WorldWideScience

Sample records for in-situ remediation technology

  1. Office of Technology Development integrated program for development of in situ remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, M.

    1992-08-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development has instituted an integrated program focused on development of in situ remediation technologies. The development of in situ remediation technologies will focus on five problem groups: buried waste, contaminated soils, contaminated groundwater, containerized wastes and underground detonation sites. The contaminants that will be included in the development program are volatile and non volatile organics, radionuclides, inorganics and highly explosive materials as well as mixtures of these contaminants. The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) has defined the fiscal year 1993 research and development technology areas for focusing activities, and they are described in this paper. These R ampersand D topical areas include: nonbiological in situ treatment, in situ bioremediation, electrokinetics, and in situ containment

  2. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program. In situ physical/chemical treatment technologies for remediation of contaminated sites: Applicability, developing status, and research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegrist, R.L.; Gates, D.D.; West, O.R.; Liang, L.; Donaldson, T.L.; Webb, O.F.; Corder, S.L.; Dickerson, K.S.

    1994-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was established in June 1991 to facilitate the development and implementation of in situ remediation technologies for environmental restoration within the DOE complex. Within the ISR IP, four subareas of research have been identified: (1) in situ containment, (2) in situ physical/chemical treatment (ISPCT), (3) in situ bioremediation, and (4) subsurface manipulation/electrokinetics. Although set out as individual focus areas, these four are interrelated, and successful developments in one will often necessitate successful developments in another. In situ remediation technologies are increasingly being sought for environmental restoration due to the potential advantages that in situ technologies can offer as opposed to more traditional ex situ technologies. These advantages include limited site disruption, lower cost, reduced worker exposure, and treatment at depth under structures. While in situ remediation technologies can offer great advantages, many technology gaps exist in their application. This document presents an overview of ISPCT technologies and describes their applicability to DOE-complex needs, their development status, and relevant ongoing research. It also highlights research needs that the ISR IP should consider when making funding decisions

  3. EM-54 Technology Development In Situ Remediation Integrated Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development (EM-50) as an element of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November 1989. EM manages remediation of all DOE sites as well as wastes from current operations. The goal of the EM program is to minimize risks to human health, safety and the environment, and to bring all DOE sites into compliance with Federal, state, and local regulations by 2019. EM-50 is charged with developing new technologies that are safer, more effective and less expensive than current methods. The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (the subject of this report) is part of EM-541, the Environmental Restoration Research and Development Division of EM-54. The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: Significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces; in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP tends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years

  4. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces, in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP intends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years. ISR IP is an applied research and development program broadly addressing known DOE environmental restoration needs. Analysis of a sample of 334 representative sites by the Office of Environmental Restoration has shown how many sites are amenable to in situ remediation: containment--243 sites; manipulation--244 sites; bioremediation--154 sites; and physical/chemical methods--236 sites. This needs assessment is focused on near-term restoration problems (FY93--FY99). Many other remediations will be required in the next century. The major focus of the ISR EP is on the long term development of permanent solutions to these problems. Current needs for interim actions to protect human health and the environment are also being addressed

  5. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces, in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP intends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years. ISR IP is an applied research and development program broadly addressing known DOE environmental restoration needs. Analysis of a sample of 334 representative sites by the Office of Environmental Restoration has shown how many sites are amenable to in situ remediation: containment--243 sites; manipulation--244 sites; bioremediation--154 sites; and physical/chemical methods--236 sites. This needs assessment is focused on near-term restoration problems (FY93--FY99). Many other remediations will be required in the next century. The major focus of the ISR EP is on the long term development of permanent solutions to these problems. Current needs for interim actions to protect human health and the environment are also being addressed.

  6. Innovative technologies for in-situ remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragaini, R.; Aines, R.; Knapp, R.; Matthews, S.; Yow, J.

    1994-06-01

    LLNL is developing several innovative remediation technologies as long-term improvements to the current pump and treat approaches to cleaning up contaminated soils and groundwater. These technologies include dynamic underground stripping, in-situ microbial filters, and remediation using bremsstrahlung radiation. Concentrated underground organic contaminant plumes are one of the most prevalent groundwater contamination sources. The solvent or fuel can percolate deep into the earth, often into water-bearing regions. Collecting as a separate, liquid organic phase called dense non-aqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs), or light NAPLs (LNAPLs), these contaminants provide a source term that continuously compromises surrounding groundwater. This type of spill is one of the most difficult environmental problems to remediate. Attempts to remove such material requires a huge amount of water which must be washed through the system to clean it, requiring decades. Traditional pump and treat approaches have not been successful. LLNL has developed several innovative technologies to clean up NAPL contamination. Detailed descriptions of these technologies are given

  7. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program, Evaluation and assessment of containment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.A.; Fayer, M.J.

    1994-04-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISRIP) was established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to advance the state-of-the art of innovative in situ remediation technologies to the point of demonstration and to broaden the applicability of these technologies to the widely varying site remediation requirements throughout the DOE complex. This program complements similar ongoing integrated demonstration programs being conducted at several DOE sites. The ISRIP has been conducting baseline assessments on in situ technologies to support program planning. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted an assessment and evaluation of subsurface containment barrier technology in support of ISRIP's Containment Technology Subprogram. This report summarizes the results of that activity and provides a recommendation for priortizing areas in which additional research and development is needed to advance the technology to the point of demonstration in support of DOE's site restoration activities

  8. Summary performance assessment of in situ remediation technologies demonstrated at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, N.D.; Robinson, B.A.; Birdsell, K.H.; Travis, B.J.

    1994-06-01

    The Office of Technology Development (OTD) in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management is investigating new technologies for ''better, faster, cheaper, safer'' environmental remediation. A program at DOE's Savannah River site was designed to demonstrate innovative technologies for the remediation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at nonarid sites. Two remediation technologies, in situ air stripping and in situ bioremediation--both using horizontal wells, were demonstrated at the site between 1990--1993. This brief report summarizes the conclusions from three separate modeling studies on the performance of these technologies

  9. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Implementing In Situ Thermal Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over recent years, the use of in situ thermal technologies such as electrical resistance heating, thermal conductive heating, and steam enhanced extraction to remediate contaminated sites has notably increased.

  10. Optimizing the Environmental Performance of In Situ Thermal Remediation Technologies Using Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Nielsen, Steffen G.; Weber, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In situ thermal remediation technologies provide efficient and reliable cleanup of contaminated soil and groundwater, but at a high cost of environmental impacts and resource depletion due to the large amounts of energy and materials consumed. This study provides a detailed investigation of four...... in situ thermal remediation technologies (steam enhanced extraction, thermal conduction heating, electrical resistance heating, and radio frequency heating) in order to (1) compare the life-cycle environmental impacts and resource consumption associated with each thermal technology, and (2) identify...... improvements is a 10 to 21% decrease in environmental impacts and an 8 to 20% decrease in resource depletion depending on the thermal remediation technology considered. The energy consumption was found to be the main contributor to most types of environmental impacts; this will, however, depend...

  11. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: Evaluation and assessment of containment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.A.; Fayer, M.J.

    1994-06-01

    Containment technology refers to a broad range of methods that are used to contain waste or contaminated groundwater and to keep uncontaminated water from entering a waste site. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Technology Development has instituted the In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISRIP) to advance the state-of-the-art of innovative technologies that contain or treat, in situ, contaminated media such as soil and groundwater, to the point of demonstration and to broaden the applicability of these technologies to the widely varying site remediation requirements throughout the DOE complex. The information provided here is an overview of the state-of-the-art of containment technology and includes a discussion of ongoing development projects; identifies the technical gaps; discusses the priorities for resolution of the technical gaps; and identifies the site parameters affecting the application of a specific containment method. The containment technology described in this document cover surface caps; vertical barriers such as slurry walls, grout curtains, sheet pilings, frozen soil barriers, and vitrified barriers; horizontal barriers; sorbent barriers; and gravel layers/curtains. Within DOE, containment technology could be used to prevent water infiltration into buried waste; to provide for long-term containment of pits, trenches, and buried waste sites; for the interim containment of leaking underground storage tanks and piping; for the removal of contaminants from groundwater to prevent contamination from migrating off-site; and as an interim measure to prevent the further migration of contamination during the application of an in situ treatment technology such as soil flushing. The ultimate goal is the implementation of containment technology at DOE sites as a cost-effective, efficient, and safe choice for environmental remediation and restoration activities

  12. DOE In Situ Remediation Integrated Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISRP) supports and manages a balanced portfolio of applied research and development activities in support of DOE environmental restoration and waste management needs. ISRP technologies are being developed in four areas: containment, chemical and physical treatment, in situ bioremediation, and in situ manipulation (including electrokinetics). the focus of containment is to provide mechanisms to stop contaminant migration through the subsurface. In situ bioremediation and chemical and physical treatment both aim to destroy or eliminate contaminants in groundwater and soils. In situ manipulation (ISM) provides mechanisms to access contaminants or introduce treatment agents into the soil, and includes other technologies necessary to support the implementation of ISR methods. Descriptions of each major program area are provided to set the technical context of the ISM subprogram. Typical ISM needs for major areas of in situ remediation research and development are identified

  13. In situ bioremediation: Cost effectiveness of a remediation technology field tested at the Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saaty, R.P.; Showalter, W.E.; Booth, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    In Situ Bioremediation (ISBR) is an innovative new remediation technology for the removal of chlorinated solvents from contaminated soils and groundwater. The principal contaminant at the SRID is the volatile organic compound (VOC), tricloroetylene(TCE). A 384 day test run at Savannah River, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development (EM-50), furnished information about the performance and applications of ISBR. In Situ Bioremediation, as tested, is based on two distinct processes occurring simultaneously; the physical process of in situ air stripping and the biolgoical process of bioremediation. Both processes have the potential to remediate some amount of contamination. A quantity of VOCs, directly measured from the extracted air stream, was removed from the test area by the physical process of air stripping. The biological process is difficult to examine. However, the results of several tests performed at the SRID and independent numerical modeling determined that the biological process remediated an additional 40% above the physical process. Given this data, the cost effectiveness of this new technology can be evaluated

  14. Large-scale commercial applications of the in situ vitrification remediation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, B.E.; Hansen, J.E.; McElroy, J.L.; Thompson, L.E.; Timmerman, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    The first large-scale commercial application of the innovative In Situ Vitrification (ISV) remediation technology was completed at the Parsons Chemical/ETM Enterprises Superfund site in Michigan State midyear 1994. This project involved treating 4,800 tons of pesticide and mercury-contaminated soil. The project also involved performance of the USEPA SITE Program demonstration test for the ISV technology. The Parsons project involved consolidation and staging of contaminated soil from widespread locations on and nearby the site. This paper presents a brief description of the ISV technology along with case-study type information on these two sites and the performance of the ISV technology on them. The paper also reviews other remediation projects where ISV has been identified as the/a preferred remedy, and where ISV is currently planned for use. These sites include soils contaminated with pesticides, dioxin, PCP, paint wastes, and a variety of heavy metals. This review of additional sites also includes a description of a planned radioactive mixed waste remediation project in Australia that contains large amounts of plutonium, uranium, lead, beryllium, and metallic and other debris buried in limestone and dolomitic soil burial pits. Initial test work has been completed on this application, and preparations are now underway for pilot testing in Australia. This project will demonstrate the applicability of the ISV technology to the challenging application of buried mixed wastes

  15. An overview of in situ waste treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, S.; Hyde, R.A.; Piper, R.B.; Roy, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    In situ technologies are becoming an attractive remedial alternative for eliminating environmental problems. In situ treatments typically reduce risks and costs associated with retrieving, packaging, and storing or disposing-waste and are generally preferred over ex situ treatments. Each in situ technology has specific applications, and, in order to provide the most economical and practical solution to a waste problem, these applications must be understood. This paper presents an overview of thirty different in situ remedial technologies for buried wastes or contaminated soil areas. The objective of this paper is to familiarize those involved in waste remediation activities with available and emerging in situ technologies so that they may consider these options in the remediation of hazardous and/or radioactive waste sites. Several types of in situ technologies are discussed, including biological treatments, containment technologies, physical/chemical treatments, solidification/stabilization technologies, and thermal treatments. Each category of in situ technology is briefly examined in this paper. Specific treatments belonging to these categories are also reviewed. Much of the information on in situ treatment technologies in this paper was obtained directly from vendors and universities and this information has not been verified

  16. In situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media fate/transport, in situ control technologies, and risk reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In this project, in situ remediation technologies are being tested and evaluated for both source control and mass removal of dense, non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) compounds in low permeability media (LPM). This effort is focused on chlorinated solvents (e.g., trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene) in the vadose and saturated zones of low permeability, massive deposits, and stratified deposits with inter-bedded clay lenses. The project includes technology evaluation and screening analyses and field-scale testing at both clean and contaminated sites in the US and Canada. Throughout this project, activities have been directed at understanding the processes that influence DNPAL compound migration and treatment in LPM and to assessing the operation and performance of the remediation technologies developed and tested. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: FY 1994 program summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development (EM-50) as an element of the Office of Environmental Management (EM) in November 1989. In an effort to focus resources and address priority needs, EM-50 introduced the concept of integrated programs (IPs) and integrated demonstrations (IDs). The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) focuses research and development on the in-place treatment of contaminated environmental media, such as soil and groundwater, and the containment of contaminants to prevent the contaminants from spreading through the environment. Using in situ remediation technologies to clean up DOE sites minimizes adverse health effects on workers and the public by reducing contact exposure. The technologies also reduce cleanup costs by orders of magnitude. This report summarizes project work conducted in FY 1994 under the ISR IP in three major areas: treatment (bioremediation), treatment (physical/chemical), and containment technologies. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized waste are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive waste, volatile and nonvolatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials

  18. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: FY 1994 program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development (EM-50) as an element of the Office of Environmental Management (EM) in November 1989. In an effort to focus resources and address priority needs, EM-50 introduced the concept of integrated programs (IPs) and integrated demonstrations (IDs). The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) focuses research and development on the in-place treatment of contaminated environmental media, such as soil and groundwater, and the containment of contaminants to prevent the contaminants from spreading through the environment. Using in situ remediation technologies to clean up DOE sites minimizes adverse health effects on workers and the public by reducing contact exposure. The technologies also reduce cleanup costs by orders of magnitude. This report summarizes project work conducted in FY 1994 under the ISR IP in three major areas: treatment (bioremediation), treatment (physical/chemical), and containment technologies. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized waste are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive waste, volatile and nonvolatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials.

  19. An innovative in-situ mixing technology and its applications in the waste remediation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toor, I.A.; Lanter, R.

    1994-01-01

    An innovative in-situ remediation technology has been developed for solidification and stabilization of hazardous wastes. The system incorporates a specially designed rotary mixing head attached to the boom of a long-reach backhoe or other dirt-moving equipment. A variety of mixing-head configurations are available to treat various types of wastes, ranging from oil sludge to very dry contaminated soils containing significant amounts of large aggregates and gravel. The system has been successfully applied in the field to remediate hazardous petroleum sludge, mine tailings, and steel mill process sediments containing heavy metals (e.g., chromium, arsenic, cadmium, and lead). A very elaborate quality assurance/quality control program was implemented to ensure minimum variation in additive concentration and thorough mixing. The mixing effectiveness and reagent injection capabilities of this unit have resulted in the in-situ treatment of listed hazardous wastes to below delisting thresholds at depths in excess of 15 ft. Applications of this unit are currently being reviewed for incorporating and mixing nutrients in a bioremediation process. The new technology provides a very economical means for treatment, with excellent product quality

  20. A novel phytoremediation technology shown to remediate petroleum hydrocarbons from soils in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, X.D.; Yu, X.M.; Gerhardt, K.; Glick, B.; Greenberg, B [Waterloo Environmental Biotechnology Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada); Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2009-04-01

    This article described a newly developed, advanced microbe-enhanced phytoremediation system that can be used to remediate lands polluted by hydrocarbons, salts and metals. The technology uses 3 complementary processes to achieve effective remediation of strongly bound persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from soil. The remediation process involves physical soil treatment, photochemical photooxidation, microbial remediation and growth of plants treated with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The PGPR-enhanced phytoremediation system (PEPS) alleviates plant stress and increases biodegradation activities, thereby accelerating plant growth in the presence of POPs or poor soils. The PEPS has been used successfully to remove petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) from impacted soils in situ at several sites across Canada. Studies have shown that the PHCs are degraded in the rhizosphere. This article also presented a summary of the work conducted at 3 sites in Alberta. It took only 2 years to remediate the 3 sites to levels required for site closure under Alberta Tier 1 guidelines. It was concluded that PEPS is equally effective for total PHC and Fraction 3 CCME hydrocarbons. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  1. In situ remediation integrated program: Success through teamwork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, M.E.

    1994-08-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP), managed under the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Technology Development, focuses research and development efforts on the in-place treatment of contaminated environmental media, such as soil and groundwater, and the containment of contaminants to prevent the contaminants from spreading through the environment. As described here, specific ISR IP projects are advancing the application of in situ technologies to the demonstration point, providing developed technologies to customers within DOE. The ISR IP has also taken a lead role in assessing and supporting innovative technologies that may have application to DOE

  2. Proceedings of the remediation technologies symposium 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This conference provided a forum to discuss the remediation of contaminated sites. It was attended by all industry sectors that have an interest in learning about technical issues in environmental remediation research and the latest innovations in soil and groundwater remediation and industrial pollutant treatments. Cost effective in-situ and ex-situ soil reclamation strategies were presented along with groundwater and surface water remediation strategies. The diversified sessions at this conference were entitled: regulatory update; Montreal Centre of Excellence in Brownfields Rehabilitation; soil and groundwater remediation through the Program of Energy Research and Development at Environment Canada; technology from the Netherlands; bioremediation; hydrocarbons; in-situ remediation; phytoremediation; salt management; unique locations; and, miscellaneous issues. Some areas and case studies covered in the presentations included: biological and non-biological treatments; thermal desorption; encapsulation; natural attenuation; multi-phase extraction; electrochemical remediation; and membrane technology. The conference featured 63 presentations, of which 23 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  3. Proceedings of the remediation technologies symposium 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This conference provided a forum to discuss the remediation of contaminated sites. It was attended by all industry sectors that have an interest in learning about technical issues in environmental remediation research and the latest innovations in soil and groundwater remediation and industrial pollutant treatments. Cost effective in-situ and ex-situ soil reclamation strategies were presented along with groundwater and surface water remediation strategies. The diversified sessions at this conference were entitled: regulatory update; Montreal Centre of Excellence in Brownfields Rehabilitation; soil and groundwater remediation through the Program of Energy Research and Development at Environment Canada; technology from the Netherlands; bioremediation; hydrocarbons; in-situ remediation; phytoremediation; salt management; unique locations; and, miscellaneous issues. Some areas and case studies covered in the presentations included: biological and non-biological treatments; thermal desorption; encapsulation; natural attenuation; multi-phase extraction; electrochemical remediation; and membrane technology. The conference featured 63 presentations, of which 23 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  4. Proceedings of the remediation technologies symposium 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This conference provided an opportunity for industry, practitioners, researchers and regulators to discuss technical issues in environmental remediation research and the latest innovations in soil and groundwater remediation. Cost effective in-situ and ex-situ soil reclamation strategies were presented along with groundwater and surface water remediation strategies in 13 sessions entitled: hydrocarbon contamination; salt management; liability management; chemical oxidation; light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL); Montreal Center of Excellence in Brownfields Rehabilitation; Alberta government updates; phytoremediation; natural attenuation; Lake Wabamun; ex-situ remediation; in-situ remediation; and, miscellaneous issues. Technological solutions for erosion control and water clarification were highlighted. The conference featured 52 presentations, of which 17 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  5. The application of in situ air sparging as an innovative soils and ground water remediation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, M.C.; Hazebrouck, D.J.; Walsh, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    Vapor extraction (soil venting) has been demonstrated to be a successful and cost-effective remediation technology for removing VOCs from the vadose (unsaturated) zone. However, in many cases, seasonal water table fluctuations, drawdown associated with pump-and-treat remediation techniques, and spills involving dense, non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLS) create contaminated soil below the water table. Vapor extraction alone is not considered to be an optimal remediation technology to address this type of contamination. An innovative approach to saturated zone remediation is the use of sparging (injection) wells to inject a hydrocarbon-free gaseous medium (typically air) into the saturated zone below the areas of contamination. The contaminants dissolved in the ground water and sorbed onto soil particles partition into the advective air phase, effectively simulating an in situ air-stripping system. The stripped contaminants are transported in the gas phase to the vadose zone, within the radius of influence of a vapor extraction and vapor treatment system. In situ air sparging is a complex multifluid phase process, which has been applied successfully in Europe since the mid-1980s. To date, site-specific pilot tests have been used to design air-sparging systems. Research is currently underway to develop better engineering design methodologies for the process. Major design parameters to be considered include contaminant type, gas injection pressures and flow rates, site geology, bubble size, injection interval (areal and vertical) and the equipment specifications. Correct design and operation of this technology has been demonstrated to achieve ground water cleanup of VOC contamination to low part-per-billion levels

  6. Technologies for remediation of radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    This report presents particulars on environmental restoration technologies (control and treatment) which can be applied to land based, radioactively contaminated sites. The media considered include soils, groundwater, surface water, sediments, air, and terrestrial and aquatic vegetation. The technologies addressed in this report can be categorized as follows: self-attenuation (natural restoration); in-situ treatment; removal of contamination; ex-situ treatment; and transportation and final disposal. The report provides also background information about and a general approach to remediation of radioactively contaminated sites as well as some guidance for the selection of a preferred remediation technology. Examples of remediation experience in Australia and Canada are given it annexes

  7. Technologies for remediation of radioactively contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-06-01

    This report presents particulars on environmental restoration technologies (control and treatment) which can be applied to land based, radioactively contaminated sites. The media considered include soils, groundwater, surface water, sediments, air, and terrestrial and aquatic vegetation. The technologies addressed in this report can be categorized as follows: self-attenuation (natural restoration); in-situ treatment; removal of contamination; ex-situ treatment; and transportation and final disposal. The report provides also background information about and a general approach to remediation of radioactively contaminated sites as well as some guidance for the selection of a preferred remediation technology. Examples of remediation experience in Australia and Canada are given it annexes Refs, figs, tabs

  8. In-situ remediation of contaminated ground water using the MAG*SEPSM technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is leading a project for demonstration of in-situ remediation of contaminated ground water utilizing MAG*SEP SM technology developed by Bradtec. This technology is being considered for eventual application at sites involving groundwater contaminated with heavy metals and/or radionuclides, such as the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Berkeley Pit. The MAG*SEP SM technology uses specially coated magnetic particles to selectively adsorb contaminants from ground water. Particles are mixed with ground water, contaminants are adsorbed onto the particles, and the particles are removed by magnetic filtration. The technology can recover low levels of radioactive and/or inorganic hazardous contamination (in the ppm range), leaving nonradioactive/nonhazardous species essentially unaffected. The first phase of this project has involved the optimization of MAG*SEP SM process chemistry for a selected site at SRS. To date this work has identified a candidate adsorber material (the amino form of iminodicarboxylic acid) for selective removal of lead, cadmium, and mercury from this site's ground water. Decontamination factors of 170, 270, and 235, respective, for each contaminant have been achieved. Further process chemistry optimization work for this adsorber material is planned. The project will eventually lead to an in-situ demonstration of the MAG*SEP SM technology, integrated with the EnviroWall trademark barrier technology developed by Barrier Member Containment Corporation (BMC)

  9. Source zone remediation by zero valent iron technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann

    at a fifth of these contaminated sites. These source zones pose a serious threat to soil and groundwater quality. Remediation of the heterogeneous source zones is challenging due to irregular downwards migration patterns in the subsurface, low aqueous solubility and matrix diffusion. To protect the soil...... and groundwater resources from long-term deterioration, the development of in situ technologies suitable for remediation of DNAPL is warranted. Currently, an array of aggressive in situ remediation technologies remediation exists. These technologies may be suitable under various site specific conditions; however......, most of them are limited by subsurface heterogeneities and/or the risk of inadvertent DNAPL displacement during field application. This thesis presents the results of an investigation of the potential for remediation of chlorinated solvent source zones by emerging zero valent iron (ZVI) based...

  10. Development of site remediation technologies in European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunno, T.J.; Hyman, J.A.; Pheiffer, T.

    1988-01-01

    Site remediation is a pressing issue in European countries due to limited availability of land. Therefore, much progress is being made in the development of effective technologies for remediating contaminated sites. The purpose of this program was to investigate the most successful and innovative technologies for potential application into US markets. This EPA-sponsored project was based on a 9-month research effort which identified 95 innovative technologies in use or being researched in foreign countries. The most promising technologies were studied in-depth through personal interviews with the engineers who research and apply these technologies, and tours of laboratory models and full-scale installations. The most successful full-scale technologies investigated were developed in Holland, West Germany and Belgium. These technologies include vacuum extraction of hydrocarbons from soil, in situ washing of cadmium-polluted soil, rotating biocontractors for treating pesticides in ground water, high-temperature slagging incineration of low-level radioactive wastes, in situ steam stripping, and a number of landfarming and soil washing operations. The paper provides description of 13 site remediation techniques that have shown such promise in laboratory studies or in practice to warrant consideration of their use in the US

  11. In situ soil remediation using electrokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehler, M.F.; Surma, J.E.; Virden, J.W.

    1994-11-01

    Electrokinetics is emerging as a promising technology for in situ soil remediation. This technique is especially attractive for Superfund sites and government operations which contain large volumes of contaminated soil. The approach uses an applied electric field to induce transport of both radioactive and hazardous waste ions in soil. The transport mechanisms include electroosmosis, electromigration, and electrophoresis. The feasibility of using electrokinetics to move radioactive 137 Cs and 60 Co at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, is discussed. A closed cell is used to provide in situ measurements of 137 Cs and 60 Co movement in Hanford soil. Preliminary results of ionic movement, along with the corresponding current response, are presented

  12. Technologies to remediate hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falco, J.W.

    1990-03-01

    Technologies to remediate hazardous wastes must be matched with the properties of the hazardous materials to be treated, the environment in which the wastes are imbedded, and the desired extent of remediation. Many promising technologies are being developed, including biological treatment, immobilization techniques, and in situ methods. Many of these new technologies are being applied to remediate sites. The management and disposal of hazardous wastes is changing because of federal and state legislation as well as public concern. Future waste management systems will emphasize the substitution of alternatives for the use of hazardous materials and process waste recycling. Onsite treatment will also become more frequently adopted. 5 refs., 7 figs

  13. Challenges in subsurface in situ remediation of chlorinated solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette Martina; Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann; Christiansen, Camilla Maymann

    2014-01-01

    Chlorinated solvent source zones in the subsurface pose a continuous threat to groundwater quality at many sites worldwide. In situ remediation of these sites is particularly challenging in heterogeneous fractured media and where the solvents are present as DNAPL. In situ remediation by chemical...

  14. Historical hydronuclear testing: Characterization and remediation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaulis, L.; Wilson, G.; Jacobson, R.

    1997-09-01

    This report examines the most current literature and information available on characterization and remediation technologies that could be used on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) historical hydronuclear test areas. Historical hydronuclear tests use high explosives and a small amount of plutonium. The explosion scatters plutonium within a contained subsurface environment. There is currently a need to characterize these test areas to determine the spatial extent of plutonium in the subsurface and whether geohydrologic processes are transporting the plutonium away from the event site. Three technologies were identified to assist in the characterization of the sites. These technologies are the Pipe Explorer{trademark}, cone penetrometer, and drilling. If the characterization results indicate that remediation is needed, three remediation technologies were identified that should be appropriate, namely: capping or sealing the surface, in situ grouting, and in situ vitrification. Capping the surface would prevent vertical infiltration of water into the soil column, but would not restrict lateral movement of vadose zone water. Both the in situ grouting and vitrification techniques would attempt to immobilize the radioactive contaminants to restrict or prevent leaching of the radioactive contaminants into the groundwater. In situ grouting uses penetrometers or boreholes to inject the soil below the contaminant zone with low permeability grout. In situ vitrification melts the soil containing contaminants into a solid block. This technique would provide a significantly longer contaminant immobilization, but some research and development would be required to re-engineer existing systems for use at deep soil depths. Currently, equipment can only handle shallow depth vitrification. After existing documentation on the historical hydronuclear tests have been reviewed and the sites have been visited, more specific recommendations will be made.

  15. Historical hydronuclear testing: Characterization and remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaulis, L.; Wilson, G.; Jacobson, R.

    1997-09-01

    This report examines the most current literature and information available on characterization and remediation technologies that could be used on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) historical hydronuclear test areas. Historical hydronuclear tests use high explosives and a small amount of plutonium. The explosion scatters plutonium within a contained subsurface environment. There is currently a need to characterize these test areas to determine the spatial extent of plutonium in the subsurface and whether geohydrologic processes are transporting the plutonium away from the event site. Three technologies were identified to assist in the characterization of the sites. These technologies are the Pipe Explorer trademark, cone penetrometer, and drilling. If the characterization results indicate that remediation is needed, three remediation technologies were identified that should be appropriate, namely: capping or sealing the surface, in situ grouting, and in situ vitrification. Capping the surface would prevent vertical infiltration of water into the soil column, but would not restrict lateral movement of vadose zone water. Both the in situ grouting and vitrification techniques would attempt to immobilize the radioactive contaminants to restrict or prevent leaching of the radioactive contaminants into the groundwater. In situ grouting uses penetrometers or boreholes to inject the soil below the contaminant zone with low permeability grout. In situ vitrification melts the soil containing contaminants into a solid block. This technique would provide a significantly longer contaminant immobilization, but some research and development would be required to re-engineer existing systems for use at deep soil depths. Currently, equipment can only handle shallow depth vitrification. After existing documentation on the historical hydronuclear tests have been reviewed and the sites have been visited, more specific recommendations will be made

  16. NASA Remediation Technology Collaboration Development Task, Overview and Project Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, James G.

    2014-01-01

    An overview presentation of NASA's Remediation Technology Collaboration Development Task including the following project summaries: in situ groundwater monitor, in situ chemical oxidation, in situ bioremediation, horizontal multi-port well, and high resolution site characterization.

  17. Papers of the remediation technologies symposium 2005. CD-ROM ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This conference was attended by over 500 delegates and provided an opportunity for industry, practitioners, researchers and regulators to discuss technical issues in environmental remediation research and recent innovations in soil and groundwater remediation. Sessions included presentations on in-situ, groundwater and surface water remediation. Issues concerning phytoremediation, natural attenuation, extraction and commercial redevelopment were examined. The aim of the conference was also to provide a forum for innovators in remediation to present new work. Topics included hydrocarbon and salt contamination; engineered soil cover for management of salt impacted sites; remediation and revegetation of tar sands composite tailings containing naphthenic acids; sorption of oil sands naphthenic acid mixtures; denitrification as a natural attenuation mechanism; sampling methodologies; variability assessments; stabilization treatment technologies; remediation of coal wastes; bioreactor landfills; well blowouts in Alberta; soil remediation in coarse gravelly soils; diesel-contaminated aquifers; gasoline spill remediation; soil vapour extraction systems; technological solutions for erosion control and water clarification; and cost-effective in-situ remediation strategies. Fifty-two technical presentations were given, of which 27 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database

  18. Papers of the remediation technologies symposium 2005. CD-ROM ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This conference was attended by over 500 delegates and provided an opportunity for industry, practitioners, researchers and regulators to discuss technical issues in environmental remediation research and recent innovations in soil and groundwater remediation. Sessions included presentations on in-situ, groundwater and surface water remediation. Issues concerning phytoremediation, natural attenuation, extraction and commercial redevelopment were examined. The aim of the conference was also to provide a forum for innovators in remediation to present new work. Topics included hydrocarbon and salt contamination; engineered soil cover for management of salt impacted sites; remediation and revegetation of tar sands composite tailings containing naphthenic acids; sorption of oil sands naphthenic acid mixtures; denitrification as a natural attenuation mechanism; sampling methodologies; variability assessments; stabilization treatment technologies; remediation of coal wastes; bioreactor landfills; well blowouts in Alberta; soil remediation in coarse gravelly soils; diesel-contaminated aquifers; gasoline spill remediation; soil vapour extraction systems; technological solutions for erosion control and water clarification; and cost-effective in-situ remediation strategies. Fifty-two technical presentations were given, of which 27 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  19. An expert support model for in situ soil remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okx, J.P.; Stein, A.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents an expert support model for in situ soil remediation. It combines knowledge and experiences obtained from previous in situ soil remediations. The aim of this model is to optimise knowledge transfer among the various parties involved in contaminated site management. Structured

  20. DEMONSTRATION OF ELECTROCHEMICAL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES-INDUCED COMPLEXATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry L. Burks

    2002-12-01

    The Project Team is submitting this Topical Report on the results of its bench-scale demonstration of ElectroChemical Remediation Technologies (ECRTs) and in particular the Induced Complexation (ECRTs-IC) process for remediation of mercury contaminated soils at DOE Complex sites. ECRTs is an innovative, in-situ, geophysically based soil remediation technology with over 50 successful commercial site applications involving remediation of over two million metric tons of contaminated soils. ECRTs-IC has been successfully used to remediate 220 cu m of mercury-contaminated sediments in the Union Canal, Scotland. In that operation, ECRTs-IC reduced sediment total mercury levels from an average of 243 mg/kg to 6 mg/kg in 26 days of operation. The clean up objective was to achieve an average total mercury level in the sediment of 20 mg/kg.

  1. Installation of an innovative remedial technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, B.

    1995-01-01

    The major goal of the Lasagna trademark project was to design, construct, install, and operate an in situ remediation system in low-permeability soil. A new technology--the Lasagna process--uses electro-osmosis to move contaminated groundwater through treatment zones. The treatment zones are installed in contaminated soils, thereby forming an integrated in situ remedial process. Electro-osmosis, well known for its effectiveness and extremely low power consumption, uses a direct current to cause Groundwater to travel through low-permeability soil. When a bench-scale version of the technology was 98 percent effective in removing contamination, an actual field test was the next step. The site chosen for this first field effort was the DOE-owned Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant located in Paducah, Kentucky. The target contaminant for this project was trichloroethylene (TCE) because it is found at many sites across the country and is present at approximately 60 percent of DOE's sites

  2. BIOREGIS software platform based on GIS technology to support in-situ remediation of petroleum contaminated sites. Case study: razvad - dambovita county, Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anicai, Ovidiu [Institute for Computers - ITC SA, Bucharest (Romania); Anicai, Liana [PSV COMPANY SA, Direction of Research, Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-12-15

    With a need for the management of petroleum contaminated sites on Romanian territory, an experimental software platform involving ESRI-ArcGIS technologies (BIOREGIS) is presented in this study. The BIOREGIS platform is aimed to: (i) Build the structure of relational, standardized databases to store spatial and textual characteristic information on polluted sites for further risk analysis and planning of remediation actions, (ii) improve the pollution risk assessment methodology for Romanian petroleum contaminated sites and its informatics implementation, and (iii) develop and operate the software platform for pollution risk based management involving GIS/remote sensing technologies and remediation activities. The operation of BIOREGIS has been tested for a pilot contaminated area situated at Razvad - Dambovita County, which has been subjected to in situ remediation procedures involving both bioremediation and electrokinetic processes. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Technologies for remediating radioactively contaminated land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearl, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of technologies that can be used for the remediation of radioactively contaminated ground. There are a wide variety of techniques available -most have established track records for contaminated ground, though in general many are only just being adapted to use for radioactively contaminated ground. 1) Remediation techniques for radioactively contaminated ground involve either removal of the contamination and transfer to a controlled/contained facility such as the national LLW repository at Drigg, or 2) immobilization, solidification and stabilization of the contamination where the physical nature of the soil is changed, or an 'agent' is added to the soil, to reduce the migration of the contaminants, or 3) isolation and containment of the contaminated ground to reduce contaminant migration and control potential detrimental effects to human health. Where contamination has to be removed, ex situ and in situ techniques are available which minimize the waste requiring disposal to an LLW repository. These techniques include: 1) detector-based segregation 2) soil washing by particle separations 3) oil washing with chemical leaching agents 4) electro remediation 5) phyto remediation. Although many technologies are potentially applicable, their application to the remediation of a specific contaminated site is dependent on a number of factors and related to detailed site characterization studies, results from development trials and BPEO (best practicable environmental option) studies. Those factors considered of particular importance are: 1) the clean-up target 2) technical feasibility relative to the particular site, soil and contaminant characteristics, and time frame 3) site infrastructure arrangements and needs, the working life of the site and the duration of institutional care 4) long-term monitoring arrangements for slow remedial techniques or for immobilization and containment techniques 5) validation of the remediation 6) health and

  4. Remediation of SRS Basins by In Situ Stabilization/Solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, A.

    1999-01-01

    In the late summer of 1998, the Savannah River Site began remediation of two radiologically contaminated basins using in situ stabilization. These two high-risk, unlined basins contain radiological contaminants, which potentially pose significant risks to human health and the environment. The selected remedy involves in situ stabilization/solidification of the contaminated wastes (basin and pipeline soils, pipelines, vegetation, and other debris) followed by installation of a low permeability soil cover

  5. Cost studies of thermally enhanced in situ soil remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremser, J.; Booth, S.R.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes five thermally enhanced technologies that may be used to remediate contaminated soil and water resources. The standard methods of treating these contaminated areas are Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE), Excavate ampersand Treat (E ampersand T), and Pump ampersand Treat (P ampersand T). Depending on the conditions at a given site, one or more of these conventional alternatives may be employed; however, several new thermally enhanced technologies for soil decontamination are emerging. These technologies are still in demonstration programs which generally are showing great success at achieving the expected remediation results. The cost savings reported in this work assume that the technologies will ultimately perform as anticipated by their developers in a normal environmental restoration work environment. The five technologies analyzed in this report are Low Frequency Heating (LF or Ohmic, both 3 and 6 phase AC), Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS), Radio Frequency Heating (RF), Radio Frequency Heating using Dipole Antennae (RFD), and Thermally Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES). In all of these technologies the introduction of heat to the formation raises vapor pressures accelerating contaminant evaporation rates and increases soil permeability raising diffusion rates of contaminants. The physical process enhancements resulting from temperature elevations permit a greater percentage of volatile organic compound (VOC) or semi- volatile organic compound (SVOC) contaminants to be driven out of the soils for treatment or capture in a much shorter time period. This report presents the results of cost-comparative studies between these new thermally enhanced technologies and the conventional technologies, as applied to five specific scenarios

  6. Development and applications of groundwater remediation technologies in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelona, Michael J.

    2005-03-01

    The future of the development and application of groundwater remediation technologies will unfold in an atmosphere of heightened public concern and attention. Cleanup policy will undergo incremental change towards more comprehensive efforts which account for the impact of remediation on nearby resources. Newly discovered contaminants will cause the re-examination of "mature" technologies since they may be persistent, mobile and difficult to treat in-situ. Evaluations of the effectiveness of remedial technologies will eventually include by-product formation, geochemical consequences and sustainability. Long-term field trials of remedial technologies alone can provide the data necessary to support claims of effectiveness. Dans le futur, le développement et les applications des technologies de traitement des eaux souterraines seront déroulés en tenant compte de l'inquiétude et l'attention croissante de l'opinion publique. La politique de nettoyage va subir un changement vers des efforts plus compréhensifs qui prendront en compte l'impact du traitement sur les ressources voisines. Les nouveaux contaminants seront persistants, mobiles et difficile de traiter in situ; par conséquence ils vont provoquer la reexamination des technologies consacrées. L'évaluation de l'efficacité des technologies de traitement doit considérer l'apparition des produits secondaires ainsi que les conséquences géochimiques et le développement durable. Seulement les essais in situ, pendant des longues périodes sur les technologies peuvent fournir les éléments nécessaires pour démontrer leur efficacité. El futuro del desarrollo y de la aplicación de las tecnologías para la recuperación del agua subterránea, se revelará en una atmósfera de gran atención e interés público elevado. La política de limpieza sufrirá un cambio adicional hacia esfuerzos más tangibles, los cuales incluyan el impacto de la recuperación en los recursos circundantes. Los contaminantes

  7. Evaluation methods for assessing effectiveness of in situ remediation of soil and sediment contaminated with organic pollutants and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Biao; Zeng, Guangming; Gong, Jilai; Liang, Jie; Xu, Piao; Liu, Zhifeng; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Chen; Cheng, Min; Liu, Yang; Ye, Shujing; Yi, Huan; Ren, Xiaoya

    2017-08-01

    Soil and sediment contamination has become a critical issue worldwide due to its great harm to the ecological environment and public health. In recent years, many remediation technologies including physical, chemical, biological, and combined methods have been proposed and adopted for the purpose of solving the problems of soil and sediment contamination. However, current research on evaluation methods for assessing these remediation technologies is scattered and lacks valid and integrated evaluation methods for assessing the remediation effectiveness. This paper provides a comprehensive review with an environmental perspective on the evaluation methods for assessing the effectiveness of in situ remediation of soil and sediment contaminated with organic pollutants and heavy metals. The review systematically summarizes recent exploration and attempts of the remediation effectiveness assessment based on the content of pollutants, soil and sediment characteristics, and ecological risks. Moreover, limitations and future research needs of the practical assessment are discussed. These limitations are not conducive to the implementation of the abatement and control programs for soil and sediment contamination. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the evaluation methods for assessing the remediation effectiveness while developing new in situ remediation technologies in future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In situ remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Marozas, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to develop cost-efficient techniques for remediating uranium contaminated groundwater at DOE Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites nationwide, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) deployed a pilot scale research project at an UMTRA site in Durango, CO. Implementation included design, construction, and subsequent monitoring of an in situ passive reactive barrier to remove Uranium from the tailings pile effluent. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment various forms of metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. Conceptually the iron media reduces and/or adsorbs uranium in situ to acceptable regulatory levels. In addition, other metals such as Se, Mo, and As have been removed by the reductive/adsorptive process. The primary objective of the experiment was to eliminate the need for surface treatment of tailing pile effluent. Experimental design, and laboratory and field results are discussed with regard to other potential contaminated groundwater treatment applications

  9. Utilization of waste materials, non-refined materials, and renewable energy in in situ remediation and their sustainability benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favara, Paul; Gamlin, Jeff

    2017-12-15

    In the ramp-up to integrating sustainability into remediation, a key industry focus area has been to reduce the environmental footprint of treatment processes. The typical approach to integrating sustainability into remediation projects has been a top-down approach, which involves developing technology options and then applying sustainability thinking to the technology, after it has been conceptualized. A bottom-up approach allows for systems thinking to be included in remedy selection and could potentially result in new or different technologies being considered. When using a bottom-up approach, there is room to consider the utilization of waste materials, non-refined materials, and renewable energy in remediation technology-all of which generally have a smaller footprint than processed materials and traditional forms of energy. By integrating more systems thinking into remediation projects, practitioners can think beyond the traditional technologies typically used and how technologies are deployed. To compare top-down and bottom-up thinking, a traditional technology that is considered very sustainable-enhanced in situ bioremediation-is compared to a successful, but infrequently deployed technology-subgrade biogeochemical reactors. Life Cycle Assessment is used for the evaluation and shows the footprint of the subgrade biogeochemical reactor to be lower in all seven impact categories evaluated, sometimes to a significant degree. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An Expert support model for ex situ soil remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okx, J.P.; Frankhuizen, E.M.; Wit, de J.C.; Pijls, C.G.J.M.; Stein, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an expert support model recombining knowledge and experience obtained during ex situ soil remediation. To solve soil remediation problems, an inter-disciplinary approach is required. Responsibilities during the soil remediation process, however, are increasingly decentralised,

  11. Proceedings of the remediation technologies symposium 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This conference reviewed the latest innovations regarding the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil and groundwater, with considerable information dedicated to the field of industrial pollutant treatments. Some topics and case studies covered in the presentations included both in-situ treatment and ex-situ treatment methods; biological and non-biological treatment methods; thermal desorption; multi-phase extraction; detoxification; environmental management; hydrocarbon contamination stabilization; and unique and challenging locations. The conference featured 3 workshops addressing innovative solutions for federal contaminated sites; technology funding options; and use of chemistry in land reclamation. The technical sessions were entitled: bioremediation; military sites and gun ranges; an update on technology from the Netherlands; Sydney tar ponds update and the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) green municipal fund; in-situ treatment methods; phytoremediation and natural attenuation; solidification/stabilization; vapour management; extraction; unique situations; Alberta Environment updates; framework and tools; and investigations. The conference featured 68 presentations, of which 16 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  12. Development of an integrated, in-situ remediation technology. Topical report for task No. 5: Cost analysis, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinton, G.; Schultz, D.; Landis, R.

    1997-01-01

    Contamination in low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivering treatment reagents have rendered existing in situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. The Lasagna trademark technology is an integrated in situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly into the contaminated soil and electro-osmosis if utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. This topical report presents the results of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis of the vertically configured treatment process completed by the DuPont Company. The cost evaluation was prepared by developing a cost optimization model of the overall treatment process. This model considers various input parameters such as soil properties, depth of contamination, cost for emplacing electrodes and treatment zones, required purge water volume, time constraints to achieve cleanup, and cost of power. Several example cases were run using the cost model to provide representative cost ranges for applying the technology to clean up trichloroethene contamination in clay. These costs are estimated to range from $40 to $95 per cubic yard of soil for a 1-acre site, with cost depending on depth of contamination (cost range valid from 15 to 45 ft), method of electrode/treatment zone emplacement (cost range valid from 15 to 45 ft), method of electrode/treatment zone emplacement (cost range valid for Lasagna trademark Phase I emplacement and optimized emplacement techniques), and time available to complete remediation (cost range valid for one- and three-year timeframe)

  13. Fiscal 2000 report of investigation. Survey on technological trend concerning in si-tu remediation technology of contaminated soil; 2000 nendo osen dojo no gen'ichi joka gijutsu ni kakawaru gijutsu doko chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In connection with contamination of soil and ground water, a survey was made on domestic patent information and existing literature or the like, in view of remediation technologies capable of in si-tu or on-site treatment, with arrangement and classification carried out by the method of cleaning contaminants. Arranged and classified were 209 pieces in the patent information, and 145 pieces in the literature from Geo-Environmental Protection Center, an incorporated body. In the methods of extracting contaminants from under the ground, the majority was the methods of pumping up ground water and those of excavating and removing. In the methods of cleaning contaminants, those of 'separation by heat', 'separation/decomposition method using water' and 'suction of gases' are found roughly in equal numbers. In the trend of the patent information, remediation technologies have started in 1990's, while bio-remediation as well as technologies of separation/decomposition through water is still increasing in the number of applications. Meantime, solidification technologies reached a peak around 1998 and have been decreasing in recent years. In the technologies of late, combinations of plural cleaning methods are also seen for the purpose of dealing with contamination with high to low concentration and compound contamination including organo-chloric compounds, heavy metals, etc. (NEDO)

  14. Implementation of in situ vitrification technology for remediation of Oak Ridge contaminated soil sites: Past results and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tixier, J.S.; Powell, T.D.; Spalding, B.P.; Jacobs, G.K.

    1993-02-01

    In situ vitrification is a thermal treatment technology being developed for remediation of contaminated soils. The process transforms easily leached, contaminated soils into a durable, leach-resistant. vitreous and crystalline monolith. This paper presents the results of the recent highly successful ISV demonstration conducted jointly by PNL and ORNL on a tracer-level quantity of radioactive sludge in a model trench at ORNL. A retention of 90 r in the vitreous and crystalline product of greater than 99.9999% was measured with a reduction in potential environmental mobility of more than two orders of magnitude. The paper also presents the current plans for continued collaboration on a two-setting treatability test on one portion of an old seepage pit at ORNL

  15. Electrokinetic remediation - a new process for in-situ remediation of polluted land used as construction terrain; Elektrokinetische Bodensanierung - Ein neues Verfahren fuer die in-situ Sanierung bebauter Altlaststandorte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haus, R. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Geologie

    1998-12-31

    Electrokinetic Remediation is a coming up technology for the clean up of contaminated sites based on the electrokinetic phenomena in fine grained sediments. The following investigations offer theoretical and experimental consideration about the dependence of electrokinetic remediation techniques on the clay mineralogical composition of various clays. Finally, laboratory tests on the electroosmotic remediation of a chromate contaminated loess loam are presented. Different voltages applied led to important changes in the direction of chromate transport. When using low voltage (1 V) chromate transport was in the direction of water flow, and an increase of chromate in the effluent of the cathode could be measured. In contrast the application of high voltages up to 30 V changed the transport mechanism and high concentrations of chromate chould be detected in the anode reservoir. The results show that the clay mineral composition and the applied electric field controls the electroosmotic permeability, removal efficiency as well as the transport mechanism of the electrokinetic remediation technology in fine grained sediments. (orig.) [Deutsch] Elektrokinetische Verfahren werden in der Geotechnik zur Entwaesserung, Boeschungsstabilisierung und Bodenverbesserung von bindigen Sedimenten eingesetzt. Unter dem sanierungstechnischen Aspekt von kontaminierten Altlaststandorten ermoeglichen elektrokinetische Prozesse erstmals eine gezielte Mobilisierung von Schadstoffen (Schwermetalle, organische Verbindungen) auch in feinkoernigen Gesteinen. Entscheidend ist hierbei die Moeglichkeit eines in situ-Einsatzes unter Vermeidung des Bodenaushubes. Die vorliegenden Untersuchungen vertiefen in theoretischen und versuchstechnischen Betrachtungen die Abhaengigkeit elektrokinetischer Sanierungsverfahren von der tonmineralogischen Zusammensetzung bindiger Gesteine. Oberflaechenladung und Oberflaechenpotential ausgewaehlter Tonminerale werden quantifiziert und den Ergebnissen aus

  16. Electrical imaging of subsurface nanoparticle propagation for in-situ groundwater remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Orozco, Adrián; Gallistl, Jakob; Schmid, Doris; Micic Batka, Vesna; Bücker, Matthias; Hofmann, Thilo

    2017-04-01

    Application of nanoparticles has emerged as a promising in situ remediation technology for the remediation of contaminated groundwater, particularly for areas difficult to access by other remediation techniques. The performance of nanoparticle injections, as a foremost step within this technology, is usually assessed through the geochemical analysis of soil and groundwater samples. This approach is not well suited for a real-time monitoring, and often suffers from a poor spatio-temporal resolution and only provides information from areas close to the sampling points. To overcome these limitations we propose the application of non-invasive Induced Polarization (IP) imaging, a geophysical method that provides information on the electrical properties of the subsurface. The analysis of temporal changes in the electrical images allows tracking the propagation of the injected nanoparticle suspension and detection of the induced bio-geochemical changes in the subsurface. Here, we present IP monitoring results for data collected during the injection of Nano-Goethite particles (NGP) used for simulation of biodegradation of a BTEX plume (i.e., benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) at the Spolchemie II site, CZ. Frequency-domain IP measurements were collected parallel to the groundwater flow direction and centred on the NGP injection point. Pre-injection imaging results revealed high electrical conductivities (> 10 S/m) and negligible polarization effects in the BTEX-contaminated part of the saturated zone (below 5 m depth). The apparently contradictory observation - BTEX compounds are poor electrical conductors - can be explained by the release of carbonic acids (a metabolic by-product of the biodegradation of hydrocarbons), which leads to an increase of the electrical conductivity. Post-injection images revealed a significant decrease (> 50%) of the electrical conductivity, with even larger changes in the proximity of the injection points, most likely due to the

  17. Fiscal 2000 report of investigation. Survey on technological trend concerning in si-tu remediation technology of contaminated soil; 2000 nendo osen dojo no gen'ichi joka gijutsu ni kakawaru gijutsu doko chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In connection with contamination of soil and ground water, a survey was made on domestic patent information and existing literature or the like, in view of remediation technologies capable of in si-tu or on-site treatment, with arrangement and classification carried out by the method of cleaning contaminants. Arranged and classified were 209 pieces in the patent information, and 145 pieces in the literature from Geo-Environmental Protection Center, an incorporated body. In the methods of extracting contaminants from under the ground, the majority was the methods of pumping up ground water and those of excavating and removing. In the methods of cleaning contaminants, those of 'separation by heat', 'separation/decomposition method using water' and 'suction of gases' are found roughly in equal numbers. In the trend of the patent information, remediation technologies have started in 1990's, while bio-remediation as well as technologies of separation/decomposition through water is still increasing in the number of applications. Meantime, solidification technologies reached a peak around 1998 and have been decreasing in recent years. In the technologies of late, combinations of plural cleaning methods are also seen for the purpose of dealing with contamination with high to low concentration and compound contamination including organo-chloric compounds, heavy metals, etc. (NEDO)

  18. Laboratory open-quotes proof of principleclose quotes investigation for the acoustically enhanced remediation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iovenitti, J.L.; Spencer, J.W.; Hill, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes a three phase program of Weiss Associates which investigates the systematics of using acoustic excitation fields (AEFs) to enhance the in-situ remediation of contaminated soil and ground water under both saturated and unsaturated conditions. The focus in this particular paper is a laboratory proof of principle investigation. The field deployment and engineering viability of acoustically enhanced remediation technology is also examined

  19. Diagnostic Tools for Performance Evaluation of Innovative In-Situ Remediation Technologies at Chlorinated Solvent-Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    isotope analysis. II International Seminar on In-Situ Remediation of Contaminated Sites, Sao Paulo , Brazil , November 3-5, 2003. Hunkeler, D., R...the contami- nated area. Phase 2 was a longer-term permanganate delivery designed to flood certain areas with sufficient permanganate to evaluate...KMnO4 injections into MW-65 and MW-71 (see Exhibit 4) in April, May, and June 2002, with the purpose of flooding these areas and achieving KMnO4 diffusion

  20. The remediation of heavy metals contaminated sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian-Feng; Song, Yong-Hui; Yuan, Peng; Cui, Xiao-Yu; Qiu, Guang-Lei

    2009-01-30

    Heavy metal contamination has become a worldwide problem through disturbing the normal functions of rivers and lakes. Sediment, as the largest storage and resources of heavy metal, plays a rather important role in metal transformations. This paper provides a review on the geochemical forms, affecting factors and remediation technologies of heavy metal in sediment. The in situ remediation of sediment aims at increasing the stabilization of some metals such as the mobile and the exchangeable fractions; whereas, the ex situ remediation mainly aims at removing those potentially mobile metals, such as the Mn-oxides and the organic matter (OM) fraction. The pH and OM can directly change metals distribution in sediment; however oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), mainly through changing the pH values, indirectly alters metals distribution. Mainly ascribed to their simple operation mode, low costs and fast remediation effects, in situ remediation technologies, especially being fit for slight pollution sediment, are applied widely. However, for avoiding metal secondary pollution from sediment release, ex situ remediation should be the hot point in future research.

  1. Selection of innovative technologies for the remediation of soils contaminated with radioactive and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steude, J.; Tucker, B.

    1991-01-01

    The remediation of sites containing radioactive and mixed wastes is in a period of rapid growth. The state of the art of remediation is progressing to handle the shortcomings of conventional pump and treat or disposal technologies. The objective of this paper is to review the status of selected innovative technologies which treat soils contaminated with radioactive and mixed waste. Technologies are generally classified as innovative if they are fully developed, but lack sufficient cost or performance data for comparison with conventional technologies. The Environmental Protection Agency recommends inclusion of innovative technologies in the RI/FS screening process if there is reason to believe that they would offer advantages in performance, implementability, cost, etc. This paper serves as a compilation of the pertinent information necessary to gain an overview of the selected innovative technologies to aid in the RI/F'S screening process. The innovative technologies selected for evaluation are listed below. Bioremediation, although innovative, was not included due to the combination of the vast amount of literature on this subject and the limited scope of this project. 1. Soil washing and flushing; 2. Low temperature thermal treatment; 3. Electrokinetics; 4. Infrared incineration; 5. Ultrasound; 6. In situ vitrification; 7. Soil vapor extraction; 8. Plasma torch slagging; 9. In situ hot air/steam extraction; 10. Cyclone reactor treatment; 11. In situ radio frequency; 12. Vegetative radionuclide uptake; and 13. In situ soil heating. The information provided on each technology includes a technical description, status, summary of results including types of contaminants and soils treated, technical effectiveness, feasibility and estimated cost

  2. In-situ and on-site technologies; An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freestone, F J [Technical Support Branch, ORD, RREL, U.S. EPA, Edison, New Jersey (US)

    1990-01-01

    A broad analysis of and perspective on the characteristics and measured performance of in-situ and on-site treatment technologies available for remediation of contaminated soils, groundwater and associated debris at hazardous waste sites. Included in the analysis is information from U.S. and European sources. Available data are appended from nine recently completed field demonstrations from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. The most frequently applied technology areas appear to be on-site thermal treatment for organics, on-site and in-situ solidification/stabilization technologies for most inorganics and metals, traditional on-site water treatment techniques, and soil vapor extraction for volatile organic compounds. Rapidly developing areas include bioremediation technologies, and concentration technologies. Two of the weakest areas include materials handling for such situations as excavating buried drums and soils with volatiles safely, and performing physical and chemical site characterization using technology-sensitive parameters. An area worthy of international cooperatin is that of performing benchscale screening and treatability studies, including the specification of key parameters needing measurement, techniques for such measurement and for interpretation, storage and retrieval of resulting data. We are in the process of evaluating existing treatability study data on soils and debris, and will be installing that data onto an on-line information system available to the public world-wide. (AB) 10 refs.

  3. Overview of Chromium Remediation Technology Evaluations At The Hanford Site, Richland Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, J. G.; Hanson, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    This paper will present an overview of the different technologies and the results to date for optimizing and improving the remediation of Cr+6 in the soil and groundwater at the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site, par of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)nuclear weapons complex, encompasses approximately 586 square miles in southeast Washington State. The Columbia River flows through the site (Hanford Reach.) Reactors were located along the Hanford Reach as part of the production process. Sodium dichromate was used as a corrosion inhibitor in the cooling water for the reactors. As a result chromium (Cr+6) is present in the soil and groundwater. Since the mid 90's interim groundwater pump and treat systems have been in place to try and contain or mitigate the migration of contaminated groundwater into the Columbia River. The primary concern being the protection of aquatic spawning habitat for salmon and other species. In order to improve the effectiveness of the remedial actions a number of different technologies have been evaluated and/or deployed. These include, permeable reactive barriers, in-situ bio-stimulation, in-situ chemical reduction, zero-valent iron injection and evaluation of improved above ground treatment technologies. An overview of the technologies and results to date are presented.

  4. Enhancement of in situ Remediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmroth, M.

    2006-07-01

    Approximately 750 000 sites of contaminated land exist across Europe. The harmful chemicals found in Finnish soils include heavy metals, oil products, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorophenols, and pesticides. Petroleum and petroleum products enter soil from ruptured oil pipelines, land disposal of refinery products, leaking storage tanks and through accidents. PAH contamination is caused by the spills of coal tar and creosote from coal gasification and wood treatment sites in addition to oil spills. Cleanup of soil by bioremediation is cheaper than by chemical and physical processes. However, the cleaning capacity of natural attenuation and in situ bioremediation is limited. The purpose of this thesis was to find feasible options to enhance in situ remediation of hydrocarbon contaminants. The aims were to increase the bioavailability of the contaminants and microbial activity at the subsurface in order to achieve higher contaminant removal efficiency than by intrinsic biodegradation alone. Enhancement of microbial activity and decrease of soil toxicity during remediation were estimated by using several biological assays. The performance of these assays was compared in order to find suitable indicators to follow the progress of remediation. Phytoremediation and chemical oxidation are promising in situ techniques to increase the degradation of hydrocarbons in soil. Phytoremediation is plant-enhanced decontamination of soil and water. Degradation of hydrocarbons is enhanced in the root zone by increased microbial activity and through the detoxifying enzymes of plants themselves. Chemical oxidation of contaminants by Fenton's reaction can produce degradation products which are more biodegradable than the parent compounds. Fenton's reaction and its modifications apply solutions of hydrogen peroxide and iron for the oxidation of organic chemicals. The cost of oxidation can be reduced by aiming at partial instead of full

  5. In-situ bioremediation via horizontal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazen, T.C.; Looney, B.B.; Enzien, M.; Franck, M.M.; Fliermans, C.B.; Eddy, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    This project is designed to demonstrate in situ bioremediation of groundwater and sediment contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Indigenous microorganisms were stimulated to degrade TCE, PCE and their daughter products in situ by addition of nutrients to the contaminated zone. In situ biodegradation is a highly attractive technology for remediation because contaminants are destroyed, not simply moved to another location or immobilized, thus decreasing costs, risks, and time, while increasing efficiency and public and regulatory acceptability. Bioremediation has been found to be among the least costly technologies in applications where it will work (Radian 1989). Subsurface soils and water adjacent to an abandoned process sewer line at the SRS have been found to have elevated levels of TCE (Marine and Bledsoe 1984). This area of subsurface and groundwater contamination is the focus of a current integrated demonstration of new remediation technologies utilizing horizontal wells. Bioremediation has the potential to enhance the performance of in situ air stripping as well as offering stand-alone remediation of this and other contaminated sites (Looney et al. 1991). Horizontal wells could also be used to enhance the recovery of groundwater contaminants for bioreactor conversions from deep or inaccessible areas (e.g., under buildings) and to enhance the distribution of nutrient or microbe additions in an in situ bioremediation

  6. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: IN SITU ELECTROKINETIC EXTRACTION SYSTEM - SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed an in situ soil remediation system that uses electrokinetic principles to remediate hexavalent chromium-contaminated unsaturated or partially saturated soils. The technology involves the in situ application of direct current to the...

  7. Assessment of a biological in situ remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuerdemann, H.; Lund, N.C.; Gudehus, G.

    1995-01-01

    A field experiment using a bioventing technique has been conducted at the center of contamination at a former gasworks site for 3 years. The emphasis of this investigation is to determine the efficiency of in situ remediation. Due to an extremely heterogeneous distribution of contamination it was impossible to satisfactorily quantify the reduction of hydrocarbons. However, a comparison of highly contaminated soil samples shows a qualitative alteration. The analyses of pollutant composition reveal a significant decrease of low condensed PAHs up to anthracene. The relative increase of high condensed PAHs in the contaminant composition indicates a PAH degradation of 54%. Soil respiration is used to assess the course of remediation. Continuous monitoring of O 2 and CO 2 in the used air leads to an amount of about 2,400 kg of decomposed organics. Large-scale elution tests show a reduction of the sum parameters for the organic pollution of the flushing water of 80%. The PAHs have dropped about 97%. The Microtox test indicates a detoxification of 98%

  8. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part A, Remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part A of Volume 3 and contains the Remedial Action section

  9. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part A, Remedial action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part A of Volume 3 and contains the Remedial Action section.

  10. Case studies illustrating in-situ remediation methods for soil and groundwater contaminated with petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Robert A; Lance, P E; Downs, A; Kier, Brian P [EMCON Northwest Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Four case studies of successful in-situ remediation are summarized illustrating cost-effective methods to remediate soil and groundwater contaminated with volatile and non-volatile petrochemicals. Each site is in a different geologic environment with varying soil types and with and without groundwater impact. The methods described include vadose zone vapor extraction, high-vacuum vapor extraction combined with groundwater tab.le depression, air sparging with groundwater recovery and vapor extraction, and bio remediation of saturated zone soils using inorganic nutrient and oxygen addition

  11. Case studies illustrating in-situ remediation methods for soil and groundwater contaminated with petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Robert A.; Lance, P.E.; Downs, A.; Kier, Brian P. [EMCON Northwest Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Four case studies of successful in-situ remediation are summarized illustrating cost-effective methods to remediate soil and groundwater contaminated with volatile and non-volatile petrochemicals. Each site is in a different geologic environment with varying soil types and with and without groundwater impact. The methods described include vadose zone vapor extraction, high-vacuum vapor extraction combined with groundwater tab.le depression, air sparging with groundwater recovery and vapor extraction, and bio remediation of saturated zone soils using inorganic nutrient and oxygen addition

  12. Remediation by in-situ solidification/stabilisation of Ardeer landfill, Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyllie, M.; Esnault, A.; Barker, P.

    1997-01-01

    The Ardeer Landfill site at ICI Explosives factory on the west coast of Scotland had been a repository for waste from the site for 40 years. In order to safeguard the local environment ICI Explosives, with approval of Local Authorities and the Clyde River Purification Board put into action a programme of investigation and planning which culminated in the in-situ treatment of 10,000 m3 of waste within the landfill by a deep mixing method using the open-quotes Colmixclose quotes system. The paper describes in varying degrees of detail the remediation from investigation to the execution of the in-situ stabilisation and presents the post construction monitoring results

  13. New technologies in decommissioning and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    New and emerging technologies are making decommissioning and remediation more cost effective, faster and safer. From planning to execution and control, the use of new technologies is on the rise. Before starting decommissioning or environmental remediation, experts need to plan each step of the process, and to do that, they first need a clear idea of the characteristics of the structure and the level of radiation that they can expect to encounter

  14. In situ vitrification: Application to buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callow, R.A.; Thompson, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Two in situ vitrification field tests were conducted in June and July 1990 at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification is a technology for in-place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form and is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to assess the general suitability of the process to remediate buried waste structures found at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests were designed as part of a treatability study to provide essential information on field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes, and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology provided valuable operational control for successfully processing the high metal content waste. The results indicate that in situ vitrification is a feasible technology for application to buried waste. 2 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Biological technologies for the remediation of co-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shujing; Zeng, Guangming; Wu, Haipeng; Zhang, Chang; Dai, Juan; Liang, Jie; Yu, Jiangfang; Ren, Xiaoya; Yi, Huan; Cheng, Min; Zhang, Chen

    2017-12-01

    Compound contamination in soil, caused by unreasonable waste disposal, has attracted increasing attention on a global scale, particularly since multiple heavy metals and/or organic pollutants are entering natural ecosystem through human activities, causing an enormous threat. The remediation of co-contaminated soil is more complicated and difficult than that of single contamination, due to the disparate remediation pathways utilized for different types of pollutants. Several modern remediation technologies have been developed for the treatment of co-contaminated soil. Biological remediation technologies, as the eco-friendly methods, have received widespread concern due to soil improvement besides remediation. This review summarizes the application of biological technologies, which contains microbial technologies (function microbial remediation and composting or compost addition), biochar, phytoremediation technologies, genetic engineering technologies and biochemical technologies, for the remediation of co-contaminated soil with heavy metals and organic pollutants. Mechanisms of these technologies and their remediation efficiencies are also reviewed. Based on this study, this review also identifies the future research required in this field.

  16. Use of in-situ Dual Vacuum Extraction trademark for remediation of soil and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, M.E.; Trowbridge, B.E.; Ott, D.

    1994-01-01

    Dual Vacuum Extraction trademark provides a rapid and cost-effective method of remediating soil and ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds. The system involves the removal of both water and vapors through the same borehole by use of entrainment. This technology provides for the remediation of the vadose zone, capillary fringe, smear zone, and existing water table. The effectiveness of this technology is shown in a case study. A release from an underground storage tank was responsible for a hydrocarbon plume spreading over approximately 50,000 ft 2 . The release produced vadose-zone contamination in the silty and sandy clays from 10 to 30 ft below ground surface (bgs) with total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations up to 1,400 mg/kg. In addition, a layer of free-floating liquid hydrocarbon was present on a shallow aquifer located at 25 ft bgs in thicknesses ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 ft. An in-situ dual-extraction system was installed to remediate the soils and ground water to levels as required by the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB). The system operated 24 hr a day, with an operating efficiency of over 99%. After 196 days (28 weeks), over 17,000 lb of hydrocarbons had been extracted from the soils. Seven confirmatory soil borings in the area of highest initial hydrocarbon concentrations indicated that TPH and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX) concentrations had decreased over 99% from initial soil concentrations

  17. Contamination-remedying technology based on biotechnology. ; Bioremediation. Biotechnology wo mochiita osen shufuku gijutsu. ; Bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, M [The Japan Research Institute, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1993-08-01

    Bioremediation technology is outlined. The bioremediation technology is a contamination-remedying technology for the injurious chemical matter discharged in the environment to be made innocuous by utilizing the decomposing ability of microorganisms. That technology is characterized by its energywise economical performance, secondary waste which is not producible and remedy which is possible on site against the contamination. As a treatment system, that technology comprises solid phase bioremediation (The contaminated soil is purified in a soil treatment unit.), slurry phase bioremediation (The contaminated soil is made slurry and decomposed by microorganisms.) and in-situ bioremediation (The treatment is made by injecting nutrients and microorganisms underground.). As for how to use the microorganisms, there are two methods: One in which living groups of microorganisms are activated and the other in which microorganisms are artificially cultivated. As contaminants in the US, listed are organic solvent, wood preservative, high-molecular aromatic halide, agricultural chemical, military waste, heavy metal waste and radioactive waste. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Y-12 Plant Remedial Action technology logic diagram. Volume I: Technology evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Program addresses remediation of the contaminated groundwater, surface water and soil in the following areas located on the Oak Ridge Reservation: Chestnut Ridge, Bear Creek Valley, the Upper and Lower East Fork Popular Creek Watersheds, CAPCA 1, which includes several areas in which remediation has been completed, and CAPCA 2, which includes dense nonaqueous phase liquid wells and a storage facility. There are many facilities within these areas that are contaminated by uranium, mercury, organics, and other materials. This Technology Logic Diagram identifies possible remediation technologies that can be applied to the soil, water, and contaminants for characterization, treatment, and waste management technology options are supplemented by identification of possible robotics or automation technologies. These would facilitate the cleanup effort by improving safety, of remediation, improving the final remediation product, or decreasing the remediation cost. The Technology Logic Diagram was prepared by a diverse group of more than 35 scientists and engineers from across the Oak Ridge Reservation. Most are specialists in the areas of their contributions. 22 refs., 25 tabs

  19. Monitoring of In-Situ Remediation By Time Lapse 3D Geo-Electric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanli, A. I.; Tildy, P.; Neducza, B.; Nagy, P.; Hegymegi, C.

    2017-12-01

    Injection of chemical oxidant solution to degrade the subsurface contaminants can be used for hydrocarbon contamination remediation. In this study, we developed a non-destructive measurement strategy to monitor oxidative in-situ remediation processes. The difficulties of the presented study originate from the small volume of conductive solution that can be used due to environmental considerations. Due to the effect of conductive groundwater and the high clay content of the targeted layer and the small volume of conductive solution that can be used due to environmental considerations, a site specific synthetic modelling is necessary for measurement design involving the results of preliminary 2D ERT measurements, electrical conductivity measurements of different active agents and expected resistivity changes calculated by soil resistivity modelling. Because of chemical biodegradation, the results of soil resistivity modelling have suggested that the reagent have complex effects on contaminated soils. As a result the plume of resistivity changes caused by the injected agent was determined showing strong fracturing effect because of the high pressure of injection. 3D time-lapse geo-electric measurements were proven to provide a usable monitoring tool for in-situ remediation as a result of our sophisticated tests and synthetic modelling.

  20. Guidelines for active spreading during in situ chemical oxidation to remediate contaminated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of in situ chemical oxidation to remediate contaminated aquifers depends on the extent and duration of contact between the injected treatment chemical and the groundwater contaminant (the reactants). Techniques that inject and extract in the aquifer to ‘ac...

  1. X-231A demonstration of in-situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media by soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or reactive barrier destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegrist, R.L.; Slack, W.W.; Houk, T.C.

    1998-03-01

    The overall goal of the program of activities is to demonstrate robust and cost-effective technologies for in situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media (LPM), including adaptations and enhancements of conventional technologies to achieve improved performance for DNAPLs in LPM. The technologies sought should be potential for application at simple, small sites (e.g., gasoline underground storage tanks) as well as at complex, larger sites (e.g., DOE land treatment units). The technologies involved in the X-231A demonstration at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) utilized subsurface manipulation of the LPM through soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or horizontal barrier in place destruction. To enable field evaluation of these approaches, a set of four test cells was established at the X-231A land treatment unit at the DOE PORTS plant in August 1996 and a series of demonstration field activities occurred through December 1997. The principal objectives of the PORTS X-231A demonstration were to: determine and compare the operational features of hydraulic fractures as an enabling technology for steam and hot air enhanced soil vapor extraction and mass recovery, in situ interception and reductive destruction by zero valent iron, and in situ interception and oxidative destruction by potassium permanganate; determine the interaction of the delivered agents with the LPM matrix adjacent to the fracture and within the fractured zone and assess the beneficial modifications to the transport and/or reaction properties of the LPM deposit; and determine the remediation efficiency achieved by each of the technology strategies

  2. FY-95 technology catalog. Technology development for buried waste remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program, which is now part of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area (LSFA), supports applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies dealing with underground radioactive and hazardous waste remediation. These innovative technologies are being developed as part of integrated comprehensive remediation systems for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste sites throughout the DOE complex. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) and Waste Management (EM-30) needs and objectives. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development (EM-50), BWID and LSFA work with universities and private industry to develop technologies that are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. This report contains the details of the purpose, logic, and methodology used to develop and demonstrate DOE buried waste remediation technologies. It also provides a catalog of technologies and capabilities with development status for potential users. Past FY-92 through FY-94 technology testing, field trials, and demonstrations are summarized. Continuing and new FY-95 technology demonstrations also are described

  3. FY-95 technology catalog. Technology development for buried waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program, which is now part of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area (LSFA), supports applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies dealing with underground radioactive and hazardous waste remediation. These innovative technologies are being developed as part of integrated comprehensive remediation systems for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste sites throughout the DOE complex. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) and Waste Management (EM-30) needs and objectives. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development (EM-50), BWID and LSFA work with universities and private industry to develop technologies that are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. This report contains the details of the purpose, logic, and methodology used to develop and demonstrate DOE buried waste remediation technologies. It also provides a catalog of technologies and capabilities with development status for potential users. Past FY-92 through FY-94 technology testing, field trials, and demonstrations are summarized. Continuing and new FY-95 technology demonstrations also are described.

  4. Ex-Situ Remediation Technologies for Environmental Pollutants: A Critical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Saranya; Palanisami, Thavamani; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Pollution and the global health impacts from toxic environmental pollutants are presently of great concern. At present, more than 100 million people are at risk from exposure to a plethora of toxic organic and inorganic pollutants. This review is an exploration of the ex-situ technologies for cleaning-up the contaminated soil, groundwater and air emissions, highlighting their principles, advantages, deficiencies and the knowledge gaps. Challenges and strategies for removing different types of contaminants, mainly heavy metals and priority organic pollutants, are also described.

  5. Development of an integrated in-situ remediation technology. Topical report for task No. 7 entitled: Development of degradation processes, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackin, M.J.; Heitkamp, M.A.; Ho, Sa V.

    1997-01-01

    Contamination in low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to law permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. The Lasagna technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil and electro-osmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. The general concept of the technology is to use electrokinetics to move contaminants from the soils into open-quotes treatment zonesclose quotes where the contaminants can be removed from the water by either adsorption or degradation. The focus of technical task No. 7 was to optimize the conditions required for electro-osmotic movement of contaminants and microbial degradation in the treatment zones. This topical report summarizes the results of aerobic microbial research performed to evaluate the feasibility of incorporating the chemical-degrading organisms into biotreatment zones in laboratory-scale electro-osmosis units and to demonstrate the combination of electrokinetics and aerobic microbial degradation for the removal of contaminants from clay. Also included in this report are the results of investigating microbial movement during electro-osmosis and studies involving the optimization of the microbial support matrix in the biozone. The Stanford study was conducted in order to obtain a better understanding of rates of anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of TCE to ethylene and of factors affecting these rates in order to determine the potential for application of TCE biodegradation as part of the Lasagna technology

  6. Remediation of uranium in-situ leaching area at Straz Pod Ralskem, Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vokal, Vojtech; Muzak, Jiri; Ekert, Vladimir [DIAMO, s. e., TUU, Pod Vinici 84, Straz pod Ralskem, 471 27 (Czech Republic)

    2013-07-01

    A large-scale development in exploration and production of uranium ores in the Czech Republic was done in the 2nd half of the 20. century. Many uranium deposits were discovered in the territory of the Czech Republic. One of the most considerable deposits in the Czech Republic is the site Hamr na Jezere - Straz pod Ralskem where both mining methods - the underground mining and the acidic in-situ leaching - were used. The extensive production of uranium led to widespread environmental impacts and contamination of ground waters. Over the period of 'chemical' leaching of uranium (ca. 32 years), a total of more than 4 million tons of sulphuric acid and other chemicals have been injected into the ground. Most of the products (approx. 99.5 %) of the acids reactions with the rocks are located in the Cenomanian aquifer. The contamination of Cenomanian aquifer covers the area larger then 27 km{sup 2}. The influenced volume of groundwater is more than 380 million m{sup 3}. The total amount of dissolved SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} is about 3.6 million tons. After 1990 a large-scale environmental program was established and the Czech government decided to liquidate the ISL Mine and start the remediation in 1996. The remediation consists of contaminated groundwater pumping, removing of the contaminants and discharging or reinjection of treated water. Nowadays four main remedial technological installations with sufficient capacity for reaching of the target values of remedial parameters in 2037 are used - the 'Station for Acid Solutions Liquidation No. One', the 'Mother liquor reprocessing' station, the 'Neutralization and Decontamination Station NDS 6' and the 'Neutralization and Decontamination Station NDS 10'. It is expected that the amount of withdrawn contaminants will vary from 80 000 to 120 000 tons per year. Total costs of all remediation activities are expected to be in excess of 2 billion EUR. (authors)

  7. Evaluation of bio-remediation technologies for PAHs contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Frutos, F.J.; Diaz, J.; Rodriguez, V.; Escolano, O.; Garcia, S.; Perez, R.; Martinez, R.; Oromendia, R.

    2005-01-01

    Natural attenuation is a new concept related to polluted soil remediation. Can be understood like an 'in situ' bio-remediation process with low technical intervention. This low intervention may be in order to follow the behaviour of pollutants 'monitored natural attenuation' or include an optimisation process to improve biological remediation. The use of this technology is a fact for light hydrocarbon polluted soil, but few is known about the behaviour of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this process. PAHs are more recalcitrant to bio-remediation due to their physic-chemical characteristics, mainly hydrophobicity and electrochemical stability. PAHs are a kind of pollutants widely distributed in the environment, not only in the proximity of the source. This linked to the characteristics of some of them related to toxicity and mutagenicity implies its inclusion as target compounds from an environmental point of view. Their low availability, solubility and the strong tendency to bind to soil particle, especially to the organic phase affect PAHs biological mineralisation. So, if the pollutant is not available to microorganisms it can not be bio-degraded. Bioavailability can be assessed form several but complementary points of view: physico-chemical and biological. First including the term availability and the second to point out the capacity of soil microorganisms to mineralize PAHs. Availability and Bio-degradability must be determined, as well as the presence and activity of specific degraders among the soil organisms, once settled these points is necessary to study the biological requirements to optimise biodegradation kinetics of these compounds. In this work we present a study carried out on a soil, contaminated by PAHs, the study includes three main topics: bioavailability assessment (both term availability and bio-degradability), bio-remediation assessment, once optimised conditions for natural attenuation and finally a simulation of the

  8. Development of an integrated, in-situ remediation technology. Topical report for task No. 9. Part I. TCE degradation using nonbiological methods, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, A.P.; Sivavec, T.M.; Baghel, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    Contamination in low-permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge for in situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low-permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. The technology is an integrated in situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil and electro-osmosis is used to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. The present Draft Topical Report for Task No. 9 summarizes laboratory investigations into TCE degradation using nonbiological methods. These studies were conducted by the General Electric Company. The report concentrates on zero valent iron as the reducing agent and presents data on TCE and daughter product degradation rates in batch experiments, column studies, and electroosmotic cells. It is shown that zero valent iron effectively degrades TCE in electroosmotic experiments. Daughter product degradation and gas generation are shown to be important factors in designing field scale treatment zones for the Lasagna trademark process

  9. Cost effectiveness of in situ bioremediation at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saaty, R.P.; Showalter, W.E.; Booth, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    In situ bioremediation (ISBR) is an innovative new remediation technology for the removal of chlorinated solvents from contaminated soils and groundwater. The principal contaminant at the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration is tricloroethylene (TCE) a volatile organic compound (VOC). A 384-day test run at Savannah River, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development (EM-50), furnished information about the performance and applications of ISBR. In situ bioremediation, as tested, is based on two distinct processes occurring simultaneously; the physical process of in situ air stripping and the biological process of bioremediation. Both processes have the potential to remediate some amount of contamination. A quantity of VOCs, directly measured from the extracted airstream, was removed from the test area by the physical process of air stripping. The biological process is difficult to examine. However, the results of several tests performed at the SRID and independent numerical modeling determined that the biological process remediated an additional 40% above the physical process. Given these data, the cost effectiveness of this new technology can be evaluated

  10. Remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals with an emphasis on immobilization technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshan Nejad, Zahra; Jung, Myung Chae; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2018-06-01

    The major frequent contaminants in soil are heavy metals which may be responsible for detrimental health effects. The remediation of heavy metals in contaminated soils is considered as one of the most complicated tasks. Among different technologies, in situ immobilization of metals has received a great deal of attention and turned out to be a promising solution for soil remediation. In this review, remediation methods for removal of heavy metals in soil are explored with an emphasis on the in situ immobilization technique of metal(loid)s. Besides, the immobilization technique in contaminated soils is evaluated through the manipulation of the bioavailability of heavy metals using a range of soil amendment conditions. This technique is expected to efficiently alleviate the risk of groundwater contamination, plant uptake, and exposure to other living organisms. The efficacy of several amendments (e.g., red mud, biochar, phosphate rock) has been examined to emphasize the need for the simultaneous measurement of leaching and the phytoavailability of heavy metals. In addition, some amendments that are used in this technique are inexpensive and readily available in large quantities because they have been derived from bio-products or industrial by-products (e.g., biochar, red mud, and steel slag). Among different amendments, iron-rich compounds and biochars show high efficiency to remediate multi-metal contaminated soils. Thereupon, immobilization technique can be considered a preferable option as it is inexpensive and easily applicable to large quantities of contaminants derived from various sources.

  11. Site characterization techniques used in environmental remediation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    As a result of decades of nuclear energy research, weapons production, as well as ongoing operations, a significant amount of radioactive contamination has occurred throughout the United States Department of Energy (DOE) complex. DOE facility are in the process of assessing and potentially remediating various sites according to the regulations imposed by a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent order (FFA/CO) between DOE, the state in which the facility is located, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In support of these active site remediation efforts, the DOE has devoted considerable resources towards the development of innovative site characterization techniques that support environmental restoration activities. These resources and efforts have focused on various aspects of this complex problem. Research and technology development conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has resulted in the ability and state-of-the-art equipment required to obtain real-time, densely spaced, in situ characterization data (i.e. detection, speciation, and location) of various radionuclides and contaminants. The Remedial Action Monitoring System (RAMS), developed by the INEEL, consists of enhanced sensor technology, measurement modeling and interpretation techniques, and a suite of deployment platforms which can be interchanged to directly support remedial cleanup and site verification operations. In situ characterization techniques have advanced to the point where they are being actively deployed in support of remedial operations. The INEEL has deployed its system at various DOE and international sites. The deployment of in situ characterization systems during environmental restoration operations has shown that this approach results in several significant benefits versus conventional sampling techniques. A flexible characterization system permits rapid modification to satisfy physical site conditions, available site resources

  12. An analysis on remediation characteristics of soils contaminated with Co for in-situ application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. N.; Won, H. J.; Kweun, H. S.; Shon, J. S.; Oh, W. J.

    1999-01-01

    The solvent flushing apparatus for in-situ soil remediation was designed. After the soil around nuclear facilities was sampled and compulsorily contaminated by Co solution, the remediation characteristics by solvent flushing were analyzed. Meanwhile, the nonequilibrium sorption code was developed for modelling of the soil remediation by solvent flushing, and input parameters needed for modelling were measured by laboratory experiment. Experimental results are as follows: The soil around nuclear facilities belongs to Silt Loam including a lot of silt and sand. When water was used as a solvent, the higher was the hydraulic conductivity, the higher the efficiency of soil remediation was. The values calculated by the nonequilibrium sorption code agreed with experimental values more exactly than the values calculated by the equilibrium sorption code. When citric acid was used as a solvent, the soil remediation efficiency by citric acid showed 1.65 times that by water

  13. The use of in-situ dual vacuum extraction for remediation of soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trowbridge, B.E.; Ott, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    Dual Extraction provides a rapid and cost-effective method of remediating soil and groundwater impacted by volatile organic compounds (VOC's). Dual Extraction is the removal of both water and vapors through the same borehole using entrainment. This technology provides for the remediation of the vadose zone, capillary fringe, smear zone, and existing water table. The effectiveness of this technology is shown in a case study. A release from an Underground Storage Tank (UST) was responsible for a hydrocarbon plume spreading over approximately 50,000 square feet. The release produced vadose zone contamination in the silty and sandy clays from 10 - 30 feet below ground surface with TPH concentrations up to 1,400 mg/kg. A layer of free floating liquid hydrocarbon was present on a shallow aquifer located at 30 feet bgs in thicknesses ranging from 0.5 feet to 3.0 feet. An in-situ dual-extraction system was installed to remediate the soils and groundwater to levels as required by the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB). The system operated 24 hours/day for 196 days with an operating efficiency of over 99%. After 196 days, over 17,000 pounds of hydrocarbons had been extracted from the soils. Seven confirmatory soil borings were advanced in the area of highest initial hydrocarbon concentrations and indicated that TPH and BTEX concentrations had decreased over 99% from initial soil concentrations. Three confirmatory groundwater samples were obtained from monitoring wells initially exhibiting up to 3 feet of floating product. Confirmatory samples exhibited non-detectable (ND) concentrations of TPH and BTEX. Based upon the positive confirmatory results, site closure was obtained from the RWQCB in May of 1991. In only 28 weeks of operation, the groundwater contamination was reduced from free floating product to non-detectable concentrations of TPH using Dual Vacuum Extraction

  14. In Situ Monitoring of Groundwater Contamination Using the Kalman Filter For Sustainable Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, F.; Wainwright, H. M.; Faybishenko, B.; Denham, M. E.; Eddy-Dilek, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable remediation - based on less intensive passive remediation and natural attenuation - has become a desirable remediation alternative at contaminated sites. Although it has a number of benefits, such as reduced waste and water/energy usage, it carries a significant burden of proof to verify plume stability and to ensure insignificant increase of risk to public health. Modeling of contaminant transport is still challenging despite recent advances in numerical methods. Long-term monitoring has, therefore, become a critical component in sustainable remediation. However, the current approach, which relies on sparse groundwater sampling, is problematic, since it could miss sudden significant changes in plume behavior. A new method is needed to combine existing knowledge about contaminant behavior and latest advances in in situ groundwater sensors. This study presents an example of the effective use of the Kalman filter approach to estimate contaminant concentrations, based on in situ measured water quality parameters (e.g. electrical conductivity and pH) along with the results of sparse groundwater sampling. The Kalman filter can effectively couple physical models and data correlations between the contaminant concentrations and in situ measured variables. We aim (1) to develop a framework capable of integrating different data types to provide accurate contaminant concentration estimates, (2) to demonstrate that these results remain reliable, even when the groundwater sampling frequency is reduced, and (3) to evaluate the future efficacy of this strategy using reactive transport simulations. This framework can also serve as an early warning system for detecting unexpected plume migration. We demonstrate our approach using historical and current groundwater data from the Savannah River Site (SRS) F-Area Seepage Basins to estimate uranium and tritium concentrations. The results show that the developed method can provide reliable estimates of contaminant

  15. Recent developments for in situ treatment of metal contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Metals contamination is a common problem at hazardous waste sites. This report assists the remedy selection process by providing information on four in situ technologies for treating soil contaminated with metals. The four approaches are electrokinetic remediation, phytoremediation, soil flushing, and solidification/stabilization. Electrokinetic remediation separates contaminants from soil through selective migration upon application of an electric current. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses plants to isolate or stabilize contaminants. Soil flushing techniques promote mobility and migration of metals by solubilizing contaminants so that they can be recovered. Two types of in situ solidification/stabilization (S/S) techniques are discussed, one based on addition of reagents and the other based on the use of energy. The report discusses different techniques currently in practice or under development, identifies vendors and summarizes performance data, and discusses technology attributes that should be considered during early screening of potential remedies. 8 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs., 2 apps.

  16. Development of an integrated in-situ remediation technology. Topical report for task No. 11 entitled: Evaluation of TCE contamination before and after the field experiment, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, B.M.; Athmer, C.J.; Sheridan, P.W. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Contamination in low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. The technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil and electro-osmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. The present Topical Report for Task No. 11 summarizes the results of TCE analysis in soil and carbon before and after conducting the field experiment. In addition, a discussion of the TCE material balance demonstrates that the Lasagna{trademark} process is effective in moving TCE from the contaminated soil into carbon treatment zones in the field experiment at DOE`s Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Paducah, Kentucky.

  17. Development of an integrated in-situ remediation technology. Topical report for task No. 11 entitled: Evaluation of TCE contamination before and after the field experiment, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, B.M.; Athmer, C.J.; Sheridan, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    Contamination in low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. The technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil and electro-osmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. The present Topical Report for Task No. 11 summarizes the results of TCE analysis in soil and carbon before and after conducting the field experiment. In addition, a discussion of the TCE material balance demonstrates that the Lasagna trademark process is effective in moving TCE from the contaminated soil into carbon treatment zones in the field experiment at DOE's Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Paducah, Kentucky

  18. Permeable reactive barrier - innovative technology for ground-water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidic, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Significant advances in the application of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for ground-water remediation have been witnessed in the last 5 years. From only a few full-scale systems and pilot-scale demonstrations, there are currently at least 38 full-scale PRBs using zero-valent iron (ZVI) as a reactive material. Of those, 26 are continuous reactive walls, 9 are funnel-and- gate systems and 3 are in situ reactive vessels. Most of the PRB systems have used granular iron media and have been applied to address the control of contamination caused by chlorinated volatile organic compounds or heavy metals. Many regulatory agencies have expressed interest in PRB systems and are becoming more comfortable in issuing permits. The main advantage of PRB systems is that the installation costs are comparable with those of other ground-water remediation technologies, while the O and M costs are significantly lower and are mostly due to monitoring requirements, which are required for all remediation approaches. In addition, the land use can resume after the installation of the PRB systems, since there are few visible signs of the installation above grounds except for the monitoring wells. It is difficult to make any definite conclusions about the long-term performance of PRB systems because there is no more than 5 years of the record of performance that can be used for such analysis. The two main challenges still facing this technology are: (1) evaluating the longevity (geochemistry) of a PRB; and (2) ensuring/verifying hydraulic performance. A number of public/private partnerships have been established in recent years that are working together to resolve some of these problems. This organized approach by combining the efforts of several government agencies and private companies will likely result in better understanding and, hopefully, better acceptance of this technology in the future. (author)

  19. In situ technology evaluation and functional and operational guidelines for treatability studies at the radioactive waste management complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, R.A.; Donehey, A.J.; Piper, R.B.; Roy, M.W.; Rubert, A.L.; Walker, S.

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide EG ampersand G Idaho's Waste Technology Development Department with a basis for selection of in situ technologies for demonstration at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and to provide information for Feasibility Studies to be performed according to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The demonstrations will aid in meeting Environmental Restoration/Waste Management (ER/WM) schedules for remediation of waste at Waste Area Group (WAG) 7. This report is organized in six sections. Section 1, summarizes background information on the sites to be remediated at WAG-7, specifically, the acid pit, soil vaults, and low-level pits and trenches. Section 2 discusses the identification and screening of in situ buried waste remediation technologies for these sites. Section 3 outlines the design requirements. Section 4 discusses the schedule [in accordance with Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) scoping]. Section 5 includes recommendations for the acid pit, soil vaults, and low-level pits and trenches. A listing of references used to compile the report is given in Section 6. Detailed technology information is included in the Appendix section of this report

  20. CHROTRAN 1.0. A mathematical and computational model for in situ heavy metal remediation in heterogeneous aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Scott K.; Pandey, Sachin; Karra, Satish; Vesselinov, Velimir V. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computational Earth Science Group (EES-16)

    2017-07-01

    Groundwater contamination by heavy metals is a critical environmental problem for which in situ remediation is frequently the only viable treatment option. For such interventions, a multi-dimensional reactive transport model of relevant biogeochemical processes is invaluable. To this end, we developed a model, chrotran, for in situ treatment, which includes full dynamics for five species: a heavy metal to be remediated, an electron donor, biomass, a nontoxic conservative bio-inhibitor, and a biocide. Direct abiotic reduction by donor-metal interaction as well as donor-driven biomass growth and bio-reduction are modeled, along with crucial processes such as donor sorption, bio-fouling, and biomass death. Our software implementation handles heterogeneous flow fields, as well as arbitrarily many chemical species and amendment injection points, and features full coupling between flow and reactive transport. We describe installation and usage and present two example simulations demonstrating its unique capabilities. One simulation suggests an unorthodox approach to remediation of Cr(VI) contamination.

  1. CHROTRAN 1.0: A mathematical and computational model for in situ heavy metal remediation in heterogeneous aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott K.; Pandey, Sachin; Karra, Satish; Vesselinov, Velimir V.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater contamination by heavy metals is a critical environmental problem for which in situ remediation is frequently the only viable treatment option. For such interventions, a multi-dimensional reactive transport model of relevant biogeochemical processes is invaluable. To this end, we developed a model, chrotran, for in situ treatment, which includes full dynamics for five species: a heavy metal to be remediated, an electron donor, biomass, a nontoxic conservative bio-inhibitor, and a biocide. Direct abiotic reduction by donor-metal interaction as well as donor-driven biomass growth and bio-reduction are modeled, along with crucial processes such as donor sorption, bio-fouling, and biomass death. Our software implementation handles heterogeneous flow fields, as well as arbitrarily many chemical species and amendment injection points, and features full coupling between flow and reactive transport. We describe installation and usage and present two example simulations demonstrating its unique capabilities. One simulation suggests an unorthodox approach to remediation of Cr(VI) contamination.

  2. CHROTRAN 1.0. A mathematical and computational model for in situ heavy metal remediation in heterogeneous aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Scott K.; Pandey, Sachin; Karra, Satish; Vesselinov, Velimir V.

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater contamination by heavy metals is a critical environmental problem for which in situ remediation is frequently the only viable treatment option. For such interventions, a multi-dimensional reactive transport model of relevant biogeochemical processes is invaluable. To this end, we developed a model, chrotran, for in situ treatment, which includes full dynamics for five species: a heavy metal to be remediated, an electron donor, biomass, a nontoxic conservative bio-inhibitor, and a biocide. Direct abiotic reduction by donor-metal interaction as well as donor-driven biomass growth and bio-reduction are modeled, along with crucial processes such as donor sorption, bio-fouling, and biomass death. Our software implementation handles heterogeneous flow fields, as well as arbitrarily many chemical species and amendment injection points, and features full coupling between flow and reactive transport. We describe installation and usage and present two example simulations demonstrating its unique capabilities. One simulation suggests an unorthodox approach to remediation of Cr(VI) contamination.

  3. CHROTRAN 1.0: A mathematical and computational model for in situ heavy metal remediation in heterogeneous aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Hansen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater contamination by heavy metals is a critical environmental problem for which in situ remediation is frequently the only viable treatment option. For such interventions, a multi-dimensional reactive transport model of relevant biogeochemical processes is invaluable. To this end, we developed a model, chrotran, for in situ treatment, which includes full dynamics for five species: a heavy metal to be remediated, an electron donor, biomass, a nontoxic conservative bio-inhibitor, and a biocide. Direct abiotic reduction by donor–metal interaction as well as donor-driven biomass growth and bio-reduction are modeled, along with crucial processes such as donor sorption, bio-fouling, and biomass death. Our software implementation handles heterogeneous flow fields, as well as arbitrarily many chemical species and amendment injection points, and features full coupling between flow and reactive transport. We describe installation and usage and present two example simulations demonstrating its unique capabilities. One simulation suggests an unorthodox approach to remediation of Cr(VI contamination.

  4. Overview of technology modeling in the Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.D.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Chan, T.C.; Lamar, D.A.; Buelt, J.L.; Freeman, C.J.; Skeen, R.S.

    1994-08-01

    There are numerous hazardous waste sites under the jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy (DOE). To assist the cleanup of these sites in a more consistent, timely, and cost-effective manner, the Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS) is being developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). RAAS is a software tool designed to automate the initial technology selection within the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. The software does several things for the user: (1) provides information about available remedial technologies, (2) sorts possible technologies to recommend a list of technologies applicable to a given site, (3) points out technical issues that may prevent the implementation of a technology, and (4) provides an estimate of the effectiveness of a given technology at a particular site. Information from RAAS can be used to compare remediation options and guide selection of technologies for further study

  5. Radioactive Tank Waste Remediation Focus Area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    In February 1991, DOE's Office of Technology Development created the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID), to develop technologies for tank remediation. Tank remediation across the DOE Complex has been driven by Federal Facility Compliance Agreements with individual sites. In 1994, the DOE Office of Environmental Management created the High Level Waste Tank Remediation Focus Area (TFA; of which UST-ID is now a part) to better integrate and coordinate tank waste remediation technology development efforts. The mission of both organizations is the same: to focus the development, testing, and evaluation of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in USTs at DOE facilities. The ultimate goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. The TFA has focused on four DOE locations: the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) near Idaho Falls, Idaho, the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina

  6. Field-scale modeling of acidity production and remediation efficiency during in situ reductive dechlorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovelli, A.; Robinson, C. E.; Barry, D. A.; Gerhard, J.

    2009-12-01

    Enhanced reductive dechlorination is a viable technology for in situ remediation of chlorinated solvent DNAPL source areas. Although in recent years increased understanding of this technology has led to more rapid dechlorination rates, complete dechlorination can be hindered by unfavorable conditions. Hydrochloric acid produced from dechlorination and organic acids generated from electron donor fermentation can lead to significant groundwater acidification. Adverse pH conditions can inhibit the activity of dehalogenating microorganisms and thus slow or stall the remediation process. The extent of acidification likely to occur at a contaminated site depends on a number of factors including (1) the extent of dechlorination, (2) the pH-sensitivity of dechlorinating bacteria, and (3) the geochemical composition of the soil and water, in particular the soil’s natural buffering capacity. The substantial mass of solvents available for dechlorination when treating DNAPL source zones means that these applications are particularly susceptible to acidification. In this study a reactive transport biogeochemical model was developed to investigate the chemical and physical parameters that control the build-up of acidity and subsequent remediation efficiency. The model accounts for the site water chemistry, mineral precipitation and dissolution kinetics, electron donor fermentation, gas phase formation, competing electron-accepting processes (e.g., sulfate and iron reduction) and the sensitivity of microbial processes to pH. Confidence in the model was achieved by simulating a well-documented field study, for which the 2-D field scale model was able to reproduce long-term variations of pH, and the concurrent build up of reaction products. Sensitivity analyses indicated the groundwater flow velocity is able to reduce acidity build-up when the rate of advection is comparable or larger than the rate of dechlorination. The extent of pH change is highly dependent on the presence of

  7. In-situ treatment of hydrocarbons contamination through enhanced bio-remediation and two phase extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglietto, I.; Brunero Bronzin, M.

    2005-01-01

    It happens frequently to find industrial site affected by contamination of subsoil and groundwater with consequent presence of free phase product floating on the water table. The remediation technologies in this case shall be properly selected and coordinated in a way that the interactions between each activities will help to decontaminate the site. The case study deals with an industrial site located near Turin, in Italy, of about 50 hectares of extension where has been found an area of about 4000 square meters with contamination of subsoil and groundwater. The compounds with higher concentrations are petroleum hydrocarbons found both in soil and in groundwater. Another big problem is represented by the presence of a layer of free product floating on the water table with a maximum measured thickness of 70 cm; this situation can be considered in fact one of the major difficulty in management of selected remediation technologies because the complete recover of the free phase is a priority for any kind of remediation system to apply subsequently. The present work is based upon the selection and implementation of a multiple treatment for definitive remediation of subsoil and groundwater. Free product recovery has been faced with a two-phase extraction technology, then for the remediation of subsoil we implemented a bio-venting system to improve biodegradation processes and finally for groundwater treatment we apply an enhanced in situ bio-remediation injecting oxygen release compounds directly into the aquifer. To reach these choices we have to pass through a complex activity of investigation of the site made up of more than 40 sampling point, 8 monitoring wells, about 140 analysis on subsoil samples and 10 on groundwater samples and one well used for an aquifer test. The preliminary design of the remediation system was therefore based on an extensive site characterization that included geological and geochemical, microbiological and hydrological data, together with

  8. Treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils by in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Contaminated soil site remediation objectives call for the destruction, removal, and/or immobilization of contaminant species. Destruction is applicable to hazardous compounds (e.g., hazardous organics such as PCBs; hazardous inorganics such as cyanide); however, it is not applicable to hazardous elements such as the heavy metals. Removal and/or immobilization are typical objectives for heavy metal contaminants present in soil. Many technologies have been developed specifically to meet these needs. One such technology is In Situ Vitrification (ISV), an innovative mobile, onsite, in situ solids remediation technology that has been available on a commercial basis for about two years. ISV holds potential for the safe and permanent treatment/remediation of previously disposed or current process solids waste (e.g., soil, sludge, sediment, tailings) contaminated with hazardous chemical and/or radioactive materials. This paper focuses on the application of ISV to heavy metal-contaminated soils

  9. In situ diesel fuel bioremediation: A case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, D.K.; Burke, G.K.; Smith, N.; Clark, D.

    1995-01-01

    As a result of a ruptured fuel line, the study site had diesel fuel soil contamination and free product more than 2 ft (0.75 m) thick on the groundwater surface. Diesel fuel, which is composed of a high percentage of nonvolatile compounds, has proven difficult to remediate using conventional extraction remediation techniques. A number of remedial alternatives were reviewed, and the patented in situ biodegradation BioSparge SM technology was selected for the site and performed under license by a specialty contractor. BioSparge SM is a field-proven closed-loop (no vapor emissions) system that supplies a continuous, steady supply of oxygen, moisture, and additional heat to enhance microorganism activity. The system injects an enriched airstream beneath the groundwater surface elevation and/or within the contaminant plume and removes residual vapors from vadose zone soil within and above the contaminant plume. The technology has no air discharge, which is critical in areas where strict air discharge regulations apply. The focus of this paper is the viability of in situ biodegradation as an effective remediation alternative for reducing nonvolatile petroleum products

  10. In situ bioremediation of Hanford groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeen, R.S.; Roberson, K.R.; Workman, D.J.; Petersen, J.N.; Shouche, M.

    1992-04-01

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 40+ years of operations at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. Some of these wastes were discharged to the soil column and many of the waste components, including nitrate, carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), and several radionuclides, have been detected in the Hanford groundwater. Current DOE policy prohibits the disposal of contaminated liquids directly to the environment, and remediation of existing contaminated groundwaters may be required. In situ bioremediation is one technology currently being developed at Hanford to meet the need for cost effective technologies to clean groundwater contaminated with CCl 4 , nitrate, and other organic and inorganic contaminants. This paper focuses on the latest results of an on going effort to develop effective in situ remediation strategies through the use of predictive simulations

  11. Remediation technology needs and applied R ampersand D initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, S.C.T.; Levine, R.S.; Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J.; Erickson, M.D.; Webster, S.L.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) recently consolidated its environmental restoration and waste management activities. Within that new organization, DOE has committed to support Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing and Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) activities with the following objectives: rapidly advance beyond currently available restoration and waste management technologies; provide solutions to key technical issues that will improve effectiveness, efficiency, and safety; and enhance DOE's ability to meet its 30-year compliance and cleanup goals. Four general categories have been identified where R ampersand D (and DT ampersand E) efforts need to be focused: waste minimization technologies, site characterization and assessment methods, waste treatment technologies, and remediation technologies with emphasis on in-situ methods. The DOE has already supported a number of R ampersand D activities in these areas and plans to continue that support in the future. For technology development, the DOE is committed to forming cooperative partnerships and eliciting broad participation from qualified organizations who can contribute to RDDT ampersand E activities. The new technologies resulting from these R ampersand D initiatives will enhance DOE's ability to meet its 30-year cleanup goal reduce risk, and provide significant cost savings over existing technologies. Even modest investments in these emerging technologies now can be expected to generate a high rate of return

  12. Remediation technology needs and applied R ampersand D initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, S.C.T.; Levine, R.S.; Webster, S.L.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) recently consolidated its environmental restoration and waste management activities. Within that new organization, DOE has committed to support Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing and, Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) activities with the following objectives: rapidly advance beyond currently available technologies; provide solutions to key technical issues that will improve effectiveness, efficiency, and safety; and enhance DOE's ability to meet its 30-year compliance and cleanup goals. Four general categories have been identified where R ampersand D (and DT ampersand E) efforts need to be focused. These include: waste minimization technologies, site characterization and assessment methods, waste treatment technologies, and remediation technologies with emphasis on in-situ methods. The DOE has already supported a number of R ampersand D activities in these areas and plans to continue that support in the future. For technology development, the DOE is committed to forming cooperative partnerships and eliciting broad participation from qualified organizations who can contribute to RDDT ampersand E activities. The new technologies resulting from these R ampersand D initiatives will enhance DOE's ability to meet its 30-year cleanup goal, reduce environmental risk, and provide significant cost savings over existing technologies. Even modest investments in these emerging technologies now can be expected to generate a high rate of return. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  13. In-situ arsenic remediation in Carson Valley, Douglas County, west-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Angela P.; Maurer, Douglas K.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.; Welch, Alan H.

    2010-01-01

    Conventional arsenic remediation strategies primarily involve above-ground treatment that include costs involved in the disposal of sludge material. The primary advantages of in-situ remediation are that building and maintaining a large treatment facility are not necessary and that costs associated with the disposal of sludge are eliminated. A two-phase study was implemented to address the feasibility of in-situ arsenic remediation in Douglas County, Nevada. Arsenic concentrations in groundwater within Douglas County range from 1 to 85 micrograms per liter. The primary arsenic species in groundwater at greater than 250 ft from land surface is arsenite; however, in the upper 150 ft of the aquifer arsenate predominates. Where arsenite is the primary form of arsenic, the oxidation of arsenite to arsenate is necessary. The results of the first phase of this investigation indicated that arsenic concentrations can be remediated to below the drinking-water standard using aeration, chlorination, iron, and pH adjustment. Arsenic concentrations were remediated to less than 10 micrograms per liter in groundwater from the shallow and deep aquifer when iron concentrations of 3-6 milligrams per liter and pH adjustments to less than 6 were used. Because of the rapid depletion of dissolved oxygen, the secondary drinking-water standards for iron (300 micrograms per liter) and manganese (100 micrograms per liter) were exceeded during treatment. Treatment was more effective in the shallow well as indicated by a greater recovery of water meeting the arsenic standard. Laboratory and field tests were included in the second phase of this study. Laboratory column experiments using aquifer material indicated the treatment process followed during the first phase of this study will continue to work, without exceeding secondary drinking-water standards, provided that groundwater was pre-aerated and an adequate number of pore volumes treated. During the 147-day laboratory experiment, no

  14. In-Situ Electrokinetic Remediation for Metal Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    phytoremediation , and electrokinetic extraction. The US Army Environmental Center (USAEC) and Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC...California (CA) List Metals: Antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury , molybdenum, nickel, selenium...Comparison Technologies with which electrokinetic remediation must compete are "Dig and Haul", Soil Washing, and Phytoremediation . "Dig and haul

  15. [Research on the application of in-situ biological stabilization solidification technology in chromium contaminated site management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-rong; Li, Juan; Xu, Wei

    2013-09-01

    In-situ biological stabilization solidification (SS) technology is an effective ground water risk control method for chromium contaminated sites. Through on-site engineering test, this paper has preliminarily validated the remediation effect of in-situ SS method on a southern chromium contaminated site. The engineering test site has an area of approximately 600 m2, and is located at the upstream of the contaminated area. Due to the severe contamination of chromium, the total chromium concentration reached up to 11,850 mg x kg(-1), while the hexavalent chromium concentration reached up to 349 mg x kg(-1), and the most severely contaminated soil had a depth of -0.5 - -2 m. Variations in hexavalent chromium and total chromium concentration in groundwater were observed through the injection of reducing agents and microbial regulators into the injection wells in the test site, and through the monitoring analysis at different time and different depth under the action of the injection agents. Results of the engineering test showed that the on-site SS technology significantly changed the chromium speciation in soil and then reduced the migration of chromium, thus the groundwater risk was reduced. The injected agents had a good effect of hexavalent chromium remediation in groundwater within the effective range of the injection wells, and the SS rate of hexavalent chromium into trivalent chromium reached 94%-99.9%, the SS rate of total chromium fixation reached 83.9%-99.8%. The test results are of significant reference value for the remediation of contaminated sites with features of shallow groundwater depth and soil mainly consisting of silty clay and sandy clay.

  16. Cost and performance of innovative remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, J.B.; Kingscott, J.W.; Fiedler, L.D.

    1995-01-01

    The selection and use of more cost-effective remedies requires better access to data on the performance and cost of technologies used in the field. To make data more widely available, the US Environmental Protection Agency is working jointly with member agencies of the Federal Remediation Technologies Round table to publish case studies of full-scale remediation and demonstration projects. EPA, DoD, and DOE have published case studies of cleanup projects primarily consisting of bioremediation, soil vapor extraction, and thermal desorption. Within the limits of this initial data set, the paper evaluates technology performance and cost. In the analysis of cost factors, the paper shows the use of a standardized Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). Use of the WBS will be important in future reporting of completed projects to facilitate cost comparison. The paper notes the limits to normalization and thus cross-site comparison which can be achieved using the WBS. The paper identifies conclusions from initial efforts to compile cost and performance data, highlights the importance of such efforts to the overall remediation effort, and discusses future cost and performance documentation efforts

  17. Remediation of PAH-contaminated soil using Achromobacter sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutright, T.J.; Lee, S.

    1994-01-01

    Several technologies have the potential to effectively remediate soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): solvent extraction, coal-oil agloflotation, supercritical extraction, and bioremediation. Due to the cost effectiveness and in-situ treatment capabilities of bioremediation, studies were conducted to determine the efficiency of Achromobacter sp. to remediate an industrial contaminated soil sample. Specifically, the use of three different mineral salt solutions in conjunction with the Achromobacter sp. was investigated. The molecular identification of the contaminants and their respective levels after remediation were determined using a Hewlett-Packard 1050 HPLC. Preliminary results show a 92% remediation for the use of two of the mineral salt solutions after 20 days' treatment. After 8 weeks, the remediation efficiency reached 99%. Bioremediation was also critically compared to the other potential remediation technologies

  18. Comparative review of techniques used for in situ remediation of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escusol Tomey, M.; Rodriguez Abad, R.

    2014-01-01

    Soil pollution may influence the geotechnical parameters of the soil itself, properties such as solid particle density or water within its pores. It may also vary its friction angle, modify its structure and texture, or change the properties of its constitutive minerals due to the inclusion of polluting components. For these reasons, soil decontamination is an important factor to consider in geotechnics. This work focuses on those soil decontamination techniques carried out in situ, since they allow to eliminate soil pollutants in a less invasive way than confinement, containment or ex situ remediation techniques, causing a minor soil alteration and, therefore, affecting less to its mechanical properties. These factors should be taken into account when carrying out a geotechnical performance on a previously decontaminated soil. (Author)

  19. Development of in situ vitrification for remediation of ORNL contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tixier, J.S.; Spalding, B.P.

    1994-08-01

    A full-scale field treatability study of in situ vitrification (ISV) is underway at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the remediation of radioactive liquid waste seepage pits and trenches that received over one million curies of mixed fission products (mostly 137 Cs and 90 Sr) during the 1950s and 1960s. The treatability study is being conducted on a portion of the original seepage pit and will support an Interim Record of Decision (IROD) for closure of one or more of the seven seepage pits and trenches in early fiscal year (FY) 1996. Mr treatability study will establish ft technical performance of ISV for remediation of the contaminated soil sites. Melt operations at ORNL are expected to begin in early FY 1994. This paper presents the latest accomplishments of the project in preparation for the field testing. Discussion centers on the results of a parametric crucible melt study, a description of the site characterization efforts, and the salient features of a new hood design

  20. Agar agar-stabilized milled zerovalent iron particles for in situ groundwater remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velimirovic, Milica; Schmid, Doris; Wagner, Stephan; Micić, Vesna; Kammer, Frank von der; Hofmann, Thilo, E-mail: thilo.hofmann@univie.ac.at

    2016-09-01

    Submicron-scale milled zerovalent iron (milled ZVI) particles produced by grinding macroscopic raw materials could provide a cost-effective alternative to nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) particles for in situ degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in groundwater. However, the aggregation and settling of bare milled ZVI particles from suspension presents a significant obstacle to their in situ application for groundwater remediation. In our investigations we reduced the rapid aggregation and settling rate of bare milled ZVI particles from suspension by stabilization with a “green” agar agar polymer. The transport potential of stabilized milled ZVI particle suspensions in a diverse array of natural heterogeneous porous media was evaluated in a series of well-controlled laboratory column experiments. The impact of agar agar on trichloroethene (TCE) removal by milled ZVI particles was assessed in laboratory-scale batch reactors. The use of agar agar significantly enhanced the transport of milled ZVI particles in all of the investigated porous media. Reactivity tests showed that the agar agar-stabilized milled ZVI particles were reactive towards TCE, but that their reactivity was an order of magnitude less than that of bare, non-stabilized milled ZVI particles. Our results suggest that milled ZVI particles could be used as an alternative to nZVI particles as their potential for emplacement into contaminated zone, their reactivity, and expected longevity are beneficial for in situ groundwater remediation. - Highlights: • Rapid aggregation and sedimentation were observed in bare milled ZVI particles. • Agar agar improved the stability of milled ZVI particle suspensions. • Agar agar enhanced the transport of milled ZVI particles in heterogeneous sands. • Agar agar reduced the reactivity of milled ZVI particles towards TCE.

  1. Agar agar-stabilized milled zerovalent iron particles for in situ groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velimirovic, Milica; Schmid, Doris; Wagner, Stephan; Micić, Vesna; Kammer, Frank von der; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-01-01

    Submicron-scale milled zerovalent iron (milled ZVI) particles produced by grinding macroscopic raw materials could provide a cost-effective alternative to nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) particles for in situ degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in groundwater. However, the aggregation and settling of bare milled ZVI particles from suspension presents a significant obstacle to their in situ application for groundwater remediation. In our investigations we reduced the rapid aggregation and settling rate of bare milled ZVI particles from suspension by stabilization with a “green” agar agar polymer. The transport potential of stabilized milled ZVI particle suspensions in a diverse array of natural heterogeneous porous media was evaluated in a series of well-controlled laboratory column experiments. The impact of agar agar on trichloroethene (TCE) removal by milled ZVI particles was assessed in laboratory-scale batch reactors. The use of agar agar significantly enhanced the transport of milled ZVI particles in all of the investigated porous media. Reactivity tests showed that the agar agar-stabilized milled ZVI particles were reactive towards TCE, but that their reactivity was an order of magnitude less than that of bare, non-stabilized milled ZVI particles. Our results suggest that milled ZVI particles could be used as an alternative to nZVI particles as their potential for emplacement into contaminated zone, their reactivity, and expected longevity are beneficial for in situ groundwater remediation. - Highlights: • Rapid aggregation and sedimentation were observed in bare milled ZVI particles. • Agar agar improved the stability of milled ZVI particle suspensions. • Agar agar enhanced the transport of milled ZVI particles in heterogeneous sands. • Agar agar reduced the reactivity of milled ZVI particles towards TCE.

  2. The role of innovative remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doesburg, J.M.

    1992-05-01

    There are currently over 1200 sites on the US Superfund's National Priorities List (NPL) of hazardous waste sites, and there are over 30, 000 sites listed by the Comprehensive Environmental Responsibility, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS). The traditional approach to remediating sites in the US has been to remove the material and place it in a secure landfill, or in the case of groundwater, pump and treat the effluent. These technologies have proven to be very expensive and don't really fix the problem. The waste is just moved from one place to another. In recent years, however, alternative and innovative technologies have been increasingly used in the US to replace the traditional approaches. This paper will focus on just such innovative remediation technologies in the US, looking at the regulatory drivers, the emerging technologies, some of the problems in deploying technologies, and a case study

  3. Proceedings of the remediation technologies symposium, RemTech 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In response to concerns regarding environmental impacts resulting from the extraction and production of fossil fuels, many oil and gas operators are seeking ways to reduce their environmental footprint and ensure the sustainable development of the industry. This symposium provided a forum to discuss innovations in soil and groundwater remediation. It highlighted recent work conducted in the field of contamination and remediation of industrial pollutant treatments. The conference technical sessions were entitled: British Columbia perspective; DND sites; hydrocarbons; oilfield remediation; Saskatchewan perspective; brownfields; miscellaneous; Quebec perspective; laboratory analysis and testing; landfill management and remediation; and, in-situ treatment methods. Some presentations also reviewed biological and non-biological treatment methods; thermal desorption; encapsulation; natural attenuation; multi-phase extraction; solar detoxification; electrochemical remediation; pre-treatment considerations; phytoremediation; and environmental management. The pre-conference workshop discussed methods of working with the federal government on future contaminated sites. The symposium featured 67 presentations, of which 26 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database

  4. Proceedings of the remediation technologies symposium, RemTech 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    In response to concerns regarding environmental impacts resulting from the extraction and production of fossil fuels, many oil and gas operators are seeking ways to reduce their environmental footprint and ensure the sustainable development of the industry. This symposium provided a forum to discuss innovations in soil and groundwater remediation. It highlighted recent work conducted in the field of contamination and remediation of industrial pollutant treatments. The conference technical sessions were entitled: British Columbia perspective; DND sites; hydrocarbons; oilfield remediation; Saskatchewan perspective; brownfields; miscellaneous; Quebec perspective; laboratory analysis and testing; landfill management and remediation; and, in-situ treatment methods. Some presentations also reviewed biological and non-biological treatment methods; thermal desorption; encapsulation; natural attenuation; multi-phase extraction; solar detoxification; electrochemical remediation; pre-treatment considerations; phytoremediation; and environmental management. The pre-conference workshop discussed methods of working with the federal government on future contaminated sites. The symposium featured 67 presentations, of which 26 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  5. In situ gas treatment technology demonstration test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, E.C.; Miller, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    This document defines the objectives and requirements associated with undertaking a field demonstration of an in situ gas treatment appoach to remediation chromate-contaminated soil. The major tasks presented in this plan include the design and development of the surface gas treatment system, performance of permitting activities, and completion of site preparation and field testing activities

  6. In situ vitrification - A potential remedial action technique for hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, V.F.; Buelt, J.L.; Oma, K.H.; Timmerman, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is an innovative technology being developed as a potential method for stabilizing transuranic (TRU) contaminated wastes in place. Although the process is being developed for TRU contaminated wastes, it is envisioned that the process could also be applied to hazardous chemical wastes. In situ vitrification (ISV) is the conversion of contaminated soil into a durable glass and crystalline wastes form through melting by joule heating. The technology for in situ vitrification is based upon electric melter technology developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste. In situ vitrification was initially tested by researchers at PNL in August, 1980 (U.S. Patent 4,376,598). Since then, ISV has grown from a concept to an emerging technology through a series of 21 engineering-scale (laboratory) tests and 7 pilot-scale (field) tests. A large-scale system is currently being fabricated for testing. The program has been sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Richland Operations Office for potential application to Hanford TRU contaminated soil sites. A more detailed description outlining the power system design and the off-gas treatment system follows

  7. Underground tank remediation by use of in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.E.

    1991-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a remedial action technology for underground storage tanks through the adaptation of the in situ vitrification (ISV) process. The ISV process is a thermal treatment processes that was originally developed for the stabilization of contaminated soil contaminated with transuranic waste at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington for the Department of Energy (DOE). The application of ISV to underground storage tanks represents an entirely new application of the ISV technology and is being performed in support of the DOE primarily for the Hanford site and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A field scale test was conducted in September 1990 at Hanford on a small cement and stainless steel tank (1-m dia.) that contained a simulated refractory sludge representing a worst-case sludge composition. The tank design and sludge composition was based on conditions present at the ORNL. The sludge contained high concentrations of heavy metals including lead, mercury, and cadmium, and also contained high levels of stable cesium and strontium to represent the predominant radionuclide species present in the tank wastes. The test was highly successful in that the entire tank and surrounding soil was transformed into a highly leach resistant glass and crystalline block with a mass of approximately 30 tons. During the process, the metal shell of the tank forms a metal pool at the base of the molten soil. Upon cooling, the glass and metal phases were subjected to TCLP (toxic characteristic leach procedure) testing and passed the TCLP criteria. Additional sampling and analyses are ongoing to determine the bulk composition of the waste forms, the fraction of volatile or semi-volatile species released to the off-gas treatment system, and to determine whether any soil surrounding the monolith was contaminated as a result of the ISV process. 4 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Proceedings (of the) first annual groundwater and soil remediation R, D and D (research, development and demonstration) symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A symposium was held to present results of research on the remediation of contamination of groundwater and soils. Papers were presented on groundwater/soil remediation research and demonstration programs, in-situ bioremediation, remediation of groundwater contaminated by gasoline-derived aromatics, solvent extraction of petroleum hydrocarbons from soil, bioreactors for cleaning hydrocarbon- and salt-contaminated soils, in-situ volatilization technologies, evaluations of spill cleanup technologies, remediating subsurface contamination around sour gas processing plants, and the influence of gasoline oxygenates on the persistence of aromatics in groundwater. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 9 papers from this symposium.

  9. Uranium mill tailings remedial action technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Gee, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    The uranium milling process involves the hydrometallurgical extraction of uranium from ores and the resultant generation of large quantities of waste referred to as tailings. Uranium mill tailings have been identified as requiring remediation because they contain residual radioactive material that is not removed in the milling process. Potential radiation exposure can result from direct contact with the tailings, from radon gas emitted by the tailings, and from radioactive contamination of groundwater. As a result, the technology developed under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Uranium Recovery Program have focused on radon control, groundwater contamination and the long-term protection of the containment system. This paper briefly summarizes the UMTRAP and NRC remedial action technology development. 33 references, 9 figures, 5 tables

  10. Remediation of Steel Slag on Acidic Soil Contaminated by Heavy Metal

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Haihong; Li, Fuping; Guan, Xiang; Li, Zhongwei; Yu, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    The technology of in situ immobilization with amendments is an important measure that remediates the soil contaminated by heavy metal, and selecting economical and effective modifier is the key. The effects and mechanism of steel slag, the silicon-rich alkaline by-product which can remediate acidic soil contaminated by heavy metal, are mainly introduced in this paper to provide theory inferences for future research. Firstly, the paper analyzes current research situation of in situ immobilizat...

  11. Sustainability likelihood of remediation options for metal-contaminated soil/sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Season S; Taylor, Jessica S; Baek, Kitae; Khan, Eakalak; Tsang, Daniel C W; Ok, Yong Sik

    2017-05-01

    Multi-criteria analysis and detailed impact analysis were carried out to assess the sustainability of four remedial alternatives for metal-contaminated soil/sediment at former timber treatment sites and harbour sediment with different scales. The sustainability was evaluated in the aspects of human health and safety, environment, stakeholder concern, and land use, under four different scenarios with varying weighting factors. The Monte Carlo simulation was performed to reveal the likelihood of accomplishing sustainable remediation with different treatment options at different sites. The results showed that in-situ remedial technologies were more sustainable than ex-situ ones, where in-situ containment demonstrated both the most sustainable result and the highest probability to achieve sustainability amongst the four remedial alternatives in this study, reflecting the lesser extent of off-site and on-site impacts. Concerns associated with ex-situ options were adverse impacts tied to all four aspects and caused by excavation, extraction, and off-site disposal. The results of this study suggested the importance of considering the uncertainties resulting from the remedial options (i.e., stochastic analysis) in addition to the overall sustainability scores (i.e., deterministic analysis). The developed framework and model simulation could serve as an assessment for the sustainability likelihood of remedial options to ensure sustainable remediation of contaminated sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Innovative technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Hartley, J.N.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1992-04-01

    Currently, several innovative technologies are being demonstrated at Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB) to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells have been successfully installed at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site to test new methods of in situ remediation of soils and ground water. This emerging technology was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. A demonstration of two in situ sensor systems capable of providing real-time data on contamination levels will be conducted and evaluated concurrently with the SGE demonstration activities. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ

  13. Technology development activities supporting tank waste remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Beeman, G.H.

    1994-06-01

    This document summarizes work being conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development (EM-50) in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program. The specific work activities are organized by the following categories: safety, characterization, retrieval, barriers, pretreatment, low-level waste, and high-level waste. In most cases, the activities presented here were identified as supporting tank remediation by EM-50 integrated program or integrated demonstration lead staff and the selections were further refined by contractor staff. Data sheets were prepared from DOE-HQ guidance to the field issued in September 1993. Activities were included if a significant portion of the work described provides technology potentially needed by TWRS; consequently, not all parts of each description necessarily support tank remediation

  14. Technology assessment of in situ uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of the PNL portion of the Technology Assessment project is to provide a description of the current in situ uranium mining technology; to evaluate, based on available data, the environmental impacts and, in a limited fashion, the health effects; and to explore the impediments to development and deployment of the in situ uranium mining technology

  15. Comparative Demonstration of Active and Semi-Passive In Situ Bioremediation Approaches for Perchlorate Impacted Groundwater: Active In Situ Bioremediation Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    http://www.itrcweb.org/Documents/PERC-1.pdf • ITRC Perchlorate Team. 2008. Remediation Technologies for Perchlorate Contamination in Water and Soil ...pdf • Solutions EIS. 2006. Protocol for Enhanced In Situ Bioremediation Using Emulsified Vegetable Oil . Prepared for ESTCP. May 2006. • http...Air Force. 2007. Protocol for In Situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents Using Edible Oil . Prepared for AFCEC - Environmental Science Division

  16. Buried waste remediation: A new application for in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindle, C.H.; Thompson, L.E.

    1991-04-01

    Buried wastes represent a significant environmental concern and a major financial and technological challenge facing many private firms, local and state governments, and federal agencies. Numerous radioactive and hazardous mixed buried waste sites managed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) require timely clean up to comply with state or federal environmental regulations. Hazardous wastes, biomedical wastes, and common household wastes disposed at many municipal landfills represent a significant environmental health concern. New programs and regulations that result in a greater reduction of waste via recycling and stricter controls regarding generation and disposal of many wastes will help to stem the environmental consequences of wastes currently being generated. Groundwater contamination, methane generation, and potential exposures to biohazards and chemically hazardous materials from inadvertent intrusion will continue to be potential environmental health consequences until effective and permanent closure is achieved. In situ vitrification (ISV) is being considered by the DOE as a permanent closure option for radioactive buried waste sites. The results of several ISV tests on simulated and actual buried wastes conducted during 1990 are presented here. The test results illustrate the feasibility of the ISV process for permanent remediation and closure of buried waste sites in commercial landfills. The tests were successful in immobilizing or destroying hazardous and radioactive contaminants while providing up to 75 vol % waste reduction. 6 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Theoretical stability assessment of uranyl phosphates and apatites: Selection of amendments for in situ remediation of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, S.; Wright, J.V.; Veljkovic, V.; Conca, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Addition of an amendment or reagent to soil/sediment is a technique that can decrease mobility and reduce bioavailability of uranium (U) and other heavy metals in the contaminated site. According to data from literature and results obtained in field studies, the general mineral class of apatites was selected as a most promising amendment for in situ immobilization/remediation of U. In this work we presented theoretical assessment of stability of U(VI) in four apatite systems (hydroxyapatite (HAP), North Carolina Apatite (NCA), Lisina Apatite (LA), and Apatite II) in order to determine an optimal apatite soil amendment which could be used for in situ remediation of uranium. In this analysis we used a theoretical criterion which is based on calculation of the ion-ion interaction potential, representing the main term of the cohesive energy of the matrix/pollutant system. The presented results of this analysis indicate (i) that the mechanism of immobilization of U by natural apatites depends on their chemical composition and (ii) that all analyzed apatites represent, from the point of view of stability, promising materials which could be used in field remediation of U-contaminated sites

  18. Remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boni, M.R.; D' Aprile, L. [Univ. of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dept. of Hydraulic Transportation and Roads (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In December 1999 Italy issued the national regulation (DM 471/99) for the clean-up of contaminated sites. This regulation applies both to derelict and to still operating industrial plants and waste management facilities. Target concentration values for clean-up interventions are issued and the requirements for design and planning of technical operation are defined. The selection of the appropriate clean-up technology are based on the following main criteria: - reduce the concentration in environmental media and the migration of pollutants without removing soil off-site; - in order to reduce contaminated material removal and transportation, remedial actions of soil, subsoil and groundwater should preferably be based on in-situ treatments. In-situ technologies commonly applied in Italy to the remediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb) are: - containment (caps, vertical barriers); - soil flushing; - cement based solidification/stabilization. (orig.)

  19. [Cognitive remediation and cognitive assistive technologies in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablier, J; Stip, E; Franck, N

    2009-04-01

    Cognitive impairments are a core feature in schizophrenia. They impact several cognitive abilities but most importantly attention, memory and executive functions, consequently leading to great difficulties in everyday life. Most schizophrenia patients need assurance and require assistance and help from care workers, family members and friends. Family members taking care of a patient have additional daily work burden, and suffer psychological anguish and anxiety. Therefore, improving cognitive functions in schizophrenia patients is essential for the well-being of patients and their relatives. Reducing these deficits may decrease the economic burden to the health care system through lower numbers of hospital admissions and shorter hospitalisation periods, for example. Cognitive rehabilitation was developed to address the limited benefits of conventional treatments on cognitive deficits through the use of assistive technology as a means of enhancing memory and executive skills in schizophrenia patients. To provide clinicians with comprehensive knowledge on cognitive trainings, programs of remediation, and cognitive assistive technologies. Literature review. A search in the electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Index Medicus) for recent articles in the last 10 years related to cognitive remediation published in any language using the words: cognitive and remediation or rehabilitation and schizophrenia, and a search for chapters in psychiatry and rehabilitation textbooks. We found 392 articles and 112 review paper mainly in English. First, we identified cognitive remediation programs that were beneficial to schizophrenia patients. Programs available in French (IPT, RECOS, and RehaCom) and others (CET, NET, CRT, NEAR, APT and CAT) were identified. In addition, since memory and executive function impairments could be present in people without schizophrenia, we reviewed inventories of cognitive assistive technologies proven to enhance cognitive skills in other populations

  20. Development of the integrated, in-situ remediation technology. Topical report for tasks No. 8 and No. 10 entitled: Laboratory and pilot scale experiments of Lasagna trademark process, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Sa V.; Athmer, C.J.; Sheridan, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    Contamination in low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. This technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated W and electro-osmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. This topical report summarizes the results of the lab and pilot sized Lasagna trademark experiments conducted at Monsanto. Experiments were conducted with kaofinite and an actual Paducah soil in units ranging from bench-scale containing kg-quantity of soil to pilot-scale containing about half a ton of soil having various treatment zone configurations. The obtained data support the feasibility of scaling up this technology with respect to electrokinetic parameters as well as removal of organic contaminants. A mathematical model was developed that was successful in predicting the temperature rises in the soil. The information and experience gained from these experiments along with the modeling effort enabled us to successfully design and operate a larger field experiment at a DOE TCE-contaminated clay site

  1. Development of the integrated, in-situ remediation technology. Topical report for tasks No. 8 and No. 10 entitled: Laboratory and pilot scale experiments of Lasagna{trademark} process, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Sa V.; Athmer, C.J.; Sheridan, P.W. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Contamination in low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. This technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated W and electro-osmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. This topical report summarizes the results of the lab and pilot sized Lasagna{trademark} experiments conducted at Monsanto. Experiments were conducted with kaofinite and an actual Paducah soil in units ranging from bench-scale containing kg-quantity of soil to pilot-scale containing about half a ton of soil having various treatment zone configurations. The obtained data support the feasibility of scaling up this technology with respect to electrokinetic parameters as well as removal of organic contaminants. A mathematical model was developed that was successful in predicting the temperature rises in the soil. The information and experience gained from these experiments along with the modeling effort enabled us to successfully design and operate a larger field experiment at a DOE TCE-contaminated clay site.

  2. Remediation of multiple heavy metal-contaminated soil through the combination of soil washing and in situ immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xiuqing; Li, Zhongwu; Huang, Bin; Luo, Ninglin; Huang, Mei; Zhang, Qiu; Zeng, Guangming

    2018-09-01

    The remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils is a great challenge for global environmental sciences and engineering. To control the ecological risks of heavy metal-contaminated soil more effectively, the present study focused on the combination of soil washing (with FeCl 3 ) and in situ immobilization (with lime, biochar, and black carbon). The results showed that the removal rate of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu was 62.9%, 52.1%, 30.0%, and 16.7%, respectively, when washed with FeCl 3 . After the combined remediation (immobilization with 1% (w/w) lime), the contaminated soils showed 36.5%, 73.6%, 70.9%, and 53.4% reductions in the bioavailability of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn (extracted with 0.11M acetic acid), respectively, than those of the soils washed with FeCl 3 only. However, the immobilization with 1% (w/w) biochar or 1% (w/w) carbon black after washing exhibited low effects on stabilizing the metals. The differences in effects between the immobilization with lime, biochar, and carbon black indicated that the soil pH had a significant influence on the lability of heavy metals during the combined remediation process. The activity of the soil enzymes (urease, sucrase, and catalase) showed that the addition of all the materials, including lime, biochar, and carbon black, exhibited positive effects on microbial remediation after soil washing. Furthermore, lime was the most effective material, indicating that low soil pH and high acid-soluble metal concentrations might restrain the activity of soil enzymes. Soil pH and nutrition were the major considerations for microbial remediation during the combined remediation. These findings suggest that the combination of soil washing and in situ immobilization is an effective method to amend the soils contaminated with multiple heavy metals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of Promising Remediation Technologies for Iodine in the UP-1 Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lee, Brady D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Szecsody, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vermeul, Vincent R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Iodine-129 (129I) generated at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site during plutonium production was released to the subsurface, resulting in several large, though dilute, plumes in the groundwater, including the plume in the 200-UP-1 operable unit (OU). Because 129I is an uncommon contaminant, relevant remediation experience and scientific literature are limited, though work is under way to better understand the fate and transport of 129I in the environment and the effectiveness of potential remediation technologies. The recent UP-1 Evaluation Plan for Iodine and report on the Conceptual Model of Iodine Behavior in the Subsurface at the Hanford Site provide information on the history of contamination in the 200-UP-1 OU, relevant controlling processes (biological and geochemical), risk, the conceptual site model, and potential remedial options, which provided a foundation for this study. In this study, available information was compiled and used to categorize potential remediation technologies, culminating in a recommendation of promising technologies for further evaluation. Approaches to improve the technical information about promising technologies are also recommended in this study so that a subsequent evaluation of potential remediation alternatives can assess these technologies.

  4. Development of subsurface characterization method for decommissioning site remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sang Bum; Nam, Jong Soo; Choi, Yong Suk; Seo, Bum Kyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Jong Won [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In situ measurement of peak to valley method based on the ratio of counting rate between the full energy peak and Compton region was applied to identify the depth distribution of 137Cs. The In situ measurement and sampling results were applied to evaluate a residual radioactivity before and after remediation in decommissioning KRR site. Spatial analysis based on the Geostatistics method provides a reliable estimating the volume of contaminated soil with a graphical analysis, which was applied to the site characterization in the decommissioning KRR site. The in situ measurement and spatial analysis results for characterization of subsurface contamination are presented. The objective of a remedial action is to reduce risks to human health to acceptable levels by removing the source of contamination. Site characterization of the subsurface contamination is an important factor for planning and implementation of site remediation. Radiological survey and evaluation technology are required to ensure the reliability of the results, and the process must be easily applied during field measurements. In situ gamma-ray spectrometry is a powerful method for site characterization that can be used to identify the depth distribution and quantify radionuclides directly at the measurement site. The in situ measurement and Geostatistics method was applied to the site characterization for remediation and final status survey in decommissioning KRR site.

  5. 300 Area Treatability Test: Laboratory Development of Polyphosphate Remediation Technology for In Situ Treatment of Uranium Contamination in the Vadose Zone and Capillary Fringe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Oostrom, Martinus; Gunderson, Katie M.; Webb, Samuel M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Clayton, Eric T.; Parker, Kent E.; Ermi, Ruby M.; Baum, Steven R.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2008-09-30

    This report presents results from bench-scale treatability studies conducted under site-specific conditions to optimize the polyphosphate amendment for implementation of a field-scale technology demonstration to stabilize uranium within the 300 Area vadose and smear zones of the Hanford Site. The general treatability testing approach consisted of conducting studies with site sediment and under site conditions, to develop an effective chemical formulation and infiltration approach for the polyphosphate amendment under site conditions. Laboratory-scale dynamic column tests were used to 1) quantify the retardation of polyphosphate and its degradation products as a function of water content, 2) determine the rate of polyphosphate degradation under unsaturated conditions, 3) develop an understanding of the mechanism of autunite formation via the reaction of solid phase calcite-bound uranium and aqueous polyphosphate remediation technology, 4) develop an understanding of the transformation mechanism, the identity of secondary phases, and the kinetics of the reaction between uranyl-carbonate and -silicate minerals with the polyphosphate remedy under solubility-limiting conditions, and 5) quantify the extent and rate of uranium released and immobilized based on the infiltration rate of the polyphosphate remedy and the effect of and periodic wet-dry cycling on the efficacy of polyphosphate remediation for uranium in the vadose zone and smear zone.

  6. In Situ Thermal NAPL Remediation at the Northeast Site Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhlin, R.; Butherus, M.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting thermal remediation to remove non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) from the subsurface at the Northeast Site that is part of the Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project. The Northeast Site is located on the Young - Rainey Science, Technology, and Research (STAR) Center in Largo, Florida. The STAR Center was formerly a DOE facility. The NAPL remediation was performed at Area A and is currently being performed at Area B at the Northeast Site. The remediation at Area A was completed in 2003 and covered an area of 900 m 2 (10,000 ft 2 ) and a depth of remediation that extended to 10.7 m (35 ft) below ground surface. Cleanup levels achieved were at or below maximum contaminant levels in almost all locations. The remediation project at Area B is ongoing and covers an area of 3,240 m 2 (36,000 ft 2 ), a volume of 41,300 m (54,000 yd 3), and a depth of remediation to 12 m (40 ft) below ground surface. In addition, a portion of the subsurface under an occupied building in Area B is included in the remediation. The cleanup levels achieved from this remediation will be available in the Area B Final Report that will be posted on the DOE Office of Legacy Management web site (www.lm.doe.gov/land/sites/fl/ pinellas/pinellas.htm) in January 2007. Electrical resistive heating and steam were the chosen remediation methods at both areas. Lessons learned from the Area A remediation were incorporated into the Area B remediation and could benefit managers of similar remediation projects. (authors)

  7. Using residents' worries about technology as a way of resolving environmental remediation dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Jason; Hubbard, Phil; Rai, Tapan

    2017-02-15

    The choice of technologies used to remediate contaminated environments are increasingly made via engagement with affected local residents. Despite this, little is known about how residents perceive remediation technology applications. Building on the findings of broader technology worry research, and drawing on data from a telephone survey of 2009 residents living near thirteen contaminated sites in Australia, regression analysis of closed-ended survey questions and coding analysis of open-ended survey questions are combined to identify the main predictors of worries concerning particular remediation technologies, and how worry affects them. This suggests respondents are more worried about the application of chemical remediation technologies than the application of physical and thermal technologies, which in turn caused more worry than the application of biotechnology. The paper suggests that these worries can be reduced via direct engagement with residents about remediation technologies, suggesting that such engagement can provide knowledge that improves remediation technology decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of an integrated, in-situ remediation technology. Topical report for task No. 6: lab-scale development of microbial degradation process, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odom, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Contamination in low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, and pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. The technology is an integrated in situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil, and electro-osmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. The present Topical Report for Task No. 6 summarizes the results of a study of the potential for stimulating microbial reductive dehalogenation as part of the integrated in situ treatment process at the field experiment test site at DOE's Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Paducah, Kentucky. A series of open-quotes microcosm bottle testsclose quotes were performed on samples of contaminated soil and groundwater taken from the Paducah site and spiked with trichloroethene (TCE). A number of bottles were set up, each spiked with a different carbon source in order to enhance the growth of different microbial subpopulations already present within the indigenous population in the soil. In addition, a series of bottle tests were completed with samples of the granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment zone material retrieved from the test site during the Paducah field experiment. In these tests, the GAC samples were used in place of the soil. Results of the soil-groundwater microcosms yielded a negative indication of the presence of dechlorinating bacteria at the site. However, charcoal (GAC) samples from one location in the test plot exhibited marked dechlorination with conversion of TCE to dichloroethene

  9. Innovative technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Luttrell, S.P.; Hartley, J.N.

    1992-08-01

    Environmental Management Operations (EMO) is conducting an Innovative Technology Demonstration Program for Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB). Several innovative technologies are being demonstrated to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ. The bioremediation demonstration will evaluate a bioventing process in which the naturally occurring consortium of soil bacteria will be stimulated to aerobically degrade soil contaminants, including fuel and TCE, in situ

  10. Remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils by ex situ microwave treatment: technical, energy and economic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falciglia, P P; Vagliasindi, F G A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the remediation of diesel-polluted soils was investigated by simulating an ex situ microwave (MW) heating treatment under different conditions, including soil moisture, operating power and heating duration. Based on experimental data, a technical, energy and economic assessment for the optimization of full-scale remediation activities was carried out. Main results show that the operating power applied significantly influences the contaminant removal kinetics and the moisture content in soil has a major effect on the final temperature reachable during MW heating. The first-order kinetic model showed an excellent correlation (r2 > 0.976) with the experimental data for residual concentration at all operating powers and for all soil moistures tested. Excellent contaminant removal values up to 94.8% were observed for wet soils at power higher than 600 W for heating duration longer than 30 min. The use of MW heating with respect to a conventional ex situ thermal desorption treatment could significantly decrease the energy consumption needed for the removal of hydrocarbon contaminants from soils. Therefore, the MW treatment could represent a suitable cost-effective alternative to the conventional thermal treatment for the remediation of hydrocarbon-polluted soil.

  11. Assessment of international remedial technologies for application to Superfund sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanning, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents some of the logical arguments for conducting research on remedial technologies for contaminated land and groundwater at an international level. It gives information on many of the international organizations that are involved in environmental programs, but it especially gives emphasis to the NATO-CCMS pilot study on Demonstration of Remedial Action Technologies for Contaminated Land and Groundwater. The purpose of the study is to field demonstrate and evaluate new/innovative technologies for remedial action at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. This study is a logical international extension of the US EPA SITE program. It offers the opportunity to obtain a multiple data base on various remedial action unit processes without any single country having to commit a disproportionate amount of its internal resources to any specific activity. Each participating country provides the necessary resources for those demonstrations which they are contributing to the study. Sites are selected by a majority vote of all participating countries (no country is permitted to vote for its own sites). The study is a 5 year program with participants from Canada, Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Greece, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, and the US. The need for cost-effective remedial action technologies for hazardous waste sites is a problem of all industrialized countries. The need to build a knowledge base of emerging remedial technologies was the impetus behind the USEPA's lead role and commitment to this pilot study

  12. Effort to improve coupled in situ chemical oxidation with bioremediation: a review of optimization strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutton, N.B.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose - In order to provide highly effective yet relatively inexpensive strategies for the remediation of recalcitrant organic contaminants, research has focused on in situ treatment technologies. Recent investigation has shown that coupling two common treatments-in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO)

  13. Ability of salt marsh plants for TBT remediation in sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Pedro N; Basto, M Clara P; Silva, Manuela F G M; Machado, Ana; Bordalo, A A; Vasconcelos, M Teresa S D

    2010-07-01

    detected in nonvegetated sediment, whereas MBT was quantified in most samples. This work demonstrated that H. portulacoides has potentiality to be used for enhancing TBT remediation in sediments from salted areas. The results observed in situ for S. maritima or S. fruticosa suggested that these two salt marsh plants also favored TBT remediation. Therefore, the application of halophytes in technologies for TBT remediation in sediments seems to be efficient both in situ and ex situ, cost effective, and nondestructive, despite the fact that they have been rarely used for this purpose so far.

  14. An evaluation of in-situ bioremediation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, L.L.; Rashidi, M.

    1996-08-01

    Remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater was the primary focus in the initial application of in-situ bioremediation which, from its development in the 1970s, has grown to become one of the most promising technologies for the degradation of a wide variety of organic contaminants. The degradation of contaminants in subsurface soils is the current new focus of the technology. While the need for improvements in the technology does exist, the indisputable fact remains that this technology is by far the least expensive and that it has the capability to provide long term reduced levels of contaminants or long term complete remediation of contaminated sites. The aim of this paper is to disclose pertinent information related to current conditions and current feelings in the area of new research, novel applications, new government regulations, and an overview of new topics on the horizon that relate to the overall technology

  15. An evaluation of in-situ bioremediation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, L.L. [Prairie View A and M Univ., TX (United States); Rashidi, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Programs Directorate

    1996-08-01

    Remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater was the primary focus in the initial application of in-situ bioremediation which, from its development in the 1970s, has grown to become one of the most promising technologies for the degradation of a wide variety of organic contaminants. The degradation of contaminants in subsurface soils is the current new focus of the technology. While the need for improvements in the technology does exist, the indisputable fact remains that this technology is by far the least expensive and that it has the capability to provide long term reduced levels of contaminants or long term complete remediation of contaminated sites. The aim of this paper is to disclose pertinent information related to current conditions and current feelings in the area of new research, novel applications, new government regulations, and an overview of new topics on the horizon that relate to the overall technology.

  16. NOVEL IN-SITU METAL AND MINERAL EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn O' Gorman; Hans von Michaelis; Gregory J. Olson

    2004-09-22

    This white paper summarizes the state of art of in-situ leaching of metals and minerals, and describes a new technology concept employing improved fragmentation of ores underground in order to prepare the ore for more efficient in-situ leaching, combined with technology to continuously improve solution flow patterns through the ore during the leaching process. The process parameters and economic benefits of combining the new concept with chemical and biological leaching are described. A summary is provided of the next steps required to demonstrate the technology with the goal of enabling more widespread use of in-situ leaching.

  17. Remediation of Deep Vadose Zone Radionuclide and Metal Contamination: Status and Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P. Evan; Truex, Michael J.; Cantrell, Keri

    2008-12-30

    This report documents the results of a PNNL literature review to report on the state of maturity of deep vadose zone remediation technologies for metal contaminants including some radionuclides. Its recommendations feed into decisionmakers need for scientific information and cost-effective in situ remediation technlogies needed under DOE's Environmental Management initiative Enhanced Remediation Methods: Scientific & Technical Basis for In Stu Treatment Systems for Metals and Radionuclides.

  18. Foam - novel delivery technology for remediation of vadose zone environments - 59019

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansik, Danielle; Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Zhong, Lirong; Zhang, Fred; Foote, Martin; Wu, Yuxin; Hubbard, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Deep vadose zone environments can be a primary source and pathway for contaminant migration to groundwater. These environments present unique characterization and remediation challenges that necessitate scrutiny and research. The thickness, depth, and intricacies of the deep vadose zone, combined with a lack of understanding of the key subsurface processes (e.g., biogeochemical and hydrologic) affecting contaminant migration, make it difficult to create validated conceptual and predictive models of subsurface flow dynamics and contaminant behavior across multiple scales. These factors also make it difficult to design and deploy sustainable remedial approaches and monitor long-term contaminant behavior after remedial actions. Functionally, methods for addressing contamination must remove and/or reduce transport of contaminants. This problem is particularly challenging in the arid western United States where the vadose zone is hundreds of feet thick, rendering transitional excavation methods exceedingly costly and ineffective. Delivery of remedial amendments is one of the most challenging and critical aspects for all remedy-based approaches. The conventional approach for delivery is through injection of aqueous remedial solutions. However, heterogeneous deep vadose zone environments present hydrologic and geochemical challenges that limit the effectiveness. Because the flow of solution infiltration is dominantly controlled by gravity and suction, injected liquid preferentially percolates through highly permeable pathways, by-passing low-permeability zones that frequently contain the majority of contamination. Moreover, the wetting front can readily mobilize and enhance contaminant transport to the underlying aquifer prior to stabilization. Development of innovative in-situ technologies may be the only means to meet remedial action objectives and long-term stewardship goals. Surfactants can be used to lower the liquid surface tension and create stabile foams, which

  19. In situ remediation and phytotoxicity assessment of lead-contaminated soil by biochar-supported nHAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhangmei; Fang, Zhanqiang; Tsang, Pokeung Eric; Fang, Jianzhang; Zhao, Dongye

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a kind of biochar-supported nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAP@BC) material was used in in-situ remediation of lead-contaminated soil. Column experiments were performed to compare the mobility of nHAP@BC and Bare-nHAP. The immobilization, accumulation and toxic effects of Pb in the after-amended soil were assessed by the in vitro toxicity tests and pot experiments. The column experiments showed a significant improvement in the mobility of nHAP@BC. The immobilization rate of Pb in the soil was 74.8% after nHAP@BC remediation. Sequential extraction procedures revealed that the residual fraction of Pb increased by 66.6% after nHAP@BC remediation, which greatly reduced the bioavailability of Pb in the soil. In addition, pot experiments indicated that nHAP@BC could effectively reduce the upward translocation capacity of Pb in a soil-plant system. The concentration of Pb in the aerial part of the cabbage mustard was 0.1 mg/kg, which is lower than the tolerance limit (0.3 mg/kg). nHAP@BC can remediate Pb-contaminated soil effectively, which can restore soil quality for planting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Stakeholder acceptance analysis: In-well vapor stripping, in-situ bioremediation, gas membrane separation system (membrane separation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.

    1995-12-01

    This document provides stakeholder evaluations on innovative technologies to be used in the remediation of volatile organic compounds from soils and ground water. The technologies evaluated are; in-well vapor stripping, in-situ bioremediation, and gas membrane separation

  1. In situ remediation-released zero-valent iron nanoparticles impair soil ecosystems health: A C. elegans biomarker-based risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ying-Fei; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Liao, Chung-Min, E-mail: cmliao@ntu.edu.tw

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Fe{sup 0} NPs induced infertility risk in C. elegans. • A C.elegans-based probabilistic risk assessment model is developed. • In situ remediation-released Fe{sup 0} NPs impair soil ecosystems health. - Abstract: There is considerable concern over the potential ecotoxicity to soil ecosystems posed by zero-valent iron nanoparticles (Fe{sup 0} NPs) released from in situ environmental remediation. However, a lack of quantitative risk assessment has hampered the development of appropriate testing methods used in environmental applications. Here we present a novel, empirical approach to assess Fe{sup 0} NPs-associated soil ecosystems health risk using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism. A Hill-based dose-response model describing the concentration–fertility inhibition relationships was constructed. A Weibull model was used to estimate thresholds as a guideline to protect C. elegans from infertility when exposed to waterborne or foodborne Fe{sup 0} NPs. Finally, the risk metrics, exceedance risk (ER) and risk quotient (RQ) of Fe{sup 0} NPs in various depths and distances from remediation sites can then be predicted. We showed that under 50% risk probability (ER = 0.5), upper soil layer had the highest infertility risk (95% confidence interval: 13.18–57.40%). The margins of safety and acceptable criteria for soil ecosystems health for using Fe{sup 0} NPs in field scale applications were also recommended. Results showed that RQs are larger than 1 in all soil layers when setting a stricter threshold of ∼1.02 mg L{sup −1} of Fe{sup 0} NPs. This C. elegans biomarker-based risk model affords new insights into the links between widespread use of Fe{sup 0} NPs and environmental risk assessment and offers potential environmental implications of metal-based NPs for in situ remediation.

  2. Laboratory evaluation of the in situ chemical treatment approach to soil and groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorton, E.C.; Trader, D.E.

    1993-10-01

    Results of initial proof of principle laboratory testing activities successfully demonstrated the viability of the in situ chemical treatment approach for remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated by hexavalent chromium. Testing activities currently in progress further indicate that soils contaminated with hexavalent chromium and uranium at concentrations of several hundred parts per million can be successfully treated with 100 ppM hydrogen sulfide gas mixtures. Greater than 90% immobilization of hexavalent chromium and 50% immobilization of uranium have been achieved in these tests after a treatment period of one day. Activities associated with further development and implementation of the in situ chemical treatment approach include conducting additional bench scale tests with contaminated geomedia, and undertaking scale-up laboratory tests and a field demonstration. This report discusses the testing and further development of this process

  3. In-situ bioaugmentation of vadose zone restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.M.; Minkel, K.A.; Schepart, B.S.

    1992-01-01

    Leakage from an underground gasoline storage tank caused evacuation from a restaurant and an insurance company. An engineering consultant was engaged to correct the problem. Upon remedy of the habitability situation, a groundwater recovery system was designed to recover whatever open-quotes free productclose quotes gasoline could be collected. Since traditional open-quotes Pump and treatclose quotes remedial technologies are successful only to the extent that the contaminant is mobile, an alternative is necessary to effectively remediate that contamination which is recalcitrant. At this point, Waste Stream Technology was enlisted to propose an in-situ remedial action plan. Approximately five injection wells were installed around the perimeter and in the zone of influence of each of eight recovery wells. The injection wells were designed to distribute the bacteria at various depths in the vadose zone. Bacteria were cultured on site in Waste Stream's proprietary bioreactor. Bacterial and nutrient applications were injected on a weekly basis. Bacterial population dynamics and BETX levels were monitored throughout the course of the remediation. Although the remediation is currently in progress, disappearance of open-quotes free productclose quotes on the water table and elimination of benzene in the groundwater over a reasonable time period marked the success of this project

  4. ENGINEERING ISSUE: IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED UNSATURATED SUBSURFACE SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An emerging technology for the remediation of unsaturated subsurface soils involves the use of microorganisms to degrade contaminants which are present in such soils. Understanding the processes which drive in situ bioremediation, as well as the effectiveness and efficiency of th...

  5. Horizontal wells in subsurface remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losonsky, G.; Beljin, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on horizontal wells which offer an effective alternative to vertical wells in various environmental remediation technologies. Hydrogeological advantages of horizontal wells over vertical wells include a larger zone of influence, greater screen length, higher specific capacity and lower groundwater screen entrance velocity. Because of these advantages, horizontal wells can reduce treatment time and costs of groundwater recovery (pump-and-treat), in situ groundwater aeration (sparging) and soil gas extraction (vacuum extraction). Horizontal wells are also more effective than vertical wells in landfill leachate collection (under-drains), bioremediation, and horizontal grout injection

  6. Environmental remediation 1991: ''Cleaning up the environment for the 21st Century''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents discussions given at a conference on environmental remediation, September 8--11, Pasco, Washington. Topics include: public confidence; education; in-situ remediation; Hanford tank operations; risk assessments; field experiences; standards; site characterization and monitoring; technology discussions; regulatory issues; compliance; and the UMTRA project. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  7. Hydrodynamics of foam flows for in situ bioremediation of DNAPL-contaminated subsurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouillard, J.X.; Enzien, M.; Peters, R.W.; Frank, J.; Botto, R.E.; Cody, G.

    1995-01-01

    In situ remediation technologies such as (1) pump-and-treat, (2) soil vacuum extraction, (3) soil flushing/washing, and (4) bioremediation are being promoted for cleanup of contaminated sites. However, these technologies are limited by flow channeling of chemical treatment agents. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), the Gas Research Institute, and the Institute of Gas Technology are collaboratively investigating a new bioremediation technology using foams. The ability of a foam to block pores and limit flow bypassing makes it ideal for DNAPL remediation. The hydrodynamics of gas/liquid foam flows differ significantly from the hydrodynamics of single and multiphase nonfoaming flows. This is illustrated using a multiphase flow hydrodynamic computer model and a two-dimensional flow visualization cell. A state-of-the-art, nonintrusive, three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging technique was developed to visualize DNAPL mobilization in three dimensions. Mechanisms to be investigated are in situ DNAPL interactions with the foam, DNAPL emulsification, DNAPL scouring by the foam, and subsequent DNAPL mobilization/redeposition in the porous media

  8. Design requirements for ERD and ISCO: How close and how fast to achieve an effective remediation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Lemming, Gitte; Manoli, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Clayey tills contaminated with chlorinated solvents are a threat to groundwater and are difficult to remediate. Full scale Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination (ERD) and In-Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) are promising remediation technologies for such sites, but the delivery of reactants...

  9. Microbial community evolution of black and stinking rivers during in situ remediation through micro-nano bubble and submerged resin floating bed technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanmei; Wang, Shiwei; Niu, Junfeng

    2018-06-01

    Microbes play important roles during river remediation and the interaction mechanism illustration between microorganisms and sewage is of great significance to improve restoration technology. In this study, micro-nano bubble and submerged resin floating bed composite technology (MBSR) was firstly used to restore two black and stinking urban rivers. After restoration, the water pollution indices such as dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonia nitrogen (NH 4 + -N), total phosphorous (TP), chemical oxygen demand (COD Cr ), water clarity, and the number of facial coliform were significantly improved. Microbial community composition and relative abundance both varied and more aerobic microbes emerged after remediation. The microbial changes showed correlation with DO, NH 4 + -N, TP and COD Cr of the rivers. In summary, the MBSR treatment improved the physiochemical properties of the two black and stinking urban rivers probably through oxygen enrichment of micro-nano bubble and adsorption of submerged resin floating bed, which thereby stimulated functional microbes to degrade pollutants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Soil and Sediment remediation, mechanisms, technologies and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, P.N.L.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Malina, G.; Tabak, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    Technologies for the treatment of soils and sediments in-situ (landfarming, bioscreens, bioventing, nutrient injection, phytoremediation) and ex-situ (landfarming, bio-heap treatment, soil suspension reactor) will be discussed. The microbiological, process technological and socio-economical aspects

  11. Numerical simulations in support of the in situ bioremediation demonstration at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, B.J.; Rosenberg, N.D.

    1994-06-01

    This report assesses the performance of the in situ bioremediation technology demonstrated at the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration (SRID) site in 1992--1993. The goal of the technology demonstration was to stimulate naturally occurring methanotrophic bacteria at the SRID site with injection of methane, air and air-phase nutrients (nitrogen and phosphate) such that significant amounts of the chlorinated solvent present in the subsurface would be degraded. Our approach is based on site-specific numerical simulations using the TRAMP computer code. In this report, we discuss the interactions among the physical and biochemical processes involved in in situ bioremediation. We also investigate improvements to technology performance, make predictions regarding the performance of this technology over long periods of time and at different sites, and compare in situ bioremediation with other remediation technologies

  12. Some implications of in situ uranium mining technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, C.E.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Cole, R.J.; Keller, D.; Mellinger, P.J.; Wallace, R.W.

    1980-09-01

    A technology assessment was initiated in March 1979 of the in-situ uranium mining technology. This report explores the impediments to development and deployment of this technology and evaluates the environmental impacts of a generic in-situ facility. The report is divided into the following sections: introduction, technology description, physical environment, institutional and socioeconomic environment, impact assessment, impediments, and conclusions

  13. In-situ remediation system for groundwater and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, John C.; Kaback, Dawn S.; Looney, Brian B.

    1993-01-01

    A method and system for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater and soil where the contaminants, such as toxic metals, are carried in a subsurface plume. The method comprises selection and injection into the soil of a fluid that will cause the contaminants to form stable, non-toxic compounds either directly by combining with the contaminants or indirectly by creating conditions in the soil or changing the conditions of the soil so that the formation of stable, non-toxic compounds between the contaminants and existing substances in the soil are more favorable. In the case of non-toxic metal contaminants, sulfides or sulfates are injected so that metal sulfides or sulfates are formed. Alternatively, an inert gas may be injected to stimulate microorganisms in the soil to produce sulfides which, in turn, react with the metal contaminants. Preferably, two wells are used, one to inject the fluid and one to extract the unused portion of the fluid. The two wells work in combination to create a flow of the fluid across the plume to achieve better, more rapid mixing of the fluid and the contaminants.

  14. Innovative technologies for the remediation of transuranic- contaminated landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a comprehensive research,development, demonstration, testing and evaluation program to provide innovative technology systems to achieve its environmental management responsibilities. The Office of Technology Development (OTD) is responsible for this research in support of the Offices of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management efforts. In fiscal year (FY) 1992 the OTD established the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID). The BWID mission was to support the development of emerging technologies for their application to the remediation of DOE buried waste site. During FY95, the BWID program was transitioned into a larger program which will focus its attention to DOE Landfills and Contaminated Soils. There search and activities formerly referred to as the BWID will now be associated with the Transuranic-contaminated Arid Landfill Stabilization Program.(TALS). The TALS Program supports these buried waste remediation efforts by seeking out the best talent to solve the technology challenges as identified in baseline remediation strategies. Experts from throughout the DOE complex, universities, private sector, and the international community are being included in this program to solve these challenges and ensure implementation and commercialization of innovative technologies

  15. EREM 2001 - 3. symposium and status report on electrokinetic remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czurda, C.; Haus, R. (eds.); Hoetzl, H.

    2001-07-01

    Papers have been submitted by authors from around the world, reflecting the worldwide interest in electrokinetic remediation techniques. Therefore the symposium series plays a significant role in the presentation of recent advancements in electrochemical decontamination of polluted sediments on both scientific and technical level. In the field of potential cost-saving, innovative in-situ remediation technologies electrokinetics are already identified throughout the world. The main topics of the symposium are: electrokinetic models, electrokinetic transport processes, technical installation, combination of electroremediation with different remediation methods and the application in various electrokinetic field test demonstrations.

  16. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagram: Part B, Remedial Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Part A of Vols. 1. and 2 focuses on D&D. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the RA of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. Remedial action is the focus of Vol. 2, Pt. B, which has been divided into the three necessary subelements of the RA: characterization, RA, and robotics and automation. Each of these sections address general ORNL problems, which are then broken down by problem area/constituents and linked to potential remedial technologies. The diagrams also contain summary information about a technology`s status, its science and technology needs, and its implementation needs.

  17. Development of an integrated, in-situ remediation technology. Draft topical report for task No. 9. Part II. Entitled: TCE degradation using non-biological methods, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, R.G.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1997-04-01

    Contamination in low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. The technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil and electro-osmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. The use of zero valence iron for reductive dechlorination of aliphatic chlorinated hydrocarbons is currently under investigation by a number of research groups as a potential method of in-situ treatment of contaminated ground water. The reaction appears to involve the transfer of electrons to chloro-aliphatic compounds by the oxidation of zero valence iron to ferrous iron (Fe{sup +2}). Our studies have indicated that this reaction is consistent with those of corrosion, and as such, can be influenced or increased by the presence of small amounts of metals (5% by weight) such as copper, tin, silver, gold and palladium coated on the iron surface. Incomplete coverage of the iron surface with a more electropositive metal results in an open galvanic cell, which increases the oxidation of iron and facilitates and increases the concurrent reduction of trichloroethylene and other chlorinated aliphatic compounds to the corresponding alkenes and alkanes. Our results show that plating more electropositive metals onto certain iron surfaces results in approximately a factor of ten increase in the dechlorination rate of small organochlorine compounds such as TCE.

  18. Development of an integrated, in-situ remediation technology. Draft topical report for task No. 9. Part II. Entitled: TCE degradation using non-biological methods, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, R.G.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    Contamination in low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. The technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil and electro-osmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. The use of zero valence iron for reductive dechlorination of aliphatic chlorinated hydrocarbons is currently under investigation by a number of research groups as a potential method of in-situ treatment of contaminated ground water. The reaction appears to involve the transfer of electrons to chloro-aliphatic compounds by the oxidation of zero valence iron to ferrous iron (Fe +2 ). Our studies have indicated that this reaction is consistent with those of corrosion, and as such, can be influenced or increased by the presence of small amounts of metals (5% by weight) such as copper, tin, silver, gold and palladium coated on the iron surface. Incomplete coverage of the iron surface with a more electropositive metal results in an open galvanic cell, which increases the oxidation of iron and facilitates and increases the concurrent reduction of trichloroethylene and other chlorinated aliphatic compounds to the corresponding alkenes and alkanes. Our results show that plating more electropositive metals onto certain iron surfaces results in approximately a factor of ten increase in the dechlorination rate of small organochlorine compounds such as TCE

  19. A comprehensive guide of remediation technologies for oil contaminated soil - Present works and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mee Wei; Lau, Ee Von; Poh, Phaik Eong

    2016-08-15

    Oil spills result in negative impacts on the environment, economy and society. Due to tidal and waves actions, the oil spillage affects the shorelines by adhering to the soil, making it difficult for immediate cleaning of the soil. As shoreline clean-up is the most costly component of a response operation, there is a need for effective oil remediation technologies. This paper provides a review on the remediation technologies for soil contaminated with various types of oil, including diesel, crude oil, petroleum, lubricating oil, bitumen and bunker oil. The methods discussed include solvent extraction, bioremediation, phytoremediation, chemical oxidation, electrokinetic remediation, thermal technologies, ultrasonication, flotation and integrated remediation technologies. Each of these technologies was discussed, and associated with their advantages, disadvantages, advancements and future work in detail. Nonetheless, it is important to note that no single remediation technology is considered the best solution for the remediation of oil contaminated soil. This review provides a comprehensive literature on the various remediation technologies studied in the removal of different oil types from soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bio-chemical remediation of under-ground water contaminated by uranium in-situ leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qingliang; Li Qian; Zhang Hongcan; Hu Eming; Chen Yongbo

    2014-01-01

    In the process of uranium in-situ leaching, it was serious that strong acid, uranium and heavy metals, and SO_4"2"-, NO_3"- could contaminate underground water. To remedy these pollutants, conventional methods are high-cost and low-efficient, so a bio-chemical remediation method was proposed to cope with the under-ground water pollution in this study. The results showed, in the chemical treatment with Ca(OH)_2 neutralization, pH went up from 2.0 to 7.0, the removal rates of U, Mn"2"+, Zn"2"+, Pb"2"+, SO_4"2"-, NO_3"- were 91.5%, 78.3%, 85.1%, 100%, 71.4% and 2.6% respectively, SO_4"2"- and NO_3"- need to be treated again by bio-method. In the biological process, the Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) of bioreactor was controlled at 42 h, and 100% NO_3"- and 70% SO_4"2"- in the contaminated water were removed; Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A. f) liquid to H_2S showed better absorption effect, can fully meet the process requirements of H_2S removal. (authors)

  1. Environmental remediation 1991: ``Cleaning up the environment for the 21st Century``. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, D.E. [ed.] [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This report presents discussions given at a conference on environmental remediation, September 8--11, Pasco, Washington. Topics include: public confidence; education; in-situ remediation; Hanford tank operations; risk assessments; field experiences; standards; site characterization and monitoring; technology discussions; regulatory issues; compliance; and the UMTRA project. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  2. Technology selection for remediation of lead and hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, K.E.; Sparks, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for selection of a technology for remediation of 70,000 tons of lead and hydrocarbon impacted soil resulting from an excavation at the Mobil Torrance Refinery. This methodology resulted from over two years of extensive research and technology evaluation. Twelve technologies and combination of technologies were evaluated, which often included bench scale testing, to determine the most cost effective and technically feasible remediation option. The results of the studies for each technology are discussed and presented in tabular form. The technologies investigated include: fixation/stabilization, soil washing, solvent washing, heap leach extraction, froth flotation, bioremediation, thermal desorption, electrokinetic extraction, asphalt incorporation, vitrification, off-site treatment, and off-site disposal. The associated costs and technical feasibility of each of the remediation options evaluated are presented. Laboratory analyses of the excavated soil indicate hydrocarbons range from non-detect to 11,000 ppm with an average of 2,600 ppm, soluble lead (CA test-not TCLP) range from 1.4 ppm to 100 ppm with an average of 29 ppm, and low levels of organic lead are present. Average grain size of the soil ranges from number-sign 200 to number-sign 120 mesh, and permeability averages 10--4 cm/sec. Significant odors, likely caused by hydrogen sulfide and thiophenes, were detected when the soil was excavated and control of odors during the remediation phase is a critical concern

  3. Electrochemical remediation technologies for soil and groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doering, F. [Electrochemical Processes I.I. c. Valley Forge, PA (United States)]|[P2 Soil Remediation, Inc. Stuttgart (Germany); Doering, N. [P2 Soil Remediation, Inc. Stuttgart (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    In Direct Current Technologies (DCTs) a direct current electricity is passed between at least two subsurface electrodes in order to effect the remediation of the groundwater and/or the soil. DCTs in line with the U.S.-terminology comprise of the ElectroChemical Remediation Technologies (ECRTs), and GeoKinetics. The primary distinction between ECRTs and ElectroKinetics are the power input, and the mode of operation, which are electrochemical reactions vs. mass transport. ECRTs combine phenomena of colloid (surface) electrochemistry with the phenomena of Induced Polarization (IP). This report focuses on ECRTs, comprising of the ElectroChemical GeoOxidation (ECGO) for the mineralization of organic pollutants to finally carbon dioxide and water, and Induced Complexation (IC), related to the electrochemical conversion of metals enhancing the mobilization and precipitation of heavy metals on both electrodes. Both technologies are based on reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions at the scale of the individual soil particles. (orig.)

  4. Optimization of Remediation Conditions using Vadose Zone Monitoring Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, O.; Mandelbaum, R.; Ronen, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Success of in-situ bio-remediation of the vadose zone depends mainly on the ability to change and control hydrological, physical and chemical conditions of subsurface. These manipulations enables the development of specific, indigenous, pollutants degrading bacteria or set the environmental conditions for seeded bacteria. As such, the remediation efficiency is dependent on the ability to implement optimal hydraulic and chemical conditions in deep sections of the vadose zone. Enhanced bioremediation of the vadose zone is achieved under field conditions through infiltration of water enriched with chemical additives. Yet, water percolation and solute transport in unsaturated conditions is a complex process and application of water with specific chemical conditions near land surface dose not necessarily result in promoting of desired chemical and hydraulic conditions in deeper sections of the vadose zone. A newly developed vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS) allows continuous monitoring of the hydrological and chemical properties of the percolating water along deep sections of the vadose zone. Implementation of the VMS at sites that undergoes active remediation provides real time information on the chemical and hydrological conditions in the vadose zone as the remediation process progresses. Manipulating subsurface conditions for optimal biodegradation of hydrocarbons is demonstrated through enhanced bio-remediation of the vadose zone at a site that has been contaminated with gasoline products in Tel Aviv. The vadose zone at the site is composed of 6 m clay layer overlying a sandy formation extending to the water table at depth of 20 m bls. The upper 5 m of contaminated soil were removed for ex-situ treatment, and the remaining 15 m vadose zone is treated in-situ through enhanced bioremedaition. Underground drip irrigation system was installed below the surface on the bottom of the excavation. Oxygen and nutrients releasing powder (EHCO, Adventus) was spread below the

  5. Technology needs and trends for hazardous waste site remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalick, W.W. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Over the next few decades, federal, state, and local governments and private industry will commit billions of dollars annually to clean up sites contaminated with hazardous waste and petroleum products. While these needs represent an obligation for society, they also represent an important business opportunity for vendors of remediation services. This presentation assesses the remediation market by characterizing sites that comprise the demand for cleanup services, observing remedy selection trends in the Superfund program, and discussing gaps in the supply of technologies

  6. Barometric pumping with a twist: VOC containment and remediation without boreholes. Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The majority of the planned remediation sites within the DOE complex are contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In many instances the contamination has not reached the water table, does not pose an immediate threat, and is not considered a high priority problem. These sites will ultimately require remediation of some type, either by active vapor extraction, bioremediation, or excavation and ex-situ soil treatment. The cost of remediating these sites can range from $50 K to more than $150 K, depending on site characteristics, contaminants, and remediation method. Additionally, for many remediated sites, residual contamination exists which could not practically be removed by the applied remediation technology. These circumstances result in modest sites with contamination of limited risk, but by regulation they must still be controlled. A remediation solution being developed by Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) for the Department of Energy serves as an in-situ containment and extraction methodology for sites where most or all of the contamination resides in the vadose zone soil. The approach capitalizes on the advective soil gas movement resulting from barometric pressure oscillations.

  7. A case study of in situ oil contamination in a mangrove swamp (Rio De Janeiro, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Elcia M S; Duran, Robert; Guyoneaud, Rémy; Goñi-Urriza, Marisol; García de Oteyza, T; Crapez, Miriam A C; Aleluia, Irene; Wasserman, Julio C A

    2009-08-01

    Mangroves are sensitive ecosystems of prominent ecological value that lamentably have lost much of their areas across the world. The vulnerability of mangroves grown in proximity to cities requires the development of new technologies for the remediation of acute oil spills and chronic contaminations. Studies on oil remediation are usually performed with in vitro microcosms whereas in situ experiments are rare. The aim of this work was to evaluate oil degradation on mangrove ecosystems using in situ microcosms seeded with an indigenous hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial consortium (HBC). Although the potential degradation of oil through HBC has been reported, their seeding directly on the sediment did not stimulate oil degradation during the experimental period. This is probably due to the availability of carbon sources that are easier to degrade than petroleum hydrocarbons. Our results emphasize the fragility of mangrove ecosystems during accidental oil spills and also the need for more efficient technologies for their remediation.

  8. Demonstration of the SOLTECR technology for the in situ physico-chemical treatment of a site contaminated by diesel oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, P.; Tellier, J.G.; Michaud, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    The remediation of a diesel oil spill at one of the Alcan plants was discussed. The hydrocarbon spill affected the groundwater in an area of more than 6,000 m 2 . Only an in-situ treatment for remediation was practical because the residual contaminated soil was located mainly under buildings and represented a volume of 3,000 m 3 . Alcan proposed the development and demonstration of the SOLTEC R in-situ physico-chemical treatment technology which consists of injecting chemicals into the soil. The chemicals are a mixture of calcium based solids with liquid and gaseous oxidizing agents. The degradation of the hydrocarbons is by oxidation and is completed in the soil in less than 24 hours after injection. Monitoring of the groundwater was conducted for one year after the completion of the soil treatment. It was concluded that the SOLTEC R process decreased and even eliminated the toxicity and geotoxicity of the diesel-contaminated soils. A volume of 3,000 m 3 of contaminated soil was treated within three months. The efficiency of hydrocarbon destruction was more than 95 per cent. 3 refs., 1 tab

  9. In situ bioremediation using horizontal wells. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    In Situ Bioremediation (ISB) is the term used in this report for Gaseous Nutrient Injection for In Situ Bioremediation. This process (ISB) involves injection of air and nutrients (sparging and biostimulation) into the ground water and vacuum extraction to remove Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from the vadose zone concomitant with biodegradation of the VOCs. This process is effective for remediation of soils and ground water contaminated with VOCs both above and below the water table. A full-scale demonstration of ISB was conducted as part of the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration: VOCs in Soils and Ground Water at Nonarid Sites. This demonstration was performed at the Savannah River Site from February 1992 to April 1993

  10. Hybrid technologies for the remediation of Diesel fuel polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazos, M.; Alcantara, M.T.; Rosales, E.; Sanroman, M.A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Diesel fuel may be released into soil due to anthropogenic activities, such as accidental spills or leaks in underground storage tanks or pipelines. Since diesel fuel is mainly composed of hydrophobic organic compounds, it has low water solubility. Therefore, treating contaminated areas with conventional techniques is difficult. In this study, electrokinetic treatment of soil contaminated with diesel fuel was carried out. Two different hybrid approaches to pollutant removal were tested. A surfactant was used as a processing fluid during electrokinetic treatment to increase desorption and the solubility of diesel fuel. Additionally, a hybrid technology combining a Fenton reaction and electrokinetic remediation (EK-Fenton) was tested in an attempt to generate favorable in situ degradation of pollutants. The efficiency of each treatment was determined based on diesel fuel removal. After 30 days of treatment, the highest removal of diesel fuel was found to be achieved with the EK-Fenton process. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Remediation Technology Collaboration Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John; Olsen, Wade

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews programs at NASA aimed at development at Remediation Technology development for removal of environmental pollutants from NASA sites. This is challenging because there are many sites with different environments, and various jurisdictions and regulations. There are also multiple contaminants. There must be different approaches based on location and type of contamination. There are other challenges: such as costs, increased need for resources and the amount of resources available, and a regulatory environment that is increasing.

  12. Electrokinetic Enhanced Permanganate Delivery for Low Permeability Soil Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A. I.; Gerhard, J.; Reynolds, D. A.; Sleep, B. E.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    Contaminant mass sequestered in low permeability zones (LPZ) in the subsurface has become a significant concern due to back diffusion of contaminants, leading to contaminant rebound following treatment of the high permeability strata. In-situ remediation technologies such as in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) are promising, however, successful delivery of oxidants into silts and clays remains a challenge. Electrokinetics (EK) has been proposed as a technique that can overcome this challenge by delivering oxidants into low permeability soils. This study demonstrates the ability of EK to facilitate permanganate delivery into silt for treatment of trichloroethene (TCE). A two-dimensional sandbox was packed with alternate vertical layers of coarse sand and silt contaminated with high concentrations of aqueous phase TCE. Nine experiments were conducted to compare EK-enhanced in-situ chemical oxidation (EK-ISCO) to ISCO alone or EK alone. Frequent groundwater sampling at multiple locations combined with image analysis provided detailed mapping of TCE, permanganate, and manganese dioxide mass distributions. EK-ISCO successfully delivered the permanganate throughout the silt cross-section while ISCO without EK resulted in permanganate delivery only to the edges of the silt layer. EK-ISCO resulted in a 4.4 order-of-magnitude (OoM) reduction in TCE concentrations in the coarse sand compared to a 3.5 OoM reduction for ISCO alone. This study suggests that electrokinetics coupled with ISCO can achieve enhanced remediation of lower permeability strata, where remediation technologies for successful contaminant mass removal would otherwise be limited.

  13. In-situ treatment of a mixed hydrocarbon plume through enhanced bio-remediation and a PRB system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglietto, I.; Bargoni, G.; Bretti, L.L.

    2005-01-01

    (especially aerobic biodegradation), whereas fully-chlorinated compounds are only biodegradable via reductive pathways. Therefore, a mixed plume of both types of contaminants requires a combined approach with the application of different treatment technologies. The remediation strategy elaborated combines an enhanced bio-remediation of the hot spots with a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) in a funnel and gate configuration for the down-gradient plume containment. Pilot tests were carried out in order to assess the efficiency and feasibility of such technologies in the site of interest. The enhanced bio-remediation is going to be carried out by means of injections of hydrogen release compounds (HRC) and oxygen release compounds (ORC) for the biodegradation of chlorinated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbons respectively. A pilot test was conducted to determine the degradation rates of the different contaminants. The pilot test was monitored with a periodic sampling and analysis of the groundwater and with a continuous monitoring of the physical-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, conductivity, redox potential and dissolved oxygen) in the monitoring wells placed immediately down-gradient of the injection points. The tests showed the possibility to use the enhanced bio-remediation with the double aim to reduce the hot spot concentrations, in order to lower the contaminant load on the PRB, and to control the lateral spreading of the plume in the side regions. Permeable reactive barriers are passive groundwater treatment systems that are able to decontaminate groundwater as it flows through a permeable treatment medium under natural gradients. The main advantage of this technology over ex-situ and other in-situ groundwater remediation approaches is the reduced operation- and maintenance costs. For the permeable reactive barrier, a funnel and gate configuration was selected. This system uses low permeability materials (funnel) to direct groundwater towards a permeable treatment

  14. In-situ treatment of a mixed hydrocarbon plume through enhanced bio-remediation and a PRB system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aglietto, I.; Bargoni, G.; Bretti, L.L. [Studio aglietto s.r.l. (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    (especially aerobic biodegradation), whereas fully-chlorinated compounds are only biodegradable via reductive pathways. Therefore, a mixed plume of both types of contaminants requires a combined approach with the application of different treatment technologies. The remediation strategy elaborated combines an enhanced bio-remediation of the hot spots with a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) in a funnel and gate configuration for the down-gradient plume containment. Pilot tests were carried out in order to assess the efficiency and feasibility of such technologies in the site of interest. The enhanced bio-remediation is going to be carried out by means of injections of hydrogen release compounds (HRC) and oxygen release compounds (ORC) for the biodegradation of chlorinated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbons respectively. A pilot test was conducted to determine the degradation rates of the different contaminants. The pilot test was monitored with a periodic sampling and analysis of the groundwater and with a continuous monitoring of the physical-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, conductivity, redox potential and dissolved oxygen) in the monitoring wells placed immediately down-gradient of the injection points. The tests showed the possibility to use the enhanced bio-remediation with the double aim to reduce the hot spot concentrations, in order to lower the contaminant load on the PRB, and to control the lateral spreading of the plume in the side regions. Permeable reactive barriers are passive groundwater treatment systems that are able to decontaminate groundwater as it flows through a permeable treatment medium under natural gradients. The main advantage of this technology over ex-situ and other in-situ groundwater remediation approaches is the reduced operation- and maintenance costs. For the permeable reactive barrier, a funnel and gate configuration was selected. This system uses low permeability materials (funnel) to direct groundwater towards a permeable treatment

  15. Comparative review of techniques used for in situ remediation of contaminated soils; Revision comparativa de tecnicas empleadas para la descontaminacion in situ de suelos contaminados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escusol Tomey, M.; Rodriguez Abad, R.

    2014-07-01

    Soil pollution may influence the geotechnical parameters of the soil itself, properties such as solid particle density or water within its pores. It may also vary its friction angle, modify its structure and texture, or change the properties of its constitutive minerals due to the inclusion of polluting components. For these reasons, soil decontamination is an important factor to consider in geotechnics. This work focuses on those soil decontamination techniques carried out in situ, since they allow to eliminate soil pollutants in a less invasive way than confinement, containment or ex situ remediation techniques, causing a minor soil alteration and, therefore, affecting less to its mechanical properties. These factors should be taken into account when carrying out a geotechnical performance on a previously decontaminated soil. (Author)

  16. In situ enhanced soil mixing. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    In Situ Enhanced Soil Mixing (ISESM) is a treatment technology that has been demonstrated and deployed to remediate soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The technology has been developed by industry and has been demonstrated with the assistance of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science and Technology and the Office of Environmental Restoration. The technology is particularly suited to shallow applications, above the water table, but can be used at greater depths. ISESM technologies demonstrated for this project include: (1) Soil mixing with vapor extraction combined with ambient air injection. [Contaminated soil is mixed with ambient air to vaporize volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The mixing auger is moved up and down to assist in removal of contaminated vapors. The vapors are collected in a shroud covering the treatment area and run through a treatment unit containing a carbon filter or a catalytic oxidation unit with a wet scrubber system and a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter.] (2) soil mixing with vapor extraction combined with hot air injection [This process is the same as the ambient air injection except that hot air or steam is injected.] (3) soil mixing with hydrogen peroxide injection [Contaminated soil is mixed with ambient air that contains a mist of diluted hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) solution. The H 2 O 2 solution chemically oxidizes the VOCs to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water.] (4) soil mixing with grout injection for solidification/stabilization [Contaminated soil is mixed as a cement grout is injected under pressure to solidify and immobilize the contaminated soil in a concrete-like form.] The soils are mixed with a single-blade auger or with a combination of augers ranging in diameter from 3 to 12 feet

  17. A Sustainability Assessment Methodology for Prioritizing the Technologies of Groundwater Contamination Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Da; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    More and more groundwater has 23 been polluted recently, and technologies for groundwater contamination remediation are of vital importance; however, it is usually difficult for the users to select the most suitable technology among multiple alternatives. In order to address this, this study aims...... at developing a sustainability assessment framework for prioritizing the technologies for groundwater contamination remediation by combining the concept of sustainability and multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) method. A criterion system which consists of six criteria in three aspects has been proposed...... for sustainability assessment of technologies for groundwater contamination remediation, and a novel MCDM method by combining the logarithmic fuzzy preference programming based fuzzy analytic hierarchy process and the improved ELECTRE method has been developed for prioritizing the alternatives. In order...

  18. Tailings technology. Decommissioning and rehabilitation remedial action technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, R.W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is to provide an overview of technology requirements for long-term uranium mill tailings disposal and remedial actions for existing tailings to ensure their adequate disposal. The paper examines the scientific disciplines that are the basis for the technology of uranium mill tailings stabilization and the design of barriers to control radiological exposure or environmental degradation at the location of tailings disposal. The discussion is presented as a hypothetical course of instruction at a fictitious university. Features of six mechanisms of dispersal or intrusion are examined with brief discussion of the applicable technology development for each. The paper serves as an introduction to subsequent specific technology development papers in the session. (author)

  19. In situ bioremediation under high saline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosshard, B.; Raumin, J.; Saurohan, B.

    1995-01-01

    An in situ bioremediation treatability study is in progress at the Salton Sea Test Base (SSTB) under the NAVY CLEAN 2 contract. The site is located in the vicinity of the Salon Sea with expected groundwater saline levels of up to 50,000 ppm. The site is contaminated with diesel, gasoline and fuel oils. The treatability study is assessing the use of indigenous heterotrophic bacteria to remediate petroleum hydrocarbons. Low levels of significant macro nutrients indicate that nutrient addition of metabolic nitrogen and Orthophosphate are necessary to promote the process, requiring unique nutrient addition schemes. Groundwater major ion chemistry indicates that precipitation of calcium phosphorus compounds may be stimulated by air-sparging operations and nutrient addition, which has mandated the remedial system to include pneumatic fracturing as an option. This presentation is tailored at an introductory level to in situ bioremediation technologies, with some emphasize on innovations in sparge air delivery, dissolved oxygen uptake rates, nutrient delivery, and pneumatic fracturing that should keep the expert's interest

  20. Efficacy monitoring of in situ fuel bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.; Borchert, S.; Heard, C.

    1996-01-01

    The wide-scale, multiple-purpose use of fossil fuels throughout the industrialized world has resulted in the inadvertent contamination of myriad environments. Given the scope and magnitude of these environmental contamination problems, bioremediation often represents the only practical and economically feasible solution. This is especially true when depth of contamination, magnitude of the problem, and nature of contaminated material preclude other remedial actions, short of the no-response alternative. From the perspective, the effective, safe and scientifically valid use of in situ bioremediation technologies requires cost-efficient and effective implementation strategies in combination with unequivocal approaches for monitoring efficacy of performance. Accordingly, with support from the SERDP program, the authors are field-testing advanced in situ bioremediation strategies and new approaches in efficacy monitoring that employ techniques instable carbon and nitrogen isotope biogeochemistry. One field demonstration has been initiated at the NEX site in Port Hueneme, CA (US Navy's National Test Site). The objectives are: (1) to use stable isotopes as a biogeochemical monitoring tool for in situ bioremediation of refined petroleum (i.e., BTEX), and (2) to use vertical groundwater circulation technology to effect in situ chemical containment and enhanced in situ bioremediation

  1. Assessment of technologies for the remediation of radioactively contaminated Superfund sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The report is a screening evaluation of information needs for the development of generic treatability studies for the remediation of Superfund Radiation Sites on the National Priorities List (NPL). It presents a categorization of the 25 radiation sites currently proposed or listed on the NPL, and provides a rating system for evaluating technologies that may be used to remediate these sites. It also identifies gaps in site assessment and technology data and provides information about and recommendations for technology development

  2. Environmental cognitive remediation in schizophrenia: ethical implications of "smart home" technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stip, Emmanuel; Rialle, Vincent

    2005-04-01

    In light of the advent of new technologies, we proposed to reexamine certain challenges posed by cognitive remediation and social reintegration (that is, deinstitutionalization) of patients with severe and persistent mental disorders. We reviewed literature on cognition, remediation, smart homes, as well as on objects and utilities, using medical and computer science electronic library and Internet searches. These technologies provide solutions for disabled persons with respect to care delivery, workload reduction, and socialization. Examples include home support, video conferencing, remote monitoring of medical parameters through sensors, teledetection of critical situations (for example, a fall or malaise), measures of daily living activities, and help with tasks of daily living. One of the key concepts unifying all these technologies is the health-smart home. We present the notion of the health-smart home in general and then examine it more specifically in relation to schizophrenia. Management of people with schizophrenia with cognitive deficits who are being rehabilitated in the community can be improved with the use of technology; however, such technology has ethical ramifications.

  3. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part B, Characterization; robotics/automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate theses problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part B of Volume 3 and contains the Characterization and Robotics/Automation sections

  4. Innovative technologies for the remediation of transuranic-contaminated landfills. Appendix 13: USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Transuranic-Contaminated Arid Landfill Stabilization Programme, formerly the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Programme, was organized by the Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development, to (a) manage the development of emerging technologies that could be successfully applied to remediation and (b) promote the use of these technologies to improve environmental restoration and waste management operations for transuranic-contaminated landfills in arid environments. Implementing the Transuranic-Contaminated Arid Landfill Stabilization Programme involved three key strategies: 1) A systems engineering approach was used to include an overall perspective of the entire remediation process; 2) State-of-the-art science and technology were sought for improving the remediation system; 3) Integrated product teams which were comprised of end users, regulators, stakeholders, as well as industry partners were formed

  5. System description for DART (Decision Analysis for Remediation Technologies)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonte, J.; Bolander, T.; Nickelson, D.; Nielson, R.; Richardson, J.; Sebo, D.

    1997-09-01

    DART is a computer aided system populated with influence models to determine quantitative benefits derived by matching requirements and technologies. The DART database is populated with data from over 900 DOE sites from 10 Field Offices. These sites are either source terms, such as buried waste pits, or soil or groundwater contaminated plumes. The data, traceable to published documents, consists of site-specific data (contaminants, area, volume, depth, size, remedial action dates, site preferred remedial option), problems (e.g., offsite contaminant plume), and Site Technology Coordinating Group (STCG) need statements (also contained in the Ten-Year Plan). DART uses this data to calculate and derive site priorities, risk rankings, and site specific technology requirements. DART is also populated with over 900 industry and DOE SCFA technologies. Technology capabilities can be used to match technologies to waste sites based on the technology''s capability to meet site requirements and constraints. Queries may be used to access, sort, roll-up, and rank site data. Data roll-ups may be graphically displayed

  6. Technology information profile: RL321103 -- In situ gamma spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilk, A.J.

    1993-11-01

    Past operations of uranium production and support facilities at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites have occasionally resulted in the local contamination of some surface and subsurface soils. Such contamination commonly occurs within waste burial sites, cribs, pond bottom sediments, and areas surrounding waste tanks or uranium scrap, ore, tailing, and slag heaps. The thorough cleanup of these sites is a major public concern and a high priority for the DOE, but before any effective remedial protocols can be established, the three-dimensional distributions of the uranium contaminants must be adequately characterized. Unfortunately, traditional means of obtaining soil activities (e.g., grab sampling followed by laboratory analyses) are notoriously cumbersome, expensive, time-consuming, and often non-representative when very large areas are being surveyed. Hence, new technologies must be developed, or existing ones improved, to allow for the cheaper, better, faster (i.e., real-time) and safer characterization of uranium concentrations at these critical sites. The primary objective for this program is to develop, construct, and field/pilot test the in situ gamma spectrometer for the rapid measurement of uranium in surface and shallow subsurface soils at the Fernald site in Ohio

  7. Measurement systems in the area of land remediation and soil segregation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Gerold G.; Sokcic-Kostic, Marina; Auler, Ingolf; Eickelpasch, Ludger; Betts, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The remediation of radioactively contaminated land is a small but growing sector in the area of decommissioning of nuclear facilities. This also includes the material from buildings after demolition. Contamination comprises in general alpha and beta activities and emission of alpha, beta and gamma radiation. The measurement is in practice restricted to the measurement of gamma emission, because of the high penetration of material by gamma rays. All isotopes, which do not emit gammas are estimated on the basis of given relation between alpha and beta emitters without gamma radiation and emitters with gamma radiation. This method is called 'key nuclide method'. Whilst many studies have been completed, others still continue in the processing of large volumes of concrete, steel and soil. An important conclusion from these and similar research programs is that a significant proportion of the waste contains only low concentrations of radioactive nuclides. Therefore, much of the material from the remediation can be considered for 'free release'. It was often not possible to attain adequate specific information on these materials, so a measurement system is needed for their classification and characterization. NUKEM Technologies has practical experience in characterising and remediating of nuclear sites. Recently, it has pioneered the use of innovative in-situ and ex-situ characterisation and waste segregation technologies, which enhance the efficiency of remedial actions and provide assurance to customers, regulators and the public that all significant contamination has been removed and sites can be used for new purposes. (authors)

  8. VOCs in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (ID) was initiated in 1989. Objectives for the ID were to test the integrated demonstration concept, demonstrate and evaluate innovative technologies/systems for the remediation of VOC contamination in soils and groundwater, and to transfer technologies and systems to internal and external customers for use in fullscale remediation programs. The demonstration brought together technologies from DOE laboratories, other government agencies, and industry for demonstration at a single test bed. The Savannah River Site was chosen as the location for this ID as the result of having soil and groundwater contaminated with VOCS. The primary contaminants, trichlorethylene and tetrachloroethylene, originated from an underground process sewer line servicing a metal fabrication facility at the M-Area. Some of the major technical accomplishments for the ID include the successful demonstration of the following: In situ air stripping coupled with horizontal wells to remediate sites through air injection and vacuum extraction; Crosshole geophysical tomography for mapping moisture content and lithologic properties of the contaminated media; In situ radio frequency and ohmic heating to increase mobility, of the contaminants, thereby speeding recovery and the remedial process; High-energy corona destruction of VOCs in the off-gas of vapor recovery wells; Application of a Brayton cycle heat pump to regenerate carbon adsorption media used to trap VOCs from the offgas of recovery wells; In situ permeable flow sensors and the colloidal borescope to determine groundwater flow; Chemical sensors to rapidly quantify chlorinated solvent contamination in the subsurface; In situ bioremediation through methane/nutrient injection to enhance degradation of contaminants by methanotrophic bateria

  9. Technology transfer and commercialization of in situ vitrification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.D.; Hansen, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) technology was conceived and an initial proof-of-principle test was conducted in 1980 by Battelle Memorial Institute for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The technology was rapidly developed through bench, engineering pilot, and large scales in the following years. In 1986, DOE granted rights to the basic ISV patent to Battelle in exchange for a commitment to commercialize the technology. Geosafe Corporation was established as the operating entity to accomplish the commercialization objective. This paper describes and provides status information on the technology transfer and commercialization effort

  10. The state of permanganate with relation to in situ chemical oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronda, Brenda; Dingens, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) with permanganate had its beginnings over 10 years ago. Since that time, many sites have been successfully treated for organic compounds including chlorinated ethenes (perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, etc.) phenols, explosives such as RDX, and many other organics. The successful application of ISCO with permanganate requires the integration of many site-specific factors into the remedial design. ISCO with permanganate is an effective technology, not only for its oxidative properties and persistence, but also for its application flexibility to remediate soil and groundwater. The merits of any type of treatment technology can be assessed in terms of effectiveness, ease of use, reaction rate, and cost. The use of permanganate for in situ chemical oxidation results in the complete mineralization of TCE and PCE and can result in treatment levels below detection limits. Permanganate is a single component oxidizer, which is easily handled, mixed and distributed to the subsurface. Permanganate is also inexpensive to design and implement as compared to other technologies. This presentation will provide a general overview of the application and safety aspects of ISCO with permanganate. This paper will discuss the advantages and limitations of this technology, typical cost ranges, site evaluation and application technologies. (authors)

  11. In Situ Redox Manipulation Field Injection Test Report - Hanford 100-H Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchter, J.S.; Amonette, J.E.; Cole, C.R.

    1996-11-01

    This report presents results of an In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) Field Injection Withdrawal Test performed at the 100-H Area of the US. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in Washington State in Fiscal Year 1996 by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The test is part of the overall ISRM project, the purpose of which is to determine the potential for remediating contaminated groundwater with a technology based on in situ manipulation of subsurface reduction-oxidation (redox) conditions. The ISRM technology would be used to treat subsurface contaminants in groundwater zones at DOE sites

  12. Contaminant plumes containment and remediation focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    EM has established a new approach to managing environmental technology research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE. The Contaminant Plumes Containment and Remediation (Plumes) Focus Area is one of five areas targeted to implement the new approach, actively involving representatives from basic research, technology implementation, and regulatory communities in setting objectives and evaluating results. This document presents an overview of current EM activities within the Plumes Focus Area to describe to the appropriate organizations the current thrust of the program and developing input for its future direction. The Plumes Focus Area is developing remediation technologies that address environmental problems associated with certain priority contaminants found at DOE sites, including radionuclides, heavy metals, and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Technologies for cleaning up contaminants of concern to both DOE and other federal agencies, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other organics and inorganic compounds, will be developed by leveraging resources in cooperation with industry and interagency programs

  13. Contaminant plumes containment and remediation focus area. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    EM has established a new approach to managing environmental technology research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE. The Contaminant Plumes Containment and Remediation (Plumes) Focus Area is one of five areas targeted to implement the new approach, actively involving representatives from basic research, technology implementation, and regulatory communities in setting objectives and evaluating results. This document presents an overview of current EM activities within the Plumes Focus Area to describe to the appropriate organizations the current thrust of the program and developing input for its future direction. The Plumes Focus Area is developing remediation technologies that address environmental problems associated with certain priority contaminants found at DOE sites, including radionuclides, heavy metals, and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Technologies for cleaning up contaminants of concern to both DOE and other federal agencies, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other organics and inorganic compounds, will be developed by leveraging resources in cooperation with industry and interagency programs.

  14. ALTERNATIVE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY STUDY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT AT 200-PO-1 OPERABLE UNIT AT HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DADO MA

    2008-07-31

    This study focuses on the remediation methods and technologies applicable for use at 200-PO-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. The 200-PO-I Groundwater au requires groundwater remediation because of the existence of contaminants of potential concern (COPC). A screening was conducted on alternative technologies and methods of remediation to determine which show the most potential for remediation of groundwater contaminants. The possible technologies were screened to determine which would be suggested for further study and which were not applicable for groundwater remediation. COPCs determined by the Hanford Site groundwater monitoring were grouped into categories based on properties linking them by remediation methods applicable to each COPC group. The screening considered the following criteria. (1) Determine if the suggested method or technology can be used for the specific contaminants found in groundwater and if the technology can be applied at the 200-PO-I Groundwater au, based on physical characteristics such as geology and depth to groundwater. (2) Evaluate screened technologies based on testing and development stages, effectiveness, implementability, cost, and time. This report documents the results of an intern research project conducted by Mathew Dado for Central Plateau Remediation in the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The study was conducted under the technical supervision of Gloria Cummins and management supervision of Theresa Bergman and Becky Austin.

  15. In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Interim report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callow, R.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Thompson, L.E.

    1991-02-01

    This report describes the two in situ vitrification field tests conducted in June and July 1990 at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in- place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to assess the general suitability of the process to remediate waste structures representative of buried waste found at Idaho National engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests, as part of a treatability study, were designed to provide essential information on the field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology successfully processed the high metal content waste, indicating the process is a feasible technology for application to buried waste

  16. In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Interim report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callow, R.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Thompson, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the two in situ vitrification field tests conducted in July and July 1990 at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in-place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to assess the general suitability of the process to remediate waste structures representative of buried waste found at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests, as part of a treatability study, were designed to provide essential information field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology successfully processed the high metal content waste, indicating the process is a feasible technology for application to buried waste. 8 refs., 91 figs., 13 tabs

  17. Application of in situ measurement for site remediation and final status survey of decommissioning KRR site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sang Bum; Nam, Jong Soo; Choi, Yong Suk; Seo, Bum Kyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In situ gamma spectrometry has been used to measure environmental radiation, assumptions are usually made about the depth distribution of the radionuclides of interest in the soil. The main limitation of in situ gamma spectrometry lies in determining the depth distribution of radionuclides. The objective of this study is to develop a method for subsurface characterization by in situ measurement. The peak to valley method based on the ratio of counting rate between the photoelectric peak and Compton region was applied to identify the depth distribution. The peak to valley method could be applied to establish the relation between the spectrally derived coefficients (Q) with relaxation mass per unit area (β) for various depth distribution in soil. The in situ measurement results were verified by MCNP simulation and calculated correlation equation. In order to compare the depth distributions and contamination levels in decommissioning KRR site, in situ measurement and sampling results were compared. The in situ measurement results and MCNP simulation results show a good correlation for laboratory measurement. The simulation relationship between Q and source burial for the source layers have exponential relationship for a variety depth distributions. We applied the peak to valley method to contaminated decommissioning KRR site to determine a depth distribution and initial activity without sampling. The observed results has a good correlation, relative error between in situ measurement with sampling result is around 7% for depth distribution and 4% for initial activity. In this study, the vertical activity distribution and initial activity of {sup 137}Cs could be identifying directly through in situ measurement. Therefore, the peak to valley method demonstrated good potential for assessment of the residual radioactivity for site remediation in decommissioning and contaminated site.

  18. Emerging Technologies for Environmental Remediation: Integrating Data and Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Matthew E; Grieger, Khara D; Trump, Benjamin D; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Plourde, Kenton J; Linkov, Igor

    2016-01-05

    Emerging technologies present significant challenges to researchers, decision-makers, industry professionals, and other stakeholder groups due to the lack of quantitative risk, benefit, and cost data associated with their use. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) can support early decisions for emerging technologies when data is too sparse or uncertain for traditional risk assessment. It does this by integrating expert judgment with available quantitative and qualitative inputs across multiple criteria to provide relative technology scores. Here, an MCDA framework provides preliminary insights on the suitability of emerging technologies for environmental remediation by comparing nanotechnology and synthetic biology to conventional remediation methods. Subject matter experts provided judgments regarding the importance of criteria used in the evaluations and scored the technologies with respect to those criteria. The results indicate that synthetic biology may be preferred over nanotechnology and conventional methods for high expected benefits and low deployment costs but that conventional technology may be preferred over emerging technologies for reduced risks and development costs. In the absence of field data regarding the risks, benefits, and costs of emerging technologies, structuring evidence-based expert judgment through a weighted hierarchy of topical questions may be helpful to inform preliminary risk governance and guide emerging technology development and policy.

  19. In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Final report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callow, R.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Loehr, C.A.; Bates, S.O.; Thompson, L.E.; McGrail, B.P.

    1991-08-01

    This report describes two in situ vitrification field tests conducted on simulated buried waste pits during June and July 1990 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to access the general suitability of the process to remediate waste structures representative of buried waste found at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests, as part of a treatability study, were designed to provide essential information on the field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology successfully processed the high metal content waste. Test results indicate the process is a feasible technology for application to buried waste. 33 refs., 109 figs., 39 tabs

  20. Bioavailability-Based In Situ Remediation To Meet Future Lead (Pb) Standards in Urban Soils and Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Heather; Naujokas, Marisa F; Attanayake, Chammi; Basta, Nicholas T; Cheng, Zhongqi; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Maddaloni, Mark; Schadt, Christopher; Scheckel, Kirk G

    2015-08-04

    Recently the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lowered the blood Pb reference value to 5 μg/dL. The lower reference value combined with increased repurposing of postindustrial lands are heightening concerns and driving interest in reducing soil Pb exposures. As a result, regulatory decision makers may lower residential soil screening levels (SSLs), used in setting Pb cleanup levels, to levels that may be difficult to achieve, especially in urban areas. This paper discusses challenges in remediation and bioavailability assessments of Pb in urban soils in the context of lower SSLs and identifies research needs to better address those challenges. Although in situ remediation with phosphate amendments is a viable option, the scope of the problem and conditions in urban settings may necessitate that SSLs be based on bioavailable rather than total Pb concentrations. However, variability in soil composition can influence bioavailability testing and soil amendment effectiveness. More data are urgently needed to better understand this variability and increase confidence in using these approaches in risk-based decision making, particularly in urban areas.

  1. Monitoring and remediation technologies of organochlorine pesticides in drainage water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to monitor the presence of organochlorine in drainage water in Kafr-El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. Furthermore, to evaluate the efficiencies of different remediation techniques (advanced oxidation processes [AOPs] and bioremediation for removing the most frequently detected compound (lindane in drainage water. The results showed the presence of several organochlorine pesticides in all sampling sites. Lindane was detected with high frequency relative to other detected organochlorine in drainage water. Nano photo-Fenton like reagent was the most effective treatment for lindane removal in drainage water. Bioremediation of lindane by effective microorganisms (EMs removed 100% of the lindane initial concentration. There is no remaining toxicity in lindane contaminated-water after remediation on treated rats relative to control with respect to histopathological changes in liver and kidney. Advanced oxidation processes especially with nanomaterials and bioremediation using effective microorganisms can be regarded as safe and effective remediation technologies of lindane in water.

  2. An injection technique for in-situ remediation of abandoned underground coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canty, G.A.; Everett, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Remediation of underground mines can prove to be a difficult task, given the physical constraints associated with introducing amendments to a subterranean environment. An acid mine abatement project involving in-situ chemical treatment method was conducted by the University of Oklahoma. The treatment method involved the injection of an alkaline coal combustion by-product (CCB) slurry into a flooded mine void (pH 4.4) to create a buffered zone. Injection of the CCB slurry was possible through the use of equipment developed by the petroleum industry for grouting recovery wells. This technology was selected because the CCB slurry could be injected under significant pressure and at a high rate. With higher pressure and rates of injection, a large quantity of slurry can be introduced into the mine within a limited amount of time. Theoretically, the high pressure and rate would improve dispersal of the slurry within the void. In addition, the high pressure is advantageous in fracturing or breaking-down obstructions to injection. During the injection process, a total of 418 tons of CCB was introduced within 15 hours. The mine did not refuse any of the material, and it is likely that a much larger mass could have been added. One injection well was drilled into a pillar of coal. Normally this would pose a problem when introducing a slurry; however, the coal pillar was easily fractured during the injection process. Currently, the pH of the mine discharge is above 6.5 and the alkalinity is approximately 100 mg/L as CACO 3

  3. Feasibility of In Situ Redox Manipulation of Subsurface Sediments for RDX Remediation at Pantex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Mckinley, Mark A.; Resch, Charles T.; Gilmore, Tyler J.

    2001-12-31

    This laboratory study was conducted to assess RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine) abiotic degradation by chemically reduced sediments and other geochemical aspects of the application of this technology to remediation of RDX contamination in groundwater at the U.S. DOE Pantex facility...

  4. In situ vadose zone remediation of petroleum-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greacen, J.R.; Finkel, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a pilot-scale system treating vadose zone soils contaminated with petroleum products constructed and operated at a former petroleum bulk storage terminal in New England. A site investigation following decommissioning activities identified more than 100,000 yds of soil at the site contaminated by both No. 2 fuel oil and gasoline. Soil cleanup criteria of 50 ppm TPH and 0.25 ppm BTEX were established. A pilot-scale treatment unit with dimensions of 125 ft x 125 ft x 6 ft was constructed to evaluate the potential for in situ treatment of vadose zone soils. Contaminant levels in pilot cell soils ranged from 0 to 5,250 ppm TPH and 0.0 to 4.2 ppm BTEX. Two soil treatment methods n the pilot system were implemented; venting to treat the lighter petroleum fractions and bioremediation to treat the nonvolatile petroleum constituents. Seven soil gas probes were installed to monitor pressure and soil gas vapor concentrations in the subsurface. Changes in soil gas oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations were used as an indirect measure of enhanced bioremediation of pilot cell soils. After operating the system for a period of 2.5 months, soil BTEX concentrations were reduced to concentrations below the remediation criteria for the site

  5. REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION AT THE GILT EDGE MINE, SOUTH DAKOTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document reports the findings of the Mine Waste Technology Program's Activity III, Project 29,The Remediation Technology Evaluation Project at the Gilt Edge Mine, S.D. This project consisted of evaluating three emerging acidic waste rock stabilization technologies and compar...

  6. In-situ vitrification: a large-scale prototype for immobilizing radioactively contaminated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, J.G.; Buelt, J.L.

    1986-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing the technology of in situ vitrification, a thermal treatment process for immobilizing radioactively contaminated soil. A permanent remedial action, the process incorporates radionuclides into a glass and crystalline form. The transportable procss consists of an electrical power system to vitrify the soil, a hood to contain gaseous effluents, an off-gas treatment system and cooling system, and a process control station. Large-scale testing of the in situ vitrification process is currently underway

  7. Sanitary landfill in situ bioremediation optimization test. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This work was performed as part of a corrective action plan for the Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill. This work was performed for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company Environmental Restoration Department as part of final implementation of a groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. Primary regulatory surveillance was provided by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and the US Environmental Protection Agency (Region IV). The characterization, monitoring and remediation systems in the program generally consisted of a combination of innovative and baseline methods to allow comparison and evaluation. The results of these studies will be used to provide input for the full-scale groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill In Situ Optimization Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill

  8. Self-potential and Complex Conductivity Monitoring of In Situ Hydrocarbon Remediation in Microbial Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Revil, A.; Ren, Z.; Karaoulis, M.; Mendonca, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of soil and groundwater in both non-aqueous phase liquid and dissolved forms generated from spills and leaks is a wide spread environmental issue. Traditional cleanup of hydrocarbon contamination in soils and ground water using physical, chemical, and biological remedial techniques is often expensive and ineffective. Recent studies show that the microbial fuel cell (MFC) can simultaneously enhance biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil and groundwater and yield electricity. Non-invasive geophysical techniques such as self-potential (SP) and complex conductivity (induced polarization) have shown the potential to detect and characterize the nature of electron transport mechanism of in situ bioremediation of organic contamination plumes. In this study, we deployed both SP and complex conductivity in lab scale MFCs to monitor time-laps geophysical response of degradation of hydrocarbons by MFC. Two different sizes of MFC reactors were used in this study (DI=15 cm cylinder reactor and 94.5cm x 43.5 cm rectangle reactor), and the initial hydrocarbon concentration is 15 g diesel/kg soil. SP and complex conductivity measurements were measured using non-polarizing Ag/AgCl electrodes. Sensitivity study was also performed using COMSOL Multiphysics to test different electrode configurations. The SP measurements showed stronger anomalies adjacent to the MFC than locations afar, and both real and imaginary parts of complex conductivity are greater in areas close to MFC than areas further away and control samples without MFC. The joint use of SP and complex conductivity could in situ evaluate the dynamic changes of electrochemical parameters during this bioremediation process at spatiotemporal scales unachievable with traditional sampling methods. The joint inversion of these two methods to evaluate the efficiency of MFC enhanced hydrocarbon remediation in the subsurface.

  9. Applications of microwave radiation environmental remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, T.R.; Helt, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    A growing number of environmental remediation technologies (e.g., drying, melting, or sintering) utilize microwave radiation as an integral part of the process. An increasing number of novel applications, such as sustaining low-temperature plasmas or enhancing chemical reactivity, are also being developed. An overview of such technologies being developed by the Department of Energy is presented. A specific example being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, microwave-induced plasma reactors for the destruction of volatile organic compounds, is discussed in more detail

  10. DOE's Innovative Treatment Remediation Demonstration Program accelerating the implementation of innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hightower, M.

    1995-01-01

    A program to help accelerate the adoption and implementation of new and innovative remediation technologies has been initiated by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Environmental Restoration Program Office (EM40). Developed as a Public-Private Partnership program in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Technology Innovation Office (TIO) and coordinated by Sandia National Laboratories, the Innovative Treatment Remediation Demonstration (ITRD) Program attempts to reduce many of the classic barriers to the use of new technologies by involving government, industry, and regulatory agencies in the assessment, implementation, and validation of innovative technologies. In this program, DOE facilities work cooperatively with EPA, industry, national laboratories, and state and federal regulatory agencies to establish remediation demonstrations using applicable innovative technologies at their sites. Selected innovative technologies are used to remediate small, one to two acre, sites to generate the full-scale and real-world operating, treatment performance, and cost data needed to validate these technologies and gain acceptance by industry and regulatory agencies, thus accelerating their use nationwide. Each ITRD project developed at a DOE site is designed to address a typical soil or groundwater contamination issue facing both DOE and industry. This includes sites with volatile organic compound (VOC), semi-VOC, heavy metal, explosive residue, and complex or multiple constituent contamination. Projects are presently underway at three DOE facilities, while additional projects are under consideration for initiation in FY96 at several additional DOE sites. A brief overview of the ITRD Program, program plans, and the status and progress of existing ITRD projects are reviewed in this paper

  11. Environmental application research and future plans in plasma arc technology at the georgia institute of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeth, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes the facilities and past, current, and future research efforts at the georgia institute of technology plasma Arc research facility established in 1992. This research facility was established specifically to develop and test applications related to waste management and various remediation concepts. The results of research programs in the vitrification of asbestos materials, municipal incinerator ash, and in situ testing programs, including soil remediation, waste to energy research, landfill remediation and capacity management. The presentation will also include conference and symposium announcements and invitations. 9 tabs

  12. Ethanol content in different gasohol blend spills influences the decision-making on remediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela Steiner, Leonardo; Toledo Ramos, Débora; Rubini Liedke, Ana Maria; Serbent, Maria Pilar; Corseuil, Henry Xavier

    2018-04-15

    Gasohol blend spills with variable ethanol content exert different electron acceptor demands in groundwater and the distinct dynamics undergone by these blends underscores the need for field-based information to aid decision-making on suitable remediation technologies for each gasohol blend spill. In this study, a comparison of two gasohol releases (E10 (10:90 ethanol and gasoline, v/v) and E25 (25:75 ethanol and gasoline, v/v) under monitored natural attenuation (MNA) and nitrate biostimulation, respectively) was conducted to assess the most effective remediation strategy for each gasohol release. Microbial communities were assessed to support geochemical data as well as to enable the characterization of important population shifts that evolve during biodegradation processes in E25 and E10 field experiments. Results revealed that natural attenuation processes sufficiently supported ethanol and BTEX compounds biodegradation in E10 release, due to the lower biochemical oxygen demand they exert relative to E25 blend. In E25 release, nitrate reduction was largely responsible for BTEX and ethanol biodegradation, as intended. First-order decay constants demonstrated that ethanol degradation rates were similar (p remediation technologies (2.05 ± 0.15 and 2.22 ± 0.23, for E25 and E10, respectively) whilst BTEX compounds exhibited different degradation rates (p > 0.05) that were higher for the experiment under MNA (0.33 ± 0.06 and 0.43 ± 0.03, for E25 and E10, respectively). Therefore, ethanol content in different gasohol blends can influence the decision-making on the most suitable remediation technology, as MNA processes can be applied for the remediation of gasohol blends with lower ethanol content (i.e., 10% v/v), once the aquifer geochemical conditions provide a sufficient electron acceptor pool. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first field study to monitor two long-term gasohol releases over various time scales in order to assess

  13. Assessing Environmental Sustainability of Remediation Technologies in a Life Cycle Perspective is Not So Easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2013-01-01

    Integrating sustainability into remediation projects has attracted attention from remediation practitioners, and life cycle assessment (LCA) is becoming a popular tool to address the environmental dimension. The total number of studies has reached 31 since the first framework for LCA of site reme...... about the environmental sustainability of remediation technologies.......Integrating sustainability into remediation projects has attracted attention from remediation practitioners, and life cycle assessment (LCA) is becoming a popular tool to address the environmental dimension. The total number of studies has reached 31 since the first framework for LCA of site...

  14. ACTIVE CAPPING TECHNOLOGY - NEW APPROACHES FOR IN SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, A.; Paller, M.; Roberts, J.

    2012-02-13

    This study evaluated pilot-scale active caps composed of apatite, organoclay, biopolymers, and sand for the remediation of metal-contaminated sediments. The active caps were constructed in Steel Creek, at the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. Monitoring was conducted for 12 months. Effectiveness of the caps was based on an evaluation of contaminant bioavailability, resistance to erosion, and impacts on benthic organisms. Active caps lowered metal bioavailability in the sediment during the one-year test period. Biopolymers reduced sediment suspension during cap construction, increased the pool of carbon, and lowered the release of metals. This field validation showed that active caps can effectively treat contaminants by changing their speciation, and that caps can be constructed to include more than one type of amendment to achieve multiple goals.

  15. Program summary for the Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The US Department of Energy is the lead Federal agency responsible for planning and implementing the programs that ensure safe and efficient management of nuclear wastes from both civilian and defense activities. Within the Department, three offices share this responsibility: the Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, and the Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management. This document summarizes the programs managed by the Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology

  16. VAMOS: The verification and monitoring options study: Current research options for in-situ monitoring and verification of contaminant remediation and containment within the vadose zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betsill, J.D.; Gruebel, R.D.

    1995-09-01

    The Verification and Monitoring Options Study Project (VAMOS) was established to identify high-priority options for future vadose-zone environmental research in the areas of in-situ remediation monitoring, post-closure monitoring, and containment emplacement and verification monitoring. VAMOS examined projected needs not currently being met with applied technology in order to develop viable monitoring and verification research options. The study emphasized a compatible systems approach to reinforce the need for utilizing compatible components to provide user friendly site monitoring systems. To identify the needs and research options related to vadose-zone environmental monitoring and verification, a literature search and expert panel forums were conducted. The search included present drivers for environmental monitoring technology, technology applications, and research efforts. The forums included scientific, academic, industry, and regulatory environmental professionals as well as end users of environmental technology. The experts evaluated current and future monitoring and verification needs, methods for meeting these needs, and viable research options and directions. A variety of high-priority technology development, user facility, and technology guidance research options were developed and presented as an outcome of the literature search and expert panel forums

  17. In situ vitrification on buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, S.O.

    1992-01-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is being evaluated as a remedial treatment technology for buried mixed and transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and can be related to buried wastes at other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. There are numerous locations around the DOE Complex where wastes were buried in the ground or stored for future burial. The Buried Waste Program (BWP) is conducting a comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the Department of Energy - Field Office Idaho (DOE-ID). As part of the RI/FS, an ISV scoping study on the treatability of the SDA mixed low-level and mixed TRU waste is being performed for applicability to remediation of the waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The ISV project being conducted at the INEL by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. consists of a treatability investigation to collect data to satisfy nine CERCLA criteria with regards to the SDA. This treatability investigation involves a series of experiments and related efforts to study the feasibility of ISV for remediation of mixed and TRU waste disposed of at the SDA

  18. Horizontal directional drilling: a green and sustainable technology for site remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubrecht, Michael D

    2012-03-06

    Sustainability has become an important factor in the selection of remedies to clean up contaminated sites. Horizontal directional drilling (HDD) is a relatively new drilling technology that has been successfully adapted to site remediation. In addition to the benefits that HDD provides for the logistics of site cleanup, it also delivers sustainability advantages, compared to alternative construction methods.

  19. Draft Technical Protocol: A Treatability Test for Evaluating the Potential Applicability of the Reductive Anaerobic Biological in Situ Treatment Technology (Rabitt) to Remediate Chloroethenes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morse, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    This draft, unvalidated protocol describes a comprehensive approach for conducting a phased treatability test to determine the potential for employing the Reductive Anaerobic Biological In Situ Treatment Technology (RABITT...

  20. Selection of monitoring times to assess remediation performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueper, B.H.; Mundle, K. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering, Geoengineering Centre

    2007-07-01

    Several factors determine the time needed for a plume to respond to non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) source zone remediation. Most spills of NAPLs (fuels, chlorinated solvents, PCB oils, creosote and coal tar) require mass removal in order to implement remediation technologies such as chemical oxidation, thermal treatments, alcohol flushing, surfactant flushing and hydraulic displacement. While much attention has been given to the development of these remediation technologies, little attention has been given to the response of the plume downstream of the treatment zone and selection of an appropriate monitoring time scale to adequately evaluate the impacts of remediation. For that reason, this study focused on the prevalence of diffusive sinks, the mobility of the contaminant and the hydraulic conductivity of subsurface materials. Typically, plumes in subsurface environments dominated by diffusive sinks or low permeability materials need long periods of time to detach after source removal. This paper presented generic plume response model simulations that illustrated concentration rebound following the use of in-situ chemical oxidation in fractured clay containing trichloroethylene. It was determined that approximately 2 years are needed to reach peak rebound concentration after cessation remedial action. It was concluded that downgradient monitoring well concentrations may be greatly reduced during remedial action due to the fact that oxidant occupies the fracture and because oxidant diffuses into the clay matrix, creating a short period of contaminant reduction in the area of flowing groundwater. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  1. Selection of monitoring times to assess remediation performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueper, B.H.; Mundle, K.

    2007-01-01

    Several factors determine the time needed for a plume to respond to non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) source zone remediation. Most spills of NAPLs (fuels, chlorinated solvents, PCB oils, creosote and coal tar) require mass removal in order to implement remediation technologies such as chemical oxidation, thermal treatments, alcohol flushing, surfactant flushing and hydraulic displacement. While much attention has been given to the development of these remediation technologies, little attention has been given to the response of the plume downstream of the treatment zone and selection of an appropriate monitoring time scale to adequately evaluate the impacts of remediation. For that reason, this study focused on the prevalence of diffusive sinks, the mobility of the contaminant and the hydraulic conductivity of subsurface materials. Typically, plumes in subsurface environments dominated by diffusive sinks or low permeability materials need long periods of time to detach after source removal. This paper presented generic plume response model simulations that illustrated concentration rebound following the use of in-situ chemical oxidation in fractured clay containing trichloroethylene. It was determined that approximately 2 years are needed to reach peak rebound concentration after cessation remedial action. It was concluded that downgradient monitoring well concentrations may be greatly reduced during remedial action due to the fact that oxidant occupies the fracture and because oxidant diffuses into the clay matrix, creating a short period of contaminant reduction in the area of flowing groundwater. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  2. Emerging Technologies and Techniques for Wide Area Radiological Survey and Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhao, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-24

    Technologies to survey and decontaminate wide-area contamination and process the subsequent radioactive waste have been developed and implemented following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant release and the breach of a radiological source resulting in contamination in Goiania, Brazil. These civilian examples of radioactive material releases provided some of the first examples of urban radiological remediation. Many emerging technologies have recently been developed and demonstrated in Japan following the release of radioactive cesium isotopes (Cs-134 and Cs-137) from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in 2011. Information on technologies reported by several Japanese government agencies, such as the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) and the National Institute for Environmental Science (NIES), together with academic institutions and industry are summarized and compared to recently developed, deployed and available technologies in the United States. The technologies and techniques presented in this report may be deployed in response to a wide area contamination event in the United States. In some cases, additional research and testing is needed to adequately validate the technology effectiveness over wide areas. Survey techniques can be deployed on the ground or from the air, allowing a range of coverage rates and sensitivities. Survey technologies also include those useful in measuring decontamination progress and mapping contamination. Decontamination technologies and techniques range from non-destructive (e.g., high pressure washing) and minimally destructive (plowing), to fully destructive (surface removal or demolition). Waste minimization techniques can greatly impact the long-term environmental consequences and cost following remediation efforts. Recommendations on technical improvements to address technology gaps are presented together with observations on remediation in Japan.

  3. Decision support tools for evaluation and selection of technologies for soil remediation and disposal of halogenated waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khelifi, O.; Zinovyev, S.; Lodolo, A.; Vranes, S.; Miertus, S. [ICS-UNIDO, Trieste (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    One of the most justified demands in abating the pollution created by polychlorinated substances is the remediation of contaminated sites, mainly soil remediation, which is also the most complex technical task in removing pollution because of the necessity to process huge quantities of matrix and to account for numerous side factors. The commercial technologies are usually based on rather direct and simplified but also secure processes, which often approach remediation in a general way, where different types of pollutants can be decontaminated at the same time by each technology. A number of different soil remediation technologies are nowadays available and the continuous competition among environmental service companies and technology developers generates a further increase in the clean-up options. The demand for decision support tools that could help decision makers in selecting the most appropriate technology for the specific contaminated site has consequently increased. These decision support tools (DST) are designed to help decision makers (site owners, local community representatives, environmentalists, regulators, etc.) to assess available technologies and preliminarily select the preferred remedial options. The analysis for the identification of the most suitable options in the DST is based on technical, economic, environmental, and social criteria. These criteria are ranked by all parties involved in the decision process to determine their relative importance for a particular remediation project. The aim of the present paper is to present the new approach for building decision support tool to evaluate different technologies for remediation and disposal of halogenated waste.

  4. Remediation of arsenic-contaminated groundwater by in-situ stimulating biogenic precipitation of iron sulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Kunfu; Wang, Yanxin; Xie, Xianjun; Ma, Teng; Liu, Yaqing; Su, Chunli; Zhu, Yapeng; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2017-02-01

    Severe health problems due to elevated arsenic (As) in groundwater have made it urgent to develop cost-effective technologies for As removal. This field experimental study tested the feasibility of in-situ As immobilization via As incorporation into newly formed biogenic Fe(II) sulfides in a typical As-affected strongly reducing aquifer at the central part of Datong Basin, China. After periodic supply of FeSO 4 into the aquifer for 25 d to stimulate microbial sulfate reduction, dissolved sulfide concentrations increased during the experiment, but the supplied Fe(II) reacted quickly with sulfide to form Fe(II)-sulfides existing majorly as mackinawite as well as a small amount of pyrite-like minerals in sediments, thereby restricting sulfide build-up in groundwater. After the completion of field experiment, groundwater As concentration decreased from an initial average value of 593 μg/L to 159 μg/L, with an overall As removal rate of 73%, and it further declined to 136 μg/L adding the removal rate up to 77% in 30 d after the experiment. The arsenite/As total ratio gradually increased over time, making arsenite to be the predominant species in groundwater residual As. The good correlations between dissolved Fe(II), sulfide and As concentrations, the increased abundance of As in newly-formed Fe sulfides as well as the reactive-transport modeling results all indicate that As could have been adsorbed onto and co-precipitated with Fe(II)-sulfide coatings once microbial sulfate reduction was stimulated after FeSO 4 supply. Under the strongly reducing conditions, sulfide may facilitate arsenate reduction into arsenite and promote As incorporation into pyrite or arsenopyrite. Therefore, the major mechanisms for the in-situ As-contaminated groundwater remediation can be As surface-adsorption on and co-precipitation with Fe(II) sulfides produced during the experimental period. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 1, Technology Evaluation: Part B, Remedial Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on D&D. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the ranking os remedial technologies. Volume 2 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. The focus of Vol. 1, Pt. B, is RA, and it has been divided into six chapters. The first chapter is an introduction, which defines problems specific to the ER Program for ORNL. Chapter 2 provides a general overview of the TLD. Chapters 3 through 5 are organized into necessary subelement categories: RA, characterization, and robotics and automation. The final chapter contains regulatory compliance information concerning RA.

  6. The use of chelating agents in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestan, Domen [Agronomy Department, Centre for Soil and Environmental Science, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Luo Chunling [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Li Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)], E-mail: cexdli@polyu.edu.hk

    2008-05-15

    This paper reviews current remediation technologies that use chelating agents for the mobilization and removal of potentially toxic metals from contaminated soils. These processes can be done in situ as enhanced phytoextraction, chelant enhanced electrokinetic extraction and soil flushing, or ex situ as the extraction of soil slurry and soil heap/column leaching. Current proposals on how to treat and recycle waste washing solutions after soil is washed are discussed. The major controlling factors in phytoextraction and possible strategies for reducing the leaching of metals associated with the application of chelants are also reviewed. Finally, the possible impact of abiotic and biotic soil factors on the toxicity of metals left after the washing of soil and enhanced phytoextraction are briefly addressed. - The use of synthetic chelants for soil washing and enhanced phytoextraction by plants has been well studied for the remediation of metal-contaminated soils in the last two decades.

  7. The use of chelating agents in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestan, Domen; Luo Chunling; Li Xiangdong

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews current remediation technologies that use chelating agents for the mobilization and removal of potentially toxic metals from contaminated soils. These processes can be done in situ as enhanced phytoextraction, chelant enhanced electrokinetic extraction and soil flushing, or ex situ as the extraction of soil slurry and soil heap/column leaching. Current proposals on how to treat and recycle waste washing solutions after soil is washed are discussed. The major controlling factors in phytoextraction and possible strategies for reducing the leaching of metals associated with the application of chelants are also reviewed. Finally, the possible impact of abiotic and biotic soil factors on the toxicity of metals left after the washing of soil and enhanced phytoextraction are briefly addressed. - The use of synthetic chelants for soil washing and enhanced phytoextraction by plants has been well studied for the remediation of metal-contaminated soils in the last two decades

  8. Treatability Study of In Situ Technologies for Remediation of Hexavalent Chromium in Groundwater at the Puchack Well Field Superfund Site, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeul, Vince R.; Szecsody, Jim E.; Truex, Michael J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Girvin, Donald C.; Phillips, Jerry L.; Devary, Brooks J.; Fischer, Ashley E.; Li, Shu-Mei W.

    2006-11-13

    This treatability study was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), at the request of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 2, to evaluate the feasibility of using in situ treatment technologies for chromate reduction and immobilization at the Puchack Well Field Superfund Site in Pennsauken Township, New Jersey. In addition to in situ reductive treatments, which included the evaluation of both abiotic and biotic reduction of Puchack aquifer sediments, natural attenuation mechanisms were evaluated (i.e., chromate adsorption and reduction). Chromate exhibited typical anionic adsorption behavior, with greater adsorption at lower pH, at lower chromate concentration, and at lower concentrations of other competing anions. In particular, sulfate (at 50 mg/L) suppressed chromate adsorption by up to 50%. Chromate adsorption was not influenced by inorganic colloids.

  9. In situ remediation of chlorinated solvent-contaminated groundwater using ZVI/organic carbon amendment in China: field pilot test and full-scale application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Meng, Liang; Guo, Lin

    2018-02-01

    Chlorinated solvents in groundwater pose threats to human health and the environment due to their carcinogenesis and bioaccumulation. These problems are often more severe in developing countries such as China. Thus, methods for chlorinated solvent-contaminated groundwater remediation are urgently needed. This study presents a technique of in situ remediation via the direct-push amendment injection that enhances the reductive dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater in the low-permeability aquifer. A field-based pilot test and a following real-world, full-scale application were conducted at an active manufacturing facility in Shanghai, China. The chlorinated solvents found at the clay till site included 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA), 1,1-dichloroethane (1,1-DCA), 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE), vinyl chloride (VC), and chloroethane (CA). A commercially available amendment (EHC ® , Peroxychem, Philadelphia, PA) combining zero-valent iron and organic carbon was used to treat the above pollutants. Pilot test results showed that direct-push EHC injection efficiently facilitated the in situ reductive remediation of groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents. The mean removal rates of 1,1,1-TCA, 1,1-DCA, and 1,1-DCE at 270 days post-injection were 99.6, 99.3, and 73.3%, respectively, which were obviously higher than those of VC and CA (42.3 and 37.1%, respectively). Clear decreases in oxidation-reduction potential and dissolved oxygen concentration, and increases in Fe 2+ and total organic carbon concentration, were also observed during the monitoring period. These indicate that EHC promotes the anaerobic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons primarily via long-term biological reductive dechlorination, with instant chemical reductive dechlorination acting as a secondary pathway. The optimal effective time of EHC injection was 0-90 days, and its radius of influence was 1.5 m. In full-scale application, the maximum concentrations of 1,1,1-TCA

  10. Proceedings of the environmental technology through industry partnership conference. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kothari, V.P.

    1995-10-01

    The overall objective of this conference was to review the latest environmental and waste management technologies being developed under the sponsorship of METC. The focus of this conference was also to address the accomplishments and barriers affecting private sector, and lay the groundwork for future technology development initiatives and opportunities. 26 presentations were presented in: Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; Contaminant plume containment and remediation; and Decontamination and decommissioning. In addition there were 10 Focus Area presentations, 31 Poster papers covering all Focus Areas, and two panel discussions on: Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal issues; and the Application, evaluation, and acceptance of in-situ and ex-situ plume remediation technologies. Volume 2 contains 16 papers in a poster session and 8 papers in the contaminant plume containment and remediation and landfill stabilization Focus Areas. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. Geostatistics and cost-effective environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    Numerous sites within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex have been contaminated with various radioactive and hazardous materials by defense-related activities during the post-World War II era. The perception is that characterization and remediation of these contaminated sites will be too costly using currently available technology. Consequently, the DOE Office of Technology Development has funded development of a number of alternative processes for characterizing and remediating these sites. The former Feed-Materials Processing Center near Fernald, Ohio (USA), was selected for demonstrating several innovative technologies. Contamination at the Fernald site consists principally of particulate uranium and derivative compounds in surficial soil. A field-characterization demonstration program was conducted during the summer of 1994 specifically to demonstrate the relative economic performance of seven proposed advanced-characterization tools for measuring uranium activity of in-situ soils. These innovative measurement technologies are principally radiation detectors of varied designs. Four industry-standard measurement technologies, including conventional, regulatory-agency-accepted soil sampling followed by laboratory geochemical analysis, were also demonstrated during the program for comparative purposes. A risk-based economic-decision model has been used to evaluate the performance of these alternative characterization tools. The decision model computes the dollar value of an objective function for each of the different characterization approaches. The methodology not only can assist site operators to choose among engineering alternatives for site characterization and/or remediation, but also can provide an objective and quantitative basis for decisions with respect to the completeness of site characterization

  12. Program overview: Remedial actions at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, L.D.; Trabalka, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Research on and development of civilian and defense uses of nuclear materials and technologies have occurred at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since its creation as part of the World War II Manhattan Project in 1943. A diverse legacy of contaminated inactive facilities, research areas, and waste management areas exists; many are candidates for remedial action. Most attention is focused on waste management sites which contain the bulk of ORNL's environmental contamination. A wide variety of liquid and solid wastes, primarily radioactive wastes or mixed wastes in which radioactivity was the principal hazardous constituent, have been disposed of on-site in the past 45 years. One potential approach to remedial problems at ORNL is to design primarily for control and decay in situ (during an institutional control period of 100 years or more) of intermediate-lived wastes such as 3 H, 90 Sr, and 137 Cs. Passive measures designed to provide greater long-term confinement (for example, in situ vitrification) could be exercised at sites contaminated with TRU wastes or high concentrations of hazardous constitutes. This approach would (a) provide a period sufficiently long for evaluation of the effectiveness of environmental processes and passive remedial measures in controlling the migration of long-lived materials, (b) allow additional time needed for development of new technologies for more permanent site stabilization, and (c) reduce the need for immediate implementation of the more-expensive exhumation and disposal option

  13. Groundwater remediation in the Straz leaching operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.

    2001-01-01

    The locality affected by consequences of the chemical mining of the uranium during underground leaching 'in situ' is found in the area of the Czech Republic in the northeastern part of the Ceska Lipa district. In the contribution the complex groundwater remediation project is discussed. First, the risks of the current state are expressed. Then the alternatives of remediation of the both Cenomanian and Turonian aquifers are presented. Evaluation of the remediation alternatives with the view to the time-consumption, economy, ecology and the elimination of unacceptable risks for the population and environment is done. Finally, the present progress of remediation and the conception of remediation of chemical mining on deposit of Straz pod Ralskem are presented. (orig.)

  14. Effective parameters, effective processes: From porous flow physics to in situ remediation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruess, K.

    1995-06-01

    This paper examines the conceptualization of multiphase flow processes on the macroscale, as needed in field applications. It emphasizes that upscaling from the pore-level will in general not only introduce effective parameters but will also give rise to ''effective processes,'' i.e., the emergence of new physical effects that may not have a microscopic counterpart. ''Phase dispersion'' is discussed as an example of an effective process for the migration and remediation of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminants in heterogeneous media. An approximate space-and-time scaling invariance is derived for gravity-driven liquid flow in unsaturated two-dimensional porous media (fractures). Issues for future experimental and theoretical work are identified

  15. Analysis of in-situ renewal technology for the backhoe bucket bores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torims, Toms; Ratkus, Andris; Vilcans, Janis; Zarins, Marcis; Rusa, Aldis [Department of Material Processing Technology Faculty of Transport and Mechanical Engineering Riga Technical University, Riga (Latvia)

    2011-07-01

    The overall aim of this article is to outline the progress of the research on how to develop an economically and scientifically justified backhoe buckets boreholes renewal technology by using mobile on-site technological equipment. Today the new mobile (in-situ) repair technologies are extensively used for the specialized equipment and machinery repairs. This repair technology is deployed directly on the damaged product: repair equipment is installed by using specialized centering devices. The bucket bores central axes are used as a reference base and damaged layer of material is removed mechanically applying turning operation. Subsequently the renewable surface is covered by new material layer by means of regular MIG/MAG welding. The last technological operation is final turning to the nominal diameter. Outlined renewal technology should meet high expectations – this necessitates in-depth and systematic study of pins and bores which are the most repaired objects of shovel bucket excavators. Therefore, research on established accuracy and technical requirements, both for the repaired unit and technological equipment in line with in-situ repair technology specifics, has been done. It was supported by impact analysis of the technological regimes to surface integrity with ambition to provide practical recommendations for the optimal choice of the technological regimes. Key words: in-situ repair technology, surface integrity, technological parameters.

  16. In-Situ Remediation of Small Leaks in Water Pipes: Impacts of Water Chemistry, Physical Parameters and the Presence of Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Min

    2017-01-01

    Aging and leaking water infrastructure wastes water resources and creates public health risks. Upgrading of potable water systems represents a large financial burden for water utilities and private property owners. The conventional approaches of repair, rehabilitation and replacement are very effective, but will take decades to implement even if a financial commitment to do so was made immediately. A novel approach of in-situ remediation of leaks, achieved by harnessing the ability of water o...

  17. In-situ remediation of TCE by ERD in clay tills. Feasibility and performance of full-scale application insights gained through an integrated investigative approach for 2 sites

    OpenAIRE

    Broholm, Mette Martina; Damgaard, Ida; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Manoli, Gabriele; Pade, Dorte Moon; Christiansen, Camilla Maymann; Binning, Philip John; Westergaard, Claus; Tsitonaki, Aikaterini; Christophersen, Mette; Kerrn-Jespersen, Henriette; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives. Remediation of trichloroethene (TCE) in clay and other low permeabil-ity geologic media, where groundwater flow occurs preferentially in higher permeability sand lenses or fractures, is a significant challenge. At older sites, much of the contaminant mass is pre-sent as a sorbed phase in the matrix due to matrix diffusion. The principal challenge for in situ remediation in clay is to achieve effective contact between contaminant and bioremediation addi-tives (e.g., orga...

  18. Use of a mathematical model for prediction of optimum feeding strategies for in situ bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shouche, M.; Petersen, J.N.

    1992-05-01

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 40+ years of operations at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. Some of these wastes were discharged to the soil column and many of the waste components, including nitrate, carbon tetrachloride (CCL 4 ), and several radionuclides, have been detected in the Hanford groundwater. Current DOE policy prohibits the disposal of the contaminated liquids directly to the environment, and remediation of the existing contaminated groundwaters may be required. In-situ bioremediation is one technology currently being developed at the Hanford to meet the need for cost effective technologies to clean groundwater contaminated with CCL 4 , nitrate, and other organic and inorganic contaminants. This paper focuses on the latest results of an on-going effort to develop effective in-situ remediation strategies through the use of predictive simulations. In particular, strategies for nutrient injection are developed which minimize biomass accumulation within the flow field and thus extend the life of injection wells

  19. IN SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS - ACTIVE CAPPING TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, A.; Roberts, J.; Paller, M.; Reible, D.

    2010-09-02

    Active capping is a relatively new approach for treating contaminated sediments. It involves applying chemically reactive amendments to the sediment surface. The main role of active caps is to stabilize contaminants in contaminated sediments, lower the bioavailable pool of contaminants, and reduce the release of contaminants to the water column. Metals are common contaminants in many marine and fresh water environments as a result of industrial and military activities. The mobile, soluble forms of metals are generally considered toxic. Induced chemical precipitation of these metals can shift toxic metals from the aqueous phase to a solid, precipitated phase which is often less bioavailable. This approach can be achieved through application of sequestering agents such as rock phosphates, organoclays, zeolites, clay minerals, and biopolymers (e.g., chitosan) in active capping technology. Active capping holds great potential for a more permanent solution that avoids residual risks resulting from contaminant migration through the cap or breaching of the cap. In addition to identifying superior active capping agents, research is needed to optimize application techniques, application rates, and amendment combinations that maximize sequestration of contaminants. A selected set of active capping treatment technologies has been demonstrated at a few sites, including a field demonstration at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC. This demonstration has provided useful information on the effects of sequestering agents on metal immobilization, bioavailability, toxicity, and resistance to mechanical disturbance.

  20. In Situ Remediation Of Contaminated Sediments - Active Capping Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, A.; Roberts, J.; Paller, M.; Reible, D.

    2010-01-01

    Active capping is a relatively new approach for treating contaminated sediments. It involves applying chemically reactive amendments to the sediment surface. The main role of active caps is to stabilize contaminants in contaminated sediments, lower the bioavailable pool of contaminants, and reduce the release of contaminants to the water column. Metals are common contaminants in many marine and fresh water environments as a result of industrial and military activities. The mobile, soluble forms of metals are generally considered toxic. Induced chemical precipitation of these metals can shift toxic metals from the aqueous phase to a solid, precipitated phase which is often less bioavailable. This approach can be achieved through application of sequestering agents such as rock phosphates, organoclays, zeolites, clay minerals, and biopolymers (e.g., chitosan) in active capping technology. Active capping holds great potential for a more permanent solution that avoids residual risks resulting from contaminant migration through the cap or breaching of the cap. In addition to identifying superior active capping agents, research is needed to optimize application techniques, application rates, and amendment combinations that maximize sequestration of contaminants. A selected set of active capping treatment technologies has been demonstrated at a few sites, including a field demonstration at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC. This demonstration has provided useful information on the effects of sequestering agents on metal immobilization, bioavailability, toxicity, and resistance to mechanical disturbance.

  1. Assessment of technologies for hazardous waste site remediation: Non-treatment technologies and pilot scale facility implementation -- excavation -- storage technology -- safety analysis and review statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, H.R.; Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Koperna, G.J. Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the state-of-the-art of excavation technology as related to environmental remediation applications. A further purpose is to determine which of the excavation technologies reviewed could be used by the US Corp of Engineers in remediating contaminated soil to be excavated in the near future for construction of a new Lock and Dam at Winfield, WV. The study is designed to identify excavation methodologies and equipment which can be used at any environmental remediation site but more specifically at the Winfield site on the Kanawha River in Putnam County, West Virginia. A technical approach was determined whereby a functional analysis was prepared to determine the functions to be conducted during the excavation phase of the remediation operations. A number of excavation technologies were identified from the literature. A set of screening criteria was developed that would examine the utility and ranking of the technologies with respect to the operations that needed to be conducted at the Winfield site. These criteria were performance, reliability, implementability, environmental safety, public health, and legal and regulatory compliance. The Loose Bulk excavation technology was ranked as the best technology applicable to the Winfield site. The literature was also examined to determine the success of various methods of controlling fugitive dust. Depending upon any changes in the results of chemical analyses, or prior remediation of the VOCs from the vadose zone, consideration should be given to testing a new ''Pneumatic Excavator'' which removes the VOCs liberated during the excavation process as they outgas from the soil. This equipment however would not be needed on locations with low levels of VOC emissions

  2. Treatment of hazardous metals by in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koegler, S.S.; Buelt, J.L.

    1989-02-01

    Soils contaminated with hazardous metals are a significant problem to many Defense Program sites. Contaminated soils have ranked high in assessments of research and development needs conducted by the Hazardous Waste Remedial Action Program (HAZWRAP) in FY 1988 and FY 1989. In situ vitrification (ISV) is an innovative technology suitable for stabilizing soils contaminated with radionuclides and hazardous materials. Since ISV treats the material in place, it avoids costly and hazardous preprocessing exhumation of waste. In situ vitrification was originally developed for immobilizing radioactive (primarily transuranic) soil constituents. Tests indicate that it is highly useful also for treating other soil contaminants, including hazardous metals. The ISV process produces an environmentally acceptable, highly durable glasslike product. In addition, ISV includes an efficient off-gas treatment system that eliminates noxious gaseous emissions and generates minimal hazardous byproducts. This document reviews the Technical Basis of this technology. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Engaging with residents' perceived risks and benefits about technologies as a way of resolving remediation dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Jason; Rai, Tapan

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades the diversity of remediation technologies has increased significantly, with the breadth of technologies ranging from dig and dump to emergent technologies like phytoremediation and nanoremediation. The benefits of these technologies to the environment and human health are believed to be substantial. However, they also potentially constitute risks. Whilst there is a growing body of knowledge about the risks and benefits of these technologies from the perspective of experts, little is known about how residents perceive the risks and benefits of the application of these technologies to address contaminants in their local environment. This absence of knowledge poses a challenge to remediation practitioners and policy makers who are increasingly seeking to engage these affected local residents in choosing technology applications. Building on broader research into the perceived benefits and risks of technologies, and data from a telephone survey of 2009 residents living near 13 contaminated sites in Australia, regression analysis of closed-ended survey questions and coding of open-ended questions are combined to identify the main predictors of resident's perceived levels of risk and benefit to resident's health and to their local environment from remediation technologies. This research identifies a range of factors associated with the residents' physical context, their engagement with institutions during remediation processes, and the technologies which are associated with residents' level of perceived risk and benefit for human health and the local environment. The analysis found that bioremediation technologies were perceived as less risky and more beneficial than chemical, thermal and physical technologies. The paper also supports broader technology research that reports an inverse correlation between levels of perceived risks and benefits. In addition, the paper reveals the types of risks and benefits to human health and the local environment that

  4. Development of an integrated economic decision-support tool for the remediation of contaminated sites. Overview note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, R.; Bage, G.

    2004-05-01

    This report concludes the first design phase of an innovative software tool which, when completed, will allow managers of contaminated sites to make optimal decisions with respect to site remediation. The principal objective of the project was to develop the foundations for decision-support software (SITE VII) which will allow a comprehensive and rigorous approach to the comparison of remediation scenarios for sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. During this first phase of the project, the NSERC Industrial Chair in Site Remediation and Management of the Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal has completed four stages in the design of a decision-support tool that could be applied by any site manager using a simple computer. These four stages are: refinement of a technico-economic evaluation model; development of databases for five soil remediation technologies; design of a structure for integration of the databases with the technico-economic model; and simulation of the remediation of a contaminated site using the technico-economic model and a subset of the databases. In the interim report, the emphasis was placed on the development of the technico-economic model, supported by a very simple, single-technology simulation of remediation. In the present report, the priority is placed on the integration of the different components required for the creation of decision-support software based on the technico-economic model. An entire chapter of this report is devoted to elaborating the decision structure of the software. The treatment of information within the software is shown schematically and explained step-by-step. Five remediation technologies are handled by the software: three in-situ technologies (bio-venting, bio-slurping, bio-sparging) and two ex-situ technologies (thermal desorption, Bio-pile treatment). A technology file has been created for each technology, containing a brief description of the technology, its performance, its criteria of applicability

  5. Diagnostic Tools for Performance Evaluation of Innovative In-Situ Remediation Technologies at Chlorinated Solvent-Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Electronic down-hole sensors with data loggers, or fiber optic sensors, can also provide information on the pore pressure, temperature, conductivity...of a dechlorinating community resulting from in-situ biostimulation in a trichloroethene-contaminated deep, fractured basalt aquifer and comparison to...dechlorinating community resulting from in-situ biostimulation in a trichloroethene-contaminated deep, fractured basalt aquifer and comparison to a

  6. In situ bioventing in deep soils at arid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frishmuth, R.A.; Ratz, J.W.; Blicker, B.R.; Hall, J.F.; Downey, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    In situ bioventing has been shown to be a cost-effective remedial alternative for vadose zone soils. The success of the technology relies on the ability of indigenous soil microorganisms to utilize petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants as a primary metabolic substrate. Soil microbial populations are typically elevated in shallow soils due to an abundance of naturally occurring substrates and nutrients, but may be limited at greater depths due to a lack of these constituents. Therefore, the effectiveness of in situ bioventing is questionable in contaminated soil zones that extend far below the ground surface. Also, because the soil microbial population relies on soil moisture to sustain hydrocarbon degradation, the viability of bioventing is questionable in arid climates, where the soil moisture content is suspected to be minimal

  7. In-situ remediation of TCE by ERD in clay tills. Feasibility and performance of full-scale application insights gained through an integrated investigative approach for 2 sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette Martina; Damgaard, Ida; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia

    -scale applications of ERD in clay tills were investigated in a research project in-cluding 2 sites in Denmark undergoing remediation since 2006. Site remediation approach. At the Sortebrovej site an emulsified oil donor (EOS) and a bio-augmentation culture (KB1®) with specific degraders Dehalococcoides were injected......Background/Objectives. Remediation of trichloroethene (TCE) in clay and other low permeabil-ity geologic media, where groundwater flow occurs preferentially in higher permeability sand lenses or fractures, is a significant challenge. At older sites, much of the contaminant mass is pre......-sent as a sorbed phase in the matrix due to matrix diffusion. The principal challenge for in situ remediation in clay is to achieve effective contact between contaminant and bioremediation addi-tives (e.g., organic electron donors and bioaugmentation cultures). The feasibility and perfor-mance of full...

  8. A comparison of the technical sustainability of in situ stabilisation/solidification with disposal to landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbottle, M J; Al-Tabbaa, A; Evans, C W

    2007-03-15

    Sustainability is becoming a very important issue in contaminated land remediation and should form one of the factors used in future selection of treatment technologies. In situ stabilisation/solidification (S/S) is a remediation technique that is increasingly being applied to the treatment of contaminated sites because of numerous advantages over other remediation techniques. This paper assesses and compares aspects of the technical sustainability of in situ S/S with landfilling. Criteria previously established for the assessment of the technical sustainability of the remediation of contaminated land are employed. The comparison is presented in the form of a case study based on a real remediation project in the UK. The analysis indicated that landfilling had a larger impact than S/S in the majority of areas investigated, such as waste production (1000 kg waste/t soil remediated for landfilling compared to none for S/S), transportation (12.9 km/t for landfilling, 0.4 km/t for S/S) and use of raw materials (1005.5 kg/t for landfilling, 88.9 kg/t for S/S), although S/S had high greenhouse gas emissions (12.6 kg/t for landfilling, 40.9 kg/t for S/S). In addition, a multi-criteria/cost-effectiveness analysis gave cost effectiveness scores of -34.2 to S/S and -138.1 to landfill (where more positive is better).

  9. Manual of acid in situ leach uranium mining technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-08-01

    In situ leaching (ISL) technology recovers uranium using two alternative chemical leaching systems - acid and alkaline. This report brings together information from several technical disciplines that are an essential part of ISL technology. They include uranium geology, geohydrology, chemistry as well as reservoir engineering and process engineering. This report provides an extensive description of acid ISL uranium mining technology

  10. Manual of acid in situ leach uranium mining technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-08-01

    In situ leaching (ISL) technology recovers uranium using two alternative chemical leaching systems - acid and alkaline. This report brings together information from several technical disciplines that are an essential part of ISL technology. They include uranium geology, geohydrology, chemistry as well as reservoir engineering and process engineering. This report provides an extensive description of acid ISL uranium mining technology.

  11. Test plan for in situ bioremediation demonstration of the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration Project DOE/OTD TTP No.: SR 0566-01. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, T.C.

    1991-09-18

    This project is designed to demonstrate in situ bioremediation of groundwater and sediment contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Indigenous microorganisms will be simulated to degrade trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and their daughter products in situ by addition of nutrients to the contaminated zone. in situ biodegradation is a highly attractive technology for remediation because contaminants are destroyed, not simply moved to another location or immobilized, thus decreasing costs, risks, and time, while increasing efficiency and public and regulatory acceptability. Bioremediation has been found to be among the least costly technologies in applications where it will work.

  12. In situ radio-frequency heating for soil remediation at a former service station: case study and general aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huon, G.; Simpson, T.; Maini, G. [Ecologia Environmental Solutions Ltd., Sittingbourne, Kent (United Kingdom); Holzer, F.; Kopinke, F.D.; Roland, U. [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Department of Environmental Engineering, Leipzig (Germany); Will, F. [Total UK, Watford (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    In situ radio-frequency heating (ISRFH) was successfully applied during remediation of a former petrol station. Using a three-electrode array in combination with extraction wells for soil vapor extraction (SVE), pollution consisting mainly of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and mineral oil hydrocarbons (in total about 1100 kg) was eliminated from a chalk soil in the unsaturated zone. Specially designed rod electrodes allowed selective heating of a volume of approximately 480 m{sup 3}, at a defined depth, to a mean temperature of about 50 C. The heating drastically increased the extraction rates. After switching off ISRFH, SVE remained highly efficient for some weeks due to the heat-retaining properties of the soil. Comparison of an optimized regime of ISRFH/SVE with conventional ''cold'' SVE showed a reduction of remediation time by about 80 % while keeping the total energy consumption almost constant. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Remediation approaches for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soils: Technological constraints, emerging trends and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Saranya; Thavamani, Palanisami; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Lee, Yong Bok; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2017-02-01

    For more than a decade, the primary focus of environmental experts has been to adopt risk-based management approaches to cleanup PAH polluted sites that pose potentially destructive ecological consequences. This focus had led to the development of several physical, chemical, thermal and biological technologies that are widely implementable. Established remedial options available for treating PAH contaminated soils are incineration, thermal conduction, solvent extraction/soil washing, chemical oxidation, bioaugmentation, biostimulation, phytoremediation, composting/biopiles and bioreactors. Integrating physico-chemical and biological technologies is also widely practiced for better cleanup of PAH contaminated soils. Electrokinetic remediation, vermiremediation and biocatalyst assisted remediation are still at the development stage. Though several treatment methods to remediate PAH polluted soils currently exist, a comprehensive overview of all the available remediation technologies to date is necessary so that the right technology for field-level success is chosen. The objective of this review is to provide a critical overview in this respect, focusing only on the treatment options available for field soils and ignoring the spiked ones. The authors also propose the development of novel multifunctional green and sustainable systems like mixed cell culture system, biosurfactant flushing, transgenic approaches and nanoremediation in order to overcome the existing soil- contaminant- and microbial-associated technological limitations in tackling high molecular weight PAHs. The ultimate objective is to ensure the successful remediation of long-term PAH contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In Situ Vitrification Engineering-Scale Test ES-INEL-4 Product Characterization Test Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidner, J.R.; Stoots, P.R.

    1990-06-01

    In 1987, the Buried Waste Program (BWP) was established within EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., the prime contractor at INEL. Following the Environmental Restoration guidelines of the Buried Waste Program, the In Situ Vitrification Program is participating in a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for permanent disposal of INEL waste, in compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). This study was requested and is being funded by the Office of Technology Development of the Idaho Operations Office of DOE (DOE-ID). As part of the RI/FS, an in situ vitrification (ISV) scoping study on the treatability of mixed low-level and mixed transuranic-contaminated waste is being performed to determine the applicability of ISV to remediation of waste at SDA. In examination of the ISV process for applicability to SDA waste, this In Situ Vitrification Engineering-Scale Test ES-INEL-4 Product Characterization Test Plan identifies the following: sampling and analysis strategy; sampling procedures; methods to conduct analyses; equipment; and procedures to ensure data quality. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Case study of shallow soil mixing and soil vacuum extraction remediation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, M.J.; Day, S.R.; Pinewski, R.; Schroder, D.

    1995-01-01

    Shallow Soil Mixing (SSM) and Soil Vacuum Extraction (SVE) are techniques which have been increasingly relied on for the insitu remediation of contaminated soils. The primary applications of SSM have been to mix cement, bentonite, or other reagents to modify properties and thereby remediate contaminated soils or sludges. Soil vacuum extraction has been used at numerous applications for insitu removal of contaminants from soils. At a recent project in southern Ohio, the two technologies were integrated and enhanced to extract volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from soils at a Department of Energy facility. Advantages of the integrated SSM/SVE technology over alternative technologies include a relatively rapid remediation compared to other in-situ techniques at a lower cost, less exposure of waste to the surface environment and elimination of off-site disposal. These advantages led to the selection of the use of both technologies on the project in Southern Ohio. The information presented in this paper is intended to provide Engineers and owners with the level of understanding necessary to apply soil mixing and vacuum extraction technology to a specific site. The most important steps in implementing the technology are site investigation, feasibility estimate, selection of performance criteria, selection of appropriate materials, bench scale testing and construction

  16. Soil Contamination and Remediation Strategies. Current research and future challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzelli, G.

    2012-04-01

    Soil contamination: the heritage of industrial development Contamination is only a part of a whole set of soil degradation processes, but it is one of paramount importance since soil pollution greatly influences the quality of water, food and human health. Soil contamination has been identified as an important issue for action in the European strategy for soil protection, it has been estimated that 3.5 million of sites are potentially contaminated in Europe. Contaminated soils have been essentially discovered in industrial sites landfills and energy production plants, but accumulation of heavy metals and organic compounds can be found also in agricultural land . Remediation strategies. from incineration to bioremediation The assessment of soil contamination is followed by remedial action. The remediation of contaminated soils started using consolidates technologies (incineration inertization etc.) previously employed in waste treatment,. This has contributed to consider a contaminated soil as an hazardous waste. This rough approximation was unfortunately transferred in many legislations and on this basis soil knowledge have been used only marginally in the clean up procedures. For many years soil quality has been identified by a value of concentration of a contaminant and excavation and landfill disposal of soil has been largely used. In the last years the knowledge of remediation technology has rapidly grown, at present many treatment processes appear to be really feasible at field scale, and soil remediation is now based on risk assessment procedures. Innovative technologies, largely dependent on soil properties, such as in situ chemical oxidation, electroremediation, bioventing, soil vapor extraction etc. have been successfully applied. Hazardous organic compounds are commonly treated by biological technologies, biorememdiation and phytoremediation, being the last partially applied also for metals. Technologies selection is no longer exclusively based on

  17. NASA Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation Remediation Technology Collaboration Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, James

    2013-01-01

    NASA is committed to finding solutions to agency cleanup problems that are better, cheaper, and more effective than the status quo. Unfortunately, some potential solutions involve innovative technologies for which NASA remediation managers may not have a high level of understanding or confidence. Since 2004, NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) in Mississippi has been pumping groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and other halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOC) from their cleanup location designated "Area G" through extraction wells to an aboveground treatment system. Over time, however, the effectiveness of this treatment strategy has diminished and an alternative approach is needed. In 2012, professionals from NASA's Principal Center for Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation (TEERM) introduced SSC managers to an innovative technology for enhancing the performance of SSC's existing pump and treat system. The technology, generally referred to as in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), involves slowly and continuously injecting a strong but safe chemical oxidant into the groundwater. Treatment is enhanced by a "surfactant-type effect" which causes residual contamination from saturated soil to be released into the dissolved-phase where it can be readily oxidized. Any dissolved-phase contamination that was not oxidized can be collected by the extraction well network and treated aboveground. SSC was not familiar with the technology so to increase their confidence, TEERM identified a contractor who was willing to demonstrate their product and process at a significantly reduced price. An initial, small-scale demonstration of ISCO began at sse in March 2012 and completed in August 2012. This successful demonstration was followed by three larger-scale ISCO demonstrations between August and December 2012. The contractor's innovative Continuous Injection System (CIS) incorporated "green" and sustainable technologies and practices. A slow

  18. Remediation techniques for heavy metal-contaminated soils: Principles and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lianwen; Li, Wei; Song, Weiping; Guo, Mingxin

    2018-08-15

    Globally there are over 20millionha of land contaminated by the heavy metal(loid)s As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Se, with the present soil concentrations higher than the geo-baseline or regulatory levels. In-situ and ex-situ remediation techniques have been developed to rectify the heavy metal-contaminated sites, including surface capping, encapsulation, landfilling, soil flushing, soil washing, electrokinetic extraction, stabilization, solidification, vitrification, phytoremediation, and bioremediation. These remediation techniques employ containment, extraction/removal, and immobilization mechanisms to reduce the contamination effects through physical, chemical, biological, electrical, and thermal remedy processes. These techniques demonstrate specific advantages, disadvantages, and applicability. In general, in-situ soil remediation is more cost-effective than ex-situ treatment, and contaminant removal/extraction is more favorable than immobilization and containment. Among the available soil remediation techniques, electrokinetic extraction, chemical stabilization, and phytoremediation are at the development stage, while the others have been practiced at full, field scales. Comprehensive assessment indicates that chemical stabilization serves as a temporary soil remediation technique, phytoremediation needs improvement in efficiency, surface capping and landfilling are applicable to small, serious-contamination sites, while solidification and vitrification are the last remediation option. The cost and duration of soil remediation are technique-dependent and site-specific, up to $500ton -1 soil (or $1500m -3 soil or $100m -2 land) and 15years. Treatability studies are crucial to selecting feasible techniques for a soil remediation project, with considerations of the type and degree of contamination, remediation goals, site characteristics, cost effectiveness, implementation time, and public acceptability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  19. To accelerate technology of in situ leaching and heap leaching for mining mineral resources of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Mei

    1999-01-01

    Recently, in situ leaching and heap leaching are the most advanced technology for mining low-grade mineral resources in the world. The author briefly expounds the basic concept and advantages of in situ leaching and heap leaching and deals with the main research content of the hydrometallurgical technology of in situ leaching and heap leaching, its development and present application at home and abroad. Having expounded the gap existing between China's technology of in situ leaching and heap leaching and the foreign technology, the author forecasts the prospects of accelerating the mining of China's mineral resources by using the technology of in situ leaching and heap leaching

  20. A comparison of technologies for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid , Sana; Shahid , Muhammad; Niazi , Nabeel Khan; Murtaza , Behzad; Bibi , Irshad; Dumat , Camille

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Soil contamination with persistent and potentially (eco)toxic heavy metal(loid)s is ubiquitous around the globe. Concentration of these heavy metal(loid)s in soil has increased drastically over the last three decades, thus posing risk to the environment and human health. Some technologies have long been in use to remediate the hazardous heavy metal(loid)s. Conventional remediation methods for heavy metal(loid)s are generally based on physical, chemical and biological a...

  1. Six phase soil heating. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Six Phase Soil Heating (SPSH) was developed to remediate soils contaminated with volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds. SPSH is designed to enhance the removal of contaminates from the subsurface during soil vapor extraction. The innovation combines an emerging technology, six-phase electric heating, with a baseline technology, soil vapor extraction, to produce a more efficient in situ remediation systems for difficult soil and/or contaminate applications. This document describes the technology and reports on field demonstrations conducted at Savannah River and the Hanford Reservation

  2. Assessment of technologies for hazardous waste site remediation: Non-treatment technologies and pilot scale facility implementation -- excavation -- storage technology -- safety analysis and review statement. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, H.R.; Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Koperna, G.J. Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the state-of-the-art of excavation technology as related to environmental remediation applications. A further purpose is to determine which of the excavation technologies reviewed could be used by the US Corp of Engineers in remediating contaminated soil to be excavated in the near future for construction of a new Lock and Dam at Winfield, WV. The study is designed to identify excavation methodologies and equipment which can be used at any environmental remediation site but more specifically at the Winfield site on the Kanawha River in Putnam County, West Virginia. A technical approach was determined whereby a functional analysis was prepared to determine the functions to be conducted during the excavation phase of the remediation operations. A number of excavation technologies were identified from the literature. A set of screening criteria was developed that would examine the utility and ranking of the technologies with respect to the operations that needed to be conducted at the Winfield site. These criteria were performance, reliability, implementability, environmental safety, public health, and legal and regulatory compliance. The Loose Bulk excavation technology was ranked as the best technology applicable to the Winfield site. The literature was also examined to determine the success of various methods of controlling fugitive dust. Depending upon any changes in the results of chemical analyses, or prior remediation of the VOCs from the vadose zone, consideration should be given to testing a new ``Pneumatic Excavator`` which removes the VOCs liberated during the excavation process as they outgas from the soil. This equipment however would not be needed on locations with low levels of VOC emissions.

  3. Advanced remediation, technology development in the underground storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, T.E.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Production of nuclear materials has been a major mission of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) over the last 50 years. These activities have contributed to a substantial accumulation of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes. In 1989, the DOE established the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. This office coordinates and manages the DOE's remediation, waste minimization, and environmental compliance activities. It also has responsibility for waste generated by current operations. Within this office is the Office of Technology Development, which is responsible for providing technology improvements. This paper reports on integrated demonstrations which have been established to efficiently bring the best technologies to bear on the common needs of multiple DOE sites. One such need is resolution of the actions required for final closure and waste disposal of liquid (including sludge and salt cake) radioactive and chemical wastes that have been transferred to underground storage tanks

  4. Evaluation of Groundwater Remediation Technologies Based on Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum is an essential resource for the development of society and its production is huge. There is a great risk of leakage of oil during production, refining, and transportation. After entering the environment, the oil pollutants will be a great threat to the environment and may endanger human health. Therefore, it is very important to remediate oil pollution in the subsurface. However, it is necessary to choose the appropriate remediation technology. In this paper, 18 technologies are evaluated through constructing a parameter matrix with each technology and seven performance indicators, and a comprehensive analysis model is presented. In this model, four MCDA methods are used. They are SWA (Simple Weighted Addition Method, WP (Weighted Product Method, CGT (Cooperative Game Theory, and TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution. Mean ranking and Borda ranking methods are used to integrate the results of SWA, WP, CGT, and TOPSIS. Then two selection priorities of each method (mean ranking and Borda ranking are obtained. The model is proposed to help decide the best choice of remediation technologies. It can effectively reduce contingency, subjectivity, one-sidedness of the traditional methods and provide scientific reference for effective decision-making.

  5. Lasagna trademark soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    Lasagna trademark is an integrated, in situ remediation technology being developed which remediates soils and soil pore water contaminated with soluble organic compounds. Lasagna trademark is especially suited to sites with low permeability soils where electroosmosis can move water faster and more uniformly than hydraulic methods, with very low power consumption. The process uses electrokinetics to move contaminants in soil pore water into treatment zones where the contaminants can be captured and decomposed. Initial focus is on trichloroethylene (TCE), a major contaminant at many DOE and industrial sites. Both vertical and horizontal configurations have been conceptualized, but fieldwork to date is more advanced for the vertical configuration. Major features of the technology are electrodes energized by direct current, which causes water and soluble contaminants to move into or through the treatment layers and also heats the soil; treatment zones containing reagents that decompose the soluble organic contaminants or adsorb contaminants for immobilization or subsequent removal and disposal; and a water management system that recycles the water that accumulates at the cathode (high pH) back to the anode (low pH) for acid-base neutralization. Alternatively, electrode polarity can be reversed periodically to reverse electroosmotic flow and neutralize pH

  6. SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES IN SITU ELECTROKINETIC EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY; INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency evaluated the In-Situ Electrokinetic Extraction (ISEE) system at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.The SITE demonstration results show ...

  7. In situ vitrification of mixed wastes: Progress and regulatory status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindle, C.H.; Barich, J.J. III

    1991-08-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) technology targets mixed wastes in in situ near-surface environments. Federal laws governing toxic substances (TSCA), hazardous waste (RCRA), and abandoned sites (Superfund) create the need for remediation technology and define the required performance characteristics. The need for ISV depends, in part, on the extent of regulation and how well ISV's demonstrated performance characteristics match up with regulatory criteria. The regulatory requirements are easier to identify and meet in short-duration site- and situation-specific applications of the technology than they are simpler in long-term, generalized applications. ISV's ability to treat both inorganics and organics in a single process supports applications for mixed, hazardous, and radioactive sites of moderate depth (20 ft). The durability of the ISV waste form is a major advantage of the technology when demonstrating permanence of a waste management strategy. Achieving depth and vapor containment assurance are issues being addressed as the ISV process is refined for new applications having different processing concerns. Refinements include moveable electrodes and sheet steel as the material for the containment structure. 16 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  8. SERDP ER-1421 Abiotic and Biotic Mechanisms Controlling In Situ Remediation of NDMA: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; McKinley, James P.; Crocker, Fiona H.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Devary, Brooks J.; Fredrickson, Herbert L.; Thompson, Karen T.

    2009-09-30

    This laboratory-scale project was initiated to investigate in situ abiotic/biotic mineralization of NDMA. Under iron-reducing conditions, aquifer sediments showed rapid abiotic NDMA degradation to dimethylamine (DMA), nitrate, formate, and finally, CO2. These are the first reported experiments of abiotic NDMA mineralization. The NDMA reactivity of these different iron phases showed that adsorbed ferrous iron was the dominant reactive phase that promoted NDMA reduction, and other ferrous phases present (siderite, iron sulfide, magnetite, structural ferrous iron in 2:1 clays) did not promote NDMA degradation. In contrast, oxic sediments that were biostimulated with propane promoted biomineralization of NDMA by a cometabolic monooxygenase enzyme process. Other monooxygenase enzyme processes were not stimulated with methane or toluene additions, and acetylene addition did not block mineralization. Although NDMA mineralization extent was the highest in oxic, biostimulated sediments (30 to 82%, compared to 10 to 26% for abiotic mineralization in reduced sediments), large 1-D column studies (high sediment/water ratio of aquifers) showed 5.6 times higher NDMA mineralization rates in reduced sediment (half-life 410 ± 147 h) than oxic biomineralization (half life 2293 ± 1866 h). Sequential reduced/oxic biostimulated sediment mineralization (half-life 3180 ± 1094 h) was also inefficient compared to reduced sediment. These promising laboratory-scale results for NDMA mineralization should be investigated at field scale. Future studies of NDMA remediation should focus on the comparison of this in situ abiotic NDMA mineralization (iron-reducing environments) to ex situ biomineralization, which has been shown successful in other studies.

  9. Risk-based systems analysis of emerging high-level waste tank remediation technologies. Volume 2: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, B.B.; Cameron, R.J.; McCormack, W.D.

    1994-08-01

    The objective of DOE's Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area is to identify and develop new technologies that will reduce the risk and/or cost of remediating DOE underground waste storage tanks and tank contents. There are, however, many more technology investment opportunities than the current budget can support. Current technology development selection methods evaluate new technologies in isolation from other components of an overall tank waste remediation system. This report describes a System Analysis Model developed under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) program. The report identifies the project objectives and provides a description of the model. Development of the first ''demonstration'' version of this model and a trial application have been completed and the results are presented. This model will continue to evolve as it undergoes additional user review and testing

  10. Risk-based systems analysis of emerging high-level waste tank remediation technologies. Volume 2: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, B.B.; Cameron, R.J.; McCormack, W.D. [Enserch Environmental Corp., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The objective of DOE`s Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area is to identify and develop new technologies that will reduce the risk and/or cost of remediating DOE underground waste storage tanks and tank contents. There are, however, many more technology investment opportunities than the current budget can support. Current technology development selection methods evaluate new technologies in isolation from other components of an overall tank waste remediation system. This report describes a System Analysis Model developed under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) program. The report identifies the project objectives and provides a description of the model. Development of the first ``demonstration`` version of this model and a trial application have been completed and the results are presented. This model will continue to evolve as it undergoes additional user review and testing.

  11. Independent Technical Review of the X-740 Groundwater Remedy, Portsmouth, Ohio: Technical Evaluation and Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.; Rhia, B.; Jackson, D.; Eddy-Dilek, C.

    2010-01-01

    Two major remedial campaigns have been applied to a plume of trichloroethene (TCE) contaminated groundwater near the former X-740 facility at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Piketon Ohio. The two selected technologies, phytoremediation using a stand of hybrid poplar trees from 1999-2007 and in situ chemical oxidation using modified Fenton's Reagent from 2008-2009, have proven ineffective in achieving remedial action objectives (RAOs). The 'poor' performance of these technologies is a direct result of site specific conditions and the local contaminant hydrogeology. Key among these challenges is the highly heterogeneous subsurface geology with a thin contaminated aquifer zone (the Gallia) - the behavior of the contamination in the Gallia is currently dominated by slow release of TCE from the clay of the overlying Minford formation, from the sandstone of the underlying Berea formation, and from clayey layers within the Gallia itself. In response to the remediation challenges for the X-740 plume, the Portsmouth team (including the US Department of Energy (DOE), the site contractor (CDM), and the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA)) is evaluating the feasibility of remediation at this site and identifying specific alternatives that are well matched to site conditions and that would maximize the potential for achieving RAOs. To support this evaluation, the DOE Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation (EM-32) assembled a team of experts to serve as a resource and provide input and recommendations to Portsmouth. Despite the challenging site conditions and the failure of the previous two remediation campaigns to adequately move the site toward RAOs, the review team was unanimous in the conclusion that an effective combination of cost effective technologies can be identified. Further, the team expressed optimism that RAOs can be achieved if realistic timeframes are accepted by all parties. The initial efforts of the review team focused on reviewing the

  12. Transferable site remediation technologies developed by U.S. DOE Office of Science and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    To provide needed technologies for site remediation, the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology (OST) is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater. The Technology Investment Decision model serves as a framework for technology management in OST. Seven technology maturation stages are used in the model. These stages run from basic research through implementation. The Innovative Technology Summary Reports (ITSRs) provide a technical synopsis of an individual technology that has been developed. An ITSR is prepared for each technology that is successfully demonstrated in the field. The information required to produce an ITSR is collected as the technology matures through the Technology Investment Decision Process. As of July 1996 there have been thirteen ITSRs completed. This paper describes those thirteen technologies

  13. Microbial fuel cell driving electrokinetic remediation of toxic metal contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibul, Nuzahat; Hu, Yi; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    2016-11-15

    An investigation of the feasibility of in-situ electrokinetic remediation for toxic metal contaminated soil driven by microbial fuel cell (MFC) is presented. Results revealed that the weak electricity generated from MFC could power the electrokinetic remediation effectively. The metal removal efficiency and its influence on soil physiological properties were also investigated. With the electricity generated through the oxidation of organics in soils by microorganisms, the metals in the soils would mitigate from the anode to the cathode. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in the soils increased gradually through the anode to the cathode regions after remediation. After about 143days and 108 days' operation, the removal efficiencies of 31.0% and 44.1% for Cd and Pb at the anode region could be achieved, respectively. Soil properties such as pH and soil conductivity were also significantly redistributed from the anode to the cathode regions. The study shows that the MFC driving electrokinetic remediation technology is cost-effective and environmental friendly, with a promising application in soil remediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel fabrication technology of in situ TiB2/6063Al composites: High energy ball milling and melt in situ reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.-L.; Yang, J.; Zhang, B.-R.; Zhao, Y.-T.; Chen, G.; Shi, X.-X.; Liang, Z.-P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents a novel technology to fabricate the TiB 2 /6063Al composites. • The novel technology decreases in situ reaction temperature and shortens the time. • The reaction mechanism of in situ reaction at the low temperature is discussed. • Effect of ball milling time and in situ reaction time on the composites is studied. - Abstract: TiB 2 /6063Al matrix composites are fabricated from Al–TiO 2 –B 2 O 3 system by the technology combining high energy ball milling with melt in situ reaction. The microstructure and tensile properties of the composites are investigated by XRD, SEM, EDS, TEM and electronic tensile testing. The results indicate that high energy ball milling technology decreases the in situ reaction temperature and shortens the reaction time for Al–TiO 2 –B 2 O 3 system in contrast with the conventional melt in situ synthesis. The morphology of in situ TiB 2 particles is exhibited in irregular shape or nearly circular shape, and the average size of the particles is less than 700 nm, thereinto the minimum size is approximately 200 nm. In addition, the morphology and size of the reinforced particles are affected by the time of ball milling and in situ reaction. TEM images indicate that the interface between 6063Al matrix and TiB 2 particles is clear and no interfacial outgrowth is observed. Tensile testing results show that the as-cast TiB 2 /6063Al composites exhibit a much higher strength, reaching 191 MPa, which is 1.23 times as high as the as-cast 6063Al matrix. Besides, the tensile fracture surface of the composites displays the dimple-fracture character

  15. Permeation Dispersal of Treatment Agents for In Situ Remediation in Low Permeability Media: 1. Field Studies in Unconfined Test Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegrist, R.L.; Smuin, D.R.; Korte, N.E.; Greene, D.W.; Pickering, D.A.; Lowe, K.S.; Strong-Gunderson, J.

    2000-01-01

    Chlorocarbons like trichloroethylene (TCE) are common contaminants of concern at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and industrial sites across the US and abroad. These contaminants of concern are present in source areas and in soil and ground water plumes as dissolved or sorbed phase constituents as well as dense nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs). These DNAPL compounds can be released to the environment through a variety of means including leaks in storage tanks and transfer lines, spills during transportation, and land treatment of wastes. When DNAPL compounds are present in low permeability media (LPM) like silt and clay layers or deposits, there are major challenges with assessment of their behavior and implementation of effective in situ remediation technologies. This report describes a field demonstration that was conducted at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) Clean Test Site (CTS) to evaluate the feasibility of permeation and dispersal of reagents into LPM. Various reagents and tracers were injected at seven test cells primarily to evaluate the feasibility of delivery, but also to evaluate the effects of the injected reagents on LPM. The various reagents and tracers were injected at the PORTS CTS using a multi-port injection system (MPIS) developed and provided by Hayward Baker Environmental, Inc

  16. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the tank waste remediation system. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This document analyzes the potential environmental consequences related to the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) alternatives for management and disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste. This waste is currently or projected to be stored in 177 underground storage tanks and approximately 60 miscellaneous underground storage tanks, and the management and disposal of approximately 1,930 cesium and strontium capsules located at the Hanford Site. This document analyzes the following alternatives for remediating the tank waste: No Action, Long-Term Management, In Situ Fill and Cap, In Situ Vitrification, Ex Situ Intermediate Separations, Ex Situ No Separations, Ex Situ Extensive Separations, and Ex Situ/In Situ Combination. This document also addresses a Phased Implementation alternative (the DOE and Ecology preferred alternative for remediation of tank waste). Alternatives analyzed for the cesium and strontium capsules include: No Action, Onsite Disposal, Overpack and Ship, and Vitrify with Tank Waste. At this time, DOE and Ecology do not have a preferred alternative for the cesium and strontium capsules

  17. Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation - Demonstration Bulletin: In-Situ Soil Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    In-situ stabilization technology immobilizes organics and inorganic compounds in wet or dry soils by using reagents (additives) to polymerize with the soils and sludges producing a cement-like mass. Two basic components of this technology are the Geo-Con/DSM Deep Soil Mixing Sy...

  18. Life cycle assessment of soil and groundwater remediation technologies: literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2010-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope Life cycle assessment (LCA) is becoming an increasingly widespread tool in support systems for environmental decision-making regarding the cleanup of contaminated sites. In this study, the use of LCA to compare the environmental impacts of different remediation...... and scope definition and the applied impact assessment. The studies differ in their basic approach since some are prospective with focus on decision support while others are retrospective aiming at a more detailed assessment of a completed remediation project. Literature review The literature review showed...... scenarios in terms of their associated environmental burden. Main features An overview of the assessed remediation technologies and contaminant types covered in the literature is presented. The LCA methodologies of the 12 reviewed studies were compared and discussed with special focus on their goal...

  19. In situ vitrification: Demonstrated capabilities and potential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luey, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    A large-scale demonstration of the in situ vitrification (ISV) process was performed in April 1990 on the 116-B-6A Crib in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. The 116-B-6A Crib is a radioactive mixed waste site and was selected to demonstrate the applicability of ISV to soils contaminated with mixed wastes common to many US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Results from the demonstration show that the ISV process is a viable remediation technology for contaminated soils. The demonstration of the ISV process on an actual contaminated soil site followed research and development efforts by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) over the last 10 years. PNL's research has led to the development of the ISV process as a viable remediation technology for contaminated soils and the creation of a commercial supplier of ISV services, Geosafe Corporation. Development efforts for ISV applications other than treatment of contaminated soils, by PNL and in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), show the ISV process has potential applicability for remediating buried waste sites, remediating underground storage tanks, and enabling the placement of subsurface vitrified barriers and engineered structures. This paper discusses the results from the April 1990 large-scale demonstration and provides a general overview of the current capabilities of the ISV process for contaminated soils. In addition, this paper outlines some of the technical issues associated with other ISV applications and provides a qualitative discussion of the level of effort needed to resolve these technical issues

  20. Identification of remediation needs and technology development focus areas for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, M.D.

    1995-06-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project has been tasked with the characterization, assessment, remediation and long-term monitoring of contaminated waste sites at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). Many of these sites will require remediation which will involve the use of baseline technologies, innovative technologies that are currently under development, and new methods which will be developed in the near future. The Technology Applications Program (TAP) supports the ER Project and is responsible for development of new technologies for use at the contaminated waste sites, including technologies that will be used for remediation and restoration of these sites. The purpose of this report is to define the remediation needs of the ER Project and to identify those remediation needs for which the baseline technologies and the current development efforts are inadequate. The area between the remediation needs and the existing baseline/innovative technology base represents a technology gap which must be filled in order to remediate contaminated waste sites at SNL/NM economically and efficiently. In the first part of this report, the remediation needs of the ER Project are defined by both the ER Project task leaders and by TAP personnel. The next section outlines the baseline technologies, including EPA defined Best Demonstrated Available Technologies (BDATs), that are applicable at SNL/NM ER sites. This is followed by recommendations of innovative technologies that are currently being developed that may also be applicable at SNL/NM ER sites. Finally, the gap between the existing baseline/innovative technology base and the remediation needs is identified. This technology gap will help define the future direction of technology development for the ER Project

  1. Risk-based systems analysis of emerging high-level waste tank remediation technologies. Volume 1: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, B.B.; Cameron, R.J.; McCormack, W.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes a System Analysis Model developed under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) program to aid technology development funding decisions for radioactive tank waste remediation. Current technology development selection methods evaluate new technologies in isolation from other components of an overall tank waste remediation system. These methods do not show the relative effect of new technologies on tank remediation systems as a whole. Consequently, DOE may spend its resources on technologies that promise to improve a single function but have a small or possibly negative, impact on the overall system, or DOE may overlook a technology that does not address a high priority problem in the system but that does, if implemented, offer sufficient overall improvements. Systems engineering and detailed analyses often conducted under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA 1969) use a ''whole system'' approach but are costly, too time-consuming, and often not sufficiently focused to support the needs of the technology program decision-makers. An alternative approach is required to evaluate these systems impacts but still meet the budget and schedule needs of the technology program

  2. Monitoring remediation of trichloroethylene using a chemical fiber optic sensor: Field studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colston, B.W.; Brown, S.B.; Langry, K.; Daley, P.; Milanovich, F.P.

    1994-06-01

    Current US Department of Energy (DOE) policy requires characterization and subsequent remediation of areas where trichloroethylene (TCE) has been discharged into the soil and groundwater. Technology that allows trace quantities of this contaminant to be measured in situ on a continuous basis is needed. Fiber optic chemical sensors offer a promising low cost solution. Field tests of such a fiber optic chemical sensor for TCE have recently been completed. Sensors have been used to measure TCE contamination at Savannah River Site (SRS) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 (S300) in the groundwater and vadose zones. Both sites are currently undergoing remediation processes

  3. A review of technology for contact protection of remediation manipulators (WHC Issue 39)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunborg, S.

    1994-09-01

    Remediation of waste from Underground Storage Tanks (UST) at Hanford will require the use of large remotely controlled equipment. Inherent safety methods need to be identified and incorporated into the retrieval system to prevent contact damage to the UST or to the remediation equipment. This report discusses the requirements for an adequate protection system and reviews the major technologies available for inclusion in a damage protection system. The report proposes that adequate reliability of a protection system can be achieved through the use of two fully-independent subsafety systems. Safety systems technologies reviewed were Force/Torque Sensors, Overload Protection Devices, Ultrasonic Sensors, Capacitance Sensors, Controller Software Limit Graphic Collision Detection, and End Point Tracking. A relative comparison between retrieval systems protection technologies is presented

  4. Development and assessment of closure technology for liquid-waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Relyea, J.F.; Seitz, R.R.; Cammann, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Discharge of low-level liquid wastes into soils was practiced previously at the Hanford Site. Technologies for long-term confinement of subsurface contaminants are needed. Additionally, methods are needed to assess the effectiveness of confinement technologies in remediating potentially diverse environmental conditions. Recently developed site remediation systems and assessment methods for in situ stabilization and isolation of radioactive and other contaminants within and below low-level liquid-waste disposal structures are summarized

  5. Proceedings of emerging technologies for hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedder, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of emerging technologies for hazardous waste management. Topics covered include: Low-temperature oxidation of organic chemical wastes; Advanced waste minimization strategies; Treatment of manufactured gas plant (MGP) and similar wastes; Bioremediation of soils and sediments; Advances in radioactive waste treatment; Computer aides approaches to hazardous waste management; Advances in soil remediation; Low-temperature oxidation of organic chemical waste; Boremediation: Micro, meso, and macro-scale processes; In situ remediation techniques; Treatment of hazardous organics with radiation or solar energy; Technologies for management of municipal waste combustion residues; Environmental restoration and waste management; and Advanced separation and stabilization technologies

  6. A novel fabrication technology of in situ TiB{sub 2}/6063Al composites: High energy ball milling and melt in situ reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S.-L.; Yang, J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Zhang, B.-R. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, Shandong 250022 (China); Zhao, Y.-T., E-mail: 278075525@qq.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Chen, G.; Shi, X.-X.; Liang, Z.-P. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China)

    2015-08-05

    Highlights: • This paper presents a novel technology to fabricate the TiB{sub 2}/6063Al composites. • The novel technology decreases in situ reaction temperature and shortens the time. • The reaction mechanism of in situ reaction at the low temperature is discussed. • Effect of ball milling time and in situ reaction time on the composites is studied. - Abstract: TiB{sub 2}/6063Al matrix composites are fabricated from Al–TiO{sub 2}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} system by the technology combining high energy ball milling with melt in situ reaction. The microstructure and tensile properties of the composites are investigated by XRD, SEM, EDS, TEM and electronic tensile testing. The results indicate that high energy ball milling technology decreases the in situ reaction temperature and shortens the reaction time for Al–TiO{sub 2}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} system in contrast with the conventional melt in situ synthesis. The morphology of in situ TiB{sub 2} particles is exhibited in irregular shape or nearly circular shape, and the average size of the particles is less than 700 nm, thereinto the minimum size is approximately 200 nm. In addition, the morphology and size of the reinforced particles are affected by the time of ball milling and in situ reaction. TEM images indicate that the interface between 6063Al matrix and TiB{sub 2} particles is clear and no interfacial outgrowth is observed. Tensile testing results show that the as-cast TiB{sub 2}/6063Al composites exhibit a much higher strength, reaching 191 MPa, which is 1.23 times as high as the as-cast 6063Al matrix. Besides, the tensile fracture surface of the composites displays the dimple-fracture character.

  7. National conference on environmental remediation science and technology: Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This conference was held September 8--10, 1998 in Greensboro, North Carolina. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on methods and site characterization technologies for environmental monitoring and remedial action planning of hazardous materials. This report contains the abstracts of sixty-one papers presented at the conference.

  8. Tank Waste Remediation System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Final environmental impact statement. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This document analyzes the potential environmental consequences related to the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) alternatives for management and disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste, and the management and disposal of approximately 1,930 cesium and strontium capsules located at the Hanford Site. This waste is currently or projected to be stored in 177 underground storage tanks and approximately 60 miscellaneous underground storage tanks. This document analyzes the following alternatives for remediating the tank waste: No Action, Long-Term Management, In Situ Fill and Cap, In Situ Vitrification, Ex Situ Intermediate Separations, Ex Situ No Separations, Ex Situ Extensive Separations, Ex Situ/In Situ Combination 1, and Ex Situ/In Situ Combination 2. This document also addresses a Phased Implementation alternative (the DOE and Ecology preferred alternative for remediation of tank waste). Alternatives analyzed for the cesium and strontium capsules include: No Action, Onsite Disposal, Overpack and Ship, and Vitrify with Tank Waste. The DOE and Ecology preferred alternative for the cesium and strontium capsules is the No Action alternative

  9. SITE Technology Capsule. Demonstration of Rocky Mountain Remediation Services Soil Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report briefly summarizes the Rocky Mountain Remediation Services treatment technology demonstration of a soil amendment process for lead contaminated soil at Roseville, OH. The evaluation included leaching, bioavailability, geotechnical, and geochemical methods.

  10. Environmental life-cycle comparisons of two polychlorinated biphenyl remediation technologies: Incineration and base catalyzed decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xintao; Zhu Jianxin; Ding Qiong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We study the environmental impacts of two kinds of remediation technologies including Infrared High Temperature Incineration(IHTI) and Base Catalyzed Decomposition(BCD). → Combined midpoint/damage approaches were calculated for two technologies. → The results showed that major environmental impacts arose from energy consumption. → BCD has a lower environmental impact than IHTI in the view of single score. - Abstract: Remediation action is critical for the management of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sites. Dozens of remediation technologies developed internationally could be divided in two general categories incineration and non-incineration. In this paper, life cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out to study the environmental impacts of these two kinds of remediation technologies in selected PCB contaminated sites, where Infrared High Temperature Incineration (IHTI) and Base Catalyzed Decomposition (BCD) were selected as representatives of incineration and non-incineration. A combined midpoint/damage approach was adopted by using SimaPro 7.2 and IMPACTA2002+ to assess the human toxicity, ecotoxicity, climate change impact, and resource consumption from the five subsystems of IHTI and BCD technologies, respectively. It was found that the major environmental impacts through the whole lifecycle arose from energy consumption in both IHTI and BCD processes. For IHTI, primary and secondary combustion subsystem contributes more than 50% of midpoint impacts concerning with carcinogens, respiratory inorganics, respiratory organics, terrestrial ecotoxity, terrestrial acidification/eutrophication and global warming. In BCD process, the rotary kiln reactor subsystem presents the highest contribution to almost all the midpoint impacts including global warming, non-renewable energy, non-carcinogens, terrestrial ecotoxity and respiratory inorganics. In the view of midpoint impacts, the characterization values for global warming from IHTI and

  11. Effect of Remediation Parameters on in-Air Ambient Dose Equivalent Rates When Remediating Open Sites with Radiocesium-contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malins, Alex; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Akihiro; Machida, Masahiko

    2016-10-01

    Calculations are reported for ambient dose equivalent rates [H˙*(10)] at 1 m height above the ground surface before and after remediating radiocesium-contaminated soil at wide and open sites. The results establish how the change in H˙*(10) upon remediation depends on the initial depth distribution of radiocesium within the ground, on the size of the remediated area, and on the mass per unit area of remediated soil. The remediation strategies considered were topsoil removal (with and without recovering with a clean soil layer), interchanging a topsoil layer with a subsoil layer, and in situ mixing of the topsoil. The results show the ratio of the radiocesium components of H˙*(10) post-remediation relative to their initial values (residual dose factors). It is possible to use the residual dose factors to gauge absolute changes in H˙*(10) upon remediation. The dependency of the residual dose factors on the number of years elapsed after fallout deposition is analyzed when remediation parameters remain fixed and radiocesium undergoes typical downward migration within the soil column.

  12. Integration of biotechnology in remediation and pollution prevention activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong-Gunderson, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement/North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation provides a mechanism for an international collaboration between the US, Canada, and Mexico to jointly develop, modify, or refine technologies that remediate or protect the environment. These countries have a vested interest in this type of collaboration because contaminants do not respect the boundaries of a manufacturing site, region, city, state, or country. The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) consists of a diverse group of individuals who address a variety of environmental issues. ESD is involved in basic and applied research on the fate, transport, and remediation of contaminants; environmental assessment; environmental engineering; and demonstrations of advanced remediation technologies. The remediation and protection of the environment includes water, air, and soils for organic, inorganic, and radioactive contaminants. In addition to remediating contaminated sites, research also focuses on life-cycle analyses of industrial processes and the production of green technologies. The author focuses this discussion on subsurface remediation and pollution prevention; however, the research activities encompass water, soil and air and many of the technologies are applicable to all environments. The discussion focuses on the integration of biotechnology with remediation activities and subsequently linking these biological processes to other remediation technologies

  13. Technology implementation and cleanup progress at Savannah River site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papouchado, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    The integrated high level waste treatment system at Savannah River has started up and the process of converting 34 million gallons of liquid waste to glass and saltstone is in its initial phase. New waste disposal vaults and startup of several other facilities such as the Consolidated Incinerator Facility and a mixed waste vitrification facility will help completion of the integrated system to treat and dispose of SRS wastes. Technology was utilized from industry, other laboratories, or was developed at the Savannah River Technology Center if it was not available. Many SRTC developments involved academia and other labs. SRS also has over 400 waste sites (400 acres) in its characterization/remediation program. To date over 90 acres were remediated (23 percent) and by 1997 we plan to remediate 175 acres or 44 percent. Thirteen groundwater facility treatment sites will be in operation by 1997. SRS has provided and continues to provide unique test platforms for testing innovative remediation, characterization and monitoring technologies. We are currently testing DNAPL characterization and remediation and an in-situ Inorganic remediation technique for ground water

  14. Proceedings of the environmental technology through industry partnership conference. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothari, V.P.

    1995-10-01

    The overall objective of this conference was to review the latest environmental and waste management technologies being developed under the sponsorship of METC. The focus of this conference was also to address the accomplishments and barriers affecting private sector, and lay the groundwork for future technology development initiatives and opportunities. 26 presentations were presented in: Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; Contaminant plume containment and remediation; and Decontamination and decommissioning. In addition there were 10 Focus Area presentations, 31 Poster papers covering all Focus Areas, and two panel discussions on: Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal issues; and the application, evaluation, and acceptance of in-situ and ex-situ plume remediation technologies. Volume 1 contains the keynote address, 15 poster papers, 5 papers on mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal, and 13 papers on decontamination and decommissioning. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  15. Proceedings of the environmental technology through industry partnership conference. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kothari, V.P.

    1995-10-01

    The overall objective of this conference was to review the latest environmental and waste management technologies being developed under the sponsorship of METC. The focus of this conference was also to address the accomplishments and barriers affecting private sector, and lay the groundwork for future technology development initiatives and opportunities. 26 presentations were presented in: Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; Contaminant plume containment and remediation; and Decontamination and decommissioning. In addition there were 10 Focus Area presentations, 31 Poster papers covering all Focus Areas, and two panel discussions on: Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal issues; and the application, evaluation, and acceptance of in-situ and ex-situ plume remediation technologies. Volume 1 contains the keynote address, 15 poster papers, 5 papers on mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal, and 13 papers on decontamination and decommissioning. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. Sorption of colloids, organics, and metals onto gas-water interfaces: Transport mechanisms and potential remediation technology. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, T.K.; Wan, J.

    1998-01-01

    'Although contaminant sorption at mineral surfaces has received much recognition as a major mechanism controlling contaminant behavior in subsurface environments, virtually no attention has been given to the possibility of contaminant sorption at gas-water interfaces. Moreover, no effort has yet been advanced to optimize such interactions for the purpose of facilitating in-situ remediation. Gas-water interfaces, unlike water-solid interfaces, are mobile. Therefore, associations of contaminants with gas-water interfaces can be very important not only in subsurface contaminant distributions, but also in contaminant transport, and potentially in remediation. The first objective of this research is to develop a quantitative understanding of interactions between contaminants and gas-water interfaces. The anticipated results will provide insights into the poorly understood phenomenon of contaminant interactions with the gas-water interface, and improve the current conceptual models of contaminant behavior in subsurface environments. The second purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of using surfactant stabilized microbubbles for in-situ remediation. Both pump-and-treat, and air sparging remediation methods are ineffective at displacing contaminants in zones which are advectively inaccessible. Stable microbubbles can migrate beyond preferential flow pathways and enter lower permeability zones by buoyant rise. The microbubbles can deliver oxygen and nutrients for promoting aerobic degradation of organic contaminants, and also deliver surfactants for emulsifying NAPLs.'

  17. Soil and groundwater remediation using dual-phase extraction technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.W.; Gan, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    A gasoline underground storage tank (UST) was formerly used to fuel vehicles for a hospital in Madison, Wisconsin. Elevated concentrations of gasoline range organics (GRO) were observed in soils and groundwater at the site during the tank removal and a subsequent site investigation. Based on the extent of soil and groundwater contamination, a dual-phase extraction technology was selected as the most cost effective alternative to remediate the site. The dual-phase extraction system includes one extraction well functioning both as a soil vapor extraction (SVE) and groundwater recovery well. After six months of operation, samples collected from the groundwater monitoring wells indicated that the groundwater has been cleaned up to levels below the Wisconsin preventative action limits. The dual-phase extraction system effectively remediated the site in a short period of time, saving both operation and maintenance costs and overall project cost

  18. Field demonstration and transition of SCAPS direct push VOC in-situ sensing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, William M.

    1999-01-01

    This project demonstrated two in-situ volatile organic compound (VOC) samplers in combination with the direct sampling ion trap mass spectrometer (DSITMS). The technologies chosen were the Vadose Sparge and the Membrane Interface Probe (MIP) sensing systems. Tests at two demonstration sites showed the newer VOC technologies capable of providing in situ contaminant measurements at two to four times the rate of the previously demonstrated Hydrosparge sensor. The results of this project provide initial results supporting the utility of these new technologies to provide rapid site characterization of VOC contaminants in the subsurface

  19. Improving Risk Governance of Emerging Technologies through Public Engagement: The Neglected Case of Nano-Remediation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Wickson, Fern; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2012-01-01

    : the use of nanoparticles for environmental remediation (nano-remediation). Through our review and analysis we find that the main approaches to incorporating public engagement into governance strategies have been the generation of a better understanding of public perceptions of NT and the setting...... of general research priorities. In the case of nano-remediation, we find that public engagement efforts have been extremely limited, even though this technology has been used in the field in several countries and highlighted as potentially problematic by others. Finally, we provide recommendations...... for improving the links between public engagement and risk assessment and specifically call for more work on the case of nano-remediation....

  20. In situ remediation of hexavalent chromium with pyrite fines : bench scale demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathum, S.; Wong, W.P.; Brown, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    An in situ remediation technique for chromium contaminated soil with pyrite fines was presented. Past industrial activities and lack of disposal facilities have contributed to a serious problem dealing with chromium, which cannot be eliminated from the environment because it is an element. Both bench-scale and laboratory testing was conducted to confirm the efficiency of the proposed process which successfully converted Cr(VI) into Cr(III) in soil and water. Cr(III) is less toxic and immobile in the environment compared to Cr(VI) which moves freely in the soil matrix, posing a risk to the groundwater quality. pH in the range of 2.0 to 7.6 has no effect on the reactivity of pyrite towards Cr(VI). The optimization of the bench-scale treatment resulted in a large volume of chromium waste, mostly from the control experiments and column hydrology testing. These waste streams were treated according to municipal guidelines before disposal to the environment. Samples of chromium waste before and after treatment were analyzed. Cr (VI) was completely mineralized to below guideline levels. It was determined that several conditions, including contact time between pyrite and Cr(VI), are crucial for complete mineralization of Cr(VI). 13 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs

  1. Tank Waste Remediation System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This document, Volume 1 of the Final Environmental Impact Statement, analyzes the potential environmental consequences related to the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) alternatives for management and disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste, and the management and disposal of approximately 1,930 cesium and strontium capsules located at the Hanford Site. This waste is currently or projected to be stored in 177 underground storage tanks and approximately 60 miscellaneous underground storage tanks. This document analyzes the following alternatives for remediating the tank waste: No Action, Long-Term Management, In Situ Fill and Cap, In Situ Vitrification, Ex Situ Intermediate Separations, Ex Situ No Separations, Ex Situ Extensive Separations, Ex Situ/In Situ Combination 1, and Ex Situ/In Situ Combination 2. This document also addresses a Phased Implementation alternative (the DOE and Ecology preferred alternative for remediation of tank waste). Alternatives analyzed for the cesium and strontium capsules include: No Action, Onsite Disposal, Overpack and Ship, and Vitrify with Tank Waste. The DOE and Ecology preferred alternative for the cesium and strontium capsules is the No Action alternative

  2. Multi-Objective Optimization of the Setup of a Surfactant-Enhanced DNAPL Remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaerlaekens, J.; Carmeliet, J.; Feyen, J.

    2005-01-01

    Surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) is widely considered a promising technique to remediate dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contaminations in-situ. The costs of a SEAR remediation are important and depend mostly on the setup of the remediation. Costs can be associated with the

  3. Alternatieve in situ bodemsaneringstechnieken; literatuuronderzoek bij het project "In Situ Biorestauratie" Asten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheuter AJ; LBG

    1997-01-01

    In developing in situ remediation most of the focus used to be on techniques using infiltration water to supply oxygen to the location. Later, techniques were developed in which soil was flushed with air to enhance the oxygen availability to microorganisms. The aim of the study reported here was to

  4. Using the natural biodegradation potential of shallow soils for in-situ remediation of deep vadose zone and groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avishai, Lior; Siebner, Hagar; Dahan, Ofer, E-mail: odahan@bgu.ac.il; Ronen, Zeev, E-mail: zeevrone@bgu.ac.il

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Integrated in-situ remediation treatment for soil, vadose zone and groundwater. • Turning the topsoil into an efficient bioreactor for perchlorate degradation. • Treating perchlorate leachate from the deep vadose zone in the topsoil. • Zero effluents discharge from the remediation process. - Abstract: In this study, we examined the ability of top soil to degrade perchlorate from infiltrating polluted groundwater under unsaturated conditions. Column experiments designed to simulate typical remediation operation of daily wetting and draining cycles of contaminated water amended with an electron donor. Covering the infiltration area with bentonite ensured anaerobic conditions. The soil remained unsaturated, and redox potential dropped to less than −200 mV. Perchlorate was reduced continuously from ∼1150 mg/L at the inlet to ∼300 mg/L at the outlet in daily cycles. Removal efficiency was between 60 and 84%. No signs of bioclogging were observed during three operation months although occasional iron reduction observed due to excess electron donor. Changes in perchlorate reducing bacteria numbers were inferred from an increased in pcrA gene abundances from ∼10{sup 5} to 10{sup 7} copied per gram at the end of the experiment indicating the growth of perchlorate-reducing bacteria. We proposed that the topsoil may serve as a bioreactor to treat high concentrations of perchlorate from the contaminated groundwater. The treated water that infiltrates from the topsoil through the vadose zone could be used to flush perchlorate from the deep vadose zone into the groundwater where it is retrieved again for treatment in the topsoil.

  5. Using the natural biodegradation potential of shallow soils for in-situ remediation of deep vadose zone and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avishai, Lior; Siebner, Hagar; Dahan, Ofer; Ronen, Zeev

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated in-situ remediation treatment for soil, vadose zone and groundwater. • Turning the topsoil into an efficient bioreactor for perchlorate degradation. • Treating perchlorate leachate from the deep vadose zone in the topsoil. • Zero effluents discharge from the remediation process. - Abstract: In this study, we examined the ability of top soil to degrade perchlorate from infiltrating polluted groundwater under unsaturated conditions. Column experiments designed to simulate typical remediation operation of daily wetting and draining cycles of contaminated water amended with an electron donor. Covering the infiltration area with bentonite ensured anaerobic conditions. The soil remained unsaturated, and redox potential dropped to less than −200 mV. Perchlorate was reduced continuously from ∼1150 mg/L at the inlet to ∼300 mg/L at the outlet in daily cycles. Removal efficiency was between 60 and 84%. No signs of bioclogging were observed during three operation months although occasional iron reduction observed due to excess electron donor. Changes in perchlorate reducing bacteria numbers were inferred from an increased in pcrA gene abundances from ∼10"5 to 10"7 copied per gram at the end of the experiment indicating the growth of perchlorate-reducing bacteria. We proposed that the topsoil may serve as a bioreactor to treat high concentrations of perchlorate from the contaminated groundwater. The treated water that infiltrates from the topsoil through the vadose zone could be used to flush perchlorate from the deep vadose zone into the groundwater where it is retrieved again for treatment in the topsoil.

  6. Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Vortex has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation'' program with the Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conversation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and will not leach to the environment--as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC system design. This topical report will present a summary of the activities conducted during Phase 1 of the ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation'' program. The report includes the detail technical data generated during the experimental program and the design and cost data for the preliminary Phase 2 plant

  7. Assessment of technologies for hazardous waste site remediation: Non-treatment technologies and pilot scale facility implementation -- monitoring technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, H.R.; Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Molnar, D.L.

    1994-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate existing proven technologies for the monitoring of hazardous waste sites during remediation activities and to protect the health and safety of all related entities while complying with government regulations. The study began with a literature search to determine manufacturers and related instrumentation which would be applicable to the most complex (in terms of toxicity and mediums affected) sites. Criteria for monitoring and analyses were established and a functional analysis was performed to select the most appropriate instrumentation available. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry is the most widely accepted method for generating quantitative data given the characterization of the Winfield site. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, while not a new technology, has the distinct advantage of measuring simultaneously hundreds of gaseous pollutants which can also be sparged from water and this technology received the highest score as per the functional analysis. To protect workers and the public surrounding remediation sites which are known to contain VOCs, on site monitoring prior to, and during the excavation operations, is recommended until enough data are obtained to assess the health risks to workers. The conclusion of this study is to recommend evaluation of both the mobile GC/MS and FTIR systems simultaneously in identical operating conditions

  8. In-situ treatment of a mixed hydrocarbon plume through a permeable reactive barrier and enhanced bio-remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglietto, I.; Bretti, L.L.

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater is frequently polluted with mixtures of contaminants that are amenable to different types of remediation. One example is the combination of petroleum hydrocarbons (mostly BTEX) and chlorinated solvents (chlorinated ethenes and propanes), as it occurs in the groundwater beneath the industrial site that is the objective of the present case study. The site is located in Italy near a main river (Arno), which is supposed to be the final recipient of the contamination and where a possible exposure might take place. The aim of the treatment is the plume containment within the site boundaries in order to avoid further migration of the contaminants towards the river. The design of the remediation system was based on an extensive site characterization that included - but was not limited to - the following information: geological and geochemical, microbiological and hydrological data, together with analytical data (i.e. contaminant concentrations). Pilot tests were also implemented in order to collect the necessary parameters for the full-scale treatment design and calibration. The site was contaminated by a mixed plume of more than 30 different contaminants, ranging from BTEX, to MTBE, to PAH, to chlorinated solvents. The concentration peaks were in the order of 1-100 mg/l for each contaminant. Petroleum hydrocarbons are quickly degradable through oxidative mechanisms (especially aerobic biodegradation), whereas fully-chlorinated compounds are only degradable via reductive pathways. A mixed plume of both types of contaminants therefore requires a combined approach with the application of different treatment technologies. The remediation strategy elaborated combines a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) in a funnel and gate configuration for the down-gradient plume containment, with the enhanced bio-remediation of the contaminants for the control of the plume boundaries and for the abatement of the concentration peaks. Pilot tests were carried out in order to assess

  9. A systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, M.T.; Reed, B.E.; Gabr, M.

    1993-07-01

    West Virginia University (WVU) and the US DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) entered into a Cooperative Agreement on August 29, 1992 entitled ''Decontamination Systems Information and Research Programs.'' Stipulated within the Agreement is the requirement that WVU submit to METC a series of Technical Progress Report for Year 1 of the Agreement. This report reflects the progress and/or efforts performed on the following nine technical projects encompassed by the Year 1 Agreement for the period of April 1 through June 30, 1993: Systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; site remediation technologies -- drain-enhanced soil flushing (DESF) for organic contaminants removal; site remediation technologies -- in situ bioremediation of organic contaminants; excavation systems for hazardous waste sites; chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls; development of organic sensors -- monolayer and multilayer self-assembled films for chemical sensors; Winfield lock and dam remediation; Assessments of Technologies for hazardous waste site remediation -- non-treatment technologies and pilot scale test facility implementation; and remediation of hazardous sites with stream reforming

  10. Engineered wetlands for on-site groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, S.; Davis, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Engineered wetlands have been touted as an emerging technology for the in situ remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and water. They incorporate a horizontal subsurface flow gravel bed reactor lined with impermeable liners, and are equipped with forced bed aeration systems that enhance oxygen delivery to the wetland's aerobic micro-organisms. Engineered wetlands generally emphasize specific characteristics of wetland ecosystems to improve treatment capacities. Design parameters include biodegradation rate coefficients, flowrate, hydraulic residence time plus influent and required effluent concentrations. This paper described the installation of an engineered wetland system at a former British Petroleum (BP) refinery in Wyoming where a pipeline terminal generated contact wastewater containing benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and ammonia. The wetland treatment system was designed to treat 6000 m 3 of contaminated ground water per day and has been in operation since May 2003. It was concluded that engineered wetlands can offer long-term solutions to site remediation challenges. 16 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  11. In situ bioremediation for the Hanford carbon tetrachloride plume. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    The 200 Area at Hanford (also called the Central Plateau) contains approximately 817 waste sites, 44 facilities to be demolished, and billions of gallons of contaminated groundwater resulting from chemical processing plants and associated waste facilities (e.g., waste tanks). From 1955 to 1973, carbon tetrachloride, nitrate, and other materials were discharged to subsurface liquid waste disposal facilities in the 200 Area. As much as 600,000 kilograms of carbon tetrachloride may have entered the soil column and a portion of this has contaminated the underlying aquifer. In Situ Bioremediation for the Hanford Carbon Tetrachloride Plume (ISB), which is the term used in this report for an in situ treatment process using indigenous micro-organisms with a computer based Accelerated Bioremediation Design Tool (ABDT), remediates groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrates under anaerobic conditions. ISB involves the injection of nutrients into the groundwater and subsequent extraction and re-injection of the groundwater to provide nutrient distribution in the aquifer

  12. Dominierende Prozesse bei der thermischen In-situ-Sanierung (TISS) kontaminierter Geringleiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiester, Uwe; Bieber, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Contaminants such as chlorinated, aromatic or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (CHC, BTEX, PAH) or mineral oil hydrocarbons (TPH) constitute a prevalent threat to water resources. The significant storage capacity of low permeable soils (aquitards) leads to their long-term contamination. In situ thermal remediation (ISTR) proved to work successfully in treating these soils. Thus, the area of ISTR application grew continuously over the past 10 years. The dominating processes during the remediation can vary considerably, depending on hydrogeological and geological boundary conditions and the contamination itself. This article summarizes the application for in-situ thermal remediation (ISTR) in low permeable soils and aquitards for soil and groundwater treatment. Dominating remediation processes during volatile organic compound (VOC) and residual oil phase recovery are presented. The processes are illustrated by project examples.

  13. Research Plan: Foam Delivery of Remedial Amendments to Deep Vadose Zone for Metals and Radionuclides Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Lirong; Hart, Andrea T.; Szecsody, James E.; Zhang, Z.F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Ankeny, Mark; Hull, Laurence; Oostrom, Martinus; Freshley, Mark D.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2009-01-01

    Research proposals were submitted to the Scientific and Technical Basis for In Situ Treatment of Metals and Radionuclides Technical Working Group under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management Office (specifically, EM-22). After a peer review and selection process, the proposal, 'Foam Delivery of Remedial Amendments to Deep Vadose Zone for Metals and Radionuclides Remediation,' submitted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was selected for support by the program. A research plan was requested for this EM funded project. The overall objective of this project is to develop foam delivery technology for the distribution of remedial amendments to deep vadose zone sediments for in situ immobilization of metal and radionuclide contaminants. The focus of this research in FY 2009 is on the physical aspects of the foam delivery approach. Specific objectives are to (1) study the foam quality (i.e. the gas volume fraction in foam) influence on injection pressure, (2) study the sediment air permeability influence on injection pressure, (3) investigate liquid uptake in sediment and determine whether a water front will be formed during foam delivery, (4) test amendment distance (and mass) delivery by foam from the injection point, (5) study the enhanced sweeping over heterogeneous systems (i.e., low K zones) by foam delivery relative to water-based delivery under vadose zone conditions, and (6) numerically simulate foam delivery processes in the vadose zone. Laboratory scale experiments will be conducted at PNNL to study a range of basic physical aspects of the foam propagation in sediments, including foam quality and sediment permeability influence on injection pressure, liquid uptake, and foam sweeping across heterogeneous systems. This study will be augmented with separate studies to be conducted at MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) to evaluate foam transport and amendment delivery at the intermediate-scale. The results of intermediate

  14. In-situ grouting of uranium-mill-tailings piles: an assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, T.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    Passage in 1978 of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) initiated a program of remedial action for 22 existing mill tailings piles generated in the period 1940 to 1970 as part of the nation's defense and nuclear power programs. The presence of these piles poses potential health and environmental contamination concerns. Possible remedial actions proposed include multilayer covers over the piles to reduce water infiltration, reduce radon gas releases, and reduce airborne transport of tailings fines. In addition, suggested remedial actions include (1) the use of liners to prevent groundwater contamination by leachates from the piles and (2) chemical stabilization of the tailings to retain the radioactive and nonradioactive sources of contamination. Lining of the piles would normally be applicable only to piles that are to be moved from their present location such that the liner could be placed between the tailings and the groundwater. However, by using civil engineering techniques developed for grouting rocks and soils for strength and water control, it may be possible to produce an in situ liner for piles that are not to be relocated. The Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Office requested that ORNL assess the potential application of grouting as a remedial action. This report examines the types of grouts, the equipment available, and the costs, and assesses the possibility of applying grouting technology as a remedial action alternative for uranium mill tailings piles

  15. In-situ grouting of uranium-mill-tailings piles: an assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, T.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    Passage in 1978 of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) initiated a program of remedial action for 22 existing mill tailings piles generated in the period 1940 to 1970 as part of the nation's defense and nuclear power programs. The presence of these piles poses potential health and environmental contamination concerns. Possible remedial actions proposed include multilayer covers over the piles to reduce water infiltration, reduce radon gas releases, and reduce airborne transport of tailings fines. In addition, suggested remedial actions include (1) the use of liners to prevent groundwater contamination by leachates from the piles and (2) chemical stabilization of the tailings to retain the radioactive and nonradioactive sources of contamination. Lining of the piles would normally be applicable only to piles that are to be moved from their present location such that the liner could be placed between the tailings and the groundwater. However, by using civil engineering techniques developed for grouting rocks and soils for strength and water control, it may be possible to produce an in situ liner for piles that are not to be relocated. The Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Office requested that ORNL assess the potential application of grouting as a remedial action. This report examines the types of grouts, the equipment available, and the costs, and assesses the possibility of applying grouting technology as a remedial action alternative for uranium mill tailings piles.

  16. Advances in vacuum extraction technology for effective subsurface remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, M.E.; Pezzullo, J.A.; Piniewski, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    Vacuum extraction technology has become one of the most widely acclaimed methods for remediating soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds. Removal of the source of contamination in the soil is often the first step in effective control of groundwater contamination. Though originally thought effective only for removal of light-end hydrocarbons from permeable vadose-zone soils, vacuum extraction can now be adapted to address situations of low-permeable soils, heavier-end hydrocarbons and groundwater contamination. This paper reviews four innovative modifications to the vacuum extraction process and how they solve a wide variety of subsurface contamination problems. The modifications, or processes, reviewed include: vacuum-extraction-enhanced bioremediation, groundwater sparging, pneumatic soil fracturing, and soil heating

  17. Colloid remediation in groundwater by polyelectrolyte capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuttall, H.E.; Rao, S.; Jain, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing study to characterize groundwater colloids, to understand the geochemical factors affecting colloid transport in groundwater, and to develop an in-situ colloid remediation process. The colloids and suspended particulate matter used in this study were collected from a perched aquifer site that has radiation levels several hundred times the natural background and where previous researchers have measured and reported the presence of radiocolloids containing plutonium and americium. At this site, radionuclides have spread over several kilometers. Inorganic colloids collected from water samples are characterized with respect to concentration, mineralogy, size distribution, electrophoretic mobility (zeta potential), and radioactivity levels. Presented are the methods used to investigate the physiochemical factors affecting colloid transport and the preliminary analytical results. Included below are a description of a colloid transport model and the corresponding computational code, water analyses, characterization of the inorganic colloids, and a conceptual description of a process for in-situ colloid remediation using the phenomenon of polyelectrolyte capture

  18. Estimating air emissions from a remediation of a petroleum sump using direct measurement and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    A technical approach was developed for the remediation of a petroleum sump near a residential neighborhood. The approach evolved around sludge handling/in-situ solidification and on-site disposal. As part of the development of the engineering approach, a field investigation and modeling program was conducted to predict air emissions from the proposed remediation. Field measurements using the EPA recommended surface isolation flux chamber were conducted to represent each major activity or air exposure involving waste at the site. Air emissions from freshly disturbed petroleum waste, along with engineering estimates were used to predict emissions from each phase of the engineering approach. This paper presents the remedial approach and the measurement/modeling technologies used to predict air toxic emissions from the remediation. Emphasis will be placed on the measurement approaches used in obtaining the emission rate data and the assumptions used in the modeling to estimate emissions from engineering scenarios

  19. Application of ozone micro-nano-bubbles to groundwater remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liming; Xia, Zhiran

    2018-01-15

    Ozone is widely used for water treatment because of its strong oxidation ability. However, the efficiency of ozone in groundwater remediation is limited because of its relatively low solubility and rapid decomposition in the aqueous phase. Methods for increasing the stability of ozone within the subsurface are drawing increasing attention. Micro-nano-bubbles (MNBs), with diameters ranging from tens of nanometres to tens of micrometres, present rapid mass transfer rates, persist for a relatively long time in water, and transport with groundwater flow, which significantly improve gas concentration and provide a continuous gas supply. Therefore, MNBs show a considerable potential for application in groundwater remediation. In this study, the characteristics of ozone MNBs were examined, including their size distribution, bubble quantity, and zeta potential. The mass transfer rate of ozone MNBs was experimentally investigated. Ozone MNBs were then used to treat organics-contaminated water, and they showed remarkable cleanup efficiency. Column tests were also conducted to study the efficiency of ozone MNBs for organics-contaminated groundwater remediation. Based on the laboratory tests, field monitoring was conducted on a trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated site. The results showed that ozone MNBs can greatly improve remediation efficiency and represent an innovative technology for in situ remediation of organics-contaminated groundwater. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. MGP site remediation: Working toward presumptive remedies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    Manufactured Gas Plants (MGPs) were prevalent in the United States during the 19th and first half of the 20th centuries. MGPs produced large quantities of waste by-products, which varied depending on the process used to manufacture the gas, but most commonly were tars and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. There are an estimated 3,000 to 5,000 abandoned MGP sites across the United States. Because these sites are not concentrated in one geographic location and at least three different manufacturing processes were used, the waste characteristics are very heterogeneous. The question of site remediation becomes how to implement a cost-effective remediation with the variety of cleanup technologies available for these sites. Because of the significant expenditure required for characterization and cleanup of MGP sites, owners and regulatory agencies are beginning to look at standardizing cleanup technologies for these sites. This paper discusses applicable cleanup technologies and the attitude of state regulatory agencies towards the use of presumptive remedies, which can reduce the amount of characterization and detailed analysis necessary for any particular site. Additionally, this paper outlines the process of screening and evaluating candidate technologies, and the progress being made to match the technology to the site

  1. Degradation of Nitrobenzene Using Bio-Reduced Fe-Clays: Progress Towards the Development of an in-situ Groundwater Remediation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. L.; Fialips, C. I.

    2008-12-01

    Clay minerals are widely used in agricultural, industrial and environmental engineering applications due to their specific physical and chemical properties and their high abundance in soils in sediments. Currently however, Fe-bearing clays are not widely exploited in these applied fields. Fe-rich smectites, such as nontronite, can contain up to 20wt% of Fe2O3 as structural Fe(III) and if a suitable electron donor is available, this Fe(III) can be utilized by Fe-reducing bacteria as a terminal electron acceptor. When reduced, the overall reactivity of Fe-smectites changes, particularly where interactions with water and various organic compounds are involved. For instance, the presence of reduced Fe-smectites has been found to induce the degradation of certain organic contaminants found in groundwaters and the subsurface, e.g. chlorinated aliphatics and nitroaromatic compounds. The goal of this study is to develop an in-situ groundwater remediation technology that targets redox- sensitive organics, in the form of a permeable Bio Fe-clay barrier. To achieve this, the iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella algae BrY was first used to reduce structural FeIII in <2micron fractions of the Fe- rich smectite nontronite (NAu-2, 41.74wt% Fe2O3) and a Fe-bearing montmorrillonite (Speeton Clay, Yorkshire, UK, ~8wt% Fe2O3). S. algae BrY was able to reduce structural FeIII within these clays to maximum Fe(II)/Fe(II)+Fe(III) ratios 0.34 and 0.19 for the nontronite and Speeton Clay, respectively, in the presence and absence of the electron shuttle, AQDS (9, 10-anthraquinone-2, 6-disulfonic acid). These results are novel because the capability of S. algae BrY to reduce structural Fe(III) in smectite clays has not previously been tested. Nitrobenzene was selected as the test redox-sensitive organic compound as it is a common subsurface contaminant and is of global ecotoxicological concern. To test the capability of bio- reduced Fe-clays to transform nitrobenzene to aniline (the less

  2. TANK FARM REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT AN EXERCISE IN TECHNICAL & REGULATORY COLLABORATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JARAYSI, M.N.

    2007-01-08

    The Tank Farm Remediation Technology Development Project at the Hanford Site focuses on waste storage tanks, pipelines and associated ancillary equipment that are part of the C-200 single-shell tank (SST) farm system located in the C Tank Farm. The purpose of the project is to obtain information on the implementation of a variety of closure activities and to answer questions on technical, operational and regulatory issues associated with closure.

  3. [Recent advance in solidification/stabilization technology for the remediation of heavy metals-contaminated soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Han-zhou; Chen, Tong-bin; Jin, Meng-gui; Lei, Mei; Liu, Cheng-wu; Zu, Wen-pu; Huang, Li-mi

    2011-03-01

    Remediation of heavy metals-contaminated soil is still a difficulty and a hotspot of international research projects. At present, the technologies commonly adopted for the remediation of contaminated sites mainly include excavation, solidification/stabilization (S/S), soil washing, soil vapor extraction (SVE), thermal treatment, and bioremediation. Based on the S/S technical guidelines of Unite State Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and United Kingdom Environment Agency (EA) and the domestic and foreign patents, this paper introduced the concepts of S/S and its development status at home and abroad, and discussed its future development directions. Solidification refers to a process that binds contaminated media with a reagent, changing the media's physical properties via increasing its compressive strength, decreasing its permeability, and encapsulating the contaminants to form a solid material. Stabilization refers to the process that involves a chemical reaction which reduces the leachability of a waste, chemically immobilizes the waste and reduces its solubility, making the waste become less harmful or less mobile. S/S technology includes cement solidification, lime pozzolanic solidification, plastic materials stabilization, vitrification, and regent-based stabilization. Stabilization (or immobilization) treatment processes convert contaminants to less mobile forms through chemical or thermal interactions. In stabilization technology, the aim of adding agents is to change the soil physical and chemical properties through pH control technology, redox potential technology, precipitation techniques, adsorption technology, and ion-exchange technology that change the existing forms of heavy metals in soil, and thus, reduce the heavy metals bioavailability and mobility. This review also discussed the S/S evaluation methods, highlighted the need to enhance S/S technology in the molecular bonding, soil polymers, and formulation of China's S/S technical guidelines.

  4. Engineering feasibility analysis for in-situ stabilization of Canonsburg residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is considering several methods for carrying out remedial actions in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, at the site of an inactive uranium-processing mill. The main objective of this study is to determine the feasibility of in-situ stabilization as the remedial action. In-situ stabilization is an alternative to site decontamination and offsite disposal. The problems associated with offsite hauling of large quantities of contaminated material and with the location and development of a new disposal site could be avoided by the implementation of an in-situ stabilization concept. In addition, the in-situ approach would be more cost-effective than offsite disposal. This study will establish that a technically feasible and implementable in-situ stabilization concept can be developed that meets regulatory requirements and is cost effective. This study in no way commits the DOE to implement any specific actions described herein. 11 refs., 30 figs., 24 tabs

  5. Remediation in Situ of Hydrocarbons by Combined Treatment in a Contaminated Alluvial Soil due to an Accidental Spill of LNAPL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Trulli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil contamination represents an environmental issue which has become extremely important in the last decades due to the diffusion of industrial activities. Accidents during transport of dangerous materials and fuels may cause severe pollution. The present paper describes the criteria of the actions which were operated to remediate the potential risk and observed negative effects on groundwater and soil originating from an accidental spill of diesel fuel from a tank truck. With the aim to evaluate the quality of the involved environmental matrices in the “emergency” phase, in the following “safety” operation and during the remediation action, a specific survey on hydrocarbons, light and heavy, was carried out in the sand deposits soil. Elaboration of collected data allows us to observe the movement of pollutants in the unsaturated soil. The remediation action was finalized to improve the groundwater and soil quality. The former was treated by a so called “pump and treat” system coupled with air sparging. A train of three different technologies was applied to the unsaturated soil in a sequential process: soil vapour extraction, bioventing and enhanced bioremediation. Results showed that the application of sequential remediation treatments allowed us to obtain a state of quality in unsaturated soil and groundwater as required by Italian law.

  6. Green PCB Remediation from Sediment Systems (GPRSS) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falker, John; Thompson, Karen; Zeitlin, Nancy; Quinn, Jacqueline; Parrish, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    An ongoing problem facing the global environment community including NASA centers is the removal and remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). PCBs were commonly used in a variety of materials including paints, caulking, and adhesives due to the advantageous physical and chemical properties that PCBs imparted to these various materials. Unfortunately, these properties have made the treatment of sites contaminated with these chemicals extremely difficult to deal with, due to their inherent chemical stability. The remediation of sediments contaminated with PCBs is especially difficult, primarily due to the risk of releasing the contaminant into the environment during the treatment process. Traditional treatment options involve the use of dredging and incineration of the contaminated soils/sediments, in which the chance of releasing the contaminants is greatly increased. The purpose of this project is to develop cleanup technology capable of remediating contaminated sediments in-situ, with minimum intrusion. This allows for the minimization of any potential contaminant release during the treatment process, providing a safer method for cleanup operations (as opposed to dredging/incineration) and still treating the basic problem of PCB contamination (as opposed to capping).

  7. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 8 Air-Based Remediation Technology Selection Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursuant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites," the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Forced Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Environ...

  8. A review on in situ phytoremediation of mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Ji, Bin; Hu, Yuehua; Liu, Runqing; Sun, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Mine tailings are detrimental to natural plant growth due to their physicochemical characteristics, such as high pH, high salinity, low water retention capacity, high heavy metal concentrations, and deficiencies in soil organic matter and fertility. Thus, the remediation of mine tailings has become a key issue in environmental science and engineering. Phytoremediation, an in situ cost-effective technology, is emerging as the most promising remediation method for mine tailings by introducing tolerant plant species. It is particularly effective in dealing with large-area mine tailings with shallow contamination of organic, nutrient and metal pollutants. In this review, the background, concepts and applications of phytoremediation are comprehensively discussed. Furthermore, proper amendments used to improve the physical, chemical and biological properties of mine tailings are systematically reviewed and compared. Emphasis is placed on the types and characteristics of tolerant plants and their role in phytoremediation. Moreover, the role of microorganisms and their mechanism in phytoremediation are also discussed in-depth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. DOE underground storage tank waste remediation chemical processing hazards. Part I: Technology dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMuth, S.F.

    1996-10-01

    This document has been prepared to aid in the development of Regulating guidelines for the Privatization of Hanford underground storage tank waste remediation. The document has been prepared it two parts to facilitate their preparation. Part II is the primary focus of this effort in that it describes the technical basis for established and potential chemical processing hazards associated with Underground Storage Tank (UST) nuclear waste remediation across the DOE complex. The established hazards involve those at Sites for which Safety Analysis Reviews (SARs) have already been prepared. Potential hazards are those involving technologies currently being developed for future applications. Part I of this document outlines the scope of Part II by briefly describing the established and potential technologies. In addition to providing the scope, Part I can be used as a technical introduction and bibliography for Regulatory personnel new to the UST waste remediation, and in particular Privatization effort. Part II of this document is not intended to provide examples of a SAR Hazards Analysis, but rather provide an intelligence gathering source for Regulatory personnel who must eventually evaluate the Privatization SAR Hazards Analysis

  10. Resolution of regulatory issues facing the DOE in situ vitrification program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corathers, L.A.

    1992-03-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is being developed by researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as a technology for remediating soils, underground storage tank residuals, and buried materials that have been contaminated with hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes (i.e., wastes containing both radioactive and hazardous wastes) at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The goal of the DOE ISV technology development program (i.e., the ISV Integrated Program) is to ensure that ISV is a workable technology for environmental restoration applications for DOE and other agencies. A DOE complex-wide plan was prepared during Fiscal Year 1991 to coordinate all levels of activities associated with the deployment of ISV. As part of this plan, a programmatic regulatory strategy was developed which focused on the federal environmental, health, safety, and nuclear regulations, including the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and DOE regulations, believed to have the most significant near-term impact on the use of ISV as a remediation technology. The portion of the programmatic regulatory strategy addressing compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, as amended, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as amended, is presented in this paper

  11. Genealogy Remediated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi

    2007-01-01

    Genealogical websites are becoming an increasingly popular genre on the Web. This chapter will examine how remediation is used creatively in the construction of family history. While remediation of different kinds of old memory materials is essential in genealogy, digital technology opens new...... possibilities. Genealogists use their private websites to negotiate family identity and hereby create a sense of belonging in an increasingly complex society. Digital technologies enhance the possibilities of coorporation between genealogists. Therefore, the websites are also used to present archival...

  12. The Reconstituited Soils: The Technology and Its Possible Implementation in the Remediation of Contaminated Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Adriano Manfredi

    2016-01-01

    Reconstitution technology is a pedotechnique whose action supplements soil structure with organic and mineral components that are quality and origin certified. The treatment procedure performs a mechanical action which forms an organic matter lining within the mineral fraction by means of soil structure disintegration and subsequent reconstitution. Results produced by the technology in the field of agronomy suggest that such method may be employed to remediate contaminated soil by altering it...

  13. Uranium resource technology, Seminar 3, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    This conference proceedings contains 20 papers and 1 panel discussion on uranium mining and ore treatment, taking into account the environmental issues surrounding uranium supply. Topics discussed include: the US uranium resource base, the technology and economics of uranium recovery from phosphate resources, trends in preleash materials handling of sandstone uranium ores, groundwater restoration after in-situ uranium leaching, mitigation of the environmental impacts of open pit and underground uranium mining, remedial actions at inactive uranium mill tailings sites, environmental laws governing in-situ solution mining of uranium, and the economics of in-situ solution mining. 16 papers are indexed separately

  14. Comparison of the environmental impacts of two remediation technologies used at hydrocarbon contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viikala, R.; Kuusola, J.

    2000-01-01

    Investigation and remediation of contaminated sites has rapidly increased in Finland during the last decade. Public organisations as well as private companies are investigating and remediating their properties, e.g. redevelopment or business transactions. Also numerous active and closed gasoline stations have been investigated and remediated during the last few years. Usually the contaminated sites are remediated to limit values regardless of the risk caused by contamination. The limit values currently used in Finland for hydrocarbon remediation at residential or ground water areas are 300 mg/kg of total hydrocarbons and 100 mg/kg of volatile hydrocarbons (boiling point < appr. 200 deg C). Additionally, compounds such as aromatic hydrocarbons have specific limit values. Remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites is most often carried out by excavating the contaminated soil and taking it to a landfill by lorries. As distances from the sites to landfills are generally rather long, from tens of kilometres to few hundred kilometres, it is evident that this type of remediation has environmental impacts. Another popular technology used at sites contaminated by volatile hydrocarbons is soil vapour extraction (SVE). SVE is a technique of inducing air flow through unsaturated soils by vapour extraction wells or pipes to remove organic contaminants with an off-gas treatment system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate some of the environmental impacts caused by remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Energy consumption and air emissions related remedial activities of the two methods were examined in this study. Remediation of the sites used in this study were carried out by Golder Associates Oy in different parts of Finland in different seasons. Evaluation was made by using life cycle assessment based approach

  15. Development of the integrated in situ Lasagna process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, S.; Athmer, C.; Sheridan, P.

    1995-01-01

    Contamination in deep, low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in uniform delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ methods such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, and pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites

  16. AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH FOR CONSTRUCTING AN IN-SITU BARRIER FOR STRONTIUM-90 AT THE HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FABRE RJ

    2008-12-08

    Efforts to reduce the flux of Sr-90 to the Columbia River from Hanford Site 100-N Area past-practice liquid waste disposal sites have been underway since the early 1990s. Termination of all liquid discharges to the ground in 1993 was a major step toward meeting this goal. However, Sr-90 adsorbed on aquifer solids beneath liquid waste disposal sites and extending beneath the near-shore riverbed remains a continuing contaminant source to groundwater and the Columbia River. The initial pump-and-treat system proved to be ineffective as a long-term solution because of the geochemical characteristics of Sr-90. Following an evaluation of potential Sr-90 treatment technologies and their applicability under 100-NR-2 Operable Unit hydrogeologic conditions, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed to evaluate apatite sequestration as the primary remedial technology, combined with a secondary polishing step utilizing phytoextraction if necessary. Aqueous injection was initiated in July 2005 to assess the efficacy of in-situ apatite along the 100 m of shoreline where Sr-90 concentrations are highest. The remedial technology is being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company is implementing this technology in the field with support from PNNL.

  17. Thermal Treatment of Hydrocarbon-Impacted Soils: A Review of Technology Innovation for Sustainable Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia E. Vidonish

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment technologies hold an important niche in the remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and sediments due to their ability to quickly and reliably meet cleanup standards. However, sustained high temperature can be energy intensive and can damage soil properties. Despite the broad applicability and prevalence of thermal remediation, little work has been done to improve the environmental compatibility and sustainability of these technologies. We review several common thermal treatment technologies for hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, assess their potential environmental impacts, and propose frameworks for sustainable and low-impact deployment based on a holistic consideration of energy and water requirements, ecosystem ecology, and soil science. There is no universally appropriate thermal treatment technology. Rather, the appropriate choice depends on the contamination scenario (including the type of hydrocarbons present and on site-specific considerations such as soil properties, water availability, and the heat sensitivity of contaminated soils. Overall, the convergence of treatment process engineering with soil science, ecosystem ecology, and plant biology research is essential to fill critical knowledge gaps and improve both the removal efficiency and sustainability of thermal technologies.

  18. Combined in-situ and ex-situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils by closed-loop soil vapor extraction and air injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.S.; Buckler, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Treatment and restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils at a bulk petroleum above-ground storage tank (AST) site in Michigan is being conducted through in-situ and ex-situ closed-loop soil vapor extraction (SVE), soil vapor treatment, and treated air injection (AI) processes. The soil vapor extraction process applies a vacuum through the petroleum hydrocarbon affected soils in the ex-situ bio-remediation pile (bio-pile) and along the perimeter of excavated area (in-situ area) to remove the volatile or light petroleum hydrocarbons. This process also draws ambient air into the ex-situ bio-pile and in-situ vadose zone soil along the perimeter of excavated area to enhance biodegradation of light and heavy petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil. The extracted soil vapor is treated using a custom-designed air bio-remediation filter (bio-filter) to degrade the petroleum hydrocarbon compounds in the soil vapor extraction air streams. The treated air is then injected into a flush grade soil bed in the backfill area to perform final polishing of the air stream, and to form a closed-loop air flow with the soil vapor extraction perforated pipes along the perimeter of the excavated area

  19. Novel treatment technologies for PFAS compounds: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharzyk, Katarzyna H; Darlington, Ramona; Benotti, Mark; Deeb, Rula; Hawley, Elisabeth

    2017-12-15

    Perfluorinated compounds such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have recently drawn great attention due to their wide distribution in aquatic environments. The understanding of the physicochemical properties and fate and transport of PFAs in groundwater is still limited. Preliminary studies indicate that these compounds can readily bioaccumulate and pose human and animal health concerns. Due to their physicochemical properties, PFOS and PFOA are water soluble, nonvolatile and persistent in the environment, which is a cause of concern related to their treatment with conventional remediation technologies. Extraction with inefficient carbon adsorption is one of the most common treatment technologies for remediation of PFOS- or PFOA-impacted groundwater. Several other innovative and promising technologies, including sonochemistry, bioremediation and photolysis, have been tested for their effectiveness in removal of perfluorinated compounds. This paper provides a baseline for understanding research needs to better develop treatment technologies for PFOA and PFOS in groundwater. Frontiers for improving the state of practice for PFOA and PFOS treatment include the development of more cost-effective ex situ treatment methods and the development and demonstration of promising in situ treatment technologies at the pilot and full scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. In situ groundwater bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-02-01

    In situ groundwater bioremediation of hydrocarbons has been used for more than 40 years. Most strategies involve biostimulation; however, recently bioaugmentation have been used for dehalorespiration. Aquifer and contaminant profiles are critical to determining the feasibility and strategy for in situ groundwater bioremediation. Hydraulic conductivity and redox conditions, including concentrations of terminal electron acceptors are critical to determine the feasibility and strategy for potential bioremediation applications. Conceptual models followed by characterization and subsequent numerical models are critical for efficient and cost effective bioremediation. Critical research needs in this area include better modeling and integration of remediation strategies with natural attenuation.

  1. High-level waste tank remediation technology integration summary. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLannoy, C.R.; Susiene, C.; Fowler, K.M.; Robson, W.M.; Cruse, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Restoration and Waste Management and Technology Development Programs are engaged in a number of projects to develop, demonstrate, test, and evaluate new technologies to support the cleanup and site remediation of more than 300 underground storage tanks containing over 381,000 m 3 (100 million gal) of liquid radioactive mixed waste at the Hanford Reservation. Significant development is needed within primary functions and in determining an overall bounding strategy. This document is an update of continuing work to summarize the overall strategy and to provide data regarding technology development activities within the strategy. It is intended to serve as an information resource to support understanding, decision making, and integration of multiple program technology development activities. Recipients are encouraged to provide comments and input to the authors for incorporation in future revisions

  2. Perspectives on innovative characterization and remediation technologies for contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalick, W.W. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Contaminated soil and groundwater have been the subject of legislative attention in the U.S. for about 20 years. Major strides in implementing cleanup programs have been accomplished. From complex abandoned hazardous waste sites to underground petroleum storage tanks to (more recently) Brownfields redevelopment, much assessment and remediation work have been carried out. This paper describes some of the data on the kinds of contamination, media, and technologies deployed to deal with problems at these sites. In addition, it highlights technology partnerships that have evolved to demonstrate and verify site measurement and clean-up technologies and to assure a more robust set of clean-up options. Finally, the advent of the Internet has increased access to a considerable body of publicly available information on the cost and performance of these technologies that might be of interest. (author)

  3. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part B, Dismantlement, Remedial action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1, Technology Evaluation; Vol. 2, Technology Logic Diagram and Vol. 3, Technology EvaLuation Data Sheets. Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the D&D of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TM, an explanation of the problems facing the volume-specific program, a review of identified technologies, and rankings of technologies applicable to the site. Volume 2 (Pts. A. B. and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A. B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. This volume provides the technology evaluation data sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (D&D, RA and WM) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than is given for the technologies in Vol. 2.

  4. Operations Support of Phase 2 Integrated Demonstration In Situ Bioremediation. Volume 1, Final report: Final report text data in tabular form, Disk 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, T.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-09-01

    This project was designed to demonstrate in situ bioremediation of ground water and sediment contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Indigenous microorganisms were stimulated to degrade trichlorethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and their daughter products in situ by addition of nutrients to the contaminated aquifer and adjacent vadose zone. The principle carbon/energy source nutrient used in this demonstration was methane (natural gas). In situ biodegradation is a highly attractive technology for remediation because contaminants are destroyed, not simply moved to another location or immobilized, thus decreasing costs, risks, and time, while increasing efficiency, safety, and public and regulatory acceptability. This report describes the preliminary results of the demonstration and provides conclusions only for those measures that the Bioremediation Technical Support Group felt were so overwhelmingly convincing that they do not require further analyses. Though this report is necessarily superficial it does intend to provide a basis for further evaluating the technology and for practitioners to immediately apply some parts of the technology.

  5. Plant-based remediation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Dharmendra Kumar (ed.) [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Mol (Belgium). Radiological Impact and Performance Assessment Division

    2013-11-01

    A valuable source of information for scientists in the field of environmental pollution and remediation. Describes the latest biotechnological methods for the treatment of contaminated soils. Includes case studies and protocols. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Basic and applied research have unequivocally demonstrated that selected plant species possess the genetic potential to accumulate, degrade, metabolize and immobilize a wide range of contaminants. The main focus of this volume is on the recent advances of technologies using green plants for remediation of various metals and metalloids. Topics include biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution, amendments of higher uptake of toxic metals, transport of heavy metals in plants, and toxicity mechanisms. Further chapters discuss agro-technological methods for minimizing pollution while improving soil quality, transgenic approaches to heavy metal remediation and present protocols for metal remediation via in vitro root cultures.

  6. Mercury Remediation Technology Development for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek - FY 2015 Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Mark J.; Smith, John; Eller, Virginia; DeRolph, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury remediation is a high priority for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (OREM) because of large historical losses of mercury within buildings and to soils and surface waters at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). Because of the extent of mercury losses and the complexities of mercury transport and fate in the downstream environment, the success of conventional options for mercury remediation in lower East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) is uncertain. A phased, adaptive management approach to remediation of surface water includes mercury treatment actions at Y-12 in the short-term and research and technology development (TD) to evaluate longer-term solutions in the downstream environment (US Department of Energy 2014b).

  7. Mercury Remediation Technology Development for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek - FY 2015 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Brooks, Scott C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Mathews, Teresa J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Mayes, Melanie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Johs, Alexander [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Watson, David B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Poteat, Monica D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Mehlhorn, Tonia [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Lester, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Morris, Jesse [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Lowe, Kenneth [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Dickson, Johnbull O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eller, Virginia [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeRolph, Christopher R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division

    2016-04-01

    Mercury remediation is a high priority for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (OREM) because of large historical losses of mercury within buildings and to soils and surface waters at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). Because of the extent of mercury losses and the complexities of mercury transport and fate in the downstream environment, the success of conventional options for mercury remediation in lower East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) is uncertain. A phased, adaptive management approach to remediation of surface water includes mercury treatment actions at Y-12 in the short-term and research and technology development (TD) to evaluate longer-term solutions in the downstream environment (US Department of Energy 2014b).

  8. Technical options for the remediation of contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-06-01

    This report provides a description of the nature and extent of problems related to radioactive groundwater contamination by outlining the environmental impacts, the sources of contamination and the contaminants of concern radionuclides and their associated contaminants - the main exposure pathways and transport processes and the assessment of risks associated with contaminated groundwater. The main emphasis of this report is on methodologies used in groundwater remediation and available technologies. The methodology section outlines the importance of an initial scoping analysis including the evaluation of uncertainties of the available data and the necessity for defining clear objectives for data collection. This is then followed by comprehensive site characterization, setting of goals and developing alternatives which will be analysed in detail. Available technologies are grouped generally into in situ methods aiming at a containment of the contaminants in place and engineered treatment methods involving an alteration of groundwater flow, quantity and/or quality to achieve compliance with set goals. Groundwater remediation by natural flushing allows the natural groundwater movement and geochemical processes to decrease the contaminant concentrations to acceptable levels over a specified period of time. This method is increasingly accepted in areas where the use of groundwater can be temporarily restricted or engineered cleanup methods do not offer particular advantage over the natural processes. The application of technological methods for remediating contaminated groundwaters has to be considered in conjunction with management options such as diversion and development of alternative water sources. The experience with groundwater contamination accrued in IAEA Member States is concentrated in those countries with active uranium mining and milling facilities and nuclear energy programmes. This experience is reported in the Annexes, which include case studies. It

  9. Technical options for the remediation of contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    This report provides a description of the nature and extent of problems related to radioactive groundwater contamination by outlining the environmental impacts, the sources of contamination and the contaminants of concern radionuclides and their associated contaminants - the main exposure pathways and transport processes and the assessment of risks associated with contaminated groundwater. The main emphasis of this report is on methodologies used in groundwater remediation and available technologies. The methodology section outlines the importance of an initial scoping analysis including the evaluation of uncertainties of the available data and the necessity for defining clear objectives for data collection. This is then followed by comprehensive site characterization, setting of goals and developing alternatives which will be analysed in detail. Available technologies are grouped generally into in situ methods aiming at a containment of the contaminants in place and engineered treatment methods involving an alteration of groundwater flow, quantity and/or quality to achieve compliance with set goals. Groundwater remediation by natural flushing allows the natural groundwater movement and geochemical processes to decrease the contaminant concentrations to acceptable levels over a specified period of time. This method is increasingly accepted in areas where the use of groundwater can be temporarily restricted or engineered cleanup methods do not offer particular advantage over the natural processes. The application of technological methods for remediating contaminated groundwaters has to be considered in conjunction with management options such as diversion and development of alternative water sources. The experience with groundwater contamination accrued in IAEA Member States is concentrated in those countries with active uranium mining and milling facilities and nuclear energy programmes. This experience is reported in the Annexes, which include case studies. It

  10. Membrane System for the Recovery of Volatile Organic Compounds from Remediation Off-Gases. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Membrane Technology and Research, Inc.'s (MTR's) membrane-based off-gas treatment technology separates the organic components from the off-gas stream, producing a VOC-free air stream that can be discharged or recycled to the gas-generating process. The membrane system produces a constant, high-quality air discharge stream irrespective of the feed-air composition. The system also produces a concentrated liquid VOC stream for disposal. Any water vapor present in the off-gas is removed as condensed dischargeable water. Benefits: Applicable to a broad range of off-gas generating sources. Target streams are off-gas from soil remediation by in situ vacuum extraction or air and steam sparging, and soil vitrification Suitable for remote sites: systems require minimal site preparation, little operator attention once installed, electrical power but no other utilities, and no expendable chemicals Minimizes waste volume: dischargeable air and water are produced, and VOCs removed from the feed gas ar e concentrated into a condensed liquid. No other waste streams result Treats off-gases containing both flammable and nonflammable and chlorinated and nonchlorinated VOCs Cost competitive with other technologies in the VOC concentration range 100-1,000 ppm and offers significant cost reduction at higher VOC concentrations Systems are easily moved and transported to new sites with a minimum of refurbishing or modification Generates no air emissions, minimizing permitting issues and speeding up the start of a clean-up operation Technology: Removal of VOCs from air streams with membranes is a relatively new technology

  11. Environmental life-cycle comparisons of two polychlorinated biphenyl remediation technologies: incineration and base catalyzed decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xintao; Zhu, Jianxin; Ding, Qiong

    2011-07-15

    Remediation action is critical for the management of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sites. Dozens of remediation technologies developed internationally could be divided in two general categories incineration and non-incineration. In this paper, life cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out to study the environmental impacts of these two kinds of remediation technologies in selected PCB contaminated sites, where Infrared High Temperature Incineration (IHTI) and Base Catalyzed Decomposition (BCD) were selected as representatives of incineration and non-incineration. A combined midpoint/damage approach was adopted by using SimaPro 7.2 and IMPACTA2002+ to assess the human toxicity, ecotoxicity, climate change impact, and resource consumption from the five subsystems of IHTI and BCD technologies, respectively. It was found that the major environmental impacts through the whole lifecycle arose from energy consumption in both IHTI and BCD processes. For IHTI, primary and secondary combustion subsystem contributes more than 50% of midpoint impacts concerning with carcinogens, respiratory inorganics, respiratory organics, terrestrial ecotoxity, terrestrial acidification/eutrophication and global warming. In BCD process, the rotary kiln reactor subsystem presents the highest contribution to almost all the midpoint impacts including global warming, non-renewable energy, non-carcinogens, terrestrial ecotoxity and respiratory inorganics. In the view of midpoint impacts, the characterization values for global warming from IHTI and BCD were about 432.35 and 38.5 kg CO(2)-eq per ton PCB-containing soils, respectively. LCA results showed that the single score of BCD environmental impact was 1468.97 Pt while IHTI's score is 2785.15 Pt, which indicates BCD potentially has a lower environmental impact than IHTI technology in the PCB contaminated soil remediation process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Biofuel or excavation? - Life cycle assessment (LCA) of soil remediation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suer, Pascal; Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne [Swedish Geotechnical Institute, 58193 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2011-02-15

    The environmental consequences of soil remediation through biofuel or through dig-and-dump were compared using life cycle assessment (LCA). Willow (Salix viminalis) was actually grown in-situ on a discontinued oil depot, as a phytoremediation treatment. These data were used for the biofuel remediation, while excavation-and-refill data were estimated from experience. The biofuel remediation had great environmental advantages compared to the ex situ excavation remediation. With the ReCiPe impact assessment method, which included biodiversity, the net environmental effect was even positive, in spite of the fact that the wood harvest was not utilised for biofuel production, but left on the contaminated site. Impact from the Salix viminalis cultivation was mainly through land use for the short rotation coppice, and through journeys of control personnel. The latter may be reduced when familiarity with biofuel as a soil treatment method increases. The excavation-and-refill remediation was dominated by the landfill and the transport of contaminated soil and backfill. (author)

  13. In situ vitrification of buried waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shade, J.W.; Thompson, L.E.; Kindle, C.H.

    1991-04-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a remedial technology initially developed to treat soils contaminated with a variety of organics, heavy metals, and/or radioactive materials. Recent tests have indicated the feasibility of applying the process to buried wastes including containers, combustibles, and buried metals. In addition, ISV is being considered for application to the emplacement of barriers and to the vitrification of underground tanks. This report provides a review of some of the recent experiences of applying ISV in engineering-scale and pilot-scale tests to wastes containing organics, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic metals buried in sealed containers, and buried ferrous metals, with emphasis on the characteristics of the vitrified product and adjacent soil. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  14. TANK FARM REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT AN EXERCISE IN TECHNICAL and REGULATORY COLLABORATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JARAYSI, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    The Tank Farm Remediation Technology Development Project at the Hanford Site focuses on waste storage tanks, pipelines and associated ancillary equipment that are part of the C-200 single-shell tank (SST) farm system located in the C Tank Farm. The purpose of the project is to obtain information on the implementation of a variety of closure activities and to answer questions on technical, operational and regulatory issues associated with closure

  15. Possible developments for ex situ phytoremediation of contaminated sediments, in tropical and subtropical regions - Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittarello, Marco; Busato, Jader Galba; Carletti, Paolo; Dobbss, Leonardo Barros

    2017-09-01

    The growing problem of remediation of contaminated sediments dredged from harbor channels needs to be resolved by a cost effective and sustainable technology. Phytoremediation, by ex situ remediation plants, seems to have the potential to replace traditional methods in case of moderately contaminated sediments. On the other side, the need to mix sediments with soil and/or sand to allow an easier establishment of most employed species causes an increase of the volume of the processed substrate up to 30%. Moreover the majority of phytoremediating species are natives of temperate climate belt. Mangroves, with a special focus on the genus Avicennia - a salt secreting species - should represent an effective alternative in terms of adaptation to salty, anoxic sediments and an opportunity to develop ex situ phytoremediation plants in tropical and subtropical regions. The use of humic acid to increase root development, cell antioxidant activity and the potential attenuation of the "heavy metals exclusion strategy" to increase phytoextraction potentials of mangroves will be reviewed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. A review on the geoenvironmental and geoecological integrated technology for environmental remediation in Vietnam: approaches, contributions, challenges and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trong Nhuan, Mai; Hoang Ha, Nguyen Thi; Hoai, Ta Thi; Dang Quy, Tran

    2017-06-01

    Geoenvironmental and geoecological integrated technology (GGIT) is a cost-effective and environment-friendly technology that encompasses the applications of earth science principles and functions of geological environment and ecosystems to assimilate and minimize the spread of pollutants, to enhance the sorption capacity and environmental remediation. On the basis of the integrated approaches such as system, anthropogenic activities - ecosystem - environment interaction, effectiveness and feasibility, GGIT has provided significant applications in Vietnam such as waste containment and remediation and environmental protection. The results of a pilot scale using iron mine drainage sludge and common reed (Phragmites australis) for wastewater treatment in a Pb-Zn mine in northern Vietnam indicated the effective and potential application of GGIT. However, GGIT has many challenges in limited funding conditions, constraints in the initial development of GGIT, incomplete transfer to users, and quantitative assessment of pollutant cleanup by natural environments and ecosystems. Environmental pollution quote, impacts to exposed organisms, increasing demands for application of low-cost technologies, the availability of potential sorbents, indigenous plants, and ecosystems for environmental remediation, and collaboration will promote development, contribution, and implementation of GGIT applications in Vietnam.

  17. An Innovative Approach for Constructing an In-Situ Barrier for Strontium-90 at the Hanford Site, Washington - 9325

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, K. M.; Fabre, Russel J.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Szecsody, James E.; Fellows, Robert J.; Williams, Mark D.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2008-12-10

    Efforts to reduce the flux of Sr-90 to the Columbia River from Hanford Site 100-N Area past-practice liquid waste disposal sites have been underway since the early 1990s. Termination of all liquid discharges to the ground in 1993 was a major step toward meeting this goal. However, Sr 90 adsorbed on aquifer solids beneath liquid waste disposal sites and extending beneath the near-shore riverbed remains a continuing contaminant source to groundwater and the Columbia River. The initial pump-and treat system proved to be ineffective as a long-term solution because of the geochemical characteristics of Sr-90. Following an evaluation of potential Sr-90 treatment technologies and their applicability under 100 NR-2 Operable Unit hydrogeologic conditions, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed to evaluate apatite sequestration as the primary remedial technology, combined with a secondary polishing step utilizing phytoextraction if necessary. Aqueous injection was initiated in July 2005 to assess the efficacy of in-situ apatite along the 100 m of shoreline where Sr-90 concentrations are highest. The remedial technology is being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company is implementing this technology in the field with support from PNNL.

  18. The Reconstituited Soils: The Technology and Its Possible Implementation in the Remediation of Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Adriano Manfredi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reconstitution technology is a pedotechnique whose action supplements soil structure with organic and mineral components that are quality and origin certified. The treatment procedure performs a mechanical action which forms an organic matter lining within the mineral fraction by means of soil structure disintegration and subsequent reconstitution. Results produced by the technology in the field of agronomy suggest that such method may be employed to remediate contaminated soil by altering its properties according to need.

  19. In-situ storage: An approach to interim remedial action - recent case studies in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelmer, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office (LLRWMO) acts on behalf of the federal government to manage historic low-level radioactive wastes. Recent interim remedial work in the Town of Port Hope, Ontario has included the consolidation of radium and uranium contaminated soils into temporary storage facilities on two sites to await final disposal elsewhere. Simple containments constructed and sited on already contaminated sites have been found effective as part of an interim remedial strategy. The approach has been accepted and supported by the local public. Lessons have been learned from a project management, environmental remediation and engineering design point of view

  20. Engineering-scale tests of in situ vitrification to PCB and radioactive contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liikala, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    In Situ Vitrification (ISV) is a thermal treatment technology applicable to the remediation of hazardous chemical and radioactive contaminated soil and sludge sites. The ISV process utilizes electricity, through joule heating, to melt contaminated soil and form an inert glass and microcrystalline residual product. Applications of ISV to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and radionuclides have been demonstrated at engineering-scale in numerous tests (1,2,3). An updated evaluation of ISV applicability to treatment of PCBs and radionuclides, and recent test results are presented herein

  1. Remediation of BTEX contaminated groundwater: best technology assessment between pump&treat and bioremediation by oxygen injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Baldi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX dissolved in the groundwater and migrated from a light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL source in an alluvial aquifer required a remedial action to be taken by the responsible party as established by the Italian regulation (Legislative Decree 152/06 and subsequent amendments. For such purpose, field investigations were conducted on site in order to define the site conceptual model and to identify the appropriate remediation technology to be applied. The remediation design was developed by means of a flow and reactive transport mathematical model, applied to saturated media, using the numerical codes MODFLOW and RT3D. Groundwater field observations showed evidence of occurring BTEX biodegradation processes by bacteria naturally present in the aquifer. Since such specific bacterial activity would be significantly enhanced by the injection of free oxygen in the aquifer, the performance of traditional pump and treat systems (P&T was assessed and compared with cost/efficiency of reactive oxygen bio-barrier technology (OD. The results showed a clear advantage in terms of cost/efficiency with the application of the OD. This presents an overall cost of about 30% of the P&T installation and maintenance, and it reaches remedial target in a shorter timeframe. Moreover, the system is also applicable as a bioremediation technology in case of Environmental Emergency Measures (MISE. The site examined is part of an industrial plant located in Central Italy.

  2. Phosphorus Amendment Efficacy for In Situ Remediation of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A validated method is needed to measure reductions of in vitro bioaccessible (IVBA) Pb in urban soil remediated with amendments. This study evaluated the effect of in vitro extraction solution pH and glycine buffer on bioaccesible Pb in P-treated soils. Two Pb-contaminated soils (790-1300 mg Pb kg-1), one from a garden and one from a city lot in Cleveland, OH, were incubated in a bench scale experiment for 1 yr. Six phosphate amendments, including bone meal, fish bone, poultry litter, monoammonium phosphate, diammonium phosphate, and triple superphosphate, were added to containers at two application rates. Lead IVBA was assessed using USEPA Method 1340 and three modified versions of this method. Modifications included using solutions with pH 1.5 and 2.5 as well as using solutions with and without 0.4 mol L-1 glycine. Soil amendments were effective in reducing IVBA Pb in these soils as measured by pH 1.5 with glycine buffer. The greatest reductions in IVBA Pb, from 5 to 26%, were found using pH 2.5 extractions. Lead mineral results showed several soil amendments promoted Pb phosphate formation, an indicator of remediation success. A significant negative linear relationship between reduction in IVBA Pb and Pb-phosphate formation was found only for pH 2.5 without glycine extraction solution. A modified USEPA Method 1340 without glycine and using pH 2.5 has the potential to predict P soil treatment efficacy and reductions in bioavailable Pb. Developing mana

  3. Towards successful bioaugmentation with entrapped cells as a soil remediation technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Dechesne, Arnaud; Binning, Philip John

    2010-01-01

    Soil remediation technologies are proposed that rely on inoculation with degrading microorganisms entrapped in protective carriers. A mathematical model developed to model entrapped cell bioaugmentation describes the 3-D diffusion-driven mass transfer of benzoate, and its mineralization...... but is restricted in dry conditions, as confirmed by performing cell counts. This highlights the potential of entrapped cells when they act as seeds for soil colonization....

  4. Remediation of heavy metal contaminated ecosystem: an overview on technology advancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.; Prasad, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    The issue of heavy metal pollution is very much concerned because of their toxicity for plant, animal and human beings and their lack of biodegradability. Excess concentrations of heavy metals have adverse effect on plant metabolic activities hence affect the food production, quantitatively and qualitatively. Heavy metal when reaches human tissues through various absorption pathways such as direct ingestion, dermal contact, diet through the soil-food chain, inhalation, and oral intake may seriously affect their health. Therefore, several management practices are being applied to minimize metal toxicity by attenuating the availability of metal to the plants. Some of the traditional methods are either extremely costly or they are simply applied to isolate contaminated site. The biology based technology like use of hyper metal accumulator plants occurring naturally or created by transgenic technology, in recent years draws great attention to remediate heavy metal contamination. Recently, applications of nanoparticle for metal remediation are also attracting great research interest due to their exceptional adsorption and mechanical properties and unique electrical property, highly chemical stability, and large specific surface area. Thus the present review deals with different management approaches to reduce level of metal contamination in soil and finally to the food chain

  5. Operable Unit 7-13/14 in situ thermal desorption treatability study work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.; Nickelson, D.; Hyde, R.

    1999-01-01

    This Work Plan provides technical details for conducting a treatability study that will evaluate the application of in situ thermal desorption (ISTD) to landfill waste at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). ISTD is a form of thermally enhanced vapor vacuum extraction that heats contaminated soil and waste underground to raise its temperature and thereby vaporize and destroy most organics. An aboveground vapor vacuum collection and treatment system then destroys or absorbs the remaining organics and vents carbon dioxide and water to the atmosphere. The technology is a byproduct of an advanced oil-well thermal extraction program. The purpose of the ISTD treatability study is to fill performance-based data gaps relative to off-gas system performance, administrative feasibility, effects of the treatment on radioactive contaminants, worker safety during mobilization and demobilization, and effects of landfill type waste on the process (time to remediate, subsidence potential, underground fires, etc.). By performing this treatability study, uncertainties associated with ISTD as a selected remedy will be reduced, providing a better foundation of remedial recommendations and ultimate selection of remedial actions for the SDA

  6. Engineering feasibility analysis for in-situ stabilization of Canonsburg residues. [UMTRA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is considering several methods for carrying out remedial actions in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, at the site of an inactive uranium-processing mill. The main objective of this study is to determine the feasibility of in-situ stabilization as the remedial action. In-situ stabilization is an alternative to site decontamination and offsite disposal. The problems associated with offsite hauling of large quantities of contaminated material and with the location and development of a new disposal site could be avoided by the implementation of an in-situ stabilization concept. In addition, the in-situ approach would be more cost-effective than offsite disposal. This study will establish that a technically feasible and implementable in-situ stabilization concept can be developed that meets regulatory requirements and is cost effective. This study in no way commits the DOE to implement any specific actions described herein. 11 refs., 30 figs., 24 tabs.

  7. Ecopiling: a combined phytoremediation and passive biopiling system for remediating hydrocarbon impacted soils at field scale

    OpenAIRE

    Germaine, Kieran J.; Byrne, John; Liu, Xuemei; Keohane, Jer; Culhane, John; Lally, Richard D.; Kiwanuka, Samuel; Ryan, David; Dowling, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Biopiling is an ex situ bioremediation technology that has been extensively used for remediating a wide range of petrochemical contaminants in soils. Biopiling involves the assembling of contaminated soils into piles and stimulating the biodegrading activity of microbial populations by creating near optimum growth conditions. Phytoremediation is another very successful bioremediation technique and involves the use of plants and their associated microbiomes to degrade, sequester or bio-accumu...

  8. In-Situ Anaerobic Biosurfactant Production Process For Remediation Of DNAPL Contamination In Subsurface Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, J. D.; Nambi, I. M.

    2009-12-01

    microbial cultures. The microorganisms responsible for biosurfactant production was isolated and identified as Pseudomonas Sp (designated as Pseudomonas Sp ANBIOSURF-1, Gene bank no: FJ930079), Pseudomonas stutzeri (MTCC 10033), Pseudomonas Sp (MTCC 10032) from groundwater, soil and municipal sewage sludge enrichments respectively. This study confirms that biosurfactants can be produced under anaerobic conditions and also in sufficient quantities. The cultures were also able to cometabolically degrade PCE to Ethylene. The isolated microorganisms can be used for remediation of DNAPL contaminated sites by in-situ biosurfactant production.

  9. Engineering Issue: Technology Alternatives for the Remediation of PCB Contaminated Soils and Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Engineering Issue papers are a series of documents that summarize the available information on specific contaminates, selected treatment and site remediation technologies, and related issues. This Engineering Issue paper is intended...

  10. Use of solidification/stabilization treatment technology for environmental remediation in the United States and Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilk, C.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the United States (U.S.) Solidification/Stabilization (S/S) treatment is used to treat hazardous wastes for disposal, and in the remediation/site restoration of contaminated land. S/S is also an increasingly popular technology for Brownfields (industrial property) redevelopment since treated wastes can often be left on-site and to actually improve the site's soil for subsequent construction. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers S/S to be an established treatment technology. EPA has identified S/S treatment as Best Demonstrated Available Treatment Technology (BDAT) for at least 57 commonly produced industrial wastes (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)-listed hazardous wastes) and has selected S/S treatment for 25% of its Superfund (abandoned or uncontrolled) site remediation projects. S/S treatment involves mixing a binding reagent into the contaminated media or waste. Successful treatment is accomplished through physical changes to the waste form, and often, chemical changes to the hazardous constituents themselves. Commonly used S/S binding reagents in include portland cement, cement kiln dust, lime, lime kiln dust and fly ash. These materials are used alone or in combination. Proprietary reagents are also beginning to be marketed and used in the U.S. and Canada. This paper will discuss: (a) applicability of the technology to various wastes, (b) basic cement chemistry relating to S/S, (c) tests used to design treatability studies and to verify treatment, (d) basics on implementation of the technology in the field, and (e) examples of actual projects. (author)

  11. Thermal soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.

    1999-01-01

    The environmental properties and business aspects of thermal soil remediation are described. Thermal soil remediation is considered as being the best option in cleaning contaminated soil for reuse. The thermal desorption process can remove hydrocarbons such as gasoline, kerosene and crude oil, from contaminated soil. Nelson Environmental Remediation (NER) Ltd. uses a mobile thermal desorption unit (TDU) with high temperature capabilities. NER has successfully applied the technology to target heavy end hydrocarbon removal from Alberta's gumbo clay in all seasons. The TDU consist of a feed system, a counter flow rotary drum kiln, a baghouse particulate removal system, and a secondary combustion chamber known as an afterburner. The technology has proven to be cost effective and more efficient than bioremediation and landfarming

  12. Testing of in situ and ex situ bioremediation approaches for an oil-contaminated peat bog following a pipeline break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.J.; Lee, D.W.; Yeske, B.M.; Kuipers, F.

    2000-01-01

    The feasibility of treating a 1985 pipeline spill of light Pembina Cardium crude oil at a bog near Violet Grove, Alberta was discussed. Pembina Pipeline Corporation arranged for a treatability test to be conducted on oil-contaminated sphagnum peat moss from the site to determine effective in situ or ex situ remediation options for the site. The test was used to evaluate the biodegradation potential of contaminants. Four tests were designed to simulate field different field treatment approaches and to collect critical data on toxicity and leachability of the peat moss. The tests included a bioslurry test, a soil microcosm test, an aerated water saturated peat column test, and a standard toxicity characteristic leachate potential test. The first three tests gave similar results of at least 74 per cent biodegradation of the residual crude oil on the peat solids and no residual toxicity as measured by the Microtox Assay. It was determined that both in situ bioremediation using an aerated water injection system or an ex situ landfarming approach would achieve required criteria and no fertilizers would be necessary to maintain active bioremediation. The new gas-liquid reactor (GLR) aeration technology used in these tests creates a constant supply of hyperoxygenated water prior to column injection. The continuous release of tiny air bubbles maximizes air surface area and increases the gas transfer rates. 3 tabs., 3 figs

  13. In situ vitrification program treatability investigation progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrenholz, D.A.

    1990-12-01

    This document presents a summary of the efforts conducted under the in situ vitrification treatability study during the period from its initiation in FY-88 until FY-90. In situ vitrification is a thermal treatment process that uses electrical power to convert contaminated soils into a chemically inert and stable glass and crystalline product. Contaminants present in the soil are either incorporated into the product or are pyrolyzed during treatment. The treatability study being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory by EG ampersand G Idaho is directed at examining the specific applicability of the in situ vitrification process to buried wastes contaminated with transuranic radionuclides and other contaminants found at the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. This treatability study consists of a variety of tasks, including engineering tests, field tests, vitrified product evaluation, and analytical models of the ISV process. The data collected in the course of these efforts will address the nine criteria set forth in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, which will be used to identify and select specific technologies to be used in the remediation of the buried wastes at the Subsurface Disposal Area. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Monitoring of electrokinetic in-situ-decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldmann, T. [INTUS Inst. fuer Technologie und Umweltschutz e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The need for a monitoring system for in-situ soil decontamination is two-fold: Firstly, to ensure that remediation is attained and secondly to minimize costs and treatment time. A further reason is the potential risk of unexpected mobilization or chemical generation of hazardous compounds which could result in an extension of the contamination into other regions of soil, the ground water or the atmosphere. Electrokinetic in-situ decontamination is based on transport processes in the ground that proceed with relatively low velocity. This results in treatment times of several months. Since the transport processes can be described by a mathematical model, monitoring should always be combined with qualified mathematical processing. This makes it possible to estimate treatment time and costs to be expected. The challenge of in-situ monitoring is to identify relevant parameters describing the state of the ground. These parameters must be independent from influences like weather but they must be sensitive to changes of soil characteristics. In the case of electrokinetic soil remediation, probes and sensors must be resistant to influences of electric fields. The function of sensors or measuring systems can be disturbed or even damaged or destroyed by electric fields (for example by electro-corrosion). (orig.)

  15. Mercury Remediation Technology Development for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek - FY 2016 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, Johnbull O. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, John G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Mehlhorn, Tonia L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Peterson, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Lowe, Kenneth Alan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Watson, David B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Brooks, Scott C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Morris, Jesse G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Mayes, Melanie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Johs, Alexander [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Mathews, Teresa J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); McManamay, Ryan A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); DeRolph, Christopher R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Poteat, Monica D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Olsen, Todd A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Eller, Virginia A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Gonez Rodriguez, Leroy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC)

    2017-07-01

    Mercury remediation is a high priority for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (OREM), especially at and near the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) where historical mercury use has resulted in contaminated buildings, soils, and downstream surface waters. To address mercury contamination of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC), the DOE has adopted a phased, adaptive management approach to remediation, which includes mercury treatment actions at Y-12 in the short-term and research and technology development (TD) to evaluate longer-term solutions in the downstream environment (US Department of Energy 2014).

  16. A remedial alternative prioritization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, S.A.; Travis, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    This study develops and tests a technique for evaluating and prioritizing alternative remedial actions for hazardous waste sites. The method is based on criteria involving risk, benefit and cost, and identifies the most cost-effective solution to a given remedial problem. Four sites on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) property in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, were used in a case study to develop and test the method. Results of the case study indicate that even if the cap providing in situ containment must be replaced every 10 years, it is a superior alternative to total excavation of the waste sites

  17. Hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is currently evaluating hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation technologies in existence and under development to determine applicability to remediation needs of the DOE facilities under the Albuquerque Operations Office and to determine areas of research need. To assist LANL is this effort, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) conducted an assessment of technologies and monitoring methods that have been demonstrated or are under development. The focus of this assessment is to: (1) identify existing technologies for hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation of old waste sites; (2) identify technologies under development and the status of the technology; (3) assess new technologies that need development to provide adequate hazardous waste treatment and remedial action technologies for DOD and DOE sites; and (4) identify hazardous waste and remediation problems for environmental research and development. There are currently numerous research and development activities underway nationwide relating to environmental contaminants and the remediation of waste sites. To perform this effort, SAIC evaluated current technologies and monitoring methods development programs in EPA, DOD, and DOE, as these are the primary agencies through which developmental methods are being demonstrated. This report presents this evaluation and provides recommendations as to pertinent research needs or activities to address waste site contamination problems. The review and assessment have been conducted at a programmatic level; site-specific and contaminant-specific evaluations are being performed by LANL staff as a separate, related activity

  18. IN SITU STEAM ENHANCED RECOVERY PROCESS - HUGHES ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS, INC. - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Innovative Technology Evaluation report summarizes the findings of an evaluation of the in situ Steam Enhanced Recovery Process (SERP) operated by Hughes Environmental Systems, Inc. at the Rainbow Disposal facility in Huntington Beach, California. he technology demonstration...

  19. Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2012-01-01

    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a method for removal of heavy metals. Good results have previously been obtained with both treatment of a stationary, water saturated soil matrix and with remediation of a stirred suspension of soil in water. The two different setups have different uses....... The first as in-situ or on-site treatment when there is no requirement for fast remediation, as the removal rate of the heavy metals are dependent on the distance between the electrodes (everything else equal) and in such application the electrode spacing must have a certain distance (often meters......). In the stirred setup it is possible to shorten the transport route to few mm and to have a faster and continuous process. The present paper for the first time reports a direct comparison of the two options. The remediation of the stirred suspension showed faster than remediation of the water saturated soil even...

  20. Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Center: Transformational Technology Development For Environmental Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Triplett, Mark B.; Freshley, Mark D.; Truex, Michael J.; Gephart, Roy E.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Chronister, Glen B.; Gerdes, Kurt D.; Chamberlain, Skip; Marble, Justin; Ramirez, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    DOE-EM, Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation and DOE Richland, in collaboration with the Hanford site and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, have established the Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Center (DVZ-AFRC). The DVZ-AFRC leverages DOE investments in basic science from the Office of Science, applied research from DOE EM Office of Technology Innovation and Development, and site operation (e.g., site contractors [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Contractor and Washington River Protection Solutions], DOE-EM RL and ORP) in a collaborative effort to address the complex region of the deep vadose zone. Although the aim, goal, motivation, and contractual obligation of each organization is different, the integration of these activities into the framework of the DVZ-AFRC brings the resources and creativity of many to provide sites with viable alternative remedial strategies to current baseline approaches for persistent contaminants and deep vadose zone contamination. This cooperative strategy removes stove pipes, prevents duplication of efforts, maximizes resources, and facilitates development of the scientific foundation needed to make sound and defensible remedial decisions that will successfully meet the target cleanup goals for one of DOE EM's most intractable problems, in a manner that is acceptable by regulators.

  1. LCA of Soil and Groundwater Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Owsianiak, Mikolaj

    2018-01-01

    Today, there is increasing interest in applying LCA to support decision-makers in contaminated site management. In this chapter, we introduce remediation technologies and associated environmental impacts, present an overview of literature findings on LCA applied to remediation technologies...... and present methodological issues to consider when conducting LCAs within the area. Within the field of contaminated site remediation , a terminology distinguishing three types of environmental impacts: primary, secondary and tertiary, is often applied. Primary impacts are the site-related impacts due...... and efficiency of remediation, which are important for assessment or primary impacts; (ii) robust assessment of primary impacts using site-specific fate and exposure models; (iii) weighting of primary and secondary (or tertiary) impacts to evaluate trade-offs between life cycle impacts from remediation...

  2. Theoretical basis of remediation of heavy metal contamination by apatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, S.; Mandic, M.; Kaludjerovic, T.

    2001-01-01

    Recently we have demonstrated the connection between stability of the products of the in situ remediation processes and their values of the ion-ion interaction potential, representing the main term of the cohesive energy. Using this approach, the stability of the products of remediation of Pb and Cd by hydroxyapatite (HAP) was investigated. It has been demonstrated that incorporation of Pb ions from pyromorphite into HAP is followed by a decrease of the cohesive energy, indicating that in remediation of Pb, HAP serves as a source of components necessary for formation of a stabile Pb-apatite phase which is precipitated on the surface of the HAP particles. Contrary, incorporation of Cd from the Cd-apatite into HAP increases the cohesive energy of the system, suggesting that the precipitated Cd-apatite phase is later transformed into a more stabile HAP/Cd solid solution. The presented results of theoretical analysis are in good accordance with the reported experimental results. Based on the results of this analysis, the general criterion for estimation of stability of the products of the in situ remediation processes was proposed. (author)

  3. Experiences with new neutralization technologies for remediation after ISL mining of uranium in Straz Pod Ralskem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlakova, Veronika; Kaspar, Ludvik; Tykal, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    A big affection of the rock environment and groundwaters occurred during the chemical mining of uranium in the years 1966 to 1996 in the neighbourhood of the town Straz pod Ralskem in the Czech Republic. It is necessary to clean the residual technological solutions (RTS) from the underground. The pH of the solutions in some places is still less than 2 and the concentration of sulphates reaches up to 65 g/l. The remedial activities consist of pumping of the RTS from the ground and reprocessing of the RTS in the surface technologies. The implementation of the new neutralization technologies NDS ML and NDS 10 help us with increasing of the efficiency of the remedial process. The NDS ML technology ('Mother liquor reprocessing station') started its operation in 2009 and it processes the concentrated technological solution from the evaporation station after the alum crystallization (mother liquor) with the concentration of total dissolved solids up to 250 g/l. The principle is the neutralization of the acid solutions with the aid of the lime milk. The suspension is then filtrated in the filter press, the filter cake is deposited in the tailings pond and the filtrate is injected back into the underground rock environment. The NDS 10 technology ('Neutralization and Decontamination Station NDS 10') started its operation in 2012 and it works on the same technological principle as the NDS ML station. The difference is that the NDS 10 station can process higher volume (4.4 m 3 /min) of the RTS with lower concentration of total dissolved solids 20 - 25 g/l. This poster describes the experiences of the state enterprise DIAMO with putting of these two neutralization technologies into operation and with using of the lime milk neutralization in such a large scale. (authors)

  4. In situ technologies for the remediation of contaminated sites. Part 8: Biological treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghassemi, M. (URS Consultants, Inc., Long Beach, CA (USA))

    1988-04-01

    The paper discusses the in-situ technique of biodegradation for removal of organic compounds, including hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls, from contaminated soils. Biodegradation involves growing microorganisms in the soil which consume the waste, breaking it down into less harmful end products. Enhancing the biological activity may require pH adjustment or the addition of supplementary nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous, trace metals and organic carbon. This is potentially an effective, low cost, and safe method for soil and groundwater decontamination, but has yet to be demonstrated for large sites. Detox Industries of Houston, Texas, has selected and bred a bank of 200 naturally occurring, nonpathogenic soil microorganisms for degrading such substances as polychlorinated biphenyls, pentachlorophenol, and creosote. At one site, 1200 cubic yards of soil experienced a 90 percent reduction in contamination (with methylene chloride, n-butyl alcohol, dimethylaniline, and acetone) over 3 years. Costs are site- specific, but is usually 30 to 60 percent less than carbon adsorption or air stripping methods. Advantages are ease, safety, and cost. Limitations include difficulty to monitor and control, lack of experience and test data, and inapplicability of the technique where contaminants are refractory or are present at toxic levels. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  5. A multi-objective optimization framework for surfactant-enhanced remediation of DNAPL contaminations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaerlaekens, J.; Mertens, J.; Van Linden, J.; Vermeiren, G.; Carmeliet, J.; Feyen, J.

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) contaminations in the subsurface is a threat for drinkwater resources in the western world. Surfactant-Enhanced Aquifer Remediation (SEAR) is widely considered as one of the most promising techniques to remediate DNAPL contaminations in-situ,

  6. Object reasoning for waste remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennock, K.A.; Bohn, S.J.; Franklin, A.L.

    1991-08-01

    A large number of contaminated waste sites across the United States await size remediation efforts. These sites can be physically complex, composed of multiple, possibly interacting, contaminants distributed throughout one or more media. The Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS) is being designed and developed to support decisions concerning the selection of remediation alternatives. The goal of this system is to broaden the consideration of remediation alternatives, while reducing the time and cost of making these considerations. The Remedial Action Assessment System is a hybrid system, designed and constructed using object-oriented, knowledge- based systems, and structured programming techniques. RAAS uses a combination of quantitative and qualitative reasoning to consider and suggest remediation alternatives. The reasoning process that drives this application is centered around an object-oriented organization of remediation technology information. This paper describes the information structure and organization used to support this reasoning process. In addition, the paper describes the level of detail of the technology related information used in RAAS, discusses required assumptions and procedural implications of these assumptions, and provides rationale for structuring RAAS in this manner. 3 refs., 3 figs

  7. In situ vitrification engineering-scale test ES-INEL-5 test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoots, P.R.

    1990-06-01

    In 1952, the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) was established at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). RWMC is located on approximately 144 acres in the southwestern corner of the INEL site and was established as a controlled area for the burial of solid low-level wastes generated by INEL operations. In 1954, the 88-acre Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of RWMC began accepting solid transuranic-contaminated waste. From 1954 to 1970, transuranic-contaminated waste was accepted from the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) near Golden, CO, as well as from other US Department of Energy (DOE) locations. In 1987, the Buried Waste Program (BWP) was established by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., the prime contractor at INEL. Following the Environmental Restoration guidelines of the Buried Waste Program, the In Situ Vitrification Program is participating in a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for permanent disposal of INEL waste, in compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). This study was requested and is being funded by the Office of Technology Development of the Idaho Operations Office of DOE (DOE-ID). As part of the RI/FS, an in situ vitrification (ISV) scoping study on the treatability of mixed low-level and mixed transuranic-contaminated waste is being performed to determine applicability of ISV to remediation of waste at SDA. This In Situ Vitrification Engineering-Scale Test ES-INEL-5 Test Plan considers the data needs of engineering, regulatory, health, and safety activities for all sampling and analysis activities in support of engineering scale test ES-INEL-5. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Morgantown Energy Technology Center, technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This document has been prepared by the DOE Environmental Management (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities funded through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). Technologies and processes described have the potential to enhance DOE's cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US industry's competitiveness in global environmental markets. METC's R ampersand D programs are focused on commercialization of technologies that will be carried out in the private sector. META has solicited two PRDAs for EM. The first, in the area of groundwater and soil technologies, resulted in twenty-one contact awards to private sector and university technology developers. The second PRDA solicited novel decontamination and decommissioning technologies and resulted in eighteen contract awards. In addition to the PRDAs, METC solicited the first EM ROA in 1993. The ROA solicited research in a broad range of EM-related topics including in situ remediation, characterization, sensors, and monitoring technologies, efficient separation technologies, mixed waste treatment technologies, and robotics. This document describes these technology development activities

  9. Using in situ bioventing to minimize soil vapor extraction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, D.C.; Frishmuth, R.A.; Archabal, S.R.; Pluhar, C.J.; Blystone, P.G.; Miller, R.N.

    1995-01-01

    Gasoline-contaminated soils may be difficult to remediate with bioventing because high concentrations of gasoline vapors become mobile when air is injected into the soil. Because outward vapor migration is often unacceptable on small commercial sites, soil vapor extraction (SVE) or innovative bioventing techniques are required to control vapors and to increase soil gas oxygen levels to stimulate hydrocarbon biodegradation. Combinations of SVE, off-gas treatment, and bioventing have been used to reduce the costs normally associated with remediation of gasoline-contaminated sites. At Site 1, low rates of pulsed air injection were used to provide oxygen while minimizing vapor migration. At Site 2, a period of high-rate SVE and off-gas treatment was followed by long-term air injection. Site 3 used an innovative approach that combined regenerative resin for ex situ vapor treatment with in situ bioventing to reduce the overall cost of site remediation. At each of these Air Force sites, bioventing provided cost savings when compared to more traditional SVE methods

  10. A systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, M.T.; Reed, B.E.; Gabr, M.

    1993-07-01

    West Virginia University (WVU) and the US DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) entered into a Cooperative Agreement on August 29, 1992 entitled ``Decontamination Systems Information and Research Programs.`` Stipulated within the Agreement is the requirement that WVU submit to METC a series of Technical Progress Report for Year 1 of the Agreement. This report reflects the progress and/or efforts performed on the following nine technical projects encompassed by the Year 1 Agreement for the period of April 1 through June 30, 1993: Systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; site remediation technologies -- drain-enhanced soil flushing (DESF) for organic contaminants removal; site remediation technologies -- in situ bioremediation of organic contaminants; excavation systems for hazardous waste sites; chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls; development of organic sensors -- monolayer and multilayer self-assembled films for chemical sensors; Winfield lock and dam remediation; Assessments of Technologies for hazardous waste site remediation -- non-treatment technologies and pilot scale test facility implementation; and remediation of hazardous sites with stream reforming.

  11. Remediation of petroleum contaminated soils through bioventing in cold regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brar, G.S.; Currier, P.M.; Reynolds, C.M.; Millhouse, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    Petroleum contaminated soils are found in many remote sites in Alaska where releases from bulk storage of fuel oil for heat and power generation have occurred. Bioventing, a process in which petroleum degradation by indigenous aerobic bacteria is enhanced by supplying oxygen and nutrients, may be a viable treatment technique for soils at remote sites if limitations due to low temperatures can be overcome. The objectives of this study were to: (1) test a design for ex-situ bioventing in cold regions, (2) evaluate biodegradation rates at low temperatures, and (3) determine the effects of applied nutrients on low-temperature biodegradation. Two aerated biopit remediation cells were constructed to treat previously excavated soils at Eareckson Air Force Station, Shemya, Alaska. Experimental treatments consisted of a fertilized pile (FP) and a nonfertilized pile (NFP). Hourly soil and air temperature data at 4 depths were recorded at 4 locations in each biopit. During 148 days of remediation, mean temperature ranged from -3 to 6 C for air at 100 cm. above the piles. The mean concentrations of TPH and DRO decreased from an initial 1,304 and 982 mg/kg of 139 and 82 mg/kg, respectively, with the FP, and 422 and 294 mg/kg with the NFP in 115 days. Cumulative degradation rates of TPH and DRO are significantly (P 2 = 0.94 for TPH. 0.93 for DRO). Pit bioventing technology was shown to be efficient, fast, and cost-effective in cold regions where temperature during winter months is a major constraint for the remediation of contaminated soils

  12. IN SITU GEOTHERMAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY: AN APPROACH FOR BUILDING CLEANER AND GREENER ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Faruque Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is abundant everywhere in the world. It certainly would be a great benefit for human being once it is produced by a sophisticated technology. Consequently, it would be the biggest console for earth considering environmental sustainability. Unfortunately, the current status of commercial production of geothermal energy primarily from hydrothermal, geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma are limited to a few countries due to technological difficulties and production cost. This paper describes a simple technology where an in situ geothermal plant assisted by a heat pump would act as a high-temperature production (>150°C to provide excellent capacity of energy generation. The issue related to costs is interestingly cheaper on production, comparing to other technologies, such as solar, hydro, wind, and traditional geothermal technology as described in this article. Therefore, it is suggested that heat pump assisted in situ geothermal energy sources has a great potentiality to be a prime energy source in near future. Since the technology has a number of positive characteristics (simple, safe, and provides continuous baseload, load following, or peaking capacity and benign environmental attributes (zero emissions of CO2, SOx, and NOx, it certainly would be an interesting technology in both developed, and developing countries as an attractive option to produce clean energy to confirm a better environment.

  13. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sresty, G.C.

    1994-01-01

    A Treatability Study planned for the demonstration of the in situ electromagnetic (EM) heating process to remove organic solvents is described in this Work Plan. The treatability study will be conducted by heating subsurface vadose-zone soils in an organic plume adjacent to the Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D located at K-25 Site, Oak Ridge. The test is scheduled to start during the fourth quarter of FY94 and will be completed during the first quarter of FY95. The EM heating process for soil decontamination is based on volumetric heating technologies developed during the '70s for the recovery of fuels from shale and tar sands by IIT Research Institute (IITRI) under a co-operative program with the US Department of Energy (DOE). Additional modifications of the technology developed during the mid '80s are currently used for the production of heavy oil and waste treatment. Over the last nine years, a number of Government agencies (EPA, Army, AF, and DOE) and industries sponsored further development and testing of the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site under the proposed treatability study. Most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85 to 95 C. The efficiency of the treatment will be determined by comparing the concentration of contaminants in soil samples. Samples will be obtained before and after the demonstration for a measurement of the concentration of contaminants of concern

  14. In situ vitrification applications to hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liikala, S.

    1989-01-01

    In Situ Vitrification is a new hazardous waste remediation alternative that should be considered for contaminated soil matrices. According to the authors the advantages of using ISV include: technology demonstrated at field scale; applicable to a wide variety of soils and contaminants; pyrolyzer organics and encapsulates inorganics; product durable over geologic time period; no threat of harm to the public from exposure; and applications available for barrier walls and structural support. The use of ISV on a large scale basis has thus far been limited to the nuclear industry but has tremendous potential for widespread applications to the hazardous waste field. With the ever changing regulations for the disposal of hazardous waste in landfills, and the increasing positive analytical data of ISV, the process will become a powerful source for on-site treatment and hazardous waste management needs in the very near future

  15. ANALYSIS OF REMEDIATION PROCESS OF THE GROUDWATER COTAMINATION IN AN ILLEGAL DUMPING SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Norikazu; Furuichi, Toru; Ishii, Kazuei

    Among on-site remediation technologies applied to illegal dumping sites, a technology to remedy contaminated groundwater without removal of the dumped waste is expected to provide a great opportunity to fulfill a societal need due to its economic advantage compared to removal of all waste. However heterogeneously-distributed waste makes the remedial process difficult. In this study, an in situflushing technology was applied to an illegal dumping site in Kuwana city, Mie, in order to remedy groundwater contaminated with several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) within five years. The key to successfully achieve the target was to conduct a series of advanced remediation processes; introducing a new indicator by which multiple VOCs can be estimated integratelly, monitoring the progress of remediation with a contour map of VOC concentration as well as the weighted averages of the concentration derived from the indicator, pinpointing residual contaminants area, reexamining the plan, and taking additional steps that promote further remediation.

  16. In-situ bioremediation at the French Limited Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, R.; Ramsden, D.

    1990-01-01

    In situ biodegradation of petrochemical wastes at the French Limited Superfund Site was stimulated by providing the appropriate pH, essential nutrients, oxygen, and substrate availability. Fourteen wastewater treatment parameters, plus toxicity, were monitored to document the program of bioremediation. Periodic, organic priority pollutant analysis of mixed liquor, settled sludges and subsoils provided data for kinetics interpretation and half life calculation. The half lives of thirteen PAH compounds ranged from 27 to 46 days, in contrast to the degradation rate, in months, reported for these compounds in LTUs. An ambitious air monitoring program measured fugitive emissions at lagoon side, fenceline, and from the lagoon surface by floating flux chamber. The amount of volatiles lost never exceeded 1/2 of the OSHA 8 hr TLV and it could be readily managed by adjusting the intensity and frequency of mixing and aeration. The demonstration confirmed the feasibility of in situ bioremediation and led to one of the first US EPA Record of Decisions to use bioremediation for cleanup of a large Superfund site. A consent Decree outlining the site remedial action program was signed by the PRP task group and published in the Federal Register. This represents a landmark project for in situ bioremediation and has established precedence for use of this technology at CERCLA and RCRA sites nationwide

  17. MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR RECOVERY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM REMEDIATION OFF-GASES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijmans, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    In situ vacuum extraction, air or steam sparging, and vitrification are widely used to remediate soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All of these processes produce a VOC-laden air stream from which the VOC must be removed before the air can be discharged or recycled to the generating process. Treatment of these off-gases is often a major portion of the cost of the remediation project. Currently, carbon adsorption and catalytic incineration are the most common methods of treating these gas streams. Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) proposed an alternative treatment technology based on selective membranes that separate the organic components from the gas stream, producing a VOC-free air stream. This technology can be applied to off-gases produced by various remediation activities and the systems can be skid-mounted and automated for easy transportation and unattended operation. The target performance for the membrane systems is to produce clean air (less than 10 ppmv VOC) for discharge or recycle, dischargeable water (less than 1 ppmw VOC), and a concentrated liquid VOC phase. This report contains the results obtained during Phase II of a two-phase project. In Phase I, laboratory experiments were carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach. In the subsequent Phase II project, a demonstration system was built and operated at the McClellan Air Force Base near Sacramento, California. The membrane system was fed with off-gas from a Soil Vacuum Extraction (SVE) system. The work performed in Phase II demonstrated that the membrane system can reduce the VOC concentration in remediation off-gas to 10 ppmv, while producing a concentrated VOC phase and dischargeable water containing less than 1 ppmw VOC. However, the tests showed that the presence of 1 to 3% carbon dioxide in the SVE off-gas reduced the treatment capacity of the system by a factor of three to four. In an economic analysis, treatment costs of the membrane

  18. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets; Part B, Remedial action, robotics/automation, waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, R.L. [ed.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WN) problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remediation, decontamination, and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. Volume 2 contains logic diagrams. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use. This volume 3 B provides the Technology Evaluation Data Sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (Remedial Action Robotics and Automation, Waste Management) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than each technology in Vol. 2. The TEDS are arranged alphanumerically by the TEDS code number in the upper right corner of each data sheet. Volume 3 can be used in two ways: (1) technologies that are identified from Vol. 2 can be referenced directly in Vol. 3 by using the TEDS codes, and (2) technologies and general technology areas (alternatives) can be located in the index in the front of this volume.

  19. Bio-remediation in actual use and environmental impairment liability insurance. Bio remediation no jissai to kankyo hoken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooka, K [AIU Insurance Company, Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-08-01

    This paper introduces the American International Group (AIG) which makes conceptions and risks of bio-remediation its business, as to how the Group is really working on the business. Features of the continuing remediation involving corporations managed by AIG include the following: It has economical superiority; in-situ purification of contaminated soils is possible; and it can solve contamination issues in a short time, and makes reuse of lands possible. The remediation uses a principle of promoting the contamination purifying actions of the natural world. It activates microorganisms by supplying oxygen, water, and nutrients in suitable amounts for microbial activities to decompose chemical wastes and converts them into harmless substances such as CO2. Objects of purification include petroleum-based substances, herbicides, insecticides, and solvents. Establishing optimal parameters before purification (mediator variables and population parameters) and protocols is important. The system goes through the following steps: Hydraulic and geological experts identify patterns and levels of contamination; microorganism experts find optimal parameters in laboratories; engineers design treatment systems; and site technicians operate the system. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Dual-Remote Raman Technology for In-Situ Identification of Tank Waste - 13549

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, Sam; Levitskaia, Tatiana; Lines, Amanda; Smith, Frannie; Josephson, Gary; Bello, Job

    2013-01-01

    A new Raman spectroscopic system for in-situ identification of the composition of solid nuclear tank waste is being developed by collaborative effort between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and EIC Laboratories, Inc. The recent advancements in Raman technology allow probing the chemical composition of the tank waste without sample collection. In the newly tested configuration, the Raman probe is installed on the top of the tank riser and sends the incident laser beam to the bottom of the tank, 10 - 70 feet away. The returning light containing chemical information is collected by the Raman probe and is transmitted via fiber optic cable to the spectrometer located outside the tank farm area. This dual remote technology significantly expands currently limited options for the safe rapid in-situ identification of the solid tank waste needed for the retrieval decisions. The developed Raman system was extensively tested for acceptability prior to tank farm deployment. This testing included calibration of the system with respect of the distance between the Raman probe and the sample, incident laser beam angle, and presence of the optical interferences. The Raman system was successfully deployed on Tank C-111 at the US DOE Hanford site. As the result of this deployment, the composition of the hardpan at the bottom of C-111 tank was identified. Further development of the dual-remote Raman technology will provide a significant safety enhancement eliminating the potential of personnel radiation exposure associated with the grab sample collection and expands options of the rapid and cost-effective in-situ chemical analysis of the tank waste. (authors)

  1. Strip-drains for in situ clean up of contaminated fine-grained soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowders, J.J.; Gabr, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Methods for in situ remediation of contaminated soils, such as bioremediation, vacuum/air stripping and soil flushing have been found to be less effective under fine-grained soil conditions. To enhance the performance of these techniques, it was proposed that strip-drains or wick drains also known as prefabricated vertical (PV) drains be used. The research objective was to determine the feasibility of using PV drains to enhance the soil flushing process. Bench top and intermediate-scale laboratory experiments were conducted. An overview of the work, results and future considerations were presented. Results indicated that the technology is feasible. A preliminary model for the technology to be used in any field situation was developed. The model is currently being tested with data from physical experiments on both intermediate and field tests. 5 figs

  2. Adapting Advances in Remediation Science to Long-Term Surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Several facets of groundwater remediation stand to gain from the advances made during recent years in disciplines that contribute to remediation science. Engineered remedies designed to aggressively remove subsurface contamination should benefit from this progress, and more passive cleanup methods and the long-term monitoring of such passive approaches may benefit equally well if not more. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) has adopted a strategic plan that is designed to take advantage of technological improvements in the monitoring and assessment of both active and passive groundwater remedies. Flexible adaptation of new technologies, as they become available, to long-term surveillance at LM sites is expected to reduce site stewardship costs while ensuring the future protection of human health and the environment. Some of the technologies are expected to come from government initiatives that focus on the needs of subsurface monitoring. Additional progress in monitoring science will likely result from continual improvements in our understanding of contaminant fate-and-transport processes in groundwater and the vadose zone. (authors)

  3. Adapting Advances in Remediation Science to Long-Term Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Dave [S.M. Stoller Corporation

    2006-03-01

    Several facets of groundwater remediation stand to gain from the advances made during recent years in disciplines that contribute to remediation science. Engineered remedies designed to aggressively remove subsurface contamination should benefit from this progress, and more passive cleanup methods and the long-term monitoring of such passive approaches may benefit equally well if not more. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) has adopted a strategic plan that is designed to take advantage of technological improvements in the monitoring and assessment of both active and passive groundwater remedies. Flexible adaptation of new technologies, as they become available, to long-term surveillance at LM sites is expected to reduce site stewardship costs while ensuring the future protection of human health and the environment. Some of the technologies are expected to come from government initiatives that focus on the needs of subsurface monitoring. Additional progress in monitoring science will likely result from continual improvements in our understanding of contaminant fate-and-transport processes in the groundwater and the vadose zone.

  4. Integrated funnel-and-gate/GZB product recovery technologies for in situ management of creosote NAPL-impacted aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.G.; Borchert, S.M.; Klingel, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    An in situ source management system was modeled and designed for the containment and recovery of creosote non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) at a former wood treating facility in Nashua, New Hampshire. The conceptual system was based on the integration of patented technologies for physical source containment and management (ie., funnel-and-gate technology) with patented in situ product recovery (i.e, GZB technology - described below). A funnel-and-gate physical barrier was proposed to mitigate the continued flow of NAPL into the Merrimack River. The purpose of the funnel was to divert groundwater (and potential NAPL) flow through two gate areas. Where required, an in situ system for product recovery was integrated. Mathematical modeling of the combined technologies led to the selection of a metal sheet pile barrier wall along 650 feet of the river's shoreline with the wall anchored into an underlying zone of lesser permeability. Multiple GZB wells were placed strategically within the system. This combination of technologies promised to offer a more effective, cost-efficient approach for long-term management of environmental concerns at Nashua, and related sites

  5. In situ vitrification program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loehr, C.A.; Merrill, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    A program to demonstrate the viability of in situ vitrification (ISV) technology in remediating a buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste site is under way at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The application of the technology to buried waste is being evaluated as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) feasibility study. The ISV thermal treatment process converts contaminated soil into a chemically inert and stable glass and crystalline product. The process uses joule heating, accomplished by applying electric potential to electrodes that are placed in the soil to initiate and maintain soil melting. Organic contaminants in the soil are destroyed or removed while inorganic contaminants, including radionuclides, are incorporated into the stable, glass-like product or volatilized. Off-gases are collected in a confinement hood over the melt area and processed through an off-gas treatment system. The paper illustrates and describes the ISV process

  6. Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report, published by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), is a collection of recently published abstracts summarizing 13 cost and performance case studies on the use of remediation technologies at contaminated sites.

  7. PROBABILISTIC RISK ANALYSIS OF REMEDIATION EFFORTS IN NAPL SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Garcia, D.; de Vries, L.; Pool, M.; Sapriza, G.; Sanchez-Vila, X.; Bolster, D.; Tartakovsky, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    The release of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) such as petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents in the subsurface is a severe source of groundwater and vapor contamination. Because these liquids are essentially immiscible due to low solubility, these contaminants get slowly dissolved in groundwater and/or volatilized in the vadoze zone threatening the environment and public health over a long period. Many remediation technologies and strategies have been developed in the last decades for restoring the water quality properties of these contaminated sites. The failure of an on-site treatment technology application is often due to the unnoticed presence of dissolved NAPL entrapped in low permeability areas (heterogeneity) and/or the remaining of substantial amounts of pure phase after remediation efforts. Full understanding of the impact of remediation efforts is complicated due to the role of many interlink physical and biochemical processes taking place through several potential pathways of exposure to multiple receptors in a highly unknown heterogeneous environment. Due to these difficulties, the design of remediation strategies and definition of remediation endpoints have been traditionally determined without quantifying the risk associated with the failure of such efforts. We conduct a probabilistic risk assessment of the likelihood of success of an on-site NAPL treatment technology that easily integrates all aspects of the problem (causes, pathways, and receptors). Thus, the methodology allows combining the probability of failure of a remediation effort due to multiple causes, each one associated to several pathways and receptors.

  8. ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES FOR ISCO METHODS IN-SITU FENTON OXIDATION IN-SITU PERMANGANATE OXIDATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The advantages and disadvantages of in-situ Fenton oxidation and in-situ permanganate oxidation will be presented. This presentation will provide a brief overview of each technology and a detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each technology. Included in the ...

  9. Full-scale demonstration of EBS construction technology I. Block, pellet and in-situ compaction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toguri, Satohito; Asano, Hidekazu; Takao, Hajime; Matsuda, Takeshi; Amemiya, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    (i) Bentonite Block: Applicability of manufacturing technology of buffer material was verified by manufacturing of full scale bentonite ring which consists of one-eight (1/8) dividing block (Outside Diameter (OD): 2.220 mm H: 300 mm). Density characteristic, dimension and scale effect, which were considered the tunnel environment under transportation, were evaluated. Vacuum suction technology was selected as handling technology for the ring. Hoisting characteristic of vacuum suction technology was presented through evaluation of the mechanical property of buffer material, the friction between blocks, etc. by using a full-scale bentonite ring (OD 2.200 mm, H 300 mm). And design of bentonite block and emplacement equipment were presented in consideration of manufacturability of the block, stability of handling and improvement of emplacement efficiency. (ii) Bentonite Pellet Filling: Basic characteristics such as water penetration, swelling and thermal conductivity of various kinds of bentonite pellet were collected by laboratory scale tests. Applicability of pellet filling technology was evaluated by horizontal filling test using a simulated full-scale drift tunnel (OD 2.200 mm, L 6 m) . Filling density, grain size distribution, etc. were also measured. (iii) In-Situ Compaction of Bentonite: Dynamic compaction method (heavy weight fall method) was selected as in-situ compaction technology. Compacting examination which used a full scale disposal pit (OD 2.360 mm) was carried out. Basic specification of compacting equipment and applicability of in-situ compaction technology were presented. Density, density distribution of buffer material and energy acted on the wall of the pit, were also measured. (author)

  10. Remediation of uranium contaminated water and soil by PIMS approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, S.; Raicevic, J.; Smiciklas, I. . E-mail address of corresponding author: raich@beotel.yu; Raicevic, S.)

    2005-01-01

    Contamination of soil by uranium (U) represents a permanent threat for food and water resources. For this reason, remediation is a very important measure for protection of the health of the population living in the vicinity of these contaminated sites. Phosphate- Induced Metal Stabilization (PIMS) represents one of the powerful methods for remediation of soil and water contaminated by U, including depleted uranium (DU). By this approach it is possible to stabilize metals in the form of phosphate phases and other low soluble phases that are stable over geological time. PIMS is based on application of a special form of apatite of biological origin, Apatite II, to clean up metal and radionuclide contamination, in situ or ex situ. This biogenic apatite can be emplaced as a down-gradient permeable reactive barrier, mixed into contaminated soil or waste or used as a disposal liner. Here we will briefly describe the PIMS remediation protocol. (author)

  11. Remediating a design tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Rädle, Roman; Klokmose, Clemens N.

    2018-01-01

    digital sticky notes setup. The paper contributes with a nuanced understanding of what happens when remediating a physical design tool into digital space, by emphasizing focus shifts and breakdowns caused by the technology, but also benefits and promises inherent in the digital media. Despite users......' preference for creating physical notes, handling digital notes on boards was easier and the potential of proper documentation make the digital setup a possible alternative. While the analogy in our remediation supported a transfer of learned handling, the users' experiences across technological setups impact......Sticky notes are ubiquitous in design processes because of their tangibility and ease of use. Yet, they have well-known limitations in professional design processes, as documentation and distribution are cumbersome at best. This paper compares the use of sticky notes in ideation with a remediated...

  12. In-situ vitrification: a status of the technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzPatrick, V.F.

    1986-09-01

    The In Situ Vitrification (ISV) process is a new technology developed from its conceptual phase to selected field-scale applications in the last 5 years. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored the ISV program to develop alternative technology for potential application to contaminated soil sites. The ISV process converts contaminated soils and wastes into a durable glass and crystalline waste form in place by melting using joule heating. The ISV process has been developed through a series of 25 engineering-scale (laboratory) tests, 10 pilot-scale (small field) tests, and four large-scale (full-scale field) tests. Its major advantages for stabilizing radioactive and hazardous wastes are found to be: safety in terms of minimizing worker and public exposure; long-term durability of waste form (more than 1 million years); cost effectiveness ($150 to $300/m 3 ); applicability to a wide variety of soils and inclusions; and potential for eliminating exhumation, transport, and handling

  13. Hybrid life cycle assessment comparison of colloidal silica and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Patricia M., E-mail: pmg24@drexel.edu [Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19038 (United States); Spatari, Sabrina; Cucura, Jeffrey [Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19038 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► We use LCA to study environmental impacts of grouting techniques for site remediation. ► We consider colloidal silica permeation grouting and cement jet grouting. ► Manufacturing and transportation contribute significantly in all impact categories. ► Activity outside of direct site activity is important in assessing impacts. ► LCA can be used to consider sustainability criteria for remediation decisions. -- Abstract: Site remediation involves balancing numerous costs and benefits but often neglects the environmental impacts over the entire project life cycle. Life cycle assessment (LCA) offers a framework for inclusion of global environmental “systems-level” decision metrics in combination with technological and cost analysis. We compare colloidal silica (CS) and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies for soils affected by low level radionuclides at a U.S. Superfund site using hybrid LCA methods. CS is a new, high performance grouting material installed using permeation grouting techniques. Cement, a more traditional grouting material, is typically installed using jet grouting techniques. Life cycle impacts were evaluated using the US EPA TRACI 2 model. Results show the highest life cycle environmental impacts for the CS barrier occur during materials production and transportation to the site. In general, the life cycle impacts for the cement barrier were dominated by materials production; however, in the extreme scenario the life cycle impacts were dominated by truck transportation of spoils to a distant, off-site radioactive waste facility. It is only in the extreme scenario tested in which soils are transported by truck (Option 2) that spoils waste transport dominates LCIA results. Life cycle environmental impacts for both grout barriers were most sensitive to resource input requirements for manufacturing volumes and transportation. Uncertainty associated with the efficacy of new technology such as CS over its required

  14. Hybrid life cycle assessment comparison of colloidal silica and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Patricia M.; Spatari, Sabrina; Cucura, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We use LCA to study environmental impacts of grouting techniques for site remediation. ► We consider colloidal silica permeation grouting and cement jet grouting. ► Manufacturing and transportation contribute significantly in all impact categories. ► Activity outside of direct site activity is important in assessing impacts. ► LCA can be used to consider sustainability criteria for remediation decisions. -- Abstract: Site remediation involves balancing numerous costs and benefits but often neglects the environmental impacts over the entire project life cycle. Life cycle assessment (LCA) offers a framework for inclusion of global environmental “systems-level” decision metrics in combination with technological and cost analysis. We compare colloidal silica (CS) and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies for soils affected by low level radionuclides at a U.S. Superfund site using hybrid LCA methods. CS is a new, high performance grouting material installed using permeation grouting techniques. Cement, a more traditional grouting material, is typically installed using jet grouting techniques. Life cycle impacts were evaluated using the US EPA TRACI 2 model. Results show the highest life cycle environmental impacts for the CS barrier occur during materials production and transportation to the site. In general, the life cycle impacts for the cement barrier were dominated by materials production; however, in the extreme scenario the life cycle impacts were dominated by truck transportation of spoils to a distant, off-site radioactive waste facility. It is only in the extreme scenario tested in which soils are transported by truck (Option 2) that spoils waste transport dominates LCIA results. Life cycle environmental impacts for both grout barriers were most sensitive to resource input requirements for manufacturing volumes and transportation. Uncertainty associated with the efficacy of new technology such as CS over its required

  15. Applicability of petroleum horizontal drilling technology to hazardous waste site characterization and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goranson, C.

    1992-09-01

    Horizontal wells have the potential to become an important tool for use in characterization, remediation and monitoring operations at hazardous waste disposal, chemical manufacturing, refining and other sites where subsurface pollution may develop from operations or spills. Subsurface pollution of groundwater aquifers can occur at these sites by leakage of surface disposal ponds, surface storage tanks, underground storage tanks (UST), subsurface pipelines or leakage from surface operations. Characterization and remediation of aquifers at or near these sites requires drilling operations that are typically shallow, less than 500-feet in depth. Due to the shallow nature of polluted aquifers, waste site subsurface geologic formations frequently consist of unconsolidated materials. Fractured, jointed and/or layered high compressive strength formations or compacted caliche type formations can also be encountered. Some formations are unsaturated and have pore spaces that are only partially filled with water. Completely saturated underpressured aquifers may be encountered in areas where the static ground water levels are well below the ground surface. Each of these subsurface conditions can complicate the drilling and completion of wells needed for monitoring, characterization and remediation activities. This report describes some of the equipment that is available from petroleum drilling operations that has direct application to groundwater characterization and remediation activities. A brief discussion of petroleum directional and horizontal well drilling methodologies is given to allow the reader to gain an understanding of the equipment needed to drill and complete horizontal wells. Equipment used in river crossing drilling technology is also discussed. The final portion of this report is a description of the drilling equipment available and how it can be applied to groundwater characterization and remediation activities

  16. Remediation of copper in vineyards – A mini review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackie, K.A.; Müller, T.; Kandeler, E.

    2012-01-01

    Viticulturists use copper fungicide to combat Downy Mildew. Copper, a non-degradable heavy metal, can accumulate in soil or leach into water sources. Its accumulation in topsoil has impacted micro and macro organisms, spurring scientists to research in situ copper removal methods. Recent publications suggest that microorganism assisted phytoextraction, using plants and bacteria to actively extract copper, is most promising. As vineyards represent moderately polluted sites this technique has great potential. Active plant extraction and chelate assisted remediation extract too little copper or risk leaching, respectively. However, despite interesting pot experiment results using microorganism assisted phytoextraction, it remains a challenge to find plants that primarily accumulate copper in their shoots, a necessity in vineyards where whole plant removal would be time consuming and financially cumbersome. Vineyard remediation requires a holistic approach including sustainable soil management, proper plant selection, increasing biodiversity and microorganisms. - Highlights: ► We describe copper distribution and availability in vineyards. ► We explain the environmental impact of copper on organisms, plants and processes. ► We detail possible remediation methods within vineyards. ► Microbially assisted phytoremediation is the most promising remediation method. ► A solution requires an interdisciplinary approach between plants, soil and vines. - This review is significant because it highlights prospective remediation methods usable in copper contaminated vineyards.

  17. The Interaction between Plants and Bacteria in the Remediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons: An Environmental Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Gkorezis

    2016-11-01

    remediation of PHC contaminated soil in terms of overall cost and success rates for in situ implementation in a diversity of environments. Mechanistically, there remain biological unknowns that present challenges for applying bio- and phyto-remediation technologies without having a deep prior understanding of individual target sites. In this review, evidence from traditional and modern omics technologies is discussed to provide a framework for plant-microbe interactions during PHCs remediation. The potential for integrating multiple molecular and computational techniques to evaluate linkages between microbial communities, plant communities and ecosystem processes is explored with an eye on

  18. The Interaction between Plants and Bacteria in the Remediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons: An Environmental Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkorezis, Panagiotis; Daghio, Matteo; Franzetti, Andrea; Van Hamme, Jonathan D; Sillen, Wouter; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2016-01-01

    contaminated soil in terms of overall cost and success rates for in situ implementation in a diversity of environments. Mechanistically, there remain biological unknowns that present challenges for applying bio- and phyto-remediation technologies without having a deep prior understanding of individual target sites. In this review, evidence from traditional and modern omics technologies is discussed to provide a framework for plant-microbe interactions during PHC remediation. The potential for integrating multiple molecular and computational techniques to evaluate linkages between microbial communities, plant communities and ecosystem processes is explored with an eye on improving phytoremediation of PHC contaminated sites.

  19. The Interaction between Plants and Bacteria in the Remediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons: An Environmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkorezis, Panagiotis; Daghio, Matteo; Franzetti, Andrea; Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Sillen, Wouter; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2016-01-01

    contaminated soil in terms of overall cost and success rates for in situ implementation in a diversity of environments. Mechanistically, there remain biological unknowns that present challenges for applying bio- and phyto-remediation technologies without having a deep prior understanding of individual target sites. In this review, evidence from traditional and modern omics technologies is discussed to provide a framework for plant–microbe interactions during PHC remediation. The potential for integrating multiple molecular and computational techniques to evaluate linkages between microbial communities, plant communities and ecosystem processes is explored with an eye on improving phytoremediation of PHC contaminated sites. PMID:27917161

  20. A numerical solution to three-dimensional multiphase transport of volatile organic compounds in unsaturated soils -- with an application to the remedial method of in-situ volatilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filley, T.; Tomasko, D.

    1992-04-01

    Part I of this paper presents the development and application of a numerical model for determining the fate and transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in the unsaturated zone resulting from forced volatilization and gaseous advection-dispersion of organic vapor in a multipartitioned three-dimensional environment. The model allows for single-component transport in the gas and water phases. The hydrocarbon is assumed to be in specific retention and, therefore, immobile. Partitioning of the hydrocarbon between the oil, water, gas, and soil is developed as rate-limited functions that are incorporated into sink/source terms in the transport equations. The code for the model was developed specifically to investigate in-situ volatilization (ISV) remedial strategies, predict the extent of cleanup from information obtained at a limited number of measurement locations, and to help design ISV remedial systems. Application of the model is demonstrated for a hypothetical one-dimensional ISV system. Part II of this paper will present the analysis of an existing ISV system using the full three-dimensional capability of the model

  1. Bio-remediation of aquifers polluted by chlorinated solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayolle, F.

    1996-01-01

    Numerous cases of contamination of aquifers by chlorinated aliphatic solvents, largely utilized during the last decades, constitute a public health problem, because of the toxic effect of such compounds. Different types of aerobic or anaerobic bacteria are able to degrade these molecules. Processes of bio remediation are now experimented in order to restore polluted aquifers. We present here the microorganisms and the enzymatic reactions involved in the biodegradation of chlorinated solvents, and different examples of in situ bio remediation operations are described. (author)

  2. Remedial Action Plan for Expanded Bioventing System Facility 6454

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    This draft remedial action plan (RAP) presents the scope for an expanded bioventing system for in situ treatment of fuel-contaminated soils at Site 6454 at Vandenberg Air Force Base (AFB), California...

  3. J.R. SIMPLOT EX-SITU BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY FOR TREATMENT OF DINOSEB-CONTAMINATED SOILS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the findings of an evaluation of the J.R. Simplot Ex-Situ Bioremediation Technology on the degradation of dinoseb (2-set-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol) an agricultural herbicide. This technology was developed by the J.R. Simplot Company (Simplot) to biologically ...

  4. Integrated remediation of soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dykes, R.S.; Howles, A.C.

    1992-01-01

    Remediation of sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and other organic chemicals frequently focuses on a single phase of the chemical in question. This paper describes an integrated approach to remediation involving selection of complimentary technologies designed to create a remedial system which achieves cleanup goals in affected media in the shortest possible time consistent with overall environmental protection

  5. Effect of heterogeneity on enhanced reductive dechlorination: Analysis of remediation efficiency and groundwater acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovelli, A.; Lacroix, E.; Robinson, C. E.; Gerhard, J.; Holliger, C.; Barry, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Enhanced reductive dehalogenation is an attractive in situ treatment technology for chlorinated contaminants. The process includes two acid-forming microbial reactions: fermentation of an organic substrate resulting in short-chain fatty acids, and dehalogenation resulting in hydrochloric acid. The accumulation of acids and the resulting drop of groundwater pH are controlled by the mass and distribution of chlorinated solvents in the source zone, type of electron donor, alternative terminal electron acceptors available and presence of soil mineral phases able to buffer the pH (such as carbonates). Groundwater acidification may reduce or halt microbial activity, and thus dehalogenation, significantly increasing the time and costs required to remediate the aquifer. In previous work a detailed geochemical and groundwater flow simulator able to model the fermentation-dechlorination reactions and associated pH change was developed. The model accounts for the main processes influencing microbial activity and groundwater pH, including the groundwater composition, the electron donor used and soil mineral phase interactions. In this study, the model was applied to investigate how spatial variability occurring at the field scale affects dechlorination rates, groundwater pH and ultimately the remediation efficiency. Numerical simulations were conducted to examine the influence of heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity on the distribution of the injected, fermentable substrate and on the accumulation/dilution of the acidic products of reductive dehalogenation. The influence of the geometry of the DNAPL source zone was studied, as well as the spatial distribution of soil minerals. The results of this study showed that the heterogeneous distribution of the soil properties have a potentially large effect on the remediation efficiency. For examples, zones of high hydraulic conductivity can prevent the accumulation of acids and alleviate the problem of groundwater acidification. The

  6. Enhancing the design of in situ chemical barriers with multicomponent reactive transport modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevougian, S.D.; Steefel, C.I.; Yabusaki, S.B.

    1994-11-01

    This paper addresses the need for systematic control of field-scale performance in the emplacement and operation of in situ chemical treatment barriers; in particular, it addresses the issue of how the local coupling of reaction kinetics and material heterogeneities at the laboratory or bench scale can be accurately upscaled to the field. The authors have recently developed modeling analysis tools that can explicitly account for all relevant chemical reactions that accompany the transport of reagents and contaminants through a chemically and physically heterogeneous subsurface rock or soil matrix. These tools are incorporated into an enhanced design methodology for in situ chemical treatment