in an UHV-system at substrate temperatures between 100degC and 400degC and transferred to the analysis chamber by a vacuum lock. We combined the constant photocurrent method (CPM) and the total-yield photoelectron spectroscopy (TY) to obtain in-situ information about the defect densities. While the first method yields information about the density of states in the bulk, the other method obtains the density of occupied states in the near-surface region. The mean information depth of the TY-measurements is limited by the escape lenght of photoelectrons and can be estimated to 5 nm. In addition to the defect density the position of the Fermi energy was determined for the bulk by dark conductivity measurements and at the surface using a calibrated Kelvin probe. (orig.)

  2. Analysis of Surface Leaching Processes in Vitrified High-Level Nuclear Wastes Using In-Situ Raman Imaging and Atomistic Modeling - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Joseph H.

    2001-01-01

    The in situ analysis of surface conditions of vitrified nuclear wastes can provide an important check of the burial status of radioactive objects without risk of radiation exposure. Raman spectroscopy was initially chosen as the most promising method for testing the surface conditions of glasses undergoing chemical corrosion, and was used extensively during the first year. However, it was determined that infrared reflection spectroscopy was better suited to this particular need and was used for the remaining two years to investigate the surface corrosion behavior of model silicate glasses for extension to nuclear waste glasses. The developed methodology is consistent with the known theory of optical propagation of dielectric media and uses the Kramers-Kronig formalism. The results show that it is possible to study the corrosion of glass by analyzing the glass surface using reflection fast Fourier infrared measurements and the newly developed ''dispersion analysis method.'' The data show how this analysis can be used to monitor the corrosion behavior of vitrified waste glasses over extended periods of storage

  3. On the methane paradox: Transport from shallow water zones rather than in situ methanogenesis is the major source of CH4 in the open surface water of lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinas Fernández, Jorge; Peeters, Frank; Hofmann, Hilmar

    2016-10-01

    Estimates of global methane (CH4) emissions from lakes and the contributions of different pathways are currently under debate. In situ methanogenesis linked to algae growth was recently suggested to be the major source of CH4 fluxes from aquatic systems. However, based on our very large data set on CH4 distributions within lakes, we demonstrate here that methane-enriched water from shallow water zones is the most likely source of the basin-wide mean CH4 concentrations in the surface water of lakes. Consistently, the mean surface CH4 concentrations are significantly correlated with the ratio between the surface area of the shallow water zone and the entire lake, fA,s/t, but not with the total surface area. The categorization of CH4 fluxes according to fA,s/t may therefore improve global estimates of CH4 emissions from lakes. Furthermore, CH4 concentrations increase substantially with water temperature, indicating that seasonally resolved data are required to accurately estimate annual CH4 emissions.

  4. Effect of ozone concentration on silicon surface passivation by atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastrow, Guillaume von, E-mail: guillaume.von.gastrow@aalto.fi [Aalto University, Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Li, Shuo [Aalto University, Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Putkonen, Matti [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Espoo (Finland); Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, FI-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland); Laitinen, Mikko; Sajavaara, Timo [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, FIN-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Savin, Hele [Aalto University, Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • The ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} passivation quality can be controlled by the ozone concentration. • Ozone concentration affects the Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface charge and defect density. • A surface recombination velocity of 7 cm/s is reached combining ozone and water ALD. • Carbon and hydrogen concentrations correlate with the surface passivation quality. - Abstract: We study the impact of ozone-based Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) on the surface passivation quality of crystalline silicon. We show that the passivation quality strongly depends on the ozone concentration: the higher ozone concentration results in lower interface defect density and thereby improved passivation. In contrast to previous studies, our results reveal that too high interface hydrogen content can be detrimental to the passivation. The interface hydrogen concentration can be optimized by the ozone-based process; however, the use of pure ozone increases the harmful carbon concentration in the film. Here we demonstrate that low carbon and optimal hydrogen concentration can be achieved by a single process combining the water- and ozone-based reactions. This process results in an interface defect density of 2 × 10{sup 11} eV{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, and maximum surface recombination velocities of 7.1 cm/s and 10 cm/s, after annealing and after an additional firing at 800 °C, respectively. In addition, our results suggest that the effective oxide charge density can be optimized in a simple way by varying the ozone concentration and by injecting water to the ozone process.

  5. Zein nanocapsules as a tool for surface passivation, drug delivery and biofilm prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen H. Kasper

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Current oral hygiene treatments focus on managing oral biofilms (i.e. dental plaque by broad antimicrobial strategies, indiscriminately killing both pathogenic and commensal microorganisms present in the oral cavity. In an effort to identify alternative approaches to antimicrobials, several research groups, including our own, have identified small molecule inhibitors that interrupt cell-cell signaling and biofilm formation, with potential to be selective against pathogens while leaving commensal flora unperturbed. A drawback to such inhibitors is their limited efficacy when used in acute exposures (e.g. mouthwash or brushing. In order to enhance bioavailability and maximize efficacy of these agents in a complex and dynamic environment such as the oral cavity, it is necessary to maintain a constant reservoir of the agents in situ. Therefore, we formulated a biofilm inhibitor delivery system by encapsulating an inhibitor of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation, S-phenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide, into zein nanocapsules. Nanocapsules formed 110–235 nm particles in a liquid-liquid dispersion synthesis procedure with S-phenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide, as determined by dynamic light scattering. The inhibitor-loaded nanocapsules were then used to cast a film and subsequent S. mutans biofilm formation at this surface was studied. Nanocapsule films loaded with biofilm inhibitors were shown to deter early S. mutans biofilm development at 24 h, as well as reduce total viable biofilm-recovered cells at 48 h. This demonstrates proof-of-concept that biofilm inhibitor-loaded zein nanocapsules can reduce S. mutans biofilm growth, and demonstrates a new approach to extend the time that dental plaque inhibitors are present at the tooth surface. This approach has the potential to delay recolonization of the tooth and reduce oral infection/disease.

  6. Controlled in situ formation of polyacrylamide hydrogel on PET surface via SI-ARGET-ATRP for wound dressings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazari Pour, Sedigheh [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); Ghugare, Shivkumar V. [Department of Textile Science, Faculty of Human Ecology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); Wiens, Richard; Gough, Kathleen [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); Liu, Song, E-mail: Song.Liu@umanitoba.ca [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); Department of Textile Science, Faculty of Human Ecology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); Department of Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We grow poly(acrylamide) (PAM) hydrgol from a polymer surface in a controlled way. • Divinyl crosslinker doesn't compromise the control chain growth feature of ARGET-ATRP. • ATR-FTIR-FPA images (spatial resolution 220 nm) reveal a uniform grafting of PAM. • PAM grafted wound dressing can be dual functional: low-adherent and antibacterial. - Abstract: Well-defined polyacrylamide (PAM) hydrogel was synthesized on the surface of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film via surface-initiated activators regenerated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ARGET-ATRP). Following the deposition of an ATRP initiator (2-bromoisobutyrylbromide) on PET film, PAM hydrogel was grafted from the functionalized PET surface via ARGET-ATRP. XPS and FTIR-ATR confirmed that PAM hydrogel was successfully grafted on the PET surface. Results from AFM, SEM, and FTIR-FPA microscopic investigations showed that PAM hydrogel uniformly covers the surface of PET film. The grafting yield increases linearly with increasing reaction time, indicating that the growth of PAM hydrogel on the surface of PET is well controlled. In a cell adhesion assay, PAM hydrogel grafted PET films (PAM hydrogel-g-PET) showed low adhesion to keratinocyte cells. To impart PAM hydrogel-g-PET with antibacterial function, AgNPs were self-assembled along the amide side chains of PAM hydrogel. AgNPs loaded-PAM hydrogel-g-PET shows 99% reduction in the number of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa within 3 h contact.

  7. Controlled in situ formation of polyacrylamide hydrogel on PET surface via SI-ARGET-ATRP for wound dressings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazari Pour, Sedigheh; Ghugare, Shivkumar V.; Wiens, Richard; Gough, Kathleen; Liu, Song

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We grow poly(acrylamide) (PAM) hydrgol from a polymer surface in a controlled way. • Divinyl crosslinker doesn't compromise the control chain growth feature of ARGET-ATRP. • ATR-FTIR-FPA images (spatial resolution 220 nm) reveal a uniform grafting of PAM. • PAM grafted wound dressing can be dual functional: low-adherent and antibacterial. - Abstract: Well-defined polyacrylamide (PAM) hydrogel was synthesized on the surface of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film via surface-initiated activators regenerated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ARGET-ATRP). Following the deposition of an ATRP initiator (2-bromoisobutyrylbromide) on PET film, PAM hydrogel was grafted from the functionalized PET surface via ARGET-ATRP. XPS and FTIR-ATR confirmed that PAM hydrogel was successfully grafted on the PET surface. Results from AFM, SEM, and FTIR-FPA microscopic investigations showed that PAM hydrogel uniformly covers the surface of PET film. The grafting yield increases linearly with increasing reaction time, indicating that the growth of PAM hydrogel on the surface of PET is well controlled. In a cell adhesion assay, PAM hydrogel grafted PET films (PAM hydrogel-g-PET) showed low adhesion to keratinocyte cells. To impart PAM hydrogel-g-PET with antibacterial function, AgNPs were self-assembled along the amide side chains of PAM hydrogel. AgNPs loaded-PAM hydrogel-g-PET shows 99% reduction in the number of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa within 3 h contact

  8. [Influence of Coca-Cola on early erosion and surface microhardness of human enamel: an in situ study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, M; Zhang, Q; Gao, X J

    2016-06-01

    Assessed the effect of single dose attack of Coca-Cola on early erosion and surface microhardness of permanent human enamel, in order to provide diet instructions on minimum amount and frequency of carbonated beverage consumption. Eighty enamel slabs were prepared out of 10 extracted human mandibular third molars, and distributed into 8 groups with randomized block design(n=10). Ten generally healthy volunteers with normal saliva secretion wore acrylic palatal appliances containing 2 enamel slabs, with formation of a salivary pellicle 2 h ahead. The volunteers were instructed to drink 100 ml fresh Coca-Cola within 20 s. And then the alterations of the enamel slabs were measured using a Vicker's microhardness tester at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 20 and 30 min after the consumption of Coca-Cola. For each volunteer, the experiment was carried out in four days, 2 samples were examined each time. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests(α =0.05). Significant decreases in surface microhardness(SMH)were observed in each time point(PCoca-Cola could lead to significant decrease of enamel microhardness and initiate erosion of enamel surface. Enamel surface microhardness decreased to the lowest points at 2-8 min, and began to recover after 10 min. The enamel surface microhardness could not fully recovered to the baseline level in 30 min if no intervention was performed.

  9. Landsat and Sentinel-2A Surface Albedo Estimation and Evaluation Against In Situ Measurements Across the US SURFRAD Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franch, B.; Skakun, S.; Vermote, E.; Roger, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Surface albedo is an essential parameter not only for developing climate models, but also for most energy balance studies. While climate models are usually applied at coarse resolution, the energy balance studies, which are mainly focused on agricultural applications, require a high spatial resolution. The albedo, estimated through the angular integration of the BRDF, requires an appropriate angular sampling of the surface. However, Sentinel-2A sampling characteristics, with nearly constant observation geometry and low illumination variation, prevent from deriving a surface albedo product. In this work, we apply an algorithm developed to derive a Landsat surface albedo to Sentinel-2A. It is based on the BRDF parameters estimated from the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) CMG surface reflectance product (M{O,Y}D09) using the VJB method (Vermote et al., 2009). Sentinel-2A unsupervised classification images are used to disaggregate the BRDF parameters to the Sentinel-2 spatial resolution. We test the results over five different sites of the US SURFRAD network and plot the results versus albedo field measurements. Additionally, we also test this methodology using Landsat-8 images.

  10. In Situ Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Topography Changes of Gold (111) in Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Produced by Electrochemical Surface Oxidation and Reduction and Relaxation Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquale, M. A.; Nieto, F. J. Rodríguez; Arvia, A. J.

    The electrochemical formation and reduction of O-layers on gold (111) films in 1 m sulfuric acid under different potentiodynamic routines are investigated utilizing in situ scanning tunneling microscopy. The surface dynamics is interpreted considering the anodic and cathodic reaction pathways recently proposed complemented with concurrent relaxation phenomena occurring after gold (111) lattice mild disruption (one gold atom deep) and moderate disruption (several atoms deep). The dynamics of both oxidized and reduced gold topographies depends on the potentiodynamic routine utilized to form OH/O surface species. The topography resulting from a mild oxidative disruption is dominated by quasi-2D holes and hillocks of the order of 5 nm, involving about 500-600 gold atoms each, and their coalescence. A cooperative turnover process at the O-layer, in which the anion ad-layer and interfacial water play a key role, determines the oxidized surface topography. The reduction of these O-layers results in gold clusters, their features depending on the applied potential routine. A moderate oxidative disruption produces a surface topography of hillocks and holes several gold atoms high and deep, respectively. The subsequent reduction leads to a spinodal gold pattern. Concurrent coalescence appears to be the result of an Ostwald ripening that involves the surface diffusion of both gold atoms and clusters. These processes produce an increase in surface roughness and an incipient gold faceting. The dynamics of different topographies can be qualitatively explained employing the arguments from colloidal science theory. For 1.1 V ≤ E ≅ Epzc weak electrostatic repulsions favor gold atom/cluster coalescence, whereas for E < Epzc the attenuated electrostatic repulsions among gold surfaces stabilize small clusters over the substrate producing string-like patterns.

  11. In situ immobilization of proteins and RGD peptide on polyurethane surfaces via poly(ethylene oxide) coupling polymers for human endothelial cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-an; Ji, Jian; Sun, Yong-hong; Shen, Jia-cong; Feng, Lin-xian; Elisseeff, Jennifer H

    2002-01-01

    A "CBABC"-type pentablock coupling polymer, mesylMPEO, was designed and synthesized to promote human endothelial cell growth on the surfaces of polyurethane biomaterials. The polymer was composed of a central 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) coupling unit and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) spacer arms with methanesulfonyl (mesyl) end groups pendent on both ends. As the presurface modifying additive (pre-SMA), the mesylMPEO was noncovalently introduced onto the poly(ether urethane) (PEU) surfaces by dip coating, upon which the protein/peptide factors (gelatin, albumin, and arginine-glycine-aspartic acid tripeptide [RGD]) were covalently immobilized in situ by cleavage of the original mesyl end groups. The pre-SMA synthesis and PEU surface modification were characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR), attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were harvested manually by collagenase digestion and seeded on the modified PEU surfaces. Cell adhesion ratios (CAR) and cell proliferation ratios (CPR) were measured using flow cytometry, and the individual cell viability (ICV) was determined by MTT assay. The cell morphologies were investigated by optical inverted microscopy (OIM) and scanning electrical microscopy (SEM). The gelatin- and RGD-modified surfaces were HUVEC-compatible and promoted HUVEC growth. The albumin-modified surfaces were compatible but inhibited cell adhesion. The results also indicated that, for HUVEC in vitro cultivation, the cell adhesion stage was of particular importance and had a significant impact on the cell responses to the modified surfaces.

  12. Passive wireless surface acoustic wave sensors for monitoring sequestration sites CO2 emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yizhong [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Chyu, Minking [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Wang, Qing-Ming [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-02-14

    University of Pittsburgh’s Transducer lab has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient CO2 measuring technologies for geological sequestration sites leakage monitoring. A passive wireless CO2 sensing system based on surface acoustic wave technology and carbon nanotube nanocomposite was developed. Surface acoustic wave device was studied to determine the optimum parameters. Delay line structure was adopted as basic sensor structure. CNT polymer nanocomposite was fabricated and tested under different temperature and strain condition for natural environment impact evaluation. Nanocomposite resistance increased for 5 times under pure strain, while the temperature dependence of resistance for CNT solely was -1375ppm/°C. The overall effect of temperature on nanocomposite resistance was -1000ppm/°C. The gas response of the nanocomposite was about 10% resistance increase under pure CO2 . The sensor frequency change was around 300ppm for pure CO2 . With paralyne packaging, the sensor frequency change from relative humidity of 0% to 100% at room temperature decreased from over 1000ppm to less than 100ppm. The lowest detection limit of the sensor is 1% gas concentration, with 36ppm frequency change. Wireless module was tested and showed over one foot transmission distance at preferred parallel orientation.

  13. Spatial-temporal variations in surface ozone over Ushuaia and the Antarctic region: observations from in situ measurements, satellite data, and global models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul Mohd; Ashfold, Matthew J; Khan, Md Firoz; Robinson, Andrew D; Bolas, Conor; Latif, Mohd Talib; Wallis, Benjamin M; Mead, Mohammed Iqbal; Hamid, Haris Hafizal Abdul; Harris, Neil R P; Ramly, Zamzam Tuah Ahmad; Lai, Goh Thian; Liew, Ju Neng; Ahamad, Fatimah; Uning, Royston; Samah, Azizan Abu; Maulud, Khairul Nizam; Suparta, Wayan; Zainudin, Siti Khalijah; Wahab, Muhammad Ikram Abdul; Sahani, Mazrura; Müller, Moritz; Yeok, Foong Swee; Rahman, Nasaruddin Abdul; Mujahid, Aazani; Morris, Kenobi Isima; Sasso, Nicholas Dal

    2018-01-01

    The Antarctic continent is known to be an unpopulated region due to its extreme weather and climate conditions. However, the air quality over this continent can be affected by long-lived anthropogenic pollutants from the mainland. The Argentinian region of Ushuaia is often the main source area of accumulated hazardous gases over the Antarctic Peninsula. The main objective of this study is to report the first in situ observations yet known of surface ozone (O 3 ) over Ushuaia, the Drake Passage, and Coastal Antarctic Peninsula (CAP) on board the RV Australis during the Malaysian Antarctic Scientific Expedition Cruise 2016 (MASEC'16). Hourly O 3 data was measured continuously for 23 days using an EcoTech O 3 analyzer. To understand more about the distribution of surface O 3 over the Antarctic, we present the spatial and temporal of surface O 3 of long-term data (2009-2015) obtained online from the World Meteorology Organization of World Data Centre for greenhouse gases (WMO WDCGG). Furthermore, surface O 3 satellite data from the free online NOAA-Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) database and online data assimilation from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF)-Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) were used. The data from both online products are compared to document the data sets and to give an indication of its quality towards in situ data. Finally, we used past carbon monoxide (CO) data as a proxy of surface O 3 formation over Ushuaia and the Antarctic region. Our key findings were that the surface O 3 mixing ratio during MASEC'16 increased from a minimum of 5 ppb to ~ 10-13 ppb approaching the Drake Passage and the Coastal Antarctic Peninsula (CAP) region. The anthropogenic and biogenic O 3 precursors from Ushuaia and the marine region influenced the mixing ratio of surface O 3 over the Drake Passage and CAP region. The past data from WDCGG showed that the annual O 3 cycle has a maximum during the winter of 30 to 35

  14. Correlating the silicon surface passivation to the nanostructure of low-temperature a-Si:H after rapid thermal annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macco, B.; Melskens, J.; Podraza, N.J.; Arts, K.; Pugh, C.; Thomas, O.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Using an inductively coupled plasma, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films have been prepared at very low temperatures (<50 °C) to provide crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface passivation. Despite the limited nanostructural quality of the a-Si:H bulk, a surprisingly high minority carrier

  15. A novel and sensitive fluorescence sensor for glutathione detection by controlling the surface passivation degree of carbon quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jiahong; Zheng, Zengyao; Yang, Jianying; Wu, Yaoyu; Lu, Fushen; Chen, Yaowen; Gao, Wenhua

    2017-05-01

    A novel fluorescence sensor based on controlling the surface passivation degree of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) was developed for glutathione (GSH) detection. First, we found that the fluorescence intensity of the CQDs which was obtained by directly pyrolyzing citric acid would increased largely after the surface passivation treatment by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC). In the light of this phenomenon, we designed a simple, rapid and selective fluorescence sensor based on the surface passivated CQDs. A certain and excess amount of EDC were mixed with GSH, part of EDC would form a stable complex with GSH owing to the exposed sulfhydryl group of GSH. As the synthesized CQDs were added into the above mixture solution, the fluorescence intensity of the (EDC/GSH)/CQDs mixture solution could be directly related to the amount of GSH. Compared to other fluorescence analytical methods, the fluorescence sensor we design is neither the traditional fluorescent "turn on" probes nor "turn off" probes. It is a new fluorescence analytical method that target object indirectly control the surface passivation degree of CQDs so that it can realize the detection of the target object. Moreover, the proposed method manifested great advantages including short analysis time, low cost and ease of operation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison between Al2O3 surface passivation films deposited with thermal ALD, plasma ALD and PECVD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, G.; Engelhart, P.; Seguin, R.; Mandoc, M.M.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Surface passivation schemes based on Al2O3 have enabled increased efficiencies for silicon solar cells. The key distinguishing factor of Al2O3 is the high fixed negative charge density (Qf = 1012-1013 cm-2), which is especially beneficial for p- and p+ type c-Si, as it leads to a high level of

  17. High reduction of interfacial charge recombination in colloidal quantum dot solar cells by metal oxide surface passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jin; Kuga, Yuki; Mora-Seró, Iván; Toyoda, Taro; Ogomi, Yuhei; Hayase, Shuzi; Bisquert, Juan; Shen, Qing

    2015-03-12

    Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells based on colloidal QDs and metal oxide nanowires (NWs) possess unique and outstanding advantages in enhancing light harvesting and charge collection in comparison to planar architectures. However, the high surface area of the NW structure often brings about a large amount of recombination (especially interfacial recombination) and limits the open-circuit voltage in BHJ solar cells. This problem is solved here by passivating the surface of the metal oxide component in PbS colloidal quantum dot solar cells (CQDSCs). By coating thin TiO2 layers onto ZnO-NW surfaces, the open-circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency have been improved by over 40% in PbS CQDSCs. Characterization by transient photovoltage decay and impedance spectroscopy indicated that the interfacial recombination was significantly reduced by the surface passivation strategy. An efficiency as high as 6.13% was achieved through the passivation approach and optimization for the length of the ZnO-NW arrays (device active area: 16 mm2). All solar cells were tested in air, and exhibited excellent air storage stability (without any performance decline over more than 130 days). This work highlights the significance of metal oxide passivation in achieving high performance BHJ solar cells. The charge recombination mechanism uncovered in this work could shed light on the further improvement of PbS CQDSCs and/or other types of solar cells.

  18. Effect of PECVD SiNx/SiOy Nx –Si interface property on surface passivation of silicon wafer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Xiao-Jie; Zhou Chun-Lan; Zhou Su; Wang Wen-Jing; Zhu Jun-Jie

    2016-01-01

    It is studied in this paper that the electrical characteristics of the interface between SiO y N x /SiN x stack and silicon wafer affect silicon surface passivation. The effects of precursor flow ratio and deposition temperature of the SiO y N x layer on interface parameters, such as interface state density Di t and fixed charge Q f , and the surface passivation quality of silicon are observed. Capacitance–voltage measurements reveal that inserting a thin SiO y N x layer between the SiN x and the silicon wafer can suppress Q f in the film and D it at the interface. The positive Q f and D it and a high surface recombination velocity in stacks are observed to increase with the introduced oxygen and minimal hydrogen in the SiO y N x film increasing. Prepared by deposition at a low temperature and a low ratio of N 2 O/SiH 4 flow rate, the SiO y N x /SiN x stacks result in a low effective surface recombination velocity (S eff ) of 6 cm/s on a p-type 1 Ω·cm–5 Ω·cm FZ silicon wafer. The positive relationship between S eff and D it suggests that the saturation of the interface defect is the main passivation mechanism although the field-effect passivation provided by the fixed charges also make a contribution to it. (paper)

  19. Relation of lifetime to surface passivation for atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 on crystalline silicon solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Joon; Song, Hee Eun; Chang, Hyo Sik

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigated the relation of potassium contamination on Si solar wafer to lifetime. • We deposited Al 2 O 3 layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on Si solar wafer after several cleaning process. • Potassium can be left on Si surface by incomplete cleaning process and degrade the Al 2 O 3 passivation quality. - Abstract: We investigated the relation of potassium contamination on a crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface after potassium hydroxide (KOH) etching to the lifetime of the c-Si solar cell. Alkaline solution was employed for saw damage removal (SDR), texturing, and planarization of a textured c-Si solar wafer prior to atomic layer deposition (ALD) Al 2 O 3 growth. In the solar-cell manufacturing process, ALD Al 2 O 3 passivation is utilized to obtain higher conversion efficiency. ALD Al 2 O 3 shows excellent surface passivation, though minority carrier lifetime varies with cleaning conditions. In the present study, we investigated the relation of potassium contamination to lifetime in solar-cell processing. The results showed that the potassium-contaminated samples, due to incomplete cleaning of KOH, had a short lifetime, thus establishing that residual potassium can degrade Al 2 O 3 surface passivation

  20. Sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide surface passivation effects on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, Z. H.; Lee, K. B.; Qian, H.; Jiang, S.; Houston, P. A.; Guiney, I.; Wallis, D. J.; Humphreys, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we have compared SiN x passivation, hydrogen peroxide, and sulfuric acid treatment on AlGaN/GaN HEMTs surface after full device fabrication on Si substrate. Both the chemical treatments resulted in the suppression of device pinch-off gate leakage current below 1 μA/mm, which is much lower than that for SiN x passivation. The greatest suppression over the range of devices is observed with the sulfuric acid treatment. The device on/off current ratio is improved (from 10 4 –10 5 to 10 7 ) and a reduction in the device sub-threshold (S.S.) slope (from ∼215 to 90 mV/decade) is achieved. The sulfuric acid is believed to work by oxidizing the surface which has a strong passivating effect on the gate leakage current. The interface trap charge density (D it ) is reduced (from 4.86 to 0.90 × 10 12  cm −2 eV −1 ), calculated from the change in the device S.S. The gate surface leakage current mechanism is explained by combined Mott hopping conduction and Poole Frenkel models for both untreated and sulfuric acid treated devices. Combining the sulfuric acid treatment underneath the gate with the SiN x passivation after full device fabrication results in the reduction of D it and improves the surface related current collapse

  1. Silver nanoparticles-incorporated Nb2O5 surface passivation layer for efficiency enhancement in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, S; Unni, Gautam E; Satyanarayana, M; Sreekumaran Nair, A; Mahadevan Pillai, V P

    2018-08-15

    Guiding and capturing photons at the nanoscale by means of metal nanoparticles and interfacial engineering for preventing back-electron transfer are well documented techniques for performance enhancement in excitonic solar cells. Drifting from the conventional route, we propose a simple one-step process to integrate both metal nanoparticles and surface passivation layer in the porous photoanode matrix of a dye-sensitized solar cell. Silver nanoparticles and Nb 2 O 5 surface passivation layer are simultaneously deposited on the surface of a highly porous nanocrystalline TiO 2 photoanode, facilitating an absorption enhancement in the 465 nm and 570 nm wavelength region and a reduction in back-electron transfer in the fabricated dye-sensitized solar cells together. The TiO 2 photoanodes were prepared by spray pyrolysis deposition method from a colloidal solution of TiO 2 nanoparticles. An impressive 43% enhancement in device performance was accomplished in photoanodes having an Ag-incorporated Nb 2 O 5 passivation layer as against a cell without Ag nanoparticles. By introducing this idea, we were able to record two benefits - the metal nanoparticles function as the absorption enhancement agent, and the Nb 2 O 5 layer as surface passivation for TiO 2 nanoparticles and as an energy barrier layer for preventing back-electron transfer - in a single step. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effective Surface Passivation of InP Nanowires by Atomic-Layer-Deposited Al2O3 with POx Interlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, L E; Cavalli, A; Verheijen, M A; Haverkort, J E M; Bakkers, E P A M; Kessels, W M M

    2017-10-11

    III/V semiconductor nanostructures have significant potential in device applications, but effective surface passivation is critical due to their large surface-to-volume ratio. For InP such passivation has proven particularly difficult, with substantial depassivation generally observed following dielectric deposition on InP surfaces. We present a novel approach based on passivation with a phosphorus-rich interfacial oxide deposited using a low-temperature process, which is critical to avoid P-desorption. For this purpose we have chosen a PO x layer deposited in a plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) system at room temperature. Since PO x is known to be hygroscopic and therefore unstable in atmosphere, we encapsulate this layer with a thin ALD Al 2 O 3 capping layer to form a PO x /Al 2 O 3 stack. This passivation scheme is capable of improving the photoluminescence (PL) efficiency of our state-of-the-art wurtzite (WZ) InP nanowires by a factor of ∼20 at low excitation. If we apply the rate equation analysis advocated by some authors, we derive a PL internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of 75% for our passivated wires at high excitation. Our results indicate that it is more reliable to calculate the IQE as the ratio of the integrated PL intensity at room temperature to that at 10 K. By this means we derive an IQE of 27% for the passivated wires at high excitation (>10 kW cm -2 ), which constitutes an unprecedented level of performance for undoped InP nanowires. This conclusion is supported by time-resolved PL decay lifetimes, which are also shown to be significantly higher than previously reported for similar wires. The passivation scheme displays excellent long-term stability (>7 months) and is additionally shown to substantially improve the thermal stability of InP surfaces (>300 °C), significantly expanding the temperature window for device processing. Such effective surface passivation is a key enabling technology for InP nanowire devices such as

  3. Catalyst-Free Conjugation and In Situ Quantification of Nanoparticle Ligand Surface Density Using Fluorogenic Cu-Free Click Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jølck, Rasmus Irming; Sun, Honghao; Berg, Rolf Henrik

    2011-01-01

    A highly efficient method for functionalizing nanoparticles and directly quantifying conjugation efficiency and ligand surface density has been developed. Attachment of 3-azido-modifed RGD-peptides to PEGylated liposomes was achieved by using Cu-free click conditions. Upon coupling a fluorophore ...