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Sample records for in-situ gasification

  1. Chemical Looping Gasification for Hydrogen Enhanced Syngas Production with In-Situ CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathe, Mandar [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Xu, Dikai [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Hsieh, Tien-Lin [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Simpson, James [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Statnick, Robert [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Tong, Andrew [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Fan, Liang-Shih [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-12-31

    This document is the final report for the project titled “Chemical Looping Gasification for Hydrogen Enhanced Syngas Production with In-Situ CO2 Capture” under award number FE0012136 for the performance period 10/01/2013 to 12/31/2014.This project investigates the novel Ohio State chemical looping gasification technology for high efficiency, cost efficiency coal gasification for IGCC and methanol production application. The project developed an optimized oxygen carrier composition, demonstrated the feasibility of the concept and completed cold-flow model studies. WorleyParsons completed a techno-economic analysis which showed that for a coal only feed with carbon capture, the OSU CLG technology reduced the methanol required selling price by 21%, lowered the capital costs by 28%, increased coal consumption efficiency by 14%. Further, using the Ohio State Chemical Looping Gasification technology resulted in a methanol required selling price which was lower than the reference non-capture case.

  2. Experimental and modeling study of high performance direct carbon solid oxide fuel cell with in situ catalytic steam-carbon gasification reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haoran; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Houcheng; Tan, Peng; Yang, Guangming; Irvine, John T. S.; Ni, Meng

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, 2D models for direct carbon solid oxide fuel cells (DC-SOFCs) with in situ catalytic steam-carbon gasification reaction are developed. The simulation results are found to be in good agreement with experimental data. The performance of DC-SOFCs with and without catalyst are compared at different operating potential, anode inlet gas flow rate and operating temperature. It is found that adding suitable catalyst can significantly speed up the in situ steam-carbon gasification reaction and improve the performance of DC-SOFC with H2O as gasification agent. The potential of syngas and electricity co-generation from the fuel cell is also evaluated, where the composition of H2 and CO in syngas can be adjusted by controlling the anode inlet gas flow rate. In addition, the performance DC-SOFCs and the percentage of fuel in the outlet gas are both increased with increasing operating temperature. At a reduced temperature (below 800 °C), good performance of DC-SOFC can still be obtained with in-situ catalytic carbon gasification by steam. The results of this study form a solid foundation to understand the important effect of catalyst and related operating conditions on H2O-assisted DC-SOFCs.

  3. Joint European project on underground coal gasification in Spain; Proyecto europeo conjunto de gasificacion subterranea de carbon en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J.M.; Obis, A.; Menendez, E.; Albeniz, M.A.; Chandelle, V.; Mostade, M.; Bailey, A.C. [ITGE, Madrid (Spain)

    1992-09-01

    Organizations from Spain, Belgium and the United Kingdom are collaborating in a field test of underground coal gasification which is being implemented in the north of Teruel Province (Spain). The test is first phase of a European development programme on in-situ coal gasification, being carried out with financial help from the Commission of the European Communities. This paper covers a forecast of the future energy demand for Europe, the potential of in-situ coal gasification, and a summary of the recent development of in-situ coal gasification. The circumstances which led to the formation of a European organisation (UEE) which will implement the project are described, and its objectives are presented. The geological characteristics of the proposed region are detailed, together with the test programme, and its successive phases in realising the principle parameters of the operations.

  4. Water pollution control for underground coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humenick, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Water pollution arising from underground gasification of coal is one of the important considerations in the eventual commercialization of the process. Because many coal seams which are amenable to in situ gasification are also ground-water aquifers, contaminants may be released to these ground waters during and after gasification. Also, when product gas is processed above ground for use, wastewater streams are generated which are too polluted to be discharged. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the nature of the groundwater and above-ground pollutants, discuss the potential long and short-term effects on ground water, propose control and restoration strategies, and to identify potential wastewater treatment schemes

  5. Instrumentation and process control development for in situ coal gasification. Fourth quarterly report, September--November 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northrop, D.A. (ed.)

    1976-01-01

    The instrumentation effort for Phases 2 and 3 of the Second Hanna In Situ Coal Gasification Experiment was fielded and background data obtained prior to the initiation of Phase 2 on November 25, 1975. A total of over 600 channels of instrumentation in 15 instrumentation wells and two surface arrays was fielded for the instrumentation techniques under evaluation. The feasibility of the passive acoustic technique to locate the source of process-related noises has been demonstrated; its utility is presently hampered by the inexact definition of signal arrivals and the lack of automated signal monitoring and analysis systems. A revised mathematical model for the electrical techniques has been developed which demonstrates the potential for remote monitoring. (auth)

  6. Thermovolumetric investigations of steam gasification of coals and their chars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porada Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of steam gasification of three coals of various rank and three chars obtained from these coals by the ex-situ method at 900 °C was compared. In the coal gasification process, the pyrolysis stage plays a very important part, which is connected with its direct impact on the kinetics of gasification of the resulting char. What is more, taking into consideration the impact of pyrolysis conditions on char properties, it should be anticipated that the gasification kinetics of coal and char, formed from it by the ex situ method, will be different. In order to examine and compare the process of gasification of coals and chars, an isothermal thermovolumetric method, designed by the authors, was applied. For all the examined samples the measurements were performed at three temperatures, i.e. 850, 900, and 950 °C, and at the pressure of 0.1 MPa. An evaluation of the impact of raw material on the steam gasification of the examined samples was made. The carbon conversion degree and the kinetic parameters of CO and H2 formation reaction were calculated. It was observed that the course of gasification is different for coals and chars obtained from them and it can be concluded that coals are more reactive than chars. Values of kinetic parameters of carbon monoxide and hydrogen formation calculated for coals and corresponding chars are also different. Due to the observed differences the process of gasification of coals and of chars with steam should not be equated.

  7. Push-pull test: a method of evaluating formation adsorption parameters for predicting the environmental effects on in situ coal gasification and uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drever, J.I.; McKee, C.R.

    1980-11-01

    The push-pull test, which is a simple injection and pumping sequence of groundwater spiked with solutes of interest, is presented as a method of determining the adsorption characteristics of a formation. Adsorption properties are necessary to predict restoration from both in situ coal gasification and in situ uranium extraction. The major problems in applying laboratory measurements to the field concern scaling the effect of particle size and obtaining representative samples. Laboratory measurements are conducted on gram to kilogram scale samples, whereas the push-pull test evaluates a sample weighing approximately 130 to 1000 metric tons, depending on volume injected and porosity. The problem in translating laboratory results to the field appear to be less severe for sedimentary uranium bodies than for coal. Laboratory measurements are useful in delineating ranges in adsorption properties and in planning the field experiment. Two field push-pull tests were conducted on uranium formations in Wyoming. Adsorption properties estimated from these tests on the basis of a simple cell model were compared to the laboratory values. In the first case, excellent agreement was observed between the values estimated from the field test and the values measured in the laboratory. In the second case, the value for K/sub d/ determined in the laboratory was five times higher than the field value. It is recommended that push-pull tests be conducted on coal formations being considered for in situ gasification in view of the great uncertainty in extrapolating laboratory adsorption properties to the field

  8. Gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, David J.

    1999-12-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introduction; Review of driving forces for change; Gasification technology; Versatility of the gasification process; Commercial Application of gasification; Gas turbine development; Fuel Cell Development; Economics of gasification; Global warming and gasification; Discussion; Summary and Conclusions. (Author)

  9. Synergistic effect on co-gasification reactivity of biomass-petroleum coke blended char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Juntao; Guo, Qinghua; Gong, Yan; Ding, Lu; Yu, Guangsuo

    2017-06-01

    In this work, effects of gasification temperature (900°C-1100°C) and blended ratio (3:1, 1:1, 1:3) on reactivity of petroleum coke and biomass co-gasification were studied in TGA. Quantification analysis of active AAEM transformation and in situ investigation of morphological structure variations in gasification were conducted respectively using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and heating stage microscope to explore synergistic effect on co-gasification reactivity. The results indicated that char gasification reactivity was enhanced with increasing biomass proportion and gasification temperature. Synergistic effect on co-gasification reactivity was presented after complete generation of biomass ash, and gradually weakened with increasing temperature from 1000°C to 1100°C after reaching the most significant value at 1000°C. This phenomenon was well related with the appearance of molten biomass ash rich in glassy state potassium and the weakest inhibition effect on active potassium transformation during co-gasification at the temperature higher than 1000°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hoe Creek II field experiment on underground coal gasification, preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiman, W.R.; Thorsness, C.B.; Hill, R.W.; Rozsa, R.B.; Cena, R.; Gregg, D.W.; Stephens, D.R.

    1978-02-27

    A second in-situ coal gasification experiment was performed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory at Hoe Creek in Wyoming. The Linked Vertical Wells scheme for in-situ coal gasification was used. The experiment took 100 days for air flow testing, reverse combustion linking, forward combustion gasification, and post-burn steam flow. Air was used for gasification except for a 2-day test with oxygen and steam. Reverse combustion linking took 14 days at 1.6 m/day. Air requirements for linking were 0.398 Mgmol per meter of link assuming a single direct link. The coal pyrolysed during linking was 17 m/sup 3/, which corresponds to a single link 1.0 m in diameter. There was, however, strong evidence of at least two linkage paths. The detected links stayed below the 3 m level in the 7.6 coal seam; however, the product flow from the forward-burn gasification probably followed the coal-overburden interface not the reverse burn channels at the 3 m level. A total of 232 Mgmols (194 Mscf) of gas was produced with heating value above 125 kJ/mol (140 Btu/scf) for significant time periods and an average of 96 kJ/mol (108 Btu/scf). During the oxygen-steam test the heating value was above 270 kJ/gmol (300 Btu/scf) twice and averaged 235 kJ/gmol (265 Btu/scf). The coal recovery was 1310 m/sup 3/ (1950 ton). Gasification was terminated because of decreasing product quality not because of burn through. The product quality decreased because of increasing underground heat loss.

  11. Self-ignition of coal during in-situ gasification. Thermoanalytical investigations. Selbstentzuendung von Kohlen bei der Untertagevergasung. Thermoanalytische Untersuchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J O

    1986-01-10

    The underground gasification of deep coal strata via boreholes presupposes flow ways for the gasifying agent and the gasified media with a sufficiently high degree of permeability. Canal burning during countercurrent flow in low depths has been tested as a technical method for linking boreholes and enhancing gas permeability. For the execution of in situ gasification the control or prevention of the spontaneous ignition of the coal under high pressure should not be ignored, because of self-ignition resulting from canal burning in the linking phase. To investigate enthalpy change during the oxidation of coal under various conditions, a device for differential thermal analysis (DTA) was developed and constructed with which temperature development as a result of oxidation in a flowing pressure-gas atmosphere could be observed. A caloric calibration of the device permitted a direct inference of enthalpic difference from differential thermal potential as a measured value. With a regression model for reaction kinetics, the intensity of heat development was linked with kinetic data; this permitted a description of the dependence of the oxidation process on temperature and material concentration. From the interconnections discovered between the carbonization degree and enthalpy change during oxidation we may conclude that the oxidation process is controlled by the emergence of thermal decomposition products. The heat tonality diagram of the DTA of coal oxidation can be divided into three phases and interpreted in connection with the different degrees of carbonization. The results of the investigation reveal that inactivation of the coal before the actual process of linking is of considerable importance. (MOS).

  12. The carbon dioxide gasification characteristics of biomass char samples and their effect on coal gasification reactivity during co-gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafu, Lihle D; Neomagus, Hein W J P; Everson, Raymond C; Okolo, Gregory N; Strydom, Christien A; Bunt, John R

    2018-06-01

    The carbon dioxide gasification characteristics of three biomass char samples and bituminous coal char were investigated in a thermogravimetric analyser in the temperature range of 850-950 °C. Char SB exhibited higher reactivities (R i , R s , R f ) than chars SW and HW. Coal char gasification reactivities were observed to be lower than those of the three biomass chars. Correlations between the char reactivities and char characteristics were highlighted. The addition of 10% biomass had no significant impact on the coal char gasification reactivity. However, 20 and 30% biomass additions resulted in increased coal char gasification rate. During co-gasification, chars HW and SW caused increased coal char gasification reactivity at lower conversions, while char SB resulted in increased gasification rates throughout the entire conversion range. Experimental data from biomass char gasification and biomass-coal char co-gasification were well described by the MRPM, while coal char gasification was better described by the RPM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Plasma gasification process: Modeling, simulation and comparison with conventional air gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janajreh, Isam; Raza, Syed Shabbar; Valmundsson, Arnar Snaer

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Plasma/conventional gasification are modeled via Gibbs energy minimization. ► The model is applied to wide range of feedstock, tire, biomass, coal, oil shale. ► Plasma gasification show high efficiency for tire waste and coal. ► Efficiency is around 42% for plasma and 72% for conventional gasification. ► Lower plasma gasification efficiency justifies hazardous waste energy recovery. - Abstract: In this study, two methods of gasification are developed for the gasification of various feedstock, these are plasma gasification and conventional air gasification. The two methods are based on non-stoichiometric Gibbs energy minimization approach. The model takes into account the different type of feedstocks, which are analyzed at waste to energy lab at Masdar Institute, oxidizer used along with the plasma energy input and accurately evaluates the syngas composition. The developed model is applied for several types of feedstock, i.e. waste tire material, coal, plywood, pine needles, oil shale, and municipal solid waste (MSW), algae, treated/untreated wood, instigating air/steam as the plasma gas and only air as oxidizer for conventional gasification. The results of plasma gasification and conventional air gasification are calculated on the bases of product gas composition and the process efficiency. Results of plasma gasification shows that high gasification efficiency is achievable using both tire waste material and coal, also, the second law efficiency is calculated for plasma gasification that shows a relative high efficiency for tire and coal as compare to other feedstock. The average process efficiency for plasma gasification is calculated to be around 42%. On other hand the result of conventional gasification shows an average efficiency of 72%. The low efficiency of plasma gasification suggest that if only the disposal of hazard waste material is considered then plasma gasification can be a viable option to recover energy.

  14. Temporal measurements and kinetics of selenium release during coal combustion and gasification in a fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Fenghua; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Yingju

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The temporal release of Se from coal combustion and gasification was measured. • Kinetic laws for Se release from coal combustion and gasification were determined. • The influences of temperature and chemical composition of flue gas were clarified. • The interactions of Se species with mineral affect the release kinetics of Se. - Abstract: The temporal release of selenium from coal during combustion and gasification in a fluidized bed was measured in situ by an on-line analysis system of trace elements in flue gas. The on-line analysis system is based on an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and can measure concentrations of trace elements in flue gas quantitatively and continuously. The results of on-line analysis suggest that the concentration of selenium in flue gas during coal gasification is higher than that during coal combustion. Based on the results of on-line analysis, a second-order kinetic law r(x) = 0.94e −26.58/RT (−0.56 x 2 −0.51 x + 1.05) was determined for selenium release during coal combustion, and r(x) = 11.96e −45.03/RT (−0.53 x 2 −0.56 x + 1.09) for selenium release during coal gasification. These two kinetic laws can predict respectively the temporal release of selenium during coal combustion and gasification with an acceptable accuracy. Thermodynamic calculations were conducted to predict selenium species during coal combustion and gasification. The speciation of selenium in flue gas during coal combustion differs from that during coal gasification, indicating that selenium volatilization is different. The gaseous selenium species can react with CaO during coal combustion, but it is not likely to interact with mineral during coal gasification.

  15. A critical review on biomass gasification, co-gasification, and their environmental assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Farzad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gasification is an efficient process to obtain valuable products from biomass with several potential applications, which has received increasing attention over the last decades. Further development of gasification technology requires innovative and economical gasification methods with high efficiencies. Various conventional mechanisms of biomass gasification as well as new technologies are discussed in this paper. Furthermore, co-gasification of biomass and coal as an efficient method to protect the environment by reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions has been comparatively discussed. In fact, the increasing attention to renewable resources is driven by the climate change due to GHG emissions caused by the widespread utilization of conventional fossil fuels, while biomass gasification is considered as a potentially sustainable and environmentally-friendly technology. Nevertheless, social and environmental aspects should also be taken into account when designing such facilities, to guarantee the sustainable use of biomass. This paper also reviews the life cycle assessment (LCA studies conducted on biomass gasification, considering different technologies and various feedstocks.

  16. Recent advances in oxygen production for gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunardson, H.H. [Air Products Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This paper described the Ionic Transport Membrane (ITM) technology that reduces the overall cost of the gasification process by 7 per cent. Gasification is a proven, but expensive technology for producing hydrogen and synthesis gas from low cost hydrocarbon feedstock. Gasification is also an alternative to conventional steam methane reforming based on natural gas. A key cost element in gasification is the production of oxygen. For that reason, Air Products Canada Limited developed a ceramic membrane air separation technology that can reduce the cost of pure oxygen by more than 30 per cent. The separation technology achieves a capital cost reduction of 30 per cent and an energy reduction of 35 per cent over conventional cryogenic air separation. ITM is an electrochemical process that integrates very well with the gasification process and an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) option for production of electrical power from the waste heat generated from gasification. This paper described the integration of ITM technology with both the gasification and IGCC processes and showed how the superior economics of ITM can allow gasification to compete with steam methane reforming and thereby reduce dependency of oil sands development on increasingly scarce and costly natural gas.

  17. Modelling the low-tar BIG gasification concept[Biomass Integrated gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Lars; Elmegaard, B.; Qvale, B.; Henriksen, Ulrrik [Technical univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Bentzen, J.D.; Hummelshoej, R. [COWI A/S (Denmark)

    2007-07-01

    A low-tar, high-efficient biomass gasification concept for medium- to large-scale power plants has been designed. The concept is named 'Low-Tar BIG' (BIG = Biomass Integrated Gasification). The concept is based on separate pyrolysis and gasification units. The volatile gases from the pyrolysis (containing tar) are partially oxidised in a separate chamber, and hereby the tar content is dramatically reduced. Thus, the investment, and running cost of a gas cleaning system can be reduced, and the reliability can be increased. Both pyrolysis and gasification chamber are bubbling fluid beds, fluidised with steam. For moist fuels, the gasifier can be integrated with a steam drying process, where the produced steam is used in the pyrolysis/gasification chamber. In this paper, mathematical models and results from initial tests of a laboratory Low-Tar BIG gasifier are presented. Two types of models are presented: 1. The gasifier-dryer applied in different power plant systems: Gas engine, Simple cycle gas turbine, Recuperated gas turbine and Integrated Gasification and Combined Cycle (IGCC). The paper determines the differences in efficiency of these systems and shows that the gasifier will be applicable for very different fuels with different moisture contents, depending on the system. 2. A thermodynamic Low-Tar BIG model. This model is based on mass and heat balance between four reactors: Pyrolysis, partial oxidation, gasification, gas-solid mixer. The paper describes the results from this study and compares the results to actual laboratory tests. The study shows, that the Low-Tar BIG process can use very wet fuels (up to 65-70% moist) and still produce heat and power with a remarkable high electric efficiency. Hereby the process offers the unique combination of large scale gasification and low-cost gas cleaning and use of low-cost fuels which very likely is the necessary combination that will lead to a breakthrough of gasification technology. (au)

  18. Catalytic gasification in fluidized bed, of orange waste. Comparison with non catalytic gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar Trujillo, Leonardo; Marquez Montesinos, Francisco; Ramos Robaina, Boris A.; Guerra Reyes, Yanet; Arauzo Perez, Jesus; Gonzalo Callejo, Alberto; Sanchez Cebrian, Jose L

    2011-01-01

    The industry processing of the orange, generates high volumes of solid waste. This waste has been used as complement in the animal feeding, in biochemical processes; but their energy use has not been valued by means of the gasification process. They were carried out gasification studies with air in catalytic fluidized bed (using dolomite and olivine as catalysts in a secondary reactor, also varying the temperature of the secondary reactor and the catalyst mass), of the solid waste of orange and the results are compared with those obtained in the gasification with non catalytic air. In the processes we use a design of complete factorial experiment of 2k, valuing the influence of the independent variables and their interactions in the answers, using the software Design-Expert version 7 and a grade of significance of 95 %. The results demonstrate the qualities of the solid waste of orange in the energy use by means of the gasification process for the treatment of these residuals, obtaining a gas of low caloric value. The use of catalysts also diminishes the yield of tars obtained in the gasification process, being more active the dolomite that the olivine in this process. (author)

  19. International Seminar on Gasification 2009 - Biomass Gasification, Gas Clean-up and Gas Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-10-15

    During the seminar international and national experts gave presentations concerning Biomass gasification, Gas cleaning and gas treatment; and Strategy and policy issues. The presentations give an overview of the current status and what to be expected in terms of development, industrial interest and commercialization of different biomass gasification routes. The following PPT presentations are reproduced in the report: Black Liquor Gasification (Chemrec AB.); Gasification and Alternative Feedstocks for the Production of Synfuels and 2nd Generation Biofuels (Lurgi GmbH); Commercial Scale BtL Production on the Verge of Becoming Reality (Choren Industries GmbH.); Up-draft Biomass Gasification (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S); Heterogeneous Biomass Residues and the Catalytic Synthesis of Alcohols (Enerkem); Status of the GoBiGas-project (Goeteborg Energi AB.); On-going Gasification Activities in Spain (University of Zaragoza,); Biomass Gasification Research in Italy (University of Perugia.); RDandD Needs and Recommendations for the Commercialization of High-efficient Bio-SNG (Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands.); Cleaning and Usage of Product Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification (Vienna University of Technology); Biomass Gasification and Catalytic Tar Cracking Process Development (Research Triangle Institute); Syngas Cleaning with Catalytic Tar Reforming (Franhofer UMSICHT); Biomass Gas Cleaning and Utilization - The Topsoee Perspective (Haldor Topsoee A/S); OLGA Tar Removal Technology (Dahlman); Bio-SNG - Strategy and Activities within E.ON (E.ON Ruhrgas AG); Strategy and Gasification Activities within Sweden (Swedish Energy Agency); 20 TWh/year Biomethane (Swedish Gas Association)

  20. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    a waste management perspective, pyrolysis and gasification are of relatively little importance as an overall management option. Today, gasification is primarily used on specific waste fractions as opposed to mixed household wastes. The main commercial activity so far has been in Japan, with only limited....... Today gasification is used within a range of applications, the most important of which are conversion of coal into syngas for use as chemical feedstock or energy production; but also gasification of biomass and waste is gaining significant interest as emerging technologies for sustainable energy. From...... success in Europe and North America (Klein et al., 2004). However, pyrolysis and gasification of waste are generally expected to become more widely used in the future. A main reason for this is that public perceptions of waste incineration in some countries is a major obstacle for installing new...

  1. In situ formation of coal gasification catalysts from low cost alkali metal salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Bernard J.; Brittain, Robert D.; Sancier, Kenneth M.

    1985-01-01

    A carbonaceous material, such as crushed coal, is admixed or impregnated with an inexpensive alkali metal compound, such as sodium chloride, and then pretreated with a stream containing steam at a temperature of 350.degree. to 650.degree. C. to enhance the catalytic activity of the mixture in a subsequent gasification of the mixture. The treatment may result in the transformation of the alkali metal compound into another, more catalytically active, form.

  2. The technology of extracting gaseous fuel based on comprehensive in situ gasification and coalbed degassing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Н. Шабаров

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study considers a comprehensive technology (designed and patented by the authors of developing coal and methane deposits which combines in situ gasification of lower coalbeds in the suite of rock bump hazardous gassy beds, extraction of coal methane and mechanized mining of coal. The first stage of the technology consists in mining gaseous fuel that enables one to extract up to 15-20 % of total energy from the suite of coalbeds. Geodynamic zoning is used to select positions for boring wells. Using the suggested technology makes it possible to solve a number of tasks simultaneously. First of all that is extracting gaseous fuel from the suite of coalbeds without running any mining works while retaining principal coalbeds in the suite and preparing them for future processing (unloading and degassing. During the first phase the methane-coal deposit works as a gas deposit only, the gas having two sources – extracted methane (which includes its locked forms, absorbed and adsorbed and the products of partial incineration of thin coalbeds, riders and seams from thee suite. The second stage consists in deep degassing and unloading of coal beds which sharply reduces the hazards of methane explosion and rock bumps, thus increasing the productivity of mechanized coal mining. During the second stage coal is mined in long poles with the account of degassing and unloading of coal beds, plus the data on gas dynamic structure of coal rock massif.

  3. Commercialization Development of Crop Straw Gasification Technologies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengfeng Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop straw gasification technologies are the most promising biomass gasification technologies and have great potential to be further developed in China. However, the commercialization development of gasification technology in China is slow. In this paper, the technical reliability and practicability of crop straw gasification technologies, the economic feasibility of gas supply stations, the economic feasibility of crop straw gasification equipment manufacture enterprises and the social acceptability of crop straw gasification technologies are analyzed. The results show that presently both the atmospheric oxidation gasification technology and the carbonization pyrolysis gasification technology in China are mature and practical, and can provide fuel gas for households. However, there are still a series of problems associated with these technologies that need to be solved for the commercialization development, such as the high tar and CO content of the fuel gas. The economic feasibility of the gas supply stations is different in China. Parts of gas supply stations are unprofitable due to high initial investment, the low fuel gas price and the small numbers of consumers. In addition, the commercialization development of crop straw gasification equipment manufacture enterprises is hindered for the low market demand for gasification equipment which is related to the fund support from the government. The acceptance of the crop straw gasification technologies from both the government and the farmers in China may be a driving force of further commercialization development of the gasification technologies. Then, the crop straw gasification technologies in China have reached at the stage of pre-commercialization. At this stage, the gasification technologies are basically mature and have met many requirements of commercialization, however, some incentives are needed to encourage their further development.

  4. Thermal and biological gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overend, R.P.; Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Gasification is being developed to enable a diverse range of biomass resources to meet modern secondary energy uses, especially in the electrical utility sector. Biological or anaerobic gasification in US landfills has resulted in the installation of almost 500 MW(e) of capacity and represents the largest scale application of gasification technology today. The development of integrated gasification combined cycle generation for coal technologies is being paralleled by bagasse and wood thermal gasification systems in Hawaii and Scandinavia, and will lead to significant deployment in the next decade as the current scale-up activities are commercialized. The advantages of highly reactive biomass over coal in the design of process units are being realized as new thermal gasifiers are being scaled up to produce medium-energy-content gas for conversion to synthetic natural gas and transportation fuels and to hydrogen for use in fuel cells. The advent of high solids anaerobic digestion reactors is leading to commercialization of controlled municipal solid waste biological gasification rather than landfill application. In both thermal and biological gasification, high rate process reactors are a necessary development for economic applications that address waste and residue management and the production and use of new crops for energy. The environmental contribution of biomass in reducing greenhouse gas emission will also be improved.

  5. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However

  6. Examination of oil sands projects : gasification, CO{sub 2} emissions and supply costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, K. [Energy Resources Conservation Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Non-conventional resources such as Alberta's oil sands are experiencing increased global interest because of the decline in global conventional oil and natural gas reserves. Bitumen extraction and upgrading is an energy intensive process. This paper provided a general discussion of Alberta's oil sands reserves, production and energy requirements. The paper discussed the application of different technologies to the oil sands, and in particular, the use of gasification as a method to produce bitumen-derived synthesis gas. Two oil sands projects currently under construction and implementing gasification technology were briefly described. The paper also provided a comparison of emission intensities from projects that employ gasification leading to a forecast of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions from the oil sands. The impact of Alberta's legislation and the federal framework on greenhouse gas emissions were also examined. Last, the paper discussed a supply cost methodology to compare an integrated extraction and upgrading project using gasification versus a similar project using a conventional steam methane reforming process (SMR). It was concluded that after comparing carbon dioxide emission intensities across different types of projects, the type of project that would be most heavily impacted by greenhouse gas emissions penalties was an in-situ extraction with an upgrading project that employed gasification technology. 36 refs., 5 tabs., 12 figs., 1 appendix.

  7. Oil companies push in-situ recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, H.

    1977-01-01

    Possibly, a third Athabaska tar-sand plant using surface mining will be built in the 1980's, but future development beyond that point will probably depend on in-situ recovery. The discussion of in-situ recovery focusses on the effect it will have on the Canadian chemical industry, for example, the market for sodium hydroxide. To obtain the highest yields of oil from bitumen, an external source of hydrogen is necessary; for example Syncrude imports natural gas to make hydrogen for desulphurization. Gasification of coal is a possible source of hydrogen. Research on hydrocracking is progressing. Use of a prototype CANDU OCR reactor to raise the hot steam necessary for in-situ recovery has been suggested. Venezuela is interested in Canadian upgrading technology. (N.D.H.)

  8. Gasification of wood in a fluidized bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, L.C. de; Marti, T; Frankenhaeuser, M [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    A first series of gasification experiments with our fluidized bed gasifier was performed using clean sawdust as fuel. The installation and the analytical systems were tested in a parametric study in which gasification temperature and equivalence ratio were varied. The data acquired will serve to establish the differences between the gasification of clean wood and the gasification of Altholz (scrapwood) and wood/plastics mixtures. (author) 1 fig., 3 tabs., 5 refs.

  9. Groundwater and underground coal gasification in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluszka, A.; MacMillan, G.; Maev, S.

    2010-01-01

    Underground coal gasification has potential in Alberta. This presentation provided background information on underground coal gasification and discussed groundwater and the Laurus Energy demonstration project. A multi-disciplined approach to project assessment was described with particular reference to geologic and hydrogeologic setting; geologic mapping; and a hydrogeologic numerical model. Underground coal gasification involves the conversion of coal into synthesis gas or syngas. It can be applied to mined coal at the surface or applied to non-mined coal seams using injection and production wells. Underground coal gasification can effect groundwater as the rate of water influx into the coal seams influences the quality and composition of the syngas. Byproducts created include heat as well as water with dissolved concentrations of ammonia, phenols, salts, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and liquid organic products from the pyrolysis of coal. A process overview of underground coal gasification was also illustrated. It was concluded that underground coal gasification has the potential in Alberta and risks to groundwater could be minimized by a properly designed project. refs., figs.

  10. Survey of Biomass Gasification, Volume II: Principles of Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B. (comp.)

    1979-07-01

    Biomass can be converted by gasification into a clean-burning gaseous fuel that can be used to retrofit existing gas/oil boilers, to power engines, to generate electricity, and as a base for synthesis of methanol, gasoline, ammonia, or methane. This survey describes biomass gasification, associated technologies, and issues in three volumes. Volume I contains the synopsis and executive summary, giving highlights of the findings of the other volumes. In Volume II the technical background necessary for understanding the science, engineering, and commercialization of biomass is presented. In Volume III the present status of gasification processes is described in detail, followed by chapters on economics, gas conditioning, fuel synthesis, the institutional role to be played by the federal government, and recommendations for future research and development.

  11. Gasification - Status and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Joergen

    2012-06-15

    In this report gasification and gas cleaning techniques for biomass are treated. The main reason for gasifying biomass is to refine the fuel to make it suitable for efficient CHP production, as vehicle fuel or in industrial processes. The focus is on production of synthesis gas that can be used for production of vehicle fuel and for CHP production. Depending on application different types of gasifiers, gasification techniques and process parameters are of interest. Two gasification techniques have been identified as suitable for syngas generation, mainly due to the fact that they allow the production of a nitrogen free gas out of the gasifier; Indirect gasification and pressurized oxygen-blown gasification For CHP production there are no restrictions on the gas composition in terms of nitrogen and here air-blown gasification is of interest as well. The main challenge when it comes to gas cleaning is related to sulphur and tars. There are different concepts and alternatives to handle sulphur and tars. Some of them are based on conventional techniques with well-proven components that are commercially available while others, more advantageous solutions, still need further development.

  12. Catalytic Gasification of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chodimella, Pramod; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Schlaf, Marcel; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Gasification of lignocellulosic biomass has attracted substantial current research interest. Various possible routes to convert biomass to fuels have been explored. In the present chapter, an overview of the gasification processes and their possible products are discussed. Gasification of solid

  13. Gasification potential for process industries in Languedoc-Roussillon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    This study, requested by the French 'BioenergieSud' network, aims at identifying the potentialities of gasification in Languedoc-Roussillon region (France). The goals are: evaluating the degree of information of industrialists with respect to gasification, their present day perception and the different obstacles and levers for the adoption of this technology; estimating the potential market of gasification units in this area through the study of the existing industrial actors; better evaluating the energy needs and expectations of the industrialists from different sectors in order to develop suitable gasification solutions

  14. Gasification with nuclear reactor heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisbrodt, I.A.

    1977-01-01

    The energy-political ultimate aims for the introduction of nuclear coal gasification and the present state of technology concerning the HTR reactor, concerning gasification and heat exchanging components are outlined. Presented on the plans a) for hydro-gasification of lignite and for steam gasification of pit coal for the production of synthetic natural gas, and b) for the introduction of a nuclear heat system. The safety and environmental problems to be expected are portrayed. The main points of development, the planned prototype plant and the schedule of the project Pototype plant Nuclear Process heat (PNP) are specified. In a market and economic viability study of nuclear coal gasification, the application potential of SNG, the possible construction programme for the FRG, as well as costs and rentability of SNG production are estimated. (GG) [de

  15. Gasification in a revolving tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speicher, R.F.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a method for allothermal coal gasification is to refine raw lignite from the Rhine area to high-quality synthesis gas or reduction gas without extracting the water utilizing nuclear process heat in a heated revolving bundle of tubes. Computational models are described for the macroscopic course of events in parallel flow gasification. In the design of the test plant, the principle of drag-in and transport of the tube drier was applied. (DG) [de

  16. Gasification: in search of efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whysall, M. [UOP N.V., Antwerp (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    Gasification of low cost feed stocks such as coal and heavy residues enables the supply of synthesis gas, hydrogen, power and utilities at a lower cost relative to conventional methodologies. The resulting synthesis gas can be used, after cleaning and sulphur removal, as a fuel or to produce other chemicals such as ammonia, methanol, or Fischer-Tropsch liquids. The paper covers coal and residue upgrading through the use of gasification, conversion and hydroprocessing and its integration with synthesis gas treatment and hydrogen recovery. Residue conversion choices can be influenced by hydrogen cost which can be controlled by integrating hydrogen production, recovery and purification into the gasification complex. Flow-schemes that maximize generation efficiency and minimize capital and operating costs and offer possibilities for CO{sub 2} capture are discussed. 3 figs.

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of in situ gasification-chemical looping combustion (iG-CLC) of Indian coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, P V; Menon, Kavitha G; Prakash, K S; Prudhvi, S; Anudeep, A

    2016-10-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an inherent CO 2 capture technology. It is gaining much interest in recent years mainly because of its potential in addressing climate change problems associated with CO 2 emissions from power plants. A typical chemical looping combustion unit consists of two reactors-fuel reactor, where oxidation of fuel occurs with the help of oxygen available in the form of metal oxides and, air reactor, where the reduced metal oxides are regenerated by the inflow of air. These oxides are then sent back to the fuel reactor and the cycle continues. The product gas from the fuel reactor contains a concentrated stream of CO 2 which can be readily stored in various forms or used for any other applications. This unique feature of inherent CO 2 capture makes the technology more promising to combat the global climate changes. Various types of CLC units have been discussed in literature depending on the type of fuel burnt. For solid fuel combustion three main varieties of CLC units exist namely: syngas CLC, in situ gasification-CLC (iG-CLC) and chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU). In this paper, theoretical studies on the iG-CLC unit burning Indian coal are presented. Gibbs free energy minimization technique is employed to determine the composition of flue gas and oxygen carrier of an iG-CLC unit using Fe 2 O 3 , CuO, and mixed carrier-Fe 2 O 3 and CuO as oxygen carriers. The effect of temperature, suitability of oxygen carriers, and oxygen carrier circulation rate on the performance of a CLC unit for Indian coal are studied and presented. These results are analyzed in order to foresee the operating conditions at which economic and smooth operation of the unit is expected.

  18. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01

    A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests

  19. ITM oxygen for gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, P.A.; Foster, E.P. [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Gunardson, H.H. [Air Products Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2005-11-01

    This paper described a newly developed air separation technology called Ionic Transport Membrane (ITM), which reduces the overall cost of the gasification process. The technology is well suited for advanced energy conversion processes such as integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) that require oxygen and use heavy carbonaceous feedstocks such as residual oils, bitumens, coke and coal. It is also well suited for traditional industrial applications for oxygen and distributed power. Air Products Canada Limited developed the ceramic membrane air separation technology that can reduce the cost of pure oxygen by more than 30 per cent. The separation technology achieves a capital cost reduction of 30 per cent and an energy reduction of 35 per cent over conventional cryogenic air separation. ITM is an electrochemical process that integrates well with the gasification process and an IGCC option for producing electricity from the waste heat generated from gasification. This paper described the integration of ITM technology with both the gasification and IGCC processes and showed the attractive economics of ITM. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  20. Wood biomass gasification in the world today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolikj, Ognjen; Perishikj, Radovan; Mikulikj, Jurica

    1999-01-01

    Today gasification technology of different kinds represents a more and more interesting option of the production of energy forms. The article describes a biomass gasification plant (waste wood) Sydkraft, Vernamo from Sweden. (Author)

  1. Texaco gasification power systems for clean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, M.E.; Thone, P.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Texaco Gasification Power Systems integrate Texaco's proprietary gasification technology with proven power generation and energy recovery schemes for efficient and environmentally superior fuel utilization. Texaco's commercial experience on gasification spans a period of over 40 years. During this time, the Texaco Gasification Process has been used primarily to manufacture synthesis gas for chemical applications in one hundred commercial installations worldwide. Power generation using the Texaco Gasification Power Systems (TGPS) concept has been successfully demonstrated at the Texaco-sponsored Cool Water Coal Gasification Program in California. The environmental superiority of this technology was demonstrated by the consistent performance of Cool Water in exceeding the strict emission standards of the state of California. Currently, several TGPS projects are under evaluation worldwide for power generation in the range of 90MW to 1300MW

  2. Small Scale Gasification Application and Perspectives in Circular Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavins, Maris; Bisters, Valdis; Burlakovs, Juris

    2018-06-01

    Gasification is the process converting solid fuels as coal and organic plant matter, or biomass into combustible gas, called syngas. Gasification is a thermal conversion process using carbonaceous fuel, and it differs substantially from other thermal processes such as incineration or pyrolysis. The process can be used with virtually any carbonaceous fuel. It is an endothermic thermal conversion process, with partial oxidation being the dominant feature. Gasification converts various feedstock including waste to a syngas. Instead of producing only heat and electricity, synthesis gas produced by gasification may be transformed into commercial products with higher value as transport fuels, fertilizers, chemicals and even to substitute natural gas. Thermo-chemical conversion of biomass and solid municipal waste is developing as a tool to promote the idea of energy system without fossil fuels to a reality. In municipal solid waste management, gasification does not compete with recycling, moreover it enhances recycling programs. Pre-processing and after-processing must increase the amount of recyclables in the circular economy. Additionally, end of life plastics can serve as an energy feedstock for gasification as otherwise it cannot be sorted out and recycled. There is great potential for application of gasification technology within the biomass waste and solid waste management sector. Industrial self-consumption in the mode of combined heat and power can contribute to sustainable economic development within a circular economy.

  3. Design and implementation of a laser-based absorption spectroscopy sensor for in situ monitoring of biomass gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveros Salazar, David; Goldenstein, Christopher S.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Seiser, Reinhard; Cattolica, Robert J.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    2017-12-01

    Research to demonstrate in situ laser-absorption-based sensing of H2O, CH4, CO2, and CO mole fraction is reported for the product gas line of a biomass gasifier. Spectral simulations were used to select candidate sensor wavelengths that optimize sensitive monitoring of the target species while minimizing interference from other species in the gas stream. A prototype sensor was constructed and measurements performed in the laboratory at Stanford to validate performance. Field measurements then were demonstrated in a pilot scale biomass gasifier at West Biofuels in Woodland, CA. The performance of a prototype sensor was compared for two sensor strategies: wavelength-scanned direct absorption (DA) and wavelength-scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS). The lasers used had markedly different wavelength tuning response to injection current, and modern distributed feedback lasers (DFB) with nearly linear tuning response to injection current were shown to be superior, leading to guidelines for laser selection for sensor fabrication. Non-absorption loss in the transmitted laser intensity from particulate scattering and window fouling encouraged the use of normalized WMS measurement schemes. The complications of using normalized WMS for relatively large values of absorbance and its mitigation are discussed. A method for reducing adverse sensor performance effects of a time-varying WMS background signal is also presented. The laser absorption sensor provided measurements with the sub-second time resolution needed for gasifier control and more importantly provided precise measurements of H2O in the gasification products, which can be problematic for the typical gas chromatography sensors used by industry.

  4. Hydrogen production from palm kernel shell via integrated catalytic adsorption (ICA) steam gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Zakir; Yusup, Suzana; Ahmad, Murni Melati; Chin, Bridgid Lai Fui

    2014-01-01

    efficiencies are due to significant CO 2 capturing in using adsorbent in pilot the scale fluidized bed gasification system. Comparative study with literature shows that the combination of adsorbent and catalyst produces better results in terms of hydrogen composition and gas heating values compared to that of only using biomass in steam catalytic gasification and in steam gasification with in situ CO 2 adsorbent

  5. Entrained Flow Gasification of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke

    The present Ph. D. thesis describes experimental and modeling investigations on entrained flow gasification of biomass and an experimental investigation on entrained flow cogasification of biomass and coal. A review of the current knowledge of biomass entrained flow gasification is presented....... Biomass gasification experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale atmospheric pressure entrained flow reactor with the aim to investigate the effects of operating parameters and biomass types on syngas products. A wide range of operating parameters was involved: reactor temperature, steam/carbon ratio......, excess air ratio, oxygen concentration, feeder gas flow, and residence time. Wood, straw, and lignin were used as biomass fuels. In general, the carbon conversion was higher than 90 % in the biomass gasification experiments conducted at high temperatures (> 1200 °C). The biomass carbon...

  6. Co-gasification of tire and biomass for enhancement of tire-char reactivity in CO2 gasification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahijani, Pooya; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Mohammadi, Maedeh

    2013-06-01

    In this investigation, palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and almond shell (AS) were implemented as two natural catalysts rich in alkali metals, especially potassium, to enhance the reactivity of tire-char through co-gasification process. Co-gasification experiments were conducted at several blending ratios using isothermal Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under CO2. The pronounced effect of inherent alkali content of biomass-chars on promoting the reactivity of tire-char was proven when acid-treated biomass-chars did not exert any catalytic effect on improving the reactivity of tire-char in co-gasification experiments. In kinetic studies of the co-gasified samples in chemically-controlled regime, modified random pore model (M-RPM) was adopted to describe the reactive behavior of the tire-char/biomass-char blends. By virtue of the catalytic effect of biomass, the activation energy for tire-char gasification was lowered from 250 kJ/mol in pure form 203 to 187 kJ/mol for AS-char and EFB-char co-gasified samples, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Carbon conversion predictor for fluidized bed gasification of biomass fuels - from TGA measurements to char gasification particle model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konttinen, J.T. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Chemistry, Renewable Energy Programme, POB 35, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Moilanen, A. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, POB 1000, Espoo (Finland); Martini, N. de; Hupa, M. [Abo Akademi University, Process Chemistry Centre, Combustion and Materials Chemistry, Turku (Finland)

    2012-09-15

    When a solid fuel particle is injected into a hot fluidized bed, the reactivity of fuel char in gasification reactions (between char carbon and steam and CO{sub 2}) plays a significant role for reaching a good carbon conversion. In this paper, the gasification reactivity data of some solid waste recovered fuels (SRF) obtained from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments is presented. Gas mixtures (H{sub 2}O, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO), were used in the experiments to find the inhibitive effects of CO and H{sub 2}. Average char gasification reactivity values are determined from the TGA results. Kinetic parameters for char carbon gasification reactivity correlations are determined from this data. The Uniform Conversion model is used to account for the change of gasification reaction rate as function of carbon conversion. Some discrepancies, due to complicated ash-carbon interactions, are subjects of further research. In the carbon conversion predictor, laboratory measured reactivity numbers are converted into carbon conversion numbers in a real-scale fluidized bed gasifier. The predictor is a relatively simple and transparent tool for the comparison of the gasification reactivity of different fuels in fluidized bed gasification. The residence times for solid fuels in fluidized bed gasifiers are simulated. Simulations against some pilot-scale results show reasonable agreement. (orig.)

  8. Wood biomass gasification: Technology assessment and prospects in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvadego, C.

    1992-05-01

    This investigation of the technical-economic feasibility of the development and use of wood biomass gasification plants to help meet the energy requirements of developing countries covers the following aspects: resource availability and production; gasification technologies and biomass gasification plant typology; plant operating, maintenance and safety requirements; the use of the biomass derived gas in internal combustion engines and boilers; and the nature of energy requirements in developing countries. The paper concludes with a progress report on biomass gasification research programs being carried out in developing countries world-wide

  9. Gasification of oil sand coke: review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-08-01

    The production of synthetic crude from the tar sands in Western Canada has been steadily increasing. Most of the delayed coke produced by Suncor is combusted on site, whereas all fluid coke produced by Syncrude is stockpiled.The database on the chemical and physical properties of the oil sand coke, including the composition and fusion properties of the mineral matter, has been established. The reactivity of the coke was determined by oxygen chemisorption, fixed bed and fluid bed bench scale gasification and pilot plant gasification. The reactivity of the oil sand coke for gasification is rather low and comparable to high rank coals, such as anthracite. Slurrability tests revealed that a solid concentration in water, approaching 70 wt%, can be achieved. Gasification is the front runner among clean technologies for the conversion of carbonaceous solids to useful products. Several commercial gasifiers are available to cover the wide range of severity. Because of the low reactivity of oil sands coke, high severity conditions are required to achieve high gasification conversion. Such conditions can be attained in entrained bed gasifiers. Gasifiers employing both dry and slurry feeding systems are suitable. A high efficiency, low SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions, as well as a low solid waste production are among the key advantages of the gasification technology compared with thecompeting technologies. Commercial gasification of oil sands coke is delayed because of the availability of natural gas on the site of the upgrading plants. Potential for the transportation of the oil sand coke to USA for electricity generation using the integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology was evaluated. 27 refs., 17 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Gasification in pulverized coal flames. Final report (Part I). Pulverized coal combustion and gasification in a cyclone reactor: experiment and model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhart, J. S.; Laurendeau, N. M.

    1979-05-01

    A unified experimental and analytical study of pulverized coal combustion and low-BTU gasification in an atmospheric cyclone reactor was performed. Experimental results include several series of coal combustion tests and a coal gasification test carried out via fuel-rich combustion without steam addition. Reactor stability was excellent over a range of equivalence ratios from .67 to 2.4 and air flowrates from 60 to 220 lb/hr. Typical carbon efficiencies were 95% for air-rich and stoichiometric tests and 80% for gasification tests. The best gasification results were achieved at an equivalence ratio of 2.0, where the carbon, cold gas and hot gas efficiencies were 83, 45 and 75%, respectively. The corresponding product gas heating value was 70 BTU/scf. A macroscopic model of coal combustion in the cyclone has been developed. Fuel-rich gasification can also be modeled through a gas-phase equilibrium treatment. Fluid mechanics are modeled by a particle force balance and a series combination of a perfectly stirred reactor and a plug flow reactor. Kinetic treatments of coal pyrolysis, char oxidation and carbon monoxide oxidation are included. Gas composition and temperature are checked against equilibrium values. The model predicts carbon efficiency, gas composition and temperature and reactor heat loss; gasification parameters, such as cold and hot gas efficiency and make gas heating value, are calculated for fuel-rich conditions. Good agreement exists between experiment and theory for conditions of this investigation.

  11. Coal gasification: A technology in the puberty. Kolenvergassing: Een technologie in de puberteit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peppink, G. (Sep, Arnhem (Netherlands))

    1994-12-01

    Several aspects of present developments regarding coal gasification are briefly discussed. Attention is paid to the place of the coal gasification in the total electric power generation, its environmental impact, the recently available new coal techniques, coal gasification in the next ten years, cost comparisons, and developments at the coal gasification demonstration plant in Buggenum, Netherlands. 3 figs.

  12. Iron-catalyzed gasification of char in CO/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Sears, P.; Suzuki, T.

    Gasification of Fe-loaded char was carried out at 750 and 950 C by using media containing 25, 50, and 100 vol % of CO/sub 2/. Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to determine the forms of Fe species present before and at the end of gasification. At 750 C the reduction of magnetite by carbon was observed to be a rate-determining step. At 950 C the gasification may be governed by a combination of mass-transfer effects and a loss of active Fe. At 950 C both magnetite and wustite were present. The amount of the latter increased with decreasing CO/sub 2/ concentration in the gasification medium. 23 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Gasification of Phycoremediation Algal Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Sharara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have been utilized in wastewater treatment strategies in various contexts. Uncontrolled algal species are a cheap and effective remediation strategy. This study investigates the thermochemical potential of wastewater treatment algae (phycoremediation as a means to produce renewable fuel streams and bio-products. Three gasification temperature levels were investigated in an auger gasification platform: 760, 860, and 960 °C. Temperature increases resulted in corresponding increases in CO and H2 concentrations in the producer gas from 12.8% and 4.7% at 760 °C to 16.9% and 11.4% at 960 °C, respectively. Condensable yields ranged between 15.0% and 16.6%, whereas char yields fell between 46.0% and 51.0%. The high ash content (40% on a dry basis was the main cause of the elevated char yields. On the other hand, the relatively high yields of condensables and a high carbon concentration in the char were attributed to the low conversion efficiency in this gasification platform. Combustion kinetics of the raw algae, in a thermogravimetric analyzer, showed three consecutive stages of weight loss: drying, devolatilization, and char oxidation. Increasing the algae gasification temperature led to increases in the temperature of peak char oxidation. Future studies will further investigate improvements to the performance of auger gasification.

  14. Modeling Tar Recirculation in Biomass Fluidized Bed Gasification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heineken, Wolfram; De la Cuesta de Cal, Daniel; Zobel, Nico

    2016-01-01

    A biomass gasification model is proposed and applied to investigate the benefits of tar recirculation within a gasification plant. In the model, tar is represented by the four species phenol, toluene, naphthalene, and benzene. The model is spatially one-dimensional, assuming plug flow for the

  15. Shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennekes, B. [Shell Global Solutions (US) Inc. (United States). Technology Marketing

    2002-07-01

    The presentation, on which 17 slides/overheads are included in the papers, explained the principles of the Shell coal gasification process and the methods incorporated for control of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulates and mercury. The economics of the process were discussed. The differences between gasification and burning, and the differences between the Shell process and other processes were discussed.

  16. Biofluid process: fluidised-bed gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, A. [ATEKO a.s., Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    Fluidised-bed gasification of biomass was developed by ATEKO by using long-term experience from coal gasification. An experimental unit was built and a number of tests, first with sawdust gasification, were carried out. A gas combustion engine combined with a power generator was installed and operated in power production. (orig.)

  17. Biofluid process: fluidised-bed gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, A [ATEKO a.s., Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    1997-12-31

    Fluidised-bed gasification of biomass was developed by ATEKO by using long-term experience from coal gasification. An experimental unit was built and a number of tests, first with sawdust gasification, were carried out. A gas combustion engine combined with a power generator was installed and operated in power production. (orig.)

  18. Low temperature circulating fluidized bed gasification and co-gasification of municipal sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias Pape; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Gøbel, Benny

    2017-01-01

    to the mono-sludge ashes, thereby showing the best fertilizer qualities among all assessed materials. It was also found that bottom ashes from the char reactor contained even less heavy metals than cyclone ashes. It is concluded that LT-CFB gasification and co-gasification is a highly effective way to purify...

  19. Biowaste utilization in the process of co-gasification with bituminous coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howaniec, Natalia; Smoliński, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Biowaste utilization in co-gasification with bituminous coal and lignite gives the benefits of stable supplies of a primary energy source – coal and utilization of a zero-emission, waste material (i.e. agriculture waste, sewage sludge, etc.) with higher process efficiency and lower negative environmental impact than biomass or coal gasification, respectively. The main focus of the study presented is co-gasification of bituminous coal or lignite with biowaste to hydrogen-rich gas. The experiments were performed in the laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor installation at 700 and 900 °C. The Hierarchical Clustering Analysis complemented with a color map of studied data were applied in the selection of the optimal operating parameters for biowaste utilization in the co-gasification process based on the experimental data of gasification/co-gasification process as well as physical and chemical properties of fuels tested. The experimental results showed that the carbon conversion rate in co-gasification increased with increasing biomass content in a fuel. The total gas volume and hydrogen volume in co-gasification were higher than the values expected based on the results of the gasification process of the fuels analyzed. - Highlights: • Biowaste co-gasification with bituminous coal/lignite to hydrogen-rich gas. • Steam co-gasification in laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor at 700 and 900 °C. • Hierarchical Clustering Analysis complemented with color map of experimental data. • Carbon conversion increase with increasing biomass content. • The highest total gas and hydrogen volume in co-gasification of C-B20 blend at 900C.

  20. Biomass gasification for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, H.; Morris, M.; Rensfelt, E. [TPS Termiska Prosesser Ab, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Biomass and waste are becoming increasingly interesting as fuels for efficient and environmentally sound power generation. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification for biomass and waste has been developed and applied to kilns both in the pulp and paper industry and the cement industry. A demonstration plant in Greve-in- Chianti, Italy includes two 15 MW{sub t}h RDF-fuelled CFB gasifiers of TPS design, the product gas from which is used in a cement kiln or in steam boiler for power generation. For CFB gasification of biomass and waste to reach a wider market, the product gas has to be cleaned effectively so that higher fuel to power efficiencies can be achieved by utilizing power cycles based on engines or gas turbines. TPS has developed both CFB gasification technology and effective secondary stage tar cracking technology. The integrated gasification - gas-cleaning technology is demonstrated today at pilot plant scale. To commercialise the technology, the TPS`s strategy is to first demonstrate the process for relatively clean fuels such as woody biomass and then extend the application to residues from waste recycling. Several demonstration projects are underway to commercialise TPS`s gasification and gas cleaning technology. In UK the ARBRE project developed by ARBRE Energy will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 Mw of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK`s Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from EC`s THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. (author)

  1. Biomass gasification for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, H; Morris, M; Rensfelt, E [TPS Termiska Prosesser Ab, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    Biomass and waste are becoming increasingly interesting as fuels for efficient and environmentally sound power generation. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification for biomass and waste has been developed and applied to kilns both in the pulp and paper industry and the cement industry. A demonstration plant in Greve-in- Chianti, Italy includes two 15 MW{sub t}h RDF-fuelled CFB gasifiers of TPS design, the product gas from which is used in a cement kiln or in steam boiler for power generation. For CFB gasification of biomass and waste to reach a wider market, the product gas has to be cleaned effectively so that higher fuel to power efficiencies can be achieved by utilizing power cycles based on engines or gas turbines. TPS has developed both CFB gasification technology and effective secondary stage tar cracking technology. The integrated gasification - gas-cleaning technology is demonstrated today at pilot plant scale. To commercialise the technology, the TPS`s strategy is to first demonstrate the process for relatively clean fuels such as woody biomass and then extend the application to residues from waste recycling. Several demonstration projects are underway to commercialise TPS`s gasification and gas cleaning technology. In UK the ARBRE project developed by ARBRE Energy will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 Mw of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK`s Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from EC`s THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. (author)

  2. Hydrogen enriched gas production in a multi-stage downdraft gasification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, A.; Jarungthammachote, S.

    2009-01-01

    To achieve hydrogen enriched and low-tar producer gas, multi-stage air-blown and air-steam gasification were studied in this research. Results showed that the tar content from multi-stage air-blown and air-steam gasification was lower compared to the average value of that from downdraft gasification. It was also seen that an air-steam gasification process could potentially increase the hydrogen concentration in the producer gas in the expense of carbon monoxide; however, the summation of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the producer gas was increased. (author)

  3. Energetic assessment of air-steam gasification of sewage sludge and of the integration of sewage sludge pyrolysis and air-steam gasification of char

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil-Lalaguna, N.; Sánchez, J.L.; Murillo, M.B.; Atienza-Martínez, M.; Gea, G.

    2014-01-01

    Thermo-chemical treatment of sewage sludge is an interesting option for recovering energy and/or valuable products from this waste. This work presents an energetic assessment of pyrolysis and gasification of sewage sludge, also considering the prior sewage sludge thermal drying and the gasification of the char derived from the pyrolysis stage. Experimental data obtained from pyrolysis of sewage sludge, gasification of sewage sludge and gasification of char (all of these performed in a lab-scale fluidized reactor) were used for the energetic calculations. The results show that the energy contained in the product gases from pyrolysis and char gasification is not enough to cover the high energy consumption for thermal drying of sewage sludge. Additional energy could be obtained from the calorific value of the pyrolysis liquid, but some of its properties must be improved facing towards its use as fuel. On the other hand, the energy contained in the product gas of sewage sludge gasification is enough to cover the energy demand for both the sewage sludge thermal drying and the gasification process itself. Furthermore, a theoretical study included in this work shows that the gasification efficiency is improved when the chemical equilibrium is reached in the process. - Highlights: • 4 MJ kg −1 for thermal drying of sewage sludge (SS) from 65 to 6.5 wt.% of moisture. • 0.15 MJ kg −1 for thermal decomposition of sewage sludge during fast pyrolysis. • Not enough energy in gases from SS pyrolysis and char gasification for thermal drying. • Enough energy in SS gasification gas for thermal drying and gasification process. • Gasification efficiency improves when equilibrium is reached in the process

  4. Gasification of coal making use of nuclear processing heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, H.D.; Bonn, B.; Krauss, U.

    1981-01-01

    In the chapter 'Gasification of coal making use of nuclear processing heat', the steam gasification of brown coal and bituminous coal, the hydrogenating gasification of brown coal including nuclear process heat either by steam cracking methane in the steam reformer or by preheating the gasifying agent, as well as the hydrogenating gasification of bituminous coal are described. (HS) [de

  5. Radiolytic carbon gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shennan, J.V.

    1980-01-01

    A vast body of knowledge has been accumulated over the past thirty years related to the radiolytic oxidation of the graphite moderator in carbon dioxide cooled Reactors. In the last ten years the dominance of the internal pore structure of the graphite in controlling the rate of carbon gasification has been steadily revealed. The object of this paper is to sift the large body of evidence and show how internal gas composition and hence carbon gasification is controlled by the virgin pore structure and the changes in pore structure brought about by progressive radiolytic oxidation. (author)

  6. Thermodynamic comparison of the FICFB and Viking gasification concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassner, Martin; Marechal, Francois

    2009-01-01

    Two biomass gasification concepts, i.e. indirectly heated, fast internally circulating fluidised bed (FICFB) gasification with steam as gasifying agent and two-stage, directly heated, fixed bed Viking gasification are compared with respect to their performance as gas generators. Based on adjusted equilibrium equations, the gas composition and the energy requirements for gasification are accurately modelled. Overall energy balances are assessed by an energy integration with the heat cascade concept and considering energy recovery in a steam Rankine cycle. A detailed inventory of energy and exergy losses of the different process sections is presented and potential process improvements due to a better utility choice or feed pretreatment like drying or pyrolysis are discussed. While Viking gasification performs better as an isolated gas generator than state-of-the-art FICFB gasification, there is large potential for improvement of the FICFB system. Furthermore, a concluding analysis of the gasification systems in an integrated plant for synthetic natural gas production shows that FICFB gasification is more suitable overall due to a more advantageous energy conversion related to the producer gas composition.

  7. Dynamic models of staged gasification processes. Documentation of gasification simulator; Dynamiske modeller a f trinopdelte forgasningsprocesser. Dokumentation til forgasser simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-15

    In connection with the ERP project 'Dynamic modelling of staged gasification processes' a gasification simulator has been constructed. The simulator consists of: a mathematical model of the gasification process developed at Technical University of Denmark, a user interface programme, IGSS, and a communication interface between the two programmes. (BA)

  8. WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-09-01

    The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas{trademark} technology (E-Gas{trademark} is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas{trademark} process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation.

  9. Gasification of sawdust in pressurised internally circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maartensson, R.; Lindblom, M. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A test plant for pressurised gasification of biofuels in a internally circulating fluidized bed has been built at the department of Chemical Engineering II at the University of Lund. The design performance is set to maximum 20 bar and 1 050 deg C at a thermal input of 100 kW or a maximum fuel input of 18 kg/in. The primary task is to study pressurised gasification of biofuels in relation to process requirements of the IGCC concept (integrated gasification combined cycle processes), which includes studies in different areas of hot gas clean-up in reducing atmosphere for gas turbine applications. (orig.)

  10. Gasification of sawdust in pressurised internally circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maartensson, R; Lindblom, M [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-12-31

    A test plant for pressurised gasification of biofuels in a internally circulating fluidized bed has been built at the department of Chemical Engineering II at the University of Lund. The design performance is set to maximum 20 bar and 1 050 deg C at a thermal input of 100 kW or a maximum fuel input of 18 kg/in. The primary task is to study pressurised gasification of biofuels in relation to process requirements of the IGCC concept (integrated gasification combined cycle processes), which includes studies in different areas of hot gas clean-up in reducing atmosphere for gas turbine applications. (orig.)

  11. Italian experience in gasification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinaldi, N.U.

    1991-01-01

    After tracing the historical highlights representing the development of the Fauser (Montecatini) technology based gasification processes for the production of ammonia and methanol, this paper outlines the key design, operation and performance characteristics of the Montecatini (Italy) process plant for heavy liquid hydrocarbons gasification by means of partial auto-thermal combustion with oxygen. The outline makes evident the technical-economical validity of the Montecatini design solutions which include energy recovery (even the heat dispersed through the gasifier walls is recovered and utilized to produce low pressure steam to preheat the fuel oil); reduced oxygen consumption by the high temperature preheating of all reagents; the ecologically compatible elimination of gas black; as well as, desulfurization with materials recovery. The plant process descriptions come complete with flowsheets. While demonstrating that the Italian developed technology is historically well rooted, the Author stresses that the current design versions of Montecatini gasification plants are up to date with innovative solutions, especially, with regard to pollution abatement, and cites the need for a more concerted marketing effort on the part of local industry to help improve the competitiveness of the Italian made product

  12. Report on the gasification technology sub-committee of the coal gasification committee in fiscal 1992; 1992 nendo sekitan gas ka iinkai gas ka gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    This paper reports the coal gasification committee and the gasification technology sub-committee in fiscal 1992. The paper summarizes the report mainly on the data distributed at the gasification technology sub-committee meetings in fiscal 1992. In developing the coal utilizing hydrogen manufacturing technology, the trial operation was started on the pilot plant in fiscal 1991, wherein two comprehensive trial operations were carried out on gasification of 10 kg/cm{sup 2} to extract troubles throughout the whole system, smooth temperature rise and pressure rise were performed, and coal and oxygen were supplied into a furnace to have verified ignition of the coal. Furthermore, one trial operation for gasification of 30 kg/cm{sup 2} was executed. Fiscal 1992 will continue the gasification test of 30 kg/cm{sup 2}. In addition, a test on measures to improve efficiency purposed for gasification efficiency enhancement is carried out, and so is a coal type diversification test purposed to expand coal type applicability. A study was performed by using a small device as a pilot plant supporting study. Prototype fabrication, development, and in-plant tests were made on materials for plant devices (refractories and ceramics). The paper also describes the current status of HYCOL pilot plant operation study. Discussions were given also on heat balance of a gasification furnace. (NEDO)

  13. Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Manako, Kazutaka; Osada, Morihiro

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of MSW with MSW bottom ash. ► No significant difference between MSW treatment with and without MSW bottom ash. ► PCDD/DFs yields are significantly low because of the high carbon conversion ratio. ► Slag quality is significantly stable and slag contains few hazardous heavy metals. ► The final landfill amount is reduced and materials are recovered by DMS process. - Abstract: This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such as lead. Compared with the conventional waste management framework, 85% of the final landfill amount reduction is achieved by

  14. Solar gasification of biomass: design and characterization of a molten salt gasification reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Brandon Jay

    The design and implementation of a prototype molten salt solar reactor for gasification of biomass is a significant milestone in the development of a solar gasification process. The reactor developed in this work allows for 3 kWth operation with an average aperture flux of 1530 suns at salt temperatures of 1200 K with pneumatic injection of ground or powdered dry biomass feedstocks directly into the salt melt. Laboratory scale experiments in an electrically heated reactor demonstrate the benefits of molten salt and the data was evaluated to determine the kinetics of pyrolysis and gasification of biomass or carbon in molten salt. In the presence of molten salt overall gas yields are increased by up to 22%; pyrolysis rates double due to improved heat transfer, while carbon gasification rates increase by an order of magnitude. Existing kinetic models for cellulose pyrolysis fit the data well, while carbon gasification in molten salt follows kinetics modeled with a 2/3 order shrinking-grain model with a pre-exponential factor of 1.5*106 min-1 and activation energy of 158 kJ/mol. A reactor concept is developed based around a concentric cylinder geometry with a cavity-style solar receiver immersed within a volume of molten carbonate salt. Concentrated radiation delivered to the cavity is absorbed in the cavity walls and transferred via convection to the salt volume. Feedstock is delivered into the molten salt volume where biomass gasification reactions will be carried out producing the desired product gas. The features of the cavity receiver/reactor concept are optimized based on modeling of the key physical processes. The cavity absorber geometry is optimized according to a parametric survey of radiative exchange using a Monte Carlo ray tracing model, resulting in a cavity design that achieves absorption efficiencies of 80%-90%. A parametric survey coupling the radiative exchange simulations to a CFD model of molten salt natural convection is used to size the annulus

  15. Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Manako, Kazutaka; Osada, Morihiro

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such as lead. Compared with the conventional waste management framework, 85% of the final landfill amount reduction is achieved by co-gasification of municipal solid waste with bottom ash and incombustible residues. These results indicate that the combined production of slag with co-gasification of municipal solid waste with the bottom ash constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Subtask 4.2 - Coal Gasification Short Course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Galbreath

    2009-06-30

    Major utilities, independent power producers, and petroleum and chemical companies are intent on developing a fleet of gasification plants primarily because of high natural gas prices and the implementation of state carbon standards, with federal standards looming. Currently, many projects are being proposed to utilize gasification technologies to produce a synthesis gas or fuel gas stream for the production of hydrogen, liquid fuels, chemicals, and electricity. Financing these projects is challenging because of the complexity, diverse nature of gasification technologies, and the risk associated with certain applications of the technology. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has developed a gasification short course that is designed to provide technical personnel with a broad understanding of gasification technologies and issues, thus mitigating the real or perceived risk associated with the technology. Based on a review of research literature, tutorial presentations, and Web sites on gasification, a short course presentation was prepared. The presentation, consisting of about 500 PowerPoint slides, provides at least 7 hours of instruction tailored to an audience's interests and needs. The initial short course is scheduled to be presented September 9 and 10, 2009, in Grand Forks, North Dakota.

  17. Sugarcane bagasse gasification: Global reaction mechanism of syngas evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.I.; Gupta, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Gasification of sugarcane bagasse has been investigated using a semi batch reactor. ► Global reaction mechanism combining pyrolysis and gasification reactions is presented. ► High flow rates of syngas supported fragmentation and secondary reactions. ► CO flow rate increased at higher heating rates at the expense of CO 2 production. ► At high temperatures merger between pyrolysis and char gasification occurs. -- Abstract: Steam gasification of sugarcane bagasse has been investigated. A semi batch reactor with a fixed amount of sugarcane bagasse sample placed in steady flow of high temperature steam at atmospheric pressure has been used. The gasification of bagasse was examined at reactor and steam temperatures of 800, 900 and 1000 °C. The evolution of syngas flow rate and chemical composition has been monitored. The evolution of chemical composition and total flow rate of the syngas has been used to formulate a global reaction mechanism. The mechanism combines pyrolysis reaction mechanisms from the literature and steam gasification/reforming reactions. Steam gasification steps include steam–hydrocarbons reforming, char gasification and water gas shift reactions. Evidence of fragmentation, secondary ring opening reactions and tertiary reactions resulting in formation of gaseous hydrocarbons is supported by higher flow rates of syngas and hydrogen at high heating rates and high reactor temperatures. Increase in carbon monoxide flow rate at the expense of carbon dioxide flow rate with the increase in reactor temperature has been observed. This increase in the ratio of CO/CO 2 flow rate confirms the production of CO and CO 2 from the competing reaction routes. At 1000 °C gasification a total merging between the pyrolysis step and the char gasification step has been observed. This is attributed to acceleration of char gasification reactions and acceleration of steam–hydrocarbons reforming reactions. These hydrocarbons are the precursors to

  18. Second stage gasifier in staged gasification and integrated process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, Wan Wang

    2015-10-06

    A second stage gasification unit in a staged gasification integrated process flow scheme and operating methods are disclosed to gasify a wide range of low reactivity fuels. The inclusion of second stage gasification unit operating at high temperatures closer to ash fusion temperatures in the bed provides sufficient flexibility in unit configurations, operating conditions and methods to achieve an overall carbon conversion of over 95% for low reactivity materials such as bituminous and anthracite coals, petroleum residues and coke. The second stage gasification unit includes a stationary fluidized bed gasifier operating with a sufficiently turbulent bed of predefined inert bed material with lean char carbon content. The second stage gasifier fluidized bed is operated at relatively high temperatures up to 1400.degree. C. Steam and oxidant mixture can be injected to further increase the freeboard region operating temperature in the range of approximately from 50 to 100.degree. C. above the bed temperature.

  19. Technologies relevant for gasification and methanation in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Niels Bjarne

    2012-09-15

    This report is a Milestone report for Task 3.1 of the project ''Detailed analysis of bio-SNG technologies and other RE-gases'', Forsk-NG 10689. It is a report on inventory of relevant bio-SNG technologies. In this report a list of technologies relevant for production of bio-SNG from gasification of biomass is presented. During a long period of time a range of gasification technologies has been developed in Denmark. All Danish gasification technologies are characterised by the fact that the producer gases - immediately after gasification - are used in a boiler or an engine. This use is initially the most effective because after purification and without modification the gases can be used directly in a boiler or an engine. However, a gasifier plant is rather expensive, which means that in order to be cost-effective the gasifier must operate as base load. In the future, an expected larger production of producer gases will, therefore, cause a need for storage of the energy - because there won't be correspondence between production and utilisation. This storage is possible by producing bio-SNG by methanation and then adding it to the natural gas grid and storages. There are two ways of making gasification plants more cost effective: ''Saving by size'' and ''Saving by number''. Large plants of course have the advantage of smaller specific price for the installation. On the other hand a great number of equal plants scattered across the country would also reduce the specific cost of installations and the expenses for transport would reduce as well. Even a third possibility is to install at a plant several parallel units for gasification technologies that have maximum unit size and attaching one common methanation unit. This increases the operational reliability of the plant and save installation costs where possible. In Denmark, as an example, a plant of 60 MW (output) might be considered, corresponding to

  20. Gasification : converting low value feedstocks to high value products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppel, P.; Lorden, D.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation provided a historic overview of the gasification process and described the process chemistry of its two primary reactions, notably partial oxidation and steam reforming. The gasification process involves converting low value carbonaceous solid or liquid feeds to a synthetic gas by reacting the feed with oxygen and steam under high pressure and temperature conditions. Since the gasifier operates under a reducing environment instead of an oxidizing environment, mist sulphur is converted to hydrogen sulphide instead of sulphur dioxide. The gasification process also involves cleaning up synthetic gas and acid gas removal; recovery of conventional sulphur; and combustion or further processing of clean synthetic gas. This presentation also outlined secondary reactions such as methanation, water shift, and carbon formation. The negative effects of gasification were also discussed, with particular reference to syngas; metal carbonyls; soot; and slag. Other topics that were presented included world syngas production capacity by primary feedstock; operating IGCC projects; natural gas demand by oil sands supply and demand considerations; reasons for using the gasification process; gasifier feedstocks; and gasification products. The presentation concluded with a discussion of gasification licensors; gasification technologies; gasification experience; and the regulatory situation for greenhouse gas. Gasification has demonstrated excellent environmental performance with sulphur recovery greater than 99 per cent, depending on the the recovery process chosen. The opportunity also exists for carbon dioxide recovery. tabs., figs.

  1. MHD power station with coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzozowski, W.S.; Dul, J.; Pudlik, W.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of the proposed operating method of a MHD-power station including a complete coal gasification into lean gas with a simultaneous partial gas production for the use of outside consumers. A comparison with coal gasification methods actually being used and full capabilities of power stations heated with coal-derived gas shows distinct advantages resulting from applying the method of coal gasification with waste heat from MHD generators working within the boundaries of the thermal-electric power station. (author)

  2. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-12-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

  3. Two-step gasification of cattle manure for hydrogen-rich gas production: Effect of biochar preparation temperature and gasification temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ya; Cao, Hongliang; Yuan, Qiaoxia; Wang, Dianlong

    2017-10-01

    Two-step gasification process was proposed to dispose cattle manure for hydrogen rich gas production. The effect of temperature on product distribution and biochar properties were first studied in the pyrolysis-carbonization process. The steam gasification of biochar derived from different pyrolysis-carbonization temperatures was then performed at 750°C and 850°C. The biochar from the pyrolysis-carbonization temperatures of 500°C had high carbon content and low volatiles content. According to the results of gasification stage, the pyrolysis-carbonization temperature of 500°C and the gasification temperature of 850°C were identified as the suitable conditions for hydrogen production. We obtained 1.61m 3 /kg of syngas production, 0.93m 3 /kg of hydrogen yield and 57.58% of hydrogen concentration. This study shows that two-step gasification is an efficient waste-to-hydrogen energy process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpela, T.; Kudjoi, A.; Hippinen, I.; Heinolainen, A.; Suominen, M.; Lu Yong [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering

    1996-12-01

    Partial gasification processes have been presented as possibilities for future power production. In the processes, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed material) contain unburnt fuel and the fuel conversion is increased by burning this gasification residue either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. In this project, which is a part of European JOULE 2 EXTENSION research programme, the main research objectives are the behaviour of calcium and sulphur compounds in solids and the emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O) in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residues. (author)

  5. Strategy for research, development and demonstration of thermal biomass gasification in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Morten Tony

    2011-12-15

    Technology for thermal gasification of biomass is one of the key elements to make the vision of an energy system without fossil fuels a reality. Gasification technology can enhance the flexibility needed to maintain a future energy system with a large share of wind power. Furthermore, gasification has advantages in terms of ash recycling and utilisation of vast but challenging biomass residues. Danish companies are globally well advanced with this technology and the market for gasification technology is great in both Denmark and abroad. There is a clear need for targeted technology RD and D in order to reach the last stretch to a commercial breakthrough. The project ''Strategy for research, development and demonstration of thermal biomass gasification in Denmark'' is the Danish industrys contribution to the development of biomass gasification and goes into detail with the RD and D needs. The project has been conducted by FORCE Technology for DI Bioenergy with funding from EUDP, Energinet.dk, DI Bioenergy and FORCE Technology and five stakeholder companies. (LN)

  6. Iron-based materials as tar cracking catalyst in waste gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordgreen, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    The treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Sweden has changed during the past decades due to national legislation and European Union directives. The former landfills have more or less been abandoned in favour of material recycling and waste incineration. On a yearly basis approximately 2.2 million tonnes waste are incinerated in Sweden with heat recovery and to some extent also with electricity generation, though at a low efficiency. It is desirable to alter this utilisation and instead employ MSW as fuel in a fluid bed gasification process. Then electrical energy may be produced at a much higher efficiency. However, MSW contain about 1 % chlorine in the form of ordinary table salt (NaCl) from food scraps. This implies that the tar cracking catalyst, dolomite, which is normally employed in gasification, will suffer from poisoning if applied under such conditions. Then the tar cracking capacity will be reduced or vanish completely with time. Consequently, an alternative catalyst, more resistant to chlorine, is needed. Preliminary research at KTH has indicated that iron in its metallic state may possess tar cracking ability. With this information at hand and participating in the project 'Energy from Waste' an experimental campaign was launched. Numerous experiments were conducted using iron as tar cracking catalyst. First iron sinter pellets from LKAB were employed. They were reduced in situ with a stream of hydrogen before they were applied. Later iron-based granules from Hoeganaes AB were tested. These materials were delivered in the metallic state. In all tests the KTH atmospheric fluidised bed gasifier with a secondary catalytic reactor housing the catalytic material was deployed. Mostly, the applied fuel was birch. The results show that metallic iron possesses an intrinsic ability, almost in the range of dolomite, to crack tars. Calculations indicate that iron may be more resistant to chlorine than dolomite. The exploration of metallic iron

  7. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert F. Toerne

    2001-12-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere.

  8. The development situation of biomass gasification power generation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Zhaoqiu; Yin, Xiuli; Xu, Jie; Ma, Longlong

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the development situation of biomass gasification power generation technology in China and analyzes the difficulty and challenge in the development process. For China, a large agricultural country with abundant biomass resources, the utilization of biomass gasification power generation technology is of special importance, because it can contribute to the electricity structure diversification under the present coal-dominant electricity structure, ameliorate the environmental impact, provide energy to electricity-scarce regions and solve the problems facing agriculture. Up to now, China has developed biomass gasification power generation plants of different types and scales, including simple gas engine-based power generation systems with capacity from several kW to 3 MW and integrated gasification combined cycle systems with capacity of more than 5 MW. In recent years, due to the rising cost of biomass material, transportation, manpower, etc., the final cost of biomass power generation has increased greatly, resulting in a serious challenge in the Chinese electricity market even under present preferential policy for biomass power price. However, biomass gasification power generation technology is generally in accord with the characteristics of biomass resources in China, has relatively good adaptability and viability, and so has good prospect in China in the future. - Highlights: ► Biomass gasification power generation of 2 kW–2 MW has wide utilization in China. ► 5.5 MW biomass IGCC demonstration plant has maximum power efficiency of up to 30%. ► Biomass power generation is facing a serious challenge due to biomass cost increase.

  9. Integrated Gasification SOFC Plant with a Steam Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Steam Turbine (ST) plant is integrated with a gasification plant. Wood chips are fed to the gasification plant to produce biogas and then this gas is fed into the anode side of a SOFC cycle to produce electricity and heat. The gases from the SOFC stacks...... enter into a burner to burn the rest of the fuel. The offgases after the burner are now used to generate steam in a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). The generated steam is expanded in a ST to produce additional power. Thus a triple hybrid plant based on a gasification plant, a SOFC plant...... and a steam plant is presented and studied. The plant is called as IGSS (Integrated Gasification SOFC Steam plant). Different systems layouts are presented and investigated. Electrical efficiencies up to 56% are achieved which is considerably higher than the conventional integrated gasification combined...

  10. Underground gasification in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-08-29

    A report of the discussion held on the paper Underground Gasification in Britain, by C.A. Masterman (Iron and Coal Trades Rev., Vol. 165, Aug. 22, 1952, pp. 413-422). The water question, preheating the air, controlling the gas, using the product, choosing the site, thickness of seam and faulted areas are discussed.

  11. International Seminar on Gasification 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Joergen [ed.

    2008-11-15

    In total 20 international and national experts were invited to give presentations (The PPT-presentations are collected in this volume).The seminar was divided into three parts: Production technologies; Applications - Gas turbines and gas Engines - Biomethane as vehicle fuel- Syngas in industrial processes; Strategy, policy and vision. Production of synthetic fuels through gasification of biomass is expected to develop rapidly due to political ambitions related to the strong fossil fuel dependency, especially within the transportation sector, security of supply issues and the growing environmental concern. Techniques that offer a possibility to produce high quality fuels in an efficient and sustainable way are of great importance. In this context gasification is expected to play a central part. The indirect gasification concept has been further developed in recent years and there are now pilot and demonstration plants as well as commercial plants in operation. The RandD activities at the semi-industrial plant in Guessing, Austria have resulted in the first commercial plant, in Oberwart. The design data is 8.5 MW{sub th} and 2.7 MW{sub e} which gives an electric efficiency of 32 % and the possibility to produce biomethane. In this scale conventional CHP production based on combustion of solid biomass and the steam cycle would result in a poor electric efficiency. Metso Power has complemented the 12 MW{sub th} CFB-boiler at Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden with a 2 MW{sub th} indirect gasifier. The gasifier is financed by Gothenburg Energy and built for RD purposes. Gothenburg Energy in collaboration with E.ON Sweden will in a first stage build a 20 MW plant for biomethane production (as vehicle fuel and for grid injection) in Gothenburg based on the indirect gasification technology. The plant is expected to be in operation in 2012. The next stage involves an 80 MW plant with a planned start of operation in 2015. Indirect gasification of biomass

  12. Electrofluid gasification of coal with nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsifer, A.H.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1978-01-01

    The gasification of coal by reaction with steam requires addition of large amounts of energy. This energy can be supplied by a high-temperature nuclear reactor which is coupled to a fluidized bed gasifier either thermally or electrically via an electrofluid gasifier. A comparison of the economics of supplying energy by these two alternatives demonstrates that electrofluid gasification in combination with a high-temperature nuclear reactor may in some circumstances be economically attractive. In addition, a review of recent experiments in small-scale electrofluid gasifiers indicates that this method of gasification is technically feasible. (Auth.)

  13. Electrofluid gasification of coal with nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsifer, A.H.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1978-01-01

    The gasification of coal by reaction with steam requires the addition of large amounts of energy. This energy can be supplied by a high-temperature nuclear reactor which is coupled to a fluidized bed gasifier either thermally or electrically via an electrofluid gasifier. A comparison of the economics of supplying energy by these two alternatives demonstrates that electrofluid gasification in combination with a high-temperature nuclear reactor may in some circumstances be economically attractive. In addition, a review of recent experiments in small-scale electrofluid gasifiers indicates that this method of gasification is technically feasible

  14. Low temperature circulating fluidized bed gasification and co-gasification of municipal sewage sludge. Part 2: Evaluation of ash materials as phosphorus fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Tobias Pape; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Gøbel, Benny; Stoholm, Peder; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik B; Müller-Stöver, Dorette Sophie

    2017-08-01

    The study is part 2 of 2 in an investigation of gasification and co-gasification of municipal sewage sludge in low temperature gasifiers. In this work, solid residuals from thermal gasification and co-gasification of municipal sewage sludge were investigated for their potential use as fertilizer. Ashes from five different low temperature circulating fluidized bed (LT-CFB) gasification campaigns including two mono-sludge campaigns, two sludge/straw mixed fuels campaigns and a straw reference campaign were compared. Experiments were conducted on two different LT-CFBs with thermal capacities of 100kW and 6MW, respectively. The assessment included: (i) Elemental composition and recovery of key elements and heavy metals; (ii) content of total carbon (C) and total nitrogen (N); (iii) pH; (iv) water extractability of phosphorus after incubation in soil; and (v) plant phosphorus response measured in a pot experiment with the most promising ash material. Co-gasification of straw and sludge in LT-CFB gasifiers produced ashes with a high content of recalcitrant C, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), a low content of heavy metals (especially cadmium) and an improved plant P availability compared to the mono-sludge ashes, thereby showing the best fertilizer qualities among all assessed materials. It was also found that bottom ashes from the char reactor contained even less heavy metals than cyclone ashes. It is concluded that LT-CFB gasification and co-gasification is a highly effective way to purify and sanitize sewage sludge for subsequent use in agricultural systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The influence of chlorine on the gasification of wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, C von; Struis, R; Stucki, S [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Chlorides of the heavy metals copper, lead and zinc inhibit the CO{sub 2}-gasification reaction of charcoal. This is observed either by impregnation the wood with the salts before pyrolysis or by mechanically mixing the salts with the charcoal before gasification. Charcoal impregnated or mixed with ammonium chloride reacts more slowly than untreated charcoal. Treating the charcoal with HCl also influences negatively the gasification reactivity, indicating that chlorine plays an important role in the gasification. (author) 2 figs., 4 refs.

  16. Radiative Gasification Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This apparatus, developed at EL, determines gasification rate (mass loss rate) of a horizontally oriented specimen exposed in a nitrogen environment to a controlled...

  17. Integrated bioenergy conversion concepts for small scale gasification power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldas, Rizaldo Elauria

    Thermal and biological gasification are promising technologies for addressing the emerging concerns in biomass-based renewable energy, environmental protection and waste management. However, technical barriers such as feedstock quality limitations, tars, and high NOx emissions from biogas fueled engines impact their full utilization and make them suffer at the small scale from the need to purify the raw gas for most downstream processes, including power generation other than direct boiler use. The two separate gasification technologies may be integrated to better address the issues of power generation and waste management and to complement some of each technologies' limitations. This research project investigated the technical feasibility of an integrated thermal and biological gasification concept for parameters critical to appropriately matching an anaerobic digester with a biomass gasifier. Specific studies investigated the thermal gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks in four fixed-bed gasification experiments: (1) updraft gasification of rice hull, (2) indirect-heated gasification of rice hull, (3) updraft gasification of Athel wood, and (4) downdraft gasification of Athel and Eucalyptus woods. The effects of tars and other components of producer gas on anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperature of 36°C and the biodegradation potentials and soil carbon mineralization of gasification tars during short-term aerobic incubation at 27.5°C were also examined. Experiments brought out the ranges in performance and quality and quantity of gasification products under different operating conditions and showed that within the conditions considered in the study, these gasification products did not adversely impact the overall digester performance. Short-term aerobic incubation demonstrated variable impacts on carbon mineralization depending on tar and soil conditions. Although tars exhibited low biodegradation indices, degradation may be improved if the

  18. Effect of gasification agent on the performance of solid oxide fuel cell and biomass gasification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colpan, C.O.; Hamdullahpur, F.; Dincer, I.; Yoo, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an integrated SOFC and biomass gasification system is modeled. For this purpose, energy and exergy analyses are applied to the control volumes enclosing the components of the system. However, SOFC is modeled using a transient heat transfer model developed by the authors in a previous study. Effect of gasification agent, i.e. air, enriched oxygen and steam, on the performance of the overall system is studied. The results show that steam gasification case yields the highest electrical efficiency, power-to-heat ratio and exergetic efficiency, but the lowest fuel utilization efficiency. For this case, it is found that electrical, fuel utilization and exergetic efficiencies are 41.8%, 50.8% and 39.1%, respectively, and the power-to-heat ratio is 4.649. (author)

  19. From coal to biomass gasification: Comparison of thermodynamic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prins, Mark J.; Ptasinski, Krzysztof J.; Janssen, Frans J.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of fuel composition on the thermodynamic efficiency of gasifiers and gasification systems is studied. A chemical equilibrium model is used to describe the gasifier. It is shown that the equilibrium model presents the highest gasification efficiency that can be possibly attained for a given fuel. Gasification of fuels with varying composition of organic matter, in terms of O/C and H/C ratio as illustrated in a Van Krevelen diagram, is compared. It was found that exergy losses in gasifying wood (O/C ratio around 0.6) are larger than those for coal (O/C ratio around 0.2). At a gasification temperature of 927 deg. C, a fuel with O/C ratio below 0.4 is recommended, which corresponds to a lower heating value above 23 MJ/kg. For gasification at 1227 deg. C, a fuel with O/C ratio below 0.3 and lower heating value above 26 MJ/kg is preferred. It could thus be attractive to modify the properties of highly oxygenated biofuels prior to gasification, e.g. by separation of wood into its components and gasification of the lignin component, thermal pre-treatment, and/or mixing with coal in order to enhance the heating value of the gasifier fuel

  20. WATER- AND COAL GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Nazarov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the results of gas analysis it has been established that water- and coal gasification is rather satisfactorily described by three thermo-chemical equations. One of these equations is basic and independent and the other two equations depend on the first one.The proposed process scheme makes it possible to explain the known data and also permits to carry out the gasification process and obtain high-quality hydrogen carbon-monoxide which is applicable for practical use.

  1. A study on pyrolytic gasification of coffee grounds and implications to allothermal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masek, Ondrej; Konno, Miki; Hosokai, Sou; Sonoyama, Nozomu; Norinaga, Koyo; Hayashi, Jun-ichiro [Centre for Advanced Research of Energy Conversion Materials, Hokkaido University, N13-W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2008-01-15

    The increasing interest in biomass, as a renewable source of energy, is stimulating a search for suitable biomass resources as well as the development of technologies for their effective utilization. This work concentrated on characteristics of processes occurring during pyrolytic gasification of upgraded food industry residues, namely residue from industrial production of liquid coffee, and assessed its suitability for conversion in an allothermal gasifier. The influence of several operating parameters on product composition was examined with three different laboratory-scale reactors, studying the primary pyrolysis and secondary pyrolysis of nascent volatiles, and the steam gasification of char. The experimental results show that a high degree of conversion of UCG into volatiles and gases (up to 88% C-basis) can be achieved by fast pyrolysis even at temperatures as low as 1073 K. In addition, the degree of conversion is not influenced by the presence or concentration of steam, which is an important factor in allothermal gasification. Mathematical simulation of an allothermal gasifier showed that net cold-gas efficiency as high as 86% can be reached. (author)

  2. A study on pyrolytic gasification of coffee grounds and implications to allothermal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masek, Ondrej; Konno, Miki; Hosokai, Sou; Sonoyama, Nozomu; Norinaga, Koyo; Hayashi, Jun-ichiro

    2008-01-01

    The increasing interest in biomass, as a renewable source of energy, is stimulating a search for suitable biomass resources as well as the development of technologies for their effective utilization. This work concentrated on characteristics of processes occurring during pyrolytic gasification of upgraded food industry residues, namely residue from industrial production of liquid coffee, and assessed its suitability for conversion in an allothermal gasifier. The influence of several operating parameters on product composition was examined with three different laboratory-scale reactors, studying the primary pyrolysis and secondary pyrolysis of nascent volatiles, and the steam gasification of char. The experimental results show that a high degree of conversion of UCG into volatiles and gases (up to 88% C-basis) can be achieved by fast pyrolysis even at temperatures as low as 1073 K. In addition, the degree of conversion is not influenced by the presence or concentration of steam, which is an important factor in allothermal gasification. Mathematical simulation of an allothermal gasifier showed that net cold-gas efficiency as high as 86% can be reached

  3. Underground coal gasification: An overview of groundwater contamination hazards and mitigation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, David W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); White, Joshua A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-03-13

    Underground coal gasification is the in situ conversion of coal into an energy-rich product gas. It takes place deep underground, using chemical reactions to consume the coal and grow a cavity. Gas wells, drilled into the coal seam, inject reactant air, oxygen, and/or steam to sustain the reactions. Production wells then extract the product gas. Careful analysis and understanding of likely failure modes will help prevent and minimize impacts. This document provides a general description of the relevant processes, potential failure modes, and practical mitigation strategies. It can guide critical review of project design and operations.

  4. Gasification of ‘Loose' Groundnut Shells in a Throathless Downdraft Gasifier

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhe, Aondoyila; Aliyu, Samuel Jacob

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, gasification potential of biomass residue was investigated using a laboratory scale throatless downdraft gasifier. Experimental results of groundnut shell was gasified in the throatless downdraft gasifier to produce a clean gas with a calorific value of around 5.92 MJ/Nm3 and a combustible fraction of 45% v/v. Low moisture (8.6%) and ash content (3.19%) are the main advantages of groundnut shells for gasification. It is suggested that gasification of shell waste products is a ...

  5. Pressurized pyrolysis and gasification behaviour of black liquor and biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.; Backman, R.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this project is to obtain basic experimental data on pyrolysis and gasification of various black liquors and biofuels at elevated pressures, and to model these processes. Liquor-to-liquor differences in conversion behavior of single liquor droplets during gasification at atmospheric pressure were investigated. The applicability of a rate equation developed for catalyzed gasification of carbon was investigated with regard to pressurized black liquor gasification. A neural network was developed to simulate the progression of char conversion during pressurized black liquor gasification. Pyrolysis of black liquor in a pressurized drop-tube furnace was investigated in collaboration with KTH in Stockholm. (author)

  6. Non-slag co-gasification of biomass and coal in entrained-bed furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaya, Yoshinori; Suami, Akira; Kobayashi, Nobusuke

    2018-02-01

    Gasification is a promising candidate of processes to upgrade biomass and to yield clean gaseous fuel for utilization of renewable energy resources. However, a sufficient amount of biomass is not always available to operate a large scale of the plant. Co-gasification of biomass with coal is proposed as a solution of the problem. Tar emission is another subject during operation in shaft or kiln type of gasifiers employed conventionally for biomass. The present authors proposed co-gasification of biomass and coal in entrained-bed furnace, which is a representative process without tar emission under high temperature, but operated so to collect dust as flyash without molten slag formation. This paper presents the works performed on co-gasification performance of biomass and pulverized coal to apply to entrained-bed type of furnaces. At first, co-gasification of woody powder and pulverized coal examined using the lab-scale test furnace of the down-flow entrained bed showed that the maximum temperatures in the furnace was over 1500 K and the carbon conversion to gas achieved at higher efficiency than 80-90 percent although the residence time in the furnace was as short as a few seconds. Non-slag co-gasification was carried out successfully without slag formation in the furnace if coal containing ash with high fusion temperature was employed. The trend suggesting the effect of reaction rate enhancement of co-gasification was also observed. Secondary, an innovative sewage sludge upgrading system consisting of self-energy recovery processes was proposed to yield bio-dried sludge and to sequentially produce char without adding auxiliary fuel. Carbonization behavior of bio-dried sludge was evaluated through pyrolysis examination in a lab-scale quartz tube reactor. The thermal treatment of pyrolysis of sludge contributed to decomposition and removal of contaminant components such as nitrogen and sulfur. The gasification kinetics of sludge and coal was also determined by a

  7. The exergy underground coal gasification technology for power generation and chemical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinderman, M.S. [Ergo Exergy Technologies Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a gasification process carried out in non-mined coal seams using injection and production wells drilled from the surface, converting coal in situ into a product gas usable for chemical processes and power generation. The UCG process developed, refined and practised by Ergo Exergy Technologies is called the Exergy UCG Technology or {epsilon}UCG{trademark} technology. This paper describes the technology and its applications. The {epsilon}UCG technology is being applied in numerous power generation and chemical projects worldwide, some of which are described. These include power projects in South Africa, India, Pakistan and Canada, as well as chemical projects in Australia and Canada. A number of {epsilon}UCG{trademark} based industrial projects are now at a feasibility usage in India, New Zealand, USA and Europe. An {epsilon}UCG{trademark} IGCC power plant will generate electricity at a much lower cost than existing fossil fuel power plants. CO{sub 2} emissions of the plant can be reduced to a level 55% less than those of a supercritical coal-fired plant and 25% less than the emissions of NG CC. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiman, William R.; Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

  9. Performance, cost and environmental assessment of gasification-based electricity in India: A preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Abha; Singh, Udayan; Jayant; Singh, Ajay K.; Sankar Mahapatra, Siba

    2017-07-01

    Coal gasification processes are crucial to decarbonisation in the power sector. While underground coal gasification (UCG) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) are different in terms of the site of gasification, they have considerable similarities in terms of the types of gasifiers used. Of course, UCG offers some additional advantages such as reduction of the fugitive methane emissions accompanying the coal mining process. Nevertheless, simulation of IGCC plants involving surface coal gasification is likely to give reasonable indication of the 3E (efficiency, economics and emissions) prospects of the gasification pathway towards electricity. This paper will aim at Estimating 3E impacts (efficiency, environment, economics) of gasification processes using simulation carried out in the Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) software framework. Key plant level controls which will be studied in this paper will be based on Indian financial regulations and operating costs which are specific to the country. Also, impacts of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) in these plants will be studied. The various parameters that can be studied are plant load factor, impact of coal quality and price, type of CO2 capture process, capital costs etc. It is hoped that relevant insights into electricity generation from gasification may be obtained with this paper.

  10. Coal gasification and the power production market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howington, K.; Flandermeyer, G.

    1995-01-01

    The US electric power production market is experiencing significant changes sparking interest in the current and future alternatives for power production. Coal gasification technology is being marketed to satisfy the needs of the volatile power production industry. Coal gasification is a promising power production process in which solid coal is burned to produce a synthesis gas (syn gas). The syn gas may be used to fuel combustion integrated into a facility producing electric power. Advantages of this technology include efficient power production, low flue gas emissions, flexible fuel utilization, broad capability for facility integration, useful process byproducts, and decreased waste disposal. The primary disadvantages are relatively high capital costs and lack of proven long-term operating experience. Developers of coal gasification intend to improve on these disadvantages and lop a strong position in the power generation market. This paper is a marketing analysis of the partial oxidation coal gasification processes emerging in the US in response to the market factors of the power production industry. A brief history of these processes is presented, including the results of recent projects exploring the feasibility of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) as a power production alternative. The current power generation market factors are discussed, and the status of current projects is presented including projected performance

  11. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-01-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO(sub x)). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process

  12. CO2 gasification of microalgae (N. Oculata – A thermodynamic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Muflih Arisa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new model of CO2 gasification has been developed in the Aspen Plus. The potential of microalgae (N. oculata for CO2 gasification also has been investigated. The present gasification process utilizes the CO2 at atmospheric pressure as the gasifying agent. The steam is also injected to the gasification to enhance the H2 production. The composition of the producer gas and gasification system efficiency (GSE are used for performance evaluation. It is found that the CO2 gasification of microalgae produces a producer gas with a high concentration of CO and H2. The GSE indicates that the process works at high performance.

  13. Report for fiscal 1994 by gasification technology subcommittee, Coal Gasification Committee; 1994 nendo sekitan gas ka iinkai gas ka gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    As the result of a RUN-9 operation in the research on technologies for hydrogen production from coal and for pilot plants, it is found that the Muswellbrook, Datong, and Blair Athol coals are all suitable for gasification in pilot plants. Their handlability is considerably improved when the grain sizes after crushing are allowed to remain coarse (with the Blair Athol coal still retaining some disadvantage). A concept design is prepared for a HYCOL (hydrogen from coal) process demonstration plant. The reference coal is an imported coal similar to the Taiheiyo coal, and the hydrogen production target is set at 1-million m{sup 3}N/d (590t/d in terms of Taiheiyo coal) and hydrogen purity at 95% or higher. The whole process consists of coal gasification (with oxygen serving as gasification agent), dedusting, conversion to CO, desulfurization and decarboxylation (recovery of sulfur), and methanation. The gasification furnace is a 1-chamber entrained bed type with a 2-stage gyration flow. Dried and pulverized coal is conveyed aboard an air flow into the gasification furnace, where it is thrown into partial combustion reaction with the gasification agent for gasification in a high-temperature zone (1,500-1,600 degrees C), and the ash is taken out as slag. The generated gas is cooled in a heat recovery boiler, dedusted in a cyclone dust filter, and then forwarded to the washing unit. (NEDO)

  14. Syngas production from downdraft gasification of oil palm fronds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Yusup, Suzana

    2013-01-01

    Study on gasification of OPF (oil palm fronds) is scarce although the biomass constitutes more than 24% of the total oil palm waste. The lack of research related to gasification of oil palm fronds calls for a study on gasification behaviour of the fuel. In this paper the effects of reactor temperature and ER (equivalence ratio) on gas composition, calorific value and gasification efficiency of downdraft gasification of OPF were investigated. The heating value of syngas and the values of cold gas and carbon conversion efficiencies of gasification obtained were found to be comparable with woody biomass. The study showed that oxidation zone temperature above 850 °C is favourable for high concentration of the fuel components of syngas CO, H 2 and CH 4 . Average syngas lower heating value of 5.2 MJ/Nm 3 was obtained for operation with oxidation zone temperatures above 1000 °C, while no significant change in heating value was observed for temperature higher than 1100 °C. The average and peak heating values of 4.8 MJ/Nm 3 and 5.5 MJ/Nm 3 , and cold gas efficiency of 70.2% at optimum equivalence ratio of 0.37 showed that OPF have a high potential as a fuel for gasification. - Highlights: • Kinetic study of pyrolysis and combustion of OPF (oil palm fronds) was done. • Experimental study on syngas production utilizing OPF and parametric study was done. • OPF was found to have a comparable performance with wood in downdraft gasification

  15. The 7th European gasification conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The theme of the conference was 'extending resources for clean energy'. Sessions covered coal gasification, gasification of biomass and waste, hydrogen and CO{sub 2} capture and storage, and development. The poster papers are also included. Selected papers have been abstracted separately on the Coal Abstracts database.

  16. Current results of coal gasification materials research at GRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, V.L.; Barone, S.P.; Meyer, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    Corrosion, erosion/corrosion and mechanical property testing of commercial available materials in coal gasification atmospheres has been supported by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) since 1978. Recent corrosion data developed in the program for gasification and methanation technologies under development by GRI are presented. A brief discussion of typical results of long-term stress-rupture tests in coal gasification atmospheres is included

  17. The Effect of Temperature on the Gasification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Baláš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gasification is a technology that uses fuel to produce power and heat. This technology is also suitable for biomass conversion. Biomass is a renewable energy source that is being developed to diversify the energy mix, so that the Czech Republic can reduce its dependence on fossil fuels and on raw materials for energy imported from abroad. During gasification, biomass is converted into a gas that can then be burned in a gas burner, with all the advantages of gas combustion. Alternatively, it can be used in internal combustion engines. The main task during gasification is to achieve maximum purity and maximum calorific value of the gas. The main factors are the type of gasifier, the gasification medium, biomass quality and, last but not least, the gasification mode itself. This paper describes experiments that investigate the effect of temperature and pressure on gas composition and low calorific value. The experiments were performed in an atmospheric gasifier in the laboratories of the Energy Institute atthe Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology.

  18. Numerical modelling of the CHEMREC black liquor gasification process. Conceptual design study of the burner in a pilot gasification reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marklund, Magnus

    2001-02-01

    The work presented in this report is done in order to develop a simplified CFD model for Chemrec's pressurised black liquor gasification process. This process is presently under development and will have a number of advantages compared to conventional processes for black liquor recovery. The main goal with this work has been to get qualitative information on influence of burner design for the gas flow in the gasification reactor. Gasification of black liquor is a very complex process. The liquor is composed of a number of different substances and the composition may vary considerably between liquors originating from different mills and even for black liquor from a single process. When a black liquor droplet is gasified it loses its organic material to produce combustible gases by three stages of conversion: Drying, pyrolysis and char gasification. In the end of the conversion only an inorganic smelt remains (ideally). The aim is to get this smelt to form a protective layer, against corrosion and heat, on the reactor walls. Due to the complexity of gasification of black liquor some simplifications had to be made in order to develop a CFD model for the preliminary design of the gasification reactor. Instead of modelling droplets in detail, generating gas by gasification, sources were placed in a prescribed volume where gasification (mainly drying and pyrolysis) of the black liquor droplets was assumed to occur. Source terms for the energy and momentum equations, consistent with the mass source distribution, were derived from the corresponding control volume equations by assuming a symmetric outflow of gas from the droplets and a uniform degree of conversion of reactive components in the droplets. A particle transport model was also used in order to study trajectories from droplets entering the reactor. The resulting model has been implemented in a commercial finite volume code (AEA-CFX) through customised Fortran subroutines. The advantages with this simple

  19. Enhanced gasification of wood in the presence of mixed catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, S. L.; Mudge, L. K.; Sealock, Jr., L. J.; Robertus, R. J.; Mitchell, D. E.

    Experimental results obtained in laboratory investigations of steam gasification of wood in the presence of mixed catalysts are presented. These studies are designed to test the technical feasibility of producing specific gaseous products from wood by enhancing its reactivity and product specificity through the use of combined catalysts. The desired products include substitute natural gas, hydrocarbon synthesis gas and ammonia synthesis gas. The gasification reactions are controlled through the use of specific catalyst combinations and operating parameters. A primary alkali carbonate gasification catalyst impregnated into the wood combined with specific commercially available secondary catalysts produced the desired products. A yield of 50 vol % methane was obtained with a randomly mixed combination of a commercial nickel methanation catalyst and silica-alumina cracking catalyst at a weight ratio of 3:1 respectively. Steam gasification of wood in the presence of a commercial Si-Al cracking catalyst produced the desired hydrocarbon synthesis gas. Hydrogen-to-carbon monoxide ratios needed for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of hydrocarbons were obtained with this catalyst system. A hydrogen-to-nitrogen ratio of 3:1 for ammonia synthesis gas was achieved with steam-air gasification of wood in the presence of catalysts. The most effective secondary catalyst system employed to produce the ammonia synthesis gas included two commercially prepared catalysts formulated to promote the water-gas shift reaction.

  20. Tar analysis from biomass gasification by means of online fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumhakl, Christoph; Karellas, Sotirios

    2011-07-01

    Optical methods in gas analysis are very valuable mainly due to their non-intrusive character. That gives the possibility to use them for in-situ or online measurements with only optical intervention in the measurement volume. In processes like the gasification of biomass, it is of high importance to monitor the gas quality in order to use the product gas in proper machines for energy production following the restrictions in the gas composition but also improving its quality, which leads to high efficient systems. One of the main problems in the biomass gasification process is the formation of tars. These higher hydrocarbons can lead to problems in the operation of the energy system. Up to date, the state of the art method used widely for the determination of tars is a standardized offline measurement system, the so-called "Tar Protocol". The aim of this work is to describe an innovative, online, optical method for determining the tar content of the product gas by means of fluorescence spectroscopy. This method uses optical sources and detectors that can be found in the market at low cost and therefore it is very attractive, especially for industrial applications where cost efficiency followed by medium to high precision are of high importance.

  1. Supercritical water gasification of Victorian brown coal: Experimental characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Doki; Aye, Lu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Vic 3010 (Australia); Sanderson, P. John; Lim, Seng [CSIRO Minerals, Clayton, Vic 3168 (Australia)

    2009-05-15

    Supercritical water gasification is an innovative thermochemical conversion method for converting wet feedstocks into hydrogen-rich gaseous products. The non-catalytic gasification characteristics of Victorian brown coal were investigated in supercritical water by using a novel immersion technique with quartz batch reactors. Various operating parameters such as temperature, feed concentration and reaction time were varied to investigate their effect on the gasification behaviour. Gas yields, carbon gasification efficiency and the total gasification efficiency increased with increasing temperature and reaction time, and decreasing feed concentration. The mole fraction of hydrogen in the product gases was lowest at 600 C, and increased to over 30 % at a temperature of 800 C. Varying parameters, especially reaction time, did not improve the coal utilisation for gas production significantly and the measured data showed a large deviation from the equilibrium level. (author)

  2. Dewatering a gasification zone in the Dnieper region for underground coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedenko, M V

    1957-01-01

    The processes for draining brown coal open-pit mines are described. Experience with water inflow in open-pit mines of the Dnieper region and stratigraphic cross section and hydrogeological conditions in the area of the planned gasification installation are discussed. Expedient draining by boreholes is described, and arrangement of boreholes and filters is shown. Cost data are presented.

  3. A market-driven commercialization strategy for gasification-based technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klara, J.M.; Tomer, B.J.; Stiegel, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    In the wake of deregulation of power generation in the US, market-based competition is driving electricity generators to low-cost risk system. In such an environment, gasification-based technologies will not be competitive with low capital cost, efficient, and reliable natural gas-fired facilities for baseload power generation in the foreseeable future. The lack of a near-term market application poses a serious threat to the progress of gasification technology. With a reduction in direct federal funding of large-scale demonstration plants as the trend to reduce the size of government continues, an alternate approach to commercialize gasification-based technologies has been developed at DOE/FETC. This new strategy employs gasification in near-term markets where, due to its ability to coproduce a wide variety of commodity and premium products to meet market requirements, it is an attractive alternative. By obtaining operating experience in near-term coproduction applications, gasification system modules can be refined and improved leading to commercial guarantees and acceptance of gasification technology as a cost-effective technology for baseload power generation when this market begins to open domestically, sometime after 2005

  4. Biomass gasification for production of 'green energy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mambre, V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the differences between biomass gasification and biomass methanation, two ways of using biomass for decentralized production of energy. The stakes of biomass and biomass gasification for meeting the European and national energy goals and environmental targets are summarized. The gasification principle is described and in particular the FICFB optimized process from Repotec for the production of concentrated syngas. The four different ways of syngas valorization (combined heat and power (CHP), 'green methane' (SNG), 'green hydrogen' (gas shift) and liquid biofuels of 2. generation (Fisher-Tropsch)) are recalled and compared with each other. Finally, the economical and environmental key issues of the global chain are summarized with their technological and scientific key locks. The GAYA R and D project of Gaz de France Suez group, which aims at developing gasification and methanation demonstration plants through different programs with European partners, is briefly presented. (J.S.)

  5. Underground coal gasification technology impact on coal reserves in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John William Rosso Murillo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In situ coal gasification technology (Underground Coal Gasification–UCG– is an alternative to the traditional exploitation, due to it allows to reach the today’s inaccessible coal reserves’ recovery, to conventional mining technologies. In this article I answer the question on how the today’s reserves available volume, can be increased, given the possibility to exploit further and better the same resources. Mining is an important wealth resource in Colombia as a contributor to the national GDP. According with the Energy Ministry (Ministerio de Minas y Energía [1] mining has been around 5% of total GDP in the last years. This is a significant fact due to the existence of a considerable volume of reserves not accounted for (proved reserves at year 2010 were 6.700 million of tons. Source: INGEOMINAS and UPME, and the coal future role’s prospect, in the world energy production.

  6. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  7. Gasification - Status and Technology; Foergasning - Status och teknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Joergen

    2011-07-15

    In this report gasification and gas cleaning techniques for biomass are treated. The main reason for gasifying biomass is to refine the fuel to make it suitable for efficient CHP production, as vehicle fuel or in industrial processes. The focus is on production of synthesis gas that can be used for production of vehicle fuel and for CHP production. Depending on application different types of gasifiers, gasification techniques and process parameters are of interest. Two gasification techniques have been identified as suitable for syngas generation, mainly due to the fact that they allow the production of a nitrogen free gas out of the gasifier; Indirect atmospheric gasification and Pressurized oxygen blown gasification For CHP production there are no restrictions on the gas composition in terms of nitrogen and here air-blown gasification is of interest as well. The main challenge when it comes to gas cleaning is related to sulphur and tars. There are different concepts and alternatives to handle sulphur and tars. Some of them is based on conventional techniques with well-proven components that are commercially available while others more advantageous solutions, still need further development. The report deals to a minor extent with the conversion of syngas to synthetic fuels. The ongoing research and development of gasification techniques is extensive, both on national and international level. Although many process concepts and components have been demonstrated, there is still no full-scale plant for the production of synthetic fuels based on biomass. Factors affecting the choice of technology are plant size, operating conditions, the possibility for process integration, access to feedstock, market aspects, incentives and economic instruments et cetera. Increased competition for biofuels will inevitably lead to higher raw material costs. This in turn means that the fuel chains with high efficiency, such as biomethane through gasification and methanation, are favored

  8. Modeling integrated biomass gasification business concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Ted Bilek; Mark A. Dietenberger

    2011-01-01

    Biomass gasification is an approach to producing energy and/or biofuels that could be integrated into existing forest product production facilities, particularly at pulp mills. Existing process heat and power loads tend to favor integration at existing pulp mills. This paper describes a generic modeling system for evaluating integrated biomass gasification business...

  9. System analysis of dry black liquor gasification based synthetic gas production comparing oxygen and air blown gasification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Muhammad; Yan, Jinyue; Dahlquist, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Circulating fluidized bed system for black liquor gasification with direct causticization. ► Effects of gasifying medium i.e. oxygen or air, on gasification are studied. ► Direct causticization eliminates energy intensive limekiln reducing biomass use. ► Results show 10% higher SNG production from O 2 blown system than air blown system. ► SNG production is higher in O 2 blown system than air blown system. - Abstract: The black liquor gasification based bio-fuel production at chemical pulp mill is an attractive option to replace conventional recovery boilers increasing system energy efficiency. The present paper studies circulating fluidized bed system with direct causticization using TiO 2 for the gasification of the black liquor to the synthesis gas. The advantage of using direct causticization is the elimination of energy-intensive lime kiln which is an integral part of the conventional black liquor recovery system. The study evaluates the effects of gasifying medium i.e. oxygen or air, on the fluidized bed gasification system, the synthesis gas composition, and the downstream processes for the synthesis gas conversion to the synthetic natural gas (SNG). The results showed higher synthetic natural gas production potential with about 10% higher energy efficiency using oxygen blown gasification system than the air blown system. From the pulp mill integration perspective, the material and energy balance results in better integration of air blown system than the oxygen blown system, e.g. less steam required to be generated in the power boiler, less electricity import, and less additional biomass requirement. However, the air blown system still requires a significant amount of energy in terms of the synthesis gas handling and gas upgrading using the nitrogen rejection system

  10. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert F. Toerne

    2001-01-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere

  11. Gasification Studies Task 4 Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, Kevin; Fletcher, Thomas; Pugmire, Ronald; Smith, Philip; Sutherland, James; Thornock, Jeremy; Boshayeshi, Babak; Hunsacker, Isaac; Lewis, Aaron; Waind, Travis; Kelly, Kerry

    2014-02-01

    A key objective of the Task 4 activities has been to develop simulation tools to support development, troubleshooting and optimization of pressurized entrained-flow coal gasifiers. The overall gasifier models (Subtask 4.1) combine submodels for fluid flow (Subtask 4.2) and heat transfer (Subtask 4.3) with fundamental understanding of the chemical processes (Subtask 4.4) processes that take place as coal particles are converted to synthesis gas and slag. However, it is important to be able to compare predictions from the models against data obtained from actual operating coal gasifiers, and Subtask 4.6 aims to provide an accessible, non-proprietary system, which can be operated over a wide range of conditions to provide well-characterized data for model validation. Highlights of this work include: • Verification and validation activities performed with the Arches coal gasification simulation tool on experimental data from the CANMET gasifier (Subtask 4.1). • The simulation of multiphase reacting flows with coal particles including detailed gas-phase chemistry calculations using an extension of the one-dimensional turbulence model’s capability (Subtask 4.2). • The demonstration and implementation of the Reverse Monte Carlo ray tracing (RMCRT) radiation algorithm in the ARCHES code (Subtask 4.3). • Determination of steam and CO{sub 2} gasification kinetics of bituminous coal chars at high temperature and elevated pressure under entrained-flow conditions (Subtask 4.4). In addition, attempts were made to gain insight into the chemical structure differences between young and mature coal soot, but both NMR and TEM characterization efforts were hampered by the highly reacted nature of the soot. • The development, operation, and demonstration of in-situ gas phase measurements from the University of Utah’s pilot-scale entrained-flow coal gasifier (EFG) (Subtask 4.6). This subtask aimed at acquiring predictable, consistent performance and characterizing the

  12. Biomass gasification in district heating systems - The effect of economic energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Soederstroem, Mats

    2010-01-01

    Biomass gasification is considered a key technology in reaching targets for renewable energy and CO 2 emissions reduction. This study evaluates policy instruments affecting the profitability of biomass gasification applications integrated in a Swedish district heating (DH) system for the medium-term future (around year 2025). Two polygeneration applications based on gasification technology are considered in this paper: (1) a biorefinery plant co-producing synthetic natural gas (SNG) and district heat; (2) a combined heat and power (CHP) plant using integrated gasification combined cycle technology. Using an optimisation model we identify the levels of policy support, here assumed to be in the form of tradable certificates, required to make biofuel production competitive to biomass based electricity generation under various energy market conditions. Similarly, the tradable green electricity certificate levels necessary to make gasification based electricity generation competitive to conventional steam cycle technology, are identified. The results show that in order for investment in the SNG biorefinery to be competitive to investment in electricity production in the DH system, biofuel certificates in the range of 24-42 EUR/MWh are needed. Electricity certificates are not a prerequisite for investment in gasification based CHP to be competitive to investment in conventional steam cycle CHP, given sufficiently high electricity prices. While the required biofuel policy support is relatively insensitive to variations in capital cost, the required electricity certificates show high sensitivity to variations in investment costs. It is concluded that the large capital commitment and strong dependency on policy instruments makes it necessary that DH suppliers believe in the long-sightedness of future support policies, in order for investments in large-scale biomass gasification in DH systems to be realised.

  13. Conceptual design report -- Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; House, L.S.; Duck, R.R. [CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc., Greenville, SC (United States); Lisauskas, R.A.; Dixit, V.J. [Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States); Morgan, M.E.; Johnson, S.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States). PowerServe Div.; Boni, A.A. [PSI-Environmental Instruments Corp., Andover, MA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The problems heretofore with coal gasification and IGCC concepts have been their high cost and historical poor performance of fixed-bed gasifiers, particularly on caking coals. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project is being developed to solve these problems through the development of a novel coal gasification invention which incorporates pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification (fixed-bed). It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration caused in the conventional process of gradually heating coal through the 400 F to 900 F range. In so doing, the coal is rapidly heated sufficiently such that the coal tar exists in gaseous form rather than as a liquid. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can become chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NH{sub 3} and HCN from fuel born nitrogen, steam injection is minimized, and residual nitrogen compounds are partially chemically reduced in the cracking stage in the upper gasifier region. Assuming testing confirms successful deployment of all these integrated processes, future IGCC applications will be much simplified, require significantly less mechanical components, and will likely achieve the $1,000/kWe commercialized system cost goal of the GPIF project. This report describes the process and its operation, design of the plant and equipment, site requirements, and the cost and schedule. 23 refs., 45 figs., 23 tabs.

  14. Coke gasification costs, economics, and commercial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, F.C.; Falsetti, J.S.; Wilson, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The disposition of petroleum coke remains a problem for modern high conversion refineries. Market uncertainty and the price for coke can prevent the implementation of otherwise attractive projects. The commercially proven Texaco Gasification Process remains an excellent option for clean, cost effective coke disposition as demonstrated by the new coke gasification units coming on-line and under design. Previous papers, have discussed the coke market and general economics of coke gasification. This paper updates the current market situation and economics, and provide more details on cost and performance based on recent studies for commercial plants

  15. Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah

    1998-12-04

    The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. A review of the collected literature was carried out. The catalysts which have been used for gasification can be roughly classified under the following five groups: alkali metal salts; alkaline earth metal oxides and salts; mineral substances or ash in coal; transition metals and their oxides and salts; and eutectic salt mixtures. Studies involving the use of gasification catalysts have been conducted. However, most of the studies focused on the application of individual catalysts. Only two publications have reported the study of gasification of coal char in CO2 and steam catalyzed by eutectic salt mixture catalysts. By using the eutectic mixtures of salts that show good activity as individual compounds, the gasification temperature can be reduced possibly with still better activity and gasification rates due to improved dispersion of the molten catalyst on the coal particles. For similar metal/carbon atomic ratios, eutectic catalysts were found to be consistently more active than their respective single salts. But the exact roles that the eutectic salt mixtures play in these are not well understood and details of the mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of the surface property of coals and the application methods of eutectic salt mixture catalysts with coal chars on the reactivity of gasification will be studied. Based on our preliminary evaluation of the literature, a ternary

  16. Guideline for safe and eco-friendly biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, J.; Knoef, H. (BTG biomass technology group, Enschede (Netherlands)); Hauth, M. (Graz Univ. of Technology. Institute of Thermal Engineering, Graz (Austria)) (and others)

    2009-11-15

    The objective of the Gasification Guide project is to accelerate the market penetration of small-scale biomass gasification systems (< 5 MW fuel power) by the development of a Guideline and Software Tool to facilitate risk assessment of HSE aspects. The Guideline may also be applied in retrofitting or converting old thermal plants in the Eastern European countries - with rich biomass recourses - to new gasification plants. The objective of this document is to guide key target groups identifying potential hazards and make a proper risk assessment. The software tool is an additional aid in the risk assessment. This guideline is intended to be a training tool and a resource for workers and employers to safely design, fabricate, construct, operate and maintain small-scale biomass gasification facilities. The Guideline is applicable with the following constraints: 1) The maximum scale of the gasification plant was agreed to be about 1 MW{sub e}. The reason is that large companies do have normally their safety rules in place; 2) This means in principle only fixed bed gasifier designs. However, most parts are also valid to other designs and even other thermal conversion processes; 3) The use of contaminated biomass is beyond the scope of this Guideline. The Guideline contains five major chapters; Chapter 2 briefly describes the gasification technology in general. Chapter 3 gives an overview of major legal framework issues on plant permission and operation. The legal frame is changing and the description is based on the situation by the end of 2007. Chapter 4 explains the theory behind the risk assessment method and risk reduction measures. Chapter 5 is the heart of the Guideline and gives practical examples of good design, operation and maintenance principles. The practical examples and feedback have been received throughout the project and the description is based on mid-2009. Chapter 6 describes the best techniques currently available for emission abatement which are

  17. CFD Analysis of Coal and Heavy Oil Gasification for Syngas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sreedharan, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with the gasification of coal and heavy oil for syngas production using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Gasification which includes complex physical and chemical processes such as turbulence, multiphase flow, heat and mass transfer and chemical reactions has been modeled using...... phases. Gasification consists of the processes of passive heating, devolatilization, volatiles oxidation, char gasification and gas phase reactions. Attention is given here to the chemical kinetics of the gasification processes. The coal gasification model has been validated for entrained-flow gasifiers...... a discrete phase model. In this model, the continuous phase is described by Eulerian conservation equations and the discrete phase is described by tracking individual particles in a Lagrangian framework. A two-way coupling accounts for momentum, heat and mass transfer between the continuous and discrete...

  18. Kinetic study of coals gasification into carbon dioxide atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotkikh A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid fuel gasification process was investigated to define chemical reactions rate and activation energy for a gas-generator designing and regime optimizing. An experimental procedure includes coal char samples of Kuznetskiy and Kansko-Achinskiy deposits consequent argon pyrolysis into argon and oxidating into carbon dioxide with different temperatures. The thermogravimetric analysis data of coal char gasification into carbon dioxide was obtained in the temperature range 900–1200 ºC. The mass loss and gasification time dependencies from temperature were defined to calculate chemical reaction frequency factor and activation energy. Two coal char gasification physico-mathematical models were proposed and recommendations for them were formed.

  19. Gasification of carbon deposits on catalysts and metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, J L

    1986-10-01

    'Coke' deposited on catalysts and reactor surfaces includes a variety of carbons of different structures and origins, their reactivities being conveniently assessed by Temperature Programmed Reaction (TPR). The gasification of carbon deposits obtained in the laboratory under well controlled conditions, and the regeneration of coked catalysts from petroleum refining processes are reviewed and discussed. Filamentary carbon deposits, containing dispersed metal particles, behave as supported metal catalysts during gasification, and show high reactivities. Pyrolytic and acid catalysis carbons are less reactive on their own, as the gasification is not catalysed; however, metal components of the catalyst or metal impurities deposited on the surface may enhance gasification. 26 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the evaluation of the Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The Texaco Gasification Process was developed by Texaco Inc. The TGP is a comm...

  1. Gasification of various types of tertiary coals: A sustainability approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Öztürk, Murat; Özek, Nuri; Yüksel, Yunus Emre

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Production energy by burning of coals including high rate of ash and sulfur is harmful to environment. ► Energy production via coal gasification instead of burning is proposed for sustainable approach. ► We calculate exergy and environmental destruction factor of gasification of some tertiary coals. ► Sustainability index, improvement potential of gasification are evaluated for exergy-based approach. - Abstract: The utilization of coal to produce a syngas via gasification processes is becoming a sustainability option because of the availability and the economic relevance of this fossil source in the present world energy scenario. Reserves of coal are abundant and more geographically spread over the world than crude oil and natural gas. This paper focuses on sustainability of the process of coal gasification; where the synthesis gas may subsequently be used for the production of electricity, fuels and chemicals. The coal gasifier unit is one of the least efficient step in the whole coal gasification process and sustainability analysis of the coal gasifier alone can substantially contribute to the efficiency improvement of this process. In order to evaluate sustainability of the coal gasification process energy efficiency, exergy based efficiency, exergy destruction factor, environmental destruction factor, sustainability index and improvement potential are proposed in this paper.

  2. Policy Impact on Economic Viability of Biomass Gasification Systems in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranpreya Sriwannawit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is facing challenges on the lack of electricity access in rural areas and the management of agricultural waste. The utilization of waste-to-energy technology can help in mitigating these issues. The aim of this paper is to assess the economic viability of a biomass gasification system for rural electrification by investigating its competitiveness in relation to various government supports. Financial modelling is applied to calculate Net Present Value (NPV, Internal Rate of Return (IRR, and Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE. NPV and IRR results indicate that biomass gasification is an economically viable option when appropriate financial government supports exist. LCOE result indicates that biomass gasification system is already more economically competitive compared to diesel generator even without additional support but it is less competitive compared to the national electricity grid tariff. In conclusion, the biomass gasification system is an economically viable option for rural electrification in Indonesian context.

  3. Biomass utilization for the process of gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Spěvák

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass as one of the renewable resources of energy has bright future in utilization, especially in obtaining various forms of energy (heat, electrical energy, gas.According to the conception of energy policy of the Czech Republic and according to the fulfillment of the indicators of renewable resources using until the year 2010, the research of thermophysical characteristics of biofuels was realized.There were acquired considerable amount of results by combustion and gasification process on the basis of three-year project „Biomass energy parameters.” By means of combustion and gasification tests of various (biomass fuels were acquired the results which were not published so far.Acquired results are published in the fuel sheets, which are divided into four parts. They consist of information on fuel composition, ash composition, testing conditions and measurand overview. Measurements were realized for the process of combustion, fluidized-bed gasification and fixed-bed gasification. Following fuels were tested: Acacia, Pine, Birch, Beech, Spruce, Poplar, Willow, Rape, Amaranth, Corn, Flax, Wheat, Safflower, Mallow, and Sorrel.

  4. Gas quality prediction in ligno-cellulosic biomass gasification in a co-current gas producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.; Nganhou, J.; Amie Assouh, A.

    2008-01-01

    Our research covers the energetic valuation of the biomass for electricity production. As electrical energy production is the main drive behind a modern economy, we wanted to make our contribution to the debate by describing a tried technique, whose use on an industrial scale can still be perfected, failing control over the basic principles that support the gasification processes called upon in this industry. Our study describes gasification, which is a process to transform a solid combustible into a gas combustible. The resulting gas can be used as combustible in an internal combustion motor and produce electricity. Our work interprets the experimental results of gasification tests conducted on an available and functional experimental centre and the ENSPY's Decentralized Energy Production Lab. The work involved developing a tool to appreciate the results of the gasification of the ligneous biomass from the stoichiometric composition of the combustible to be gasified and the chemical and mathematical bases of the gasification process. It is an investigation with a view to elaborating a mathematical model based on the concept of compatibility. Its original lies in the quality prediction method for the gas obtained through the gasification of a biomass whose chemical composition is known. (authors)

  5. Gasification and co-gasification of biomass wastes: Effect of the biomass origin and the gasifier operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapuerta, Magin; Hernandez, Juan J.; Pazo, Amparo; Lopez, Julio [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales (Edificio Politecnico), Avenida Camilo Jose Cela s/n. 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    Air gasification of different biomass fuels, including forestry (pinus pinaster pruning) and agricultural (grapevine and olive tree pruning) wastes as well as industry wastes (sawdust and marc of grape), has been carried out in a circulating flow gasifier in order to evaluate the potential of using these types of biomass in the same equipment, thus providing higher operation flexibility and minimizing the effect of seasonal fuel supply variations. The potential of using biomass as an additional supporting fuel in coal fuelled power plants has also been evaluated through tests involving mixtures of biomass and coal-coke, the coke being a typical waste of oil companies. The effect of the main gasifier operating conditions, such as the relative biomass/air ratio and the reaction temperature, has been analysed to establish the conditions allowing higher gasification efficiency, carbon conversion and/or fuel constituents (CO, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) concentration and production. Results of the work encourage the combined use of the different biomass fuels without significant modifications in the installation, although agricultural wastes (grapevine and olive pruning) could to lead to more efficient gasification processes. These latter wastes appear as interesting fuels to generate a producer gas to be used in internal combustion engines or gas turbines (high gasification efficiency and gas yield), while sawdust could be a very adequate fuel to produce a H{sub 2}-rich gas (with interest for fuel cells) due to its highest reactivity. The influence of the reaction temperature on the gasification characteristics was not as significant as that of the biomass/air ratio, although the H{sub 2} concentration increased with increasing temperature. (author)

  6. Pyrolysis and gasification behavior of black liquor under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study has been to enhance the understanding of the processes involved in pressurized black liquor gasification. Gasification is known to occur in three stages: drying, pyrolysis and char gasification. The work presented here focuses on the pyrolysis and gasification stages. Experiments were carried out primarily in two laboratory-scale reactors. A pressurized grid heater was used to study black liquor pyrolysis under pressurized conditions. Char yields and the fate of elements in the liquor, as well as the degree of liquor swelling, were measured in this device. A pressurized thermogravimetric reactor was used to measure the rate of the char gasification process under different temperatures and pressures and in various gas atmospheres. Pyrolysis experiments were also carried out in this device, and data on swelling behavior, char yields and component release were obtained 317 refs.

  7. Research results of sewage sludge and waste oil disposal by entrained bed gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schingnitz, M.; Goehler, P.; Wenzel, W.; Seidel, W. (Noell-DBI Energie- und Entsorgungstechnik GmbH, Freiberg (Germany))

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of gasifying sewage sludge and waste oil with the GSP technology, developed by the Freiberg Fuel Institute (FRG). The GSP reactor was developed in 1976 for gasification of pulverized brown coal. An industrial reactor of this design operated for over 5 years with a total coal throughput of more than 300,000 t. The design of the gasification generator and the flowsheet of a 3 MW experimental pilot plant for waste gasification are presented. The PCB content in the gasification sludge is 6.14 mg/kg, in waste oil - 160 mg/kg. Gasification takes place at high temperatures of more than 1,400 C for complete destruction of toxic pollutants. Gasification results compare composition of raw gas produced by gasification of brown coal, sewage sludge and waste oil. A detailed list of content of pollutants (PCDD, PCDF, PAH, dioxin and furan) in the gasification gas, in process waters and in solid residue of the process water is provided. It is concluded that the GSP gasification process is suitable for safe disposal of waste with toxic content. 3 refs.

  8. Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel Tam; Alan Nizamoff; Sheldon Kramer; Scott Olson; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts; David Stopek; Robert Zabransky; Jeffrey Hoffmann; Erik Shuster; Nelson Zhan

    2005-05-01

    As part of an ongoing effort of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to investigate the feasibility of gasification on a broader level, Nexant, Inc. was contracted to perform a comprehensive study to provide a set of gasification alternatives for consideration by the DOE. Nexant completed the first two tasks (Tasks 1 and 2) of the ''Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization Study'' for the DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in 2003. These tasks evaluated the use of the E-GAS{trademark} gasification technology (now owned by ConocoPhillips) for the production of power either alone or with polygeneration of industrial grade steam, fuel gas, hydrocarbon liquids, or hydrogen. NETL expanded this effort in Task 3 to evaluate Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. The Task 3 study had three main objectives. The first was to examine the application of the gasifier at an industrial application in upstate New York using a Southeastern Ohio coal. The second was to investigate the GTI gasifier in a stand-alone lignite-fueled IGCC power plant application, sited in North Dakota. The final goal was to train NETL personnel in the methods of process design and systems analysis. These objectives were divided into five subtasks. Subtasks 3.2 through 3.4 covered the technical analyses for the different design cases. Subtask 3.1 covered management activities, and Subtask 3.5 covered reporting. Conceptual designs were developed for several coal gasification facilities based on the fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. Subtask 3.2 developed two base case designs for industrial combined heat and power facilities using Southeastern Ohio coal that will be located at an upstate New York location. One base case design used an air-blown gasifier, and the other used an oxygen-blown gasifier in order to evaluate their relative economics. Subtask 3.3 developed an advanced design for an air

  9. Gasification of ‘Loose’ Groundnut Shells in a Throathless Downdraft Gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aondoyila Kuhe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, gasification potential of biomass residue was investigated using a laboratory scale throatless downdraft gasifier. Experimental results of groundnut shell was gasified in the throatless downdraft gasifier to produce a clean gas with a calorific value of around 5.92 MJ/Nm3 and a combustible fraction of 45% v/v. Low moisture (8.6% and ash content (3.19% are the main advantages of groundnut shells for gasification. It is suggested that gasification of shell waste products is a clean energy alternative to fossil fuels. The product gas can be used efficiently for heating and possible usage in internal combustion engines.

  10. Hydrogen and syngas production from sewage sludge via steam gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nipattummakul, Nimit [The Combustion Laboratory, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); The Waste Incineration Research Center, Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology, North Bangkok (Thailand); Ahmed, Islam I.; Gupta, Ashwani K. [The Combustion Laboratory, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Kerdsuwan, Somrat [The Waste Incineration Research Center, Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology, North Bangkok (Thailand)

    2010-11-15

    High temperature steam gasification is an attractive alternative technology which can allow one to obtain high percentage of hydrogen in the syngas from low-grade fuels. Gasification is considered a clean technology for energy conversion without environmental impact using biomass and solid wastes as feedstock. Sewage sludge is considered a renewable fuel because it is sustainable and has good potential for energy recovery. In this investigation, sewage sludge samples were gasified at various temperatures to determine the evolutionary behavior of syngas characteristics and other properties of the syngas produced. The syngas characteristics were evaluated in terms of syngas yield, hydrogen production, syngas chemical analysis, and efficiency of energy conversion. In addition to gasification experiments, pyrolysis experiments were conducted for evaluating the performance of gasification over pyrolysis. The increase in reactor temperature resulted in increased generation of hydrogen. Hydrogen yield at 1000 C was found to be 0.076 g{sub gas} g{sub sample}{sup -1}. Steam as the gasifying agent increased the hydrogen yield three times as compared to air gasification. Sewage sludge gasification results were compared with other samples, such as, paper, food wastes and plastics. The time duration for sewage sludge gasification was longer as compared to other samples. On the other hand sewage sludge yielded more hydrogen than that from paper and food wastes. (author)

  11. Effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil fuel processing technologies on aquatic systems. Annual progress report, January 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, H.L.

    1980-01-04

    This is the third annual progress report for a continuing EPA-DOE jointly funded project to evaluate the effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil-fuel processing technologies on aquatic biota. The project is organized into four project tasks: (1) literature review; (2) process water screening; (3) methods development; and (4) recommendations. Our Bibliography of aquatic ecosystem effects, analytical methods and treatment technologies for organic compounds in advanced fossil-fuel processing effluents was submitted to the EPA for publication. The bibliography contains 1314 citations indexed by chemicals, keywords, taxa and authors. We estimate that the second bibliography volume will contain approximately 1500 citations and be completed in February. We compiled results from several laboratories of inorganic characterizations of 19 process waters: 55 simulated in situ oil-shale retort waters; and Hanna-3, Hanna-4B 01W and Lawrence Livermore Hoe Creek underground coal gasification condenser waters. These process waters were then compared to a published summary of the analyses from 18 simulated in situ oil-shale retort waters. We completed this year 96-h flow-through toxicity bioassays with fathead minnows and rainbow trout and 48-h flow-through bioassays with Daphnia pulicaria exposed to 5 oil-shale process waters, 1 tar-sand process water, 2 underground coal gasification condenser waters, 1 post-gasification backflood condenser water, as well as 2 bioassays with fossil-fuel process water constituents. The LC/sub 50/ toxicity values for these respective species when exposed to these waters are given in detail. (LTN)

  12. Coal gasification in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper first analyzes European energy consumption and supply dynamics within the framework of the European Communities energy and environmental policies calling for the increased use of natural gas, reduced energy consumption, promotion of innovative renewable energy technologies, and the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. This analysis evidences that, while, at present, the increased use of natural gas is an economically and environmentally advantageous policy, as well as, being strategically sound (in view of Middle East political instability), fuel interchangeability, in particular, the option to use coal, is vital to ensure stability of the currently favourable natural gas prices and offer a locally available energy alternative to foreign supplied sources. Citing the advantages to industry offered by the use of flexible, efficient and clean gaseous fuels, with interchangeability, the paper then illustrates the cost and environmental benefits to be had through the use of high efficiency, low polluting integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants equipped to run on a variety of fuels. In the assessment of technological innovations in this sector, a review is made of some of the commercially most promising gasification processes, e.g., the British Gas-Lurgi (BGL) slagging gasifier, the high-temperature Winkler (HTW) Rheinbraun, and the Krupp Koppers (PRENFLO) moving bed gasifier processes

  13. Coal gasification in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furfari, S [Commissione delle Comunita' Europee, Bruxelles (Belgio). Direzione Generale dell' Energia, Direzione delle Tecnologie

    1992-02-01

    This paper first analyzes European energy consumption and supply dynamics within the framework of the European Communities energy and environmental policies calling for the increased use of natural gas, reduced energy consumption, promotion of innovative renewable energy technologies, and the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. This analysis evidences that, while, at present, the increased use of natural gas is an economically and environmentally advantageous policy, as well as, being strategically sound (in view of Middle East political instability), fuel interchangeability, in particular, the option to use coal, is vital to ensure stability of the currently favourable natural gas prices and offer a locally available energy alternative to foreign supplied sources. Citing the advantages to industry offered by the use of flexible, efficient and clean gaseous fuels, with interchangeability, the paper then illustrates the cost and environmental benefits to be had through the use of high efficiency, low polluting integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants equipped to run on a variety of fuels. In the assessment of technological innovations in this sector, a review is made of some of the commercially most promising gasification processes, e.g., the British Gas-Lurgi (BGL) slagging gasifier, the high-temperature Winkler (HTW) Rheinbraun, and the Krupp Koppers (PRENFLO) moving bed gasifier processes.

  14. Advances in CO_2 gasification reactivity of biomass char through utilization of radio frequency irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahijani, Pooya; Mohammadi, Maedeh; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2015-01-01

    A straightforward and well-known reaction for CO_2 activation is the “Boudouard reaction”, wherein, CO_2 is reacted with carbon (char) to produce CO. In this study, a RF (radio frequency) heating system was developed to perform the Boudouard reaction by passing CO_2 through a packed bed of PNS (pistachio nut shell) char. High CO_2 conversion of 84% was achieved at 850 °C. When similar experiments were performed in thermal electric furnace, the conversion was only 38%. For further expanding the knowledge on RF-induced gasification, sodium (Na) was incorporated into char skeleton and gasified with CO_2 under RF irradiation. RF gasification of Na-catalyzed char pronouncedly improved in the reaction, where sustainable CO_2 conversion of 99% was attained at 850 °C. The predominance of RF over thermal heating was highly reflected in kinetic studies, where the activation energies of 26.7, 46.9 and 183.9 kJ/mol were obtained for catalytic and non-catalytic RF and thermal gasification, respectively. In RF gasification studies, it was attempted to improve the quality of mix gases, simulating air and steam gasification gas compositions, through the Boudouard reaction. The heating value of the gases simulating air and steam gasification improved from 6.4 to 8.0 MJ/m"3 and 7.6–10.4 MJ/m"3, respectively. - Highlights: • We study radio frequency-induced CO_2 gasification of pistachio nut shell char. • We achieve very high CO_2 conversion of 99% in RF gasification of Na-catalyzed char. • E_a of 47 and 184 kJ/mol obtained for RF-assisted and conventional CO_2 gasification. • Heating value of synthesis gas improved via RF-induced char-CO_2 gasification.

  15. Pressured fluidized-bed gasification experiments with wood, peat and coal at VTT in 1991-1992. Test facilities and gasification experiments with sawdust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E; Staahlberg, P; Laatikainen, J [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Fuel and Process Technology

    1994-12-31

    Fluidized-bed air gasification of Finnish pine saw dust was studied in the PDU-scale test facilities of VTT to support the development of simplified integrated gasification combined-cycle processes by providing new information on the formation and behaviour of different gas impurities in wood gasification. The gasifier was operated at 4-5 bar pressure and at 880-1 020 deg C Product gas was cleaned by ceramic candle filters operated at 490-715 deg C. Concentrations of tars, fixed nitrogen species and vapour-phase alkali metals were determined in different operating conditions. Carbon conversion exceeded 95 deg C in all test periods although the gasifier was operated without recycling the cyclone or filter fines back to the reactor. However, at the gasification temperature of 880-900 deg C more than 5 deg C of the wood carbon was converted to tars. The total concentration of tars (compounds heavier than benzene) was reduced from 6 000 to 3 000 mg/m{sup 3}n by increasing the gasification temperature from 880 deg C to 1 000 deg C. The expected catalytic effects of calcium on tar decomposition could not be achieved in these experiments by feeding coarse dolomite into the bed. The use of sand or aluminium oxide as an inert bed material did neither lead to any decrease in tar concentrations. However, the tar concentrations were dramatically reduced in the cogasification experiments, when a mixture of approximately 50 deg C/50 deg C wood and coal was used as the feed stock. Wood nitrogen was mainly converted into ammonia, while the concentrations of HCN and organic nitrogen containing compounds were very low

  16. Pressured fluidized-bed gasification experiments with wood, peat and coal at VTT in 1991-1992. Test facilities and gasification experiments with sawdust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Laatikainen, J. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Fuel and Process Technology

    1993-12-31

    Fluidized-bed air gasification of Finnish pine saw dust was studied in the PDU-scale test facilities of VTT to support the development of simplified integrated gasification combined-cycle processes by providing new information on the formation and behaviour of different gas impurities in wood gasification. The gasifier was operated at 4-5 bar pressure and at 880-1 020 deg C Product gas was cleaned by ceramic candle filters operated at 490-715 deg C. Concentrations of tars, fixed nitrogen species and vapour-phase alkali metals were determined in different operating conditions. Carbon conversion exceeded 95 deg C in all test periods although the gasifier was operated without recycling the cyclone or filter fines back to the reactor. However, at the gasification temperature of 880-900 deg C more than 5 deg C of the wood carbon was converted to tars. The total concentration of tars (compounds heavier than benzene) was reduced from 6 000 to 3 000 mg/m{sup 3}n by increasing the gasification temperature from 880 deg C to 1 000 deg C. The expected catalytic effects of calcium on tar decomposition could not be achieved in these experiments by feeding coarse dolomite into the bed. The use of sand or aluminium oxide as an inert bed material did neither lead to any decrease in tar concentrations. However, the tar concentrations were dramatically reduced in the cogasification experiments, when a mixture of approximately 50 deg C/50 deg C wood and coal was used as the feed stock. Wood nitrogen was mainly converted into ammonia, while the concentrations of HCN and organic nitrogen containing compounds were very low

  17. The underground coal gasification First step of community collaboration; Gasification Subterranea del Carbon. Primer Intento en el Ambito de una Colaboracion Comunitaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The objective of the project was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of underground coal gasification in coal seams at 600 metre depth, in order to asses its potential as a means of energy exploitation in Europe. The trial was based on the use of deviated boreholes and a retractable injection system techniques, which have both been developed by the oil and gas industries. One borehole, the injection well, was drilled in the coal seam. The other, the vertical production well, was run to intercept it in the lower part of the coal seam as closely as possible, in order to construct a continuous channel for gasification. The well were completed with casing and concentric tubing to provide the necessary paths for production, injection, purging gas and cooling water flows. A coiled tubing located in the injection well was used to execute the retraction (or CRIP) manoeuvre, which is a process in which the injector head for the gasification agents, i. e. oxygen and water, and the ignitor, are directed to a specific section of the coal seam. The gasification products passes to a surface production line for flow measurement and sampling of gas and condensate products. Production gases were either flared or incinerated, while the liquids were collected for appropriate disposal. The first trial achieved its principal objectives of in seam drilling, channel communication, the CRIP manoeuvres and the gasification of significant quantity of coal. The post-gasification study also identified the shape and extent of the cavity. The study has demonstrated the technical feasibility of underground coal gasification at the intermediate depths of European coal and proposals are made for further development and semi-commercial exploitation of this promising extraction technology. (Author) 11 refs.

  18. Catalytic gasification of oil-shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.; Avakyan, T. [I.M. Gubkin Russian State Univ. of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation); Strizhakova, Yu. [Samara State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays, the problem of complex usage of solid fossil fuels as raw materials for obtaining of motor fuels and chemical products is becoming increasingly important. A one of possible solutions of the problem is their gasification with further processing of gaseous and liquid products. In this work we have investigated the process of thermal and catalytic gasification of Baltic and Kashpir oil-shales. We have shown that, as compared with non-catalytic process, using of nickel catalyst in the reaction increases the yield of gas, as well as hydrogen content in it, and decreases the amount of liquid products. (orig.)

  19. Siemens fuel gasification technology for the Canadian oil sands industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morehead, H. [Siemens Energy Inc., Orlando, FL (United States). IGCC and Gasification Sales and Marketing

    2010-07-01

    The Siemens fuel gasification (SFG) technology can be used to gasify a range of feedstocks, including petcoke, hard coal, lignite, and low-ranking fuels such as biomass and refinery residuals. The technology has recently been applied to a number of projects over the last 3 years. This paper discussed some of the issues related to the technology and it's use at a start-up facility in China. Five entrained-flow gasifiers with a thermal capacity of 500 MW are being installed at a coal gasification plant in northwestern China. The technology's use in hydrogen, steam and power production applications for the oil sands industry was also discussed. Issues related to feedstock quality, process characteristics, and equipment requirements for commercial gasifier systems were reviewed. The paper concluded by observing that improvements in gasification technology will make coal and petcoke gasification feasible options for power generation. IGCC is the most advanced and cost-effective technology for reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants. Gasification-based plants are also able to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) for storage and sequestration. Details of the Siemens gasification test center in Germany were also included. 1 tab., 4 figs.

  20. Hydrogen production from algal biomass via steam gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Gozde; Uddin, Md Azhar; Yanik, Jale

    2014-08-01

    Algal biomasses were tested as feedstock for steam gasification in a dual-bed microreactor in a two-stage process. Gasification experiments were carried out in absence and presence of catalyst. The catalysts used were 10% Fe₂O₃-90% CeO₂ and red mud (activated and natural forms). Effects of catalysts on tar formation and gasification efficiencies were comparatively investigated. It was observed that the characteristic of algae gasification was dependent on its components and the catalysts used. The main role of the catalyst was reforming of the tar derived from algae pyrolysis, besides enhancing water gas shift reaction. The tar reduction levels were in the range of 80-100% for seaweeds and of 53-70% for microalgae. Fe₂O₃-CeO₂ was found to be the most effective catalyst. The maximum hydrogen yields obtained were 1036 cc/g algae for Fucus serratus, 937 cc/g algae for Laminaria digitata and 413 cc/g algae for Nannochloropsis oculata. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gasification of biomass chars in steam-nitrogen mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Kucukbayrak, S.

    2006-01-01

    Some agricultural and waste biomass samples such as sunflower shell, pinecone, rapeseed, cotton refuse and olive refuse were first pyrolyzed in nitrogen, and then, their chars were gasified in a gas mixture of steam and nitrogen. Experiments were performed using the thermogravimetric analysis technique. Pyrolysis of the biomass samples was performed at a heating rate of 20 K/min from ambient to 1273 K in a dynamic nitrogen atmosphere of 40 cm 3 min -1 . The obtained chars were cooled to ambient temperature and then gasified up to 1273 K in a dynamic atmosphere of 40 cm 3 min -1 of a mixture of steam and nitrogen. Derivative thermogravimetric analysis profiles from gasification of the chars were derived, and the mass losses from the chars were interpreted in terms of temperature. It was concluded that gasification characteristics of biomass chars were fairly dependent on the biomass properties such as ash and fixed carbon contents and the constituents present in the ash. Different mechanisms in the three temperature intervals, namely water desorption at lower temperatures, decomposition of hydroxide minerals to oxide minerals and formation of carbon monoxide at medium temperatures and production of hydrogen at high temperatures govern the behavior of the char during the gasification process. The chars from pinecone and sunflower shell could be easily gasified under the mentioned conditions. In order to further raise the conversion yields, long hold times should be applied at high temperatures. However, the chars from rapeseed and olive refuse were not gasified satisfactorily. Low ash content and high fixed carbon content biomass materials are recommended for use in gasification processes when char from pyrolysis at elevated temperatures is used as a feedstock

  2. Reaction Mechanism of Tar Evolution in Biomass Steam Gasification for Hydrogen Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shingo Katayama; Masahiro Suzuki; Atsushi Tsutsumi

    2006-01-01

    Reaction mechanism of tar evolution in steam gasification of biomass was investigated with a continuous cross-flow moving bed type differential reactor, in which tar and gases can be fractionated according to reaction time. We estimated that time profile of tar and gas evolution in the gasification of cellulose, xylan, and lignin, and compared it with experimental product time profile of real biomass gasification. The experimental tar evolution rate is different from estimated tar evolution rate. The estimated tar evolution rate has a peak at 20 s. On the other hand, the experimental tar evolution rate at 20 s is little, and tar at initial stage includes more water-soluble and water-insoluble compounds. It can be concluded that in the real biomass steam gasification the evolution of tar from cellulose and lignin component was found to be precipitated by that from hemi-cellulose component. (authors)

  3. Kinetics of Pyrolysis and Gasification Using Thermogravimetric and Thermovolumetric Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czerski Grzegorz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The carbon dioxide gasification process of Miscanthus giganteus biomass was examined using two methods. First an isothermal thermovolumetric method was applied. The measurement was conducted at 950°C and pressure of 0.1 MPa. Based on the continuous analysis of different kinds of gases formed during the gasification process, the thermovolumetric method allowed the determination of yields and composition of the resulting gas as well as the rate constant of CO formation. Then a non-isothermal thermogravimetric method was applied, during which the loss of weight of a sample as a function of temperature was recorded. In the course of the measurement, the temperature was raised from ambient to 950°C and the pressure was 0.1 MPa. As a result, a change in the carbon conversion degree was obtained. Moreover, TGA methods allow distinguishing various stages of the gasification process such as primary pyrolysis, secondary pyrolysis and gasification, and determining kinetic parameters for each stage. The presented methods differs from each other as they are based either on the analysis of changes in the resulting product or on the analysis of changes in the supplied feedstock, but both can be successfully used to the effective examination of kinetics of the gasification process. In addition, an important advantage of both methods is the possibility to carry out the gasification process for different solid fuels as coal, biomass, or solid waste in the atmosphere of a variety of gasification agents.

  4. Biomass gasification, stage 2 LTH. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerle, I.; Chambert, L.; Hallgren, A.; Hellgren, R.; Johansson, Anders; Mirazovic, M.; Maartensson, R.; Padban, N.; Ye Zhicheng [comps.] [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering II

    1996-11-01

    This report presents the final report of the first phase of a project dealing with a comprehensive investigation on pressurized biomass gasification. The intention with the project first phase was firstly to design, install and to take in operation a PCFB biomass gasifier. A thorough feasibility study was made during the first half year including extensive calculations on an internal circulating fluidized bed concept. The experimental phase was intended to study pressurized gasification up to 2.5 MPa (N{sub 2}, air) at temperatures in the interval 850-950 deg C. The more specific experimental objective was to examine the impact from various process conditions on the product formation as well as on the function of the different systems. The technical concept has been able to offer novel approaches regarding biomass feeding and PCFB gasification. The first gasification test run was made in December 1993 after almost 18 months of installation work. Extensive work was made during 1994 and the first half of 1995 to find the balance of the PCFB gasifier. It turned out to be very difficult to find operating parameters such that gave a stable circulation of the bed material during gasification mode. Apparently, the produced gas partly changed the pressure profile over the riser which in turn gave unstable operation. After a comprehensive investigation involving more than 100 hours of tests runs it was decided to leave the circulating bed concept and focus on bubbling bed operations. The test rig is currently operating as a bubbling bed gasifier. 4 refs, 24 figs, 6 tabs

  5. A comparative study of charcoal gasification in two types of spouted bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Salam, P.; Bhattacharya, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    Gasification is considered to be a favourable method for converting a solid fuel into a more versatile gaseous fuel. Performance of a gasifier depends on the design of the gasifier, type of fuel used and air flow rate, etc. The applications of spouted bed for a variety of processes such as drying, coating, pyrolysis, gasification and combustion have been reported. Gasification of solid fuels in a spouted bed, which has certain potential advantages over other fluid bed configurations, appears to be an under-exploited technique so far. Central jet distributors are the most commonly used in the experimental studies that has been reported in the literature. Circular slit distributor is a new concept. This paper presents results of a comparative experimental study on air gasification of charcoal in central jet and circular slit inert sand spouted beds. The experiments were carried for an equivalence ratio of 0.25. The effect of spouting velocity and type of the distributor on the gasification performance were discussed. The steady state dense bed temperature varied between 979 and 1183 deg C for central jet spouted bed and between 964 and 1235 deg C for circular slit spouted bed. At higher spouting velocities, the gasification efficiency of the circular slit spouted bed was slightly more compared with that of central jet spouted bed

  6. Release of inorganic trace elements from high-temperature gasification of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaesing, Marc

    2012-05-30

    The development of cleaner, more efficient techniques in next-generation coal power plants is becoming increasingly important, especially regarding to the discussion of the influence of CO{sub 2} emissions on global warming. A promising coal utilisation process is the integrated gasification combined cycle process. The direct use of the raw gas requires gas clean-up to prevent downstream parts of the gasifier from several problems. An increased efficiency and a decreased amount of harmful species can be achieved through hot fuel gas cleaning. This clean-up technique requires a comprehensive knowledge of the release characteristics of inorganic coal constituents. The aim of this thesis was to provide enhanced knowledge of the effect of key process parameters and of the chemical constitution of coal on the release of Na, K, S, and Cl species from high-temperature coal gasification. The experimental setup consisted of atmospheric flow tube furnaces and a pressurised furnace. In-situ analysis of the product gas was carried out using molecular beam mass spectrometry. A broad spectrum of different coals with assumed qualitative and quantitative differences in the release characteristics was investigated. Additionally, experiments with model substances were performed. The results of the experimental investigation were compared with thermodynamic calculations. Finally, recommendations, for the operation of a high-temperature gasifier are formulated. (orig.)

  7. Synergistic combination of biomass torrefaction and co-gasification: Reactivity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Geng, Ping; Liu, Rui

    2017-12-01

    Two typical biomass feedstocks obtained from woody wastes and agricultural residues were torrefied or mildly pyrolized in a fixed-bed reactor. Effects of the torrefaction conditions on product distributions, compositional and energetic properties of the solid products, char gasification reactivity, and co-gasification behavior between coal and torrefied solids were systematically investigated. Torrefaction pretreatment produced high quality bio-solids with not only increased energy density, but also concentrated alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM). As a consequence of greater retention of catalytic elements in the solid products, the chars derived from torrefied biomass exhibited a faster conversion than those derived from raw biomass during CO 2 gasification. Furthermore, co-gasification of coal/torrefied biomass blends exhibited stronger synergy compared to the coal/raw biomass blends. The results and insights provided by this study filled a gap in understanding synergy during co-gasification of coal and torrefied biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biomass thermochemical gasification: Experimental studies and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay

    The overall goals of this research were to study the biomass thermochemical gasification using experimental and modeling techniques, and to evaluate the cost of industrial gas production and combined heat and power generation. This dissertation includes an extensive review of progresses in biomass thermochemical gasification. Product gases from biomass gasification can be converted to biopower, biofuels and chemicals. However, for its viable commercial applications, the study summarizes the technical challenges in the gasification and downstream processing of product gas. Corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a non-fermentable byproduct of ethanol production, were used as the biomass feedstocks. One of the objectives was to determine selected physical and chemical properties of corn stover related to thermochemical conversion. The parameters of the reaction kinetics for weight loss were obtained. The next objective was to investigate the effects of temperature, steam to biomass ratio and equivalence ratio on gas composition and efficiencies. DDGS gasification was performed on a lab-scale fluidized-bed gasifier with steam and air as fluidizing and oxidizing agents. Increasing the temperature resulted in increases in hydrogen and methane contents and efficiencies. A model was developed to simulate the performance of a lab-scale gasifier using Aspen Plus(TM) software. Mass balance, energy balance and minimization of Gibbs free energy were applied for the gasification to determine the product gas composition. The final objective was to optimize the process by maximizing the net energy efficiency, and to estimate the cost of industrial gas, and combined heat and power (CHP) at a biomass feedrate of 2000 kg/h. The selling price of gas was estimated to be 11.49/GJ for corn stover, and 13.08/GJ for DDGS. For CHP generation, the electrical and net efficiencies were 37 and 86%, respectively for corn stover, and 34 and 78%, respectively for DDGS. For

  9. Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled with geoche......The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled...

  10. Feasibility study of gasification of oil palm fronds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Sulaiman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the large and consistent supply, oil palm fronds could be a promising source of biomass energy through gasification. There is very scarce information on the characteristics of oil palm fronds, which is vital in deciding if such biomass is technically suitable for gasification. In the present work, the feasibility of oil palm fronds for biomass gasification is studied. The study is conducted experimentally via standard tests to determine their thermochemical characteristics. Ultimate analysis is conducted to determine the contents of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and sulphide in oil palm fronds. Proximate analysis is performed to identify the burning characteristics of the biomass. The energy content in the fronds is determined by using a bomb calorie meter and is around 18 MJ/kg. The ignitability of the fronds is also studied experimentally to assess the ease to start-up combustion of the fronds. The characteristics of the flame of the resulting syngas from gasification of oil palm fronds are qualitatively studied. Simulated syngas composition study reveals potentials of 22% CO, 1.3% H2, 18.5% CO2 and traces of CH4. The study is extended to computer simulation to predict composition of the syngas. It is found from this work that oil palm fronds are feasible for gasification and has a good potential as a renewable energy source.

  11. Biomass Gasification Technology Assessment: Consolidated Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, M.; Yale, J.

    2012-11-01

    Harris Group Inc. (HGI) was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to assess gasification and tar reforming technologies. Specifically, the assessments focused on gasification and tar reforming technologies that are capable of producing a syngas suitable for further treatment and conversion to liquid fuels. HGI gathered sufficient information to analyze three gasification and tar reforming systems. This report summarizes the equipment, general arrangement of the equipment, operating characteristics, and operating severity for each technology. The order of magnitude capital cost estimates are supported by a basis-of-estimate write-up, which is also included in this report. The report also includes Microsoft Excel workbook models, which can be used to design and price the systems. The models can be used to analyze various operating capacities and pressures. Each model produces a material balance, equipment list, capital cost estimate, equipment drawings and preliminary general arrangement drawings. Example outputs of each model are included in the Appendices.

  12. Gasification - effective carbon control. The 8th European gasification conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Sessions covered: new projects and gasifiers; new feedstocks, fuels and syngas treatment; CO{sub 2} capture and hydrogen production; and devices and development. Selected papers have been abstracted separately on the database. The presentations can be downloaded for free from www.icheme.org/gasification2007.

  13. FY 1989 report on the section meeting of gasification technology of the Coal Gasification Committee; 1989 nendo sekitan gasuka iinkai gasuka gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    The paper reported activities of the Coal Gasification Committee in FY 1989. The 1st Coal Gasification Committee Meeting was held on July 21,1989, and report/discussion were made about an outline of the FY 1989 research plan. In the 2nd Meeting, report/discussion were made about activities of each of the section meetings and the progress of the development of coal gasification technology. In FY 1998, as the 4th design/construction of pilot plant, manufacture/installation were conducted of a part (equipment of coal supply system/char recycle system) of the gasification process equipment/facilities. As to recycle gas facilities, manufacture of equipment/facilities was conducted. Concerning a part of the pipe rack/central control panel/electric panel, manufacture/installation of equipment were made. In the support study of a pilot plant (trial development of materials for plant use equipment), refractory was studied in terms of the evaluation of durability of furnace materials against liquefaction residue slag, study of furnace materials responsive to liquefaction residue and gasification of high ash melting point coal, etc. (NEDO)

  14. Water management issues in the underground gasification of coal and the subsequent use of the voids for long-term carbon dioxide storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younger, P.L. [Newcastle Univ., Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Newcastle Inst. for Research on Sustainability; Gonzalez, G. [Newcastle Univ., Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Sir Joseph Swan Inst. for Energy Research; Amezaga, J.M. [Newcastle Univ., Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Hydrogeochemical Engineering Research and Outreach

    2010-07-01

    A coupled underground coal gasification (UCG) and carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology was discussed. The technologies can be coupled so that voids created by mining can be uses as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage sites. UCG involves the in-situ gasification of coal using directionally-drilled wells. The gasification is achieved by spontaneous combustion initiated by the injection of steam and oxygen. The rate of UCG is controlled by varying the availability of oxygen. The syngas produced during the process is drawn to the surface via neighbouring production boreholes where it can then be transported by pipeline for use in range of applications. Voids created by the UCG process will collapse, leaving high permeability zones isolated from the surface by low permeability superincumbent strata. The UCG goaf and relaxed roof strata will have permeabilities 1 to 3 orders of magnitude greater than the permeabilities of deep saline aquifers or hydrocarbon reservoirs. The void volume needed to store the CO{sub 2} produced from the syngas can be 4 or 5 times the volume occupied by the extracted coal. Risks for groundwater arising from UCG are groundwater depletion, contamination, and gas leakage. Prudent site selection and the use of an effective risk assessment framework are needed to ensure the successful implementation of UCG-CCS processes. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Fluidised bed gasification of low grade South African coals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    North, BC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available gasifiers. Fluidised bed Entrained flow Coal particle size 0.5 mm – 5 mm 0 – 0.5 mm Coal moisture Dry Dry/slurry Coal type Non-caking coals Any coal Ash in coal < 60% < 30% Gasification agents Air/steam/oxygen Steam/oxygen Gasification... properties important for fluidised bed gasification are: square4 Coal reactivity in atmospheres of CO2 and H2O square4 Caking index and free swelling index (FSI) square4 Ash fusion temperature (AFT) 5.1 Coal reactivity The gasifcation reactions (1...

  16. Biomass low-temperature gasification in a rotary reactor prior to cofiring of syngas in power boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowski, Piotr; Maj, Izabella; Kalisz, Sylwester; Polok, Michał

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An innovative method of gasification with use of flue gas was investigated. • Gasification temperature ranging from 350 °C was considered. • Discussed gasification unit is connected to a power boiler. • Syngas with combustible components is recirculated to the boiler. • Wide range of biomass and waste fuels can be used as a feedstock. - Abstract: The paper presents results of the investigation of an innovative biomass and alternative fuel low-temperature gasification method before co-firing in industrial or power plant boilers. Before running industrial-size installation, laboratory tests were carried out to determine usability of alternative fuels to low-temperature gasification process. Tests were conducted in a laboratory reactor designed and constructed specifically for this purpose. The experimental stand enables recording of the weight loss of a sample and syngas composition. The process occurs for a fuel sample of a constant weight and known granulation and with a flue gas of known composition used as a gasifying agent. The aim of the laboratory research was to determine the usability of selected biomass fuel for indirect co-firing in power boilers and to build a knowledge base for industrial-size process by defining the process kinetics (time for fuel to remain in the reactor), recommended fuel granulation and process temperature. Presented industrial-size gasification unit has been successfully built in Marcel power plant in Radlin town, Poland. It consist an innovative rotary gasification reactor. Gasification process takes place with use of flue gas from coal and coke-oven fired boiler as a gasifying agent with recirculation of resulting gas (syngas) with combustible components: CO, H 2 , CH 4 . C n H m to the boiler’s combustion chamber. The construction of the reactor allows the use of a wide range of fuels (biomass, industrial waste and municipal waste). This paper presents the results of the reactor tests using coniferous

  17. Technologies and trends in biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stassen, H.E.M.

    1994-01-01

    Background information is given on the growing interest of energy from biomass. After a brief overview of the advantages and disadvantages of biomass gasification systems, a state of the art of the technology is given. Finally, recent developments in the Netherlands and abroad are mentioned. 3 figs

  18. Biomass gasification in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Drift, A. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This reports summarizes the activities, industries, and plants on biomass gasification in the Netherlands. Most of the initiatives somehow relate to waste streams, rather than clean biomass, which may seem logic for a densely populated country as the Netherlands. Furthermore, there is an increasing interest for the production of SNG (Substitute Natural Gas) from biomass, both from governments and industry.

  19. Thermochemical Biomass Gasification: A Review of the Current Status of the Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A review was conducted on the use of thermochemical biomass gasification for producing biofuels, biopower and chemicals. The upstream processes for gasification are similar to other biomass processing methods. However, challenges remain in the gasification and downstream processing for viable commercial applications. The challenges with gasification are to understand the effects of operating conditions on gasification reactions for reliably predicting and optimizing the product compositions, and for obtaining maximal efficiencies. Product gases can be converted to biofuels and chemicals such as Fischer-Tropsch fuels, green gasoline, hydrogen, dimethyl ether, ethanol, methanol, and higher alcohols. Processes and challenges for these conversions are also summarized.

  20. Catalytic technology in the energy/environment field. Utilization of catalyst in coal pyrolysis and gasification processes; Energy kankyo bun`ya ni okeru shokubai gijutsu. Sekitan no netsubunkai oyobi gas ka ni okeru shokubai no riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Y. [Tohoku University, Institute for Chemical Reaction Science (Japan)

    1998-05-20

    This review article focuses on the utilization of several catalysts during coal pyrolysis and gasification. In situ or off line catalytic upgrading of volatile matters during pyrolysis of low rank coals is carried out in pressurized H2 with different reactors to produce BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene). When NiSO4 and Ni(OH)2 are used in the hydropyrolysis of Australian brown coal using an entrained bed reactor with two separated reaction zones, BTX yield reaches 18-23%. MS-13X zeolite and USY zeolite mixed with Al2O3 are effective for producing BTX with powder-particle fluidized bed and two-stage reactors, respectively. Catalytic gasification is described from a standpoint of direct production of SNG(CH4) from coal and steam. When K2CO3 and Ni are compared for this purpose, Ni catalyst is more suitable at low temperatures of 500-600degC, where CH4 formation is thermodynamically favorable. Fe and Ca catalysts can successfully be prepared from inexpensive raw materials and are rather active for steam gasification at {>=}700degC. The use of upgrading and gasification catalysts is discussed in terms of preparation, performance, life and recovery. 27 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Preliminary experimental studies of waste coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, S.; Jin, Y.G.; Yu, X.X.; Worrall, R. [CSIRO, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Advanced Coal Technology

    2013-07-01

    Coal mining is one of Australia's most important industries. It was estimated that coal washery rejects from black coal mining was approximately 1.82 billion tonnes from 1960 to 2009 in Australia, and is projected to produce another one billion tonnes by 2018 at the current production rate. To ensure sustainability of the Australian coal industry, we have explored a new potential pathway to create value from the coal waste through production of liquid fuels or power generation using produced syngas from waste coal gasification. Consequently, environmental and community impacts of the solid waste could be minimized. However, the development of an effective waste coal gasification process is a key to the new pathway. An Australian mine site with a large reserve of waste coal was selected for the study, where raw waste coal samples including coarse rejects and tailings were collected. After investigating the initial raw waste coal samples, float/sink testing was conducted to achieve a desired ash target for laboratory-scale steam gasification testing and performance evaluation. The preliminary gasification test results show that carbon conversions of waste coal gradually increase as the reaction proceeds, which indicates that waste coal can be gasified by a steam gasification process. However, the carbon conversion rates are relatively low, only reaching to 20-30%. Furthermore, the reactivity of waste coal samples with a variety of ash contents under N{sub 2}/air atmosphere have been studied by a home-made thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus that can make the sample reach the reaction temperature instantly.

  2. Energetic recovery from LNG gasification plant : cold energy utilization in agro-alimentary industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messineo, A.; Panno, D.

    2009-01-01

    It is known how the complete gasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG) can return about 230 kWh/t of energy. Nevertheless out of 51 gasification plants in the world, only 31 of them are equipped with systems for the partial recovery of the available energy. At the moment most of these plants mainly produce electric energy; however the employment of the cold energy results very interesting, in fact, it can be recovered for agrofood transformation and conservation as well as for some loops in the cold chain. Cold energy at low temperatures requires high amounts of mechanical energy and it unavoidably increases as the required temperature diminishes. Cold energy recovery from LNG gasification would allow considerable energy and economic savings to these applications, as well as environmental benefits due to the reduction of climate-changing gas emissions. The task of this work is to assess the possibility to create around a gasification plant an industrial site for firms working on the transformation and conservation of agrofood products locally grown. The cold recovered from gasification would be distributed to those firms through an opportune liquid Co 2 network distribution capable of supplying the cold to the different facilities. A LNG gasification plant in a highly agricultural zone in Sicily would increase the worth of the agrofood production, lower transformation and conservation costs when compared to the traditional systems and bring economic and environmental benefits to the interested areas. [it

  3. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-31

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  4. Planning for gasification of cellulosic wastes: Issues, feasibility and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staniewski, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Gasification is presented as a concept that can assist municipalities and private companies to reduce the amount of solid waste generated and to utilize the cellulosic fraction of such waste as a biofuel. The technical and economic feasibility of cellulosic waste gasification is examined along with the implications associated with the environmental, social, and regulatory issues within a planning context. Study methods included a literature review, survey research employing nonstructured interviews, and a case study analysis. Opportunities for gasification are focused on regional governments in Ontario. The case study concentrated on the Regional Municipality of Waterloo. Regional governments in Ontario can benefit from utilizing the gasification concept to achieve a substantial reduction in the waste stream in an environmentally sound manner and contribute to solving worldwide problems associated with fossil fuel utilization. However, provincial and public acceptance will affect regional government decisions regarding gasification. Separate legislation should be enacted distinguishing gasification from incineration. In addition, the effectiveness of the environmental approval process must be improved; present procedures consume excess time and resources and act to discourage the involvement of public and private proponents. Public acceptance is likely to be affected by negative experiences associated with solid waste combustion. Nonbiased, reliable information is needed to clarify doubts and stress gasification's potential benefits. 85 refs., 15 figs., 26 tabs

  5. Thermodynamic optimization of biomass gasification for decentralized power generation and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buragohain, Buljit; Mahanta, Pinakeswar; Moholkar, Vijayanand S.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, biomass gasification has emerged as a viable option for decentralized power generation, especially in developing countries. Another potential use of producer gas from biomass gasification is in terms of feedstock for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis - a process for manufacture of synthetic gasoline and diesel. This paper reports optimization of biomass gasification process for these two applications. Using the non-stoichometric equilibrium model (SOLGASMIX), we have assessed the outcome of gasification process for different combinations of operating conditions. Four key parameters have been used for optimization, viz. biomass type (saw dust, rice husk, bamboo dust), air or equivalence ratio (AR = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1), temperature of gasification (T = 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 o C), and gasification medium (air, air-steam 10% mole/mole mixture, air-steam 30%mole/mole mixture). Performance of the gasification process has been assessed with four measures, viz. molar content of H 2 and CO in the producer gas, H 2 /CO molar ratio, LHV of producer gas and overall efficiency of gasifier. The optimum sets of operating conditions for gasifier for FT synthesis are: AR = 0.2-0.4, Temp = 800-1000 o C, and gasification medium as air. The optimum sets of operating conditions for decentralized power generation are: AR = 0.3-0.4, Temp = 700-800 o C with gasification medium being air. The thermodynamic model and methodology presented in this work also presents a general framework, which could be extended for optimization of biomass gasification for any other application.

  6. Gasification of peat and biomass in suspension flow 2; Turpeen ja biomassan suspensiokaasutus 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Hepola, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Haukka, P.; Raiko, R. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Thermal Engineering

    1995-11-01

    This project is an extension of the earlier Liekki-project 402, which was carried out in 1993-1994 in the Department of Thermal Engineering of Tampere University of Technology (TUT). In the previous project the feasibility of a two-stage entrained-flow gasification was studied by the means of process modeling and pyrolysis experiments. The present project carried out in cooperation with the Gasification Research Group of VTT and TUT. The aims of the project are: (a) to study the formation of blematic tar/soot compounds and nitrogen compounds in the conditions entrained flow gasification of biomass and peat, (b) to study the product yields and kinetics of pyrolysis and (c) to develop simulation methods for entrained flow pyrolysis and gasification. (author)

  7. FY 1991 report on the Coal Gasification Committee; 1991 nendo sekitan gasuka iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    The paper reported activities of the Coal Gasification Committee, gasification power generation section and gasification technology section in FY 1991. The 1st Coal Gasification Committee Meeting was held on July 16,1991, and report/discussion were made about an outline of the FY 1991 research plan on the development of coal gasification technology. The 2nd Meeting was held on March 12, 1992, and report/discussion were made about activities of each section meeting and the progress of the development of coal gasification technology. In the section meeting of coal gasification power generation, report/discussion were made about the progress and study object of the development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant and support study for the development of the plant. In the 1st section meeting of coal gasification technology, as to the developmental plan on coal utilization hydrogen production technology, report/discussion were made about design/construction/operational study of pilot plant and support study for pilot plant (study using small equipment, study of trial manufacture of plant use equipment/materials). In the 2nd section meeting, report/discussion were made about the results of the development of coal utilization hydrogen production technology. (NEDO)

  8. Market Assessment of Biomass Gasification and Combustion Technology for Small- and Medium-Scale Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.; Haase, S.

    2009-07-01

    This report provides a market assessment of gasification and direct combustion technologies that use wood and agricultural resources to generate heat, power, or combined heat and power (CHP) for small- to medium-scale applications. It contains a brief overview of wood and agricultural resources in the U.S.; a description and discussion of gasification and combustion conversion technologies that utilize solid biomass to generate heat, power, and CHP; an assessment of the commercial status of gasification and combustion technologies; a summary of gasification and combustion system economics; a discussion of the market potential for small- to medium-scale gasification and combustion systems; and an inventory of direct combustion system suppliers and gasification technology companies. The report indicates that while direct combustion and close-coupled gasification boiler systems used to generate heat, power, or CHP are commercially available from a number of manufacturers, two-stage gasification systems are largely in development, with a number of technologies currently in demonstration. The report also cites the need for a searchable, comprehensive database of operating combustion and gasification systems that generate heat, power, or CHP built in the U.S., as well as a national assessment of the market potential for the systems.

  9. Comparison of the co-gasification of sewage sludge and food wastes and cost-benefit analysis of gasification- and incineration-based waste treatment schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Siming; Wang, Wei; Dai, Yanjun; Tong, Yen Wah; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2016-10-01

    The compositions of food wastes and their co-gasification producer gas were compared with the existing data of sewage sludge. Results showed that food wastes are more favorable than sewage sludge for co-gasification based on residue generation and energy output. Two decentralized gasification-based schemes were proposed to dispose of the sewage sludge and food wastes in Singapore. Monte Carlo simulation-based cost-benefit analysis was conducted to compare the proposed schemes with the existing incineration-based scheme. It was found that the gasification-based schemes are financially superior to the incineration-based scheme based on the data of net present value (NPV), benefit-cost ratio (BCR), and internal rate of return (IRR). Sensitivity analysis was conducted to suggest effective measures to improve the economics of the schemes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of Residual Particulates from Biomass Entrained Flow Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke; Lin, Weigang; Fæster, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Biomass gasification experiments were carried out in a bench scale entrained flow reactor, and the produced solid particles were collected by a cyclone and a metal filter for subsequent characterization. During wood gasification, the major part of the solid material collected in the filter is soot...

  11. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  12. Gasification of oil shale by solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingel, Gil

    1992-04-01

    Gasification of oil shales followed by catalytic reforming can yield synthetic gas, which is easily transportable and may be used as a heat source or for producing liquid fuels. The aim of the present work was to study the gasification of oil shales by solar radiation, as a mean of combining these two energy resources. Such a combination results in maximizing the extractable fuel from the shale, as well as enabling us to store solar energy in a chemical bond. In this research special attention was focused upon the question of the possible enhancement of the gasification by direct solar irradiation of the solid carbonaceous feed stock. The oil shale served here as a model feedstock foe other resources such as coal, heavy fuels or biomass all of which can be gasified in the same manner. The experiments were performed at the Weizman institute's solar central receiver, using solar concentrated flux as an energy source for the gasification. The original contributions of this work are : 1) Experimental evidence is presented that concentrated sunlight can be used effectively to carry out highly endothermic chemical reactions in solid particles, which in turn forms an essential element in the open-loop solar chemical heat pipe; 2) The solar-driven gasification of oil shales can be executed with good conversion efficiencies, as well as high synthesis gas yields; 3)There was found substantial increase in deliverable energy compared to the conventional retorting of oil shales, and considerable reduction in the resulting spent shale. 5) A detailed computer model that incorporates all the principal optical and thermal components of the solar concentrator and the chemical reactor has been developed and compared favorably against experimental data. (author)

  13. Ceramic membranes for gas processing in coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, S.; Lin, C.X.C.; Ding, L.; Thambimuthu, K.; da Costa, J.C.D. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    Pre-combustion options via coal gasification, especially integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) processes, are attracting the attention of governments, industry and the research community as an attractive alternative to conventional power generation. It is possible to build an IGCC plant with CCS with conventional technologies however; these processes are energy intensive and likely to reduce power plant efficiencies. Novel ceramic membrane technologies, in particular molecular sieving silica (MSS) and pervoskite membranes, offer the opportunity to reduce efficiency losses by separating gases at high temperatures and pressures. MSS membranes can be made preferentially selective for H{sub 2}, enabling both enhanced production, via a water-gas shift membrane reactor, and recovery of H{sub 2} from the syngas stream at high temperatures. They also allow CO{sub 2} to be concentrated at high pressures, reducing the compression loads for transportation and enabling simple integration with CO{sub 2} storage or sequestration operations. Perovskite membranes provide a viable alternative to cryogenic distillation for air separation by delivering the tonnage of oxygen required for coal gasification at a reduced cost. In this review we examine ceramic membrane technologies for high temperature gas separation and discuss the operational, mechanical, design and process considerations necessary for their successful integration into IGCC with CCS systems.

  14. Gasification of bio char from empty fruit bunch in a fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nsamba Hussein Kisiki; Amran Mohammad Salleh; Wan Azlina; Hamdan Yusof

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Bio char from empty fruit bunch was gasified in a fluidized bed reactor using compressed air as a gasifying agent. The experiment was conducted in the temperature ranges of 500-850 degree Celsius and the equivalence ratio, temperature and size of the feedstock was varied. A series of parameters such as gas yield, overall carbon conversion, gas quality, and composition, were measured as a function of temperature, equivalence ratio and temperature. Results obtained were compared to the actual values of coal and other gasification feedstock reveal that, bio char has the potential to replace coal as a gasification agent in power plants .Hydrogen gas from bio char was also optimized during the experiment. There is great potential of making Hydrogen from Bio char through thermo chemical gasification It was observed that it has a very great potential of being upgraded to Fischer Tropsh fuels. There is a great opportunity of using this char from empty fruit bunch as an alternative fuel in power plants and all the adverse effects of coal gasification can be counteracted. (author)

  15. Gasification of peat and biomass in suspension. Turpeen ja biomassan suspensiokaasutus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haukka, P.; Raiko, R.

    1993-01-01

    Gasification of peat and biomass in dilute particle-gas suspension has not been studied significantly in Finland, even though these fuels require drying, which often produces dry pulverized fuel. This report has concentrated on studying suitability of so-called two-stage entrained-bed gasification for peat and biomass. The gasification system consists of a pyrolysis reactor (entrained flow) and an adiabatic char combustor. Dry or almost dry fuel is fed into the hot flue gas stream coming from the char combustor. Gasification is based on flash pyrolysis in the dilute suspension flow. Residual char is separated from pyrolyzer gases in a gas cleaning device and fed back to the adiabatic combustor. In the combustor char is burned at high temperature to supply the heat required to support endothermic reactions occurring in the pyrolyzer. To study entrained-bed gasification two types of computer models were developed: steady state simulation model and kinetic pyrolyzer model. With the help of these computer models mass and energy balances of the gasifier can be solved and the main dimensions of the gasifier can be determined. Lack of proper kinetic parameters for fast pyrolysis of peat and biomass makes it more difficult to apply the kinetic model in practice. Quantitative data concerning fast pyrolysis in dilute gas-particle suspension are needed to be able to evaluate the performance of the suspension gasifier in more detail. Gasifier operation has been studied using three different levels for amounts of pyrolysis pro- ducts, nine pressure levels between 15-23 bars and five temperature levels between 800-1200 deg C. Furthermore, normal pressure performance was simulated. In addition to simulation studies product gas heating value was optimized

  16. Gasification of biomass for energy production. State of technology in Finland and global market perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilen, C.; Kurkela, E.

    1997-01-01

    This report reviews the development of the biomass gasification technology in Finland over the last two decades. Information on Finnish biomass resources and use, energy economy and national research policy is provided as background. Global biomass resources and potential energy from biomass markets are also assessed based on available literature, to put the development of the gasification technology into a wider perspective of global biomass utilization for energy production. The increasing use of biomass and other indigenous forms of energy has been part and parcel of the Finnish energy policy for some twenty years. Biomass and peat account for almost 20% of the production of primary energy in Finland. As the consumption of biofuels is significantly lower than the annual growth or renewal, the use of bioenergy is considered to be an important measure of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Research and development on thermal gasification of solid fuels was initiated in the late 1970s in Finland. The principal aim was to decrease the dependence of Finnish energy economy on imported oil by increasing the utilization potential of indigenous fuels. Development in the early 1980s focused on simple atmospheric-pressure fuel gas applications including a gasification heating plant. Eight Bioneer updraft gasifiers (abt 5 MW th ) were constructed in 1982-1986, and a new Bioneer gasifier was commissioned in eastern Finland in 1996. A Pyroflow circulating fluidised-bed gasifies was also commercialized in the mid-1980s; four gasifiers (15-35 MW th ) were commissioned. In the late 1980s the interest in integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plants, based on pressurised air gasification of biomass and hot gas cleanup, increased in Finland and in many other countries. The utilization potential for indigenous fuels is mainly in medium-scale combined heat and electricity production (20-150 MW,). Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Carbona Inc. and Imatran Voima Oy are the main

  17. Gasification of biomass for energy production. State of technology in Finland and global market perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    This report reviews the development of the biomass gasification technology in Finland over the last two decades. Information on Finnish biomass resources and use, energy economy and national research policy is provided as background. Global biomass resources and potential energy from biomass markets are also assessed based on available literature, to put the development of the gasification technology into a wider perspective of global biomass utilization for energy production. The increasing use of biomass and other indigenous forms of energy has been part and parcel of the Finnish energy policy for some twenty years. Biomass and peat account for almost 20% of the production of primary energy in Finland. As the consumption of biofuels is significantly lower than the annual growth or renewal, the use of bioenergy is considered to be an important measure of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Research and development on thermal gasification of solid fuels was initiated in the late 1970s in Finland. The principal aim was to decrease the dependence of Finnish energy economy on imported oil by increasing the utilization potential of indigenous fuels. Development in the early 1980s focused on simple atmospheric-pressure fuel gas applications including a gasification heating plant. Eight Bioneer updraft gasifiers (abt 5 MW{sub th}) were constructed in 1982-1986, and a new Bioneer gasifier was commissioned in eastern Finland in 1996. A Pyroflow circulating fluidised-bed gasifies was also commercialized in the mid-1980s; four gasifiers (15-35 MW{sub th}) were commissioned. In the late 1980s the interest in integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plants, based on pressurised air gasification of biomass and hot gas cleanup, increased in Finland and in many other countries. The utilization potential for indigenous fuels is mainly in medium-scale combined heat and electricity production (20-150 MW,). Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Carbona Inc. and Imatran Voima Oy are

  18. Modeling of reaction kinetics in bubbling fluidized bed biomass gasification reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thapa, R.K.; Halvorsen, B.M. [Telemark University College, Kjolnes ring 56, P.O. Box 203, 3901 Porsgrunn (Norway); Pfeifer, C. [University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    Bubbling fluidized beds are widely used as biomass gasification reactors as at the biomass gasification plant in Gussing, Austria. The reactor in the plant is a dual circulating bubbling fluidized bed gasification reactor. The plant produces 2MW electricity and 4.5MW heat from the gasification of biomass. Wood chips as biomass and olivine particles as hot bed materials are fluidized with high temperature steam in the reactor. As a result, biomass undergoes endothermic chemical reaction to produce a mixture of combustible gases in addition to some carbon-dioxide (CO2). The combustible gases are mainly hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4). The gas is used to produce electricity and heat via utilization in a gas engine. Alternatively, the gas is further processed for gaseous or liquid fuels, but still on the process of development level. Composition and quality of the gas determine the efficiency of the reactor. A computational model has been developed for the study of reaction kinetics in the gasification rector. The simulation is performed using commercial software Barracuda virtual reactor, VR15. Eulerian-Lagrangian approach in coupling of gas-solid flow has been implemented. Fluid phase is treated with an Eulerian formulation. Discrete phase is treated with a Lagrangian formulation. Particle-particle and particle-wall interactions and inter-phase heat and mass transfer have been taken into account. Series of simulations have been performed to study model prediction of the gas composition. The composition is compared with data from the gasifier at the CHP plant in Güssing, Austria. The model prediction of the composition of gases has good agreements with the result of the operating plant.

  19. Gasification Performance of a Top-Lit Updraft Cook Stove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Mehta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an experimental study of a top-lit updraft cook stove with a focus on gasification. The reactor is operated with primary air only. The performance is studied for a variation in the primary airflow, as well as reactor geometry. Temperature in the reactor, air flow rate, fuel consumption rate, and producer gas composition were measured. From the measurements the superficial velocity, pyrolysis front velocity, peak bed temperature, air fuel ratio, heating value of the producer gas, and gasification rate were calculated. The results show that the producer gas energy content was maximized at a superficial velocity of 9 cm/s. The percent char remaining at the end of gasification decreased with increasing combustion chamber diameter. For a fixed superficial velocity, the gasification rate and producer gas energy content were found to scale linearly with diameter. The energy content of the producer gas was maximized at an air fuel (AF ratio of 1.8 regardless of the diameter.

  20. Steam gasification of Bulmer coal in the presence of lignite ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A.; Furimsky, E.

    1986-01-01

    Steam gasification of blends prepared from Balmer coal and the ash from combustion of Onakawana lignite was performed in a fixed bed reactor. The blends were prepared by co-slurrying followed by drying. In the presence of 20 wt% ash the gasification rate doubled at 830 and 930 C. Direct blending of coal and lignite resulted in an overall increase in carbon conversion at 830 C but had no effect at 930 C. 5 refs.

  1. Solid–gaseous phase transformation of elemental contaminants during the gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Ying; Ameh, Abiba [Centre for Bioenergy & Resource Management, School of Energy, Environment & Agrifood, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Lei, Mei [Centre for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Duan, Lunbo [Key Laboratory of Energy Thermal Conversion and Control, Ministry of Education, School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Longhurst, Philip, E-mail: P.J.Longhurst@cranfield.ac.uk [Centre for Bioenergy & Resource Management, School of Energy, Environment & Agrifood, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-01

    Disposal of plant biomass removed from heavy metal contaminated land via gasification achieves significant volume reduction and can recover energy. However, these biomass often contain high concentrations of heavy metals leading to hot-corrosion of gasification facilities and toxic gaseous emissions. Therefore, it is of significant interest to gain a further understanding of the solid–gas phase transition of metal(loid)s during gasification. Detailed elemental analyses (C, H, O, N and key metal/metalloid elements) were performed on five plant species collected from a contaminated site. Using multi-phase equilibria modelling software (MTDATA), the analytical data allows modelling of the solid/gas transformation of metal(loid)s during gasification. Thermodynamic modelling based on chemical equilibrium calculations was carried out in this study to predict the fate of metal(loid) elements during typical gasification conditions and to show how these are influenced by metal(loid) composition in the biomass and operational conditions. As, Cd, Zn and Pb tend to transform to their gaseous forms at relatively low temperatures (< 1000 °C). Ni, Cu, Mn and Co converts to gaseous forms within the typical gasification temperature range of 1000–1200 °C. Whereas Cr, Al, Fe and Mg remain in solid phase at higher temperatures (> 1200 °C). Simulation of pressurised gasification conditions shows that higher pressures increase the temperature at which solid-to-gaseous phase transformations takes place. - Highlights: • Disposal of plants removed from metal contaminated land raises environmental concerns • Plant samples collected from a contaminated site are shown to contain heavy metals. • Gasification is suitable for plant disposal and its emission is modelled by MTDATA. • As, Cd, Zn and Pb are found in gaseous emissions at a low process temperature. • High pressure gasification can reduce heavy metal elements in process emission.

  2. The behaviour of gaseous alkali compounds in coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nykaenen, J.

    1995-01-01

    In this project the behaviour of alkali compounds emitting from CO 2 /O 2 -and air gasification will be studied by using an equilibrium model developed at the Aabo Akademi. This research project is closely connected to the EU-project coordinated by the Delft University of Technology (DUT). In that project alkali emissions from a 1.6 MW pilot plant are measured. The results from those measurements will be compared with the calculations performed in this LIEKKI 2 -project. Furthermore, in the project carried out at DUT the behaviour of a honeycomb-structured filter under CO 2 /O 2 -gasification environment is going to be studied. (author)

  3. The Shell gasification technology offers clean solutions for refineries and utility companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlaswinkel, E.E.; Posthuma, S.A.; Zuideveld, P.L. [Shell International Oil Products BV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Shell has developed two dedicated gasification technologies, the Shell Gasification Process (SGP) for gaseous and liquid feed stocks and the Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) for coal, lignite and petroleum coke. These processes are described. One of the most recent applications of SGP is the PER+ Shell Refinery project in the Netherlands which is nearly completed. A 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on SCGP has recently been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). These two projects are discussed.

  4. Gasification reactivity and ash sintering behaviour of biomass feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moilanen, A.; Nasrullah, M.

    2011-12-15

    Char gasification reactivity and ash sintering properties of forestry biomass feedstocks selected for large-scale gasification process was characterised. The study was divided into two parts: (1) Internal variation of the reactivity and the ash sintering of feedstocks. (2) Measurement of kinetic parameters of char gasification reactions to be used in the modelling of a gasifier. The tests were carried out in gases relevant to pressurized oxygen gasification, i.e. steam and carbon dioxide, as well as their mixtures with the product gases H{sub 2} and CO. The work was based on experimental measurements using pressurized thermobalance. In the tests, the temperatures were below 1000 deg C, and the pressure range was between 1 and 20 bar. In the first part, it was tested the effect of growing location, storage, plant parts and debarking method. The following biomass types were tested: spruce bark, pine bark, aspen bark, birch bark, forestry residue, bark feedstock mixture, stump chips and hemp. Thick pine bark had the lowest reactivity (instantaneous reaction rate 14%/min) and hemp the highest (250%/min); all other biomasses laid between these values. There was practically no difference in the reactivities among the spruce barks collected from the different locations. For pine bark, the differences were greater, but they were probably due to the thickness of the bark rather than to the growth location. For the spruce barks, the instantaneous reaction rate measured at 90% fuel conversion was 100%/min, for pine barks it varied between 14 and 75%/min. During storage, quite large local differences in reactivity seem to develop. Stump had significantly lower reactivity compared with the others. No clear difference in the reactivity was observed between barks obtained with the wet and dry debarking, but, the sintering of the ash was more enhanced for the bark from dry debarking. Char gasification rate could not be modelled in the gas mixture of H{sub 2}O + CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2

  5. Chemical-Looping Combustion and Gasification of Coals and Oxygen Carrier Development: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical-looping technology is one of the promising CO2 capture technologies. It generates a CO2 enriched flue gas, which will greatly benefit CO2 capture, utilization or sequestration. Both chemical-looping combustion (CLC and chemical-looping gasification (CLG have the potential to be used to generate power, chemicals, and liquid fuels. Chemical-looping is an oxygen transporting process using oxygen carriers. Recently, attention has focused on solid fuels such as coal. Coal chemical-looping reactions are more complicated than gaseous fuels due to coal properties (like mineral matter and the complex reaction pathways involving solid fuels. The mineral matter/ash and sulfur in coal may affect the activity of oxygen carriers. Oxygen carriers are the key issue in chemical-looping processes. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA has been widely used for the development of oxygen carriers (e.g., oxide reactivity. Two proposed processes for the CLC of solid fuels are in-situ Gasification Chemical-Looping Combustion (iG-CLC and Chemical-Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU. The objectives of this review are to discuss various chemical-looping processes with coal, summarize TGA applications in oxygen carrier development, and outline the major challenges associated with coal chemical-looping in iG-CLC and CLOU.

  6. Clean coal technology - Study on the pilot project experiment of underground coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lanhe; Liang Jie; Yu Li

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the gasification conditions, the gasifier structure, the measuring system and the gasification rationale of a pilot project experiment of underground coal gasification (UCG) in the Liuzhuang Colliery, Tangshan, are illustrated. The technique of two-phase underground coal gasification is proposed. The detection of the moving speed and the length of the gasification working face is made using radon probing technology. An analysis of the experiment results indicates that the output of air gas is 3000 m 3 /h with a heating value of about 4.18 MJ/m 3 , while the output of water gas is 2000 m 3 /h with a heating value of over 11.00 MJ/m 3 , of which H 2 content is above 40% with a maximum of 71.68%. The cyclical time of two-phase underground gasification is 16 h, with 8 h for each phase. This prolongs the time when the high-heating value gas is produced. The moving speed of the gasification working face in two alternative gasifiers is identified, i.e. 0.204 and 0.487 m/d, respectively. The success of the pilot project experiment of the underground gasification reveals the strides that have been made toward the commercialization of the UCG in China. It also further justifies the reasonability and feasibility of the new technology of long channel, big section, two-phase underground gasification. A conclusion is also drawn that the technology of the pilot project experiment can be popularized in old and discarded coal mines

  7. Change in the electric potential of solid fuels on their combustion and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fialkov, B.S.; Zakharov, A.G.; Plitsyn, V.T.

    1979-01-01

    Solid fuels of various degrees of graphitization (graphite, coke, hard coal, lignite) were used to study the changes in electric potential of samples during gasification and combustion in air. The potential shows three peaks during combustion, the third corresponding to ignition. Two peaks occur during the gasification process.

  8. Environmentally favourable electricity production using allothermal coal gasification in accordance with the MBG system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rost, M.; Heek, K.H. van; Knop, K.

    1988-01-01

    Combined gas- and steam turbine power plants with integrated coal gasification are an important foundation alone for the further development of coal processing. The basis of the development is a new allothermal coal gasification system in a fluidized bed, which has been developed from the long operating experience accumulated at a half-scale plant. In contrast with the concept adopted so far of combination with nuclear process heat, in the MGB system (M.A.N.-Bergbauforschung-Gaserzeugung) the reaction heat required for the gasification is obtained by burning part of the coal gas produced. The gasification in the fluidized bed occurs at temperatures of between 800 and 850 0 C within a pressure range of between 20 and 25 bar. The paper describes the integration of the MBG system into a 250 MW power plant as well as the state of development of allothermal coal gasification and test results from the half-scale experimental plant. The construction of a demonstration plant, which will be incorporated in the bypass of a bituminous coal-fired unit, is planned in order to prove the function of the gas generator. (orig.) [de

  9. Steam gasification of coal using a pressurized circulating fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, K.F.J.

    1989-09-01

    Subject of this investigation is the process engineering of a coal gasification using nuclear heat. A special aspect is the efficiency. To this purpose a new method for calculating the kinetics of hard coal steam gasification in a fluidized bed is presented. It is used for evaluations of gasification kinetics in a large-scale process on the basis of laboratory-scale experiments. The method is verified by experimental data from a large-scale gasifier. The investment costs and the operating costs of the designed process are estimated. (orig.) [de

  10. The evolution of gasification processes and reactors and the utilization of the coal gas. A proposition for the implementation of the gasification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasculete, E.; Iorgulescu, S.

    1996-01-01

    Thermochemical treatment of coal by gasification, considered as a non-polluting technology to turn the coal highly-profitably is one of the alternative ways to produce gas with a high effective caloric capacity. Due to its advantages, the gasification has made through the last few decades significant advances from the point of view of the process efficiency (chemical, thermal), of motor outputs (in m 3 producer gas / m 2 reactor cross section x hour), of the solutions of supplying energy to support the endothermic reactions implied by the process, and especially of the reactors. Reactors have been developed from gas generators. Starting from gas generators various advanced reactors (of 1 st to 3 rd generation) have been developed to produce air gas, water gas or mixed gas. Applications of the producer gas were developed using it either as fuel or as synthesis gas in chemical industry or else as a substitute to the natural gas in combined cycle gas turbines where the gasification plant was integrated. In Romania there are projects in the field of coal gasification, namely at ICPET-RESEARCH, that can offer advanced technologies. One of these projects deals with the construction of the first demonstrative gasification plant based on a highly efficient process and equipped with a 10 G cal/h reactor. (author). 1 tab., 12 refs

  11. Allothermal steam gasification of biomass in cyclic multi-compartment bubbling fluidized-bed gasifier/combustor - new reactor concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliuta, Ion; Leclerc, Arnaud; Larachi, Faïçal

    2010-05-01

    A new reactor concept of allothermal cyclic multi-compartment fluidized bed steam biomass gasification is proposed and analyzed numerically. The concept combines space and time delocalization to approach an ideal allothermal gasifier. Thermochemical conversion of biomass in periodic time and space sequences of steam biomass gasification and char/biomass combustion is simulated in which the exothermic combustion compartments provide heat into an array of interspersed endothermic steam gasification compartments. This should enhance unit heat integration and thermal efficiency and procure N(2)-free biosyngas with recourse neither to oxygen addition in steam gasification nor contact between flue and syngas. The dynamic, one-dimensional, multi-component, non-isothermal model developed for this concept accounts for detailed solid and gas flow dynamics whereupon gasification/combustion reaction kinetics, thermal effects and freeboard-zone reactions were tied. Simulations suggest that allothermal operation could be achieved with switch periods in the range of a minute supporting practical feasibility for portable small-scale gasification units. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Syngas obtainment from the gasification of asphaltenes of the San Fernando crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno A, Laura; Rodriguez C, Fabio; Afanador R, Luz E; Grosso V, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we developed the first study in Colombia to obtain and evaluate syngas compositions derived from asphaltenes gasification. These asphaltenes came from the implementation of a Deasphalting process to San Fernando crude oil, with the purpose of looking for technological options for their utilization. We performed the design, installation and commissioning of facilities for the gasification of asphaltenes at laboratory scale, it following an experimental methodology, performing nine tests and considering temperature and agent gasification quantity (oxygen) as independent variables. The syngas derived from gasification was analyzed by two chromatographic techniques, which reported the presence of refinery gases and sulfur. We evidenced a growth tendency of CO, H 2 and sulfur composition and a decrease in CH 4 and CO 2 composition with temperature. The composition of the syngas was evaluated with different quantities of gasification agent (33%, 40% and 47% the amount of oxygen theoretically required for complete combustion) at each temperature levels operated. It was established that when using a 40% of gasification agent, you get greater average content of CO and H 2 , which are the interest gases in the gasification process.

  13. Syngas obtainment from the gasification of asphaltenes of the San Fernando crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Arciniegas, Laura Smith; Rodriguez Corredor, Fabio Ernesto; Afanador Rey, Luz Edelmira; Grosso Vargas, Jorge Luis

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we developed the first study in Colombia to obtain and evaluate syngas compositions derived from asphaltenes gasification. These asphaltenes came from the implementation of a Deasphalting process to San Fernando crude oil, with the purpose of looking for technological options for their utilization. We performed the design, installation and commissioning of facilities for the gasification of asphaltenes at laboratory scale, it following an experimental methodology, performing nine tests and considering temperature and agent gasification quantity (oxygen) as independent variables. The syngas derived from gasification was analyzed by two chromatographic techniques, which reported the presence of refinery gases and sulfur. We evidenced a growth tendency of CO, H 2 and sulfur composition and a decrease in CH 4 and CO 2 composition with temperature. The composition of the syngas was evaluated with different quantities of gasification agent (33%, 40% and 47% the amount of oxygen theoretically required for complete combustion) at each temperature levels operated. It was established that when using a 40% of gasification agent, you get greater average content of CO and H 2 , which are the interest gases in the gasification process.

  14. Co-gasification of bituminous coal and hydrochar derived from municipal solid waste: Reactivity and synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Juntao; Guo, Qinghua; He, Qing; Ding, Lu; Yoshikawa, Kunio; Yu, Guangsuo

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the influences of gasification temperature and blended ratio on co-gasification reactivity and synergy of Shenfu bituminous coal (SF) and municipal solid waste-derived hydrochar (HTC) were investigated using TGA. Additionally, active alkaline and alkaline earth metal (AAEM) transformation during co-gasification was quantitatively analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer for correlating synergy on co-gasification reactivity. The results showed that higher char gasification reactivity existed at higher HTC char proportion and gasification temperature, and the main synergy behaviour on co-gasification reactivity was performed as synergistic effect. Enhanced synergistic effect at lower temperature was mainly resulted from more obviously inhibiting the primary AAEM (i.e. active Ca) transformation, and weak synergistic effect still existed at higher temperature since more active K with prominent catalysis was retained. Furthermore, more active HTC-derived AAEM remaining in SF sample during co-gasification would lead to enhanced synergistic effect as HTC char proportion increased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Simulation of oxygen-steam gasification with CO{sub 2} adsorption for hydrogen production from empty fruit bunch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, M.M.; Inayat, A.; Yusup, S.; Sabil, K.M. [Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Tronoh (Malaysia). Center of Biofuel and Biochemical, Green Technology Mission Oriented Research

    2011-07-01

    The world is facing a critical situation in which fossil fuel reservoir is depleting while the demand for energy is increasing worldwide. Scientists globally have shifted their effort towards developing alternative sustainable fuels and quite a number of technologies have been discovered. One potential alternative solution is to produce energy from hydrogen as its energy content per kilogram is three times larger than that of gasoline. The combustion of hydrogen produces water instead of greenhouse gases, along with energy, making hydrogen even more attractive as a clean fuel. Current study focuses on the process development of hydrogen production via gasification of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) with in-situ adsorption of CO{sub 2} based on equilibrium modeling approach. The process flowsheet simulation is performed using iCON, PETRONAS process simulation software. This work investigates the influence of the temperature within the range of 600 to 1000 C and steam/biomass ratio between 0.1 and 1.0 on the hydrogen yield and product gas composition. The importance of different reactions involved in the system is also discussed. Using the simulation, the optimal operating conditions are predicted to be at 800 C and steam/biomass ratio of 0.6. Hydrogen yield of 149g kg{sup -1} of EFB can be obtained at 1000 C. The preliminary economic potential per annum of the oxygen-steam gasification system coupled with in situ CO{sub 2} adsorption is RM 6.64 x 10{sup 6} or approximately USD 2 x 10{sup 6}.

  16. Three-stage steady-state model for biomass gasification in a dual circulating fluidized-bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thanh D.B.; Ngo, Son Ich; Lim, Young-Il; Lee, Jeong Woo; Lee, Uen-Do; Song, Byung-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Steam gasification of woodchips is examined in dual circulating fluidized-bed (DFB). ► We develop a three-stage model (TSM) for process performance evaluation. ► Effect of gasification temperature and steam to fuel ratio is investigated. ► Several effective operating conditions are found by parametric study. - Abstract: A three-stage steady state model (TSM) was developed for biomass steam gasification in a dual circulating fluidized-bed (DFB) to calculate the composition of producer gas, carbon conversion, heat recovery, cost efficiency, and heat demand needed for the endothermic gasification reactions. The model was divided into three stages including biomass pyrolysis, char–gas reactions, and gas–phase reaction. At each stage, an empirical equation was estimated from experimental data. It was assumed that both unconverted char and additional fuel were completely combusted at 950 °C in the combustor (riser) and the heat required for gasification reactions was provided by the bed material (silica sand). The model was validated with experimental data taken from the literature. The parametric study of the gasification temperature (T) and the steam to fuel ratio (γ) was then carried out to evaluate performance criteria of a 1.8 MW DFB gasifier using woodchips as a feedstock for the electric power generation. Effective operating conditions of the DFB gasifier were proposed by means of the contour of the solid circulation ratio, the heat recovery, the additional fuel ratio and the cost efficiency with respect to T and γ.

  17. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert Toerne; John Bick

    2003-01-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this widespread fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be used as a supplemental fuel in an existing utility boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with a variety of conventional boilers including natural gas and oil fired boilers, pulverized coal fired conventional and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a wider selection of biomass as fuel and providing opportunity in reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere through the commercialization of this technology. This study evaluated two plants: Wester Kentucky Energy Corporation's (WKE's) Reid Plant and TXU Energy's Monticello Plant for technical and economical feasibility. These plants were selected for their proximity to large supply of poultry litter in the area. The Reid plant is located in Henderson County in southwest Kentucky, with a large poultry processing facility nearby. Within a fifty-mile radius of the Reid plant, there are large-scale poultry farms that generate over 75,000 tons/year of poultry litter. The local poultry farmers are actively seeking environmentally more benign alternatives to the current use of the litter as landfill or as a farm spread as fertilizer. The Monticello plant is located in Titus County, TX near the town of Pittsburgh, TX, where again a large poultry processor and poultry farmers in the area generate over 110,000 tons/year of poultry litter. Disposal of this litter in the area is also a concern. This project offers a model opportunity to demonstrate the feasibility of biomass co-firing and at the same time eliminate

  18. Evaluation of a Compact Coaxial Underground Coal Gasification System Inside an Artificial Coal Seam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fa-qiang Su

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Underground Coal Gasification (UCG system is a clean technology for obtaining energy from coal. The coaxial UCG system is supposed to be compact and flexible in order to adapt to complicated geological conditions caused by the existence of faults and folds in the ground. In this study, the application of a coaxial UCG system with a horizontal well is discussed, by means of an ex situ model UCG experiment in a large-scale simulated coal seam with dimensions of 550 × 600 × 2740 mm. A horizontal well with a 45-mm diameter and a 2600-mm length was used as an injection/production well. During the experiment, changes in temperature field and product gas compositions were observed when changing the outlet position of the injection pipe. It was found that the UCG reactor is unstable and expands continuously due to fracturing activity caused by coal crack initiation and extension under the influence of thermal stress. Therefore, acoustic emission (AE is considered an effective tool to monitor fracturing activities and visualize the gasification zone of coal. The results gathered from monitoring of AEs agree with the measured data of temperatures; the source location of AE was detected around the region where temperature increased. The average calorific value of the produced gas was 6.85 MJ/Nm3, and the gasification efficiency, defined as the conversion efficiency of the gasified coal to syngas, was 65.43%, in the whole experimental process. The study results suggest that the recovered coal energy from a coaxial UCG system is comparable to that of a conventional UCG system. Therefore, a coaxial UCG system may be a feasible option to utilize abandoned underground coal resources without mining.

  19. Methods for sequestering carbon dioxide into alcohols via gasification fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, James L; Ko, Ching-Whan; Phillips, J. Randy; Slape, M. Sean

    2013-11-26

    The present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for use with synthesis gas fermentation. Further, the present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for the production of alcohols from a gaseous substrate containing at least one reducing gas containing at least one microorganism.

  20. Analysis of graphite gasification by water vapor at different conversions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaowei, Luo; Xiaoyu, Yu; Suyuan, Yu; Jean-Charles, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphite was gasified at different conversions. • The reaction temperature influences on the dimensionless the reaction rate. • The thickness or radius influence on the dimensionless reaction rate. - Abstract: The gasification rate of porous solids varies with the conversions with the rate increasing to a maximum and then decreasing. Many graphite gasification experiments have illustrated that the maximum gasification rates occur at different conversions for different temperatures and sample geometries. Thus, the gasification rate is related to the conversion, temperature and geometry of the graphite. The influences of those factors were studied for the graphite gasification by water vapor. A theoretical analysis was done on the basis of several logical assumptions. The influence of temperatures on the reaction rate was investigated for plate-like and cylindrical graphite. The effects of thickness for a plate-like graphite sample and of radius for a cylindrical sample on the reaction rate were also studied theoretically. The results reveal that the maximum dimensionless reaction rate decreases with reaction temperature. The plate thickness or the cylinder radius also affects the maximum dimensionless reaction rate

  1. Steam gasification of oil palm trunk waste for clean syngas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nipattummakul, Nimit; Ahmed, Islam I.; Kerdsuwan, Somrat; Gupta, Ashwani K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Initial high values of syngas flow rate are attributed to rapid devolatilization. ► Over 50% of syngas generated was obtained during the first five minutes of the process. ► Increase in steam flow rate resulted in reduced gasification time. ► Variation in steam flow rate slightly affected the apparent thermal efficiency. ► Oil palm yielded more energy than that from mangrove wood, paper and food waste. -- Abstract: Waste and agricultural residues offer significant potential for harvesting chemical energy with simultaneous reduction of environmental pollution, providing carbon neutral (or even carbon negative) sustained energy production, energy security and alleviating social concerns associated with the wastes. Steam gasification is now recognized as one of the most efficient approaches for waste to clean energy conversion. Syngas generated during the gasification process can be utilized for electric power generation, heat generation and for other industrial and domestic uses. In this paper results obtained from the steam assisted gasification of oil palm trunk waste are presented. A batch type gasifier has been used to examine the syngas characteristics from gasification of palm trunk waste using steam as the gasifying agent. Reactor temperature was fixed at 800 °C. Results show initial high values of syngas flow rate, which is attributed to rapid devolatilization of the sample. Approximately over 50% of the total syngas generated was obtained during the first five minutes of the process. An increase in steam flow rate accelerated the gasification reactions and resulted in reduced gasification time. The effect of steam flow rate on the apparent thermal efficiency has also been investigated. Variation in steam flow rate slightly affected the apparent thermal efficiency and was found to be very high. Properties of the syngas obtained from the gasification of oil palm trunk waste have been compared to other samples under similar operating

  2. Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

    2009-01-07

    For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2

  3. Thermodynamic considerations in the application of reverse mode gasification to the destruction of hazardous substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, D.W.; Washington, M.D.; Manahan, S.E.; Medcalf, B.; Stary, F.E. [University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-09-01

    Previous studies by the authors have demonstrated the effectiveness of reverse mode gasification using a granular coal char matrix for treatment of hazardous wastes. Calculations pertaining to this gasification are presented, including a one-dimensional temperature profile and a thermodynamic analysis. Equilibrium compositions were calculated by free energy minimization using commercially available software. The calculated results were compared with experimental data for gasification of mixtures containing water, selected hydrocarbons, and used motor oil. Batch and continuous feed reactors were used with optimized operating parameters to generate the data. The dry gas product obtained from gasification of water and selected hydrocarbons contains carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, and hydrogen, in agreement with thermodynamic predictions, and the compositions agree well with predictions obtained assuming that chemical equilibrium is attained at a temperature of 650{degree}C. The dry gas product from gasification of motor oil contains small amounts of low molecular weight hydrocarbons, which are not thermodynamically stable, but the composition of the major products generally agrees with the thermodynamic predictions. Under optimized conditions, the aqueous condensate contains between 1 and 100 ppm organics. Heat balance terms for the process were also calculated, and these demonstrate the efficiency of gasification as a treatment method. 21 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Method for in situ carbon deposition measurement for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, J.; Kesler, O.

    2014-01-01

    Previous methods to measure carbon deposition in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes do not permit simultaneous electrochemical measurements. Electrochemical measurements supplemented with carbon deposition quantities create the opportunity to further understand how carbon affects SOFC performance and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). In this work, a method for measuring carbon in situ, named here as the quantification of gasified carbon (QGC), was developed. TGA experiments showed that carbon with a 100 h residence time in the SOFC was >99.8% gasified. Comparison of carbon mass measurements between the TGA and QGC show good agreement. In situ measurements of carbon deposition in SOFCs at varying molar steam/carbon ratios were performed to further validate the QGC method, and suppression of carbon deposition with increasing steam concentration was observed, in agreement with previous studies. The technique can be used to investigate in situ carbon deposition and gasification behavior simultaneously with electrochemical measurements for a variety of fuels and operating conditions, such as determining conditions under which incipient carbon deposition is reversible.

  5. Low temperature circulating fluidized bed gasification and co-gasification of municipal sewage sludge. Part 2: Evaluation of ash materials as phosphorus fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias Pape; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Gøbel, Benny

    2017-01-01

    to the mono-sludge ashes, thereby showing the best fertilizer qualities among all assessed materials. It was also found that bottomashes from the char reactor contained even less heavy metals than cyclone ashes. It is concluded thatLT-CFB gasification and co-gasification is a highly effective way to purify...

  6. Simulation of the gasification of animal wastes in a dual gasifier using Aspen Plus®

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Lopez, M.; Pedroche, J.; Valverde, J.L.; Sanchez-Silva, L.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The gasification of manure was evaluated using the software Aspen Plus®. • Composition and LHV of the obtained syngas depends on the operating conditions. • CO 2 net emissions for the steam and CO 2 gasification processes were calculated. • Manure steam gasification can be used as feedstock for Fischer-Tropsch. • Manure CO 2 gasification lead to a syngas suitable for energy production. - Abstract: The gasification of an animal waste biomass (manure) in a dual gasifier was studied using the software Aspen Plus®. For this purpose, a model based on a Gibbs free energy reactor was considered. Effects of the gasification temperature, the gasifying/biomass ratio and the use of steam and CO 2 as the gasifying agents on the composition and the low heating value (LHV) of the produced syngas were evaluated. In this sense, the H 2 /CO ratio and the LHV were the parameters calculated to stablish the best operating conditions for the production of either hydrocarbons via Fischer-Tropsch or energy. Furthermore, the CO 2 net emissions generated by the gasification process were also important in the selection of the best operating conditions from an environmental point of view. The obtained results showed that for both gasifying agents the H 2 and CO production was favoured at high temperatures whereas the production of CH 4 and CO 2 was favoured at low ones. On the other hand, the H 2 production was higher when steam was used as the gasifying agent and the formation of CO was enhanced when CO 2 was considered as gasification agent. An increase of the gasifying agent/biomass ratio had a negatively influence on the production of CH 4 , leading to a decrease of the LHV. Therefore, steam as the gasifying agent and high temperatures favoured the obtaining of a syngas suitable for the Fischer-Tropsch process whereas CO 2 and low gasification temperatures enhanced a syngas with a high LHV which could be used for energy production. Finally, the net CO 2

  7. Effect of fuel origin on synergy during co-gasification of biomass and coal in CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Yan; Yang, Mingjun; Song, Yongchen

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fuel origin on synergy in coal/biomass blends during co-gasification has been assessed using a congruent-mass thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) method. Results revealed that synergy occurs when ash residuals are formed, followed by an almost complete gasification of biomass. Potassium species in biomass ash play a catalytic role in promoting gasification reactivity of coal char, which is a direct consequence of synergy during co-gasification. The SEM-EDS spectra provided conclusive evidence that the transfer of potassium from biomass to the surface of coal char occurs during co-pyrolysis/gasification. Biomass ash rich in silica eliminated synergy in coal/biomass blends but not to the extent of inhibiting the reaction rate of the blended chars to make it slower than that of separated ones. The best result in terms of synergy was concluded to be the combination of low-ash coal and K-rich biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pellet wood gasification boiler / Combination boiler. Market review. 7. ed.; Scheitholzvergaser-/Kombikessel. Marktuebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uth, Joern

    2010-08-15

    In the market review under consideration on pellet wood gasification boilers and combination boilers, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) report on planning and installation of wood-fired heating systems, recommendations regarding to the technical assessment of boiler systems, buffers/combination boilers, prices of pellet wood gasification boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, pellet wood combination boilers, prices of pellet wood combination boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, list of providers.

  9. Market review. Pellet wood gasification boiler / combination boiler. 8. ed.; Marktuebersicht. Scheitholzvergaser-/Kombikessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uth, Joern

    2012-01-15

    In the market review under consideration on pellet wood gasification boilers and combination boilers, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on planning and installation of wood-fired heating systems, recommendations regarding to the technical assessment of boiler systems, buffers/combination boilers, prices of pellet wood gasification boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, pellet wood combination boilers, prices of pellet wood combination boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, list of providers.

  10. Development of biomass gasification systems for gas turbine power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, E.D.; Svenningsson, P.

    1991-01-01

    Gas turbines are of interest for biomass applications because, unlike steam turbines, they have relatively high efficiencies and low unit capital costs in the small sizes appropriate for biomass installations. Gasification is a simple and efficient way to make biomass usable in gas turbines. The authors evaluate here the technical requirements for gas turbine power generation with biomass gas and the status of pressurized biomass gasification and hot gas cleanup systems. They also discuss the economics of gasifier-gas turbine cycles and make some comparisons with competing technologies. Their analysis indicates that biomass gasifiers fueling advanced gas turbines are promising for cost-competitive cogeneration and central station power generation. Gasifier-gas turbine systems are not available commercially, but could probably be developed in 3 to 5 years. Extensive past work related to coal gasification and pressurized combustion of solid fuels for gas turbines would be relevant in this effort, as would work on pressurized biomass gasification for methanol synthesis

  11. The research and development of pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized bed coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Yitian; Wu Jinhu; Chen Hanshi [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

    1999-11-01

    Coal gasification tests in a pressurized ash agglomeration fluidized bed coal gasifier were carried out. The effects of pressure and temperature on the gasification capacity, carbon conversion, carbon content in discharged ash and gas composition were investigated. Gasification capacity was shown to be in direct proportion to operation pressure. Tests of hot gas dedusting using a moving granular bed were also carried out. 3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Hydrogen production by biomass steam gasification in fluidized bed reactor with Co catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazuhiko Tasaka; Atsushi Tsutsumi; Takeshi Furusawa

    2006-01-01

    The catalytic performances of Co/MgO catalysts were investigated in steam gasification of cellulose and steam reforming of tar derived from cellulose gasification. For steam reforming of cellulose tar in a secondary fixed bed reactor, 12 wt.% Co/MgO catalyst attained more than 80% of tar reduction. The amount of produced H 2 and CO 2 increased with the presence of catalyst, and kept same level during 2 hr at 873 K. It is indicated that steam reforming of cellulose tar proceeds sufficiently over Co/MgO catalyst. For steam gasification of cellulose in a fluidized bed reactor, it was found that tar reduction increases with Co loading amount and 36 wt.% Co/MgO catalyst showed 84% of tar reduction. The amounts of produced gas kept for 2 hr indicating that 36 wt.% Co/MgO catalyst is stable during the reaction. It was concluded that these Co catalysts are promising systems for the steam gasification of cellulose and steam reforming of cellulose tar. (authors)

  13. Feasibility of Biomass Biodrying for Gasification Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidian, Arash

    An important challenge of biomass gasification is the limitation of feedstock quality especially the moisture content, which plays a significant role on the performance of gasification process. Gasification requires low moisture levels (20% and less) and several reports have emphasized on the moisture as a typical problem while gasifying biomass. Moisture affects overall reaction rates in the gasifiers as a result of temperature drop and ultimately increases tar content, decreases gas yield, changes the composition of produced gas and affects the efficiency. Therefore, it is mandatory to pre-treat the biomass before gasification and reduce the moisture content to the suitable and economic level. The well-known solutions are either natural drying (not practical for commercial plants) or conventional drying technologies (have high operating costs). Biodrying is an alternative process, which uses both convective air and heat of biological reactions as a source of energy, to reduce the moisture. In the biodrying reactor heat is generated from exothermic decomposition of organic fraction of biomass and that is why the process is called "self-heating process". Employing such technology for drying biomass at pre-treatment units of gasification process returns several economic and environmental advantages to mills. In Europe, municipal waste treatment (MSW) plants use the biodrying at commercial scale to degrade a part of the biodegradable fraction of waste to generate heat and reduce the moisture content for high quality SRF (Solid Recovered Fuel) production. In Italy, wine industry is seeking to develop biodrying for energy recovery of grape wastes after fermentation and distillation, which returns economic benefits to the industry. In Canada, the development of biodrying technology for pulp and paper industry was started at Ecole polytechnique de Montreal as an option for sludge management solution. Therefore, batch biodrying reactor was successfully developed in 2004

  14. Low temperature circulating fluidized bed gasification and co-gasification of municipal sewage sludge. Part 1: Process performance and gas product characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias Pape; Sárossy, Zsuzsa; Gøbel, Benny

    2017-01-01

    Results from five experimental campaigns with Low Temperature Circulating Fluidized Bed (LT-CFB) gasification of straw and/or municipal sewage sludge (MSS) from three different Danish municipal waste water treatment plants in pilot and demonstration scale are analyzed and compared. The gasification...... process is characterized with respect to process stability, process performance and gas product characteristics. All experimental campaigns were conducted at maximum temperatures below 750°C, with air equivalence ratios around 0.12 and with pure silica sand as start-up bed material. A total of 8600kg...... particles in the system. Co-gasification of MSS with sufficient amounts of cereal straw was found to be an effective way to mitigate these issues as well as eliminate thermal MSS drying requirements. Characterization of gas products and process performance showed that even though gas composition varied...

  15. The gasification of biomass: A technological challenge. Biomassa vergassen: Een technologische uitdaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portegijs, J

    1993-05-01

    The gasification of specially for that purpose cultivated poplars and bamboo or other biomass is an attractive option for the production of electricity. An overview is given of projects and the techniques, by which this option can be realized. Examples of biomass gasification projects in Sweden and Finland are briefly discussed. Possibilities to implement small-scale biomass gasification in the Netherlands are outlined. 1 ill., 1 tab., 4 refs.

  16. Cogeneration (hydrogen and electrical power) using the Texaco Gasification Power Systems (TGPS) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, J.

    1994-01-01

    The information herein presents preliminary technical and cost data for an actual case study using Texaco Gasification Power Systems (TGPS) technology, incorporated as part of an overall refinery upgrade project. This study is based on gasification of asphalt and vacuum residue (see Table 1, feedstock properties) to produce hydrogen plus carbon monoxide (synthesis gas) for the ultimate production of high purity hydrogen and power at a major refinery in Eastern Europe. A hydrogen production of 101,000 Nm 3 /hr (9.1 tons/hr) at 99.9 (wt.%) purity plus 50 MW (net) power slated to be used by the refinery was considered for this study. Figure I shows a block diagram depicting the general refinery configuration upgrade as envisioned by the owner operator; included in the configuration as shown in the shaded area is the TGPS plant. Figure II shows a block flow diagram depicting the TGPS unit and its battery limits as defined for this project. The technology best suited to meet the demand for clean and efficient electric power generation and hydrogen production is the Texaco Gasification Power Systems (TGPS) process. This technology is based upon Texaco's proprietary gasification technology which is well proven with over 40 years of gasification experience. There are currently 37 operating units in the world today which have licensed the Texaco gasification process technology, with another 12 in design/construction. Total synthesis gas (hydrogen + carbon monoxide) production capacity is over 2,8 billion standard cubic feet per day. The TGPS, which is basically the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) based upon the Texaco gasification technology, was developed by combining and integrating gasification with power generation facilities. (author). 3 figs., 9 tabs., 4 refs

  17. The feasibility of underground coal gasification in developing countries with abundant coal reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakay, P.; Van Den Panhuyzen, W.

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of underground coal gasification is evaluated on the basis of a case study for India. India has immense coal reserves at relatively shallow depths compared to Europe, has low wages, an urgent need to expand its power capacity, a strongly rising energy demand and has shown interest in underground coal gasification. Three scenarios including the cases of continued, declining and a strong economic growth were considered. Model calculations allow to compare the cost of the electric power generated by the combustion of the gas produced by underground coal gasification with the cost of the power produced by classic thermal power plants in India for -the reference year 2000. (A.S.) 4 figs. 1 tab

  18. Co-gasification of pine and oak biochar with sub-bituminous coal in carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beagle, E; Wang, Y; Bell, D; Belmont, E

    2018-03-01

    Pine and oak biochars derived as byproducts of demonstration-scale pyrolysis, and blends of these two feedstocks with Powder River Basin coal, were gasified in a carbon dioxide environment using a modified drop tube reactor (MDTR) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The impact of gasification temperature on conversion kinetics was evaluated from the temporal evolution of major product gases in the MDTR as measured using a mass spectrometer. Random pore modeling was conducted to simulate gasification in the MDTR with favorable results. The MDTR and TGA were used to conduct gasification for assessment of non-linear additive effects in the blends. Additive analysis of the blends showed deviation from the experimental blend results, indicating inhibiting effects of co-gasifying the biochar and coal. Inhibitory effects are more significant for oak than pine and more pronounced in the TGA at lower gasification temperatures. Results are discussed in the context of feedstock and reactor type. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Substitute natural gas from biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunaa, Per (Lund Inst. of Technology, Lund (SE))

    2008-03-15

    Biomass is by many considered as the only alternative to phase-out the usage of fossil fuels such as natural gas and oil especially for the transportation sector where alternative solutions, such as hydrogen fuel cells and batteries, are not yet fully developed. Thermal gasification or other methods such as pyrolysis of the biomass must be applied in order to produce an intermediate product suitable for further upgrading to either gaseous or liquid products. This thesis will evaluate the possibilities of producing, substitute natural gas, (SNG) from biomass gasification by using computer simulation. Three different gasification techniques were evaluated; entrained-flow, fluidized-bed and indirect gasification coupled with two different desulphurisation systems and two methanation processes. The desulphurisation systems were a zinc oxide bed and a Rectisol wash system. Methanation were performed by a series of adiabatic reactors with gas recycling and by an isothermal reactor. The impact on SNG efficiency from system pressure, isothermal methanation temperature and PSA methane recovery were evaluated as well. The results show that the fluidized-bed and the indirect gasifier have the highest SNG efficiency. Furthermore there are little to no difference between the methanation processes and small differences for the gas cleanup systems. SNG efficiencies in excess of 50 % were possible for all gasifiers. SNG efficiency is defined as the energy in the SNG product divided by the total input to the system from biomass, drying and oxygen. Increasing system pressure has a negative impact on SNG efficiency as well as increasing operating costs due to increased power for compression. Isothermal methanation temperature has no significant impact on SNG efficiency. Recovering as much methane as possible in the PSA is the most important parameter. Recovering methane that has been dissolved in condensed process water increases the SNG efficiency by 2-10% depending on system.

  20. Gasification and combined cycles: Present situation and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brustia, G.F.; Bressan, L.; Domenichini, R.

    1992-01-01

    The gasification of coal and/or residual fuels from refineries together with the use of combined cycle power generation systems represents a technically and economically feasible method for the conversion of poor quality fossil fuels into electric power. The conversion is accomplished with maximum respect for the severest environmental normatives. In addition, foreseen technical improvements for components and plant systems are expected to heighten the marketing potential of gasification/combined cycle power plants. After Italy's moratorium on nuclear energy, the passing eras of conventional fossil fuel and then combined cycle power plants, the need for highly competitive industrial production technologies and the urgency of nation-wide energy conservation appear to be ushering in the new era of gasification with combined cycles

  1. Gasification of biomass - principles and technical alternatives; Vergasung von Biomassen - Prinzipien und technische Moeglichkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, E [Technische Univ. Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The technical principles of gasification are outlined, and a number of biomass gasification processes are presented and compared with the coal gasification process. On the basis of the knowledge gained in coal gasification, it will be easy to carry out the development work still required on small-scale biomass gasification systems in cooperation with the gas users. (orig) [Deutsch] Das technische Prinzip derVergasung und verschiedene Verfahrensweisen bei der Vergasung von Biomasse werden vorgestellt und mit der Kohlevergasung verglichen. Auf der Grundlage der technischen Erkenntnisse bei der Kohlevergasung einschliesslich der vor- und nachgeschalteten Prozessstufen sind die noch notwendigen verfahrens- und apparatetechnischen Entwicklungsarbeiten fuer vorwiegend kleine Anlagen in Zusammenarbeit mit den Gasnutzern durchfuehrbar. (orig)

  2. Gasification of biomass - principles and technical alternatives; Vergasung von Biomassen - Prinzipien und technische Moeglichkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, E. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The technical principles of gasification are outlined, and a number of biomass gasification processes are presented and compared with the coal gasification process. On the basis of the knowledge gained in coal gasification, it will be easy to carry out the development work still required on small-scale biomass gasification systems in cooperation with the gas users. (orig) [Deutsch] Das technische Prinzip derVergasung und verschiedene Verfahrensweisen bei der Vergasung von Biomasse werden vorgestellt und mit der Kohlevergasung verglichen. Auf der Grundlage der technischen Erkenntnisse bei der Kohlevergasung einschliesslich der vor- und nachgeschalteten Prozessstufen sind die noch notwendigen verfahrens- und apparatetechnischen Entwicklungsarbeiten fuer vorwiegend kleine Anlagen in Zusammenarbeit mit den Gasnutzern durchfuehrbar. (orig)

  3. Gasification of peat and biomass in suspension flow; Turpeen ja biomassan suspensiokaasutus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raiko, R.; Haukka, P. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Thermal Engineering

    1995-11-01

    This is the second phase of a project that started with examination of a gasification process for fuels containing high amounts of volatiles such as biomass. In the earlier phase of the project the gasification process was studied with the aid of computer models. Gas production with this gasification method is based mainly on rapid pyrolysis in dilute suspension flow enabling high solid to gas conversion. The two-stage approach eliminates char gasification as a limiting process step, and consequently, allows product temperature to be controlled by the kinetics of volatile reactions. A greater amount of enthalpy is made available for rapid pyrolysis through the total combustion of the residual char than is possible by partial oxidation. The main goal in the second year (1994) was to get experimental information on peat reactivity, main pyrolysis products and formation of nitrogen compounds in the early stages of peat pyrolysis in dilute pressurized flow conditions. These experiments were conducted using pressurized entrained flow reactor at VTT Energy (Jyvaeskylae). Preliminary experiments gave the result that pressure increase accelerates pyrolysis of peat at first (residence time < 100 ms), but this difference disappears gradually. The total amount of volatile matter does not seem to depend on pressure level. (author)

  4. Fate of alkali and trace metals in biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, K.; Mojtahedi, W.

    1998-01-01

    The fate of alkali metals (Na, K) and eleven toxic trace elements (Hg, Cd, Be, Se, Sb, As, Pb, Zn, Cr, Co, Ni) in biomass gasification have been extensively investigated in Finland in the past ten years. The former due to the gas turbine requirements and the latter to comply with environmental regulations. In this paper the results of several experimental studies to measure Na and K in the vapor phase after the gas cooler of a simplified (air-blown) Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) system are reported. Also, trace element emissions from an IGCC plant using alfalfa as the feedstock are discussed and the concentration of a few toxic trace metals in the vapor phase in the gasifier product gas are reported. (author)

  5. Catalytic mechanism of sodium compounds in black liquor during gasification of coal black liquor slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang Jianping; Zhou Junhu; Zhou Zhijun; Liu Jianzhong; Cen Kefa

    2008-01-01

    The coal black liquor slurry (CBLS) was composed of coal and black pulping liquor, which has plenty of sodium compounds, lignin and cellulose. The sodium compounds have a catalytic effect on the gasification process of coal black liquor slurry, while lignin and cellulose enhance the heat value. Alkali-catalyzed gasification experiments of CBLS and CWS (coal water slurry) are investigated on the thermobalance and fixed bed reactor. The residues of the gasification of CBLS and CWS are analyzed by XRD, SEM and FT-IR. It is found that many micro- and mesopores and zigzag faces exist in the surface of the CBLS coke, which play a key role in the catalytic gasification. Sodium can enhance the reaction potential, weaken the bond of C-O and improve the gasification reaction rate. XRD results show that sodium aluminum silicate and nepheline are the main crystal components of the CBLS and CWS. The C-O stretching vibration peak in the 1060 cm -1 band in the CBLS shifts to 995.65 cm -1 in the CBLS coke after partial gasification. This means that the energy of the C-O stretching vibration in the CBLS carbon matrix decreases, so the structure of the carbon matrix is more liable to react with an oxygen ion or hydroxide ion. The amplitude of the C-O stretching vibration peak is augmented step by step due to the ground-excited level jump of the C-O band

  6. Attempts on cardoon gasification in two different circulating fluidized beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chr. Christodoulou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Few tests have been carried out in order to evaluate the use of cardoon in gasification and combustion applications most of the researchers dealt with agglomeration problems. The aim of this work is to deal with the agglomeration problem and to present a solution for the utilization of this biofuel at a near industrial application scale. For this reason, two experiments were conducted, one in TU Delft and one in Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH, using fuel cardoon and 50% w/w cardoon blended with 50% w/w giant reed respectively. Both experimental campaigns were carried out in similar atmospheric circulating fluidized bed gasifiers. Apart from the feedstock, the other differences were the gasification medium and the bed material used in each trial. The oxidizing agent at TUD׳s run was O2/steam, whereas CERTH׳s tests used air. When experiments with the cardoon 50% w/w–giant reed 50% w/w blend were performed no agglomeration problems were presented. Consequently, gasification could be achieved in higher temperature than that of pure cardoon which led to the reduction of tar concentration.

  7. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Wotzak; Chellappa Balan; Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2003-08-01

    The pre-baseline configuration for an Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) system has been developed. This case uses current gasification, clean-up, gas turbine, and bottoming cycle technologies together with projected large planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology. This pre-baseline case will be used as a basis for identifying the critical factors impacting system performance and the major technical challenges in implementing such systems. Top-level system requirements were used as the criteria to evaluate and down select alternative sub-systems. The top choice subsystems were subsequently integrated to form the pre-baseline case. The down-selected pre-baseline case includes a British Gas Lurgi (BGL) gasification and cleanup sub-system integrated with a GE Power Systems 6FA+e gas turbine and the Hybrid Power Generation Systems planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) sub-system. The overall efficiency of this system is estimated to be 43.0%. The system efficiency of the pre-baseline system provides a benchmark level for further optimization efforts in this program.

  8. UTILIZATION OF AQUEOUS-TAR CONDENSATES FORMED DURING GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kwiecińska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gasification of solid fuels is an alternative process for energy production using conventional and renewable fuels. Apart from desired compounds, i.e. carbon oxide, hydrogen and methane, the produced gas contains complex organic (tars and inorganic (carbonizate, ammonia contaminants. Those substances, together with water vapor, condensate during cooling of the process gas, what results in the formation of aqueous-tar condensate, which requires proper methods of utilization. The management of this stream is crucial for commercialization and application of the gasification technology. In the paper the treatment of aqueous-tar condensates formed during biomass gasification process is discussed. The removal of tars from the stream was based on their spontaneous separation. The aqueous stream was subjected to ultrafiltration operated at different pressures. Such a treatment configuration enabled to obtain highly concentrated retentate, which could be recycled to the gasifier, and filtrate, which could be subjected to further treatment.

  9. Method and system for controlling a gasification or partial oxidation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozelle, Peter L; Der, Victor K

    2015-02-10

    A method and system for controlling a fuel gasification system includes optimizing a conversion of solid components in the fuel to gaseous fuel components, controlling the flux of solids entrained in the product gas through equipment downstream of the gasifier, and maximizing the overall efficiencies of processes utilizing gasification. A combination of models, when utilized together, can be integrated with existing plant control systems and operating procedures and employed to develop new control systems and operating procedures. Such an approach is further applicable to gasification systems that utilize both dry feed and slurry feed.

  10. Experimental study on the gasification characteristics of coal and orimulsion in 0.5 T/D gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ho Young; Kim, Jong Young; An, Dal Hong; Park, Tae Jun [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1995-12-31

    For the construction of commercial plant for IGCC imported from aboard in near future, it is aimed to get gasification data, practice the gasification design capability, and develop a fundamental key technology through the experiments for different kinds of coals (Datong, Roto, Alaska) by 0.5 T/D gasifier. We performed the experiments for physical properties and reactivities on selected coals by means of Drop Tube Reactor, numerical analysis for the reactor. Throughout the characteristic studies of orimulsion gasification, feasibility studies for orimulsion gasification as a fuel for power plant be performed. With the six experiment runs for the coal gasifier, several problems were found to remedy. After remedies, the gasifier could run at good operating conditions maintaining with 200% design feed rate over 1200-1550 degree. The third and fourth gasification runs with Roto were satisfactorily completed, during which gross heating values from produced gas were 7200-8200 Kcal/Nm{sup 3}. (author). 118 refs., 145 figs.

  11. Experimental study on the gasification characteristics of coal and orimulsion in 0.5 T/D gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ho Young; Kim, Jong Young; An, Dal Hong; Park, Tae Jun [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1996-12-31

    For the construction of commercial plant for IGCC imported from aboard in near future, it is aimed to get gasification data, practice the gasification design capability, and develop a fundamental key technology through the experiments for different kinds of coals (Datong, Roto, Alaska) by 0.5 T/D gasifier. We performed the experiments for physical properties and reactivities on selected coals by means of Drop Tube Reactor, numerical analysis for the reactor. Throughout the characteristic studies of orimulsion gasification, feasibility studies for orimulsion gasification as a fuel for power plant be performed. With the six experiment runs for the coal gasifier, several problems were found to remedy. After remedies, the gasifier could run at good operating conditions maintaining with 200% design feed rate over 1200-1550 degree. The third and fourth gasification runs with Roto were satisfactorily completed, during which gross heating values from produced gas were 7200-8200 Kcal/Nm{sup 3}. (author). 118 refs., 145 figs.

  12. Critical factors affecting the integration of biomass gasification and syngas fermentation technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan D. Ramachandriya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gasification-fermentation is a thermochemical-biological platform for the production of fuels and chemicals. Biomass is gasified at high temperatures to make syngas, a gas composed of CO, CO2, H2, N2 and other minor components. Syngas is then fed to anaerobic microorganisms that convert CO, CO2 and H2 to alcohols by fermentation. This platform offers numerous advantages such as flexibility of feedstock and syngas composition and lower operating temperature and pressure compared to other catalytic syngas conversion processes. In comparison to hydrolysis-fermentation, gasification-fermentation has a major advantage of utilizing all organic components of biomass, including lignin, to yield higher fuel production. Furthermore, syngas fermentation microorganisms do not require strict CO:H2:CO2 ratios, hence gas reforming is not required. However, several issues must be addressed for successful deployment of gasification-fermentation, particularly those that involve the integration of gasification and fermentation. Most previous reviews have focused only on either biomass gasification or syngas fermentation. In this review, the critical factors that affect the integration of biomass gasification with syngas fermentation, such as carbon conversion efficiency, effect of trace gaseous species, H2 to CO ratio requirements, and microbial preference of carbon substrate, are thoroughly discussed.

  13. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, April--June 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The conversion of coal to high-Btu gas requires a chemical and physical transformation of solid coal. However, because coal has widely differing chemical and physical properties, depending on where it is mined, it is difficult to process. Therefore, to develop the most suitable techniques for gasifying coal, ERDA, together with the American Gas Association, is sponsoring the development of several advanced conversion processes. Although the basic coal-gasification chemical reactions are the same for each process, the processes under development have unique characteristics. A number of the processes for converting coal to high Btu and to low Btu gas have reached the pilot plant stage. The responsibility for designing, constructing and operating each of these pilot plants is defined and progress on each during the quarter is described briefly. The accumulation of data for a coal gasification manual and the development of mathematical models of coal gasification processes are reported briefly. (LTN)

  14. Low-temperature gasification of waste tire in a fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Gang; Ni Mingjiang; Chi Yong; Cen Kefa

    2008-01-01

    In order to recovery energy and materials from waste tire efficiently, low-temperature gasification is proposed. Experiments are carried out in a lab-scale fluidized bed at 400-800 deg. C when equivalence ratio (ER) is 0.2-0.6. Low heat value (LHV) of syngas increases with increasing temperature or decreasing ER, and the yield is in proportion to ER linearly. The yield of carbon black decreases with increasing temperature or ER lightly. When temperature is over 600 deg. C, characteristics of carbon black is similar. When temperature is over 700 deg. C, LHV of syngas rises up lightly with increasing temperature, which indicates that it hardly facilitates gasification any more. It is suitable for tire gasification when temperature is 650-700 deg. C and ER is 0.2-0.4. Under this condition, LHV and yield of syngas are about 4000-9000 kJ/Nm 3 and 1.8-3.7 Nm 3 /kg, respectively; surface area and yield of carbon black lie in range of 20-30 m 3 /g and 550-650 g/kg, respectively. The carbon balance of these experiments achieves 85-95% when temperature is over 600 deg. C

  15. Hydrogen production from sewage sludge by steam gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aye, L.; Klinkajorn, P. [Melbourne Univ. International Technologies Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Because of the shortage of energy sources in the near future, renewable energy, such as biomass, has become an important source of energy. One of the most common approaches for producing gaseous fuels from biomass is gasification. The main product gases of gasification are hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane and low molecular weight hydrocarbons. Because of the capability of very low emission at the point of use, the interest in using hydrogen for electrical power generation and in electric-vehicles has been increasing. Hydrogen from biomass steam gasification (SG) is a net zero green house gas emission fuel. Sewage sludge (SS) has a potential to produce hydrogen-rich gaseous fuel. Therefore, hydrogen production from sewage sludge may be a solution for cleaner fuel and the sewage sludge disposal problem. This paper presented the results of a computer model for SSSG by using Gibbs free energy minimization (GFEM) method. The computer model developed was used to determine the hydrogen production limits for various steam to biomass ratios. The paper presented an introduction to renewable energy and gasification and discussed the Gibbs free energy minimization method. The study used a RAND algorithm. It presented the computer model input parameters and discussed the results of the stoichiometric analysis and Gibbs free energy minimization. The energy requirement for hydrogen production was also presented. 17 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  16. Development of Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2016-12-20

    The overall objective of the current project was to investigate the high pressure gasification characteristics of a feed containing both coal and biomass. The two feed types differ in their ash contents and ash composition, particularly the alkali content. Gasification of a combined feed of coal and biomass has the potential for considerable synergies that might lead to a dramatic improvement in process economics and flexibility. The proposed study aimed to develop a detailed understanding of the chemistry, kinetics, and transport effects during high pressure gasification of coal-biomass blend feed. Specifically, we studied to develop: (a) an understanding of the catalytic effect of alkali and other inorganic species present in the biomass and coal, (b) an understanding of processing conditions under which synergistic effects of the blending of coal and biomass might be observed. This included the role of particle size, residence time, and proximity of the two feed types, (c) kinetics of high pressure gasification of individual feeds as well as the blends, and (d) development of mathematical models that incorporate kinetics and transport models to enable prediction of gasification rate at a given set of operating conditions, and (e) protocols to extend the results to other feed resources. The goal was to provide a fundamental understanding of the gasification process and guide in optimizing the configurations and design of the next generation of gasifiers. The approach undertaken was centered on two basic premises: (1) the gasification for small particles without internal mass transfer limitations can be treated as the sum of two processes in series (pyrolysis and char gasification) , and (2) the reactivity of the char generated during pyrolysis not only depends on the pressure and temperature but is also affected by the heating rates. Thus low heating rates (10-50 °C/min) typical of PTGA fail to produce char that would typically be formed at high heating rates

  17. A case-study of landfill minimization and material recovery via waste co-gasification in a new waste management scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro, E-mail: tanigaki.nobuhiro@eng.nssmc.com [NIPPON STEEL & SUMIKIN ENGINEERING CO., LTD., (EUROPEAN OFFICE), Am Seestern 8, 40547 Dusseldorf (Germany); Ishida, Yoshihiro [NIPPON STEEL & SUMIKIN ENGINEERING CO., LTD., 46-59, Nakabaru, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8505 (Japan); Osada, Morihiro [NIPPON STEEL & SUMIKIN ENGINEERING CO., LTD., (Head Office), Osaki Center Building 1-5-1, Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8604 (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • A new waste management scheme and the effects of co-gasification of MSW were assessed. • A co-gasification system was compared with other conventional systems. • The co-gasification system can produce slag and metal with high-quality. • The co-gasification system showed an economic advantage when bottom ash is landfilled. • The sensitive analyses indicate an economic advantage when the landfill cost is high. - Abstract: This study evaluates municipal solid waste co-gasification technology and a new solid waste management scheme, which can minimize final landfill amounts and maximize material recycled from waste. This new scheme is considered for a region where bottom ash and incombustibles are landfilled or not allowed to be recycled due to their toxic heavy metal concentration. Waste is processed with incombustible residues and an incineration bottom ash discharged from existent conventional incinerators, using a gasification and melting technology (the Direct Melting System). The inert materials, contained in municipal solid waste, incombustibles and bottom ash, are recycled as slag and metal in this process as well as energy recovery. Based on this new waste management scheme with a co-gasification system, a case study of municipal solid waste co-gasification was evaluated and compared with other technical solutions, such as conventional incineration, incineration with an ash melting facility under certain boundary conditions. From a technical point of view, co-gasification produced high quality slag with few harmful heavy metals, which was recycled completely without requiring any further post-treatment such as aging. As a consequence, the co-gasification system had an economical advantage over other systems because of its material recovery and minimization of the final landfill amount. Sensitivity analyses of landfill cost, power price and inert materials in waste were also conducted. The higher the landfill costs, the greater the

  18. Hydrothermal gasification of glucose and starch in a batch and continuous reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Kumabe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A batch reactor was used for the gasification of glucose and starch as carbohydrate model compounds. The effects of H2O in various states (low-pressure hot compressed water (LP-HCW, 300 °C and 10 MPa, high-pressure hot compressed water (HP-HCW, 360 °C and 20 MPa, high-temperature steam (HTS, 400 °C and 10 MPa, and supercritical water (SCW, 400 °C and 25 MPa, as well as reaction time (10, 30, and 60 min, sample concentration (10, 20, and 30 wt%, and catalyst (mixture of Ca(OH2 and Na2CO3 on gas production were investigated in the hydrothermal gasification. In addition, using a continuous reactor, the hydrothermal gasification of glucose was examined with LP-HCW (200 °C and 5 MPa, HP-HCW (200 °C and 25 MPa, HTS (600 °C, 5 MPa, and SCW (600 °C, 25 MPa in order to study the productions of gases and tar, and the mass balance. The reaction temperature affected gasification considerably, but pressure had little effect. In the batch experiments, the characteristics of the produced gases were almost identical after a reaction time of 10 min, and addition of Ca(OH2 and Na2CO3 as catalysts in a molar ratio of 7:3 led to selective production of H2 in the SCW gasification of 10 wt% glucose for 30 min. In a continuous experiment under the SCW conditions, the conversion efficiency of glucose to gas was 26% and the composition of the produced gas was 29 vol% CO, 23 vol% H2, and 16 vol% CH4. Under the hydrothermal conditions, glucose was mainly converted to char and suspended components of high-molecular-weight compounds such as fat, whereas starch was mainly converted to gas and liquid.

  19. Biomass gasification : The understanding of sulfur, tar, and char reaction in fluidized bed gasifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, X.

    2012-01-01

    As one of the currently available thermo-chemical conversion technologies, biomass gasification has received considerable interest since it increases options for combining with various power generation systems. The product gas or syngas produced from biomass gasification is environmental friendly

  20. Changes in porosity of graphite caused by radiolytic gasification by carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdie, Neil; Edwards, I.A.S.; Marsh, Harry

    1986-01-01

    Methods have been developed to study porosity in nuclear grade graphite. The changes induced during the radiolytic gasification of graphite in carbon dioxide have been investigated. Porosity in radiolytically gasified graphite (0-22.8% wt. loss) was examined by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Each sample was vacuum impregnated with a slow-setting resin containing a fluorescent dye. Optical microscopy was used to study pores >2 μm 2 c.s.a. A semi-automatic image analysis system linked to the optical microscope enabled pore parameter data including cross-sectional areas, perimeters, Feret's diameters and shape factors, to be collected. The results showed that radiolytic gasification produced a large increase in the number of pores 2 c.s.a. New open pores 2 c.s.a. were developed by gasification of existing open porosity into the closed porosity ( 2 c.s.a.) within the binder-coke. Open pores, 2-100 μm 2 c.s.a., which were gasified within the coarse-grained mosaics of the binder-coke. In the gasification process to 22.8% wt. loss, the apparent open pore volume increased from 6.6 to 33.8% and the apparent closed pore volumes decreased from approx. 3% to 0.1%. The increase in apparent open porosity from 6.6% (virgin) to 33.8% resulted from gasification within original open porosity and by the opening and development of closed porosity. There was no evidence for creation of porosity from within the 'bulk' graphite, it being developed from existing fine porosity. The structure of pores > 100 μm 2 c.s.a. showed no change because of the inhibition of oxidation by deposition of carbonaceous species from the CH 4 inhibitor. Such species diffuse to the pore wall and are sacrificially oxidised. (author)

  1. Influence of Torrefaction on the Conversion Efficiency of the Gasification Process of Sugarcane Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Anukam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane bagasse was torrefied to improve its quality in terms of properties prior to gasification. Torrefaction was undertaken at 300 °C in an inert atmosphere of N2 at 10 °C·min−1 heating rate. A residence time of 5 min allowed for rapid reaction of the material during torrefaction. Torrefied and untorrefied bagasse were characterized to compare their suitability as feedstocks for gasification. The results showed that torrefied bagasse had lower O–C and H–C atomic ratios of about 0.5 and 0.84 as compared to that of untorrefied bagasse with 0.82 and 1.55, respectively. A calorific value of about 20.29 MJ·kg−1 was also measured for torrefied bagasse, which is around 13% higher than that for untorrefied bagasse with a value of ca. 17.9 MJ·kg−1. This confirms the former as a much more suitable feedstock for gasification than the latter since efficiency of gasification is a function of feedstock calorific value. SEM results also revealed a fibrous structure and pith in the micrographs of both torrefied and untorrefied bagasse, indicating the carbonaceous nature of both materials, with torrefied bagasse exhibiting a more permeable structure with larger surface area, which are among the features that favour gasification. The gasification process of torrefied bagasse relied on computer simulation to establish the impact of torrefaction on gasification efficiency. Optimum efficiency was achieved with torrefied bagasse because of its slightly modified properties. Conversion efficiency of the gasification process of torrefied bagasse increased from 50% to approximately 60% after computer simulation, whereas that of untorrefied bagasse remained constant at 50%, even as the gasification time increased.

  2. Challenges And Opportunities For Coal Gasification In Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-10-01

    Coal gasification for chemicals, gaseous and liquid fuels production can fulfil an important strategic need in those developing countries where coal is the primary fuel source and oil and gas energy security is an issue. At the same time, the establishment of major projects in such countries can be problematical for a number of technical and economic reasons, although it is encouraging that some projects appear to be moving forward. There are two developing countries where coal conversion projects to produce chemicals, gaseous and liquid fuels have been taken forward strongly. The first is South Africa, which established the world's only commercial-scale coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals facilities at Secunda and Sasolburg respectively. The other is China, where there is a major gasification-based coal conversion development and deployment programme that is set to become a significant, large-scale commercial element in the nation's energy development plans. This will provide further major opportunities for the deployment of large-scale coal gasification technologies, various syngas conversion units and catalysts for the subsequent production of the required products. The role of China is likely to be critical in the dissemination of such technologies to other developing countries as it can not only provide the technical expertise but also financially underpin such projects, including the associated infrastructure needs.

  3. Microwave-driven plasma gasification for biomass waste treatment at miniature scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, G.S.J.; Navarrete Muñoz, A.; Purushothaman Vellayani, A.; Stefanidis, G.

    2016-01-01

    Gasification technology may combine waste treatment with energy generation. Conventional gasification processes are bulky and inflexible. By using an external energy source, in the form of microwave-generated plasma, equipment size may be reduced and flexibility as regards to the feed composition

  4. Gasification of palm empty fruit bunch in a bubbling fluidized bed: a performance and agglomeration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahijani, Pooya; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin

    2011-01-01

    Gasification of palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was investigated in a pilot-scale air-blown fluidized bed. The effect of bed temperature (650-1050 °C) on gasification performance was studied. To explore the potential of EFB, the gasification results were compared to that of sawdust. Results showed that maximum heating values (HHV) of 5.37 and 5.88 (MJ/Nm3), dry gas yield of 2.04 and 2.0 (Nm3/kg), carbon conversion of 93% and 85 % and cold gas efficiency of 72% and 71 % were obtained for EFB and sawdust at the temperature of 1050 °C and ER of 0.25. However, it was realized that agglomeration was the major issue in EFB gasification at high temperatures. To prevent the bed agglomeration, EFB gasification was performed at temperature of 770±20 °C while the ER was varied from 0.17 to 0.32. Maximum HHV of 4.53 was obtained at ER of 0.21 where no agglomeration was observed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Catalytic effect of mineral matter of high ash Onakawana lignite on steam gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.

    1986-04-01

    Reactivities of untreated and acid washed Onakawana lignite during steam gasification were compared in a thermobalance reactor. The acid treatment resulted in removal of Ca, Mg, Ba and Sr from mineral matter. This was accompanied by a marked decrease in the rates of H/sub 2/, CO and CO/sub 2/ formation. The decrease of gasification rate was attributed to the decrease in concentration of gasification sites during the acid treatment.

  6. Computational fluid dynamic model for glycerol gasification in supercritical water in a tee junction shaped cylindrical reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yukananto, Riza; Pozarlik, Artur K.; Brem, Gerrit

    2018-01-01

    Gasification in supercritical water is a very promising technology to process wet biomass into a valuable gas. Providing insight of the process behavior is therefore very important. In this research a computational fluid dynamic model is developed to investigate glycerol gasification in

  7. Analysis of experimental researches of wood gasification process in a continuous layer

    OpenAIRE

    Lys, Stepan; Rymar, Tetyana; Yurasova, Oksana; Bura, Mykhaylo

    2017-01-01

    For today are known quite a bit methods redoing of wood and its wastes in energy, but one of the most perspective is gasification. The construction of the gazogene, on which the row of experiments is conducted with the aim of determination of conformity to law of influence of entrance factors which influence on the process of gasification and on quality of synthesis-gas, was worked out for this purpose. The statistical processing of experimental data enables to define ...

  8. Coal gasification by indirect heating in a single moving bed reactor: Process development & simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Akhlas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the development and simulation of a new coal gasification process with indirect heat supply is performed. In this way, the need of pure oxygen production as in a conventional gasification process is avoided. The feasibility and energetic self-sufficiency of the proposed processes are addressed. To avoid the need of Air Separation Unit, the heat required by gasification reactions is supplied by the combustion flue gases, and transferred to the reacting mixture through a bayonet heat exchanger installed inside the gasifier. Two alternatives for the flue gas generation have been investigated and compared. The proposed processes are modeled using chemical kinetics validated on experimental gasification data by means of a standard process simulator (Aspen PlusTM, integrated with a spreadsheet for the modeling of a special type of heat exchanger. Simulation results are presented and discussed for proposed integrated process schemes. It is shown that they do not need external energy supply and ensure overall efficiencies comparable to conventional processes while producing syngas with lower content of carbon dioxide.

  9. Gasification of brown coal and char with carbon dioxide in the presence of finely dispersed iron catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asami, K.; Sears, P.; Furimsky, E.; Ohtsuka, Y. [Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    1996-05-01

    Gasification of brown coal and char with CO{sub 2} using iron catalysts precipitated from an aqueous solution of FeCl{sub 3} has been studied. When the pyrolyzed char is gasified in the temperature-programmed mode, the presence of the iron can lower the temperature giving the maximal rate of CO formation by 130-160 K, a larger lowering being observed at a higher loading in the range of {le} 3 wt% Fe. The specific rates of the isothermal gasification iron-bearing chars at 1173 and 1223 K increase with increasing char conversion, resulting in complete gasification within a short reaction time. Comparison of the initial rates of uncatalyzed and catalyzed gasification reveals that iron addition can lower the reaction temperature by 120 K. Moessbauer spectra show that the precipitation iron exists as fine FeOOH particles, which are reduced mainly to Fe{sub 3}C on charring at 1123 K. Most of the Fe{sub 3}C is transformed into {alpha}-Fe and {gamma}-Fe at the initial stage of gasification, and subsequently these species are oxidized to FeO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The changes during gasification are discussed in terms of solid-gas and solid-solid reactions. 23 refs., 10 figs.

  10. The kinetics of the gasification of black liquor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Tobias; Theliander, Hans; Wintoko, Joko [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Forest Products and Chemical Engineering

    2004-05-01

    Within the project, a special equipment has been manufactured in order to perform gasification experiments on single black liquor droplets. There are possibilities with the equipment to dynamically measure the weight of the droplet as well as its center temperature. Furthermore, some key gases (CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}S, CH{sub 4} and SO{sub 2}) are continuously measured. It is also possible to follow the gasification stages visually through a glass window. Parallel with this, a mathematical model has been developed to describe the gasification. It consists of both reaction kinetics and transport phenomenon. As a first step, the temperature profile was modeled and after that the model has been expanded to describe the swelling.

  11. Introducing novel graphical techniques to assess gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngubevana, Lwazi; Hildebrandt, Diane; Glasser, David [Center Of Material and Process Synthesis (COMPS), University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2000 (South Africa)

    2011-01-15

    Due to its complexity, coal gasification is perhaps one industry's least understood processes. This is despite the fact that this process is critical to countries such as South Africa, as it is responsible for producing a large portion of the country's fuel needs through the Fischer-Tropsch process. Worldwide, this process has also become critical for applications such as IGCC, for the production of electricity. It is because of this importance that it is necessary to better understand this process. Another motivating factor is that gasifiers are very expensive and are big energy consumers as well as being large carbon dioxide producers. Much experimental work has been done in the area of gasification, but this can be very expensive and is time consuming. It is with this in mind, that we have developed a quick, relatively simple and yet very powerful graphical tool to assess and better understand gasification and to use this tool to look for opportunities to improve efficiencies of process and to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The approach used here is to make a few reasonable assumptions to set up mass balances; the energy balance and reaction equilibria around a coal gasifier. This paper deals with how these balances can be set up; it also looks at what effect the feed composition and choice of reaction conditions (temperature and pressure), may have on the possible gasifier product. The result of this approach shows that we can work in a stoichiometric subspace defined by the energy and mass balance. Furthermore we can show that gasification is energy and not work limited which has implications for the design and operation of these units. (author)

  12. Incineration and pyrolysis vs. steam gasification of electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgul, Agnieszka; Szczepaniak, Włodzimierz; Zabłocka-Malicka, Monika

    2018-05-15

    Constructional complexity of items and their integration are the most distinctive features of electronic wastes. These wastes consist of mineral and polymeric materials and have high content of valuable metals that could be recovered. Elimination of polymeric components (especially epoxy resins) while leaving non-volatile mineral and metallic phases is the purpose of thermal treatment of electronic wastes. In the case of gasification, gaseous product of the process may be, after cleaning, used for energy recovery or chemical synthesis. If not melted, metals from solid products of thermal treatment of electronic waste could be recovered by hydrometallurgical processing. Three basic, high temperature ways of electronic waste processing, i.e. smelting/incineration, pyrolysis and steam gasification were shortly discussed in the paper, giving a special attention to gasification under steam, illustrated by laboratory experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Gasification of torrefied Miscanthus × giganteus in an air-blown bubbling fluidized bed gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, G; Kwapinska, M; Horvat, A; Kwapinski, W; Rabou, L P L M; Dooley, S; Czajka, K M; Leahy, J J

    2014-05-01

    Torrefaction is suggested to be an effective method to improve the fuel properties of biomass and gasification of torrefied biomass should provide a higher quality product gas than that from unprocessed biomass. In this study, both raw and torrefied Miscanthus × giganteus (M×G) were gasified in an air-blown bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) gasifier using olivine as the bed material. The effects of equivalence ratio (ER) (0.18-0.32) and bed temperature (660-850°C) on the gasification performance were investigated. The results obtained suggest the optimum gasification conditions for the torrefied M × G are ER 0.21 and 800°C. The product gas from these process conditions had a higher heating value (HHV) of 6.70 MJ/m(3), gas yield 2m(3)/kg biomass (H2 8.6%, CO 16.4% and CH4 4.4%) and cold gas efficiency 62.7%. The comparison between raw and torrefied M × G indicates that the torrefied M × G is more suitable BFB gasification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Municipal Solid Waste Gasification Plant Integrated With SOFC and Gas Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellomare, Filippo; Rokni, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    An interesting source of producing energy with low pollutants emission and reduced environmental impact are the biomasses; particularly using Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) as fuel, can be a competitive solution not only to produce energy with negligible costs but also to decrease the storage...... in landfills. A Municipal Solid Waste Gasification Plant Integrated with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) has been studied and the plant is called IGSG (Integrated Gasification SOFC and GT). Gasification plant is fed by MSW to produce syngas by which the anode side of a SOFC is fed wherein...

  15. CALCULATION OF REACTION COMPLETENESS AND SUBSTANCE TRANSFORMATION AT WATER-COAL GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Nazarov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Process of water-coal gasification is satisfactorily described by three thermal and chemical equations; using these equations composition of gasification product (water carbon monoxide gas has been calculated in accordance with a temperature. Results of the calculations are presented in the form of charts. 

  16. Steam gasification of acid-hydrolysis biomass CAHR for clean syngas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanyi; Yao, Jingang; Yang, Huijun; Yan, Beibei; Chen, Hong

    2015-03-01

    Main characteristics of gaseous product from steam gasification of acid-hydrolysis biomass CAHR have been investigated experimentally. The comparison in terms of evolution of syngas flow rate, syngas quality and apparent thermal efficiency was made between steam gasification and pyrolysis in the lab-scale apparatus. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of temperature and steam to CAHR ratio on gas quality, syngas yield and energy conversion. The results showed that syngas and energy yield were better with gasification compared to pyrolysis under identical thermal conditions. Both high gasification temperature and introduction of proper steam led to higher gas quality, higher syngas yield and higher energy conversion efficiency. However, excessive steam reduced hydrogen yield and energy conversion efficiency. The optimal value of S/B was found to be 3.3. The maximum value of energy ratio was 0.855 at 800°C with the optimal S/B value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Catalytic hot gas cleaning of gasification gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this work was to study the catalytic cleaning of gasification gas from tars and ammonia. In addition, factors influencing catalytic activity in industrial applications were studied, as well as the effects of different operation conditions and limits. Also the catalytic reactions of tar and ammonia with gasification gas components were studied. The activities of different catalyst materials were measured with laboratory-scale reactors fed by slip streams taken from updraft and fluid bed gasifiers. Carbonate rocks and nickel catalysts proved to be active tar decomposing catalysts. Ammonia decomposition was in turn facilitated by nickel catalysts and iron materials like iron sinter and iron dolomite. Temperatures over 850 deg C were required at 2000{sup -1} space velocity at ambient pressure to achieve almost complete conversions. During catalytic reactions H{sub 2} and CO were formed and H{sub 2}O was consumed in addition to decomposing hydrocarbons and ammonia. Equilibrium gas composition was almost achieved with nickel catalysts at 900 deg C. No deactivation by H{sub 2}S or carbon took place in these conditions. Catalyst blocking by particulates was avoided by using a monolith type of catalyst. The apparent first order kinetic parameters were determined for the most active materials. The activities of dolomite, nickel catalyst and reference materials were measured in different gas atmospheres using laboratory apparatus. This consisted of nitrogen carrier, toluene as tar model compound, ammonia and one of the components H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O or CO+CO{sub 2}. Also synthetic gasification gas was used. With the dolomite and nickel catalyst the highest toluene decomposition rates were measured with CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. In gasification gas, however, the rate was retarded due to inhibition by reaction products (CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}). Tar decomposition over dolomite was modelled by benzene reactions with CO{sub 2}, H

  18. Gasification of biomass and coal in a pressurised fluidised bed gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, J; Jong, W de; Hein, K R.G. [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands)

    1998-09-01

    During a 3 year (1996-1998) multinational JOULE project, partly funded by the EU, experimental and theoretical research is being done on co-gasification of biomass (pelletised straw and Miscanthus) and coal in a pressurised fluidised bed reactor. The influence of feedstock and operating conditions on gasification characteristics has been studied using a 1.5 MW{sub th} gasifier, which has been operated at a pressure of 5 bar and temperatures up to 900 C. The project and the test rig are described and results obtained in the first part of the project are presented and analysed. (orig.)

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production from biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohce, M.K.; Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    'Full Text': Biomass resources have the advantage of being renewable and can therefore contribute to renewable hydrogen production. In this study, an overview is presented of hydrogen production methods in general, and biomass-based hydrogen production in particular. For two methods in the latter category (direct gasification and pyrolysis), assessments are carried out, with the aim of investigating the feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass and better understanding the potential of biomass as a renewable energy source. A simplified model is presented here for biomass gasification based on chemical equilibrium considerations, and the effects of temperature, pressure and the Gibbs free energy on the equilibrium hydrogen yield are studied. Palm oil (designated C 6 H 10 O 5 ), one of the most common biomass resources in the world, is considered in the analyses. The gasifier is observed to be one of the most critical components of a biomass gasification system, and is modeled using stoichiometric reactions. Various thermodynamic efficiencies are evaluated, and both methods are observed to have reasonably high efficiencies. (author)

  20. An overview of underground coal gasification and its applicability for Turkish lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekpak, E.; Yoncaci, S.; Kilic, M.G. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Coal is expected to maintain its significance as an energy source for a longer time period than oil and natural gas. Environmental concerns have led to the development of clean coal technologies, such as coal gasification. Coal gasification can be used at either at surface or in underground coal gasification (UCG). UCG has several advantages over surface gasification and conventional mining such as rank low calorific value coals. Coal gasification also has the potential to contribute to the energy supply of a country. Most Turkish coals are lignite and UCG may enable diversification of energy sources of Turkey and may help decrease external dependency on energy. This paper presented a study that matched a UCG technique to the most appropriate (Afsin Elbistan) lignite reserve in Turkey. Two UCG techniques were presented, including the linked vertical well method, and the directional drilling-controlled retractable injection point (CRIP) method. The properties of coal seams and coal properties were also outlined. It was concluded that Cobanbey is the most preferable sector in the Elbistan Lignite Reserve for a pilot study, and that the linked vertical well method could be considered as a candidate method. 17 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig.

  1. Fluidized-Bed Gasification of Plastic Waste, Wood, and Their Blends with Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Zaccariello

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fuel composition on gasification process performance was investigated by performing mass and energy balances on a pre-pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor fed with mixtures of plastic waste, wood, and coal. The fuels containing plastic waste produced less H2, CO, and CO2 and more light hydrocarbons than the fuels including biomass. The lower heating value (LHV progressively increased from 5.1 to 7.9 MJ/Nm3 when the plastic waste fraction was moved from 0% to 100%. Higher carbonaceous fines production was associated with the fuel containing a large fraction of coal (60%, producing 87.5 g/kgFuel compared to only 1.0 g/kgFuel obtained during the gasification test with just plastic waste. Conversely, plastic waste gasification produced the highest tar yield, 161.9 g/kgFuel, while woody biomass generated only 13.4 g/kgFuel. Wood gasification showed a carbon conversion efficiency (CCE of 0.93, while the tests with two fuels containing coal showed lowest CCE values (0.78 and 0.70, respectively. Plastic waste and wood gasification presented similar cold gas efficiency (CGE values (0.75 and 0.76, respectively, while that obtained during the co-gasification tests varied from 0.53 to 0.73.

  2. Gasification of solid waste — potential and application of co-current moving bed gasifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, M.J.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1979-01-01

    A review is given of gasification processes for solid fuels with special emphasis on waste gasification. Although the co-current moving bed gasifier has not been under consideration for a long time, it offers interesting possibilities for waste gasification. Some operational data are given. Two

  3. Improvement of biomass char-CO{sub 2} gasification reactivity using microwave irradiation and natural catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahijani, Pooya, E-mail: pooya.lahijani@gmail.com [Biomass and Bioenergy Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Mohammadi, Maedeh, E-mail: m.mohammadi@nit.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Babol Noushirvani University of Technology, 47148 Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin, E-mail: mezainal@eng.usm.my [Biomass and Bioenergy Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Mohamed, Abdul Rahman, E-mail: chrahman@usm.my [Low Carbon Economy (LCE) Research Group, School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-03-20

    Highlights: • We study microwave-induced gasification of EFB ash-loaded biomass char with CO{sub 2}. • Synergistic effect of microwave and catalyst resulted in CO{sub 2} conversion of 93%. • Gasification of pristine char using conventional heating gives CO{sub 2} conversion of 58%. • E{sub a} of 74 and 247 kJ/mol were obtained for microwave and conventional CO{sub 2} gasification. - Abstract: In char-CO{sub 2} gasification, the highly endothermic nature of the Boudouard reaction (CO{sub 2} (g) + C (s) ↔ 2CO (g)) dictates use of very high temperatures to shift the equilibrium towards CO production. In this study, such high temperature (750–900 °C) was provided by microwave irradiation. A microwave heating system was developed to perform the gasification tests by passing CO{sub 2} through a packed bed of oil palm shell (OPS) char. In order to speed up the microwave-induced CO{sub 2} gasification, ash of palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was used as natural catalyst (rich in potassium) and incorporated into the skeleton of the OPS char. The synergistic effect of microwave and catalyst concluded to very encouraging results, where a CO{sub 2} conversion of 93% was achieved at 900 °C, within 60 min microwave gasification. In comparison, CO{sub 2} conversion in thermal gasification (conventional heating) of pristine OPS char was only 58% under the same operating condition.

  4. FY 1988 report on the committee of the Coal Gasification Committee; 1988 nendo sekitan gaska iinkai hon'iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-03-01

    The paper reported activities of the committee of the Coal Gasification Committee in FY 1988. In the 1st committee meeting, report/discussion were made on the outline of the FY 1988 research plan on the coal gasification technology development. The distributed data were those on the development of entrained bed coal gasification power generation plant (the state of the development of a 200t/d gasification power generation pilot plant), the results of the operation using entrained bed coal gasification equipment, development of coal utilization hydrogen production technology (design/construction of pilot plant) and development of coal utilization hydrogen production technology (support study of pilot plant, study using small equipment). In the 2nd committee meeting, report/discussion were made on activities of sections such as the gasification power generation section and gasification technology section and the state of progress of the coal gasification technology development. The distributed data were those on the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power generation plant, support study of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power generation plant, etc. (NEDO)

  5. Report for fiscal 1997 by gasification technology subcommittee, Coal Gasification Committee; 1997 nendo sekitan gas ka iinkai gas ka gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The 1st meeting of the subcommittee was held on August 1, 1997, and the 2nd meeting on February 24, 1998. Research plans for developing coal hydrogasification technology were reported and the achievements were brought under deliberation. The Coal Gasification Committee met in a plenary session on March 10, 1998, and reports were delivered and deliberation was made on the progress of coal gasification technology development. Reported in relation with studies using an experimental coal hydrogasification system were findings obtained by use of a small test unit, development of an injector, hot model test, cold model test, development of a cooled char extraction technology, development of a concentrated coal transportation technology, etc. Reported in relation with studies of assistance were the basic study of coal hydrogasification reaction, structure of and materials for a hydrogasification furnace, etc. Reports were also delivered on the survey and research of friendliness toward the community of coal hydrogasification technology development and on the study of coal gasification for fuel cells. (NEDO)

  6. Steam gasification of plant biomass using molten carbonate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathaway, Brandon J.; Honda, Masanori; Kittelson, David B.; Davidson, Jane H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the use of molten alkali-carbonate salts as a reaction and heat transfer medium for steam gasification of plant biomass with the objectives of enhanced heat transfer, faster kinetics, and increased thermal capacitance compared to gasification in an inert gas. The intended application is a solar process in which concentrated solar radiation is the sole source of heat to drive the endothermic production of synthesis gas. The benefits of gasification in a molten ternary blend of lithium, potassium, and sodium carbonate salts is demonstrated for cellulose, switchgrass, a blend of perennial plants, and corn stover through measurements of reaction rate and product composition in an electrically heated reactor. The feedstocks are gasified with steam at 1200 K in argon and in the molten salt. The use of molten salt increases the total useful syngas production by up to 25%, and increases the reactivity index by as much as 490%. Secondary products, in the form of condensable tar, are reduced by 77%. -- Highlights: ► The presence of molten salt increases the rate of gasification by up to 600%. ► Reaction rates across various feedstocks are more uniform with salt present. ► Useful syngas yield is increased by up to 30% when salt is present. ► Secondary production of liquid tars are reduced by 77% when salt is present.

  7. Explanative report on the achievements in research and development of a coal gasification technology in fiscal 1981. Research and development of a low-calorie gasification power generation technology; 1981 nendo sekitan gas ka gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika setsumeisho. Teikarori gas ka hatsuden gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes the development works on a low-calorie gasification power generation technology in research and development of a coal gasification technology in fiscal 1981. The third sub-committee was established in the Coal Gasification Committee, and the sub-committee has summarized a survey report on coal gasification composite power generation upon having held seven discussion meetings. Surveys were carried out on the fluidized bed gasification process and the coal gasification composite power generation systems mainly in Germany and the U.S.A. where development of coal gasification technologies has been advanced. Germany and Britain who use great amount of coal are urged to find ways for how to clear the environmental criteria applied in the EC countries. The U.S.A. is moving forward the development of coal gasification technologies for power generation, chemical materials, and industrial fuel to be used as the substitutes to petroleum. This paper describes the development works at the Electric Power Development Company to realize a coal gasification composite power generation system of 1,000 t/d class. The pressurized fluidized bed system is assumed, and a verification test is scheduled to be performed on the chemical reaction characteristics by using a 40-t/d furnace. The furnace shape will be decided upon executing high-pressure cold model experiments. Fiscal 1981 has fabricated and installed devices for the high-pressure coal feeding system. Operation tests, air tightness tests, and instrumentation tests have verified normal operation. (NEDO)

  8. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    Biomass represents a large potential feedstock resource for environmentally clean processes that produce power or chemicals. It lends itself to both biological and thermal conversion processes and both options are currently being explored. Hydrogen can be produced in a variety of ways. The majority of the hydrogen produced in this country is produced through natural gas reforming and is used as chemical feedstock in refinery operations. In this report we will examine the production of hydrogen by gasification of biomass. Biomass is defined as organic matter that is available on a renewable basis through natural processes or as a by-product of processes that use renewable resources. The majority of biomass is used in combustion processes, in mills that use the renewable resources, to produce electricity for end-use product generation. This report will explore the use of hydrogen as a fuel derived from gasification of three candidate biomass feedstocks: bagasse, switchgrass, and a nutshell mix that consists of 40% almond nutshell, 40% almond prunings, and 20% walnut shell. In this report, an assessment of the technical and economic potential of producing hydrogen from biomass gasification is analyzed. The resource base was assessed to determine a process scale from feedstock costs and availability. Solids handling systems were researched. A GTI proprietary gasifier model was used in combination with a Hysys(reg. sign) design and simulation program to determine the amount of hydrogen that can be produced from each candidate biomass feed. Cost estimations were developed and government programs and incentives were analyzed. Finally, the barriers to the production and commercialization of hydrogen from biomass were determined. The end-use of the hydrogen produced from this system is small PEM fuel cells for automobiles. Pyrolysis of biomass was also considered. Pyrolysis is a reaction in which biomass or coal is partially vaporized by heating. Gasification is a more

  9. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghzi, Shawn; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Rizeq, George; Singh, Surinder; McDermott, John; Eiteneer, Boris; Ladd, David; Vazquez, Arturo; Anderson, Denise; Bates, Noel

    2011-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy‘s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE‘s bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and

  10. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghzi, Shawn [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Subramanian, Ramanathan [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Rizeq, George [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Singh, Surinder [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); McDermott, John [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Eiteneer, Boris [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Ladd, David [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Vazquez, Arturo [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Anderson, Denise [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Bates, Noel [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2011-12-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE's bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation

  11. Global warming impact assessment of a crop residue gasification project—A dynamic LCA perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin; Chen, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic LCA is proposed considering time-varying factors. • Dynamic LCA is used to highlight GHG emission hotspots of gasification projects. • Indicators are proposed to reflect GHG emission performance. • Dynamic LCA alters the static LCA results. • Crop residue gasification project has high GHG abatement potential. - Abstract: Bioenergy from crop residues is one of the prevailing sustainable energy sources owing to the abundant reserves worldwide. Amongst a wide variety of energy conversion technologies, crop residue gasification has been regarded as promising owing to its higher energy efficiency than that of direct combustion. However, prior to large-scale application of crop residue gasification, the lifetime environmental performance should be investigated to shed light on sustainable strategies. As traditional static life cycle assessment (LCA) does not include temporal information for dynamic processes, we proposed a dynamic life cycle assessment approach, which improves the static LCA approach by considering time-varying factors, e.g., greenhouse gas characterization factors and energy intensity. As the gasification project can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) discharge compared with traditional direct fuel combustion, trade-offs between the benefits of global warming mitigation and the impact on global warming of crop residue gasification should be considered. Therefore, indicators of net global warming mitigation benefit and global warming impact mitigation period are put forward to justify the feasibility of the crop residue gasification project. The proposed dynamic LCA and indicators were then applied to estimate the life cycle global warming impact of a crop residue gasification system in China. Results show that the crop residue gasification project has high net global warming mitigation benefit and a short global warming impact mitigation period, indicating its prominent potential in alleviating global warming impact. During

  12. Investigation on catalytic gasification of high-ash coal with mixing-gas in a small-scale fluidised bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, X.; Zhang, J.; Lin, J. [Fuzhou University, Fuzhou (China)

    2005-10-15

    The experimental study on the Yangquan high-ash coal catalytic gasification with mixing gas by using solid alkali or waste liquid of viscose fiber as the catalyst in a small-scale fluidized bed with 28 mm i.d. was carried out. The loading saturation levels of two catalysts in Yangquan high-ash coal are about 6%. Under the gasification temperature ranging from 830 to 900{sup o}C and from 900 to 920{sup o}C, the apparent reaction order of Yangquan high-ash coal with respect to the unreacted carbon fraction approximates to 2.3 and 1/3 for the non-catalyst case, respectively. Also, the different values of apparent reaction order in the two temperature ranges are presented for the case with 3% solid alkali catalyst loaded. At the low temperature ranging from 830 to 860{sup o}C, the apparent reaction order of catalytic gasification is 1 since enough active carbon sites on the coal surface are formed during the catalytic gasification by solid alkali. But at the high temperature ranging from 860 to 920{sup o}C, the sodium carbonate produced by the reaction of solid alkali with carbon dioxide can be easily fused, transferred and re-distributed, which affects the gasification reaction rate, and the apparent reaction order of catalytic gasification is reduced to 1.3. 10 refs., 9 figs., 4 tab s.

  13. Downdraft gasification of pellets made of wood, palm-oil residues respective bagasse: Experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlich, Catharina; Fransson, Torsten H.

    2011-01-01

    The downdraft gasification technology has an increased interest among researchers worldwide due to the possibility to produce mechanical and electrical power from biomass in small-scale to an affordable price. The research is generally focused on improvement of the performance and optimizing of a certain gasifier, on testing different fuels, on increasing the user-friendliness of the gasifier and on finding other uses for the product gas than in an IC-engine, for example liquid fuel production. The main objective with the gasification tests presented here is to further contribute in the field by studying the impact of the char bed properties such as char bed porosity and pressure drop on the gasification performance as well as the impact of fuel particle size and composition on the gasification process in one and the same gasifier. In addition, there is very little gasification data available in literature of 'before disregarded' fuels such as sugar cane bagasse from sugar/alcohol production and empty fruit bunch (EFB) from the palm-oil production. By pelletizing these residues, it is possible to introduce them into downdraft gasification technology which has been done in this study. The results show that one and the same reactor can be used for a variety of fuels in pellet form, but at varying air-fuel ratios, temperature levels, gas compositions and lower heating values. Gasification of wood pellets results in a richer producer gas while EFB pellets give a poorer one with higher contents of non-combustible compounds. In this gasification study, there is almost linear relation between the air-fuel ratio and the cold-gas efficiency for the studied fuels: Higher air-fuel ratios result in better efficiency. The pressure drop in the char bed is higher for more reactive fuels, which in turn is caused by low porosity char beds.

  14. Gasification of peat and biomass in suspension flow 2; Turpeen ja biomassan suspensiokaasutus 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Hepola, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Haukka, P.; Vehmaan-Kreula, M.; Raiko, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    This project was an extension of the earlier Liekki-project 402 carried out in 1993-1994. The aims of the 1995 project were: (1) to study the formation of problematic tar/soot compounds and nitrogen pounds in the conditions of entrained flow gasification of biomass and peat, (2) study the product yields and kinetics of pyrolysis, and (3) to develop simulation methods for entrained flow pyrolysis and gasification. Pyrolysis and gasification tests were carried out at a new entrained flow reactor of the Gasification Research Group of VTT using mainly peat as the feedstock. The pyrolysis kinetics was studies using three particle size distributions of fuel peat (0.075-0.125 mm, 0.16-0.25 mm and 0.315-0.5 mm). The char yields were determined at two temperatures (900 and 1000 deg C) and the effects fuel to gas ratio (suspension density) as well as the effects of gas atmosphere were determined. Limited amount of tests were also carried out with pine wood and dried de-inking sludge. The formation of tars and nitrogen compounds was studied with peat as the feedstock. Based on the test results of this project and the on earlier fluidized-bed gasification data of VTT, the following conclusions can be made: (1) the char yields in rapid entrained flow pyrolysis of small particles of peat and biomass are considerably lower than derived in fluid-bed pyrolysis of more coarse feedstocks. Consequently, simple entrained flow reactors without any recycling of char could already give rather high carbon conversions. However, high carbon conversions can also be easily achieved in fluidized-bed gasifiers with biomass fuels due to the high gasification reactivity of the char, (2) more tars were formed in entrained flow pyrolysis of peat than in fluidized-bed experiments carried out at the same temperature, (3) the total conversion of peat nitrogen to NH{sub 3}+HCN was as high in the entrained flow pyrolysis as in the fluid-bed pyrolysis experiments. (Abstract Truncated)

  15. Economics of coal conversion processing. Advances in coal gasification: support research. Advances in coal gasification: process development and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The fall meeting of the American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry, was held at Miami Beach, Florida, September 10-15, 1978. Papers involved the economics of coal conversion processing and advances in coal gasification, especially support research and process development and analysis. Fourteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; three papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  16. Steam gasification of coal, project prototype plant nuclear process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heek, K.H. van

    1982-05-01

    This report describes the tasks, which Bergbau-Forschung has carried out in the field of steam gasification of coal in cooperation with partners and contractors during the reference phase of the project. On the basis of the status achieved to date it can be stated, that the mode of operation of the gas-generator developed including the direct feeding of caking high volatile coal is technically feasible. Moreover through-put can be improved by 65% at minimum by using catalysts. On the whole industrial application of steam gasification - WKV - using nuclear process heat stays attractive compared with other gasification processes. Not only coal is conserved but also the costs of the gas manufactured are favourable. As confirmed by recent economic calculations these are 20 to 25% lower. (orig.) [de

  17. Lignite air-steam gasification in the fluidized bed of iron-containing slag catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Shchipko, M.L.; Golovin, Yu. [Inst. of Chemistry of Natural Organic Materials, Academgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    The influence of fluidized bed of iron-containing slag particles on air-steam gasification of powdered Kansk-Achinsk lignite in entrained flow was studied in pilot installation with productivity about 60 kg per hour. Slag of Martin process and boiler slag were used as catalytic active materials until their complete mechanical attrition. Two following methods of catalytic gasification of lignite were compared: the partial gasification in stationary fluidized bed of slag particles with degree of fuel conversion 40-70% and complete gasification in circulating bed of slag particles. In the first case only the most reactive part of fuel is gasified with the simultaneously formation of porous carbon residue with good sorption ability. It was found the catalytic fluidized bed improves heat transfer from combustion to reduction zone of gas-generator and increases the rate of fuel conversion at the temperature range 900-1000{degrees}C. At these temperatures the degree of conversion is depended considerably on the duration time of fuel particles in the catalytic fluidized bed. The influence of catalytic fluidized bed height and velocity of reaction mixture on the temperature profiles in the gas-generator was studied. The optimal relationship was found between the fluidized bed height and velocity of flow which makes possible to produce the gas with higher calorific value at maximum degree of fuel conversion.

  18. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells coupled with a biomass gasification unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypkiewicz Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A possibility of fuelling a solid oxide fuel cell stack (SOFC with biomass fuels can be realized by coupling a SOFC system with a self-standing gasification unit. Such a solution enables multi-fuel operation, elasticity of the system as well as the increase of the efficiency of small-scale biomass-to-electricity conversion units. A system of this type, consisting of biomass gasification unit, gas purification unit, SOFC stack, anode off-gas afterburner and peripherals was constructed and operated successfully. During the process, biomass fuel (wood chips was gasified with air as gasification agent. The gasifier was capable of converting up to 30 kW of fuel to syngas with efficiencies up to 75%. Syngas leaving the gasification unit is delivered to a medium temperature adsorber for sulphur compounds removal. Steam is added to the purified fuel to maintain steam to carbon ratio higher than 2. The syngas then is passed to a SOFC stack through a fuel preheater. In such a configuration it was possible to operate a commercial 1.3 kW stack within its working regime. Conducted tests confirmed successful operation of a SOFC stack fuelled by biomass-sourced syngas.

  19. Biogenic methane from hydrothermal gasification of biomass; Biogenes Methan durch hydrothermale Vergasung von Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, M.; Vogel, F.

    2007-09-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on work done in the area of gasification of biomass. The use of dung, manure and sewage sludge as sources of energy is described and discussed. Hydrothermal gasification is proposed as an alternative to conventional gas-phase processes. The aim of the project in this respect is discussed. Here, a catalytic process that demonstrates the gasification of wet biomass to synthetic natural gas (SNG) in a continuously operating plant on a laboratory scale is being looked at. Difficulties encountered in preliminary tests are discussed. Long-term catalyst stability and the installations for the demonstration of the process are discussed, and gasification tests with ethanol are commented on.

  20. Numerical simulation of coal gasification process using the modifying Watanabe - Otaka model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Papadopoulos; M. Losurdo; H. Spliethoff

    2009-07-01

    High-pressure entrained flow coal gasification is becoming increasingly important particularly in the development of Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology for the production of electricity. However, there is a lack of knowledge worldwide for the gasification process and more especially for the chemical reactions (reactions rates) that take place under high pressure and temperature. Therefore a gasifier has been designed and is being built at the Institute for Energy Systems (Lehrstuhl fuer Energisysteme - LES) at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM). This gasifier is an entrained flow gasifier and has the advantage that it can operate to very high conditions of pressure and temperature, up to 50 bar pressure and 1800{sup o}C temperature. In an ongoing project, a great variety of experiments are planned to determine chemical reactions rates at high pressure conditions. In addition to the experimental work, CFD numerical simulations of pulverized coal gasification are being performed. The aim is to use numerical investigations for preliminary assessment of the facility. The goal is to develop a gasification model suitable for high pressure and condition tailored on the experiments to be used in CFD computations to predict chemical reactions, the heat transfer and the turbulence inside the gasifier. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Performance and Characteristics of a Cyclone Gasifier for Gasification of Sawdust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman Miskam, Muhamad; Zainal, Z. A.; Idroas, M. Y.

    The performance and characteristics of a cyclone gasifier for gasification of sawdust has been studied and evaluated. The system applied a technique to gasify sawdust through the concept of cyclonic motion driven by air injected at atmospheric pressure. This study covers the results obtained for gasification of ground sawdust from local furniture industries with size distribution ranging from 0.25 to 1 mm. It was found that the typical wall temperature for initiating stable gasification process was about 400°C. The heating value of producer gas was about 3.9 MJ m-3 that is sufficient for stable combustion in a dual-fuel engine generator. The highest thermal output from the cyclone gasifier was 57.35 kWT. The highest value of mass conversion efficiency and enthalpy balance were 60 and 98.7%, respectively. The highest efficiency of the cyclone gasifier obtained was 73.4% and this compares well with other researchers. The study has identified the optimum operational condition for gasifying sawdust in a cyclone gasifier and made conclusions as to how the steady gasification process can be achieved.

  2. Advanced Biomass Gasification Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-08-01

    DOE has a major initiative under way to demonstrate two high-efficiency gasification systems for converting biomass into electricity. As this fact sheet explains, the Biomass Power Program is cost-sharing two scale-up projects with industry in Hawaii and Vermont that, if successful, will provide substantial market pull for U.S. biomass technologies, and provide a significant market edge over competing foreign technologies.

  3. Japan`s sunshine project. 17.. 1992 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of coal liquefaction and gasification technology development in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992. It presents the research and development of coal liquefaction which includes studies on reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction and catalysts for coal liquefaction, the research and development of coal gasification technologies which includes studies on gasification characteristics of various coals and improvement of coal gasification efficiency, the development of bituminous coal liquefaction which includes engineering, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant and research by a process supporting unit (PSU), the development of brown coal liquefaction which includes research on brown coal liquefaction with a pilot plant and development of techniques for upgrading coal oil from brown coal, the development of common base technologies which includes development of slurry letdown valves and study on upgrading technology of coal-derived distillates, the development of coal-based hydrogen production technology with a pilot plant, the development of technology for entrained flow coal gasification, the assessment of coal hydrogasification, and the international co-operation. 4 refs., 125 figs., 39 tabs.

  4. NH3 Abatement in Fluidized Bed Co-Gasification of RDF and Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyurtlu, I.; Pinto, Filomena; Dias, Mário; Lopes, Helena; André, Rui Neto; Cabrita, I.

    Gasification of wastes may come out as an alternative technology to produce a gas with many potential applications, from direct burning in a boiler or motor to the production of synthetic chemicals and hydrogen. High tar production and high operational costs are preventing gasification wider dissemination. Besides these problems, the presence of NH3 in the syngas may have a negative impact as it can be converted into nitrogen oxides if the gas is further burnt. To reduce NH3 formation it is required a full understanding of how operational parameters contribute to the formation/reduction of this pollutant. A full studyon the effect of fuel composition, temperature and equivalence ratio on the formation of NH3 is given. Experimental results are compared to theoretical ones obtained with FactSage software. It is also analyzed the effect of feedstock mineral matterin NH3 release during gasification. Toaccomplish a significant decrease in the release of NH3, different catalysts and sorbents were tested with the aim of achieving high energy conversions and low environmental impact.

  5. Formation and removal of biomass-derived contaminants in fluidized-bed gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    The objectives of this thesis were to examine the effects of the feedstock and the operating conditions of a fluidized-bed gasifier on the formation of tars and nitrogen-containing compounds and to study the effectiveness of the hot gas cleaning methods developed for the removal of particulates, alkali metals, tars and nitrogen-containing compounds. The most essential part of the work was carried out in the pressurized fluidized-bed gasification test facilities composed of an air-blown bubbling fluidized-bed gasifier and subsequent hot gas filter unit. The operation pressure of the test rig could be varied in the range 0.3 - 1.0 MPa and the maximum allowable gasification temperature was 1 050 deg C. The maximum capacity with biomass fuels was 80 kg/h. A wide range of feedstocks from hard coals, lignite and peat to different wood derived fuels and straw were used in the gasification tests. Two different types of ceramic filters were tested in the filter unit connected to the pressurized fluidized-bed gasifier. The filter unit was operated in a temperature range of 400 - 740 deg C. The particulate removal requirements set by the gas turbines were met by both types of filters and with product gases derived from all the feedstocks tested. In addition to the gasification and gas filtration tests, catalytic tar and ammonia decomposition was studied using both laboratory and bench-scale test facilities. Inexpensive calcium-based bulk materials, dolomites and limestones, were efficient tar decomposition catalysts in atmospheric-pressure tests

  6. Formation and removal of biomass-derived contaminants in fluidized-bed gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The objectives of this thesis were to examine the effects of the feedstock and the operating conditions of a fluidized-bed gasifier on the formation of tars and nitrogen-containing compounds and to study the effectiveness of the hot gas cleaning methods developed for the removal of particulates, alkali metals, tars and nitrogen-containing compounds. The most essential part of the work was carried out in the pressurized fluidized-bed gasification test facilities composed of an air-blown bubbling fluidized-bed gasifier and subsequent hot gas filter unit. The operation pressure of the test rig could be varied in the range 0.3 - 1.0 MPa and the maximum allowable gasification temperature was 1 050 deg C. The maximum capacity with biomass fuels was 80 kg/h. A wide range of feedstocks from hard coals, lignite and peat to different wood derived fuels and straw were used in the gasification tests. Two different types of ceramic filters were tested in the filter unit connected to the pressurized fluidized-bed gasifier. The filter unit was operated in a temperature range of 400 - 740 deg C. The particulate removal requirements set by the gas turbines were met by both types of filters and with product gases derived from all the feedstocks tested. In addition to the gasification and gas filtration tests, catalytic tar and ammonia decomposition was studied using both laboratory and bench-scale test facilities. Inexpensive calcium-based bulk materials, dolomites and limestones, were efficient tar decomposition catalysts in atmospheric-pressure tests

  7. Investigation of the feasibility of underground coal gasification in North Dakota, United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Peng; Nasah, Junior; Solc, Jaroslav; Korom, Scott F.; Laudal, Daniel; Barse, Kirtipal

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A four-year feasibility study of underground coal gasification is presented. • A test site was selected for feasibility investigation. • Gasification test, a hydrogeological study and geomechanical study were performed. • Results suggest favorable conditions for UCG development at the selected site. - Abstract: Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a promising technology that has the potential to recover currently-unmineable coal resources. The technical feasibility and economic success of a UCG project is highly site specific. Any risks associated with UCG, such as subsidence, groundwater contamination, and syngas quality, should be sufficiently evaluated through a feasibility study. This paper presents a four-year UCG feasibility study utilizing lignite seams in North Dakota, United States. Four wells were drilled through the lignite seams at a selected site, and lignite and strata cores were recovered. A geological model of the formation was built, coal and rock properties were analyzed, and field hydrogeological tests and laboratory gasification tests were performed. This work provided valuable insights in rock mechanics, hydrogeology, and coal properties. The study results show that the selected site is suitable for development of a UCG plant because there are minimal induced subsidence risks, there is hydrological isolation from major aquifers and the coal produces desirable syngas quality for liquid fuel production. Methodologies developed in this study will benefit the design, optimization and management of the UCG process.

  8. Measurements of Gasification Characteristics of Coal and Char in CO2-Rich Gas Flow by TG-DTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification properties of pulverized coal and char in CO2-rich gas flow were investigated by using gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA with changing O2%, heating temperature gradient, and flow rate of CO2-rich gases provided. Together with TG-DTA, flue gas generated from the heated coal, such as CO, CO2, and hydrocarbons (HCs, was analyzed simultaneously on the heating process. The optimum O2% in CO2-rich gas for combustion and gasification of coal or char was discussed by analyzing flue gas with changing O2 from 0 to 5%. The experimental results indicate that O2% has an especially large effect on carbon oxidation at temperature less than 1100°C, and lower O2 concentration promotes gasification reaction by producing CO gas over 1100°C in temperature. The TG-DTA results with gas analyses have presented basic reference data that show the effects of O2 concentration and heating rate on coal physical and chemical behaviors for the expected technologies on coal gasification in CO2-rich gas and oxygen combustion and underground coal gasification.

  9. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, January--March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    High-Btu natural gas has a heating value of 950 to 1,000 Btu per standard cubic foot, is composed essentially of methane, and contains virtually no sulfur, carbon monoxide, or free hydrogen. The conversion of coal to high-Btu gas requires a chemical and physical transformation of solid coal. However, because coal has widely differing chemical and physical properties, depending on where it is mined, it is difficult to process. Therefore, to develop the most suitable techniques for gasifying coal, ERDA, together with the American Gas Association is sponsoring the development of several advanced conversion processes. Although the basic coal-gasification chemical reactions are the same for each process, the processes under development have unique characteristics. A number of the processes for converting coal to high Btu and to low Btu gas have reached the pilot plant stage. The responsibility for designing, constructing and operating each of these pilot plants is defined and progress on each during the quarter is described briefly. The accumulation of data for a coal gasification manual and the development of mathematical models of coal gasification processes are reported briefly. (LTN)

  10. A new HYSYS model for underground gasification of hydrocarbons under hydrothermal conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Alshammari, Y.M.

    2014-08-01

    A new subsurface process model was developed using the ASPEN HYSYS simulation environment to analyse the process energy and gasification efficiency at steady-state equilibrium conditions. Injection and production wells were simulated using the HYSYS pipe flow utilities which makes use of the Beggs and Brill flow correlation applicable for vertical pipes. The downhole reservoir hydrothermal reactions were assumed to be in equilibrium, and hence, the Gibbs reactor was used. It was found that high W/C ratios and low O/C ratios are required to maximise gasification efficiency at a constant hydrocarbon feed flowrate, while the opposite is true for the energy efficiency. This occurs due to the dependence of process energy efficiency on the gas pressure and temperature at surface, while the gasification efficiency depends on the gas composition which is determined by the reservoir reaction conditions which affects production distribution. Another effect of paramount importance is the increase in reservoir production rate which was found to directly enhance both energy and gasification efficiency showing conditions where the both efficiencies are theoretically maximised. Results open new routes for techno-economic assessment of commercial implementation of underground gasification of hydrocarbons. © 2014, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effects of straw or straw-derived gasification biochar applications on soil quality and crop productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Müller-Stöver, Dorette Sophie; Imparato, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Thermal gasification of straw is a highly efficient technology that produces bioenergy and gasification biochar that can be used as a soil amendment, thereby returning non-renewable nutrients and stable carbon, and securing soil quality and crop productivity. A Danish on-farm field study investig......Thermal gasification of straw is a highly efficient technology that produces bioenergy and gasification biochar that can be used as a soil amendment, thereby returning non-renewable nutrients and stable carbon, and securing soil quality and crop productivity. A Danish on-farm field study...... investigated the impact of traditional straw incorporation vs. straw removal for thermal gasification bioenergy production and the application of straw gasification biochar (GB) on soil quality and crop production. Two rates of GB were applied over three successive years in which the field was cropped...... long-term effects and to identify the optimum balance between straw removal and biochar application rate....

  12. Effects of blend ratio between high density polyethylene and biomass on co-gasification behavior in a two-stage gasification system

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Jae Hyun

    2016-08-12

    The co-gasification of a high density polyethylene (HDPE) blended with a biomass has been carried out in a two-stage gasification system which comprises an oxidative pyrolysis reactor and a thermal plasma reactor. The equivalence ratio was changed from 0.38 to 0.85 according to the variation of blend ratio between HDPE and biomass. The highest production yield was achieved to be 71.4 mol/h, when the equivalence ratio was 0.47. A large amount of hydrocarbons was produced from the oxidative pyrolysis reactor as decreasing equivalence ratio below 0.41, while the CO2 concentration significantly increased with a high equivalence ratio over 0.65. The production yield was improved by the thermal plasma reactor due to the conversion of hydrocarbons into syngas in a high temperature region of thermal plasma. At the equivalence ratio of 0.47, conversion selectivities of CO and H2 from hydrocarbons were calculated to be 74% and 44%, respectively. © 2016 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC.

  13. Biomass Gasification - A synthesis of technical barriers and current research issues for deployment at large scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyne, Stefan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Liliedahl, Truls [KTH, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Marklund, Magnus [Energy Technology Centre, Piteaa (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Thermal gasification at large scale for cogeneration of power and heat and/or production of fuels and materials is a main pathway for a sustainable deployment of biomass resources. However, so far no such full scale production exists and biomass gasification projects remain at the pilot or demonstration scale. This report focuses on the key critical technology challenges for the large-scale deployment of the following biomass-based gasification concepts: Direct Fluidized Bed Gasification (FBG), Entrained Flow Gasification (EFG) and indirect Dual Fluidized Bed Gasification (DFBG). The main content in this report is based on responses from a number of experts in biomass gasification obtained from a questionnaire. The survey was composed of a number of more or less specific questions on technical barriers as to the three gasification concepts considered. For formalising the questionnaire, the concept of Technology Readiness Level (TRL 1-9) was used for grading the level of technical maturity of the different sub-processes within the three generic biomass gasification technologies. For direct fluidized bed gasification (FBG) it is mentioned that the technology is already available at commercial scale as air-blown technology and thus that air-blown FBG gasification may be reckoned a mature technology. The remaining technical challenge is the conversion to operation on oxygen with the final goal of producing chemicals or transport fuels. Tar reduction, in particular, and gas cleaning and upgrading in general are by far the most frequently named technical issues considered problematic. Other important aspects are problems that may occur when operating on low-grade fuels - i.e. low-cost fuels. These problems include bed agglomeration/ash sintering as well as alkali fouling. Even the preparation and feeding of these low-grade fuels tend to be problematic and require further development to be used on a commercial scale. Furthermore, efficient char conversion is mentioned by

  14. Effects of atmospheric gas composition and temperature on the gasification of coal in hot briquetting carbon composite iron ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueki, Y.; Kanayama, M.; Maeda, T.; Nishika, K.; Shimizu, M. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science & Engineering

    2007-01-15

    The gasification behavior of carbon composite iron ore produced by hot briquetting process was examined under various gas atmospheres such as CO-N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}-N, and CO-CO{sub 2} at various temperatures. The gasification of coal was affected strongly by atmospheric gas concentration and reaction temperature. Kinetic analysis in various gas atmospheres was carried out by using the first order reaction model, which yields the straight line relation between reaction rate constants for the gasification of coal and the gas concentration. Therefore, reaction rate constants for the gasification of coal in CO-CO{sub 2}-N{sub 2} gas atmosphere were derived.

  15. A case-study of landfill minimization and material recovery via waste co-gasification in a new waste management scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Ishida, Yoshihiro; Osada, Morihiro

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluates municipal solid waste co-gasification technology and a new solid waste management scheme, which can minimize final landfill amounts and maximize material recycled from waste. This new scheme is considered for a region where bottom ash and incombustibles are landfilled or not allowed to be recycled due to their toxic heavy metal concentration. Waste is processed with incombustible residues and an incineration bottom ash discharged from existent conventional incinerators, using a gasification and melting technology (the Direct Melting System). The inert materials, contained in municipal solid waste, incombustibles and bottom ash, are recycled as slag and metal in this process as well as energy recovery. Based on this new waste management scheme with a co-gasification system, a case study of municipal solid waste co-gasification was evaluated and compared with other technical solutions, such as conventional incineration, incineration with an ash melting facility under certain boundary conditions. From a technical point of view, co-gasification produced high quality slag with few harmful heavy metals, which was recycled completely without requiring any further post-treatment such as aging. As a consequence, the co-gasification system had an economical advantage over other systems because of its material recovery and minimization of the final landfill amount. Sensitivity analyses of landfill cost, power price and inert materials in waste were also conducted. The higher the landfill costs, the greater the advantage of the co-gasification system has. The co-gasification was beneficial for landfill cost in the range of 80 Euro per ton or more. Higher power prices led to lower operation cost in each case. The inert contents in processed waste had a significant influence on the operating cost. These results indicate that co-gasification of bottom ash and incombustibles with municipal solid waste contributes to minimizing the final landfill amount and has

  16. Novel fragmentation model for pulverized coal particles gasification in low temperature air thermal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Rastko D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New system for start-up and flame support based on coal gasification by low temperature air thermal plasma is planned to supplement current heavy oil system in Serbian thermal power plants in order to decrease air pollutions emission and operational costs. Locally introduced plasma thermal energy heats up and ignites entrained coal particles, thus starting chain process which releases heat energy from gasified coal particles inside burner channel. Important stages during particle combustion, such as particle devolatilisation and char combustion, are described with satisfying accuracy in existing commercial CFD codes that are extensively used as powerful tool for pulverized coal combustion and gasification modeling. However, during plasma coal gasification, high plasma temperature induces strong thermal stresses inside interacting coal particles. These stresses lead to “thermal shock” and extensive particle fragmentation during which coal particles with initial size of 50-100 m disintegrate into fragments of at most 5-10 m. This intensifies volatile release by a factor 3-4 and substantially accelerates the oxidation of combustible matter. Particle fragmentation, due to its small size and thus limited influence on combustion process is commonly neglected in modelling. The main focus of this work is to suggest novel approach to pulverized coal gasification under high temperature conditions and to implement it into commercial comprehensive code ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. Proposed model was validated against experimental data obtained in newly built pilot scale D.C plasma burner test facility. Newly developed model showed very good agreement with experimental results with relative error less than 10%, while the standard built-in gasification model had error up to 25%.

  17. Co-gasification of biosolids with biomass: Thermogravimetric analysis and pilot scale study in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ming Ming; Masnadi, Mohammad S; Grace, John R; Bi, Xiaotao T; Lim, C Jim; Li, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    This work studied the feasibility of co-gasification of biosolids with biomass as a means of disposal with energy recovery. The kinetics study at 800°C showed that biomass, such as switchgrass, could catalyze the reactions because switchgrass ash contained a high proportion of potassium, an excellent catalyst for gasification. However, biosolids could also inhibit gasification due to interaction between biomass alkali/alkaline earth metals and biosolids clay minerals. In the pilot scale experiments, increasing the proportion of biosolids in the feedstock affected gasification performance negatively. Syngas yield and char conversion decreased from 1.38 to 0.47m(3)/kg and 82-36% respectively as the biosolids proportion in the fuel increased from 0% to 100%. Over the same range, the tar content increased from 10.3 to 200g/m(3), while the ammonia concentration increased from 1660 to 19,200ppmv. No more than 25% biosolids in the fuel feed is recommended to maintain a reasonable gasification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Design of novel DME/methanol synthesis plants based on gasification of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    -scale DME plants based on gasification of torrefied biomass. 2. Small-scale DME/methanol plants based on gasification of wood chips. 3. Alternative methanol plants based on electrolysis of water and gasification of biomass. The plants were modeled by using the component based thermodynamic modeling...... why the differences, in biomass to DME/methanol efficiency, between the small-scale and the large-scale plants, showed not to be greater, was the high cold gas efficiency of the gasifier used in the small-scale plants (93%). By integrating water electrolysis in a large-scale methanol plant, an almost...... large-scale DME plant) to 63%, due to the relatively inefficient electrolyser....

  19. The development of solid fuel gasification systems for cost-effective power generation with low environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, M; Kurkela, E; Staahlberg, P; Laatikainen-Luntama, J; Ranta, J; Hepola, J; Kangasmaa, K [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Gasification and Advanced Combustion

    1997-10-01

    Relatively low carbon conversion is a disadvantage related to the air-blown fluidised-bed coal-biomass co-gasification process. Low carbon conversion is due to different reactivities and ash sintering behaviour of coal and biomass which leads to compromises in definition of gasification process conditions. In certain cases co-gasification may also lead to unexpected deposit formations or corrosion problems in downstream components especially when high alkali metal or chlorine containing biomass feedstocks are co-gasified with coal. During the reporting period, the work focused on co-gasification of coal and wood waste. The objectives of the present work were to find out the optimum conditions for improving the carbon conversion and to study the formation of different gas impurities. The results based on co-gasification tests with a pressurised fluidised-bed gasifies showed that in co-gasification even with only 15 % coal addition the heavy tar concentration was decreased significantly and, simultaneously, an almost total carbon conversion was achieved by optimising the gasification conditions. The study of filter fines recirculation and solid residues utilisation was started by characterizing filter dust. The work was carried out with an entrained-flow reactor in oxidising, inert and reducing gas conditions. The aim was to define the conditions required for achieving increased carbon conversion in different reactor conditions

  20. Process and catalysts for the gasification of methanol. [German Patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, N.; Dennis, A.J.; Shevels, T.F.

    1975-02-13

    The invention concerns catalysts and catalytic processes for the gasification of methanol which is used to manufacture methane from methanol. Mixtures of iron and chromium oxide, phosphate, phosphoric acid, tungstate, tungstic acid, aluminium phosphate, aluminium oxide are suitable as dehydrating catalysts. Gasification takes place together with steam and dehydrogenating catalysts at high temperature. The molar ratios steam: methanol are described.

  1. Use of farm waste biomass in the process of gasification for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piechocki, J. [Warmia and Mazury Univ., Olsztyn (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The process of gasification of waste biomass from farm production was examined along with the energy balance of the process. A newly developed biomass gasification technology that uses manure from poultry farms as the input material was shown to meet all environmental requirements. The gas was purified in a membrane process to increase its calorific value. The gas was then used in an internal combustion engine powering a current generating system to produce electricity and heat in a combined heat and power system (CHP).

  2. Performance simulations for Co-gasification of coal and methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niksa, Stephen [Niksa Energy Associates LLC, Belmont, CA (United States); Lim, J.P.; Del Rio Diaz Jara, D.; Eckstrom, D.; Steele, D.; Malhotra, R.; Wilson, R.B. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Dept.

    2013-07-01

    In the process under development, coal suspended in mixtures of CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, and steam is rapidly heated to temperatures above 1,400 C under 5-7 MPa for at least 1 s. The coal first decomposes into volatiles and char while CH{sub 4} is converted into CO/H{sub 2} mixtures. Then the char is converted into CO/H{sub 2} mixtures via steam gasification on longer time scales, and into CH{sub 4} via hydrogasification. Throughout all stages, homogeneous chemistry reforms all intermediate fuel components into the syngas feedstock for methanol synthesis. Fully validated reaction mechanisms for each chemical process were used to quantitatively interpret a co-gasification test series in SRI's lab-scale gasification facility. Homogeneous reforming chemistry generates equilibrium gas compositions at 1,500 C in the available transit time of 1.4 s, but not at any of the lower temperatures. Methane conversion in the gas phase increases for progressively hotter temperatures, in accord with the data. But the strong predicted dependence on steam concentration was not evident in the measured CH{sub 4} conversions, even when steam concentration was the subject test variable. Char hydrogasification adds CH{sub 4} to the product gas stream, but this process probably converts no more than 15-20% of the char in the lab-scale tests and the bulk of the char is converted by steam gasification. The correlation coefficient between predicted and measured char conversions exceeded 0.8 and the std. dev. was 3.4%, which is comparable to the measurement uncertainties. The evaluation of the predicted CH{sub 4} conversions gave a std. dev. greater than 20%. Simulations of commercial conditions with realistic suspension loadings and no diluents in the feed gave slightly lower conversions of both CH{sub 4} and coal, because hydrogasification accounts for more of the char conversion, and occurs at rates slower than for steam gasification.

  3. Intrinsic char reactivity of plastic waste (PET) during CO2 gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, M.V.; Fermoso, J.; Pevida, C.; Pis, J.J.; Rubiera, F.

    2010-01-01

    Char reactivity has a strong influence on the gasification process, since char gasification is the slowest step in the process. A sample of waste PET was devolatilised in a vertical quartz reactor and the resulting char was partially gasified under a CO 2 atmosphere at 925 C in order to obtain samples with different degrees of conversion. The reactivity of the char in CO 2 was determined by isothermal thermogravimetric analysis at different temperatures in a kinetically controlled regime and its reactive behaviour was evaluated by means of the random pore model (RPM). The texture of the char was characterised by means of N 2 and CO 2 adsorption isotherms. The results did not reveal any variation in char reactivity during conversion, whereas the micropore surface area was affected during the gasification process. It was found that the intrinsic reaction rate of the char can be satisfactorily calculated by normalizing the reaction rate by the narrow micropore surface area calculated from the CO 2 adsorption isotherms. It can be concluded therefore that the surface area available for the gasification process is the area corresponding to the narrow microporosity. (author)

  4. Reed as a gasification fuel: a comparison with woody fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Link

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Reed and coniferous wood can be used for energy production via thermochemical conversion, for instance by gasification. The rate-determining step of the gasification process is the reaction between the char and the gaseous environment in the gasifier, whose rate depends on variables such as pressure, temperature, particle size, mineral matter content, porosity, etc. It is known that reactivity can be improved by increasing the temperature, but on the other hand the temperature achieved in the reactor is limited due to the ash fusion characteristics. Usually, the availability of reed as a fuel is locally modest and, therefore, it must be blended with other fuels such as wood. Blending of fuels brings together several problems relating to ash behaviour, i.e. ash fusion issues. Because there is no correlation between the ash fusion characteristics of biomass blends and their individual components, it is essential to carry out prior laboratory-scale ash fusion tests on the blends. This study compares the reactivity of reed and coniferous wood, and the ash fusion characteristics of blends of reed and coniferous wood ashes. When compared with Douglas fir and reed chars, pine pellets have the highest reactivity. Reed char exhibits the lowest reactivity and, therefore, it is advantageous to gasify reed alone at higher gasification temperatures because the ash fusion temperatures of reed are higher than those of woody fuels. The ash produced by reed and wood blends can melt at lower temperatures than ash from both reed and wood gasified separately. Due to this circumstance the gasification temperature should be chosen carefully when gasification of blends is carried out.

  5. Gasification biochar as a valuable by-product for carbon sequestration and soil amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Veronika; Müller-Stöver, Dorette; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Holm, Jens Kai; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Thermal gasification of various biomass residues is a promising technology for combining bioenergy production with soil fertility management through the application of the resulting biochar as soil amendment. In this study, we investigated gasification biochar (GB) materials originating from two major global biomass fuels: straw gasification biochar (SGB) and wood gasification biochar (WGB), produced by a Low Temperature Circulating Fluidized Bed gasifier (LT-CFB) and a TwoStage gasifier, respectively, optimized for energy conversion. Stability of carbon in GB against microbial degradation was assessed in a short-term soil incubation study and compared to the traditional practice of direct incorporation of cereal straw. The GBs were chemically and physically characterized to evaluate their potential to improve soil quality parameters. After 110 days of incubation, about 3% of the added GB carbon was respired as CO 2 , compared to 80% of the straw carbon added. The stability of GB was also confirmed by low H/C and O/C atomic ratios with lowest values for WGB (H/C 0.12 and O/C 0.10). The soil application of GBs exhibited a liming effect increasing the soil pH from ca 8 to 9. Results from scanning electron microscopy and BET analyses showed high porosity and specific surface area of both GBs, indicating a high potential to increase important soil quality parameters such as soil structure, nutrient and water retention, especially for WGB. These results seem promising regarding the possibility to combine an efficient bioenergy production with various soil aspects such as carbon sequestration and soil quality improvements. - Highlights: • Biomass gasification can combine efficient bioenergy production with valuable biochar residuals for soil improvements. • The two investigated gasification biochars are recalcitrant indicating soil carbon sequestration potential. • Gasification biochars are potential soil improvers due to high specific surface area, liming effect

  6. Co-gasification of coal and biomass: Synergy, characterization and reactivity of the residual char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junhao; Shao, Jingai; Yang, Haiping; Lin, Guiying; Chen, Yingquan; Wang, Xianhua; Zhang, Wennan; Chen, Hanping

    2017-11-01

    The synergy effect between coal and biomass in their co-gasification was studied in a vertical fixed bed reactor, and the physic-chemical structural characteristics and gasification reactivity of the residual char obtained from co-gasification were also investigated. The results shows that, conversion of the residual char and tar into gas is enhanced due to the synergy effect between coal and biomass. The physical structure of residual char shows more pore on coal char when more biomass is added in the co-gasification. The migration of inorganic elements between coal and biomass was found, the formation and competitive role of K 2 SiO 3 , KAlSiO 4 , and Ca 3 Al 2 (SiO 4 ) 3 is a mechanism behind the synergy. The graphization degree is enhanced but size of graphite crystallite in the residual char decreases with biomass blending ratio increasing. TGA results strongly suggest the big difference in the reactivity of chars derived from coal and biomass in spite of influence from co-gasification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Compressed air storage with humidification (CASH) coal gasification power plant investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakhamkin, M.; Patel, M.

    1991-08-01

    A study was performed to investigate and develop a hybrid coal gasification concept which utilizes an air saturator (AS) with an integrated coal gasification/compressed air energy storage (CGS/CAES) plant. This potentially attractive concept is designated as AS/CGS/CAES. In this concept, the coal gasification system provides fuel for the combustors of the CAES reheat turbomachinery train. Motive air from underground storage is humidified by saturators and thereby provides increased power production without additional air consumption. The heat for generating the hot water utilized in the saturators is extracted from waste heat within the overall plant. Multiple alternatives were considered and parametrically analyzed in the study in order to select the most thermodynamically and economically attractive concepts. The major alternatives were differentiated by the type of gasifier, type of CAES turbomachinery, mode of operation, and utilization of waste heat. The results of the study indicate that the use of the air saturation in AS/CGS/CAES plants might reduce capital costs of coal gasification based power used in intermediate load generation by $300 to $400 per kilowatt. Furthermore, heat rates might also be reduced by almost 1.5 cents per kilowatt hour, a major reduction. The major cause of the reduction in electricity costs is a 50% reduction in the required gasification capacity per net kW. In addition to being a load management tool, AS/CGS/CAES concepts provide a method to operate the CGS and turbomachinery in a continuous mode, improving the operation and potentially the life expectancy of both components. 3 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Influence of operating conditions on the air gasification of dry refinery sludge in updraft gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R; Sinnathambi, C M

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, details of the equilibrium modeling of dry refinery sludge (DRS) are presented using ASPEN PLUS Simulator in updraft gasifier. Due to lack of available information in the open journal on refinery sludge gasification using updraft gasifier, an evaluate for its optimum conditions on gasification is presented in this paper. For this purpose a Taguchi Orthogonal array design, statistical software is applied to find optimum conditions for DRS gasification. The goal is to identify the most significant process variable in DRS gasification conditions. The process variables include; oxidation zone temperature, equivalent ratio, operating pressure will be simulated and examined. Attention was focused on the effect of optimum operating conditions on the gas composition of H 2 and CO (desirable) and CO 2 (undesirable) in terms of mass fraction. From our results and finding it can be concluded that the syngas (H 2 and CO) yield in term of mass fraction favors high oxidation zone temperature and at atmospheric pressure while CO 2 acid gas favor at a high level of equivalent ratio as well as air flow rate favoring towards complete combustion.

  9. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project -- first year operation experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troxclair, E.J. [Destec Energy, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Stultz, J. [PSI Energy, Inc., West Terre Haute, IN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (WRCGRP), a joint venture between Destec Energy, Inc. and PSI Energy, Inc., began commercial operation in November of 1995. The Project, selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Program (Round IV) represents the largest operating coal gasification combined cycle plant in the world. This Demonstration Project has allowed PSI Energy to repower a 1950`s vintage steam turbine and install a new syngas fired combustion turbine to provide 262 MW (net) of electricity in a clean, efficient manner in a commercial utility setting while utilizing locally mined high sulfur Indiana bituminous coal. In doing so, the Project is also demonstrating some novel technology while advancing the commercialization of integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. This paper discusses the first year operation experience of the Wabash Project, focusing on the progress towards achievement of the demonstration objectives.

  10. Study of the Apparent Kinetics of Biomass Gasification Using High-Temperature Steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alevanau, Aliaksandr

    2010-10-15

    Among the latest achievements in gasification technology, one may list the development of a method to preheat gasification agents using switched ceramic honey combs. The best output from this technology is achieved with use of water steam as a gasification agent, which is heated up to 1600 deg C. The application of these temperatures with steam as a gasification agent provides a cleaner syngas (no nitrogen from air, cracked tars) and the ash melts into easily utilised glass-like sludge. High hydrogen content in output gas is also favourable for end-user applications.Among the other advantages of this technology is the presumable application of fixed-bed-type reactors fed by separately produced and preheated steam. This construction assumes relatively high steam flow rates to deliver the heat needed for endothermic reactions involving biomass. The biomass is to be heated uniformly and evenly in the volume of the whole reactor, providing easier and simpler control and operation in comparison to other types of reactors. To provide potential constructors and exploiters of these reactors with the kinetic data needed for the calculations of vital parameters for both reactor construction and exploitation, basic experimental research of high-temperature steam gasification of four types of industrially produced biomass has been conducted.Kinetic data have been obtained for straw and wood pellets, wood-chip charcoal and compressed charcoal of mixed origin

  11. Assessment of the SRI Gasification Process for Syngas Generation with HTGR Integration -- White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Gandrik

    2012-04-01

    This white paper is intended to compare the technical and economic feasibility of syngas generation using the SRI gasification process coupled to several high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) with more traditional HTGR-integrated syngas generation techniques, including: (1) Gasification with high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE); (2) Steam methane reforming (SMR); and (3) Gasification with SMR with and without CO2 sequestration.

  12. Gasification biochar as a valuable by-product for carbon sequestration and soil amendment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Müller-Stöver, Dorette Sophie; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Thermal gasification of various biomass residues is a promising technology for combining bioenergy production with soil fertility management through the application of the resulting biochar as soil amendment. In this study, we investigated gasification biochar (GB) materials originating from two ...

  13. Achievement report for fiscal 1982 on Sunshine Program. Research and development of coal gasification (Feasibility study of fluidized gasification process by pressurized hydrogenation); 1982 nendo sekitan gas ka no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kaatsu suiten ryudo gas ka process no feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-01-01

    This report covers the results of a feasibility study conducted for the 'Research and development of high-calorie gas production technology (Fluidized gasification process by pressurized hydrogenation)' entrusted to the Mifuji Ironworks during the period 1974-1977 and then entrusted to the Babcock-Hitachi K.K. in the period 1978-present. The hydrogenation gasification process is characterized in that hydrogen serves as the gasification agent for the generation of a methane-rich high-calorie gas. It is preferred that the gasification temperature be relatively low and the pressure high for a hydrogenation gasification reaction. Under the Sunshine Program, development efforts are under way to produce a high-calorie gas, clean and its combustion easy to control, under a pressure of 30kg/cm{sup 2}G, more or less. In this pressurized gasification process, it is important to acquire high-concentration hydrogen for hydrogenation gasification simultaneously with the hydrogenation gasification reaction. In order to achieve the goal, a study is made of a new separated reaction type wet gasification furnace capable of generating high-concentration hydrogen efficiently and economically, and research is under way for the development of such a furnace. The results of element studies and of this feasibility study, and future tasks are compiled into this report. (NEDO)

  14. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-11-01

    This report is a final brief summary of development of a mild-gasification and char conversion process. Morgantown Energy Technology Center developed a concept called mild gasification. In this concept, devolatilization of coal under nonoxidizing and relatively mild temperature and pressure conditions can yield three marketable products: (1) a high-heating-value gas, (2) a high-aromatic coal liquid, and (3) a high-carbon char. The objective of this program is to develop an advanced, continuous, mild-gasification process to produce products that will make the concept economically and environmentally viable. (VC)

  15. Application tests of a new-type LNG rapid gasification unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquefied natural gas (LNG is stored under low temperature and high pressure. It has to be gasified before it is used. Therefore, LNG gasification unit is essential and it is vital to the high-efficiency utilization of LNG. In this paper, a new-type LNG rapid gasification unit was developed. Adopted in this unit are some innovative technologies authorized with the national patent of invention, such as the umbrella-shape gas flow circle unit, the flue gas circulation system and the water feeding system, which help to guarantee its operation safety and increase its operation efficiency. After it was justified in lab test, the unit for industrial application was designed and manufactured and then tested to verify its design rationality. The results show that the new-type LNG rapid gasification unit meets the design requirements in the aspect of efficiency, exhaust gas loss, radiation loss and fuel gas consumption rate; at a load of 1800–2200 m3/h, its efficiency is over 95%; at a load of 1976.0 m3/h which is close to the design value of 2000 m3/h, its efficiency is 96.34% or even up to 2800 m3/h. This new-type LNG rapid gasification unit is adaptable to a large range of loads and can adapt to the rapid increase of external load. Its fuel gas consumption rate is only 1.5%, which is in the range of energy conservation. It presents the advantages of high heating efficiency, rapid startup, high gasification rate, compact structure, small land occupation and invulnerability to the environment, therefore, it is applicable to the middle and small independent regions which cannot be connected to the natural gas supply pipeline networks due to various reasons.

  16. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products: Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, C.Y.; Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.; Breault, R.W.

    1988-06-01

    Research on mild gasification is discussed. The report is divided into three sections: literature survey of mild gasification processes; literature survey of char, condensibles, and gas upgrading and utilization methods; and industrial market assessment of products of mild gasification. Recommendations are included in each section. (CBS) 248 refs., 58 figs., 62 tabs.

  17. Exergy analysis of biomass-to-synthetic natural gas (SNG) process via indirect gasification of various biomass feedstock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitasari, C.R.; Jurascik, M.; Ptasinski, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an exergy analysis of SNG production via indirect gasification of various biomass feedstock, including virgin (woody) biomass as well as waste biomass (municipal solid waste and sludge). In indirect gasification heat needed for endothermic gasification reactions is produced by

  18. Pyrolysis and Gasification Kinetics of Large Biomass Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenson, Jenny; Hagstroem, Magnus; Andersson, Patrik U.; Loenn, Benny; Pettersson, Jan B.C. [Goteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dep. of Chemistry, Atmospheric Science; Davidsson, Kent O. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Energy Conversion

    2004-05-01

    The aim of the project is to provide experimental data on single biomass particle pyrolysis that have an applied as well as a fundamental bearing. Transport phenomena and kinetics on the single particle level are characterized, including heat and mass transport processes. New experimental techniques and methods are applied and developed within the project. A single-particle reactor has been developed for the investigations, and several detection techniques including fast thermogravimetric analysis, molecular beam mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy, video recording and pyrometry are applied. The experimental data are used to develop robust models for pyrolysis and gasification, which are essential components in the design of gasification and combustion reactors.

  19. Report for fiscal 1998 by gasification technology subcommittee, Coal Gasification Committee; 1998 nendo sekitan gas ka iinkai gas ka gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The gasification technology subcommittee met on August 4 and November 17, 1998, and on March 10, 1999. Reported for deliberation were the research plan for coal hydrogasification technology development, its progress, and its achievements. On the other hand, the fuel cell-oriented coal gasification subcommittee met on July 23, 1998, and February 26, 1999, when studies were reported for deliberation concerning the development of a coal gasification technology for fuel cells, research plans, and research achievements. Reported in relation to studies using experimenting units were findings acquired using a small test unit, development of an injector, tests using a hot and cold models, development of a cooled char flow extraction technology, development of a highly concentrated powder transportation technology, and conceptual designs of next-generation facilities. A report was also delivered on survey and research on the friendliness toward the community of the development of coal hydrogasification technologies. Furthermore, a plan for reinforcing the system for evaluating the development of coal hydrogasification technologies was brought under deliberation. (NEDO)

  20. Gasification of refinery sludge in an updraft reactor for syngas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Reem; Eldmerdash, Usama [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Sinnathambi, Chandra M., E-mail: chandro@petronas.com.my [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    The study probes into the investigation on gasification of dry refinery sludge. The details of the study includes; influence of operation time, oxidation temperature and equivalence ratios on carbon gas conversion rate, gasification efficiency, heating value and fuel gas yield are presented. The results show that, the oxidation temperature increased sharply up to 858°C as the operating time increased up to 36 min then bridging occurred at 39 min which cause drop in reaction temperature up to 819 °C. This bridging was found to affect also the syngas compositions, meanwhile as the temperature decreased the CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} compositions are also found to be decreases. Higher temperature catalyzed the reduction reaction (CO{sub 2}+C = 450 2CO), and accelerated the carbon conversion and gasification efficiencies, resulted in more solid fuel is converted to a high heating value gas fuel. The equivalence ratio of 0.195 was found to be the optimum value for carbon conversion and cold gas efficiencies, high heating value of gas, and fuel gas yield to reach their maximum values of 96.1 % and 53.7 %, 5.42 MJ Nm{sup −3} of, and 2.5 Nm{sup 3} kg{sup −1} respectively.

  1. Gasification of refinery sludge in an updraft reactor for syngas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Reem; Eldmerdash, Usama; Sinnathambi, Chandra M.

    2014-01-01

    The study probes into the investigation on gasification of dry refinery sludge. The details of the study includes; influence of operation time, oxidation temperature and equivalence ratios on carbon gas conversion rate, gasification efficiency, heating value and fuel gas yield are presented. The results show that, the oxidation temperature increased sharply up to 858°C as the operating time increased up to 36 min then bridging occurred at 39 min which cause drop in reaction temperature up to 819 °C. This bridging was found to affect also the syngas compositions, meanwhile as the temperature decreased the CO, H 2 , CH 4 compositions are also found to be decreases. Higher temperature catalyzed the reduction reaction (CO 2 +C = 450 2CO), and accelerated the carbon conversion and gasification efficiencies, resulted in more solid fuel is converted to a high heating value gas fuel. The equivalence ratio of 0.195 was found to be the optimum value for carbon conversion and cold gas efficiencies, high heating value of gas, and fuel gas yield to reach their maximum values of 96.1 % and 53.7 %, 5.42 MJ Nm −3 of, and 2.5 Nm 3 kg −1 respectively

  2. A study on ultra heavy oil gasification technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidoguchi, Kazuhiro; Ashizawa, Masami; Taki, Masato; Ishimura, Masato; Takeno, Keiji

    2000-07-01

    Raising the thermal efficiency of a thermal power plant is an important issue from viewpoints of effective energy utilization and environmental protection. In view of raising the thermal efficiency, a gas turbine combined cycle power generation is considered to be very effective. The thermal efficiency of the latest LNG combined cycle power plant has been raised by more than 50%. On the other hand, the diversification of fuels to ensure supply stability is also an important issue, particularly in Japan where natural resources are scarce. Because of excellent handling characteristics petroleum and LNG which produces clean combustion are used in many sectors, and so the demand for such fuels is expected to grow. However, the availability of such fuels is limited, and supplies will be exhausted in the near future. The development of a highly efficient and environment-friendly gas turbine combined cycle using ultra heavy oil such as Orimulsion{trademark} (trademark of BITOR) is thus a significant step towards resolving these two issues. Chubu Electric Power Co, Inc., the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) conducted a collaboration from 1994 to 1998 with the objective of developing an ultra heavy oil integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC). Construction of the ultra heavy oil gasification testing facility (fuel capacity:2.4t/d) was completed in 1995, and Orimulsion{trademark} gasification tests were carried out in 1995 and 1996. In 1997, the hot dedusting facility with ceramic filter and the water scrubber used as a preprocessor of a wet desulfurization process were installed. Gasification and clean up the syngs tests were carried out on Orimulsion{trademark}, Asmulsion{trademark} (trademark of Nisseki Mitsubishi K.K.), and residue oil in 1997 and 1998. The results of the collaboration effort are described below.

  3. Removing H{sub 2}S from syngas using proven technology in Japanese waste gasification facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.; Jones, K.D. [Merichem Chemicals & Refinery Services LLC, Schaumberg, IL (United States). Gas Technology Products

    2007-07-01

    LO-CAT Process from the Gas Technology Products division of Merichem Chemicals and Refinery Services LLC can recover sulfur and provide clean syngas for a variety of uses. The successful implementation of LO-CAT technology in the solid waste gasification market in Japan provided the technical basis for extending the technology into other gasification markets around the world. The first European gasifier project utilizing LO-CAT is scheduled to startup this year, and LO-CAT units are currently under design and construction for coal gasification projects in China and the United States. Whenever the total sulfur contained in the raw syngas is less than 40 tonnes per day, LO-CAT is a valid option for purifying the syngas and recovering the sulfur in a useable form. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Fixed bed gasification of solid biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haavisto, I [Condens Oy, Haemeenlinna (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Fixed bed biomass gasifiers are feasible in the effect range of 100 kW -10 MW. Co-current gasification is available only up to 1 MW for technical reasons. Counter-current gasifiers have been used in Finland and Sweden for 10 years in gasification heating plants, which are a combination of a gasifier and an oil boiler. The plants have proved to have a wide control range, flexible and uncomplicated unmanned operation and an excellent reliability. Counter-current gasifiers can be applied for new heating plants or for converting existing oil and natural gas boilers into using solid fuels. There is a new process development underway, aiming at motor use of the producer gas. The development work involves a new, more flexible cocurrent gasifier and a cleaning step for the counter-current producer gas. (orig.)

  5. Fixed bed gasification of solid biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haavisto, I. [Condens Oy, Haemeenlinna (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Fixed bed biomass gasifiers are feasible in the effect range of 100 kW -10 MW. Co-current gasification is available only up to 1 MW for technical reasons. Counter-current gasifiers have been used in Finland and Sweden for 10 years in gasification heating plants, which are a combination of a gasifier and an oil boiler. The plants have proved to have a wide control range, flexible and uncomplicated unmanned operation and an excellent reliability. Counter-current gasifiers can be applied for new heating plants or for converting existing oil and natural gas boilers into using solid fuels. There is a new process development underway, aiming at motor use of the producer gas. The development work involves a new, more flexible cocurrent gasifier and a cleaning step for the counter-current producer gas. (orig.)

  6. Analysis of Organic and Inorganic Contaminants in Dried Sewage Sludge and By-Products of Dried Sewage Sludge Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic and inorganic contaminants in sewage sludge may cause their presence also in the by-products formed during gasification processes. Thus, this paper presents multidirectional chemical instrumental activation analyses of dried sewage sludge as well as both solid (ash, char coal and liquid (tar by-products formed during sewage gasification in a fixed bed reactor which was carried out to assess the extent of that phenomenon. Significant differences were observed in the type of contaminants present in the solid and liquid by-products from the dried sewage sludge gasification. Except for heavy metals, the characteristics of the contaminants in the by-products, irrespective of their form (solid and liquid, were different from those initially determined in the sewage sludge. It has been found that gasification promotes the migration of certain valuable inorganic compounds from sewage sludge into solid by-products which might be recovered. On the other hand, the liquid by-products resulting from sewage sludge gasification require a separate process for their treatment or disposal due to their considerable loading with toxic and hazardous organic compounds (phenols and their derivatives.

  7. Chemical looping coal gasification with calcium ferrite and barium ferrite via solid–solid reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani; Riley, Jarrett; Tian, Hanjing; Richards, George

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • BaFe 2 O 4 and CaFe 2 O 4 are excellent for chemical looping coal gasification. • BaFe 2 O 4 and CaFe 2 O 4 have minimal reactivity with synthesis gas. • Steam enhances the gasification process with these oxygen carriers. • Reaction rates of steam gasification of coal with CaFe 2 O 4 was better than with gaseous oxygen. • Coal gasification appears to be via solid–solid interaction with the oxygen carrier. - Abstract: Coal gasification to produce synthesis gas by chemical looping was investigated with two oxygen carriers, barium ferrite (BaFe 2 O 4 ) and calcium ferrite (CaFe 2 O 4 ). Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and fixed-bed flow reactor data indicated that a solid–solid interaction occurred between oxygen carriers and coal to produce synthesis gas. Both thermodynamic analysis and experimental data indicated that BaFe 2 O 4 and CaFe 2 O 4 have high reactivity with coal but have a low reactivity with synthesis gas, which makes them very attractive for the coal gasification process. Adding steam increased the production of hydrogen (H 2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO), but carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) remained low because these oxygen carriers have minimal reactivity with H 2 and CO. Therefore, the combined steam–oxygen carrier produced the highest quantity of synthesis gas. It appeared that neither the water–gas shift reaction nor the water splitting reaction promoted additional H 2 formation with the oxygen carriers when steam was present. Wyodak coal, which is a sub-bituminous coal, had the best gasification yield with oxygen carrier–steam while Illinois #6 coal had the lowest. The rate of gasification and selectivity for synthesis gas production was significantly higher when these oxygen carriers were present during steam gasification of coal. The rates and synthesis gas yields during the temperature ramps of coal–steam with oxygen carriers were better than with gaseous oxygen.

  8. Application of a mechanism-based rate equation to black liquor gasification rate data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overacker, N.L.; Waag, K.J.; Frederick, W.J. [Oregon State University, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Whitty, K.J.

    1995-09-01

    There is growing interest worldwide to develop alternate chemical recovery processes for paper mills which are cheaper, safer, more efficient and more environmentally sound than traditional technology. Pressurized gasification of black liquor is the basis for many proposed schemes and offers the possibility to double the amount of electricity generated per unit of dry black liquor solids. Such technology also has capital, safety and environmental advantages. One of the most important considerations regarding this emerging technology is the kinetics of the gasification reaction. This has been studied empirically at Aabo Akademi University for the pressurized gasification with carbon dioxide and steam. For the purposes of reactor modeling and scale-up, however, a thorough understanding of the mechanism behind the reaction is desirable. This report discusses the applicability of a mechanism-based rate equation to gasification of black liquor. The mechanism considered was developed for alkali-catalyzed gasification of carbon and is tested using black liquor gasification data obtained during simultaneous reaction with H{sub 2}O and CO. Equilibrium considerations and the influence of the water-gas shift reaction are also discussed. The work presented here is a cooperative effort between Aabo Akademi University and Oregon State University. The experimental work and some of the data analysis was performed at Aabo Akademi University. Development of the models and consideration of their applicability was performed primarily at Oregon State University

  9. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaing TC18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2005-08-31

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high pressure solids handling systems. This report details Test Campaign TC18 of the PSDF gasification process. Test campaign TC18 began on June 23, 2005, and ended on August 22, 2005, with the gasifier train accumulating 1,342 hours of operation using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. Some of the testing conducted included commissioning of a new recycle syngas compressor for gasifier aeration, evaluation of PCD filter elements and failsafes, testing of gas cleanup technologies, and further evaluation of solids handling equipment. At the conclusion of TC18, the PSDF gasification process had been operated for more than 7,750 hours.

  10. Plasma gasification of refuse derived fuel in a single-stage system using different gasifying agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agon, N; Hrabovský, M; Chumak, O; Hlína, M; Kopecký, V; Masláni, A; Bosmans, A; Helsen, L; Skoblja, S; Van Oost, G; Vierendeels, J

    2016-01-01

    The renewable evolution in the energy industry and the depletion of natural resources are putting pressure on the waste industry to shift towards flexible treatment technologies with efficient materials and/or energy recovery. In this context, a thermochemical conversion method of recent interest is plasma gasification, which is capable of producing syngas from a wide variety of waste streams. The produced syngas can be valorized for both energetic (heat and/or electricity) and chemical (ammonia, hydrogen or liquid hydrocarbons) end-purposes. This paper evaluates the performance of experiments on a single-stage plasma gasification system for the treatment of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from excavated waste. A comparative analysis of the syngas characteristics and process yields was done for seven cases with different types of gasifying agents (CO2+O2, H2O, CO2+H2O and O2+H2O). The syngas compositions were compared to the thermodynamic equilibrium compositions and the performance of the single-stage plasma gasification of RDF was compared to that of similar experiments with biomass and to the performance of a two-stage plasma gasification process with RDF. The temperature range of the experiment was from 1400 to 1600 K and for all cases, a medium calorific value syngas was produced with lower heating values up to 10.9 MJ/Nm(3), low levels of tar, high levels of CO and H2 and which composition was in good agreement to the equilibrium composition. The carbon conversion efficiency ranged from 80% to 100% and maximum cold gas efficiency and mechanical gasification efficiency of respectively 56% and 95%, were registered. Overall, the treatment of RDF proved to be less performant than that of biomass in the same system. Compared to a two-stage plasma gasification system, the produced syngas from the single-stage reactor showed more favourable characteristics, while the recovery of the solid residue as a vitrified slag is an advantage of the two-stage set-up. Copyright

  11. Process and technological aspects of municipal solid waste gasification. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, Umberto

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Critical assessment of the main commercially available MSW gasifiers. ► Detailed discussion of the basic features of gasification process. ► Description of configurations of gasification-based waste-to-energy units. ► Environmental performance analysis, on the basis of independent sources data. - Abstract: The paper proposes a critical assessment of municipal solid waste gasification today, starting from basic aspects of the process (process types and steps, operating and performance parameters) and arriving to a comparative analysis of the reactors (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained bed, vertical shaft, moving grate furnace, rotary kiln, plasma reactor) as well as of the possible plant configurations (heat gasifier and power gasifier) and the environmental performances of the main commercially available gasifiers for municipal solid wastes. The analysis indicates that gasification is a technically viable option for the solid waste conversion, including residual waste from separate collection of municipal solid waste. It is able to meet existing emission limits and can have a remarkable effect on reduction of landfill disposal option.

  12. The role of char and tar in determining the gas-phase partitioning of nitrogen during biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broer, Karl M.; Brown, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Switchgrass was gasified at an equivalence ratio of zero and 650–850 °C. • Short residence times were employed to minimize secondary reactions. • Char- and tar-bound nitrogen, NH_3, HCN, and N_2 were all significant products. • Increasing temperature leads to increased release of gaseous nitrogen compounds. • Kinetic models of gasification should include nitrogen release from char and tar. - Abstract: Gasification is an attractive option for converting biomass into fuels and chemicals. Most biomass contains significant amounts of fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN), which partially converts into ammonia (NH_3) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) during gasification. These nitrogen compounds are problematic as they can lead to NO_X emissions or catalyst poisoning in downstream applications of syngas. FBN can convert to other products as well, including diatomic nitrogen (N_2), char-bound nitrogen (char-N), and tar-bound nitrogen (tar-N). Efforts to predict concentrations of NH_3 and HCN have been hindered by a lack of accurate, comprehensive measurements of nitrogen partitioning among gasification products. The present study gasified switchgrass under allothermal, short residence time conditions and measured NH_3, HCN, char-N, and tar-N as a function of temperature in the range of 650–850 °C with diatomic nitrogen determined by difference. It was found that a major portion of FBN was retained in the char and tar products. As temperature was increased, char and tar were consumed, releasing nitrogen as gaseous NH_3 and HCN. This increase in undesirable nitrogen compounds is contrary to the predictions of most gasification models, which overlook the presence of significant nitrogen in char and tar even if they include tar cracking and char gasification reactions. The results of this study demonstrate that gas-phase reactions alone are not sufficient to predict the fate of nitrogen during gasification. In order for modeling efforts to obtain more accurate

  13. FORMATION OF DIOXINS AND FURANS DURING MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Lopes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thermal treatment is an interesting strategy to dispose of municipal solid waste: it reduces the volume and weight of the material dumped in landfills and generates alternative energy. However, the process emits pollutants, such as dioxins and furans. The present study evaluated MSW gasification-combustion integrated technologies in terms of dioxin and furan emission; and compared the obtained data with literature results on incineration, to point out which operational features differentiate the release of pollutants by these two processes. The results show that the process of integrated gasification and combustion emitted 0.28 ng N-1 m-3, expressed in TEQ (Total Equivalent Toxicity, of PCDD/F, less than the maximum limits allowed by local and international laws, whereas incineration normally affords values above these limits and requires a gas treatment system. The distinct operational conditions of the two thermal processes, especially those related to temperature and the presence of oxygen and fixed carbon, led to a lower PCDD/F emission in gasification.

  14. Entrained-flow gasification at elevated pressure: Volume 1: Final technical report, March 1, 1985-April 30,1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedman, P.O.; Smoot, L.D.; Smith, P.J.; Blackham, A.U.

    1987-10-15

    The general purpose of this research program was to develop a basic understanding of the physical and chemical processes in entrained coal gasification and to use the results to improve and evaluate an entrained gasification computer model. The first task included the collection and analysis of in-situ gasifier data at elevated pressures with three coal types (North Dakota lignite, Wyoming subbituminous and Illinois bituminous), the design, construction, and testing of new coal/oxygen/steam injectors with a fourth coal type (Utah bituminous), the collection of supporting turbulent fluid dynamic (LDV) data from cold-flow studies, and the investigation of the feasibility of using laser-based (CARS) daignostic instruments to make measurements in coal flames. The second task included improvements to the two-dimensional gasifier submodels, tabulation and evaluation of new coal devolatilization and char oxidation data for predictions, fundamental studies of turbulent particle dispersion, the development of improved numerical methods, and validation of the comprehensive model through comparison of predictions with experimental results. The third task was to transfer technical advances to industry and to METC through technical seminars, production of a detailed data book, code placement, and publication of results. Research results for these three tasks are summarized briefly here and presented in detail in the body of the report and in supporting references. 202 refs., 73 figs., 23 tabs.

  15. 78 FR 43870 - Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project; Preliminary Staff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Notice of Availability Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification... Energy (DOE) announces the availability of the Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification... potential environmental impacts associated with the Hydrogen Energy California's (HECA) Integrated...

  16. Underground gasification in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-11-21

    A paper in Pravda by the Deputy Chief Engineer of the Underground Gasification Department indicates that there are at least three or four pilot plants in operation; one plant near Moscow has operated for 14 years and one in the Donbas for 8 years. The first plant has a daily output of gas corresponding to 400 tons of coal a day and produces a gas of low calorific value. A plant opened in 1956 in the Kuzbas to produce gas of a higher quality. A plant, being built near Moscow in conjunction with a gas turbine electrical power station, will produce gas equivalent in heating value to 220,000 tons of coal a year. A larger plant, being built at Angren in central Asia, will produce gas equivalent in heating value to 700,000 tons of coal a year.

  17. Thermogravimetric study on the influence of structural, textural and chemical properties of biomass chars on CO2 gasification reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouraoui, Zeineb; Jeguirim, Mejdi; Guizani, Chamseddine; Limousy, Lionel; Dupont, Capucine; Gadiou, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation aims to examine the influence of textural, structural and chemical properties of biomass chars on the CO 2 gasification rate. Various lignocellulosic biomass chars were prepared under the same conditions. Different analytical techniques were used to determine the char properties such as Scanning Electronic Microscopy, nitrogen adsorption manometry, Raman spectroscopy and X Ray Fluorescence. Gasification tests were carried out in a thermobalance under 20% CO 2 in nitrogen at 800 °C. Significant differences of the total average reactivity were observed with a factor of 2 between the prepared chars. Moreover, different behaviors of gasification rate profiles versus conversion were obtained. This difference of behavior appeared to be correlated with the biomass char properties. Hence, up to 70% of conversion, the gasification rate was shown to depend on the char external surface and the potassium content. At higher conversion ratio, a satisfactory correlation between the Catalytic Index and the average gasification rate was identified. The results highlight the importance of knowing both textural and structural properties and mineral contents of biomass chars to predict fuel reactivity during CO 2 gasification processes. Such behavior prediction is highly important in the gasifiers design for char conversion. - Highlights: • CO 2 gasification reactivity of various lignocellulosic chars were examined. • Chars properties affect strongly samples gasification behavior. • Initial gasification rate is affected by external surface, K content and D3/G ratio. • Gasification rate behavior depends on the Alkali index at high conversion

  18. Pre-treatment of oil palm fronds biomass for gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Shaharin Anwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil Palm Fronds (OPF has been proven as one of the potential types of biomass feedstock for power generation. The low ash content and high calorific value are making OPF an attractive source for gasification. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of pre-treatments of OPF residual on gasification. The pre-treatments included the briquetting process and extensive drying of OPF which are studied separately. In briquetting process, the OPF were mixed with some portions of paper as an additives, leaflets, and water, to form a soupy slurry. The extensive drying of OPF needs to cut down OPF in 4–6 cm particle size and left to dry in the oven at 150°C for 24 hours. Gasification process was carried out at the end of each of the pre-treated processes. It was found that the average gas composition obtained from briquetting process was 8.07%, 2.06%, 0.54%,and 11.02% for CO, H2, CH4, and CO2 respectively. A good composition of syngas was produced from extensive dried OPF, as 16.48%, 4.03%, 0.91%,and 11.15% for CO, H2, CH4, and CO2 contents respectively. It can be concluded that pre-treatments improved the physical characteristics of biomass. The bulk density of biomass can be increased by briquetting but the stability of the structure is depending on the composition of briquette formulation. Furthermore, the stability of gasification process also depended on briquette density, mechanical strength, and formulation.

  19. Phosphorus bioavailability in straw and sewage sludge ashes from low-temperature biomass gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Stöver, Dorette Sophie; Jakobsen, Iver; Grønlund, Mette

    2017-01-01

    to their P bioavailability. A set of pot experiments with spring barley was carried out to compare the ash P fertiliser value with mineral P fertiliser and the sewage sludge feedstock. An indirect radioactive labelling approach with 33P was used to determine the amount of P taken up from the fertiliser....... In contrast, low- temperature gasification of Fe-rich sewage sludge reduced its P fertiliser value to practically zero. The results suggest that ashes from low-temperature gasification could be developed into alternative P fertilisers, however since their P bioavailability varies strongly depending...

  20. Economic analysis of biomass gasification for generating electricity in rural areas in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, H.; Suria, T.; Pranolo, S. H.

    2018-03-01

    The gaseous fuel from biomass gasification might reduce the consumption of diesel fuel by 70%. The investment cost of the whole unit with a capacity of 45 kWe was about IDR 220 million in 2008 comprised of 24% for gasification unit, 54% for diesel engine and electric generator, 22% for transportation of the whole unit from Bandung to the site in South Borneo. The gasification unit was made in local workshop in Bandung, while the diesel-generator was purchased also in a local market. To anticipate the development of biomass based electricity in remote areas, an economic analysis has been made for implementations in 2019. A specific investment cost of 600 USD/kW has been estimated taking account to the escalation and capacity factors. Using a discounted factor of 11% and biomass cost in the range of 0.03-0.07 USD/kg, the production cost of electricity would be in the range of 0.09-0.16 USD/kWh. This production cost was lower than that of diesel engine fueled with full oil commonly implemented in many remote areas in Indonesia at this moment. This production cost was also lower than the Feed in Tariff in some regions established by Indonesian government in 2017.

  1. Gasification characteristics of auto shredder residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navee, S.; Ramzan, N.

    2011-01-01

    Given the large volume of used tyre waste generated each year it is imperative that suitable re-use and disposal techniques are developed for dealing with this problem; presently these include rethreading, reprocessing for use as safe playground and sports surfaces, use as noise reduction barriers and utilisation as a fuel source. This paper reports on pilot scale studies designed to investigate the suitability of automotive waste for energy recovery via gasification. The study was carried out into auto shredder residue, which is a mixture of three distinct waste streams: tyres, rubber/plastic and general automotive waste. The tests included proximate, ultimate and elemental analysis, TGA, as well as calorific value determinations. In addition, the waste was tested in a desktop gasifier, and analysis was carried out to determine the presence and type of combustible gases. It was concluded that tyre waste and rubber/plastic waste are quite suitable fuels for gasification. (author)

  2. Properties of gasification-derived char and its utilization for catalytic tar reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kezhen

    Char is a low-value byproduct of biomass gasification and pyrolysis with many potential applications, such as soil amendment and the synthesis of activated carbon. The overall goal of the proposed research was to develop novel methods to use char derived from gasification for high-value applications in syngas conditioning. The first objective was to investigate effects of gasification condition and feedstock on properties of char derived from fluidized bed gasification. Results show that the surface areas of most of the char were 1--10 m 2/g and increased as the equivalence ratio increased. Char moisture and fixed carbon contents decreased while ash content increased as equivalence ratio increased. The next objective was to study the properties of sorghum and red cedar char derived from downdraft gasifier. Red cedar char contained more aliphatic carbon and o-alkyl carbon than sorghum char. Char derived from downdraft gasification had higher heating values and lower ash contents than char derived from fluidized bed gasification. The gasification reactivity of red cedar char was higher than that of sorghum char. Then, red cedar char based catalysts were developed with different preparation method to reform toluene and naphthalene as model tars. The catalyst prepared with nickel nitrate was found to be better than that with nickel acetate. The nickel particle size of catalyst impregnated with nickel nitrate was smaller than that of catalyst impregnated with nickel acetate. The particle size of catalyst impregnated with nickel acetate decreased by hydrazine reduction. The catalyst impregnated with nickel nitrate had the highest toluene removal efficiency, which was 70%--100% at 600--800 °C. The presence of naphthalene in tar reduced the catalyst efficiency. The toluene conversion was 36--99% and the naphthalene conversion was 37%--93% at 700--900 °C. Finally, effects of atmosphere and pressure on catalytic reforming of lignin-derived tars over the developed catalyst

  3. Gasification of Rice Husk in a Downdraft Gasifier: The Effect of Equivalence Ratio on the Gasification Performance, Properties, and Utilization Analysis of Byproducts of Char and Tar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongqing Ma

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice husks (RH are a potential biomass source for bio-energy production in China, such as bio-gas production by gasification technology. In this paper, a bench-scale downdraft fixed bed gasifier (DFBG and a tar sampling system were designed. The effect of equivalence ratio (ER on gasification performance in terms of the temperature in the gasifier, the composition distribution of the producer gas, and the tar content in the producer gas was studied. The maximum lower heating value of 4.44 MJ/Nm3, minimum tar content of 1.34 g/Nm3, and maximum cold gas efficiency of 50.85% were obtained at ER of 0.211. In addition, the characteristics of gasification byproducts, namely bio-char and bio-tar, were analyzed. The proximate and ultimate analysis (especially of the alkali metal, the surface morphology, the surface area, and the pore size distribution of the rice husk char (RHC were obtained by the use of X-ray fluorescence (XRF and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, as well as by using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET method. The components of light tar and heavy tar were obtained by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS.

  4. Biomass Gasification. The characteristics of technology development and the rate of learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorca Duch, Andreu; Huertas Bermejo, Javier

    2008-09-15

    Gasification is considered one of the most promising technologies in biomass applications. The higher efficiency compared to boiler power systems, the perspectives in fuel synthesis and its environmental friendly features are some examples of its potential. Biomass gasification has evolved since its first applications, but it has not been possible to reach a solid commercial stage, except during periods of crises and only for some specific applications. Meanwhile, other gasification technologies, fed by fossil fuels, are currently widely used on industrial scales. This thesis aims to analyze the knowledge development and diffusion patterns of the biomass gasification technology since 1970s in Austria, Finland, Germany and Sweden. Additionally, it seeks to identify the factors that strengthen and weaken the learning process. Finally, the concept of learning curve will be used to numerically assess the rate of learning in small scale biomass gasification for electricity generation. The feasibility of various future scenarios will be evaluated in order to know what is the likelihood for the technology to become competitive in the short term. To do so, the historical evolution of biomass gasification in Austria, Finland, Germany and Sweden has been analyzed. These countries have been selected due to the increasing number of ongoing projects and initiatives since 1970. Subsequently, the development of this technology has been encouraged by two historical facts. Initially, the price of fossil fuels grew in 1973 and 1979 enhancing the interest for biomass gasification as a future alternative. Afterwards, the willingness, shown by the mentioned countries, to reduce greenhouse gases emissions following the Kyoto protocol has revived the interest in biomass gasification. However, none of these two events has driven this technology sufficiently to achieve a sustainable commercial status. In addition, small and large scale projects have followed different development processes

  5. Kinetics and compensation effects during steam gasification of Fujian anthracite using viscose liquor as catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Ju; Zhang Ji-yu; Zhong Xue-qing [Fuzhou University, Fuzhou (China). Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2009-08-15

    Catalytic steam gasification kinetics of Fujian Youxi anthracite using viscose liquor as catalyst was investigated in an isothermal thermo-gravimetric analyzer under ambient pressure. Coal conversions versus reaction time with different viscose liquor concentrations (0-12% NaOH) were measured at the temperature range from 850 to 950{sup o}C. The research shows that the viscose liquor can greatly improve the gasification rate and carbon conversion. The Loading Saturation Level (LSL) of the viscose liquor within the experimental conditions was also determined. The catalytic steam gasification reaction can be well fitted by a shrinking-core model (SCM) and the reaction rate constants are obtained. The kinetic analysis indicates that the catalytic gasification exhibits a prominent compensation effect between the activation energy and the pre-exponential factor. The kinetic equation including the compensation effects for the catalytic steam gasification of Fujian Youxi anthracite using viscose liquor as catalyst is presented. 23 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Evaluation of Biomass Gasification to Produce Reburning Fuel for Coal-Fired Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasification and reburning testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. EPA and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory. Gasification systems that use biofuels or wastes as feedstock can provide a clean, efficient source of synthesis gas and p...

  7. Gasification-based energy production systems for different size classes - Potential and state of R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurkela, E.

    1997-01-01

    (Conference paper). Different energy production systems based on biomass and waste gasification are being developed in Finland. In 1986-1995 the Finnish gasification research and development activities were almost fully devoted to the development of simplified IGCC power systems suitable to large-scale power production based on pressurized fluid-bed gasification, hot gas cleaning and a combined-cycle process. In the 1990's the atmospheric-pressure gasification activities aiming for small and medium size plants were restarted in Finland. Atmospheric-pressure fixed-bed gasification of wood and peat was commercialized for small-scale district heating applications already in the 1980's. Today research and development in this field aims at developing a combined heat and power plant based on the use of cleaned product gas in internal combustion engines. Another objective is to enlarge the feedstock basis of fixed-bed gasifiers, which at present are limited to the use of piece-shaped fuels such as sod peat and wood chips. Intensive research and development is at present in progress in atmospheric-pressure circulating fluidized-bed gasification of biomass residues and wastes. This gasification technology, earlier commercialized for lime-kiln applications, will lead to co-utilization of local residues and wastes in existing pulverized coal fired boilers. The first demonstration plant is under construction in Finland and there are several projects under planning or design phase in different parts of Europe. 48 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  8. Co-gasification of black liquor and pyrolysis oil: Evaluation of blend ratios and methanol production capacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Jim; Furusjö, Erik; Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Lundgren, Joakim; Landälv, Ingvar

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biomethanol from co-gasified black liquor and pyrolysis oil at different capacities. • Enables higher biofuel production for given available amount of black liquor. • Opportunity for cost efficient black liquor gasification also in small pulp mills. • The methanol can be cost competitive to 2nd generation ethanol and fossil fuels. • Fewer pulp mills would need to be converted to meet given biofuel demand. - Abstract: The main aim of this study is to investigate integrated methanol production via co-gasification of black liquor (BL) and pyrolysis oil (PO), at Swedish pulp mills. The objectives are to evaluate techno-economically different blends ratios for different pulp mill capacities. Furthermore, the future methanol production potential in Sweden and overall system consequences of large-scale implementation of PO/BL co-gasification are also assessed. It is concluded that gasification of pure BL and PO/BL blends up to 50% results in significantly lower production costs than what can be achieved by gasification of unblended PO. Co-gasification with 20–50% oil addition would be the most advantageous solution based on IRR for integrated biofuel plants in small pulp mills (200 kADt/y), whilst pure black liquor gasification (BLG) will be the most advantageous alternative for larger pulp mills. For pulp mill sizes between 300 and 600 kADt/y, it is also concluded that a feasible methanol production can be achieved at a methanol market price below 100 €/MW h, for production capacities ranging between 0.9 and 1.6 TW h/y for pure BLG, and between 1.2 and 6.5 TW h/y for PO/BL co-gasification. This study also shows that by introducing PO/BL co-gasification, fewer pulp mills would need to be converted to biofuel plants than with pure BLG, to meet a certain biofuel demand for a region. Due to the technical as well as organizational complexity of the integration this may prove beneficial, and could also potentially lower the total investment

  9. Investigation of Coal-biomass Catalytic Gasification using Experiments, Reaction Kinetics and Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, Francine [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Agblevor, Foster [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Klein, Michael [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Sheikhi, Reza [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    A collaborative effort involving experiments, kinetic modeling, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to understand co-gasification of coal-biomass mixtures. The overall goal of the work was to determine the key reactive properties for coal-biomass mixed fuels. Sub-bituminous coal was mixed with biomass feedstocks to determine the fluidization and gasification characteristics of hybrid poplar wood, switchgrass and corn stover. It was found that corn stover and poplar wood were the best feedstocks to use with coal. The novel approach of this project was the use of a red mud catalyst to improve gasification and lower gasification temperatures. An important results was the reduction of agglomeration of the biomass using the catalyst. An outcome of this work was the characterization of the chemical kinetics and reaction mechanisms of the co-gasification fuels, and the development of a set of models that can be integrated into other modeling environments. The multiphase flow code, MFIX, was used to simulate and predict the hydrodynamics and co-gasification, and results were validated with the experiments. The reaction kinetics modeling was used to develop a smaller set of reactions for tractable CFD calculations that represented the experiments. Finally, an efficient tool was developed, MCHARS, and coupled with MFIX to efficiently simulate the complex reaction kinetics.

  10. Robustness studies on coal gasification process variables

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    coal before feeding to the gasification process [1]. .... to-control variables will make up the terms in the response surface model for the ... Montgomery (1999) explained that all the Taguchi engineering objectives for a robust ..... software [3].

  11. Investigation of sewage sludge gasification with use of flue gas as a gasifying agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj Izabella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigation of low-temperature sewage sludge gasification with use of flue gas as a gasifying agent. Tests were conducted in a laboratory stand, equipped with a gasification reactor designed and constructed specifically for this purpose. During presented tests, gas mixture with a composition of typical flue gases was used as a gasifying agent. The measuring system ensures online measurements of syngas composition: CO, CO2, H2, CH4. As a result of gasification process a syngas with combustible components has been obtained. The aim of the research was to determine the usability of sewage sludge for indirect cofiring in power boilers with the use of flue gas from the boiler as a gasifying agent and recirculating the syngas to the boiler’s combustion chamber. Results of presented investigation will be used as a knowledge base for industrial-scale sewage sludge gasification process. Furthermore, toxicity of solid products of the process has been determined by the use of Microtox bioassay. Before tests, solid post-gasification residues have been ground to two particle size fractions and extracted into Milli-Q water. The response of test organisms (bioluminescent Aliivibrio fischeri bacteria in reference to a control sample (bacteria exposed to 2% NaCl solution was measured after 5 and 15 minutes of exposure. The obtained toxicity results proved that thermal treatment of sewage sludge by their gasification reduces their toxicity relative to water organisms.

  12. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31

    Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the

  13. Macauba gasification; Gaseificacao da macauba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Filho, Jaime dos; Oliveira, Eron Sardinha de [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil)], E-mail: jaime@ifba.edu.br; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Galvarro, Svetlana Fialho Soria [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil); Chaves, Modesto Antonio [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Itapetinga, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos

    2009-07-01

    For development of a productive activity, with reduced environmental degradation, the use of renewable energy sources as an important option. The gasification has been increasing among the ways of obtaining energy from biomass, and consists of a process where the necessary oxygen to the complete combustion of a fuel it is restricts and, in high temperatures it generates fuel gas of high-quality. In this direction, this work is justified and has its importance as the study of a renewable energy source, macauba coconut (Acrocomia aculeata [Jacq] Lodd), with the gasification process. The objective of this study is to build a biomass concurrent gasifier and evaluate the viability to provide heating for dehydration of fruits, using the macauba coconut as fuel. It was measured the temperature in five points distributed in both gasifier and combustor chamber, being the input area of primary combustor air and also the speed of rotation of the electric motor, using a factorial 3X3 experimental design with three repetitions and interval of measurements of five minutes. The analytical results take to infer that the macauba coconut have potential to be gasified and used for the dehydration of fruits. (author)

  14. Integrated hot fuel gas cleaning for advanced gasification combined cycle process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, M.; Kangasmaa, K.; Laatikainen, J.; Staahlberg, P.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Gasification and Advanced Combustion

    1996-12-01

    The fate of halogens in pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and hot gas filtration is determined. Potential halogen removal sorbents, suitable for integrated hot gas cleaning, are screened and some selected sorbents are tested in bench scale. Finally, halogen removal results are verified using the PDU-scale pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and integrated hot gas cleaning facilities of VTT. The project is part of the JOULE II Extension programme of the European Union. (author)

  15. Autothermal gasification of low-grade fuels in fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.A. Belyaev [Scientific Center for Comprehensive Processing of Solid Combustible Minerals (IGI), Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Combustible Minerals Federal State Unitary Enterprise

    2009-01-15

    Autothermal gasification of high-ash flotation wastes of Grade Zh Kuzbass coal and low-ash fuel in a suspended-spouted (fluidized) bed at atmospheric pressure is investigated, and a comparison is presented of experimental results that indicate that the ash content of fuels has only slight influence on the generator gas heating value.

  16. Integrated gasification and Cu-Cl cycle for trigeneration of hydrogen, steam and electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghahosseini, S; Dincer, I; Naterer, G F [University of Ontario, Oshawa, ON (Canada). Institute of Technology

    2011-02-15

    This paper develops and analyzes an integrated process model of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and a thermochemical copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle for trigeneration of hydrogen, steam and electricity. The process model is developed with Aspen HYSYS software. By using oxygen instead of air for the gasification process, where oxygen is provided by the integrated Cu-Cl cycle, it is found that the hydrogen content of produced syngas increases by about 20%, due to improvement of the gasification combustion efficiency and reduction of syngas NOx emissions. Moreover, about 60% of external heat required for the integrated Cu-Cl cycle can be provided by the IGCC plant, with minor modifications of the steam cycle, and a slight decrease of IGCC overall efficiency. Integration of gasification and thermochemical hydrogen production can provide significant improvements in the overall hydrogen, steam and electricity output, when compared against the processes each operating separately and independently of each other.

  17. Isothermal CO2 Gasification Reactivity and Kinetic Models of Biomass Char/Anthracite Char

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Bin Zuo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gasification of four biomass chars and anthracite char were investigated under a CO2 atmosphere using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer. Reactivity differences of chars were considered in terms of pyrolysis temperature, char types, crystallinity, and inherent minerals. The results show that the gasification reactivity of char decreased with the increase of pyrolysis temperature. Char gasification reactivity followed the order of anthracite coal char (AC-char ˂ pine sawdust char (PS-char ˂ peanut hull char (PH-char ˂ wheat straw char (WS-char ˂ corncob char (CB-char under the same pyrolysis temperature. Two repesentative gas-solid models, the random pore model (RPM and the modified random pore model (MRPM, were applied to describe the reactive behaviour of chars. The results indicate RPM performs well to describe gasification rates of chars but cannot predict the phenomenon that there appears to exist a peak conversion for biomass chars at a high conversion rate, where the MRPM performs better.

  18. Comparison of phosphorus recovery from incineration and gasification sewage sludge ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    Incineration of sewage sludge is a common practice in many western countries. Gasification is an attractive option because of its high energy efficiency and flexibility in the usage of the produced gas. However, they both unavoidably produce sewage sludge ash (SSA), a material which is rich...... in phosphorus (P), but that it is commonly landfilled or used in construction materials. With current uncertainty in phosphate rock (PR) supply, P recovery from SSA has become interesting. In the present work, ashes from incineration and gasification of the same sewage sludge were compared in terms of P...... extractability using electrodialytic (ED) methods. The results show that comparable recovery rates of P were achieved with a single ED step for incineration SSA and a sequential combination of two ED steps for gasification SSA, which was due to a higher influence of Fe and/or Al in P solubility for the latter...

  19. Comparison of phosphorus recovery from incineration and gasification sewage sludge ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Incineration of sewage sludge is a common practice in many western countries. Gasification is an attractive option because of its high energy efficiency and flexibility in the usage of the produced gas. However, they both unavoidably produce sewage sludge ash (SSA), a material which is rich...... in phosphorus (P), but that it is commonly landfilled or used in construction materials. With current uncertainty in phosphate rock (PR) supply, P recovery from SSA has become interesting. In the present work, ashes from incineration and gasification of the same sewage sludge were compared in terms of P...... extractability using electrodialytic (ED) methods. The results show that comparable recovery rates of P were achieved with a single ED step for incineration SSA and a sequential combination of two ED steps for gasification SSA, which was due to a higher influence of Fe and/or Al in P solubility for the latter...

  20. Feasibility study on combining anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification to increase the production of biomethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hailong; Larsson, Eva; Thorin, Eva; Dahlquist, Erik; Yu, Xinhai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification are integrated. • The novel concept can produce much more biomethane. • The novel concept can improve the exergy efficiency. • The novel concept demonstrates a big potential of income increase. - Abstract: There is a rapid growing interest in using biomethane as fuel for transport applications. A new concept is proposed to combine anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification to produce biomethane. H 2 is separated from the syngas generated by biomass gasification in a membrane system, and then is used to upgrade raw biogas from anaerobic digestion. Simulations have been conducted based on the real operation data of one full scale biogas plant and one full scale biomass gasification plant in order to investigate the feasibility of the new concept. Results show that although less power and heat are generated compared to the gasification plant, which results in a lower overall efficiency, much more biomethane can be produced than the biogas plant; and the new concept can achieve a higher exergy efficiency. Due to the increasing price of biomethane, the novel concept demonstrates a big potential of income increase. For example, at a biomethane price of 12.74SEK/kg, the annual income can be increased by 5.3% compared to the total income of the biogas and gasification plant

  1. Effects of hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge on pyrolysis and steam gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Jihong; Mun, Tae-Young; Yang, Won; Lee, Uendo; Hwang, Jungho; Jang, Ensuk; Choi, Changsik

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal treatment (HT) is energy efficient and increases fuel energy density. • Pyrolysis and steam gasification were performed with sewage sludge before/after HT. • Product gases resembled those from wood chips, particularly at high temperature. • HT increases sludge lignin content, possibly enhancing methane yield of product gas. • HT can improve sewage sludge for use as an alternative to biomass and fossil fuels. - Abstract: Hydrothermal treatment is a promising option for pretreatment drying of organic waste, due to its low energy consumption and contribution to increasing fuel energy density. In this study, the characteristics of hydrothermally treated sewage sludge were investigated, and pyrolysis and steam gasification were performed with the sludge before and after hydrothermal treatment. The overall composition of product gases from treated sludge was similar to that obtained from steam gasification of wood chips, particularly under high-temperature conditions. In addition, the increase in lignin content of sewage sludge following hydrothermal treatment could help enhance methane yield in product gas during pyrolysis and steam gasification. The findings suggest that hydrothermal treatment is an appropriate method for improving sewage sludge for use as an alternative to biomass and fossil fuels

  2. Comparative evaluation of kinetic, equilibrium and semi-equilibrium models for biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buragohain, Buljit [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Chakma, Sankar; Kumar, Peeush [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Mahanta, Pinakeswar [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Moholkar, Vijayanand S. [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India)

    2013-07-01

    Modeling of biomass gasification has been an active area of research for past two decades. In the published literature, three approaches have been adopted for the modeling of this process, viz. thermodynamic equilibrium, semi-equilibrium and kinetic. In this paper, we have attempted to present a comparative assessment of these three types of models for predicting outcome of the gasification process in a circulating fluidized bed gasifier. Two model biomass, viz. rice husk and wood particles, have been chosen for analysis, with gasification medium being air. Although the trends in molar composition, net yield and LHV of the producer gas predicted by three models are in concurrence, significant quantitative difference is seen in the results. Due to rather slow kinetics of char gasification and tar oxidation, carbon conversion achieved in single pass of biomass through the gasifier, calculated using kinetic model, is quite low, which adversely affects the yield and LHV of the producer gas. Although equilibrium and semi-equilibrium models reveal relative insensitivity of producer gas characteristics towards temperature, the kinetic model shows significant effect of temperature on LHV of the gas at low air ratios. Kinetic models also reveal volume of the gasifier to be an insignificant parameter, as the net yield and LHV of the gas resulting from 6 m and 10 m riser is same. On a whole, the analysis presented in this paper indicates that thermodynamic models are useful tools for quantitative assessment of the gasification process, while kinetic models provide physically more realistic picture.

  3. Supercritical gasification of wastewater from updraft wood gasifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Blasi, Colomba; Branca, Carmen; Galgano, Antonio; Meier, Dietrich; Brodzinski, Ina; Malmros, Olof

    2007-01-01

    Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of the wood tar fraction soluble in water is discussed. The mixture is collected downstream of an updraft wood gasification plant and presents tar compounds typical of low-temperature pyrolysis, with the highest yields attained by acetic acid, levoglucosan and 1-hydroxy-2-propanone. SCWG tests, using a laboratory-scale reactor with a plug-flow behavior, temperatures of 723-821 K, residence times of 46-114 s and initial total organic carbon (TOC) contents of 6.5-31 g/l (pressure equal to 25 MPa), show TOC conversion roughly between 30% and 70%. The corresponding yields of gas (l) with respect to the initial TOC contents (g) vary from 0.4 to 1. Gasification of TOC is well described by an irreversible, first-order, Arrhenius rate reaction with an activation energy of 75.7±22 kJ/mol and a pre-exponential factor of 897±30 s -1 . Quantification of 23 tar compounds of the product stream shows the prompt conversion of sugars and complex phenols, with the formation of intermediate products, such as furfurals, which successively decompose, and more thermally resistant species, such as acetic acid, propionic acid, 1,2-ethanediol, ketones and especially cresols and phenols

  4. Potentials of Selected Malaysian Biomasses as Co-Gasification Fuels with Oil Palm Fronds in a Fixed-Bed Downdraft Gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moni Mohamad Nazmi Zaidi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm frond (OPF has been successfully gasified to produce syngas and has since deemed as a potential source of biomass fuel in Malaysia. However, if OPF is to be utilized as a main fuel for industrial-scale firing/gasification plant, interruption in fuel supply may occur due to numerous reasons, for instance inefficient fuel processing and ineffective transportation. A secondary supporting solid fuel is therefore necessary as a partial component to the main fuel in such cases, where the secondary fuel is combusted with the main fuel to adhere to main fuel shortage. Gasification of two fuels together, known as co-gasification, is practiced worldwide, some in industrial scale. However, current practice utilizes biomass fuel as the secondary fuel to coal in co-gasification. This investigation explores into the feasibility of co-gasifying two biomass fuels together to produce syngas. OPF was chosen as the primary fuel and a selection of Malaysian biomasses were studied to discover their compatibility with OPF in co-gasification. Biomass selection was made using score-and-rank method and their selection criteria are concisely discussed.

  5. Process simulation of ethanol production from biomass gasification and syngas fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Planas, Oscar; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Phillips, John R; Aichele, Clint P; Mohammad, Sayeed

    2017-12-01

    The hybrid gasification-syngas fermentation platform can produce more bioethanol utilizing all biomass components compared to the biochemical conversion technology. Syngas fermentation operates at mild temperatures and pressures and avoids using expensive pretreatment processes and enzymes. This study presents a new process simulation model developed with Aspen Plus® of a biorefinery based on a hybrid conversion technology for the production of anhydrous ethanol using 1200tons per day (wb) of switchgrass. The simulation model consists of three modules: gasification, fermentation, and product recovery. The results revealed a potential production of about 36.5million gallons of anhydrous ethanol per year. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to investigate the effects of gasification and fermentation parameters that are keys for the development of an efficient process in terms of energy conservation and ethanol production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Contribution to immersed arc plasma study: applications to organic aqueous effluent decontamination and gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudesocque, N.

    2007-07-01

    This work is concerned with decontamination and gasification of aqueous organic liquid waste by immersed thermal plasma technology. In this concept, the organic compounds are decomposed into gas by high temperature plasma. A quench of about 107-108 K/s, is obtained by immersion into a given effluent. Two kinds of arc plasma are studied. The first one is an immersed electrical arc stricken between two graphite electrodes. The second one is a plasma jet generated by a non-transferred plasma torch. For dilute liquid waste (1 g/L) containing molecules incompatible with conventional biological processes, the hydroxyl radicals (OH 0 ) are continuously produced by the plasma jet directly into the solution allowing complete molecule mineralization into carbon dioxide and water. The hetero-atoms, if present, are converted into solvated ions. The decomposition of the molecules, such as chloro-phenols and aniline, are studied. Considering the identified intermediate products, a reaction mechanism is proposed. For each tested molecules, their concentration decreased at least of 90 percent. Based on the 'gasosiphon' phenomenon, the experimental reactor insures the simultaneous recirculation of both gas and liquid phases. The hydrodynamic was studied using in situ high frequency imaging technology. A CFD code was applied for numerical simulation of the observed recirculation phenomena. The results were compared with obtained experimental data. In the case of concentrated liquid waste (≥ 100 g/L), syngas was produced by thermal cracking of organic molecules. The best measured composition of the gas is about 45% v/v of H 2 and 45 % v/v of CO when an electrical arc is used. The usability of both studied plasma types were investigated in this field. The experimental study was carried on using fructose and glucose solution (several hundreds g/L) as surrogated effluent. With a specific injection method, gasification rate is about 30 % with one way. Optical Emission Spectroscopy and

  7. Air emission control in a modern industrial gasification-cogeneration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bifulco, S.; Panico, A.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper reports the study technology and environmental of new industry integrated gasification - combined cycle - in Priolo Gargallo area at Siracusa. The analysis shows as the suggested industry waste strategy would bring about benefits on both the environmental and economic view points [it

  8. Thermodynamic Analyses of Biomass Gasification Integrated Externally Fired, Post-Firing and Dual-Fuel Combined Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Soltani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the results are reported of the energy and exergy analyses of three biomass-related processes for electricity generation: the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle, the biomass gasification integrated dual-fuel combined cycle, and the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle. The energy efficiency for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle is 3% to 6% points higher than for the other cycles. Although the efficiency of the externally fired biomass combined cycle is the lowest, it has an advantage in that it only uses biomass. The energy and exergy efficiencies are maximized for the three configurations at particular values of compressor pressure ratios, and increase with gas turbine inlet temperature. As pressure ratio increases, the mass of air per mass of steam decreases for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle, but the pressure ratio has little influence on the ratio of mass of air per mass of steam for the other cycles. The gas turbine exergy efficiency is the highest for the three configurations. The combustion chamber for the dual-fuel cycle exhibits the highest exergy efficiency and that for the post-firing cycle the lowest. Another benefit of the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle is that it exhibits the highest air preheater and heat recovery steam generator exergy efficiencies.

  9. Modeling and simulation of syngas purification and power generation in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehmood, N; Zaman, Z U; Mehran, M T [National Development, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-07-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is one of the most promising technologies for power generation; The environmental benefits and the higher energy conversion efficiency distinguish it from traditional coal generation technologies. This work presents a structured and validated conceptual model of purification of coal gas produced during the Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) of coal containing high sulfur contents. Gas cleaning operations for CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S and moisture removal have been modeled in steady and dynamic state. The power generation from combined cycle is also modeled. The model has been developed using Aspen HYSYS and Aspen Plus simulation software. Predicted results of clean gas composition and generated power present a good agreement with industrial data and efficiency parameters. This study is aimed at obtaining optimal assessment of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant configurations. (author)

  10. Modeling and simulation of syngas purification and power generation in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, N.; Zaman, Z.U.; Mehran, M.T.

    2011-01-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is one of the most promising technologies for power generation; The environmental benefits and the higher energy conversion efficiency distinguish it from traditional coal generation technologies. This work presents a structured and validated conceptual model of purification of coal gas produced during the Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) of coal containing high sulfur contents. Gas cleaning operations for CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S and moisture removal have been modeled in steady and dynamic state. The power generation from combined cycle is also modeled. The model has been developed using Aspen HYSYS and Aspen Plus simulation software. Predicted results of clean gas composition and generated power present a good agreement with industrial data and efficiency parameters. This study is aimed at obtaining optimal assessment of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant configurations. (author)

  11. Single particle studies of black liquor gasification under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K; Backman, R; Hupa, M; Backman, P; Ek, P; Hulden, S T; Kullberg, M; Sorvari, V

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide experimental data relevant to pressurized black liquor gasification concepts. Specifically, the following two goals will be achieved: Data on swelling, char yields and component release during pressurized pyrolysis of small samples of black liquor will be obtained. The reactivity and physical behavior of single black liquor droplets during simultaneous pyrolysis and gasification will be investigated. The structure and composition of black liquor char during formation and conversion will be studied. (orig.)

  12. Sampling of tar from sewage sludge gasification using solid phase adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz González, Isabel; Pérez Pastor, Rosa Ma; Sánchez Hervás, José Ma

    2012-06-01

    Sewage sludge is a residue from wastewater treatment plants which is considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Gasification technology is a potential source of renewable energy that converts the sewage sludge into gases that can be used to generate energy or as raw material in chemical synthesis processes. But tar produced during gasification is one of the problems for the implementation of the gasification technology. Tar can condense on pipes and filters and may cause blockage and corrosion in the engines and turbines. Consequently, to minimize tar content in syngas, the ability to quantify tar levels in process streams is essential. The aim of this work was to develop an accurate tar sampling and analysis methodology using solid phase adsorption (SPA) in order to apply it to tar sampling from sewage sludge gasification gases. Four types of commercial SPA cartridges have been tested to determine the most suitable one for the sampling of individual tar compounds in such streams. Afterwards, the capacity, breakthrough volume and sample stability of the Supelclean™ ENVI-Carb/NH(2), which is identified as the most suitable, have been determined. Basically, no significant influences from water, H(2)S or NH(3) were detected. The cartridge was used in sampling real samples, and comparable results were obtained with the present and traditional methods.

  13. LLNL Underground-Coal-Gasification Project. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, D.R.; Clements, W. (eds.)

    1981-11-09

    We have continued our laboratory studies of forward gasification in small blocks of coal mounted in 55-gal drums. A steam/oxygen mixture is fed into a small hole drilled longitudinally through the center of the block, the coal is ignited near the inlet and burns toward the outlet, and the product gases come off at the outlet. Various diagnostic measurements are made during the course of the burn, and afterward the coal block is split open so that the cavity can be examined. Development work continues on our mathematical model for the small coal block experiments. Preparations for the large block experiments at a coal outcrop in the Tono Basin of Washington State have required steadily increasing effort with the approach of the scheduled starting time for the experiments (Fall 1981). Also in preparation is the deep gasification experiment, Tono 1, planned for another site in the Tono Basin after the large block experiments have been completed. Wrap-up work continues on our previous gasification experiments in Wyoming. Results of the postburn core-drilling program Hoe Creek 3 are presented here. Since 1976 the Soviets have been granted four US patents on various aspects of the underground coal gasification process. These patents are described here, and techniques of special interest are noted. Finally, we include ten abstracts of pertinent LLNL reports and papers completed during the quarter.

  14. Challenges of selecting materials for the process of biomass gasification in supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukis, N.; Habicht, W.; Hauer, E.; Dinjus, E. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie

    2010-07-01

    A new process for the gasification of wet biomass is the reaction in supercritical water. The product is a combustible gas, rich in hydrogen with a high calorific value. The reaction is performed under high temperatures - up to 700 C - and pressures up to 30 MPa. The combination of these physical conditions and the corrosive environment is very demanding for the construction materials of the reactor. Only few alloys exhibit the required mechanical properties, especially the mechanical strength at temperatures higher than 600 C. Ni-Base alloys like alloy 625 can be applied up to a temperature of 700 C and are common materials for application under supercritical water conditions. During gasification experiments with corn silage and other biomasses, corrosion of the reactor material alloy 625 appears. The gasification of an aqueous methanol solution in supercritical water at temperatures up to 600 C and 25 - 30 MPa pressure results in an product gas rich in hydrogen, carbon dioxide and some methane. Alloy 625 shows very low corrosion rates in this environment. It is obvious that the heteroatoms and salts present in biomass cause corrosion of the reactor material. (orig.)

  15. MICRO AUTO GASIFICATION SYSTEM: EMISSIONS CHARACTERIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compact, CONEX-housed waste to energy unit, Micro Auto Gasification System (MAGS), was characterized for air emissions from burning of military waste types. The MAGS unit is a dual chamber gasifier with a secondary diesel-fired combustor. Eight tests were conducted with multipl...

  16. Evaluation of wood chip gasification to produce reburn fuel for coal-fired boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasification/reburn testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory (IMET). Gasification systems that use wastes as feedstock should provide a clean, efficient sour...

  17. Syngas production by gasification of aquatic biomass with CO2/O2 and simultaneous removal of H2S and COS using char obtained in the gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanaoka, Toshiaki; Hiasa, Shou; Edashige, Yusuke

    2013-01-01

    Applicability of gulfweed as feedstock for a biomass-to-liquid (BTL) process was studied for both production of gas with high syngas (CO + H 2 ) content via gasification of gulfweed and removal of gaseous impurities using char obtained in the gasification. Gulfweed as aqueous biomass was gasified with He/CO 2 /O 2 using a downdraft fixed-bed gasifier at ambient pressure and 900 °C at equivalence ratios (ER) of 0.1–0.3. The syngas content increased while the conversion to gas on a carbon basis decreased with decreasing ER. At an ER of 0.1 and He/CO 2 /O 2 = 0/85/15%, the syngas content was maximized at 67.6% and conversion to gas on a carbon basis was 94.2%. The behavior of the desulfurization using char obtained during the gasification process at ER = 0.1 and He/CO 2 /O 2 = 0/85/15% was investigated using a downdraft fixed-bed reactor at 250–550 °C under 3 atmospheres (H 2 S/N 2 , COS/N 2 , and a mixture of gases composed of CO, CO 2 , H 2 , N 2 , CH 4 , H 2 S, COS, and steam). The char had a higher COS removal capacity at 350 °C than commercial activated carbon because (Ca,Mg)S crystals were formed during desulfurization. The char simultaneously removed H 2 S and COS from the mixture of gases at 450 °C more efficiently than did activated carbon. These results support this novel BTL process consisting of gasification of gulfweed with CO 2 /O 2 and dry gas cleaning using self-supplied bed material. -- Highlights: • A product gas with high syngas content was produced from the gasification of gulfweed with CO 2 /O 2 . • The syngas content increased with decreasing the equivalence ratio. • The syngas content was maximized at 67.6% at an ER of 0.1 and He/CO 2 /O 2 = 0/85/15%. • The char simultaneously removed H 2 S and COS from a mixture of gases at 450 °C efficiently

  18. Chemical hot gas purification for biomass gasification processes; Chemische Heissgasreinigung bei Biomassevergasungsprozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemmler, Michael

    2010-07-01

    The German government decided to increase the percentage of renewable energy up to 20 % of all energy consumed in 2020. The development of biomass gasification technology is advanced compared to most of the other technologies for producing renewable energy. So the overall efficiency of biomass gasification processes (IGCC) already increased to values above 50 %. Therefore, the production of renewable energy attaches great importance to the thermochemical biomass conversion. The feedstock for biomass gasification covers biomasses such as wood, straw and further energy plants. The detrimental trace elements released during gasification of these biomasses, e.g. KCl, H{sub 2}S and HCl, cause corrosion and harm downstream devices. Therefore, gas cleaning poses an especial challenge. In order to improve the overall efficiency this thesis aims at the development of gas cleaning concepts for the allothermic, water blown gasification at 800 C and 1 bar (Guessing-Process) as well as for the autothermic, water and oxygen blown gasification at 950 C and 18 bar (Vaernamo-Process). Although several mechanisms for KCl- and H{sub 2}S-sorption are already well known, the achievable reduction of the contamination concentration is still unknown. Therefore, calculations on the produced syngas and the chemical hot gas cleaning were done with a thermodynamic process model using SimuSage. The syngas production was included in the calculations because the knowledge of the biomass syngas composition is very limited. The results of these calculations prove the dependence of syngas composition on H{sub 2}/C-ratio and ROC (Relative Oxygen Content). Following the achievable sorption limits were detected via experiments. The KCl containing syngases were analysed by molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). Furthermore, an optimised H{sub 2}S-sorbent was developed because the examined sorbents exceeded the sorption limit of 1 ppmv. The calculated sorption limits were compared to the limits

  19. Rebirth of a 100-year-old technology: underground coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, B.C.; Harju, J.A.; Schmit, C.R.; Solc, J. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Boysen, J.E. [B.C. Technologies Ltd. (Country unknown/Code not available); Kuehnel, R.A. [International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences (Netherlands); Walker, L.K. [Innisfree Pty. Ltd. (Country unknown/Code not available); Komsartra, C. [Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, Nonthaburi (Thailand)

    1997-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a clean coal technology that was first conceived by Mendeleev in Russia over 100 years ago. It involves the conversion of coal in situ to a low-to-medium grade product gas, avoiding the expense of mining and reclamation. The successful application of UCG is critically dependent on both judicious site selection and process design specific to that site. It requires a detailed knowledge and understanding of those geologic, hydrogeologic, and other site characteristics critical to the technical success and environmental acceptability of the process. This paper addresses the development and key features of UCG and describes a UCG feasibility project now under way in Southern Thailand on a lignite deposit. The relevance of the technology to the long-term supply of gas to the Eastern States of Australia is also discussed. It is concluded that the lack of acceptance of the technology to date follows from a confusion in the interpretation of test results from the different hydrogeologic settings of previous UCG test sites. Successful development of the technology requires the careful assembly of an integrated design team with hydrogeologic, geologic mineralogic, chemical and engineering expertise. (author). 1 fig., 11 refs.

  20. Energy generation by air gasification of two industrial plastic wastes in a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, Umberto; Di Gregorio, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Two plastic wastes obtained as co-products from an industrial process were fed in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, having an internal diameter of 0.38 m and a maximum thermal output of about 400 kW. The experimental runs were carried out by reaching a condition of thermal and chemical steady state under values of equivalence ratio ranging from 0.2 to 0.3. Olivine, a neo-silicate of Fe and Mg, already tested as a good catalyst for tar removal during gasification of polyolefin plastic wastes, was used as bed material. The results provide the complete composition of the syngas, including the tar, particulate and acid/basic gas contents as well as the chemical and physical characterization of the bed material and entrained fines. The gasification process appears technically feasible, yielding a producer gas of valuable quality for energy applications in an appropriate plant configuration. On the other hand, under the experimental conditions tested, olivine particles show a strongly reduced catalytic activity in all the runs. The differences in the gasification behaviour of the two industrial plastics are explained on the basis of the structure and composition of the wastes, taking also into account the results of a combined material and substance flow analysis. - Highlights: • Pilot-scale investigation of fluidized bed gasification of two industrial plastic wastes. • Tests under conditions of thermal/chemical steady state at various equivalence ratios. • Complete composition of the producer gas, including tar, particulate and acid/basic gases. • Differences in the gasification behaviour of plastic wastes. • Material, substance, and feedstock energy flow analysis for different gasification tests

  1. Treatment of Mixed Wastes via Fixed Bed Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-10-28

    This report outlines the details of research performed under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-96MC33258 to evaluate the ChemChar hazardous waste system for the destruction of mixed wastes, defined as those that contain both RCRA-regulated haz- ardous constituents and radionuclides. The ChemChar gasification system uses a granular carbonaceous char matrix to immobilize wastes and feed them into the gasifier. In the gasifier wastes are subjected to high temperature reducing conditions, which destroy the organic constituents and immobilize radionuclides on the regenerated char. Only about 10 percent of the char is consumed on each pass through the gasifier, and the regenerated char can be used to treat additional wastes. When tested on a 4-inch diameter scale with a continuous feed unit as part of this research, the ChemChar gasification system was found to be effective in destroying RCRA surrogate organic wastes (chlorobenzene, dichloroben- zene, and napht.halene) while retaining on the char RCRA heavy metals (chromium, nickel, lead, and cadmium) as well as a fission product surrogate (cesium) and a plutonium surrogate (cerium). No generation of harmful byproducts was observed. This report describes the design and testing of the ChemChar gasification system and gives the operating procedures to be followed in using the system safely and effectively for mixed waste treatment.

  2. Coal gasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-29

    The proposal concerns a stage in the process of cooling the synthetic gas produced in a coal gasification plant at temperatures above 900/sup 0/C. The purpose is to keep the convection heating surface of the subsequent waste heat plant free of dirt. According to the invention, the waste heat plant has a radiation area connected before it, on the heating surfaces of which the slack carried over solidifies. This radiation area has a hydraulic and thermal cleaning system, which can be raised or lowered in a water bath. The subclaims concern all the constructional characteristics of this cleaning system, which causes the solidified slack to crack.

  3. Tar dew point analyser as a tool in biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vreugdenhil, B.J.; Kuipers, J. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-08-15

    Application of the Tar Dew point Analyzer (TDA) in different biomass based gasification systems and subsequent gas cleaning setups has been proven feasible. Such systems include BFB gasifiers, CFB gasifier and fixed bed gasifiers, with tar crackers or different scrubbers for tar removal. Tar dew points obtained with the TDA give direct insight in the performance of the gas cleaning section and help prevent any tar related problems due to condensation. The current TDA is capable of measuring tar dew points between -20 to 200C. This manuscript will present results from 4 different gasification setups. The range of measured tar dew points is -7 to 164C with comparable results from the calculated dew points based on the SPA measurements. Further detail will be presented on the differences between TDA and SPA results and explanations will be given for deviations that occurred. Improvements for the TDA regarding future work will be presented.

  4. Method for Hot Real-Time Sampling of Gasification Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, Marc D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-29

    The Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a highly instrumented half-ton/day pilot scale plant capable of demonstrating industrially relevant thermochemical technologies from lignocellulosic biomass conversion, including gasification. Gasification creates primarily Syngas (a mixture of Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide) that can be utilized with synthesis catalysts to form transportation fuels and other valuable chemicals. Biomass derived gasification products are a very complex mixture of chemical components that typically contain Sulfur and Nitrogen species that can act as catalysis poisons for tar reforming and synthesis catalysts. Real-time hot online sampling techniques, such as Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (MBMS), and Gas Chromatographs with Sulfur and Nitrogen specific detectors can provide real-time analysis providing operational indicators for performance. Sampling typically requires coated sampling lines to minimize trace sulfur interactions with steel surfaces. Other materials used inline have also shown conversion of sulfur species into new components and must be minimized. Sample line Residence time within the sampling lines must also be kept to a minimum to reduce further reaction chemistries. Solids from ash and char contribute to plugging and must be filtered at temperature. Experience at NREL has shown several key factors to consider when designing and installing an analytical sampling system for biomass gasification products. They include minimizing sampling distance, effective filtering as close to source as possible, proper line sizing, proper line materials or coatings, even heating of all components, minimizing pressure drops, and additional filtering or traps after pressure drops.

  5. Co-gasification of Colombian coal and biomass in fluidized bed: An experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jhon F. Velez; Farid Chejne; Carlos F. Valdes; Eder J. Emery; Carlos A. Londono [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Antioquia (Colombia). Grupo de Termodinamica Aplicada y Energias Alternativas

    2009-03-15

    The main results of an experimental work on co-gasification of Colombian biomass/coal blends in a fluidized bed working at atmospheric pressure are reported in this paper. Several samples of blends were prepared by mixing 6-15wt% biomass (sawdust, rice or coffee husk) with coal. Experimental assays were carried out by using mixtures of different steams/blends (Rvc) and air/blend (Rac) ratios showing the feasibility to implement co-gasification as energetic alternative to produce fuel gas to heat and to generate electricity and the possibility of converting clean and efficiently the refuse coal to a low-heating value gas. 29 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Japan's New Sunshine Project. 1994 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This paper summarizes the report for fiscal 1994 on research and development related to coal liquefaction and gasification. In the research and development of coal liquefaction technologies, reports were given on research of liquefaction characteristics of different coals and liquefaction process thereof, and on research of catalysts for the coal liquefaction. In the research and development of coal gasification technologies, reports were given on fundamental studies on gasification characteristics of different coals. In the research and development of liquefaction technologies for bituminous coal, reports were given on design, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant with a capacity of 150 t/d, and the operation supporting studies on the pilot plant. In the fundamental research on the coal liquefaction process, reports were given on refining technologies and utilization of the refined materials, and studies on environment preservation in applying the coal liquefaction technologies. In the research on hydrogen manufacturing technologies by using the fundamental coal technology, reports were given on design, construction and operational studies of a pilot plant. In the research and development of the coal gasification technologies, reports were given on development of a jet-flow gasified coal electric power plant, selection of coals, and development of a data processing system. (NEDO)

  7. SFW-Funk process for gasification of solid urban and industrial waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummelsiep, H; Heinrich, F

    1982-01-01

    It was the purpose of the R+D-project, to develop the SFW-Funk process for gasification of solid urban and industrial waste for commercial plants. On the base of a literature study and some experiments on a laboratory plant, a demonstration plant was designed and built. The test runs can be divided into two sections. During the first, problems of the enlarging of the plant were examined and solved. In the second section, gasification tests where run under several conditions. During the period of run, different input-materials (domestic waste of different composition, grain size and closeners of grain, rubber and wood) were gasified at varying operating conditions (composition, quantity and constitution of the oxidant) with good results. The experiments showed, that, unless the reactor was optimized during the period of run, it is possible to optimize some further elements of the gasification plant.

  8. Gas-phase reactions at combustion and gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hupa, M.; Kilpinen, P.; Chowdhury, K.; Brink, A.; Mueller, C.

    1995-01-01

    Formation and destruction of gaseous nitrogen pollutants at combustion (NO x , N 2 O) and gasification (NH 3 , HCN) are studied based on detailed chemical kinetic modelling and experiments in laboratory reactors. During 1994 the following topics have been studied: (a) nitrogen reactions in pressurized combustion processes (in co-operation with the LIEKKI projects 202 and 204), (b) NO x reduction by staging techniques in CO 2 , rich combustion processes, (c) HCN reactions at pyrolysis, (d) formation of soot precursors in a blast furnace (in co-operation with the SULA project 103) (e) incorporation of better NO x description into furnace models, (in co-operation with the LIEKKI project Y01). NH 3 conversion to N 2 in gasification product gases, (in co-operation with the LIEKKI project 203). In this report, some results of the items (a-c) will be presented. The results of items (d-f) are described in the reports by the co-operation projects. (author)

  9. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Duthie, R.G. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Wootten, J.M. (Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  10. New life for the chemical industry: the significance of coal gasification. [Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Y

    1985-01-01

    The current status of the cement, petrochemical and chemical divisions of Ube Industries, Ltd. is outlined. Accounts are given of the outlook for the petrochemical division and how it is coping with the present situation; of how the application of new coal gasification technology and the resulting maintenance of the competitive power of the company's ammonia on international markets has revived the chemical division; and of how the industrial gases division is benefiting from a 20% cut in gasification costs, obtained using the new gasification process. Other topics mentioned include the increasing specialization of the chemical division; the accelerated pace of development resulting from joint efforts by industry, government and the universities; the eradication of the adverse effects of a hierarchical organizational structure; and pioneering technology development where the emphasis is not on self-completion.

  11. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.

    2011-10-01

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  12. Gasification of Coal and PET in Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pohořelý, Michael; Vosecký, Martin; Kameníková, Petra; Punčochář, Miroslav; Skoblia, Sergej; Staf, M.; Vošta, J.; Koutský, B.; Svoboda, Karel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 85, 17-18 (2006), s. 2458-2468 ISSN 0016-2361 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/04/0829 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fludized bed * gasification * plastic waste Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.358, year: 2006

  13. Artificial neural network modelling approach for a biomass gasification process in fixed bed gasifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulandrić, Robert; Lončar, Dražen; Böhning, Dorith; Böhme, Rene; Beckmann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 2 Different equilibrium models are developed and their performance is analysed. • Neural network prediction models for 2 different fixed bed gasifier types are developed. • The influence of different input parameters on neural network model performance is analysed. • Methodology for neural network model development for different gasifier types is described. • Neural network models are verified for various operating conditions based on measured data. - Abstract: The number of the small and middle-scale biomass gasification combined heat and power plants as well as syngas production plants has been significantly increased in the last decade mostly due to extensive incentives. However, existing issues regarding syngas quality, process efficiency, emissions and environmental standards are preventing biomass gasification technology to become more economically viable. To encounter these issues, special attention is given to the development of mathematical models which can be used for a process analysis or plant control purposes. The presented paper analyses possibilities of neural networks to predict process parameters with high speed and accuracy. After a related literature review and measurement data analysis, different modelling approaches for the process parameter prediction that can be used for an on-line process control were developed and their performance were analysed. Neural network models showed good capability to predict biomass gasification process parameters with reasonable accuracy and speed. Measurement data for the model development, verification and performance analysis were derived from biomass gasification plant operated by Technical University Dresden

  14. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS TEXACO, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) has operated commercially for nearly 45 years on feeds such as natural gas, liquid petroleum fractions, coal, and petroleum coke. More than 45 plants are either operational or under development in the United States and abroad. Texaco has dev...

  15. FY 1986 report on the committee of the Coal Gasification Committee; 1986 nendo sekitan gaska iinkai hon'iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-03-01

    The paper reported on activities of the committee of the Coal Gasification Committee in FY 1986. In the 1st Committee Meeting, after selecting the chairperson, report/discussion were made about the outline of the FY 1986 coal gasification technology development plan. The distributed data were the outline of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant, outline of the development of a 40t/d fluidized bed coal gasification plant, outline of the design of a 1,000t/d 100,000KW-class demonstrative plant, outline of the development of coal utilization hydrogen production technology, and outline of the development of high-calorie gas production technology. In the 2nd Committee Meeting, report/discussion were made about activities of each section of the committee and the state of progress of the development of coal gasification technology. The distributed data were those on the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant, development of a 40t/d fluidized bed coal gasification plant, design of a 1,000t/d 100,000KW-class demonstrative plant, and development of coal utilization hydrogen production technology (design/construction of pilot plant, study using small equipment). (NEDO)

  16. Comparative techno-economic analysis of biohydrogen production via bio-oil gasification and bio-oil reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yanan; Brown, Tristan R.; Hu, Guiping; Brown, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the economic feasibility of biohydrogen production via two bio-oil processing pathways: bio-oil gasification and bio-oil reforming. Both pathways employ fast pyrolysis to produce bio-oil from biomass stock. The two pathways are modeled using Aspen Plus ® for a 2000 t d −1 facility. Equipment sizing and cost calculations are based on Aspen Economic Evaluation® software. Biohydrogen production capacity at the facility is 147 t d −1 for the bio-oil gasification pathway and 160 t d −1 for the bio-oil reforming pathway. The biomass-to-fuel energy efficiencies are 47% and 84% for the bio-oil gasification and bio-oil reforming pathways, respectively. Total capital investment (TCI) is 435 million dollars for the bio-oil gasification pathway and is 333 million dollars for the bio-oil reforming pathway. Internal rates of return (IRR) are 8.4% and 18.6% for facilities employing the bio-oil gasification and bio-oil reforming pathways, respectively. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that biohydrogen price, biohydrogen yield, fixed capital investment (FCI), bio-oil yield, and biomass cost have the greatest impacts on facility IRR. Monte-Carlo analysis shows that bio-oil reforming is more economically attractive than bio-oil gasification for biohydrogen production. -- Highlights: ► Biohydrogen production via bio-oil reforming has higher energy efficiency compared to gasification. ► Hydrogen price, fixed capital cost, and feedstock cost most strongly affect IRR. ► Lower risk investment is biohydrogen production via bio-oil reforming

  17. Vision of the U.S. biofuel future: a case for hydrogen-enriched biomass gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Dietenberger; Mark Anderson

    2007-01-01

    Researchers at the Forest Product Laboratory (FPL) and the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW) envision a future for biofuels based on biomass gasification with hydrogen enrichment. Synergisms between hydrogen production and biomass gasification technologies will be necessary to avoid being marginalized in the biofuel marketplace. Five feasible engineering solutions...

  18. In situ solidification/stabilization pilot study for the treatment of coal tar contaminated soils and river sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, M.A.; Venn, J.G.; Pugh, L.B.; Vallis, T.

    1996-01-01

    Coal tar contamination was encountered at a former coal gasification site in soils below the groundwater table, and in the sediments of the adjacent river. Ex situ remediation techniques at this site would be costly because of the need to dewater the impacted media. In situ solidification/stabilization was tested to evaluate its effectiveness. Treatability testing was performed to evaluate a Portland cement/fly ash binder system with added stabilizing agents. Results were sufficiently promising to warrant pilot testing. Grout containing Portland cement, fly ash, organically modified clay, and granular activated carbon was pilot tested at the site. Test specimens were collected and tested to evaluate durability, compressive strength, and permeability. The samples were extracted by several methods and analyzed to measure the leachable concentrations of organic compounds and metals. Results indicated acceptable physical characteristics. Leachable concentrations of most polynuclear aromatic compounds were decreased

  19. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  20. Methods and apparatus for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Butner, Robert Scott; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-08-14

    Continuous processing of wet biomass feedstock by catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent separation of sulfur contaminants, or combinations thereof. Treatment further includes separating the precipitates out of the wet feedstock, removing sulfur contaminants, or both using a solids separation unit and a sulfur separation unit, respectively. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfur that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

  1. Minerals in the Ash and Slag from Oxygen-Enriched Underground Coal Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqin Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Underground coal gasification (UCG is a promising option for the recovery of low-rank and inaccessible coal resources. Detailed mineralogical information is essential to understand underground reaction conditions far from the surface and optimize the operation parameters during the UCG process. It is also significant in identifying the environmental effects of UCG residue. In this paper, with regard to the underground gasification of lignite, UCG slag was prepared through simulation tests of oxygen-enriched gasification under different atmospheric conditions, and the minerals were identified by X-Ray diffraction (XRD and a scanning electron microscope coupled to an energy-dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS. Thermodynamic calculations performed using FactSage 6.4 were used to help to understand the transformation of minerals. The results indicate that an increased oxygen concentration is beneficial to the reformation of mineral crystal after ash fusion and the resulting crystal structures of minerals also tend to be more orderly. The dominant minerals in 60%-O2 and 80%-O2 UCG slag include anorthite, pyroxene, and gehlenite, while amorphous substances almost disappear. In addition, with increasing oxygen content, mullite might react with the calcium oxide existed in the slag to generate anorthite, which could then serve as a calcium source for the formation of gehlenite. In 80%-O2 UCG slag, the iron-bearing mineral is transformed from sekaninaite to pyroxene.

  2. Status of health and environmental research relative to coal gasification 1976 to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilzbach, K.E.; Reilly, C.A. Jr. (comps.)

    1982-10-01

    Health and environmental research relative to coal gasification conducted by Argonne National Laboratory, the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under DOE sponsorship is summarized. The studies have focused on the chemical and toxicological characterization of materials from a range of process streams in five bench-scale, pilot-plant and industrial gasifiers. They also address ecological effects, industrial hygiene, environmental control technology performance, and risk assessment. Following an overview of coal gasification technology and related environmental concerns, integrated summaries of the studies and results in each area are presented and conclusions are drawn. Needed health and environmental research relative to coal gasification is identified.

  3. Development of a new steady state zero-dimensional simulation model for woody biomass gasification in a full scale plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formica, Marco; Frigo, Stefano; Gabbrielli, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A simulation model with Aspen Plus is created for a full scale biomass gasification plant. • Test results, equipment data and control logics are considered in the simulation model. • The simulation results are in agreement with the experimental data. • The gasifying air temperature affects largely the energy performance of the gasification plant. • Increasing the equivalent ratio implies a strong reduction of the gasification efficiency. - Abstract: A new steady state zero-dimensional simulation model for a full-scale woody biomass gasification plant with fixed-bed downdraft gasifier has been developed using Aspen Plus®. The model includes the technical characteristics of all the components (gasifier, cyclone, exchangers, piping, etc.) of the plant and works in accordance with its actual main control logics. Simulation results accord with those obtained during an extensive experimental activity. After the model validation, the influence of operating parameters such as the equivalent ratio, the biomass moisture content and the gasifying air temperature on syngas composition have been analyzed in order to assess the operative behavior and the energy performance of the experimental plant. By recovering the sensible heat of the syngas at the outlet of the gasifier, it is possible to obtain higher values of the gasifying air temperature and an improvement of the overall gasification performances.

  4. Study of CO2 gasification reactivity of biocarbon produced at different conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liang; Maziarka, Przemysław; Skreiberg, Øyvind; Løvås, Terese; Wadrzyk, Mariusz; Sevault, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    Biocarbon has a great potential to replace fossil reductants and help reduce greenhouse gas emissions from carbon intensive metallurgical industries. In this work, biocarbon samples were produced from Norway spruce under different final temperatures (550, 650 and 800 °C) and holding times (10 and 30 minutes). The CO2 gasification reactivity of the biocarbon, or biomass char, samples was investigated in a thermogravimetric analyser at different gasification temperatures (850, 900 and 950 °C). ...

  5. Pressurised fluidised-bed gasification experiments with biomass, peat and coal at VTT in 1991-1994. Gasification of Danish wheat, straw and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E; Laatikainen-Luntama, J; Staahlberg, P; Moilanen, A [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    Fluidised-bed air gasification of three different Danish straw feedstocks and Colombian bituminous coal was studied in the PDU-scale test facilities of VTT. The test programme was divided into two different modes of operation. First, the usability of straw as the only feedstock was investigated by operating the gasifier at relatively low temperature normally used in biomass gasifiers. In this operation mode the main aim was to find out the limits for gasification temperatures, set by the sintering behaviour of the straw. Secondly, the use of straw as an additional feedstock in a fluidised-bed coal gasifier was examined by operating the gasifier at about 1 000 deg C with different ratings of straw and coal feeding. The gasifier was operated at 5 bar pressure and at 80 990 deg C. The product gas was cleaned by ceramic candle filters operated at 465-540 deg C. Concentrations of tars, nitrogen com- pounds, sulphur gases, vapour-phase alkali metals as well as chlorine were determined in different operating conditions. (12 refs.)

  6. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-11-01

    This report is a final brief summary of development of a mild-gasification and char conversion process. Morgantown Energy Technology Center developed a concept called mild gasification. In this concept, devolatilization of coal under nonoxidizing and relatively mild temperature and pressure conditions can yield three marketable products: (1) a high-heating-value gas, (2) a high-aromatic coal liquid, and (3) a high-carbon char. The objective of this program is to develop an advanced, continuous, mild-gasification process to produce products that will make the concept economically and environmentally viable. (VC)

  7. Thermodynamic analyses of solar thermal gasification of coal for hybrid solar-fossil power and fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Yi Cheng; Lipiński, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamic analyses are performed for solar thermal steam and dry gasification of coal. The selected types of coal are anthracite, bituminous, lignite and peat. Two model conversion paths are considered for each combination of the gasifying agent and the coal type: production of the synthesis gas with its subsequent use in a combined cycle power plant to generate power, and production of the synthesis gas with its subsequent use to produce gasoline via the Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. Replacement of a coal-fired 35% efficient Rankine cycle power plant and a combustion-based integrated gasification combined cycle power plant by a solar-based integrated gasification combined cycle power plant leads to the reduction in specific carbon dioxide emissions by at least 47% and 27%, respectively. Replacement of a conventional gasoline production process via coal gasification and a subsequent Fischer–Tropsch synthesis with gasoline production via solar thermal coal gasification with a subsequent Fischer–Tropsch synthesis leads to the reduction in specific carbon dioxide emissions by at least 39%. -- Highlights: ► Thermodynamic analyses for steam and dry gasification of coal are presented. ► Hybrid solar-fossil paths to power and fuels are compared to those using only combustion. ► Hybrid power production can reduce specific CO 2 emissions by more than 27%. ► Hybrid fuel production can reduce specific CO 2 emissions by more than 39%.

  8. Gasification of rice husks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzetti, P. (ENEA, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Fonti Alternative e Risparmio Energetico)

    The paper outlines the thermochemical processes and equipment involved in the gasification of rice husks. An assessment is made of the feasibility (availability, technology requirements, economics of production and marketing) of this renewable energy source. Results, reported here in tabular form, of experimental trials at an Italian pilot plant (producing, with the use of 165 kg/h of rice husks, 350,000 kcal/h of gas with a conversion yield of 70%) indicated good feasibility. More research is required to improve the combustion qualities of the final product.

  9. CFD simulations of influence of steam in gasification agent on parameters of UCG process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Żogała

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground coal gasification (UCG is considered to be a perspective and constantly developing technology. Nevertheless it is a very complex and technically difficult process, which results depend on many variables. Mathematical models enable detailed analysis of UCG process – for example – give possibility of prediction of syngas composition depending on applied gasification medium. In practice, mixtures of oxygen, air and steam are the most frequently used as converting agents. Steam is injected to the reactor in order to obtain combustible components. Nevertheless higher concentrations of steam create a problem of reduction of temperature in reactor. This issue of amount of steam in reacting system was analyzed in given paper. Computer simulations were used as test method applied in presented work. Calculations were carried by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CDF method and Ansys Fluent software. Changes in outlet concentrations of syngas components (CO, CO2, CH4, H2O, H2, in relation with time of process, were presented. Composition of product gas, its heating value and temperature of process were also examined (on outlet of rector in function of content of steam in gasification agent (which was mixture of O2 and H2O. Obtained results indicated a possibility of conduct of stable gasification process (with predictable characteristic of gas. The simulation also demonstrated a possibility of deterioration of conditions in real reactors as a results of applying of too high amounts of steam.

  10. Gasification biochar as soil amendment for carbon sequestration and soil quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Thermal gasification of biomass is an efficient and flexible way to generate energy. Besides the energy, avaluable by-product, biochar, is produced. Biochar contains a considerable amount of recalcitrant carbon thathas potential for soil carbon sequestration and soil quality improvement if recycled...... back to agriculture soils. To determine the effect of gasification biochar on soil processes and crop yield, a short-term incubation study was conducted and a field trial has been established....

  11. CFD simulation of coal gasification in an entrained-flow gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sreedharan, V.; Hjertager, B.H.; Solberg, T.

    2010-01-01

    in reliability, emission control, efficiency, and feedstock flexibility. The feedstock used for a gasification system can be coal, petroleum coke, biomass, heavy oil, or even natural gas. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 2010 AIChE Annual Meeting (Salt Lake City, UT 11/7-12/2010)....

  12. Siemens fuel gasification technology - solutions and developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannemann, F.; Schingnitz, M.; Schmid, C. [Siemens Fuel Gasification Technology GmbH, Freiberg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    In 2006, Siemens Power Generation Group acquired the GSP Gasification technology, and renamed it SFGT. The presentation reviews the technology and provides an update on current projects. The future plans for the development of the technology based on extensive experience and comprehensive development work gathered over many years and proven in a number of gasification plants is covered. SFGT operates, at its Freiberg facility, a 5 MWth pilot plant which was built to test prototype designs and to determine process conditions for various feed streams. An overview is given of the results of tests completed on a wide range of carbonaceous materials including all types of solid fuels from lignite to anthracite, as well as brown coal, oil, sludge or biomass, and low-temperature coke or petcoke. The technical focus of the paper is on the unique design features such as the cooling screen and alternative refractory lining, as well as the dense flow feeding system that allows the preferable use of lignite applications.

  13. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  14. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...... affected the ash chemistry and the ash sintering tendency but much less the char reactivity. Thermo balance test are made and high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements are performed, the experimental results indicate that with calcium addition major inorganic¿inorganic reactions take place very late...... in the char conversion process. Comprehensive global equilibrium calculations predicted important characteristics of the inorganic ash residue. Equilibrium calculations predict the formation of liquid salt if sufficient amounts of Ca are added and according to experiments as well as calculations calcium binds...

  15. Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James

    2013-12-17

    Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogenous catalyst for gasification.

  16. Artificial neural network models for biomass gasification in fluidized bed gasifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Hernández, J. Alfredo; Bruno, Joan Carles

    2013-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been applied for modeling biomass gasification process in fluidized bed reactors. Two architectures of ANNs models are presented; one for circulating fluidized bed gasifiers (CFB) and the other for bubbling fluidized bed gasifiers (BFB). Both models determine...

  17. Supercritical water gasification of landfill leachate for hydrogen production in the presence and absence of alkali catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijin, Gong; Binbin, Li; Qingyu, Wang; Zuohua, Huang; Liang, Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Gasification of landfill leachate in supercritical water using batch-type reactor is investigated. Alkali such as NaOH, KOH, K 2 CO 3 , Na 2 CO 3 is used as catalyst. The effect of temperature (380-500 °C), retention time (5-25 min), landfill leachate concentration (1595 mg L -1 -15,225 mg L -1 ), catalyst adding amount (1-10 wt%) on hydrogen mole fraction, hydrogen yield, carbon gasification rate, COD, TOC, TN removal efficiency are investigated. The results showed that gaseous products mainly contained hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide without addition of catalyst. However, the main gaseous products are hydrogen and methane with addition of NaOH, KOH, K 2 CO 3 , Na 2 CO 3 . In the absence of alkali catalyst, the effect of temperature on landfill leachate gasification is positive. Hydrogen mole fraction, hydrogen yield, carbon gasification ratio increase with temperature, which maximum value being 55.6%, 107.15 mol kg -1 , 71.96% is obtained at 500 °C, respectively. Higher raw landfill leachate concentration leads to lower hydrogen production and carbon gasification rate. The suitable retention time is suggested to be 15 min for higher hydrogen production and carbon gasification rate. COD, TOC and TN removal efficiency also increase with increase of temperature, decrease of landfill leachate concentration. In the presence of catalyst, the hydrogen production is obviously promoted by addition of alkali catalyst. the effect of catalysts on hydrogen production is in the following order: NaOH > KOH > Na 2 CO 3  > K 2 CO 3 . The maximum hydrogen mole fraction and hydrogen yield being 74.40%, 70.05 mol kg -1 is obtained with adding amount of 5 wt% NaOH at 450 °C, 28 MPa, 15 min. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Physical-Mathematical Model for Fixed-Bed Solid Fuel Gasification Process Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slyusarskiy Konstantin V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phycial-mathmatical model for fixed-bed coal gasification process simulation is proposed. The heterogeneous carbon oxidation chemical reactions were simulated via Arrhenius equation while homogeneous reactions in gas phase were calculated using Gibbs free energy minimization procedure. The syngas component concentration field and fuel conversion distribution as well as syngas final temperature and composition were defined for fixed bed gasification of T-grade coal of Kuznetskiy deposit. The optimal fuel residence time and gasifyer specific productivity were defined. The prevail reactions in oxidizing and reduction zones together with its height were defined.

  19. Development of catalytic gas cleaning in gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P; Kurkela, E; Staahlberg, P; Hepola, J [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Gasification gas containing dust can be efficiently purified from tars and ammonia with a nickel monolith catalyst. Temperatures of >900 deg C and a residence time of about 1 s (SV 2 500 1/h) were needed at 5 bar pressure to achieve complete tar decomposition and 80 % ammonia conversion. Catalyst deactivation was not observed during test runs of 100 h. At lower pressures dolomites and limestones can also be applied for tar removal at about 900 deg C temperatures. (orig.) 12 refs.

  20. Development of catalytic gas cleaning in gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P.; Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Hepola, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Gasification gas containing dust can be efficiently purified from tars and ammonia with a nickel monolith catalyst. Temperatures of >900 deg C and a residence time of about 1 s (SV 2 500 1/h) were needed at 5 bar pressure to achieve complete tar decomposition and 80 % ammonia conversion. Catalyst deactivation was not observed during test runs of 100 h. At lower pressures dolomites and limestones can also be applied for tar removal at about 900 deg C temperatures. (orig.) 12 refs.

  1. Effect of Heating Method on Hydrogen Production by Biomass Gasification in Supercritical Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhui Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The glucose as a test sample of biomass is gasified in supercritical water with different heating methods driven by renewable solar energy. The performance comparisons of hydrogen production of glucose gasification are investigated. The relations between temperature raising speed of reactant fluid, variation of volume fraction, combustion enthalpy, and chemical exergy of H2 of the product gases with reactant solution concentration are presented, respectively. The results show that the energy quality of product gases with preheating process is higher than that with no preheating unit for hydrogen production. Hydrogen production quantity and gasification rate of glucose decrease obviously with the increase of concentration of material in no preheating system.

  2. Evaluation of wood chip gasification to produce reburrn fuel for coal-fired boilers: AWMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasification or reburn testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory (IMET). Gasification systems that use wastes as feedstock should provide a clean, efficient s...

  3. Operating and environmental performances of commercial-scale waste gasification and melting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Fujinaga, Yasuka; Kajiyama, Hirohisa; Ishida, Yoshihiro

    2013-11-01

    Gasification technologies for waste processing are receiving increased interest. A lot of gasification technologies, including gasification and melting, have been developed in Japan and Europe. However, the flue gas and heavy metal behaviors have not been widely reported, even though those of grate furnaces have been reported. This article reports flue gas components of gasification and melting technology in different flue gas treatment systems. Hydrogen chloride concentrations at the inlet of the bag filter ranged between 171 and 180 mg Nm(-3) owing to de-acidification by limestone injection to the gasifier. More than 97.8% of hydrogen chlorides were removed by a bag filter in both of the flue gas treatment systems investigated. Sulfur dioxide concentrations at the inlet of the baghouse were 4.8 mg Nm(-3) and 12.7 mg Nm(-3), respectively. Nitrogen oxides are highly decomposed by a selective catalytic reduction system. Owing to the low regenerations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, and the selective catalytic reduction system, the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans at the stacks were significantly lower without activated carbon injection. More than 99% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 97.6% and 96.5%, respectively. Most high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that the slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals, such as lead. The heavy metal distribution behaviors are almost the same regardless of the compositions of the processed waste. These results indicate that the gasification of municipal solid waste constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling.

  4. GASIFICATION PLANT COST AND PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel S. Tam

    2002-05-01

    The goal of this series of design and estimating efforts was to start from the as-built design and actual operating data from the DOE sponsored Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project and to develop optimized designs for several coal and petroleum coke IGCC power and coproduction projects. First, the team developed a design for a grass-roots plant equivalent to the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project to provide a starting point and a detailed mid-year 2000 cost estimate based on the actual as-built plant design and subsequent modifications (Subtask 1.1). This unoptimized plant has a thermal efficiency of 38.3% (HHV) and a mid-year 2000 EPC cost of 1,681 $/kW. This design was enlarged and modified to become a Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant (Subtask 1.2) that produces hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and fuel gas for an adjacent Gulf Coast petroleum refinery in addition to export power. A structured Value Improving Practices (VIP) approach was applied to reduce costs and improve performance. The base case (Subtask 1.3) Optimized Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant increased the power output by 16% and reduced the plant cost by 23%. The study looked at several options for gasifier sparing to enhance availability. Subtask 1.9 produced a detailed report on this availability analyses study. The Subtask 1.3 Next Plant, which retains the preferred spare gasification train approach, only reduced the cost by about 21%, but it has the highest availability (94.6%) and produces power at 30 $/MW-hr (at a 12% ROI). Thus, such a coke-fueled IGCC coproduction plant could fill a near term niche market. In all cases, the emissions performance of these plants is superior to the Wabash River project. Subtasks 1.5A and B developed designs for single-train coal and coke-fueled power plants. This side-by-side comparison of these plants, which contain the Subtask 1.3 VIP enhancements, showed their similarity both in design and cost (1,318 $/kW for the

  5. DDGS chars gasification with CO{sub 2}: a kinetic study using TG analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xiangmei; Jong, Wiebren de; Fu, Ningjie; Verkooijen, Adrian H.M. [Delft University of Technology, Process and Energy Department, Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    Dry Distiller's Grains with Solubles (DDGS) is a by-product during ethanol production from cereals which is currently mainly used as feedstock for cattle. With the growth of the ethanol industry, the increasing supply of DDGS may saturate the livestock feed market; thus, its potential applications need to be explored. DDGS gasification in a 100-kW{sub th} circulating fluidized bed (CFB) steam-O{sub 2} blown gasifier has been studied. However, the modeling of DDGS gasification process encounters difficulties due to the unavailable knowledge of DDGS char gasification kinetics. Therefore, in this paper, gasification kinetics of DDGS char with CO{sub 2} was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Two different types of char samples have been tested. Char type one (PYR-Char) was obtained after DDGS pyrolysis in a TGA at a final temperature of 750 C or 850 C for 20 min. Char type two (CFB-Char) was obtained after DDGS gasification in the 100-kW{sub th} CFB gasifier within the temperature range of 790 C to 820 C with a steam/biomass mass ratio of 0.81 and oxygen to biomass stoichiometric ratio of approximately 0.38. The influences of pyrolysis temperature (750 C, 850 C), heating rate (10 C/min, 30 C/min, 50 C/min, 70 C/min), CO{sub 2} concentration (10, 20, 30 vol.%), and gasification temperature (900 C, 1,000 C, 1,100 C) on the reaction rate of char-CO{sub 2} reaction were determined. Two representative gas-solid reaction models, the volumetric reaction model (VRM) and the shrinking core model (SCM) were applied in order to determine kinetic parameters. It was found that the calculated activation energy (E{sub a}) values using SCM were slightly lower than those using VRM. The calculated E{sub a} values for PYR-Char using both models were in the range of 100-165 kJ/mol, while the calculated E{sub a} values for CFB-Char were in the range of 55-100 kJ/mol. It was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that CFB-Char was more fragile and PYR

  6. Design and System Analysis of Quad-Generation Plant Based on Biomass Gasification Integrated with District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman

    alternative by upgrading existing district heating plant. It provides a generic modeling framework to design flexible energy system in near future. These frameworks address the three main issues arising in the planning and designing of energy system: a) socio impact at both planning and proses design level; b...... in this study. The overall aim of this work is to provide a complete assessment of the technical potential of biomass gasification for local heat and power supply in Denmark and replace of natural gas for the production. This study also finds and defines the future areas of research in the gasification......, it possible to lay a foundation for future gasification based power sector to produce flexible output such as electricity, heat, chemicals or bio-fuels by improving energy system of existing DHP(district heating plant) integrating gasification technology. The present study investigate energy system...

  7. Thermodynamic analysis and optimization of IT-SOFC-based integrated coal gasification fuel cell power plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, M.C.; Campanari, S.; Spallina, V.; Lozza, G.

    2011-01-01

    This work discusses the thermodynamic analysis of integrated gasification fuel cell plants, where a simple cycle gas turbine works in a hybrid cycle with a pressurized intermediate temperature–solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), integrated with a coal gasification and syngas cleanup island and a bottoming

  8. Report on the gasification technology sub-committee of the coal gasification committee in fiscal 1988; 1989 nendo sekitan gas ka iinkai gas ka gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    This paper is a report on the gasification technology sub-committee of the coal gasification committee in fiscal 1988. It summarizes the report mainly on the data distributed at the technology sub-committee meetings. In developing the coal utilizing hydrogen manufacturing technology, a high-temperature coal gasification pilot plant of the jet flow bed type with a capacity of 50 tons a day will be built. The plan covers five years from fiscal 1986 through fiscal 1990. Fiscal 1988 has performed the detailed design, civil and building constructions, device fabrication, and their installation. Studies are also being carried out by using a small equipment as the studies on supports. For furnace materials in trial production and development of the materials, discussions are given on iron oxide burst (refractories made mainly of Cr ore absorb iron oxide from slag, resulting in deterioration), for which improvement will be attempted. The crucible method and the slag mounting method were used for tests as the purely static testing method. Although no abnormal expansion in the structure can be recognized in any of the tested materials, internal penetration of slag takes place in association with temperature rise. Difference in melting loss appears in the surface parts, which requires more detailed investigation. ZrB2 (ceramics and sintered refractory) is a promising material. Evaluation was given on healthiness of repaired parts under heating cycle, whereas a possibility of maintaining the healthiness was recognized. High-purity sintered alumina showed excellent corrosion resistance. (NEDO)

  9. Gasification of coal using nuclear process heat. Chapter D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, H.-D.; Bonn, B.; Krauss, U.

    1979-01-01

    In the light of the high price of coal and the enormous advances made recently in nuclear engineering, the possibility of using heat from high-temperature nuclear reactors for gasification processes was discussed as early as the 1960s. The advantages of this technology are summarized. A joint programme of development work is described, in which the Nuclear Research Centre at Juelich is aiming to develop a high-temperature reactor which will supply process heat at as high a temperature as possible, while other organizations are working on the hydrogasification of lignites and hard coals, and steam gasification. Experiments are at present being carried out on a semi-technical scale, and no operational data for large-scale plants are available as yet. (author)

  10. Investigation on hydrogen permeation on heat exchanger materials in conditions of steam coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moellenhoff, H.

    1984-01-01

    The permeation of hydrogen through iron-based alloys of different compositions in the temperature range between 700 and 1000 0 C was examined in a laboratory fluidized bed in the conditions of steam/coal gasification. Apart from tests on bright metal samples, measurement in the gasification atmosphere at a maximum pressure of 1 bar were carried out during oxidation of the metal. Experiments in a steam/hydrogen/argon mixture with the same oxidation potential were used for comparison purposes. The hydrogen permeated through the metal sample was taken to a gas chromatograph with argon flushing gas and analyzed there. The investigations on bright steel samples of various composition showed that their permeabilities for hydrogen at temperatures around 900 0 C only differed by a maximum of ± 30%. Effective prevention of permeation is therefore not possible simply by choosing a suitable alloy. If the steels are oxidized during permeation measurements, there is a reduction of the hydrogen permeability by 2 or 3 orders of magnitude due to the oxidation process, both in the steam/coal gasification fluidized bed and in a pure steam/hydrogen/argon mixture. (orig./GG) [de

  11. On the gasification of biomass in a steam-oxygen blown CFB gasifier with the focus on gas quality upgrading : Technology background, experiments and mathematical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siedlecki, M.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents and discusses the results of the research on the gasification of biomass in an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed, with a mixture of steam and oxygen as fluidization / gasification medium. The main objectives of this research were to investigate and improve the gasification

  12. Air gasification of empty fruit bunch for hydrogen-rich gas production in a fluidized-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, M.A.A.; Salmiaton, A.; Wan Azlina, W.A.K.G.; Mohammad Amran, M.S.; Fakhru'l-Razi, A.

    2011-01-01

    A study on gasification of empty fruit bunch (EFB), a waste of the palm oil industry, was investigated. The composition and particle size distribution of feedstock were determined and the thermal degradation behaviour was analysed by a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Then fluidized bed bench scale gasification unit was used to investigate the effect of the operating parameters on EFB air gasification namely reactor temperature in the range of 700-1000 o C, feedstock particle size in the range of 0.3-1.0 mm and equivalence ratio (ER) in the range of 0.15-0.35. The main gas species generated, as identified by a gas chromatography (GC), were H 2 , CO, CO 2 and CH 4 . With temperature increasing from 700 o C to 1000 o C, the total gas yield was enhanced greatly and reached the maximum value (∼92 wt.%, on the raw biomass sample basis) at 1000 o C with big portions of H 2 (38.02 vol.%) and CO (36.36 vol.%). Feedstock particle size showed an influence on the upgrading of H 2 , CO and CH 4 yields. The feedstock particle size of 0.3-0.5 mm, was found to obtain a higher H 2 yield (33.93 vol.%), and higher LHV of gas product (15.26 MJ/m 3 ). Equivalence ratio (ER) showed a significant influence on the upgrading of hydrogen production and product distribution. The optimum ER (0.25) was found to attain a higher H 2 yield (27.31 vol.%) at 850 o C. Due to the low efficiency of bench scale gasification unit the system needs to be scaling-up. The cost analysis for scale-up EFB gasification unit showed that the hydrogen supply cost is RM 6.70/kg EFB ($2.11/kg = $0.18/Nm 3 ).

  13. The influence of chlorine on the fate and activity of alkali metals during the gasification of wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struis, R; Scala, C von; Schuler, A; Stucki, S [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Chlorine clearly inhibits the CO{sub 2}-gasification reaction of charcoal at 800{sup o}C. From this and other observations the picture emerges that the reduction in the gasification reactivity of the charcoal is intimately related to the deactivation of the catalytically active alkali metals residing in the wood due to the formation of the chloride salt. It is argued that the heavy metal chlorides will likely transfer the chlorine to the indigenous alkali metals during the pyrolysis stage of the wood. The fate of the thus formed alkali metal chlorides can then be either their removal from the sample (evaporation), or, when present at the gasification stage, re-activation (i.e., de-chlorination) under our gasification conditions. (author) 3 figs., 4 refs.

  14. Ge extraction from gasification fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriol Font; Xavier Querol; Angel Lopez-Soler; Jose M. Chimenos; Ana I. Fernandez; Silvia Burgos; Francisco Garcia Pena [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-08-01

    Water-soluble germanium species (GeS{sub 2}, GeS and hexagonal-GeO{sub 2}) are generated during coal gasification and retained in fly ash. This fact together with the high market value of this element and the relatively high contents in the fly ashes of the Puertollano Integrated Gasification in Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant directed our research towards the development of an extraction process for this element. Major objectives of this research was to find a low cost and environmentally suitable process. Several water based extraction tests were carried out using different Puertollano IGCC fly ash samples, under different temperatures, water/fly ash ratios, and extraction times. High Ge extraction yields (up to 84%) were obtained at room temperature (25{sup o}C) but also high proportions of other trace elements (impurities) were simultaneously extracted. Increasing the extraction temperature to 50, 90 and 150{sup o}C, Ge extraction yields were kept at similar levels, while reducing the content of impurities, the water/fly ash ratio and extraction time. The experimental data point out the influence of chloride, calcium and sulphide dissolutions on the Ge extraction. 16 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Brown coal gasification made easy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Few Victorians will be aware that gas derived from coal was first used in 1849 to provide lighting in a baker's shop in Swanston Street, long before electric lighting came to the State. The first commercial 'gas works' came on stream in 1856 and Melbourne then had street lighting run on gas. By 1892 there were 50 such gas works across the State. Virtually all were fed with black coal imported from New South Wales. Brown coal was first discovered west of Melbourne in 1857, and the Latrobe Valley deposits were identified in the early 1870s. Unfortunately, such wet brown coal did not suit the gas works. Various attempts to commercialise Victorian brown coal met with mixed success as it struggled to compete with imported New South Wales black coal. In June 1924 Yallourn A transmitted the first electric power to Melbourne, and thus began the Latrobe Valley's long association with generating electric power from brown coal. Around 1950, the Metropolitan Gas Company applied for financial assistance to build a towns gas plant using imported German gasification technology which had been originally designed for a brown coal briquette feed. The State Government promptly acquired the company and formed the Gas and Fuel Corporation. The Morwell Gasification Plant was opened on 9 December 1956 and began supplying Melbourne with medium heating value towns gas

  16. Catalytic and noncatalytic gasification of pyrolysis oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, G.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2007-01-01

    Gasification of pyrolysis oil was studied in a fluidized bed over a wide temperature range (523−914 °C) with and without the use of nickel-based catalysts. Noncatalytically, a typical fuel gas was produced. Both a special designed fluid bed catalyst and a crushed commercial fixed bed catalyst showed

  17. Experimental study on steam gasification of coal using molten blast furnace slag as heat carrier for producing hydrogen-enriched syngas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Wenjun; Yu, Qingbo; Wu, Tianwei; Yang, Fan; Qin, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New method for producing HRG by gasification using BFS as heat carrier was proposed. • The continuous experiment of steam gasification in molten BFS was conducted. • The hydrogen-enriched syngas was produced by this method. • The molten BFS waste heat was utilized effectively by steam gasification. • This method could be widely used in steam gasification of different types of coal. - Abstract: The new method for producing hydrogen-enriched syngas (HRG) by steam gasification of coal using molten blast furnace slag (BFS) as heat carrier was established. In order to achieve the HRG production, a gasification system using this method was proposed and constructed. The carbon gasification efficiency (CE), hydrogen yield (YH_2) and cold gasification efficiency (CGE) in the molten slag reactor were measured, and the effects of temperature, S/C (steam to coal) ratio and coal type on the reaction performance were accessed. The results indicated that the preferred temperature was 1350 °C, which ensured the miscibility of coal–steam–slag, the diffusion of reactant in molten BFS as well as recovering waste heat. The optimal S/C ratio was 1.5–2.0 for producing HRG. Under these conditions, the hydrogen fraction was higher than 63% and the gas yield reached to 1.89 Nm"3/kg. The CE and CGE were higher than 96% and 102%, respectively. The YH_2 also reached to 1.20 Nm"3/kg. Meanwhile, different types of coal were successfully gasified in molten BFS reactor for producing HRG. The proposed method enhanced the gasification efficiency of different types of coal, recovered the BFS waste heat effectively, and had important guidance for industrial manufacture.

  18. Pyrolysis and gasification of single biomass particle – new openFoam solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatkowski, K; Zuk, P J; Bajer, K; Dudyński, M

    2014-01-01

    We present a new solver biomassGasificationFoam that extended the functionalities of the well-supported open-source CFD code OpenFOAM. The main goal of this development is to provide a comprehensive computational environment for a wide range of applications involving reacting gases and solids. The biomassGasificationFoam is an integrated solver capable of modelling thermal conversion, including evaporation, pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion, of various solid materials. In the paper we show that the gas is hotter than the solid except at the centre of the sample, where the temperature of the solid is higher. This effect is expected because the thermal conductivity of the porous matrix of the solid phase is higher than the thermal conductivity of the gases. This effect, which cannot be considered if thermal equilibrium between the gas and solid is assumed, leads to precise description of heat transfer into wood particles.

  19. Analytical characterization of an industrial waste treated by gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, M.D.; Larsen, D.W.; Manahan, S.E. [University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO (United States). Chemistry Dept.

    1999-04-15

    Previous studies have shown that an effective general treatment for hazardous wastes is sorption of the waste onto a specially prepared, macroporous coal char followed by gasification of the mixture in reverse mode. In the present study, an industrial waste comprised of styrene manufacturing and petroleum byproducts was gasified, and the waste, coal, virgin char, and char/waste mixture (before and after gasification) were examined by various instrumental methods, infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and ultimate and proximate analyses, to determine which methods give useful information. The composition of the waste was found to be 38% water, 27% inorganic, and 35% organic. NMR showed that the organic components are a mixture of aliphatic and olefinic/aromatics. About 8% of the sludge is chromatographable and GC/MS revealed the presence of aromatics and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Solid-state NMR showed that the sludge components are strongly immobilized on the char up to a 1:1 (wt:wt) ratio. SEM results showed changes in the char macroporous surface as waste is incorporated by the char and as the mixture is subsequently gasified. In addition, a portion of the elemental content of the char surface was revealed by energy dispersive (EDAX) measurements. IR photoaccoustic spectroscopy showed that peaks attributable to aqueous and organic fractions of the waste disappear upon gasification. 19 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Conceptual design study of a coal gasification combined-cycle powerplant for industrial cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Nelson, S. G.; Straight, H. F.; Subramaniam, T. K.; Winklepleck, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to assess technical feasibility, environmental characteristics, and economics of coal gasification. The feasibility of a coal gasification combined cycle cogeneration powerplant was examined in response to energy needs and to national policy aimed at decreasing dependence on oil and natural gas. The powerplant provides the steam heating and baseload electrical requirements while serving as a prototype for industrial cogeneration and a modular building block for utility applications. The following topics are discussed: (1) screening of candidate gasification, sulfur removal and power conversion components; (2) definition of a reference system; (3) quantification of plant emissions and waste streams; (4) estimates of capital and operating costs; and (5) a procurement and construction schedule. It is concluded that the proposed powerplant is technically feasible and environmentally superior.

  1. Co-combustion and gasification of various biomasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutanen, K [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Varkaus (Finland). Ahlstrom Pyropower

    1997-12-31

    During the last twenty years the development of fluidized bed combustion and gasification technology has made it possible to increase significantly utilisation of various biomasses in power and heat generation. The forerunner was the pulp and paper industry that has an adequate biomass fuel supply and energy demand on site. Later on municipalities and even utilities have seen biomass as a potential fuel. The range of available biomasses includes wood-based fuels and wastes like bark, wood chips, and saw dust, agricultural wastes like straw, olive waste and rice husk, sludges from paper mills and de-inking plants, other wastes like municipal sludges, waste paper and RDF. Recently new environmental regulations and taxation of fossil fuels have further increased interest in the use of biomasses in energy generation. However, in many cases available quantities and/or qualities of biomasses are not adequate for only biomass-based energy generation in an economic sense. On the other hand plant owners want to maintain a high level of fuel flexibility and fuel supply security. In some cases disposing by burning is the only feasible way to handle certain wastes. In many cases the only way to fulfil these targets and utilize the energy is to apply co-combustion or gasification of different fuels and wastes. Due to the fact that fluidized bed combustion technology offers a very high fuel flexibility and high combustion efficiency with low emissions it has become the dominating technology in co-combustion applications. This presentation will present Alhstrom`s experiences in co-combustion of biomasses in bubbling beds and Ahlstrom Pyroflow circulating fluidized beds based on about 200 operating references worldwide. CFB gasification will also be discussed 9 refs.

  2. Co-combustion and gasification of various biomasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutanen, K. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Varkaus (Finland). Ahlstrom Pyropower

    1996-12-31

    During the last twenty years the development of fluidized bed combustion and gasification technology has made it possible to increase significantly utilisation of various biomasses in power and heat generation. The forerunner was the pulp and paper industry that has an adequate biomass fuel supply and energy demand on site. Later on municipalities and even utilities have seen biomass as a potential fuel. The range of available biomasses includes wood-based fuels and wastes like bark, wood chips, and saw dust, agricultural wastes like straw, olive waste and rice husk, sludges from paper mills and de-inking plants, other wastes like municipal sludges, waste paper and RDF. Recently new environmental regulations and taxation of fossil fuels have further increased interest in the use of biomasses in energy generation. However, in many cases available quantities and/or qualities of biomasses are not adequate for only biomass-based energy generation in an economic sense. On the other hand plant owners want to maintain a high level of fuel flexibility and fuel supply security. In some cases disposing by burning is the only feasible way to handle certain wastes. In many cases the only way to fulfil these targets and utilize the energy is to apply co-combustion or gasification of different fuels and wastes. Due to the fact that fluidized bed combustion technology offers a very high fuel flexibility and high combustion efficiency with low emissions it has become the dominating technology in co-combustion applications. This presentation will present Alhstrom`s experiences in co-combustion of biomasses in bubbling beds and Ahlstrom Pyroflow circulating fluidized beds based on about 200 operating references worldwide. CFB gasification will also be discussed 9 refs.

  3. Mississippi Ethanol Gasification Project, Final Scientific / Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Larry, E.

    2007-04-30

    The Mississippi Ethanol (ME) Project is a comprehensive effort to develop the conversion of biomass to ethanol utilizing a proprietary gasification reactor technology developed by Mississippi Ethanol, LLC. Tasks were split between operation of a 1/10 scale unit at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) of Mississippi State University (MSU) and the construction, development, and operation of a full scale pilot unit located at the ME facility in Winona, Mississippi. In addition to characterization of the ME reactor gasification system, other areas considered critical to the operational and economic viability of the overall ME concept were evaluated. These areas include syngas cleanup, biological conversion of syngas to alcohol, and effects of gasification scale factors. Characterization of run data from the Pre-Pilot and Pilot Units has allowed development of the factors necessary for scale-up from the small unit to the larger unit. This scale range is approximately a factor of 10. Particulate and tar sampling gave order of magnitude values for preliminary design calculations. In addition, sampling values collected downstream of the ash removal system show significant reductions in observed loadings. These loading values indicate that acceptable particulate and tar loading rates could be attained with standard equipment additions to the existing configurations. Overall operation both the Pre-Pilot and Pilot Units proceeded very well. The Pilot Unit was operated as a system, from wood receiving to gas flaring, several times and these runs were used to address possible production-scale concerns. Among these, a pressure feed system was developed to allow feed of material against gasifier system pressure with little or no purge requirements. Similarly, a water wash system, with continuous ash collection, was developed, installed, and tested. Development of a biological system for alcohol production was conducted at Mississippi State University with

  4. Performance of HT-WGS Catalysts for Upgrading of Syngas Obtained from Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano Bujan, M.; Sanchez Hervas, J. M.

    2009-05-21

    Oxygen pressurized gasification of biomass out stands as a very promising approach to obtain energy or hydrogen from renewable sources. The technical feasibility of this technology is being investigated under the scope of the VI FP CHRISGAS project, which has started in September 2004 and has a duration of five years. The Division of Combustion and Gasification of CIEMAT participates in this project in Work Package 13: Ancillary and novel processes, studying innovative gas separation and gas upgrading systems. Such systems include novel or available high temperature water gas shift catalysts and commercially available membranes not yet tried in this type of atmosphere. This report describes the activities carried out during the period 2005-2007 regarding the performance of high temperature water gas shift catalysts for upgrading of synthesis gas obtained from biomass gasification. (Author) 28 refs.

  5. Gasification of waste. Summary and conclusions of twenty-five years of development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rensfelt, Erik [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Oestman, Anders [Kemiinformation AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    An overview of nearly thirty years development of waste gasification and pyrolysis technology is given, and some major general conclusions are drawn. The aim has been to give new developers an overview of earlier major attempts to treat MSW/RDF with thermochemical processes, gasification or pyrolysis. Research work in general is not covered, only R and D efforts that have led to substantial testing in pilot scale or demonstration. For further details, especially related to ongoing R and D, readers are referred to other recent reviews. The authors' view is that gasification of RDF with appropriate gas cleaning can play an important role in the future, for environmentally acceptable and efficient energy production. A prerequisite is that some of the major mistakes can be avoided, such as: (1) too rapid scale-up without experimental base, (2) unsuitable pretreatment of MSW to RDF and poor integration with material recycling, and (3) too limited gas/flue gas cleaning.

  6. Commercialisation BIVKIN-based gasification technology. Non-confidential version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Drift, A.; De Kant, H.F.; Rajani, J.B.

    2000-08-01

    In 1996, the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) in Petten, Netherlands, developed and built a circulating fluidized bed gasification process BIVKIN (Dutch abbreviation for biomass gasification installation) in co-operation with Novem, Afvalzorg and Stork. The plant was initially used at the ECN location in Petten for the characterisation of more than 15 different biomass species, including wood, sludge, grass and manure. During this test work, it was discovered that BIVKIN was an ideal tool for gasification of such diverse biomass at various thermal outputs. ECN has been conducting tests to improve the gas quality so that such fuel gas can be used for the generation of electricity by the use of a gas engine. In order to bring the BIVKIN technology to the commercial market, ECN, Shell and HoSt performed a study to evaluate the engineering concept and cost of such a design in detail. With this study, co-financed by Novem, the commercial viability of the BIVKIN technology in the electrical output range of 1 to 5 MW, is determined. For this relatively small scale, it is assumed that the extra positive cash flow due to selling the heat can compensate the higher investment per kW compared to large-scale systems where the produced heat generally cannot be used. This report is a reflection of the study to commercialise the BIVKIN technology. The BIVKIN-technology will be compared with alternative technologies commercially available for the power range under consideration. Both technical and economic evaluations will be presented. 12 refs

  7. Hybridization of concentrated solar power with biomass gasification in Brazil’s semiarid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, Rodrigo; Szklo, Alexandre; Hoffmann, Bettina Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Assessment of three hybridization concepts between CSP and biomass gasification. • Modelling of a benchmark power plant for each of the hybridization concepts. • The method relies on using Aspentech Hysys and SAM for thermodynamic analysis. • Technical and economic performance of the three benchmark power plants as result. - Abstract: This study aims to propose and analyze different options for hybridizing Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) with biomass, through gasification for power generation. A hybrid CSP-biomass power plant through gasification is an innovative concept which allows the integration of combined cycle for power generation, sun-biomass hybridization and syngas storage. Therefore, this study addressed the proposition of the hybridization concept and the simulation of benchmark power plants for a suitable Brazilian site (high direct normal irradiation and low-cost biomass availability). Three power plant concepts are proposed and simulated in Aspentech Hysys and System Advisor Model (SAM): (i) Series design; (ii) Parallel design, and (iii) Steam Extraction design. For the same gasifier, the Series design holds the highest levelized cost, while the Parallel design presents the highest installed capacity, but the lowest capacity factor. Finally, the Steam Extraction design is placed between the other two proposed plants regarding the capacity factor and the annual energy generation.

  8. Power generation from biomass: Status report on catalytic-allothermal wood gasification. Papers; Energetische Nutzung von Biomasse: Stand der Realisierung der katalytisch-allothermen Holzvergasung. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, H.; Bauermeister, U.; Kliche, H.; Seiffarth, K. (comps.)

    2001-12-01

    The topic of this event is bound up with the activities of FOeST in the field of gasification of biomass in decentralized small plants (< 2 MW{sub el}). The start project was a research work in 1993 to select a gasification process for using wood, sludge or plastic waste, continued 1995 by a research project with gasification tests of tar oil contaminated wood in a small gasification reactor with good results in environmental compatibility. But the following planning process of a demonstration plant for 500 kW{sub el} has shown, that the biomass gasification couldn't reach economic efficiency. Due to the development of an catalytic-partial allothermal gasification process of GNS ltd. it was clear, that the technical efficiency could be increased considerably. So, in 2000, a project started to test this catalytic-partial allothermal gasification in a pilot plant. Today the results of research, development and testing of biomass gasification with catalytic-partial allothermal processing as well as practically experience with a gasification plant, general conditions and further activities for energetically utilisation of biomass in Saxonia-Anhalt will be presented. (orig.)

  9. Tenth annual underground coal gasification symposium: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burwell, E.; Docktor, L.; Martin, J.W. (eds.)

    1984-12-01

    The Tenth Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was cosponsored by the Fossil Energy Division of the US Department of Energy and the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's Laramie Projects Office. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for presenting research results and for determining additional research needs in underground coal gasification. This years' meeting was held in Williamsburg, Virginia, during the week of August 12 through 15, 1984. Approximately 120 attendees representing industry, academia, national laboratories, Government, and eight foreign countries participated in the exchange of ideas, results, and future research plans. International representatives included participants from Belgium, Brazil, France, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, West Germany, and Yugoslavia. During the three-day symposium, sixty papers were presented and discussed in four formal presentation sessions and two informal poster sessions. The papers describe interpretation of field test data, results of environmental research, and evaluations of laboratory, modeling, and economic studies. All papers in this Proceedings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  10. Return of phosphorus in agricultural residues and urban sewage sludge to soil using biochar from low-temperature gasification as fertilizer product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Stöver, Dorette Sophie; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Grønlund, Mette

    The return of residual products from bioenergy generation to soils is a step towards closing nutrient cycles, which is especially important for nutrients produced from non-renewable resources such as phosphorus (P). Low-temperature gasification is an innovative process efficiently generating ener...... from different biomass fuels, such as agricultural residues and waste streams, and at the same time producing a biochar product potentially valuable for soil amendment. In pot experiments, different residual products originating from low-temperature gasification were tested for their P......-fertilizing potential with spring barley as a test crop. Biochar resulting from gasification of pure wheat straw showed the best P fertilizer value, however, because of the low P content, extremely high amounts had to be applied when crop P demand should be met, which came along with an over-fertilization of potassium...... (K). Gasification of pure sewage sludge with a high Fe and Al content practically eliminated its P fertilizer value, while co-gasification of sludge lower in Fe and Al together with wheat straw resulted in a biochar product with only somewhat reduced P availability and improved P/K ratio...

  11. Influence of pyrolysis conditions on the structure and gasification reactivity of biomass chars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Cetin; B. Moghtaderi; R. Gupta; T.F. Wall [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Discipline of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, School of Engineering

    2004-11-01

    The physical and chemical structure as well as gasification reactivities of chars generated from several biomass species (i.e. pinus radiata, eucalyptus maculata and sugar cane bagasse) were studied to gain insight into the role of heating rate and pressure on the gasification characteristics of biomass chars. Char samples were generated in a suite of reactors including a wire mesh reactor, a tubular reactor, and a drop tube furnace. Scanning electron microscopy analysis, X-ray diffractometry, digital cinematography and surface area analysis were employed to determine the impact of operating conditions on the char structure. The global gasification reactivities of char samples were also determined for a range of pressures between 1 and 20 bar using pressurised thermogravimetric analysis technique. Char reactivities were found to increase with increasing pyrolysis heating rates and decreasing pyrolysis pressure. It was found that under high heating rates the char particles underwent plastic deformation (i.e. melted) developing a structure different to that of the virgin biomass. Pressure was also found to influence the physical and chemical structures of char particles. The difference in the gasification reactivities of biomass chars at pressure was found to correlate well with the effect of pyrolysis pressure on the graphitisation process in the biomass char structure. 29 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Effect of bioleaching on hydrogen-rich gas production by steam gasification of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hanhui; Chen, Zhihua; Huo, Chan; Hu, Mian; Guo, Dabin; Xiao, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Bioleaching can modify the physicochemical property of sewage sludge. • The enhancement is mainly hydrogen. • Bioleaching can enhance the gas production in gasification of sewage sludge. • Study provides an insight for future application of bioleached sewage sludge. - Abstract: Effect of bioleaching on hydrogen-rich gas production by steam gasification of sewage sludge was carried out in a lab-scale fixed-bed reactor. The influence of sewage sludge solids concentrations (6–14% (w/v) in 2% increments) during the bioleaching process and reactor temperature (600–900 °C in 100 °C increments) on gasification product yields and gas composition were studied. Characterization of samples showed that bioleaching treatment, especially in 6% (w/v) sludge solids concentration, led to metal removal effectively and modifications in the physicochemical property of sewage sludge which was favored for gasification. The maximum gas yield (49.4%) and hydrogen content (46.4%) were obtained at 6% (w/v) sludge solids concentration and reactor temperature of 900 °C. Sewage sludge after the bioleaching treatment may be a feasible feedstock for hydrogen-rich gas product.

  13. Assessment on steam gasification of municipal solid waste against biomass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couto, Nuno Dinis; Silva, Valter Bruno; Rouboa, Abel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Steam gasification