WorldWideScience

Sample records for in-situ fireside corrosion

  1. A novel capacitance sensor for fireside corrosion measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Heng; Li, Zuoping

    2009-11-01

    Fireside corrosion in coal-fired power plants is a leading mechanism for boiler tube failures. Online monitoring of fireside corrosion can provide timely data to plant operators for mitigation implementation. This paper presents a novel sensor concept for measuring metal loss based on electrical capacitance. Laboratory-scale experiments demonstrated the feasibility of design, fabrication, and operation of the sensor. The fabrication of the prototype sensor involved sputtering deposition of a thin metal coating with varying thickness on a ceramic substrate. Corrosion metal loss resulted in a proportional decrease in electrical capacitance of the sensor. Laboratory experiments using a muffle furnace with an oxidation environment demonstrated that low carbon steel coatings on ceramic substrate survived cyclic temperatures over 500 °C. Measured corrosion rates of sputtered coating in air had an Arrhenius exponential dependence on temperature, with metal thickness loss ranging from 2.0 nm/h at 200 °C to 2.0 μm/h at 400 °C. Uncertainty analysis indicated that the overall measurement uncertainty was within 4%. The experimental system showed high signal-to-noise ratio, and the sensor could measure submicrometer metal thickness changes. The laboratory experiments demonstrated that the sensor concept and measurement system are capable of short term, online monitoring of metal loss, indicating the potential for the sensor to be used for fireside corrosion monitoring and other metal loss measurement.

  2. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings -- Phase 2 field testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blough, J.L. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States)

    1996-08-01

    In Phase 1 of this project, a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings was exposed to laboratory fireside corrosion testing simulating a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase 2 (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347, RA85H, HR3C, 253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, 310 modified, NF 709, 690 clad, and 671 clad for over 10,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on air-cooled, retractable corrosion probes, installed in the reheater cavity, controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle, coal-fired boiler. Samples of each alloy are being exposed for 4,000, 12,000, and 16,000 hours of operation. The present results are for the metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after approximately 4,400 hours of exposure.

  3. Fire-side corrosion in power-station boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, A J.B.; Flatley, T; Hay, K A

    1978-10-01

    The steel tubing of a modern power-station boiler operates at up to 650/sup 0/C (a dull red heat) in the very corrosive environment produced by the combustion gases and ash particles. Within the tubes, whose walls are around 5mm thick, 2000 tons of steam are generated per hour at temperatures up to 565/sup 0/C and pressures up to 170 bar. Several forms of metal corrosion may occur on the fireside surface of these tubes and on other boiler components. The designed 20-year operating life of the stainless-steel superheater and reheater tubes can be much reduced at temperatures above 600/sup 0/C by attack from molten salts formed beneath the deposited ash on the upstream tube surfaces. Mild steel evaporator tubes lining the furnace wall may suffer similarly if flame impingement allows the local release of volatile chlorine compounds from coal particles on the tube surface. Uncooled metal components supporting and aligning the boiler tubes may reach 1000/sup 0/C and are particularly susceptible to corrosion. CEGB research effort has been applied to quantify the rate of corrosion and to obtain an understanding of the complex corrosion mechanisms, so that ways of minimizing or preventing their occurrence may be found. These include the optimization of the combustion chemistry, design modifications such as shielding certain vulnerable tubes, and the selection of improved alloys and the use of ''co-extruded'' tubing.

  4. Fire-Side Corrosion: A Case Study of Failed Tubes of a Fossil Fuel Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Asnavandi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The failures of superheater and reheater boiler tubes operating in a power plant utilizing natural gas or mazut as a fuel have been analysed and the fire-side corrosion has been suggested as the main reason for the failure in boiler tubes. The tubes have been provided by a fossil fuel power plant in Iran and optical and electron microscopy investigations have been performed on the tubes as well as the corrosion products on their surfaces. The results showed that the thickness of the failed tubes is not uniform which suggests that fire-side corrosion has happened on the tubes. Fire-side corrosion is caused by the reaction of combustion products with oxide layers on the tube surface resulting in metal loss and consequently tubes fracture. However, the tubes corrosion behaviour did not follow the conventional models of the fire-side corrosion. Given that, using the corrosion monitoring techniques for these boiler tubes seems essential. As a result, the thickness of the boiler tubes in different parts of the boiler has been recorded and critical points are selected accordingly. Such critical points are selected for installation of corrosion monitoring probes.

  5. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings -- Phase 2 field testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blough, J.L.; Seitz, W.W.; Girshik, A. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States)

    1998-06-01

    In Phase 1 of this project, laboratory experiments were performed on a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings by exposing them to fireside corrosion tests which simulated a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase 2 (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347, RA85H, HR3C, RA253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, Ta-modified 310, NF 709, 690 clad, 671 clad, and 800HT for up to approximately 16,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW, coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on air-cooled, retractable corrosion probes, installed in the reheater cavity, and controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle, coal-fired boiler. Samples of each alloy were exposed for 4,483, 11,348, and 15,883 hours of operation. The present results are for the metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after the full 15,883 hours of exposure. A previous topical report has been issued for the 4,483 hours of exposure.

  6. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings -- Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blough, J.L.; Seitz, W.W. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-01

    In Phase 1 a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings were exposed to laboratory fireside corrosion testing simulating a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase 2 (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347 RA-85H, HR3C, 253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, 310 Ta modified, NF 709, 690 clad, and 671 clad for approximately 4,000, 12,000, and 16,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW coal-fired boiler. The samples were assembled on an air-cooled, retractable corrosion probe, the probe was installed in the reheater activity of the boiler and controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle coal-fired boiler. The results will be presented for the preliminary metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after 16,000 hours of exposure. Continued metallurgical and interpretive analysis is still on going.

  7. Fireside corrosion of superheaters/reheaters in advanced power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, A.U.; Simms, N.J.; Oakey, J.E. [Cranfield Univ. (United Kingdom). Energy Technology Centre

    2010-07-01

    The generation of increasing amounts of electricity while simultaneously reducing environmental emissions (CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} particles, etc) has become a goal for the power industry worldwide. Co-firing biomass and coal in new advanced pulverised fuel power plants is one route to address this issue, since biomass is regarded as a CO{sub 2} neutral fuel (i.e. CO{sub 2} uptake during its growth equals the CO{sub 2} emissions produced during its combustion) and such new advanced power plants operate at higher efficiencies than current plants as a result of using steam systems with high temperatures and pressures. However, co-firing has the potential to cause significant operational challenges for such power plants as amongst other issues, it will significantly change the chemistry of the deposits on the heat exchanger surfaces and the surrounding gas compositions. As a result these critical components can experience higher corrosion rates, and so shorter lives, causing increased operational costs, unless the most appropriate materials are selected for their construction. This paper reports the results of a series of 1000 hour laboratory corrosion tests that have been carried out in controlled atmosphere furnaces, to assess the effect of biomass/coal co-firing on the fireside corrosion of superheaters/reheaters. The materials used for the tests were one ferritic alloy (T92), two austenitic alloys (347HFG and HR3C) and one nickel based alloy (alloy 625). Temperatures of 600 and 650 C were used to represent the metal temperatures in advanced power plants. During these exposures, traditional mass change data were recorded as the samples were recoated with the simulated deposits. After these exposures, cross-sections through samples were prepared using standard metallographic techniques and then analysed using SEM/EDX. Pre-exposure micrometer and post-exposure image analyser measurements were used so that the metal wastage could be calculated. These data are

  8. Fire-Side Corrosion: A Case Study of Failed Tubes of a Fossil Fuel Boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Asnavandi, Majid; Kahram, Mohaddeseh; Rezaei, Milad; Rezakhani, Davar

    2017-01-01

    The failures of superheater and reheater boiler tubes operating in a power plant utilizing natural gas or mazut as a fuel have been analysed and the fire-side corrosion has been suggested as the main reason for the failure in boiler tubes. The tubes have been provided by a fossil fuel power plant in Iran and optical and electron microscopy investigations have been performed on the tubes as well as the corrosion products on their surfaces. The results showed that the thickness of the failed tu...

  9. Modelling fireside corrosion of heat exchangers in co-fired pulverised fuel power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simms, N.J. [Cranfield Univ. (United Kingdom). Energy Technology Centre; Fry, A.T. [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    As a result of concerns about the effects of CO{sub 2} emissions on the global environment, there is increasing pressure to reduce such emissions from power generation systems. The use of biomass co-firing with coal in conventional pulverised fuel power stations has provided the most immediate route to introduce a class of fuel that is regarded as both sustainable and carbon neutral. In the future it is anticipated that increased levels of biomass will need to be used in such systems to achieve the desired CO{sub 2} emission targets. However there are concerns over the risk of fireside corrosion damage to the various heat exchangers and boiler walls used in such systems. Future pulverised fuel power systems will need to be designed to cope with the effects of using a wide range of coal-biomass mixes. However, such systems will also need to use much higher heat exchanger operating temperatures to increase their conversion efficiencies and counter the effects of the CO{sub 2} capture technologies that will need to be used in them. Higher operating temperatures will also increase the risk of fireside corrosion damage to the critical heat exchangers. This paper reports work that has been carried out to develop quantitative corrosion models for heat exchangers in pulverised fuel power systems. These developments have been particularly targeted at producing models that enable the evaluation of the effects of using different coal-biomass mixtures and of increasing heat exchanger operating conditions. Models have been produced that have been targeted at operating conditions and materials used in (a) superheaters/reheaters and (b) waterwalls. Data used in the development of these models has been produced from full scale and pilot scale plants in the UK using a wide range of coal and biomass mixtures, as well as from carefully targeted series of laboratory corrosion tests. Mechanistic and neural network based models have been investigated during this development process to

  10. Factors of Nonlinear-ultrasonic Detection and Its Application to HR3C Fireside Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIN Peng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the discussion of the factors influencing the nonlinear ultrasonic testing, the feasibility of nondestructive evaluation of HR3C fireside corrosion was investigated using nonlinear ultrasonic testing. The results show that the number of pulse string is no more than 2df/c and the installation of Hanning window is helpful to reduce the disturbance of the system, in addition, the rough surface of the sample has a significant impact on the nonlinear parameter β. The nonlinear coefficient demonstrates a phased growth trend as corrosion time prolongs. At the initial stage of corrosion(within 50h,there are small increments within 20% in the nonlinear coefficient, however,the nonlinear coefficient β is increased obviously with the duration time to 150h. Compared with un-corroded sample, the amplification in the sample corroded for 200h reaches to 260%. The monotonous varieties in nonlinear coefficient are consistent with the aggravation of corrosion damage,hence,it is feasible to nondestructively evaluate HR3C fireside corrosion by means of ultrasonic nonlinear testing.

  11. Neural network for prediction of superheater fireside corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makkonen, P. [Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Karhula R and D Center, Karhula (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Superheater corrosion causes vast annual losses to the power companies. If the corrosion could be reliably predicted, new power plants could be designed accordingly, and knowledge of fuel selection and determination of process conditions could be utilized to minimize superheater corrosion. If relations between inputs and the output are poorly known, conventional models depending on corrosion theories will fail. A prediction model based on a neural network is capable of learning from errors and improving its performance as the amount of data increases. The neural network developed during this study predicts superheater corrosion with 80 % accuracy at early stage of the project. (orig.) 10 refs.

  12. Neural network for prediction of superheater fireside corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makkonen, P [Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Karhula R and D Center, Karhula (Finland)

    1999-12-31

    Superheater corrosion causes vast annual losses to the power companies. If the corrosion could be reliably predicted, new power plants could be designed accordingly, and knowledge of fuel selection and determination of process conditions could be utilized to minimize superheater corrosion. If relations between inputs and the output are poorly known, conventional models depending on corrosion theories will fail. A prediction model based on a neural network is capable of learning from errors and improving its performance as the amount of data increases. The neural network developed during this study predicts superheater corrosion with 80 % accuracy at early stage of the project. (orig.) 10 refs.

  13. Effect of Sulfur and Chlorine on Fireside Corrosion Behavior of Inconel 740 H Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin-tao, Lu; Yan, Li; Zhen, Yang; Jin-yang, Huang; Ming, Zhu; Gu, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Fireside corrosion behavior of Inconel 740H superalloy was studied at 750 °C in simulated coal ash/flue gas environments by means of XRD, SEM and EDS. The results indicated that the corrosion behavior was strongly related to the SO2 levels and was significantly affected by NaCl additions. In presence of the atmospheres with 0.1 % SO2, the alloy exhibited the highest corrosion resistance due to formation of a stable and dense Cr2O3 film. In presence of the atmosphere with 1.5 % SO2, however, a non-coherent and porous Cr2O3 film was formed. The thickness of film and internal sulfides were substantially increased. The NaCl additions significantly accelerated the corrosion process. A non-protective outer oxide film was formed, composed by multiple layers with serious inner sulfide and spallation. The depths of internal oxidizing and sulfuration zones were significantly increased. The mechanism of ash corrosion formation was also discussed.

  14. Superheater fireside corrosion mechanisms in MSWI plants: Lab-scale study and on-site results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brossard, J.M.; Chaucherie, X.; Nicol, F. [Veolia Environnement R and D, Zone Portuaire de Limay, 291 Avenue Dreyfous Ducas, Limay 78520 (France); Diop, I. [Veolia Environnement R and D, Zone Portuaire de Limay, 291 Avenue Dreyfous Ducas, Limay 78520 (France); Institut Jean Lamour, departement Chimie et physique des solides et des surfaces, UMR 7198 CNRS - Universite Henri Poincare Nancy 1, Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy (France); Rapin, C.; Vilasi, M. [Institut Jean Lamour, departement Chimie et physique des solides et des surfaces, UMR 7198 CNRS - Universite Henri Poincare Nancy 1, Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy (France)

    2011-06-15

    Combustion of municipal waste generates highly corrosive gases (HCl, SO{sub 2}, NaCl, KCl, and heavy metals chlorides) and ashes containing alkaline chlorides and sulfates. Currently, corrosion phenomena are particularly observed on superheater's tubes. Corrosion rates depend mainly on installation design, operating conditions i.e., gas and steam temperature and velocity of the flue gas containing ashes. This paper presents the results obtained using an innovative laboratory-scale corrosion unit, which simulates MSWI (Municipal Solid Waste Incineration) boilers conditions characterized by a temperature gradient at the metal tube in the presence of corrosive gases and ashes. The presented corrosion tests were realized on carbon steel at fixed metal temperature (400 C). The influence of the flue gas temperature, synthetic ashes composition, and flue gas flow pattern were investigated. After corrosion test, cross sections of tube samples were characterized to evaluate thickness loss and estimate corrosion rate while the elements present in corrosion layers were analyzed. Corrosion tests were carried out twice in order to validate the accuracy and reproducibility of results. First results highlight the key role of molten phase related to the ash composition and flue gas temperature as well as the deposit morphology, related to the flue gas flow pattern, on the mechanisms and corrosion rates. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Evaluation of electrochemical techniques for measurement of fireside corrosion in thermal power plants; Utvaerdering av elektrokemiska tekniker foer maetning av roekgassidig hoegtemperaturkorrosion i pannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjorrnhede, Anders

    2007-12-15

    The possibility to measure the corrosion rate on-line, in situ, is getting more and more interesting due to increased corrosion. The worsening may be a result of lower fuel quality or increased steam data due to raised efficiency demands. Also the use of inhibitors can be improved and the lifetime of important components can be increased. Today, virtually all corrosion measurements of materials used for waterwalls, superheaters, economisers and other heat-transferring surfaces are based on in-situ probe tests of coupons or rings. The aim of the project is to evaluate the practicability of commercial or semicommercial on-line in-situ corrosion probes for use in waste fired boilers. The target groups are owners of boilers, operators, service personnel but also boiler manufacturer and material producers. Since the use of on-line, in situ, corrosion probes is substantial, some of the most promising corrosion probes have been tested in a waste fired boiler in Hamburg, Germany. Tests in waste fired boiler have never before been performed. The MECO CB, a Linear Polarisation Resistance (LPR) corrosion probe from Coresto Oy, Finland was tested and from Lehrstuhl fuer Umweltverfahrenstechnik und Anlagentechnik (LUAT) der Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Germany an Electrochemical Noise (EN) - probe was tested. From Pepperl + Fuchs both EN- and LPR-CorrTran corrosion sensors were tested. The test periods were lasting from 1050h to 3750h. The test materials were the low alloyed steel 15Mo3, the Ni-based super alloys Sanicro 63 and Haynes Hastelloy C-2000. The fluegas temperatures were 635 deg C or 520 deg C. The material temperatures were 440 deg C, 420 deg, 350 deg C and was swept from 400 deg C to 300 deg C. All probes are measuring a signal which has a correlation to the corrosion process, but the quantification procedure is not working well. The results achieved from the corrosion probes must be calibrated against corrosion rates measured by means of conventional corrosion

  16. Fireside corrosion and steamside oxidation of 9-12% Cr martensitic steels exposed for long term testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Jensen, S. A.; Rasmussen, F.

    2009-01-01

    MoV121 and HCM12 for the 12% Cr steels. The test tubes were welded in as part of the existing final superheaters in actual plants and exposure has been conducted over a ten year period (1994-2005). Compared to the older steel types, T92 and HCM12 utilise tungsten to improve their creep strength. From......To obtain long term corrosion and steam oxidation data for the 9-12%Cr ferritic steels, test tube sections have been exposed in Amager 3 and Avedore 1 coal fired power plants in Denmark (formerly run by ENERGI E2). Thus direct comparisons can be made for T91 and T92 for the 9% Cr steels and X20Cr...... Avedore I testing, T91 and T92 can be compared for exposure times up to similar to 48 000 h exposure. From Amager 3 testing, X20, HCM12 and T92 were tested; T92 has been exposed for up to 31 000 h and X20 and HCM12 have had 84 500 h exposure. Tube sections were removed for various exposure durations...

  17. Fireside Corrosion Behaviors of Super304H and HR3C in Coal Ash/Gas Environment with Different SO2 Contents at 650 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jintao; Yang, Zhen; Li, Yan; Huang, Jinyang; Zhou, Yongli; Zhao, Xinbao; Yuan, Yong

    2018-05-01

    The corrosion behaviors of Super304H and HR3C used for USC boiler applications were investigated in simulated coal ash/gas environments with 0.1 and 1.5% of SO2 at 650 °C for 500 h. The results indicated that the increase in SO2 accelerated the corrosion rate and the spalling tendency of the corrosion layer in both tested alloys. Fe2O3, Cr2O3 and FeCr2O4 main peaks were revealed by XRD on Super304H, but on HR3C only the Cr2O3 peak showed a high intensity. The SO2 content did not affect the corrosion product composition of any of the alloys, but accelerated the inner sulfidation and the spallation on Super304H. No obvious internal sulfidation was observed on HR3C in either SO2 content. Based on the experimental results, the alloy corrosion mechanism and the influence of sulfur content on the corrosion process were discussed.

  18. In situ corrosion tests on HLW glass as part of a larger approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Iseghem, P.

    1997-01-01

    In-situ corrosion tests were performed on various candidate high-level waste glasses in the underground laboratory in clay underneath SCK x CEN. The tests exposed the glass samples directly to the Boom clay rock, for maximum durations of 7.5 years. We succeeded to interpret the corrosion data at 90 deg C in terms of dissolution mechanisms, and we concluded that the glass composition has a determining effect on the corrosion stability. The data from our in-situ tests were of high relevance for estimating the long-term behaviour of the glasses. The long-term in-situ tests provide corrosion data which show different trends than other corrosion tests, e.g. shorter duration tests in Boom clay, or tests in deionized water. The initial dissolution rate using MCC1 test at 90 deg C is about the same for the three glasses discussed, but the longest duration in Boom clay at 90 deg C shows a difference in mass loss of about 25 times. We finally present some ideas on how the corrosion tests can meet the needs, such as the modelling of the glass corrosion or providing input in the performance assessment. (author)

  19. Fireside corrosion of nickel base alloys in future 700 C coal fired power plants; Rauchgasseitige Korrosion von Nickelbasislegierungen fuer zukuenftige 700 C-Dampfkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luettschwager, Frank

    2011-09-27

    Coal is still the most important energy source in Germany. In 2009 it produced 42.9 % of the overall German electrical power. Coal is available world-wide in large quantities and can be delivered economically. One of the possible ways to reduce CO{sub 2} pollution is the increase of efficiency of coal fired power plants, which requires steam conditions of up to 700 C - 730 C and 350 bar. Because many German power units will reach the end of their technical lifespan in a few years or the following decade, one will have the possibility to build up modern types of power plants with increased efficiency of more than 50 %. Some international standards (European Pressure Equipment Directive or ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code) require 100 000 hour creep rupture strength of 100 MPa at 750 C. Therefore, nickel base alloys are in the focus of material qualification processes. Nickel base alloys are well investigated due to their hot corrosion behaviour. It is known that sodium sulphate may generate hot corrosion on those alloys at temperatures above its melting point of 884 C. On nickel base alloys an eutectic mixture of nickel sulphate and sodium sulphate with a melting point of 671 C can be generated, which leads to accelerated corrosion. This work examines, whether the high amount of sulphur and alkali metals will induce hot corrosion at the estimated working temperature on devices manufactured from nickel base alloy. Two synthetic coal ash deposits, according to the chemical composition of hard coal and lignite, and typical flue gases with and without sulphur dioxide were blended of pure agents. The reactions of the deposits with heater tubes' materials and synthetic flue gases are examined in the temperature range from 650 C to 800 C and different time ranges up to 2000 hours. The corroded specimen are examined with SEM/EDX to identify relevant corrosion products and determine the corrosivity of deposited compounds. Deposits increase the corrosion rate of

  20. In situ AFM study of pitting corrosion and corrosion under strain on a 304L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, F.A.; Cousty, J.; Masson, J-L.; Bataillon, C.

    2004-01-01

    Our study is centred on surface localised corrosion under strain of a standard stainless steel (304L). The interest we take in these corrosion phenomena is led by the general misunderstanding of its primary initiation steps. The goal of this study is to determine precisely the relationships between local geometrical defects (grain boundaries, dislocation lines, etc) or chemical defects (inclusions) with the preferential sites of corrosion on the strained material. By combining three techniques at the same time: Atomic Force Microscopy, an electrochemical cell and a traction plate, we can observe in situ the effect of localised stress and deformation on the sample surface exposed to a corrosive solution. We managed to build an original set-up compatible with all the requirements of these three different techniques. Furthermore, we prepared the surface of our sample as flat as possible to decrease at maximum the topographical noise in order to observe the smallest defect on the surface. By using a colloidal suspension of SiO 2 , we obtained surfaces with a typical corrugation (RMS) of about 1 A for areas of at least 1 μm 2 . Our experimental study has been organised in two primary investigations: - In situ study of the morphology evolution of the surface under a corrosive chloride solution (borate buffer with NaCl salt). The influence of time, NaCl concentration, and potential was investigated; - In situ exploration of a 304L strained surface. It revealed the first stages of the surface plastic evolutions like activation of sliding dislocations, materialized by parallel steps of about 2 nm high in the same grain. The secondary sliding plane systems were also noticeable for higher deformation rates. Recent results concerning in situ AFM observation of corroded surfaces under strain in a chloride media will be presented. (authors)

  1. In situ AFM study of pitting corrosion and corrosion under strain on a 304L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.A. [CEA de Saclay, DRECAM/SPCSI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Cousty, J.; Masson, J-L. [CEA de Saclay, DRECAM/SPCSI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Bataillon, C. [CEA de Saclay, DEN/DPC/LECA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2004-07-01

    Our study is centred on surface localised corrosion under strain of a standard stainless steel (304L). The interest we take in these corrosion phenomena is led by the general misunderstanding of its primary initiation steps. The goal of this study is to determine precisely the relationships between local geometrical defects (grain boundaries, dislocation lines, etc) or chemical defects (inclusions) with the preferential sites of corrosion on the strained material. By combining three techniques at the same time: Atomic Force Microscopy, an electrochemical cell and a traction plate, we can observe in situ the effect of localised stress and deformation on the sample surface exposed to a corrosive solution. We managed to build an original set-up compatible with all the requirements of these three different techniques. Furthermore, we prepared the surface of our sample as flat as possible to decrease at maximum the topographical noise in order to observe the smallest defect on the surface. By using a colloidal suspension of SiO{sub 2}, we obtained surfaces with a typical corrugation (RMS) of about 1 A for areas of at least 1 {mu}m{sup 2}. Our experimental study has been organised in two primary investigations: - In situ study of the morphology evolution of the surface under a corrosive chloride solution (borate buffer with NaCl salt). The influence of time, NaCl concentration, and potential was investigated; - In situ exploration of a 304L strained surface. It revealed the first stages of the surface plastic evolutions like activation of sliding dislocations, materialized by parallel steps of about 2 nm high in the same grain. The secondary sliding plane systems were also noticeable for higher deformation rates. Recent results concerning in situ AFM observation of corroded surfaces under strain in a chloride media will be presented. (authors)

  2. In-situ monitoring of undercoating corrosion damage by Direct Optical Interrogation (DOI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Garrity, Meng

    An approach referred to as "Direct Optical Interrogation" (DOI) has been developed as an extension of the thin film pitting approach developed and used by Frankel and others. Samples were prepared by depositing Al and Al-Cu alloy metallizations about 800 nm thick on glass substrates. These metallizations were then coated with various coatings and coating systems. Samples were introduced to aggressive environments and the progression of corrosion of the metallization under the coating was monitored in situ using low power videography. Because metallizations were thin, corrosion quickly penetrated through the metal layer to the glass substrate and then spread laterally. Measurement of the lateral spread of corrosion enabled non-electrochemical assessment of the corrosion kinetics. In Al-Cu thin films, both aged and as-deposited, corrosion sites are irregularly shaped because there is not enough cathodic current to propagate the entire corrosion site margin at equal rates. In a number of cases, corrosion propagates with a filamentary morphology resembling filiform corrosion. Cu played a strong role in determining under coating corrosion morphology and growth kinetics in experiments with Al-Cu thin films substrates. As-deposited Al-Cu metallizations were more corrosion resistant than aged metallization and both were more corrosion resistant than pure Al. Cu-rich dendrites were formed on the corrosion front. Corrosion rate (current density) was calculated using Faraday's law by collecting corrosion site perimeter and bottom area. Systematic exploration of the effects of a chromate and chromate-free conversion coatings, chromate and chromate-free primer coatings and the presence or absence of a polyurethane topcoat confirmed the extraordinary corrosion protection by chromates. A commercial praseodymium-pigmented primer coating was not particularly effective in retarding undercoating corrosion site growth unless paired with a chromate conversion coating. The presence of a

  3. Development of Advanced In-Situ Techniques for Chemistry Monitoring and Corrosion Mitigation in SCWO Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D. D.; Lvov, S. N.

    2000-01-01

    This project is developing sensing technologies and corrosion monitoring techniques for use in super critical water oxidation (SCWO) systems to reduce the volume of mixed low-level nuclear waste by oxidizing organic components in a closed cycle system where CO2 and other gaseous oxides are produced, leaving the radioactive elements concentrated in ash. The technique uses water at supercritical temperatures under highly oxidized conditions by maintaining a high fugacity of molecular oxygen in the system, which causes high corrosion rates of even the most corrosive resistant reactor materials. This project significantly addresses the high corrosion shortcoming through development of (a) advanced electrodes and sensors for in situ potentiometric monitoring of pH in high subcritical and supercritical aqueous solutions, (b) an approach for evaluating the association constants for 1-1 aqueous electrolytes using a flow-through electrochemical thermocell; (c) an electrochemical noise sensor for the in situ measurement of corrosion rate in subcritical and supercritical aqueous systems; (d) a model for estimating the effect of pressure on reaction rates, including corrosion reactions, in high subcritical and supercritical aqueous systems. The project achieved all objectives, except for installing some of the sensors into a fully operating SCWO system

  4. Development of Advanced In-Situ Techniques for Chemistry Monitoring and Corrosion Mitigation in SCWO Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, D. D.; Lvov, S. N.

    2000-03-31

    This project is developing sensing technologies and corrosion monitoring techniques for use in super critical water oxidation (SCWO) systems to reduce the volume of mixed low-level nuclear waste by oxidizing organic components in a closed cycle system where CO2 and other gaseous oxides are produced, leaving the radioactive elements concentrated in ash. The technique uses water at supercritical temperatures under highly oxidized conditions by maintaining a high fugacity of molecular oxygen in the system, which causes high corrosion rates of even the most corrosive resistant reactor materials. This project significantly addresses the high corrosion shortcoming through development of (a) advanced electrodes and sensors for in situ potentiometric monitoring of pH in high subcritical and supercritical aqueous solutions, (b) an approach for evaluating the association constants for 1-1 aqueous electrolytes using a flow-through electrochemical thermocell; (c) an electrochemical noise sensor for the in situ measurement of corrosion rate in subcritical and supercritical aqueous systems; (d) a model for estimating the effect of pressure on reaction rates, including corrosion reactions, in high subcritical and supercritical aqueous systems. The project achieved all objectives, except for installing some of the sensors into a fully operating SCWO system.

  5. Flow-induced corrosion of absorbable magnesium alloy: In-situ and real-time electrochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Jang, Yongseok; Wan, Guojiang; Giridharan, Venkataraman; Song, Guang-Ling; Xu, Zhigang; Koo, Youngmi; Qi, Pengkai; Sankar, Jagannathan; Huang, Nan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2016-03-01

    An in-situ and real-time electrochemical study in a vascular bioreactor was designed to analyze corrosion mechanism of magnesium alloy (MgZnCa) under mimetic hydrodynamic conditions. Effect of hydrodynamics on corrosion kinetics, types, rates and products was analyzed. Flow-induced shear stress (FISS) accelerated mass and electron transfer, leading to an increase in uniform and localized corrosions. FISS increased the thickness of uniform corrosion layer, but filiform corrosion decreased this layer resistance at high FISS conditions. FISS also increased the removal rate of localized corrosion products. Impedance-estimated and linear polarization-measured polarization resistances provided a consistent correlation to corrosion rate calculated by computed tomography.

  6. Performance Analysis of Retrofitted Tribo-Corrosion Test Rig for Monitoring In Situ Oil Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpith Siddaiah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oils and lubricants, once extracted after use from a mechanical system, can hardly be reused, and should be refurbished or replaced in most applications. New methods of in situ oil and lubricant efficiency monitoring systems have been introduced for a wide variety of mechanical systems, such as automobiles, aerospace aircrafts, ships, offshore wind turbines, and deep sea oil drilling rigs. These methods utilize electronic sensors to monitor the “byproduct effects” in a mechanical system that are not indicative of the actual remaining lifecycle and reliability of the oils. A reliable oil monitoring system should be able to monitor the wear rate and the corrosion rate of the tribo-pairs due to the inclusion of contaminants. The current study addresses this technological gap, and presents a novel design of a tribo-corrosion test rig for oils used in a dynamic system. A pin-on-disk tribometer test rig retrofitted with a three electrode-potentiostat corrosion monitoring system was used to analyze the corrosion and wear rate of a steel tribo-pair in industrial grade transmission oil. The effectiveness of the retrofitted test rig was analyzed by introducing various concentrations of contaminants in an oil medium that usually leads to a corrosive working environment. The results indicate that the retrofitted test rig can effectively monitor the in situ tribological performance of the oil in a controlled dynamic corrosive environment. It is a useful method to understand the wear–corrosion synergies for further experimental work, and to develop accurate predictive lifecycle assessment and prognostic models. The application of this system is expected to have economic benefits and help reduce the ecological oil waste footprint.

  7. Performance Analysis of Retrofitted Tribo-Corrosion Test Rig for Monitoring In Situ Oil Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddaiah, Arpith; Khan, Zulfiqar Ahmad; Ramachandran, Rahul; Menezes, Pradeep L

    2017-09-28

    Oils and lubricants, once extracted after use from a mechanical system, can hardly be reused, and should be refurbished or replaced in most applications. New methods of in situ oil and lubricant efficiency monitoring systems have been introduced for a wide variety of mechanical systems, such as automobiles, aerospace aircrafts, ships, offshore wind turbines, and deep sea oil drilling rigs. These methods utilize electronic sensors to monitor the "byproduct effects" in a mechanical system that are not indicative of the actual remaining lifecycle and reliability of the oils. A reliable oil monitoring system should be able to monitor the wear rate and the corrosion rate of the tribo-pairs due to the inclusion of contaminants. The current study addresses this technological gap, and presents a novel design of a tribo-corrosion test rig for oils used in a dynamic system. A pin-on-disk tribometer test rig retrofitted with a three electrode-potentiostat corrosion monitoring system was used to analyze the corrosion and wear rate of a steel tribo-pair in industrial grade transmission oil. The effectiveness of the retrofitted test rig was analyzed by introducing various concentrations of contaminants in an oil medium that usually leads to a corrosive working environment. The results indicate that the retrofitted test rig can effectively monitor the in situ tribological performance of the oil in a controlled dynamic corrosive environment. It is a useful method to understand the wear-corrosion synergies for further experimental work, and to develop accurate predictive lifecycle assessment and prognostic models. The application of this system is expected to have economic benefits and help reduce the ecological oil waste footprint.

  8. In situ Raman identification of corrosion products on galvanized steel sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, M.C.; Hugot le Goff, A.; Massinon, D.; Phillips, N.; Thierry, D.

    1992-01-01

    In situ Raman spectroscopy was used to identify corrosion products on zinc immersed in chloride solutions. In aerated 0,03 M NaCl solution, zinc carbonate was identified as the main corrosion product. Even with higher chloride concentrations, for which zinc hydroxychloride was also detected, the carbon dioxide concentration is likely to be the rate controlling factor of the corrosion process. In a confinement experiment, Raman analysis revealed that the upper face of the sample was covered with zinc carbonate, whereas hydroxychlorides were identified on the confined face. This result confirmed the hypothesis of a differential aeration mechanism responsible for the formation of zinc hydroxychloride. This is in good agreement with Raman spectroscopy results obtained in the case of painted galvanized steel

  9. Flow-induced corrosion of absorbable magnesium alloy: In-situ and real-time electrochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Juan; Jang, Yongseok; Wan, Guojiang; Giridharan, Venkataraman; Song, Guang-Ling; Xu, Zhigang; Koo, Youngmi; Qi, Pengkai; Sankar, Jagannathan; Huang, Nan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An in-situ and real-time electrochemical monitoring of flow-induced corrosion of Mg alloy is designed in a vascular bioreactor. • Effect of hydrodynamics on corrosion kinetics, types, rates and products is analyzed. • Flow accelerates mass and electron transfer, leading to an increase in uniform and localized corrosions. • Flow increases not only the thickness of uniform corrosion product layer, but the removal rate of localized corrosion products. • Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and linear polarization-measured polarization resistances provide a consistent correlation to corrosion rate calculated by computed tomography. - Abstract: An in-situ and real-time electrochemical study in a vascular bioreactor was designed to analyze corrosion mechanism of magnesium alloy (MgZnCa) under mimetic hydrodynamic conditions. Effect of hydrodynamics on corrosion kinetics, types, rates and products was analyzed. Flow-induced shear stress (FISS) accelerated mass and electron transfer, leading to an increase in uniform and localized corrosions. FISS increased the thickness of uniform corrosion layer, but filiform corrosion decreased this layer resistance at high FISS conditions. FISS also increased the removal rate of localized corrosion products. Impedance-estimated and linear polarization-measured polarization resistances provided a consistent correlation to corrosion rate calculated by computed tomography.

  10. Corrosion and Corrosion-Fatigue Behavior of 7075 Aluminum Alloys Studied by In Situ X-Ray Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stannard, Tyler

    7XXX Aluminum alloys have high strength to weight ratio and low cost. They are used in many critical structural applications including automotive and aerospace components. These applications frequently subject the alloys to static and cyclic loading in service. Additionally, the alloys are often subjected to aggressive corrosive environments such as saltwater spray. These chemical and mechanical exposures have been known to cause premature failure in critical applications. Hence, the microstructural behavior of the alloys under combined chemical attack and mechanical loading must be characterized further. Most studies to date have analyzed the microstructure of the 7XXX alloys using two dimensional (2D) techniques. While 2D studies yield valuable insights about the properties of the alloys, they do not provide sufficiently accurate results because the microstructure is three dimensional and hence its response to external stimuli is also three dimensional (3D). Relevant features of the alloys include the grains, subgrains, intermetallic inclusion particles, and intermetallic precipitate particles. The effects of microstructural features on corrosion pitting and corrosion fatigue of aluminum alloys has primarily been studied using 2D techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) surface analysis along with post-mortem SEM fracture surface analysis to estimate the corrosion pit size and fatigue crack initiation site. These studies often limited the corrosion-fatigue testing to samples in air or specialized solutions, because samples tested in NaCl solution typically have fracture surfaces covered in corrosion product. Recent technological advancements allow observation of the microstructure, corrosion and crack behavior of aluminum alloys in solution in three dimensions over time (4D). In situ synchrotron X-Ray microtomography was used to analyze the corrosion and cracking behavior of the alloy in four dimensions to elucidate crack initiation at corrosion pits

  11. Coal fired power plant fireside problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, P.; Manolescu, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the recent experience with fireside problems in coal fired subcritical boilers at Ontario Hydro*, and is concerned with boiler tube wastage. Problems with other components such as burners, air pre-heaters and ''back-end'' ductwork are not discussed. In most utilities, boiler tube failures account for a sizable portion of the total forced outages (typically about25%) as well as a very large part of the maintenance outages. The failures shown under the external deterioration category are of interest because they indicate the proportion of problems caused by the tube metal wastage processes initiated on the fireside of the boilers. Fireside problems remain an important cause of boiler tube failures year after year in spite of concentrated efforts to mitigate them

  12. In situ ellipsometric investigation of stainless steel corrosion behavior in buffered solutions with amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinnichenko, M.V.; Pham, M.T.; Chevolleau, T.; Poperenko, L.V.; Maitz, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    The corrosion of metals is associated both with a release of ions and changes in optical surface properties. In this study, these two effects were correlated by a potentiodynamic corrosion test and in situ probing of the surface by ellipsometry. The studies were carried out with stainless steel (SS) AISI 304 and 316 in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and in Dulbecco's modified minimal essential medium (DMEM) at pH 7.4. In both media, 304 steel is more susceptible to corrosion than 316 grade. The 316 steel shows a higher corrosion potential and higher corrosion current density in PBS than in DMEM, for 304 steel this behavior is vice versa. Ellipsometry demonstrated a higher sensitivity than potentiodynamics to surface modification in the cathodic area. In DMEM the removal of a surface layer at negative potential and a further repassivation with increasing potential was characteristic. In PBS a surface layer started to grow immediately. X-ray photoelectron spectra of this layer formed in PBS are consistent with iron phosphate. Its formation is inhibited in DMEM; the presence of amino acids is discussed as the reason

  13. In situ 3D monitoring of corrosion on carbon steel and ferritic stainless steel embedded in cement paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itty, Pierre-Adrien; Serdar, Marijana; Meral, Cagla; Parkinson, Dula; MacDowell, Alastair A.; Bjegović, Dubravka; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The morphology of the corrosion of steel in cement paste was studied in situ. • During galvanostatic corrosion, carbon steel reinforcement corroded homogeneously. • On ferritic stainless steel, deep corrosion pits formed and caused wider cracks. • The measured rate of steel loss correlated well with Faraday’s law of electrolysis. - Abstract: In a X-ray microcomputed tomography study, active corrosion was induced by galvanostatically corroding steel embedded in cement paste. The results give insight into corrosion product build up, crack formation, leaching of products into the cracks and voids, and differences in morphology of corrosion attack in the case of carbon steel or stainless steel reinforcement. Carbon steel was homogeneously etched away with a homogeneous layer of corrosion products forming at the steel/cement paste interface. For ferritic stainless steel, pits were forming, concentrating the corrosion products locally, which led to more extensive damage on the cement paste cover

  14. Corrosion in Haas expanders with and without use of an antimicrobial agent: an in situ study

    Science.gov (United States)

    BAGATIN, Cristhiane Ristum; ITO, Izabel Yoko; ANDRUCIOLI, Marcela Cristina Damião; NELSON-FILHO, Paulo; FERREIRA, José Tarcísio Lima

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate in situ the occurrence of corrosion in the soldering point areas between the wire, silver brazing and band in Haas expanders. Material and Methods Thirty-four 7-12-year-old patients who needed maxillary expansion with a Haas expander were randomly assigned to two groups of 17 individuals each, according to the oral hygiene protocol adopted during the orthodontic treatment: Group I (control), toothbrushing with a fluoride dentifrice and Group II (experimental), toothbrushing with the same dentifrice plus 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate (Periogard®) mouthrinses twice a week. The appliances were removed after approximately 4 months. Fragments of the appliances containing a metallic band with a soldered wire were sectioned at random for examination by stereomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Data were analyzed statistically by Fisher's test at 5% significance level. Results The analysis by optical microscopy revealed areas with color change suggestive of corrosion in the soldering point areas joining the band and the wire in all specimens of both groups, with no statistically significant difference between the groups (p=1). The peaks of chemical elements (Ni, Fe, Cr, O, C and P) revealed by EDS were also similar in both groups. Conclusion: Color changes and peaks of chemical elements suggestive of corrosion were observed in the soldering point areas between the wire, silver brazing and band in both control and experimental groups, which indicate that the 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthrinses did not influence the occurrence of corrosion in situ. PMID:22231004

  15. Flow-induced corrosion of absorbable magnesium alloy: In-situ and real-time electrochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Jang, Yongseok; Wan, Guojiang; Giridharan, Venkataraman; Song, Guang-Ling; Xu, Zhigang; Koo, Youngmi; Qi, Pengkai; Sankar, Jagannathan; Huang, Nan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2016-01-01

    An in-situ and real-time electrochemical study in a vascular bioreactor was designed to analyze corrosion mechanism of magnesium alloy (MgZnCa) under mimetic hydrodynamic conditions. Effect of hydrodynamics on corrosion kinetics, types, rates and products was analyzed. Flow-induced shear stress (FISS) accelerated mass and electron transfer, leading to an increase in uniform and localized corrosions. FISS increased the thickness of uniform corrosion layer, but filiform corrosion decreased this layer resistance at high FISS conditions. FISS also increased the removal rate of localized corrosion products. Impedance-estimated and linear polarization-measured polarization resistances provided a consistent correlation to corrosion rate calculated by computed tomography. PMID:28626241

  16. In-situ electrochemical study of Zr1nb alloy corrosion in high temperature Li{sup +} containing water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krausová, Aneta [University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 3, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Macák, Jan, E-mail: macakj@vscht.cz [University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 3, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Sajdl, Petr [University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 3, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Novotný, Radek [JRC-IET, Westerduinveg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands); Renčiuková, Veronika [University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 3, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vrtílková, Věra [ÚJP a.s., Nad Kamínkou 1345, 156 10 Prague 5 (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-15

    Long-term in-situ corrosion tests were performed in order to evaluate the influence of lithium ions on the corrosion of zirconium alloy. Experiments were carried out in a high-pressure high-temperature loop (280 °C, 8 MPa) in a high concentration water solution of LiOH (70 and 200 ppm Li{sup +}) and in a simulated WWER primary coolant environment. The kinetic parameters characterising the oxidation process have been explored using in-situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and slow potentiodynamic polarization. Also, a suitable equivalent circuit was suggested, which would approximate the impedance characteristics of the corrosion of Zr–1Nb alloy. The Mott–Schottky approach was used to determine the semiconducting character of the passive film. - Highlights: • Zr1Nb alloy was tested in WWER coolant and in LiOH solutions at 280 °C. • Corrosion rates were estimated in-situ from electrochemical data. • Electrochemical data agreed well with weight gains and metallography data. • Increase of corrosion rate in LiOH appeared after short exposure (300–500 h). • Very high donor densities (1.1–1.2 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}) of Zr oxide grown in LiOH were found.

  17. In situ corrosion studies on selected high level waste packaging materials under simulated disposal conditions in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smailos, E.; Schwarzkopf, W.; Koester, R.

    1988-01-01

    In order to qualify corrosion resistant materials for high level waste (HLW) packagings acting as a long-term barrier in a rock salt repository, the corrosion behavior of preselected materials is being investigated in laboratory-scale and in-situ experiments. This work reports about in-situ corrosion experiments on unalloyed steels, Ti 99.8-Pd, Hastelloy C4, and iron-base alloys, as nodular cast iron, Ni-Resist D4 and Si-cast iron, under simulated disposal conditions. The results of the investigations can be summarized as follows: (1) all materials investigated exhibited high resistance to corrosion under the conditions prevailing in the Brine Migration Test; (2) all materials and above all the materials with passivating oxide layers such as Ti 99.8-Pd and Hastelloy C4 which may corrode selectively already in the presence of minor amounts of brine had been resistant with respect to any type of local corrosion attack; the gamma-radiation of 3 · 10 2 Gy/h did not exert an influence on the corrosion behavior of the materials

  18. On iron radionuclide interactions and in situ measurement of iron corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puranen, A.; Jonsson, M.; Cui, D.; Scheidegger, A.M.; Wersin, P.; Spahiu, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In performance assessments of hard rock repositories, it is conservatively assumed that waste canisters are breached and that the spent fuel will get into contact with groundwater after 1000 years. When the canister eventually fails to protect HLW from groundwater, dissolved radionuclides from HLW will react with iron canister materials. The reactivity will depend on the conditions in solution and at the iron-water interface. To improve our understanding on the redox chemistry at near field conditions, batch experiments are conducted by contacting polished iron foils with a synthetic groundwater solution containing 10 mM NaCl, 2 mM NaHCO 3 and 5 ppm Se(IV), Se(VI), Tc(VII) and U(VI) in a glove box filled with Ar + 0.03% CO 2 gas mixture. The reaction rates are measured by analysing Se, Tc and U concentrations by ICP-MS. Iron corrosion products formed during the reaction(s) is monitored in-situ by a Layer Raman spectrometer through an optical window. The corrosion potential of the iron foil as well as the Eh and pH values of the bulk solution are recorded continuously during the experiment. The reacted iron foil is embedded with EPOXY resin, and the cross section will be analysed by SEM-EDS and XAS. The preliminary experimental results shows that with the formation of iron green rust FeII 4 FeIII 2 (OH) 12 CO 3 on iron foil, the rates of redox reactions between iron and the negatively charged radionuclides species are increased. The observation is explained by the fact that radionuclide anionic species can be first adsorbed then reduced on the positively charged outer surface of iron green rust. The positive charge is a result of the electrical balance of the negative charges of carbonate contained between the layered iron hydroxides in the green rust. Reduced forms of radionuclides are identified in the iron corrosion products. The results suggest that the formation of iron green rust as a corrosion product on the surface of iron

  19. Corrosion of several components of the in-situ test performed in a deep geological granite disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madina, Virginia; Azkarate, Inaki; Insausti, Mikel

    2004-01-01

    The corrosion damage experienced by different components in a deep geological disposal in a granite formation has been analysed. This in-situ test is part of the Full-scale Engineered Barriers EXperiment project (FEBEX) carried out in Grimsel (Switzerland). Two heaters, simulating the canister and the heat generated, were installed horizontally inside the guide tubes or liners and surrounded by highly compacted bentonite blocks. Coupons of several candidate metals for manufacturing HLW containers were introduced in these bentonite blocks, as well as sensors in order to monitor different physicochemical parameters during the test. The in- situ test began in July 1996 and in June 2002 one of the heaters, a section of the liner, several corrosion coupons and four sensors were extracted. The studied heater is a carbon steel cylinder with welded lids, with a wall thickness of 100 mm and 4.54 m long. The liner consists of a perforated carbon steel tube, 970 mm in diameter and 15 mm thick. Corrosion coupons were made of carbon steel, stainless steel, titanium, copper and cupronickel alloys. Two extensometer type sensors with an outer protection tube made of austenitic stainless steel were also analysed. Visual inspection of the above mentioned components, optical and scanning electron microscope study, together with EDS and XRD analyses of corrosion products, have been performed in order to analyse the corrosion suffered by these components. This has been complemented with the chemical and microbiological characterisation of bentonite samples. Results obtained in the study indicate a slight generalised corrosion for the heater, liner and corrosion coupons. The low humidity content of the bentonite surrounding the liner and the corrosion coupons, is the responsible of this practical absence of corrosion. The sensors studied show, however, an important corrosion damage. The sulphur rich corrosion products, the presence of Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) in the bentonite

  20. Advanced in-situ characterisation of corrosion properties of LWR fuel cladding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arilahti, E.; Bojinov, M.; Beverskog, B.

    1999-01-01

    The trend towards higher fuel burnups imposes a demand for better corrosion and hydriding resistance of cladding materials. Development of new and improved cladding materials is a long process. There is a lack of fast and reliable in-situ techniques to investigate zirconium alloys in simulated or in-core LWR coolant conditions. This paper describes a Thin Layer Electrode (TLE) arrangement suitable for in-situ characterization of oxide films formed on fuel cladding materials. This arrangement enables us to carry out: Versatile Thin Layer Electrochemical measurements, including: (i) Thin Layer Electrochemical impedance Spectroscopic (TLEIS) measurements to characterize the oxidation kinetics and mechanisms of metals and the properties of their oxide films in aqueous environments. These measurements can also be performed in low conductivity electrolytes. (ii) Thin-Layer Wall-Jet (TLWJ) measurements, which give the possibility to detect soluble reaction products and to evaluate the influence of novel water chemistry additions on their release. Solid Contact measurements: (i) Contact Electric Resistance (CER) measurements to investigate the electronic properties of surface films on the basis of d.c. resistance measurements. (i) Contact Electric impedance (CEI) measurements to study the electronic properties of surface films using a.c. perturbation. All the above listed measurements can be performed using one single measurement device developed at VTT. This device can be conveniently inserted into an autoclave. Its geometry is currently being optimized in cooperation with the OECD Halden Reactor Project. In addition, the applicability of the device for in-core measurements has been investigated in a joint feasibility study performed by VTT and JRC Petten. Results of some autoclave studies of the effect of LiOH concentration on the stability of fuel cladding oxide films are presented in this paper. (author)

  1. In-situ investigations of corrosion processes on glass and metal surfaces by scanning probe microscopy (SPM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolussi-Leck, G.

    1996-09-01

    The corrosion of potash-lime-silica glass was observed in-situ by AFM (atomic force microscopy) for the first time. The topographic changes with time due to the interaction of a replica glass with the ambient atmosphere were studied. A comparison of dynamic mode AFM and static mode AFM has demonstrated their potential for the investigation of soft, sensitive specimens. A combination of both methods yielded a correlation between structural changes during the corrosion process and different corrosion products on glass. The activation of surface reactions by the tip touching the surface could be observed with dynamic mode AFM. In-situ sample preparation and introduction of a defined atmosphere consisting of nitrogen with adjustable amounts of relative humidity and varying contents of SO 2 and NO 2 allowed model studies of the atmospheric corrosion. A replica glass with medieval composition was used in order to investigate the impact of the above described conditions. Besides the influence of the relative humidity the effects of SO 2 and NO 2 as well as their, synergistic effects could be studied. The evaluation of the phase signal in dynamic mode AFM in addition to the topographic information allowed the identification of humid domains in and on corrosion products, respectively. The observed contrast and thus the adhesion forces, are mainly related to the different water coverage of the surface regions or the hydroscopic properties, respectively. Furthermore, the topographic changes of copper-nickel, and palladium surfaces exposed to humidified nitrogen with SO 2 have been observed in-situ. Contrary to the assumption of the metal surfaces being covered by a homogeneous layer of corrosion products, distinct clusters of products could be observed. In case of different kinds of products these clusters were arranged adjacent to each other rather than in different stacked layers. (author)

  2. Effect of Corrosion Inhibitors on In Situ Leak Repair by Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate in Potable Water Pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Devine, Christina L; Edwards, Marc A

    2017-08-01

    Corrosion inhibitors can affect calcium carbonate precipitation and associated in situ and in-service water distribution pipeline leak repair via clogging. Clogging of 150 μm diameter leak holes represented by glass capillary tubes, in recirculating solutions that are supersaturated with calcite (Ω calcite = 13), demonstrated that Zn, orthophosphate, tripolyphosphate, and hexametaphosphate corrosion/scaling inhibitors hinder clogging but natural organic matter (NOM) has relatively little impact. Critical concentrations of phosphates that could inhibit leak repair over the short-term in one water tested were: tripolyphophate (0.05 mg/L as P) water systems.

  3. SR-XRD in situ monitoring of copper-IUD corrosion in simulated uterine fluid using a portable spectroelectrochemical cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayburn, Rosie A; Dowsett, Mark G; Sabbe, Pieter-Jan; Wermeille, Didier; Anjos, Jorge Alves; Flexer, Victoria; De Keersmaecker, Michel; Wildermeersch, Dirk; Adriaens, Annemie

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this work is to study the initial corrosion of copper in the presence of gold when placed in simulated uterine fluid in order to better understand the evolution of active components of copper-IUDs. In order to carry out this study, a portable cell was designed to partially simulate the uterine environment and provide a way of tracking the chemical changes occurring in the samples in situ within a controlled environment over a long period of time using synchrotron spectroelectrochemistry. The dynamically forming crystalline corrosion products are determined in situ for a range of copper-gold surface ratios over the course of a 10-day experiment in the cell. It is concluded that the insoluble deposits forming over this time are not the origin of the anticonception mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of self-powered wireless high temperature electrochemical sensor for in situ corrosion monitoring of coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Naing Naing; Crowe, Edward; Liu, Xingbo

    2015-03-01

    Reliable wireless high temperature electrochemical sensor technology is needed to provide in situ corrosion information for optimal predictive maintenance to ensure a high level of operational effectiveness under the harsh conditions present in coal-fired power generation systems. This research highlights the effectiveness of our novel high temperature electrochemical sensor for in situ coal ash hot corrosion monitoring in combination with the application of wireless communication and an energy harvesting thermoelectric generator (TEG). This self-powered sensor demonstrates the successful wireless transmission of both corrosion potential and corrosion current signals to a simulated control room environment. Copyright © 2014 ISA. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of MELTGUARD{sup TM} - a measuring system for control of fireside corrosion in boilers; Utvaerdering av MELTGUARD{sup TM} - ett maetsystem foer kontroll av roekgassidig korrosion i pannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Pamela [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-10-01

    Studsvik AB has developed and now owns the patent for a product called MELTGUARD. According to information from Studsvik, Meltguard is a measuring probe that shows in real-time how much corrosion is occurring and that can reduce costs and increase the lifetime of power boilers burning biomass. The product consists of a tubular air-cooled probe which is exposed in the flue gas through an existing inspection port. The electrodes in the probe react with the flue gas and ash deposit and corrosion is registered as the short-circuited corrosion current (using the zero resistance method) between rings made of the investigated material. The aim of the project was to independently evaluate Meltguard, compare it with a conventional corrosion probe and to publish the results for the Swedish thermal power industry. Two steels have been compared on the probes (a Meltguard-probe can accommodate a maximum of two test pieces), with about the same temperature. Measurements have been carried out with the steels SS2218 (T22) and Esshete 1250 on a Meltguard probe in the biomass fired boiler at Naessjoe combined heat and power plant during the period November 2000 to March 2001. For a 48 hour period sulphur was added to the fuel supply to change the fuel chemistry and influence the corrosion rate. The corrosion current for SS2218 was unstable, fluctuating considerably throughout the measuring period, and was greatly affected by soot-blowing. Usually, soot-blowing resulted in a marked decrease in the corrosion current. No simple or clear relationship between the boiler load and the average corrosion current could be determined. The corrosion current for Esshete 1250 was mostly stable, about 20{mu}A. The current for SS2218 was a little higher than that for E1250, but the relationship between current and corrosion rate was unclear. It was obviously not a linear function as the corrosion measured in 2218, when the testing was completed, was approximately four times greater than that in E

  6. Development of sensors for in-situ monitoring of corrosion and water chemistry parameters for the electric power utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.D.; Pang, J.; Liu, C.; Medina, E.; Villa, J.; Bueno, J.

    1993-01-01

    The in situ monitoring of the chemistry and electrochemistry of aqueous heat transport fluids in thermal (nuclear and fossil) power plants is now considered essential if adequate assessment and close control of corrosion and mass transfer phenomena are to be achieved. Because of the elevated temperatures and pressures involved, new sensor technologies are required that are able to measure key parameters under plant operating conditions for extended periods of time. In this paper, the authors outline a research and development program that is designed to develop practical sensors for use in thermal power plants. The current emphasis is on sensors for measuring corrosion potential, pH, the concentrations of oxygen and hydrogen, and the electrochemical noise generated by corrosion processes at temperatures ranging from ∼250 C to 500 C. The program is currently at the laboratory stage, but testing of prototype sensors in a coal-fired supercritical power plant in Spain will begin shortly

  7. The Development of an In-Situ TEM Technique for Studying Corrosion Behavior as Applied to Zirconium-Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Wayne

    Zirconium-based alloys are a commonly used material for nuclear fuel rod cladding, due to its low neutron cross section and good corrosion properties. However, corrosion is still a limiting factor in fuel rod lifespan, which restricts burn up levels, and thus efficiency, that can be achieved. While long-term corrosion behavior has been studied through both reactor and autoclave samples, the oxide nucleation and growth behavior has not been extensively studied. This work develops a new technique to study the initial stages of corrosion in zirconium-based alloys and the microstructural effects on this process by developing an environmental cell system for the TEM. Nanoscale oxidation parameters are developed, as is a new FIB technique to support this method. Precession diffraction is used in conjunction with in-situ TEM to observe the initial stages of corrosion in these alloys, and oxide thickness is estimated using low-loss EELS. In addition, the stress stabilization of tetragonal ZrO 2 is explored in the context of sample preparation for TEM. It was found that in-situ environmental TEM using an environmental cell replicates the oxidation behavior observed in autoclaved samples in both oxide structure and phases. Utilizing this technique, it was shown that cracking of the oxide layer in zirconium-based alloys is related to oxide relaxation, and not thermal changes. The effect of secondary phase particles on oxidation behavior did not present significant results, however a new method for studying initial oxidation rates using low-loss EELS was developed.

  8. Evaluation of precipitates used in strainer head loss testing: Part II. Precipitates by in situ aluminum alloy corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahn, Chi Bum; Kasza, Ken E.; Shack, William J.; Natesan, Ken; Klein, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: → Sump strainer head loss testing to evaluate chemical effects. → Aluminum hydroxide precipitates by in situ Al alloy corrosion caused head loss. → Intermetallic particles released from Al alloy can also cause significant head loss. → When evaluating Al effect on head loss, intermetallics should be considered. - Abstract: Vertical loop head loss tests were performed with 6061 and 1100 aluminum (Al) alloy plates immersed in borated solution at pH = 9.3 at room temperature and 60 o C. The results suggest that the potential for corrosion of an Al alloy to result in increased head loss across a glass fiber bed may depend on its microstructure, i.e., the size distribution and number density of intermetallic particles that are present in Al matrix and FeSiAl ternary compounds, as well as its Al release rate. Per unit mass of Al removed from solution, the WCAP-16530 aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH) 3 ) surrogate was more effective in increasing head loss than the Al(OH) 3 precipitates formed in situ by corrosion of Al alloy. However, in choosing a representative amount of surrogate for plant specific testing, consideration should be given to the potential for additional head losses due to intermetallic particles and the apparent reduction in the effective solubility of Al(OH) 3 when intermetallic particles are present.

  9. Corrosion initiation of stainless steel in HCl solution studied using electrochemical noise and in-situ atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yan; Hu Ronggang; Wang Jingrun; Huang Yongxia; Lin Changjian

    2009-01-01

    An in-situ atomic force microscope (AFM), optical microscope and electrochemical noise (ECN) techniques were applied to the investigation of corrosion initiations in an early stage of 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel immersed in 0.5 M HCl solution. The electrochemical current noise data has been analyzed using discrete wavelet transform (DWT). For the first time, the origin of wavelet coefficients is discussed based on the correlation between the evolution of the energy distribution plot (EDP) of wavelet coefficients and topographic changes. It is found that the occurrence of initiation of metastable pitting at susceptive sites is resulted from the reductive breakdown of passive film of stainless steel in the diluted HCL solution. The coefficients d 4 -d 6 are originated from metastable pitting, d 7 represents the formation and growth of stable pitting while d 8 corresponds to the general corrosion.

  10. In situ corrosion analysis of Al-Zn-In-Mg-Ti-Ce sacrificial anode alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jingling; Wen Jiuba; Zhai Wenxia; Li Quanan

    2012-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of Al-5Zn-0.02In-1Mg-0.05Ti-0.5Ce (wt.%) alloy has been investigated by immersion test, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray detector, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and electrochemical noise. The results show that there exist different corrosion types of the alloy in 3.5% NaCl solution with the immersion time. At the initial stage of immersion, pitting due to the precipitates predominates the corrosion with a typical inductive loop at low frequencies in electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The major precipitates of the alloy are MgZn 2 and Al 2 CeZn 2 particles. The corrosion potentials of the bulk MgZn 2 and Al 2 CeZn 2 alloys are negative with respect to that of α-Al, so the MgZn 2 and Al 2 CeZn 2 precipitates can act as activation centre and cause the pitting. In the late corrosion, a relative uniform corrosion predominates the corrosion process controlled by the dissolution/precipitation of the In ions and characterized by a capacitive loop at medium-high frequencies in electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The potential noise of the pitting shows larger amplitude fluctuation and lower frequency, but the potential noise of the uniform corrosion occurs with smaller amplitude fluctuation and higher frequency.

  11. Influence of sulfate-reducing bacteria on the corrosion of steel in seawater: laboratory and in situ study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benbouzid-Rollet, N.

    1993-01-01

    A fouling reactor was designed to study, the influence of a mixed bio-film on AISI 316 L stainless steel. The bio-film was formed on the steel surface by the fermentative bacterium Vibrio natriegens. The sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris was then introduced in the reactor and colonized the surface, constituting approximately 5 % of the total population. The settlement of an anaerobic bacterium in the bio-film shows in it the existence of anaerobic micro-niches. Stainless steel electrochemical behavior was analyzed using open circuit potential and potentiodynamic polarization curves. Growth of the bio-film does not induce corrosion, but seems to change the cathodic oxygen reduction kinetics, diminishing the corrosion hazard. This effect increases when D. vulgaris grows in the bio-film. An ennobling of the open circuit potential was observed, similar to field cases already described. A case of drilling corrosion of carbon steel in a harbour area showed the characteristics of anaerobic corrosion related to sulfate-reducing bacteria. The total cultivatable SRB population was quantified and metabolic types were enumerated using specific electron donors. A maximum cell density of 1,1 x 10 8 cells/ cm 2 was estimated, revealing a very important growth of SRB on surfaces. Population structure was different in corroded and non-corroded areas. In corroded area, SRB utilizing benzoate and propionate were more abundant. A strain belonging to the sporulating genus Desulfotomaculum was isolated using these substrates, suggesting a partial aeration in the area of hole appearance. However, in vitro corrosion assays showed that the bacterial population sampled in this area induced a consequent weight loss of steel coupons, in the absence of oxygen. This was observed only with a diversified population, similar to that present in situ. It could not be reproduced with a mixed culture of two purified strains. (author)

  12. Development of Advanced In-Situ Techniques for Chemistry Monitoring and Corrosion Mitigation in SCWO Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.D.

    2000-01-01

    Super Critical Water Oxidation (SCWO) is a promising technology for destroying highly toxic organic waste (including physiological agents) and for reducing the volume of DOE's low-level nuclear waste. The major problem inhibiting the wide implementation of SCWO is the lack of fundamental knowledge about various physico-chemical and corrosion processes that occur in SCW environments. In particular, the lack of experimental techniques for accurately monitoring important parameters, such as pH, corrosion potential and corrosion rate, has severely hampered the development of a quantitative understanding of the degradation of materials in this extraordinarily aggressive environment. Accordingly, the principal objective of the present program has been to develop new, innovative methods for accurately measuring parameters that characterize corrosion processes under super critical conditions

  13. In situ corrosion monitoring of PC structures with distributed hybrid carbon fiber reinforced polymer sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C. Q.; Wu, Z. S.

    2007-08-01

    Firstly, the fabrication and sensing properties of hybrid carbon fiber reinforced polymer (HCFRP) composite sensors are addressed. In order to provide a distributed sensing manner, the HCFRP sensors were divided into multi-zones with electrodes, and each zone was regarded as a separate sensor. Secondly, their application is studied to monitor the steel corrosion of prestressed concrete (PC) beams. The HCFRP sensors with different gauge lengths were mounted on a PC tendon, steel bar and embedded in tensile and compressive sides of the PC beam. The experiment was carried out under an electric accelerated corrosion and a constant load of about 54 kN. The results reveal that the corrosion of the PC tendon can be monitored through measuring the electrical resistance (ER) change of the HCFRP sensors. For the sensors embedded in tensile side of the PC beam, their ER increases as the corrosion progresses, whereas for the sensors embedded in compressive side, their ER decreases with corrosion time. Moreover, the strains due to the corrosion can be obtained based on the ER change and calibration curves of HCFRP sensors. The strains measured with traditional strain gauges agree with the strains calculated from the ER changes of HCFRP sensors. The electrical behavior of the zones where the corrosion was performed is much different from those of the other zones. In these zones, either there exist jumps in ER, or the ER increases with a much larger rate than those of the other zones. Distributed corrosion monitoring for PC structures is thus demonstrated with the application of HCFRP sensors through a proper installation of multi-electrodes.

  14. In-situ corrosion measurements of WWII shipwrecks in Chuuk Lagoon, quantification of decay mechanisms and rates of deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Donald Macleod

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on a series of measurements taken on WWII historic shipwrecks that resulted from the effects of Operation Hailstone in February 1944 on the Japanese merchant fleet which was assembled in Chuuk lagoon, Federated States of Micronesia. More than 65 shipwrecks and 250 aircraft were sunk during two main bombing raids. The vessels lost covered a wide range of underwater orientation and water depths and so provided a perfect suite of corrosion experiments. Since the fuel on board the aircraft was either readily burnt at the time or was lost through volatilisation, the wrecked planes present no pollution problems today. However the bunker fuel kept inside on-board storage tanks does present a real conservation management crisis. In-situ measurements on many vessels have determined how water depth, the localised wreck topography, dissolved oxygen levels, temperature and salinity affects the corrosion rate of cast iron and mild steel. Thus corrosion rates can be calculated with confidence.

  15. In situ corrosion measurements by electrochemical method (IC experiment) at Mont Terri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewonck, S.; Bataillon, C.; Crusset, D.; Schwyn, B.; Nakayama, N.; Kwong, G.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The study of the interactions of steel pieces with an argillaceous rock is the aim of the IC experiment carried out in the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory (Switzerland). More precisely, the IC experiment consists in monitoring the corrosion rate of various steel (Inconel 690, 316L stainless steel, 2 carbon steels one representative of Andra concept and another of Nagra concept) at 80 deg. C, in anaerobic condition, in contact with the Opalinus clay formation. The corrosion rate monitoring is based on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). This method is not disturbing for the corrosion process i.e. the corrosion rate doesn't change during the electrochemical measurement. The main drawback of this method is that the corrosion process must be in stationary or quasi stationary state: EIS can only measure corrosion rates which do not change quickly with time. This method is well adapted for long term corrosion monitoring because long term corrosion rate evolves slowly. A special design of the experimental setup was developed to allow optimal interactions between rock and steel samples. It consists in mounting the steel samples inside of a bore-core section. This section is then placed at the extremity of the borehole equipment. The equipment is inserted in a vertical descending borehole and sealed by a large packer. Another particularity of the experimental setup is the possibility of heating the experimental section up to 80 deg. C. Finally, the equipment was built in such a way that such that it will be retrievable from the borehole after several years of experiment, in order to perform further analyses on the reacting materials (core and steel samples). A circulation loop links the experimental interval to the sampling, measuring various parameters (pH, Eh, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and hydrogen) and control equipment installed in a cabinet, in the gallery of the underground laboratory. At the

  16. In situ corrosion testing of various nickel alloys at Måbjerg waste incineration plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Hansson, A. N.; Jensen, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    overlay material currently being used to give improved corrosion resistance. In order to assess the use of alternative nickel alloys, test panels have been manufactured and inserted into Måbjerg waste incineration plant. Inconel 625 as a 50% weld overlay, two layered weld overlay and as a spiral weld......The majority of waste in Denmark is disposed via waste to energy (WTE) incineration plants which are fabricated from carbon steel. However, due to the increasing corrosiveness of waste over the years, more corrosion resistant alloys are required. In Denmark, Inconel 625 (UNSN06625) is the weld...... overlay was exposed. Other nickel materials exposed were weld overlay Alloy 686, Alloy 50 and Sumitomo Super 625 coextruded tube. Exposure has been undertaken from 2003 to 2009 in the first pass and 2005–2009 in the second pass, and sections have been removed and investigated during this period...

  17. Localised corrosion in aluminium alloy 2024-T3 using in situ TEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malladi, S.; Shen, C.; Xu, Q.; De Kruijff, T.; Yücelen, E.; Tichelaar, F.; Zandbergen, H.

    2013-01-01

    An approach to carry out chemical reactions using aggressive gases in situ in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), at ambient pressures of 1.5 bar using a windowed environmental cell, called a nanoreactor, is presented here. The nanoreactor coupled with a specially developed holder with

  18. Design of nanocoatings by in situ phosphatizing reagent catalyzed polysilsesquioxane for corrosion inhibition and adhesion promotion on metal alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Kimberly B.

    When a metal reacts with oxygen and water, a redox reaction happens, which will cause corrosion. Current surface pretreatment for inhibiting corrosion on metal alloys is a phosphate conversion bath. The phosphate conversion bath will generate a phosphate-chromate layer to adhere strongly to a metal substrate. However, it is toxic and unfriendly to the environment. Our group proposed an innovative coating that contains a phosphate component (ISPR-In-situ Phosphatizing Reagent) within a protective coating. The ISPR coating will form a bound phosphate layer on the metal surface acting as the corrosion barrier and enhancing adhesion into the metal surface; moreover, it is low in cost and non-toxic. Within this dissertation, there are four projects that investigate design of ISPR nanocoatings for the use of corrosion inhibition and adhesion promotion. Surface modification and adjusting concentrations of materials with the different formulations are explored. The first project focuses on the adhesion enhancement of a coating created by modifying the surface of an aluminum panel. Secondly, the next project will discuss and present the use of three rare earth element formulations as a replacement for phosphate conversion coatings on magnesium alloy, AZ61. The third project is the design of a nanocoating by using heat dissipating materials to fill in small vacant spaces in the ISPR network coating on various metal alloys. The last project, studies the strategic selection of incorporating metal components into ISPR network by the reduction potential values on several different alloys. Many methods of analysis are used; SEM, TEM, ASTM B117, ASTM D1308, ASTM D3359, EIS, and thickness probe. It was found that the addition of ISPR in the nanocoatings dramatically improves the vitality of metal alloys and these results will be presented during this dissertation.

  19. In-situ observation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking in AA2024-T3 under constant load conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaodong; Frankel, G.S.; Zoofan, B.; Rokhlin, S.I.

    2007-01-01

    A specially designed setup was used to apply a constant load to a thin sheet sample of AA2024-T3 and, using microfocal X-ray radiography, to observe in situ the resulting intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) from the exposed edge of the sample. The growth of and competition between multiple IGSCC sites was monitored. In many experiments twin cracks initiated close to each other. Furthermore, the deepest crack at the beginning of every experiment was found to slow or stop growing, and was then surpassed by another crack that eventually penetrated through the sample. These observations cannot be explained by the theory of fracture mechanics in inert environments. The possible mechanisms underlying the competition between cracks are discussed

  20. Measurement of Localized Corrosion Rates at Inclusion Particles in AA7075 by In Situ Three Dimensional (3D) X-ray Synchrotron Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Sudhanshu S.; Williams, Jason J.; Stannard, Tyler J.; Xiao, Xianghui; De Carlo, Francesco; Chawla, Nikhilesh

    2016-03-01

    In situ X-ray synchrotron tomography was used to measure the localized corrosion rate of Mg2Si particles present in 7075 aluminum alloys in deionized ultra-filtered (DIUF) water. The evolution of hydrogen bubbles was captured as a function of time and the measured volume was used to calculate the local corrosion rate of Mg2Si particles. It was shown that in the absence of chloride ions, stress was needed to create fresh particle surfaces, either by fracture or debonding, to initiate corrosion at the particles.

  1. In-situ electrochemical study of interaction of tribology and corrosion in artificial hip prosthesis simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu; Dowson, Duncan; Neville, Anne

    2013-02-01

    The second generation Metal-on-Metal (MoM) hip replacements have been considered as an alternative to commonly used Polyethylene-on-Metal (PoM) joint prostheses due to polyethylene wear debris induced osteolysis. However, the role of corrosion and the biofilm formed under tribological contact are still not fully understood. Enhanced metal ion concentrations have been reported widely from hair, blood and urine samples of patients who received metal hip replacements and in isolated cases when abnormally high levels have caused adverse local tissue reactions. An understanding of the origin of metal ions is really important in order to design alloys for reduced ion release. Reciprocating pin-on-plate wear tester is a standard instrument to assess the interaction of corrosion and wear. However, more realistic hip simulator can provide a better understanding of tribocorrosion process for hip implants. It is very important to instrument the conventional hip simulator to enable electrochemical measurements. In this study, simple reciprocating pin-on-plate wear tests and hip simulator tests were compared. It was found that metal ions originated from two sources: (a) a depassivation of the contacting surfaces due to tribology (rubbing) and (b) corrosion of nano-sized wear particles generated from the contacting surfaces. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. In-situ monitoring of pitting corrosion on vertically positioned 304 stainless steel by analyzing acoustic-emission energy parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Kaige; Jung, Woo-Sang; Byeon, Jai-Won

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pitting process in vertically positioned 304 SS is investigated by AE energy. • Gravity-influenced elongated pit, crack and rupture of pit cover were observed. • Hydrogen bubble evolution and pit covers rupturing were separately monitored by AE. • Four stages of AE energy were correlated with observed pitting mechanism. - Abstract: The acoustic emission (AE) energy was analyzed to monitor the pitting process on a vertically positioned 304-stainless steel. The gravity-dependent morphology of the elongated corrosion pits was observed. A scatter plot of the duration and energy indicated two AE clusters with different energy levels. There was a time delay after the detection of the low-energy hydrogen-bubble signals. Subsequently, high-energy signals were observed, whose AE source was attributed to large-scale cracks formed during the rupture of the elongated pit cover. An in-situ analysis of the AE energy evolution provided detailed insights into the corrosion process in relation to the specimen position.

  3. Synchrotron-based in situ soft X-ray microscopy of Ag corrosion in aqueous chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozzini, B; D'Urzo, L; Gianoncelli, A; Kaulich, B; Kiskinova, M; Prasciolu, M; Tadjeddine, A

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report an in situ X-ray microscopy study of a model metal electrochemistry system, incorporating faradaic reactivity: the anodic corrosion and cathodic electrodeposition of Ag in aqueous systems. The information at sub-μm scale about morpho-chemical evolution of the electrified interface, provided by this novel electroanalytical approach fosters fundamental understanding of important issues concerning material fabrication and stability, which are crucial in developing the next generation electrochemical technologies, such as fuel cells and biosensors. The key methodology challenge faced in this pilot electrochemical experiments is combining a three-electrode configuration and wet environment, which required metal electrodes suitable for transmitting soft X-rays and a sealed cell allowing working in high vacuum. This has been solved via lithographic fabrication route fabricating 75 nm thick Ag electrodes and using Si 3 N 4 membranes as X-ray windows and electrode support. Imaging in the STXM mode with phase contrast allowed us to monitor the corrosion morphologies and metal outgrowth features. Localised thickness variation and the build-up of reaction products of electron density different from that of the starting material have been detected with high sensitivity.

  4. Influence of in situ synthesized TiC on thermal stability and corrosion behavior of Zr60Cu10Al15Ni15 amorphous composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Jiwei; Teng, Xinying; Zhou, Guorong; Leng, Jinfeng; Zhao, Degang

    2014-01-01

    In situ synthesized TiC particles were prepared by a thermal explosion method. Adding “in situ synthesized” TiC into Zr 60 Cu 10 Al 15 Ni 15 glass matrix to obtain amorphous matrix composites was achieved. The corrosion behavior of Zr 60 Cu 10 Al 15 Ni 15 amorphous composites was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization measurements in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution at room temperature. The results show that the microhardness and thermal stability are improved apparently, while the TiC (≤0.6 wt%) does not significantly affect the supercooled liquid behavior. Moreover, the corrosion resistance is improved apparently because the nanocrystals accelerate the diffusion of passive elements for faster formation of the protective passive film at nanocrystals/amorphous interfaces. However, when the TiC content is more than 0.6 wt%, both glass forming ability and corrosion resistance are reduced significantly

  5. Aspects of high temperature corrosion of boiler tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiegel, M.; Bendick, W. [Salzgitter-Mannesmann-Forschung GmbH, Duisburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The development of new boiler steels for power generation has to consider significant creep strength as well as oxidation and corrosion resistance. High temperature corrosion of boiler materials concerns steam oxidation as well as fireside corrosion of parts, in contact with the flue gas. It will be shown that depending on the quality of the fuel, especially chlorine and sulphur are responsible for most of the fireside corrosion problems. Corrosion mechanisms will be presented for flue gas induced corrosion (HCl) and deposit induced corrosion (chlorides and sulfates). Especially for the 700 C technology, deposit induced corrosion issues have to be considered and the mechanisms of corrosion by molten sulfates 'Hot Corrosion' will be explained. Finally, an overview will be given on the selection of suitable materials in order to minimise corrosion relates failures. (orig.)

  6. In-situ hot corrosion testing of candidate materials for exhaust valve spindles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bihlet, Uffe; Hoeg, Harro A.; Dahl, Kristian Vinter

    2011-01-01

    The two stroke diesel engine has been continually optimized since its invention more than a century ago. One of the ways to increase fuel efficiency further is to increase the compression ratio, and thereby the temperature in the combustion chamber. Because of this, and the composition of the fuel...... used, exhaust valve spindles in marine diesel engines are subjected to high temperatures and stresses as well as molten salt induced corrosion. To investigate candidate materials for future designs which will involve the HIP process, a spindle with Ni superalloy material samples inserted in a HIPd Ni49...

  7. In situ analysis of corrosion inhibitors using a portable mass spectrometer with paper spray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jjunju, Fred P M; Li, Anyin; Badu-Tawiah, Abraham; Wei, Pu; Li, Linfan; Ouyang, Zheng; Roqan, Iman S; Cooks, R Graham

    2013-07-07

    Paper spray (PS) ambient ionization is implemented using a portable mass spectrometer and applied to the detection of alkyl quaternary ammonium salts in a complex oil matrix. These salts are commonly used as active components in the formulation of corrosion inhibitors. They were identified in oil and confirmed by their fragmentation patterns recorded using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The cations of alkyl and benzyl-substituted quaternary ammonium salts showed characteristic neutral losses of CnH2n (n carbon number of the longest chain) and C7H8, respectively. Individual quaternary ammonium compounds were detected at low concentrations (oil samples without prior sample preparation or pre-concentration was also demonstrated using a home-built miniature mass spectrometer at levels below 1 ng μL(-1).

  8. Spatially and time-resolved element-specific in situ corrosion investigations with an online hyphenated microcapillary flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry set-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homazava, N.; Ulrich, A.; Kraehenbuehl, U.

    2008-01-01

    A novel technique for in situ spatial, time-resolved element-specific investigations of corrosion processes is developed. The technique is based on an online hyphenation of a specially designed microflow-capillary set-up to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) using flow injection sample introduction. Detailed aspects of the method development, optimization of the sample microflow introduction and flow injection characteristics for the localized corrosion analysis are described. Moreover, specific challenges of the ICP-MS analysis as applied to the analysis of corrosion sample probes, e.g. high matrix load and limited sample volume, are discussed. The efficiency of the developed technique is proved by corrosion susceptibility analysis of a commercial Al alloy. Results of the corrosion experiments of the aluminum alloy AA 6111 are presented to demonstrate the influence of various factors such as exposure time and pH value of the corrosive medium on the element-specific dissolution rates of the alloy. This novel technique provides new aspects in corrosion science and sheds new light on corrosion mechanisms

  9. In-situ electrochemical-AFM study of localized corrosion of AlxCoCrFeNi high-entropy alloys in chloride solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunzhu; Collins, Liam; Balke, Nina; Liaw, Peter K.; Yang, Bin

    2018-05-01

    In-situ electrochemical (EC)-AFM is employed to investigate the localized corrosion of the AlxCoCrFeNi high-entropy alloys (HEAs). Surface topography changes on the micro/sub-micro scale are monitored at different applied anodizing potentials in a 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. The microstructural evolutions with the increased Al content in the alloys are characterized by SEM, TEM, EDS and EBSD. The results show that by increasing the Al content, the microstructure changes from single solid-solution to multi-phases, leading to the segregations of elements. Due to the microstructural variations in the AlxCoCrFeNi HEAs, localized corrosion processes in different ways after the breakdown of the passive film, which changes from pitting to phase boundary corrosion. The XPS results indicate that an increased Al content in the alloys/phases corresponds to a decreased corrosion resistance of the surface passive film.

  10. In Situ Formation of Decavanadate-Intercalated Layered Double Hydroxide Films on AA2024 and their Anti-Corrosive Properties when Combined with Hybrid Sol Gel Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsheng Wu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A layered double hydroxide (LDH film was formed in situ on aluminum alloy 2024 through a urea hydrolysis method, and a decavanadate-intercalated LDH (LDH-V film fabricated through the dip coating method. The microstructural and morphological characteristics were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The corrosion-resistant performance was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM, and a salt-spray test (SST.The SEM results showed that a complete and defect-free surface was formed on the LDH-VS film. The anticorrosion results revealed that the LDH-VS film had better corrosion-resistant properties than the LDH-S film, especially long-term corrosion resistance. The mechanism of corrosion protection was proposed to consist of the self-healing effect of the decavanadate intercalation and the shielding effect of the sol-gel film.

  11. In situ analysis of corrosion inhibitors using a portable mass spectrometer with paper spray ionization

    KAUST Repository

    Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Li, Anyin; Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K.; Wei, Pu; Li, Linfan; Ouyang, Zheng; Roqan, Iman S.; Cooks, Robert Graham

    2013-01-01

    Paper spray (PS) ambient ionization is implemented using a portable mass spectrometer and applied to the detection of alkyl quaternary ammonium salts in a complex oil matrix. These salts are commonly used as active components in the formulation of corrosion inhibitors. They were identified in oil and confirmed by their fragmentation patterns recorded using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The cations of alkyl and benzyl-substituted quaternary ammonium salts showed characteristic neutral losses of CnH2n (n carbon number of the longest chain) and C7H8, respectively. Individual quaternary ammonium compounds were detected at low concentrations (<1 ng μL-1) and over a dynamic range of ∼5 pg μL-1 to 500 pg μL-1 (ppb). Direct detection of these compounds in complex oil samples without prior sample preparation or pre-concentration was also demonstrated using a home-built miniature mass spectrometer at levels below 1 ng μL-1.© 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of surface scale formation during CO2 corrosion of carbon steel at temperatures up to 90 oC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingham, B.; Ko, M.; Kear, G.; Kappen, P.; Laycock, N.; Kimpton, J.A.; Williams, D.E.

    2010-01-01

    In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to follow the formation of corrosion product scales on carbon steel in CO 2 saturated brine at temperatures from 40 to 90 o C. The corrosion process was accelerated by applying a small anodic current, and in selected tests a scale inhibitor, amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMPA), was added. Siderite was identified as the major phase in the scale formed in all conditions. With increasing temperature, the scale formation rate increased, while the scale thickness and crystallite size decreased. Above 60 o C, the scale became increasingly protective. The scale thickness and crystallite size decreased with increasing ATMPA concentration.

  13. In situ measurement of corrosion of type 316L stainless steel in 553 K pure water via the electrical resistance of a thin wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Kazushige; Lister, Derek

    2012-01-01

    A system for the in situ monitoring of corrosion depth via electrical resistance measurements was applied to study the corrosion rate of type 316L stainless steel at 553 K in pure water. Corrosion depth was measured using a 50 μm diameter wire probe mounted axially in the tube. Measurements were in good agreement with literature data for both the hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) condition and the normal water chemistry (NWC) condition. Oxide film analyses by scanning electron microscopy and laser Raman spectroscopy on the wire probe and the tube showed no effects from shape of the test specimens or the application of electric current. Corrosion kinetics was evaluated by fitting equations to the measurements. Data for the HWC condition could be fitted by a two-step logarithmic-parabolic law. A single-step logarithmic law fitted data for the NWC condition. Changes in corrosion rate by the water chemistry changes were readily detected with the technique. Corrosion depth change could be observed for the water chemistry change from the NWC condition to the HWC condition with electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) of -0.56 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode, which is lower than the ECP that the phase of iron oxide changes from α-Fe 2 O 3 to Fe 3 O 4 . (author)

  14. In situ colonization of marine biofilms on UNS S32760 duplex stainless steel coupons in areas with different water qualities: Implications for corrosion potential behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messano, Luciana V. R. de; Ignacio, Barbara L.; Neves, Maria H. C. B.; Coutinho, Ricardo

    2014-09-01

    In the presence of biofilms, stainless steels (SS) exhibits an increase in corrosion potential, called ennoblement. In the present study, the corrosion potential ( E corr) behavior of the duplex SS UNS S32760 was recorded simultaneously with the in situ marine biofilm formation in two areas at Arraial do Cabo, Southeastern Brazil. The biofilm at Forno Harbor (an anthropogenically disturbed area) was characterized by higher relative abundances of Bacteria at day 2, followed by diatoms (especially Navicula sp.) on day 10 and dinoflagellates on day 18, whereas no clear trend was recorded at Cabo Frio Island (an undisturbed area). The ennoblement of E corr values was site-dependent. In a complementary laboratory assay, biofilms were removed and the E corr values registered in sterile conditions for the subsequent 10 days and corroborated in situ results. Understanding biofilms and SS interactions has important implications for materials science and engineering decisions as well as helping to fill in important gaps in this knowledge.

  15. Corrosion behaviour of selected high-level waste packaging materials under gamma irradiation and in-situ disposal conditions in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smailos, E.; Schwarzkopf, W.; Koester, R.

    1988-07-01

    Corrosion studies performed until now on a number of materials have shown that unalloyed steels, Hastelloy C4 and Ti 99.8-Pd are the most promising materials for a long-term resistant packaging to be used in high-level waste (HLW) canister disposal in rock salt formations. To characterize their corrosion behaviour in more detail, additional studies have been performed. The influence has been examined which is exerted by the gamma dose rate (1 Gy/h to 100 Gy/h) on the corrosion of three preselected steels and Hastelloy C4 at 90 0 C in a salt brine (Q-brine) rich in MgCl 2 , i.e., conditions relevant to accident scenarios in a repository. In addition, in-situ corrosion experiments have been carried out in the Asse salt mine at elevated temperatures (120 0 C to 210 0 C) in the absence and in the presence of a gamma radiation field of 3 x 10 2 Gy/h, within the framework of the German/US Brine Migration Test. Under the test conditions the gamma radiation did not exert a significant influence on the corrosion of the steels investigated, whereas Hastelloy C4, exposed to dose rates of 10 Gy/h and 100 Gy/h, underwent pitting and crevice corrosion (20 μm/a at the maximum).The low amounts of migrated salt brine (140 ml after 900 days) in the in-situ- experiment did not produce noticeable corrosion of the materials. (orig./RB) [de

  16. Surface monitoring for pitting evolution into uniform corrosion on Cu-Ni-Zn ternary alloy in alkaline chloride solution: ex-situ LCM and in-situ SECM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Decheng; Dong, Chaofang; Zheng, Zhaoran; Mao, Feixiong; Xu, Aoni; Ni, Xiaoqing; Man, Cheng; Yao, Jizheng; Xiao, Kui; Li, Xiaogang

    2018-05-01

    The evolution of the corrosion process on Cu-Ni-Zn alloy in alkaline chloride solution was investigated by in-situ scanning electrochemical microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ex-situ laser confocal microscopy, and the effects of ambient temperature and polarization time were also discussed. The results demonstrated a higher pitting nucleation rate and lower pit growth rate at low temperature. The ratio of pit depth to mouth diameter decreased with increasing pit volume and temperature, indicating that pits preferentially propagate in the horizontal direction rather than the vertical direction owing to the presence of corrosion products and deposited copper. The surface current was uniform and stabilized at approximately 2.2 nA during the passive stage, whereas the current increased after the pits were formed with the maximum approaching 3 nA. Increasing the temperature led to an increase in porous corrosion products (CuO, Zn(OH)2, and Ni(OH)2) and significantly increased the rate of transition from pitting to uniform corrosion. Dezincification corrosion was detected by energy dispersive spectrometry, and a mechanism for pitting transition into uniform corrosion induced by dezincification at the grain boundaries is proposed.

  17. Novel implementation of the use of the EPR-in situ technique (Electrochemical potentiodynamic reactivation) to identify intergranular corrosion susceptability of stainless steels exposed to high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, N.; Pineda, Y.; Vera, E.; Sepulveda, H.; Heyn, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels (18 % Cr), are often used in pieces that are exposed to temperatures of 450 o C to 900 o C (heat exchangers). At these temperatures sensibilization occurs on the grain boundaries, becoming a key factor in the appearance of intergranular corrosion. In order to prevent this phenomena from occurring 0.3% to 0.8% of niobium is added as an alloying element in the manufacturing process, which prevents the carbon present in the steel combines with the chromium, avoiding the formation of carbides. An electrochemical method for in-situ application was developed to evaluate the corrosive behavior of stainless steel and its susceptibility and degree of sensibilizaton to an intergranular attack. This work shows the effectiveness of this technique in evaluating niobium's inhibitory effect in preventing the formation of chromium carbides on the grain boundaries of 18% chromium steel, and also shows the technique's potentiality in determining how susceptible these steels are to intercrystalline corrosion

  18. In-situ corrosion studies on selected high-level waste packaging materials under simulated disposal conditions in rock salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzkopf, W.; Smailos, E.; Koester, R.

    1988-01-01

    This work reports about in situ corrosion experiments on unalloyed steels, Ti 99,8-Pd, Hastelloy C4, and iron-base alloys, as modular cast iron, Ni-Resist D4 and Si-cast iron, under simulated disposal conditions. The experiments were carried out in the frame of the German/US Brine Migration Test in heated tubed boreholes in the Asse salt mine at T = 150 0 C to 210 0 C, both in the absence and in the presence of a γ-radiation field of 3x10 2 Gy/h (Co-60 source). In addition, the material used to protect the tubing from corrosion (Inconel 600) as well as the backfill material for the annular gap (Al 2 O 3 spheres) were investigated for possible corrosion attack. All materials investigate exhibited high resistance to corrosion under the conditions prevailing in the Brine Migration Test. All material specimens corroded at much lower rates than determined in the previous laboratory-scale tests. All materials and above all the materials with passivating oxide layers such as Ti 99.8-Pd and Hastelloy C4 which may corrode selectively already in the presence of minor amounts of brine had been resistant with respect to any type of local corrosion attack. The γ-radiation of 3x10 2 Gy/h did not exert an influence on the corrosion behaviour of the materials. No corrosion attacks were observed on the Al 2 O 3 spheres. In the case of Inconel 600 traces of sulphur were detected probably resulting from the reaction of Ni with H 2 S to NiS. Measurable general and local corrosion, however, have not been observed. (orig./IHOE) [de

  19. In situ 3D monitoring of corrosion on carbon steel and ferritic stainless steel embedded in cement paste

    KAUST Repository

    Itty, Pierre-Adrien; Serdar, Marijana; Meral, Cagla; Parkinson, Dula; MacDowell, Alastair A.; Bjegović, Dubravka; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In a X-ray microcomputed tomography study, active corrosion was induced by galvanostatically corroding steel embedded in cement paste. The results give insight into corrosion product build up, crack formation, leaching of products into the cracks and voids, and differences in morphology of corrosion attack in the case of carbon steel or stainless steel reinforcement. Carbon steel was homogeneously etched away with a homogeneous layer of corrosion products forming at the steel/cement paste interface. For ferritic stainless steel, pits were forming, concentrating the corrosion products locally, which led to more extensive damage on the cement paste cover. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. In situ 3D monitoring of corrosion on carbon steel and ferritic stainless steel embedded in cement paste

    KAUST Repository

    Itty, Pierre-Adrien

    2014-06-01

    In a X-ray microcomputed tomography study, active corrosion was induced by galvanostatically corroding steel embedded in cement paste. The results give insight into corrosion product build up, crack formation, leaching of products into the cracks and voids, and differences in morphology of corrosion attack in the case of carbon steel or stainless steel reinforcement. Carbon steel was homogeneously etched away with a homogeneous layer of corrosion products forming at the steel/cement paste interface. For ferritic stainless steel, pits were forming, concentrating the corrosion products locally, which led to more extensive damage on the cement paste cover. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. In-situ Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies on the pitting corrosion of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel in neutral chloride solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, S.; Nanda Gopala Krishna, D.; Mudali, U. Kamachi

    2018-01-01

    In-situ Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies were performed for the identification of native and corroded surface oxide layers of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel. The Raman data obtained for native oxide layer of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel revealed that it was mainly composed of oxides of Fe and Cr. The presence of alloying element Mo was found to be less significant in the native oxide film. The oxides of Cr were dominant at the surface and were found to be decreasing closer to metal/oxide layer interface. The changes in the chemical composition of the native films upon in-situ pitting during potentiostatic polarization experiment were characterized by in-situ Raman analysis. The corrosion products of potentiostatically polarized modified 9Cr-1Mo steel was composed of dominant Fe (III) phases viz., γ- Fe2O3, α and γ - FeOOH along with the oxides of chromium. The results from Raman analysis were corroborated with the XPS experiments on as received and pitted samples of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel specimens. It was observed that the oxides of Cr and Mo contributed for the stability of the surface layer by forming Cr2O3 and MoO3. Also, the study attempted to find out the intermediate corrosion products inside the metastable pits to account for the pseudo passive behavior of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel in 0.1 M NaCl solution.

  2. Thermal Treatment, Sliding Wear and Saline Corrosion of Al In Situ Reinforced with Mg2Si and Ex Situ Reinforced with TiC Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekatou, A. G.; Poulia, A.; Mavros, H.; Karantzalis, A. E.

    2018-02-01

    The main objective of this work is to produce a composite consisting of (a) a cast heat-treatable Al-Mg-Si alloy with high contents of Mg for corrosion resistance and Si to offset the Mg-due poor castability (in situ hypoeutectic Mg2Si/Al composite) and (b) TiC particles at high enough volume fractions (≤ 15%), in order to achieve a satisfactory combination of wear and corrosion performance. TiCp/Al-7Mg-5Si (wt.%) composites were produced by flux-assisted casting followed by solution and aging heat treatment. Solution treatment led to a relatively uniform dispersion and shape rounding of Mg2Si precipitates and Si particles. TiC particle addition resulted in refinement of primary Al, modification of the Mg2Si Chinese script morphology and refinement/spheroidization of primary Mg2Si. Heat treatment combined with TiC addition notably improved the sliding wear resistance of Al-7Mg-5Si. A wear mechanism has been proposed. The TiC/Al interfaces remained intact of corrosion during potentiodynamic polarization of the heat-treated materials in 3.5 wt.% NaCl. Different main forms of localized corrosion in 3.5 wt.% NaCl were identified for each TiC content (0, 5, 15 vol.%), depending on specific degradation favoring microstructural features (topology/size/interface wetting) at each composition.

  3. Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabaugh, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    Presents some materials for use in demonstration and experimentation of corrosion processes, including corrosion stimulation and inhibition. Indicates that basic concepts of electrochemistry, crystal structure, and kinetics can be extended to practical chemistry through corrosion explanation. (CC)

  4. Long-term in situ corrosion investigation of Zr alloys in simulated PWR environment by electrochemical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehr, H.; Schaller, J.; Ruhmann, H.; Garzarolli, F.

    1996-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of Zircaloy-type alloys with different tin contents of 1.55, 0.70, and 0.55 wt% was studied at 350 C and 17 MPa in an environment similar to PWR primary water. Impedance spectra were taken at time intervals and evaluated for thickness and morphology of the oxide layer as well as for its electrical resistance. The tests without any temperature and pressure cycling showed similar oxidation behavior with repeated transitions as in discontinuously performed standard autoclave tests. Early in the pre-transition range, a dense oxide layer is formed, and fast changes of corrosion potential and electrical resistance are observed. The dense layer increases in thickness and homogeneity up to the transition, where a sudden breakdown occurs. Abrupt changes of the corrosion potential and electrical resistance were observed also at those points. After transition, a new dense layer is built up. The corrosion potential changes are caused by a decrease of the electrical corrosion current with increasing oxide layer thickness, by the formation of a potential drop over the high-resistance dense oxide layer, and by structural changes at the transition points. In general, alloys with different tin contents show similar behavior. However, they show differences in the time to transition, the kinetic constants deduced from their impedance spectra, and in the ionic and electronic resistance of the dense inner layer controlling corrosion

  5. In-situ corrosion investigation at Masnedø CHP plant - a straw-fired power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Karlsson, Asger

    1999-01-01

    Various austenitic and ferritic steels were exposed on a water-cooled probe in the superheater area of a straw-fired CHP plant. The temperature of the probe ranged from 450-600°C and the period of exposure was 1400 hours. The rate of corrosion was assessed based on unattacked metal remaining...

  6. Advances and Achievements in In Situ Analysis of Corrosion and Structure–Property Relationship in Mg Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlov, D.; Joshi, V.

    2016-11-03

    Every year, TMS Magnesium Committee carefully selects a special topic in magnesium (Mg) related research and development not only having the hottest subject from both academic and industrial perspectives but also demonstrating major achievements within this subject. Following last year’s topic on Mg microallying [1], this year’s focus is on in-situ methods and associated techniques in their broad definition spanning from laboratory- to large- scale facilities to process monitoring. The applications of in-situ techniques have a wide spectrum from the analysis of melts and liquid-solid transitions to solid-state phenomena during thermo-mechanical processing and heat treatments to surface interactions with various environments. Therefore, such works are of significant interest to scientists working in the area of Mg alloy development as well as to a much broader audience from both academia and industry. This interest is primarily caused by challenges in the analysis of structure-property relationship in Mg alloys, and even cursory glance of literature reveals sharp increase of publications relevant to this topic recently. For instance, very high reactivity of Mg as well as its well-known propensity to substantially alter structure upon unloading in mechanical testing makes it difficult to understand and thus to simulate correlation between microstructures observed in post-mortem analysis and physical processes during testing or fabrication. However, recent advances in in-situ analysis based on large-scale research facilities such as neutron scattering and synchrotron radiation sources as well as microscopy-based, acoustic emission, and other more traditional techniques allowed significant achievements. Apart from apparent development of relevant experimental techniques, a significant part of this success should also be attributed to increasing accessibility of the facilities and simplification of their use from a user perspective. The selection of articles in this

  7. Corrosion products in power generating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, D.H.

    1980-06-01

    The important mechanisms of corrosion and corrosion product movement and fouling in the heat transport systems of thermal electric generating stations are reviewed. Oil- and coal-fired boilers are considered, along with nuclear power systems - both direct and indirect cycle. Thus, the fireside and waterside in conventional plants, and the primary coolant and steam-raising circuits in water-cooled reactors, are discussed. Corrosion products in organic- and liquid-metal-cooled reactors also are shown to cause problems if not controlled, while their beneficial effects on the cooling water side of condensers are described. (auth)

  8. An in situ Raman spectroscopy system for long-term corrosion experiments in high temperature water up to 673 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domae, Masafumi; Tani, Jun-ichi; Fujiwara, Kazutoshi; Katsumura, Yosuke

    2006-01-01

    A Raman spectroscopy system has been developed, in order to identify oxides formed on the surfaces of metals and steels in high temperature water up to 673 K. A supercritical water loop system including a Raman cell was installed. The design of the loop system is up to 673 K and 40 MPa. The Raman cell has a diamond window without window-to-metal packing. Raman spectrum of alumina plate was measured at room temperature, at 523 and at 673 K under pressure of 25 MPa. A long-term measurement was also performed at 523 K and 25 MPa for 117.5 h. In all cases intense Raman peaks attributed to alumina were observed. Raman spectrum of anatase particles in suspension was measured at 673 K and 25 MPa. The results show that the Raman spectroscopy system developed in the present study works well not only for plate sample but also for suspension. Raman spectra observed for titanium plate in high temperature water of 673 K and 25 MPa show growth of several Raman peaks with time up to 257 h. The peaks disappeared after cooled down to room temperature. The experimental results have demonstrated importance of in situ Raman spectroscopy. (author)

  9. In situ monitoring the effects of a magnetic field on the open-circuit corrosion states of iron in acidic and neutral solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhanpeng; Yang Wu

    2008-01-01

    The effects of a 0.4 T horizontal magnetic field (HMF) on the open-circuit corrosion states of iron in static aqueous solutions are studied by in situ monitoring the responses of two electrochemical parameters to the applied magnetic field, i.e. the open-circuit potential (OCP) and the current under potentiostatic polarization. The applied magnetic field makes the OCP shift in the noble direction. Withdrawing the magnetic field causes a negative shift of the OCP in acidic solutions, but it does not cause any significant change of OCP in neutral solutions. Imposing a magnetic field induces a cathodic current for iron that was previously potentiostatically polarized at the OCP without magnetic field. Withdrawing the magnetic field induces an anodic current for iron that was previously potentiostatically polarized at the OCP with the magnetic field. The magnetic field effect is more significant in the acid solutions than in the salt solutions. The magnetic field effects on the oxygen reduction and on the activation-controlled iron dissolution reaction are found to be insignificant. The magnetic field effect on the hydrogen reduction reaction on iron in acidic solutions is demonstrated. Results show the possibility that a magnetic field would affect the hydrogen evolution by enhancing the electron-transfer process that has been categorized in the classical electrochemistry kinetics to be the rate-determining process. The memory effect of the magnetic field on the electrochemical reaction is identified and discussed

  10. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of scale formation during CO{sub 2} corrosion of carbon steel in sodium and magnesium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingham, B. [Industrial Research Limited, P.O. Box 31-310, Lower Hutt 5045 (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Ko, M., E-mail: m.ko@questintegrity.com [MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Quest Integrity Group, P.O. Box 38-096, Lower Hutt 5045 (New Zealand); School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1022 (New Zealand); Laycock, N. [Quest Integrity Group, P.O. Box 38-096, Lower Hutt 5045 (New Zealand); Burnell, J. [Industrial Research Limited, P.O. Box 31-310, Lower Hutt 5045 (New Zealand); Kappen, P. [Centre for Materials and Surface Science, Department of Physics, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3086 (Australia); Kimpton, J.A. [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, VIC 3168 (Australia); Williams, D.E. [MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1022 (New Zealand)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied the scale formation processes of carbon steel in CO{sub 2} saturated brine at 80 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protective scales were formed in all tests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Only FeCO{sub 3} formed in saturated brine while Fe(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3} detected with presence of MgCl{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MgCl{sub 2} accelerates the onset of siderite precipitation. - Abstract: In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to follow the formation of corrosion products on carbon steel in CO{sub 2} saturated NaCl solution and mixed NaCl/magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}) at 80 Degree-Sign C. Siderite (FeCO{sub 3}) was the only phase formed in NaCl solution, while Fe(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3} was also detected when MgCl{sub 2} was present. The proposed model is that siderite precipitation, occurring once the critical supersaturation was exceeded within a defined boundary layer, caused local acidification which accelerated the anodic dissolution of iron. The current fell once a complete surface scale was formed. It is suggested that MgCl{sub 2} addition decreased the required critical supersaturation for precipitation.

  11. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of scale formation during CO2 corrosion of carbon steel in sodium and magnesium chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingham, B.; Ko, M.; Laycock, N.; Burnell, J.; Kappen, P.; Kimpton, J.A.; Williams, D.E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied the scale formation processes of carbon steel in CO 2 saturated brine at 80 °C. ► Protective scales were formed in all tests. ► Only FeCO 3 formed in saturated brine while Fe(OH) 2 CO 3 detected with presence of MgCl 2 . ► MgCl 2 accelerates the onset of siderite precipitation. - Abstract: In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to follow the formation of corrosion products on carbon steel in CO 2 saturated NaCl solution and mixed NaCl/magnesium chloride (MgCl 2 ) at 80 °C. Siderite (FeCO 3 ) was the only phase formed in NaCl solution, while Fe(OH) 2 CO 3 was also detected when MgCl 2 was present. The proposed model is that siderite precipitation, occurring once the critical supersaturation was exceeded within a defined boundary layer, caused local acidification which accelerated the anodic dissolution of iron. The current fell once a complete surface scale was formed. It is suggested that MgCl 2 addition decreased the required critical supersaturation for precipitation.

  12. Development of Self-Powered Wireless-Ready High Temperature Electrochemical Sensors for In-Situ Corrosion Monitoring for Boiler Tubes in Next Generation Coal-based Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xingbo [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The key innovation of this project is the synergy of the high temperature sensor technology based on the science of electrochemical measurement and state-of-the-art wireless communication technology. A novel self-powered wireless high temperature electrochemical sensor system has been developed for coal-fired boilers used for power generation. An initial prototype of the in-situ sensor demonstrated the capability of the wireless communication system in the laboratory and in a pilot plant (Industrial USC Boiler Setting) environment to acquire electrochemical potential and current signals during the corrosion process. Uniform and localized under-coal ash deposit corrosion behavior of Inconel 740 superalloy has been studied at different simulated coal ash hot corrosion environments using the developed sensor. Two typical potential noise patterns were found to correlate with the oxidation and sulfidation stages in the hot coal ash corrosion process. Two characteristic current noise patterns indicate the extent of the corrosion. There was a good correlation between the responses of electrochemical test data and the results from corroded surface analysis. Wireless electrochemical potential and current noise signals from a simulated coal ash hot corrosion process were concurrently transmitted and recorded. The results from the performance evaluation of the sensor confirm a high accuracy in the thermodynamic and kinetic response represented by the electrochemical noise and impedance test data.

  13. Evolution of the Corrosion Morphology on AZ31B Tracked Electrochemically and by In Situ Microscopy in Chloride-Containing Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, M. A.; Cain, T. W.; Briglia, B. F.; Scully, J. R.; Fitz-Gerald, J. M.

    2017-11-01

    The evolution of open-circuit corrosion morphology as a function of immersion time for Mg alloy AZ31B in 0.6-M NaCl solution was investigated. Real-time optical microscopy accompanied by simultaneous electrochemical characterization was used to characterize the filiform corrosion (FFC) of AZ31B. Specifically, the behavior of propagating corrosion filaments on the metal surface was observed, and correlations among polarization resistance, filament propagation rates, open-circuit potential, and active coverage of local corrosion sites were revealed. Three distinct stages of corrosion were observed in 0.6-M NaCl. An initial passive region, during which a slow potential rise occurred (termed stage I), a second FFC region (termed stage II) with shallow penetrating, distinct filaments, and a final FFC region (termed stage III) with deeper penetrating filaments, aligned to form a linear front. The electrochemical properties of each stage are discussed, providing insights into the penetration rates and corrosion model.

  14. Corrosion characterization of in-situ titanium diboride (TiB2) reinforced aluminium-copper (Al-Cu) alloy by two methods: Salts spray fog and linear polarization resistance (LPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmamuhamadani, R.; Talari, M. K.; Yahaya, Sabrina M.; Sulaiman, S.; Ismail, M. I. S.; Hanim, M. A. Azmah

    2018-05-01

    Aluminium-copper (Al-Cu) alloys is the one of most Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) have important high-strength Al alloys. The aluminium (Al) casting alloys, based on the Al-Cu system are widely used in light-weight constructions and transport applications requiring a combination of high strength and ductility. In this research, Al-Cu master alloy was reinforced with 3 and 6wt.% titanium diboride (TiB2) that obtained from salts route reactions. The salts used were were potassium hexafluorotitanate (K2TiF6) and potassium tetrafluoroborate (KBF4). The salts route reaction process were done at 800 °C. The Al-Cu alloy then has characterized on the mechanical properties and microstructure characterization. Salts spray fog test and Gamry-electrode potentiometer instruments were used to determine the corrosion rate of this alloys. From results obtained, the increasement of 3wt.%TiB2 contents will decrease the value of the corrosion rate. In corrosion test that conducted both of salt spray fog and Gamry-electrode potentiometer, the addition of 3wt.%TiB2 gave the good properties in corrosion characterization compare to Al-Cu-6wt.%TiB2 and Al-Cu cast alloy itself. As a comparison, Al-Cu with 3wt.%TiB2 gave the lowest value of corrosion rate, which means alloy has good properties in corrosion characterization. The results obtained show that in-situ Al-Cu alloy composites containing the different weight of TiB2 phase were synthesized successfully by the salt-metal reaction method.

  15. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of the effect of microstructure and boundary layer conditions on CO2 corrosion of pipeline steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, M.; Ingham, B.; Laycock, N.; Williams, D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied the effects of steel microstructures and local conditions on CO 2 corrosion. • Microstructure influences the development of surface roughness during corrosion. • The effects of Cr alloying, on average, dominate over the effects of microstructure. • Spatial segregation of Cr between the phases in the steel may result in localised corrosion. - Abstract: This study demonstrates that the nucleation of crystalline scales of siderite and chukanovite onto the surface of low-alloy steels under CO 2 corrosion at elevated temperature is critically dependent on initial surface roughness, on microstructure-related surface roughness developed during corrosion, and on stirring in the solution. This study confirms that effects due to chromium micro-alloying in the steel are extremely important for siderite nucleation. On average, these effects dominate over the effects of microstructure. However, spatial variation of the corrosion deposit thickness indicates an interdependence between microstructure and chromium-enhanced siderite nucleation with the possibility of localised corrosion developing as a result

  16. Corrosion of oxide dispersion strengthened iron–chromium steels and tantalum in fluoride salt coolant: An in situ compatibility study for fusion and fusion–fission hybrid reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Dasher, Bassem; Farmer, Joseph; Ferreira, James; Serrano de Caro, Magdalena; Rubenchik, Alexander; Kimura, Akihiko

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► ODS steel corrosion in molten fluoride salts was studied in situ using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. ► Steel/coolant interfacial resistance increases from 600 to 800 °C due to an aluminum enriched layer forming at the surface. ► The addition of tungsten to ODS steels increases corrosion resistance measurably at 600 °C. - Abstract: Primary candidate classes of materials for future nuclear power plants, whether they be fission, fusion or hybrids, include oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels which rely on a dispersion of nano-oxide particles in the matrix for both mechanical strength and swelling resistance, or tantalum alloys which have an inherent neutron-induced swelling resistance and high temperature strength. For high temperature operation, eutectic molten lithium containing fluoride salts are attractive because of their breeding capability as well as their relatively high thermal capacity, which allow for a higher average operating temperature that increases power production. In this paper we test the compatibility of Flinak (LiF–NaF–KF) salts on ODS steels, comparing the performance of current generation ODS steels developed at Kyoto University with the commercial alloy MA956. Pure tantalum was also tested for comparative purposes. In situ data was obtained for temperatures ranging from 600 to 900 °C using a custom-built high temperature electrochemical impedance spectroscopy cell. Results for ODS steels show that steel/coolant interfacial resistance increases from 600 to 800 °C due to an aluminum enriched layer forming at the surface, however an increase in temperature to 900 °C causes this layer to break up and aggressive attack to occur. Performance of current generation ODS steels surpassed that of the MA956 ODS steel, with an in situ impedance behavior similar or better than that of pure tantalum.

  17. Comparative studies on the corrosion protection effect of DBSA-doped polyaniline prepared from in situ emulsion polymerization in the presence of hydrophilic Na+-MMT and organophilic organo-MMT clay platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.-C.; Lai, M.-C.; Peng, C.-W.; Chen, Y.-T.; Yeh, J.-M.; Lin, C.-L.; Yang, J.-C.

    2006-01-01

    A series of polyaniline (PANI)/Na + -montmorillonite (MMT) clay and PANI/organo-MMT nanocomposite materials have been successfully prepared by in situ emulsion polymerization in the presence of inorganic nanolayers of hydrophilic Na + -MMT clay or organophilic organo-MMT clay with DBSA and KPS as surfactant and initiator, respectively. The as-synthesized Na + -PCN and organo-PCN materials were characterized and compared by Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, wide-angle powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Na + -PCN materials in the form of coatings with low loading of Na + -MMT clay (e.g., 3 wt.%, CLAN3) on cold-rolled steel (CRS) were found much superior in corrosion protection over those of organo-PCN materials with same clay loading based on a series of electrochemical measurements of corrosion potential, polarization resistance, corrosion current and impedance spectroscopy in 5 wt.% aqueous NaCl electrolyte. The molecular weights of PANI extracted from PCN materials and neat PANI were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) with NMP as eluant. Effects of material composition on the gas permeability, optical properties and electrical conductivity of neat PANI and a series of PCN materials, in the form of free-standing film, solution and powder-pressed pellet, were also studied by gas permeability analyzer (GPA), ultraviolet-vis spectra and four-point probe technique, respectively

  18. Enhanced corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy by a silane-based solution treatment after an in-situ formation of the Mg(OH)2 layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fubao; Shen, Jun; Gao, Runhua; Xie, Xiong; Luo, Xiong

    2016-03-01

    A novel organic-inorganic Mg(OH)2/silane surface layer has been developed for corrosion protection of AZ31 magnesium alloy. The results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), the immersion tests, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and sellotape tests showed that the Mg(OH)2/silane-based composite surface layer possessed excellent corrosion resistance and very good adhesion due to the formation of Si-O-Mg bond between Mg(OH)2 layer and silane layer. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests results indicated that for the long-term corrosion protection of AZ31 the increase of the curing temperature improved the impedance of the composited layer when the curing temperature was lower than 130 °С. However, the impedance of the composited layer deceased when the curing temperature was more than 130 °С due to the carbonization of the silane layer.

  19. Iron corrosion in an anoxic soil: Comparison between thermodynamic modelling and ferrous archaeological artefacts characterised along with the local in situ geochemical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saheb, M.; Neff, D.; Michelin, A.; Dillmann, P. [CEA Saclay, CNRS, LAPA SIS2M, UMR3299, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Saheb, M. [ANDRA, F-92298 Chatenay Malabry (France); Descostes, M. [CEA Saclay, DEN DANS DPC SECR, Lab Radionuclides Migrat Measurements and Modelling, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Descostes, M. [Univ Evry, CEA, CNRS, UMR 8587, Evry (France); Dillmann, P. [CNRS, Inst Rech Archeomat, UMR 5060, F-75700 Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    This article is part of an ongoing study on the long-term corrosion behaviour of ferrous archaeological artefacts. The aim of this study is to correlate the corrosion products formed on ancient artefacts in an anoxic medium to the environmental data using thermodynamic modelling. For this purpose, measurement campaigns have been conducted on the archaeological site of Glinet (16. century, High Normandy (Seine-Maritime), France) where the evolution of the pore water chemistry has been recorded for a period of one year. Three evolution steps have been distinguished after the oxidizing perturbation which was induced by the piezometers installation. The first step was related to an oxidizing environment in which pore water was in equilibrium with a Fe(III) precipitated phase: ferri-hydrite (FeOOH center dot 0.4 H{sub 2}O). The second step was considered as an intermediate step and Fe speciation had evolved; equilibrium was achieved between ferri-hydrite and a Fe(II) carbonate phase: siderite (Fe(II)CO{sub 3}). The last step of the evolution was related to a reducing stage where pore water was in equilibrium with magnetite (Fe(II, III){sub 3}O{sub 4}) and with chukanovite (Fe(II){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3}). As these phases were present in the corrosion layers formed on the archaeological samples, it is possible to conclude that the thermodynamic approach was helpful in developing a better understanding of the effect of geochemical conditions on the composition and mineralogy of the corrosion products formed on archaeological artefacts. This work could be used as a reference for further corrosion studies, especially on long-term corrosion processes applied to nuclear waste disposal. (authors)

  20. Corrosion behavior and pitting susceptibility of in-situ Ti-based metallic glass matrix composites in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, K. K.; Lan, A. D.; Yang, H. J.; Han, P. D.; Qiao, J. W.

    2017-11-01

    The Ti62Zr12V13Cu4Be9, Ti58Zr16V10Cu4Be12, Ti46Zr20V12Cu5Be17, and Ti40Zr24V12Cu5Be19 metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) were prepared by copper mould casting. The corrosion resistance and the pitting susceptibility of Ti-based MGMCs were tested on their cross-sectional areas in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions by potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The composites with lower Ti contents (Ti40Zr24V12Cu5Be19 and Ti46Zr20V12Cu5Be17) exhibit a low resistance to the chloride induced pitting and local corrosion. The preferential dissolution of amorphous matrix is explained by the high chemical reactivity of beryllium element compared to that of stable dendrites and by the detected lower Ti and V contents. However, fairly good passivity was found in the composite with higher Ti contents (Ti62Zr12V13Cu4Be9). XPS measurements revealed that protective Ti-enriched oxide film was formed on the composite surface, additionally, lower content of beryllium element in amorphous matrix hinder the selective corrosion of amorphous matrix. The assessment of experimental observation leads to a proposed corrosion mechanism involving selective dissolution of amorphous matrix and chloride induced pitting process.

  1. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of the effect of chromium additions to the steel and solution on CO2 corrosion of pipeline steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, M.; Ingham, B.; Laycock, N.; Williams, D.E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •We studied the effect of chromium on CO 2 corrosion processes. •Chromium addition accelerates the onset of siderite and chukanovite precipitation. •One of the key effects is to decrease the critical supersaturation for siderite nucleation. -- Abstract: We demonstrate the important effects of chromium in the steel composition and of Cr 3+ ions in solution on the nucleation and growth of corrosion layers in a CO 2 environment. We propose that high-valent metal cations in solution (within the boundary layer) catalyse the nucleation of siderite, which otherwise has a high critical supersaturation for precipitation. One of the key effects of small alloy additions to the steel is to put into the local solution species that decrease the critical supersaturation for siderite and modify the growth rate of the scale, thereby promoting the formation of an adherent and protective scale

  2. Nature of fireside deposits in a bagasse and groundnut shell fired 20 MW thermal boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srikanth, S.; Das, S.K.; Ravikumar, B.; Rao, D.S.; Nandakumar, K.; Vijayan, P.

    2004-01-01

    The nature of deposit formation on the fireside surfaces of the boiler tubes in the various parts (water walls, platen superheater, final superheater, economizer, electrostatic precipitator etc.) of a commercial 20 MW stoker-fired boiler being fired with a mixture of 80% bagasse and 20% groundnut shell has been analyzed. The deposits in the various portions of the boiler were characterized by particle size analysis, chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The deposits were found to be mainly quartz, alkali and alkaline earth silicates and sulfates. From the phase constitution and other microscopic characteristics of the deposit, it can be inferred that the silicates in the deposit formed through inertial impaction and the sulfates formed by vapor phase deposition

  3. Nature of fireside deposits in a bagasse and groundnut shell fired 20 MW thermal boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srikanth, S.; Rao, D.S. [National Metallurgical Laboratory Madras Centre, Chennai (India); Swapan, S.K.; Das, K.; Ravikumar, B. [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur (India). Materials Characterization Division; Nandakumar, K.; Vijayan, P. [Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli (India). Research and Development Section

    2004-10-01

    The nature of deposit formation on the fireside surfaces of the boiler tubes in the various parts (water walls, platen superheater, final superheater, economizer, electrostatic precipitator etc.) of a commercial 20 MW stoker-fired boiler being fired with a mixture of 80% bagasse and 20% groundnut shell has been analyzed. The deposits in the various portions of the boiler were characterized by particle size analysis, chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The deposits were found to be mainly quartz, alkali and alkaline earth silicates and sulfates. From the phase constitution and other microscopic characteristics of the deposit, it can be inferred that the silicates in the deposit formed through inertial impaction and the sulfates formed by vapor phase deposition. (author)

  4. 2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit: Fireside Chat with Steven Chu and Bill Gates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Steven; Gates, Bill; Podesta, John

    2012-02-28

    The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. This video captures a session called Fireside Chat that featured Steven Chu, the Secretary of Energy, and Bill Gates, Chairman of Microsoft Corporation. The session is moderated by John Podesta, Chair of the Center for American Progress. Energy Secretary Steven Chu and Microsoft Founder and Chairman Bill Gates exchanged ideas about how small businesses and innovators can overcome the challenges that face many startups.

  5. Some principles of service life calculation of reinforcements and in situ corrosion monitoring by sensors in the radioactive waste containers of El Cabril disposal (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, C.; Martinez, I.; Castellote, M.; Zuloaga, P.

    2006-01-01

    Reinforced concrete is the most usual material used in engineered barriers in low-level nuclear waste disposal facilities. The record of modern concrete is no longer than about 100 years. During this time, it has been noticed that the material gives a good performance in many environments, however several chemical aggressive species in water, soil or the atmosphere may react with the cement mineralogical phases and perturb its integrity. El Cabril repository has a design life objective of longer than 300 years and therefore, these structures should maintain their main characteristics during this target service life. The potential aggressive conditions that the cement-based materials can suffer have been identified to be: carbonation, water permeation (leaching) and reinforcement corrosion. More unlikely may be the biological attack. Chlorides are not in the environment but they are inside the drums as part of analytical wastes. Vaults and containers are made of a very similar concrete composition while the mortar is specifically designed to be pumpable, with low hydration heat, low shrinkage and of low permeability. In this paper results of concrete characteristics are given as well as the monitoring of the behaviour of reinforcement corrosion parameters from 1995 on the same environmental conditions of the actual waste. This monitoring has been made in a buried structure with embedded sensors. The effect of temperature is commented

  6. High temperature corrosion of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadakkers, W.J.; Schuster, H.; Ennis, P.J.

    1988-08-01

    This paper covers three main topics: 1. high temperature oxidation of metals and alloys, 2. corrosion in sulfur containing environments and 3. structural changes caused by corrosion. The following 21 subjects are discussed: Influence of implanted yttrium and lanthanum on the oxidation behaviour of beta-NiA1; influence of reactive elements on the adherence and protective properties of alumina scales; problems related to the application of very fine markers in studying the mechanism of thin scale formation; oxidation behaviour of chromia forming Co-Cr-Al alloys with or without reactive element additions; growth and properties of chromia-scales on high-temperature alloys; quantification of the depletion zone in high temperature alloys after oxidation in process gas; effects of HC1 and of N2 in the oxidation of Fe-20Cr; investigation under nuclear safety aspects of Zircaloy-4 oxidation kinetics at high temperatures in air; on the sulfide corrosion of metallic materials; high temperature sulfide corrosion of Mn, Nb and Nb-Si alloys; corrosion behaviour or NiCrAl-based alloys in air and air-SO2 gas mixtures; sulfidation of cobalt at high temperatures; preoxidation for sulfidation protection; fireside corrosion and application of additives in electric utility boilers; transport properties of scales with complex defect structures; observations of whiskers and pyramids during high temperature corrosion of iron in SO2; corrosion and creep of alloy 800H under simulated coal gasification conditions; microstructural changes of HK 40 cast alloy caused by exploitation in tubes in steam reformer installation; microstructural changes during exposure in corrosive environments and their effect on mechanical properties; coatings against carburization; mathematical modeling of carbon diffusion and carbide precipitation in Ni-Cr-based alloys. (MM)

  7. In situ synthesis, electrochemical and quantum chemical analysis of an amino acid-derived ionic liquid inhibitor for corrosion protection of mild steel in 1M HCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowsari, E.; Arman, S.Y.; Shahini, M.H.; Zandi, H.; Ehsani, A.; Naderi, R.; PourghasemiHanza, A.; Mehdipour, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrochemical analysis of effectiveness of an amino acid-derived ionic liquid inhibitor. • Quantum chemical analysis of effectiveness of an amino acid-derived ionic liquid inhibitor. • Finding correlation between electrochemical analysis and quantum chemical analysis. - Abstract: In this study, an amino acid-derived ionic liquid inhibitor, namely tetra-n-butyl ammonium methioninate, was synthesized and the role this inhibitor for corrosion protection of mild steel exposed to 1.0 M HCl was investigated using electrochemical, quantum and surface analysis. By taking advantage of potentiodynamic polarization, the inhibitory action of tetra-n-butyl ammonium methioninate was found to be mainly mixed-type with dominant anodic inhibition. The effectiveness of the inhibitor was also indicated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Moreover, to provide further insight into the mechanism of inhibition, electrochemical noise (EN) and quantum chemical calculations of the inhibitor were performed.

  8. Facile formation of 2D Co2P@Co3O4 microsheets through in-situ toptactic conversion and surface corrosion: Bifunctional electrocatalysts towards overall water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lihua; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Yin; Ni, Yuanman; Yan, Dongpeng; Hu, Changwen

    2018-01-01

    Exploring efficient non-precious electrocatalysts for both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is crucial for many renewable energy conversion processes. In this work, we report that 2D Co2P@Co3O4 microsheets can be prepared through an in-situ toptactic conversion from single-crystal β-Co(OH)2 microplatelets, associated with a surface phosphatization and corrosion process. The resultant Co2P@Co3O4 2D hybrid materials can further serve as self-supported bifunctional catalytic electrodes to drive the overall water splitting for HER and OER simultaneously, with low overpotentials and high long-term stability. Furthermore, a water electrolyzer based on Co2P@Co3O4 hybrid as both anode and cathode is fabricated, which achieves 10 mA cm-2 current at only 1.57 V during water splitting process. Therefore, this work provides a facile strategy to obtain 2D Co2P-based micro/nanostructures, which act as low-cost and highly active electrocatalysts towards overall water splitting application.

  9. Chemistry and melting characteristics of fireside deposits taken from boiler tubes in waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Nobuo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We examine tube deposits taken from boilers of municipal solid waste incinerators. → Literature survey is done on the corrosion mechanism of tube steels. → Chemical analyses, X-ray diffraction, DSC, and corrosion test were conducted. → Melting behavior of salt constituents affected the corrosiveness of the deposits. - Abstract: Twenty-three tube deposits taken from seven heat-recovery boilers of municipal solid waste incinerators were examined by chemical analyses and X-ray diffraction. These deposits were measured by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) in N 2 to investigate their melting characteristics. Sixteen deposits were used to evaluate their corrosiveness to carbon steel by high-temperature corrosion test conducted at 400 o C for 20 h in 1500 ppm HCl - 300 ppm SO 2 - 7.5%O 2 - 7.5%CO 2 - 20%H 2 O - N 2 . Total heat of endothermic reactions of the deposits taking place between 200 and 400 o C can be related to the corrosion rate of carbon steel at 400 o C. Corrosion initiated at temperatures when the deposits started to melt, became severe when fused salt constituents increased, and alleviated when the majority of the deposits became fused. The corrosion can be interpreted as fused salt corrosion caused by chloride and sulfate salts.

  10. In situ observation techniques of protective oxide layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Takashi; Adachi, Takeharu; Usuki, Noriaki

    2015-01-01

    In situ analyzing techniques for investigating a surface and interface change during corrosion and oxidation of metals by using Raman scattering spectroscopy (Raman), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) are present. The Raman spectra revealed that a crystal structure and distribution of corrosion products varied during corrosion progress at elevated temperature and high pressure electrolyte. Time dependent XRD measurements made clear the behavior of the electrochemical reduction of a rust and the iso thermal transformation of a scale on a steel. It was demonstrated that XPS was capable of the in-situ measurements for initial stage of high temperature oxidation. (author)

  11. High Temperature Corrosion Problem of Boiler Components in presence of Sulfur and Alkali based Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debashis; Mitra, Swapan Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Material degradation and ageing is of particular concern for fossil fuel fired power plant components. New techniques/approaches have been explored in recent years for Residual Life assessment of aged components and material degradation due to different damage mechanism like creep, fatigue, corrosion and erosion etc. Apart from the creep, the high temperature corrosion problem in a fossil fuel fired boiler is a matter of great concern if the fuel contains sulfur, chlorine sodium, potassium and vanadium etc. This paper discusses the material degradation due to high temperature corrosion in different critical components of boiler like water wall, superheater and reheater tubes and also remedial measures to avoid the premature failure. This paper also high lights the Residual Life Assessment (RLA) methodology of the components based on high temperature fireside corrosion. of different critical components of boiler.

  12. Corrosion Monitors for Embedded Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Alex L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pfeifer, Kent B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Casias, Adrian L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howell, Stephen W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorensen, Neil R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Missert, Nancy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We have developed and characterized novel in-situ corrosion sensors to monitor and quantify the corrosive potential and history of localized environments. Embedded corrosion sensors can provide information to aid health assessments of internal electrical components including connectors, microelectronics, wires, and other susceptible parts. When combined with other data (e.g. temperature and humidity), theory, and computational simulation, the reliability of monitored systems can be predicted with higher fidelity.

  13. Steam generator corrosion 2007; Dampferzeugerkorrosion 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Born, M. (ed.)

    2007-07-01

    Between 8th and 9th November, 2007, SAXONIA Standortentwicklungs- und -verwertungsgesellschaft GmbH (Freiberg, Federal Republic of Germany) performed the 3rd Freiberger discussion conference ''Fireside boiler corrosion''. The topics of the lectures are: (a) Steam generator corrosion - an infinite history (Franz W. Alvert); (b) CFD computations for thermal waste treatment plants - a contribution for the damage recognition and remedy (Klaus Goerner, Thomas Klasen); (c) Experiences with the use of corrosion probes (Siegfried R. Horn, Ferdinand Haider, Barbara Waldmann, Ragnar Warnecke); (d) Use of additives for the limitation of the high temperature chlorine corrosion as an option apart from other measures to the corrosion protection (Wolfgang Spiegel); (e) Current research results and aims of research with respect to chlorine corrosion (Ragnar Warnecke); (f) Systematics of the corrosion phenomena - notes for the enterprise and corrosion protection (Thomas Herzog, Wolfgang Spiegel, Werner Schmidl); (g) Corrosion protection by cladding in steam generators of waste incinerators (Joerg Metschke); (h) Corrosion protection and wear protection by means of thermal spraying in steam generators (Dietmar Bendix); (i) Review of thick film nickelized components as an effective protection against high-temperature corrosion (Johann-Wilhelm Ansey); (j) Fireproof materials for waste incinerators - characteristics and profile of requirement (Johannes Imle); (k) Service life-relevant aspects of fireproof linings in the thermal recycling of waste (Till Osthoevener and Wolfgang Kollenberg); (l) Alternatives to the fireproof material in the heating space (Heino Sinn); (m) Cladding: Inconal 625 contra 686 - Fundamentals / applications in boiler construction and plant construction (Wolfgang Hoffmeister); (n) Thin films as efficient corrosion barriers - thermal spray coating in waste incinerators and biomass firing (Ruediger W. Schuelein, Steffen Hoehne, Friedrich

  14. In-Situ Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of Nickel-Base 718 Alloy Under Various CO2 Partial Pressures at 150 and 205 °C in NaCl Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yubi; Zhao, Yongtao; Tang, An; Yang, Wenjie; Li, Enzuo

    2018-03-01

    The electrochemical corrosion behavior of nickel-base alloy 718 was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization techniques at various partial pressures of CO2 (P_{{{CO}2 }} s) in a 25 wt% NaCl solution at 150 and 205 °C. The passive films composed of FeCO3 exhibit good corrosion resistance with a feature of Warburg impedance, Tafel plots show a complete passivation and the anodic reactions was dominated by a diffusion process at low P_{{{CO}2 }} s (1.8-9.8 MPa) at 150 °C. While numerous dented corrosion areas appeared on the sample surface for the P_{{{CO}2 }} of 11.6 MPa at 205 °C, the Tafel plot with three anodic peaks and the Nyquist diagram with an atrophied impedance arc were present. This dented corrosion attribute to the synergistic effects of stress, temperature, P_{{{CO}2 }} and Cl-, the temperature and stress could play crucial roles on the corrosion of the alloy 718.

  15. Corrosion and corrosion control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, A.S.; Totlani, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    Corrosion has always been associated with structures, plants, installations and equipment exposed to aggressive environments. It effects economy, safety and product reliability. Monitoring of component corrosion has thus become an essential requirement for the plant health and safety. Protection methods such as appropriate coatings, cathodic protection and use of inhibitors have become essential design parameters. High temperature corrosion, especially hot corrosion, is still a difficult concept to accommodate in corrosion allowance; there is a lack of harmonized system of performance testing of materials at high temperatures. In order to discuss and deliberate on these aspects, National Association for Corrosion Engineers International organised a National Conference on Corrosion and its Control in Bombay during November 28-30, 1995. This volume contains papers presented at the symposium. Paper relevant to INIS is indexed separately. refs., figs., tabs

  16. Dictionary corrosion and corrosion control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This dictionary has 13000 entries in both languages. Keywords and extensive accompanying information simplify the choice of word for the user. The following topics are covered: Theoretical principles of corrosion; Corrosion of the metals and alloys most frequently used in engineering. Types of corrosion - (chemical-, electro-chemical, biological corrosion); forms of corrosion (superficial, pitting, selective, intercrystalline and stress corrosion; vibrational corrosion cracking); erosion and cavitation. Methods of corrosion control (material selection, temporary corrosion protection media, paint and plastics coatings, electro-chemical coatings, corrosion prevention by treatment of the corrosive media); Corrosion testing methods. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Hearth and Campfire Influences on Arterial Blood Pressure: Defraying the Costs of the Social Brain through Fireside Relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Dana Lynn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of fire in human evolutionary history is widely acknowledged but the extent not fully explored. Fires involve flickering light, crackling sounds, warmth, and a distinctive smell. For early humans, fire likely extended the day, provided heat, helped with hunting, warded off predators and insects, illuminated dark places, and facilitated cooking. Campfires also may have provided social nexus and relaxation effects that could have enhanced prosocial behavior. According to this hypothesis, calmer, more tolerant people would have benefited in the social milieu via fireside interactions relative to individuals less susceptible to relaxation response. Using a randomized crossover design that disaggregated fire's sensory properties, pre-posttest blood pressure measures were compared among 226 adults across three studies with respect to viewing simulated muted-fire, fire-with-sound, and control conditions, in addition to tests for interactions with hypnotizability, absorption, and prosociality. Results indicated consistent blood pressure decreases in the fire-with-sound condition, particularly with a longer duration of stimulus, and enhancing effects of absorption and prosociality. Findings confirm that hearth and campfires induce relaxation as part of a multisensory, absorptive, and social experience. Enhancements to relaxation capacities in the human social brain likely took place via feedback involving these and other variables.

  18. Hearth and campfire influences on arterial blood pressure: defraying the costs of the social brain through fireside relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Christopher Dana

    2014-11-11

    The importance of fire in human evolutionary history is widely acknowledged but the extent not fully explored. Fires involve flickering light, crackling sounds, warmth, and a distinctive smell. For early humans, fire likely extended the day, provided heat, helped with hunting, warded off predators and insects, illuminated dark places, and facilitated cooking. Campfires also may have provided social nexus and relaxation effects that could have enhanced prosocial behavior. According to this hypothesis, calmer, more tolerant people would have benefited in the social milieu via fireside interactions relative to individuals less susceptible to relaxation response. Using a randomized crossover design that disaggregated fire's sensory properties, pre-posttest blood pressure measures were compared among 226 adults across three studies with respect to viewing simulated muted-fire, fire-with-sound, and control conditions, in addition to tests for interactions with hypnotizability, absorption, and prosociality. Results indicated consistent blood pressure decreases in the fire-with-sound condition, particularly with a longer duration of stimulus, and enhancing effects of absorption and prosociality. Findings confirm that hearth and campfires induce relaxation as part of a multisensory, absorptive, and social experience. Enhancements to relaxation capacities in the human social brain likely took place via feedback involving these and other variables.

  19. Investigations in situ des mécanismes de corrosion élémentaires durant le traitement de surface des alliages Al-Cu et Al-Cu-Li

    OpenAIRE

    Gharbi , Oumaïma

    2016-01-01

    This PhD thesis focused on the study of aluminum alloys, particularly the AA2024-T3 and AA2050-T3. The Al-Cu-Mg based alloy (AA2024-T3) are used for decades in the field of aerospace for its lightness and excellent mechanical properties are progressively replaced by and Al-Cu-Li (AA2050-T3) alloys. Nevertheless, they exhibit a highly heterogeneous microstructure, making them sensitive to corrosion. Several surface treatments formulations, such as coatings, have been developed, with the aim of...

  20. In-Situ Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Anders Thais; Slot, Susanne; Paltved, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    , and organisational characteristic. Therefore, it might fail to fully mimic real clinical team processes. Though research on in situ simulation in healthcare is in its infancy, literature is abundant on patient safety and team training1. Patient safety reporting systems that identify risks to patients can improve......Introduction: In situ simulation offers on-site training to healthcare professionals. It refers to a training strategy where simulation technology is integrated into the clinical encounter. Training in the simulation laboratory does not easily tap into situational resources, e.g. individual, team...... patient safety if coupled with training and organisational support. This study explored the use of critical incidents and adverse events reports for in situ simulation and short-term observations were used to create learning objectives and training scenarios. Method: This study used an interventional case...

  1. In situ groundwater bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-02-01

    In situ groundwater bioremediation of hydrocarbons has been used for more than 40 years. Most strategies involve biostimulation; however, recently bioaugmentation have been used for dehalorespiration. Aquifer and contaminant profiles are critical to determining the feasibility and strategy for in situ groundwater bioremediation. Hydraulic conductivity and redox conditions, including concentrations of terminal electron acceptors are critical to determine the feasibility and strategy for potential bioremediation applications. Conceptual models followed by characterization and subsequent numerical models are critical for efficient and cost effective bioremediation. Critical research needs in this area include better modeling and integration of remediation strategies with natural attenuation.

  2. Sex in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøgholt, Ida

    2017-01-01

    Sex er en del af vores sociale praksis og centralt for det, vi hver især er. Men bortset fra pornoindustrien, har vi ikke mange muligheder for at få adgang til billeder af sex. Teater Nordkrafts forestilling Sex in situ vil gøre seksuelle billeder til noget, der kan deles, udveksles og tales om, og...

  3. In situ reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Corey William; Blackwelder, David Bradley

    2004-01-27

    An in situ reactor for use in a geological strata, is described and which includes a liner defining a centrally disposed passageway and which is placed in a borehole formed in the geological strata; and a sampling conduit is received within the passageway defined by the liner and which receives a geological specimen which is derived from the geological strata, and wherein the sampling conduit is in fluid communication with the passageway defined by the liner.

  4. Monitoring of electrokinetic in-situ-decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldmann, T. [INTUS Inst. fuer Technologie und Umweltschutz e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The need for a monitoring system for in-situ soil decontamination is two-fold: Firstly, to ensure that remediation is attained and secondly to minimize costs and treatment time. A further reason is the potential risk of unexpected mobilization or chemical generation of hazardous compounds which could result in an extension of the contamination into other regions of soil, the ground water or the atmosphere. Electrokinetic in-situ decontamination is based on transport processes in the ground that proceed with relatively low velocity. This results in treatment times of several months. Since the transport processes can be described by a mathematical model, monitoring should always be combined with qualified mathematical processing. This makes it possible to estimate treatment time and costs to be expected. The challenge of in-situ monitoring is to identify relevant parameters describing the state of the ground. These parameters must be independent from influences like weather but they must be sensitive to changes of soil characteristics. In the case of electrokinetic soil remediation, probes and sensors must be resistant to influences of electric fields. The function of sensors or measuring systems can be disturbed or even damaged or destroyed by electric fields (for example by electro-corrosion). (orig.)

  5. Corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, V.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on alloy corrosion cracking. Topics considered at the conference included the effect of niobium addition on intergranular stress corrosion cracking, corrosion-fatigue cracking in fossil-fueled-boilers, fracture toughness, fracture modes, hydrogen-induced thresholds, electrochemical and hydrogen permeation studies, the effect of seawater on fatigue crack propagation of wells for offshore structures, the corrosion fatigue of carbon steels in seawater, and stress corrosion cracking and the mechanical strength of alloy 600

  6. Malignant mesothelioma in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churg, Andrew; Hwang, Harry; Tan, Larry; Qing, Gefei; Taher, Altaf; Tong, Amy; Bilawich, Ana M; Dacic, Sanja

    2018-05-01

    The existence of malignant mesothelioma in situ (MIS) is often postulated, but there are no accepted morphological criteria for making such a diagnosis. Here we report two cases that appear to be true MIS on the basis of in-situ genomic analysis. In one case the patient had repeated unexplained pleural unilateral effusions. Two thoracoscopies 9 months apart revealed only visually normal pleura. Biopsies from both thoracoscopies showed only a single layer of mildly reactive mesothelial cells. However, these cells had lost BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) and showed loss of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2 (CDKN2A) (p16) by fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH). NF2 was not deleted by FISH but 28% of the mesothelial cells showed hyperploidy. Six months after the second biopsy the patient has persisting effusions but no evidence of pleural malignancy on imaging. The second patient presented with ascites and minimal omental thickening on imaging, but no visual evidence of tumour at laparoscopy. Omental biopsy showed a single layer of minimally atypical mesothelial cells with rare tiny foci of superficial invasion of fat. BAP1 immunostain showed loss of nuclear BAP1 in all the surface mesothelial cells and the invasive cells. There was CDKN2A deletion, but no deletion of NF2 by FISH. These cases show that morphologically bland single-layered surface mesothelial proliferations with molecular alterations seen previously only in invasive malignant mesotheliomas exist, and presumably represent malignant MIS. More cases are need to understand the frequency of such changes and the time-course over which invasive tumour develops. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. In situ breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, Luis

    2004-01-01

    In situ breast cancer, particularly the ductal type, is increasing in frequency in the developed countries as well as in Ecuador, most probably. These lesions carry a higher risk of developing a subsequent invasive cancer. Treatment has changed recently due to results of randomized studies, from classical mastectomy to conservative surgery associated to radiotherapy. The Van Nuys Prognostic Index is currently the most usual instrument to guide diagnosis and treatment. Tamoxifen seems to decrease significantly the risk of tumor recurrence after initial treatment. (The author)

  8. Corrosion engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontana, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book emphasizes the engineering approach to handling corrosion. It presents corrosion data by corrosives or environments rather than by materials. It discusses the corrosion engineering of noble metals, ''exotic'' metals, non-metallics, coatings, mechanical properties, and corrosion testing, as well as modern concepts. New sections have been added on fracture mechanics, laser alloying, nuclear waste isolation, solar energy, geothermal energy, and the Statue of Liberty. Special isocorrosion charts, developed by the author, are introduced as a quick way to look at candidates for a particular corrosive.

  9. In situ zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sarah J; Johnson, Jason L

    2010-01-01

    In situ zymography is a unique laboratory technique that enables the localisation of matrix-degrading metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in histological sections. Frozen sections are placed on glass slides coated with fluorescently labelled matrix proteins. After incubation MMP activity can be observed as black holes in the fluorescent background due to proteolysis of the matrix protein. Alternatively frozen sections can be incubated with matrix proteins conjugated to quenched fluorescein. Proteolysis of the substrate by MMPs leads to the release of fluorescence. This technique can be combined with immunohistochemistry to enable co-location of proteins such as cell type markers or other proteins of interest. Additionally, this technique can be adapted for use with cell cultures, permitting precise location of MMP activity within cells, time-lapse analysis of MMP activity and analysis of MMP activity in migrating cells.

  10. In-situ nitrite analysis in high level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, P.E.; Prather, W.S.; Livingston, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River Site produces special nuclear materials used in the defense of the United States. Most of the processes at SRS are primarily chemical separations and purifications. In-situ chemical analyses help improve the safety, efficiency and quality of these operations. One area where in situ fiberoptic spectroscopy can have a great impact is the management of high level radioactive waste. High level radioactive waste at SRS is stored in more than 50 large waste tanks. The waste exists as a slurry of nitrate salts and metal hydroxides at pH's higher than 10. Sodium Nitrite is added to the tanks as a corrosion inhibitor. In-situ fiberoptic probes are being developed to measure the nitrate, nitrite and hydroxide concentrations in both liquid and solid fractions. Nitrite levels can be measured between 0.01M and 1M in a 1mm pathlength optical cell

  11. Modeling in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecham, D.C.; MacKinnon, R.J.; Murray, P.E.; Johnson, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    In Situ Vitrification (ISV) process is being assessed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to determine its applicability to transuranic and mixed wastes buried at INEL'S Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). This process uses electrical resistance heating to melt waste and contaminated soil in place to produce a durable glasslike material that encapsulates and immobilizes buried wastes. This paper outlines the requirements for the model being developed at the INEL which will provide analytical support for the ISV technology assessment program. The model includes representations of the electric potential field, thermal transport with melting, gas and particulate release, vapor migration, off-gas combustion and process chemistry. The modeling objectives are to help determine the safety of the process by assessing the air and surrounding soil radionuclides and chemical pollution hazards, the nuclear criticality hazard, and the explosion and fire hazards, help determine the suitability of the ISV process for stabilizing the buried wastes involved, and help design laboratory and field tests and interpret results. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. Analysis of corrosive environmental factors of seabed sediment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The corrosivity of seabed sediment at spots at different distances from seashore was studied based on in situ investigations in the northern sea area of the Yellow River mouth. The results show that there is close relation between distance from seashore and corrosivity of seabed sediment.

  13. In-situ TEM Studies : Heat-treatment and Corrosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malladi, S.R.K.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been well known as a powerful characterisation tool to understand the structure and composition of various materials down to the atomic level. Over the years, several TEM studies have been carried out to understand the compositional, structural and

  14. In-situ uranium leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dotson, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    This invention provides a method for improving the recovery of mineral values from ore bodies subjected to in-situ leaching by controlling the flow behaviour of the leaching solution. In particular, the invention relates to an in-situ leaching operation employing a foam for mobility control of the leaching solution. A foam bank is either introduced into the ore bed or developed in-situ in the ore bed. The foam then becomes a diverting agent forcing the leaching fluid through the previously non-contacted regions of the deposit

  15. In situ leaching of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.

    1980-01-01

    A process is described for the in-situ leaching of uranium-containing ores employing an acidic leach liquor containing peroxymonosulphuric acid. Preferably, additionally, sulphuric acid is present in the leach liquor. (author)

  16. Corrosion Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles V.

    A description is provided for a Corrosion and Corrosion Control course offered in the Continuing Engineering Education Program at the General Motors Institute (GMI). GMI is a small cooperative engineering school of approximately 2,000 students who alternate between six-week periods of academic study and six weeks of related work experience in…

  17. In-situ x-ray absorption study of copper films in ground water solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvashnina, K.O.; Butorin, S.M.; Modin, A.; Soroka, I.; Marcellini, M.; Nordgren, J.; Guo, J.-H.; Werme, L.

    2007-01-01

    This study illustrates how the damage from copper corrosion can be reduced by modifying the chemistry of the copper surface environment. The surface modification of oxidized copper films induced by chemical reaction with Cl - and HCO 3 - in aqueous solutions was monitored by in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The results show that corrosion of copper can be significantly reduced by adding even a small amount of sodium bicarbonate. The studied copper films corroded quickly in chloride solutions, whereas the same solution containing 1.1 mM HCO 3 - prevented or slowed down the corrosion processes

  18. In situ analytical techniques for battery interface analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Alok M; Su, Wei-Nien; Hwang, Bing Joe

    2018-02-05

    Lithium-ion batteries, simply known as lithium batteries, are distinct among high energy density charge-storage devices. The power delivery of batteries depends upon the electrochemical performances and the stability of the electrode, electrolytes and their interface. Interfacial phenomena of the electrode/electrolyte involve lithium dendrite formation, electrolyte degradation and gas evolution, and a semi-solid protective layer formation at the electrode-electrolyte interface, also known as the solid-electrolyte interface (SEI). The SEI protects electrodes from further exfoliation or corrosion and suppresses lithium dendrite formation, which are crucial needs for enhancing the cell performance. This review covers the compositional, structural and morphological aspects of SEI, both artificially and naturally formed, and metallic dendrites using in situ/in operando cells and various in situ analytical tools. Critical challenges and the historical legacy in the development of in situ/in operando electrochemical cells with some reports on state-of-the-art progress are particularly highlighted. The present compilation pinpoints the emerging research opportunities in advancing this field and concludes on the future directions and strategies for in situ/in operando analysis.

  19. Corrosion and alteration of materials from the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Feron, D.; Guerin, Y.; Latge, C.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, C.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Vernaz, E.; Richet, C.

    2010-01-01

    The control of the corrosion phenomenon is of prime importance for the nuclear industry. The efficiency and the safety of facilities can be affected by this phenomenon. The nuclear industry has to face corrosion for a large variety of materials submitted to various environments. Metallic corrosion operates in the hot and aqueous environment of water reactors which represent the most common reactor type in the world. Progresses made in the control of the corrosion of the different components of these reactors allow to improve their safety. Corrosion is present in the facilities of the back-end of the fuel cycle as well (corrosion in acid environment in fuel reprocessing plants, corrosion of waste containers in disposal and storage facilities, etc). The future nuclear systems will widen even more the range of materials to be studied and the situations in which they will be placed (corrosion by liquid metals or by helium impurities). Very often, corrosion looks like a patchwork of particular cases in its description. The encountered corrosion problems and their study are presented in this book according to chapters representing the main sectors of the nuclear industry and classified with respect to their phenomenology. This monograph illustrates the researches in progress and presents some results of particular importance obtained recently. Content: 1 - Introduction: context, stakes and goals; definition of corrosion; a complex science; corrosion in the nuclear industry; 2 - corrosion in water reactors - phenomenology, mechanisms, remedies: A - uniform corrosion: mechanisms, uniform corrosion of fuel cladding, in-situ measurement of generalized corrosion rate by electrochemical methods, uniform corrosion of nickel alloys, characterization of the passive layer and growth mechanisms, the PACTOLE code - an integrating tool, influence of water chemistry on corrosion and contamination, radiolysis impact on uniform corrosion; B - stress corrosion: stress corrosion cracking

  20. Ten years of Toarcian argillite - carbon steel in situ interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauzeres, Alexandre [IRSN, PRP-DGE/SRTG/LETIS, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France); Maillet, Anais [IRSN, PRP-DGE/SRTG/LETIS, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France); UMR CNRS 7285, IC2MP, Batiment B35 - 5, avenue Albert Turpain, 86022 Poitiers cedex (France); Gaudin, Anne [UMR CNRS 6112, LPGN, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); El Albani, Abderrazak; Vieillard, Philippe [UMR CNRS 7285, IC2MP, Batiment B35 - 5, avenue Albert Turpain, 86022 Poitiers cedex (France)

    2013-07-01

    In situ interaction experiments over periods of 2, 6, and 10 years between Toarcian argillite and carbon steel discs were carried out in the Tournemire Underground Research Laboratory (URL), yielding a dataset of the materials' geochemical evolution under conditions representative of the future geological disposal of high-level long-lived radioactive wastes. The carbon steel discs were exposed to corrosion due to trapped oxygen. The corrosion rates indicate that the oxidizing transient lasted between 2 and 6 years. A systematic dissolution of calcium phases (Ca-smectite sheets in I/S and calcite) was observed in the iron diffusion halos. The iron release induced mineralogical dissolution and precipitation reactions, which partly clogged the argillite porosity. (authors)

  1. In Situ TEM Electrical Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canepa, Silvia; Alam, Sardar Bilal; Ngo, Duc-The

    2016-01-01

    understanding of complex physical and chemical interactions in the pursuit to optimize nanostructure function and device performance. Recent developments of sample holder technology for TEM have enabled a new field of research in the study of functional nanomaterials and devices via electrical stimulation...... influence the sample by external stimuli, e.g. through electrical connections, the TEM becomes a powerful laboratory for performing quantitative real time in situ experiments. Such TEM setups enable the characterization of nanostructures and nanodevices under working conditions, thereby providing a deeper...... and measurement of the specimen. Recognizing the benefits of electrical measurements for in situ TEM, many research groups have focused their effort in this field and some of these methods have transferred to ETEM. This chapter will describe recent advances in the in situ TEM investigation of nanostructured...

  2. Triplex in-situ hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresco, Jacques R.; Johnson, Marion D.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are methods for detecting in situ the presence of a target sequence in a substantially double-stranded nucleic acid segment, which comprises: a) contacting in situ under conditions suitable for hybridization a substantially double-stranded nucleic acid segment with a detectable third strand, said third strand being capable of hybridizing to at least a portion of the target sequence to form a triple-stranded structure, if said target sequence is present; and b) detecting whether hybridization between the third strand and the target sequence has occured.

  3. Corrosion and alteration of materials from the nuclear industry; La Corrosion et l'alteration des materiaux du nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Feron, D.; Guerin, Y.; Latge, C.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, C.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Vernaz, E.; Richet, C.

    2010-07-01

    The control of the corrosion phenomenon is of prime importance for the nuclear industry. The efficiency and the safety of facilities can be affected by this phenomenon. The nuclear industry has to face corrosion for a large variety of materials submitted to various environments. Metallic corrosion operates in the hot and aqueous environment of water reactors which represent the most common reactor type in the world. Progresses made in the control of the corrosion of the different components of these reactors allow to improve their safety. Corrosion is present in the facilities of the back-end of the fuel cycle as well (corrosion in acid environment in fuel reprocessing plants, corrosion of waste containers in disposal and storage facilities, etc). The future nuclear systems will widen even more the range of materials to be studied and the situations in which they will be placed (corrosion by liquid metals or by helium impurities). Very often, corrosion looks like a patchwork of particular cases in its description. The encountered corrosion problems and their study are presented in this book according to chapters representing the main sectors of the nuclear industry and classified with respect to their phenomenology. This monograph illustrates the researches in progress and presents some results of particular importance obtained recently. Content: 1 - Introduction: context, stakes and goals; definition of corrosion; a complex science; corrosion in the nuclear industry; 2 - corrosion in water reactors - phenomenology, mechanisms, remedies: A - uniform corrosion: mechanisms, uniform corrosion of fuel cladding, in-situ measurement of generalized corrosion rate by electrochemical methods, uniform corrosion of nickel alloys, characterization of the passive layer and growth mechanisms, the PACTOLE code - an integrating tool, influence of water chemistry on corrosion and contamination, radiolysis impact on uniform corrosion; B - stress corrosion: stress corrosion cracking

  4. In situ solution mining technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Learmont, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    A method of in situ solution mining is disclosed in which a primary leaching process employing an array of 5-spot leaching patterns of production and injection wells is converted to a different pattern by converting to injection wells all the production wells in alternate rows

  5. 'In situ' expanded graphite extinguishant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Qixin; Shou Yuemei; He Bangrong

    1987-01-01

    This report is concerning the development of the extinguishant for sodium fire and the investigation of its extinguishing property. The experiment result shows that 'in situ' expanded graphite developed by the authors is a kind of extinguishant which extinguishes sodium fire quickly and effectively and has no environment pollution during use and the amount of usage is little

  6. In Situ Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talacua, H

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, the feasibility of in situ TE for vascular and valvular purposes were tested with the use of different materials, and animal models. First, the feasibility of a decellularized biological scaffold (pSIS-ECM) as pulmonary heart valve prosthesis is examined in sheep (Chapter 2). Next,

  7. Polarized Neutron Reflectometry of Nickel Corrosion Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Mary H; Welbourn, Rebecca J L; Zarbakhsh, Ali; Gutfreund, Philipp; Clarke, Stuart M

    2015-06-30

    Polarized neutron reflectometry has been used to investigate the detailed adsorption behavior and corrosion inhibition mechanism of two surfactants on a nickel surface under acidic conditions. Both the corrosion of the nickel surface and the structure of the adsorbed surfactant layer could be monitored in situ by the use of different solvent contrasts. Layer thicknesses and roughnesses were evaluated over a range of pH values, showing distinctly the superior corrosion inhibition of one negatively charged surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) compared to a positively charged example (dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide) due to its stronger binding interaction with the surface. It was found that adequate corrosion inhibition occurs at significantly less than full surface coverage.

  8. Corrosion in airframes

    OpenAIRE

    PETROVIC ZORAN C.

    2016-01-01

    The introductory chapter provides a brief reference to the issue of corrosion and corrosion damage to aircraft structures. Depending on the nature and dimensions of this non uniformity, three different categories of corrosion are defined: uniform, selective and localized corrosion. The following chapters present the forms of corrosion that can occur in three defined categories of corrosion. Conditions that cause certain types of corrosion in various corrosive environments are discussed. Examp...

  9. In plant corrosion potential monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosborg, B.; Molander, A.

    1997-01-01

    Examples of in plant redox and corrosion potential monitoring in light water reactors are given. All examples are from reactors in Sweden. The measurements have either been performed in side-stream autoclaves connected to the reactor systems by sampling lines, or in-situ in the system piping itself. Potential monitoring can give quite different results depending upon the experimental method. For environments with small concentrations of oxidants sampling lines can introduce large errors. During such circumstances in-situ measurements are necessary. Electrochemical monitoring is a valuable technique as a complement to conventional water chemistry follow-up in plants. It can be used for water chemistry surveillance and can reveal unintentional and harmful water chemistry transients. (author). 15 figs

  10. In plant corrosion potential monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosborg, B; Molander, A [Studsvik Material AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-02-01

    Examples of in plant redox and corrosion potential monitoring in light water reactors are given. All examples are from reactors in Sweden. The measurements have either been performed in side-stream autoclaves connected to the reactor systems by sampling lines, or in-situ in the system piping itself. Potential monitoring can give quite different results depending upon the experimental method. For environments with small concentrations of oxidants sampling lines can introduce large errors. During such circumstances in-situ measurements are necessary. Electrochemical monitoring is a valuable technique as a complement to conventional water chemistry follow-up in plants. It can be used for water chemistry surveillance and can reveal unintentional and harmful water chemistry transients. (author). 15 figs.

  11. Corrosion inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, A O

    1965-12-29

    An acid corrosion-inhibiting composition consists essentially of a sugar, and an alkali metal salt selected from the group consisting of iodides and bromides. The weight ratio of the sugar to the alkali metal salt is between 2:1 and about 20,000:1. Also, a corrosion- inhibited phosphoric acid composition comprising at least about 20 wt% of phosphoric acid and between about 0.1 wt% and about 10 wt% of molasses, and between about 0.0005 wt% and about 1 wt% of potassium iodide. The weight ratio of molasses to iodide is greater than about 2:1. (11 claims)

  12. Polyolefin nanocomposites in situ polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galland, Griselda Barrera; Fim, Fabiana de C.; Milani, Marceo A.; Silva, Silene P. da; Forest, Tadeu; Radaelli, Gislaine, E-mail: griselda.barrera@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande de Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Basso, Nara R.S. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Quijada, Raul [Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-07-01

    Polyethylene and polypropylene nanocomposites using grapheme nanosheets and treated chrysotile have been synthesized by in situ polymerization using metallocene catalysts. The fillers have been submitted to acid, thermal and/ou ultrasound treatments before to introduce them into the polymerization reactor. A complete characterization of the fillers has been done. The nanocomposites have been characterized by SEM, TEM, DRX and AFM. The thermal, mechanic -dynamic, mechanical and electrical properties of the nanocomposites are discussed. (author)

  13. Polyolefin nanocomposites in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galland, Griselda Barrera; Fim, Fabiana de C.; Milani, Marceo A.; Silva, Silene P. da; Forest, Tadeu; Radaelli, Gislaine; Basso, Nara R.S.; Quijada, Raul

    2011-01-01

    Polyethylene and polypropylene nanocomposites using grapheme nanosheets and treated chrysotile have been synthesized by in situ polymerization using metallocene catalysts. The fillers have been submitted to acid, thermal and/ou ultrasound treatments before to introduce them into the polymerization reactor. A complete characterization of the fillers has been done. The nanocomposites have been characterized by SEM, TEM, DRX and AFM. The thermal, mechanic -dynamic, mechanical and electrical properties of the nanocomposites are discussed. (author)

  14. Determination of the initial oxidation behavior of Zircaloy-4 by in-situ TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harlow, Wayne; Ghassemi, Hessam; Taheri, Mitra L.

    2016-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4), specifically by oxidation, is a problem of great importance as this material is critical for current nuclear reactor cladding. The early formation behavior and structure of the oxide layer during oxidation was studied using in-situ TEM techniques that allowed for Zry-4 to be monitored during corrosion. These environmental exposure experiments were coupled with precession electron diffraction to identify and quantify the phases present in the samples before and after the oxidation. Following short-term, high temperature oxidation, the dominant phase was revealed to be monoclinic ZrO 2 in a columnar structure. These samples oxidized in-situ contained structures that correlated well with bulk Zry-4 subjected to autoclave treatment, which were used for comparison and validation of this technique. By using in-situ TEM the effect of microstructure features, such as grain boundaries, on oxidation behavior of an alloy can be studied. The technique presented herein holds the potential to be applied any alloy system to study these effects. - Highlights: • In-situ TEM was used to oxidize samples of Zircaloy-4. • Similar behavior was found in the in-situ oxidized and autoclave-oxidized samples. • Precession diffraction was used to characterize oxide phase and texture.

  15. Real time nanogravimetric monitoring of corrosion in radioactive environments

    OpenAIRE

    Tzagkaroulakis, Ioannis; Boxall, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring and understanding the mechanism of metal corrosion throughout the nuclear fuel cycle play a key role in the safe asset management of facilities. They also provide information essential for making an informed choice regarding the selection of decontamination methods for steel plant and equipment scheduled for decommissioning. Recent advances in Quartz Crystal Nanobalance (QCN) technology offer the means of monitoring corrosion in-situ, in radiologically harsh environments, in real t...

  16. HVOF Thermal Spray TiC/TiB2 Coatings for AUSC Boiler/Turbine Components for Enhanced Corrosion Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Kanchan [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes; Koc, Rasit [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes; Fan, Chinbay [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2016-12-07

    The high temperatures of operations still pose significant risk of degradation and fatigue from oxidizing, corroding and eroding environment. In addition to unused O2, water from combustion and SOx from the coal sulfur oxidation that result in highly corrosive environment, acid gases such as HCl and other sulfur compounds may also be present. These adverse effects are further accelerated due to the elevated temperatures. In addition, ash particulates and unburnt carbon and pyritic sulfur can cause erosion of the surface and thus loss of material. Unburnt carbon and pyritic sulfur may also cause localized reduction sites. Thus, fireside corrosion protection and steam oxidation protection alternatives to currently used Ni-Cr overlays need to be identified and evaluated. Titanium carbide (TiC) is a suitable alternative on account of the material features such as the high hardness, the high melting point, the high strength and the low density for the substitution or to be used in conjunction with NiCr for enhancing the fireside corrosion and erosion of the materials. Another alternative is the use of titanium boride as a coating for chemical stability required for long-term service and high erosion resistance over the state-of-the-art, high fracture toughness (K1C ~12 MPam1/2) and excellent corrosion resistance (kp~1.9X10-11 g2/cm4/s at 800°C in air). The overarching aim of the research endeavor was to synthesize oxidation, corrosion and wear resistant TiC and TiB2 coating powders, apply thermal spray coating on existing boiler materials and characterize the coated substrates for corrosion resistance for applications at high temperatures (500 -750 °C) and high pressures (~350 bars) using the HVOF process and to demonstrate the feasibility of these coating to be used in AUSC boilers and turbines.

  17. Corrosion inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ashry, El Sayed H.; El Nemr, Ahmed; Esawy, Sami A.; Ragab, Safaa

    2006-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition efficiencies of some triazole, oxadiazole and thiadiazole derivatives for steel in presence of acidic medium have been studied by using AM1, PM3, MINDO/3 and MNDO semi-empirical SCF molecular orbital methods. Geometric structures, total negative charge on the molecule (TNC), highest occupied molecular energy level (E HOMO ), lowest unoccupied molecular energy level (E LUMO ), core-core repulsion (CCR), dipole moment (μ) and linear solvation energy terms, molecular volume (V i ) and dipolar-polarization (π *), were correlated to corrosion inhibition efficiency. Four equations were proposed to calculate corrosion inhibition efficiency. The agreement with the experimental data was found to be satisfactory; the standard deviations between the calculated and experimental results ranged between ±0.03 and ±4.18. The inhibition efficiency was closely related to orbital energies (E HOMO and E LUMO ) and μ. The correlation between quantum parameters and experimental inhibition efficiency has been validated by single point calculations for the semi-empirical AM1 structures using B3LYP/6-31G** as a higher level of theory. The proposed equations were applied to predict the corrosion inhibition efficiency of some related structures to select molecules of possible activity from a presumable library of compounds

  18. Noise canceling in-situ detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David O.

    2014-08-26

    Technologies applicable to noise canceling in-situ NMR detection and imaging are disclosed. An example noise canceling in-situ NMR detection apparatus may comprise one or more of a static magnetic field generator, an alternating magnetic field generator, an in-situ NMR detection device, an auxiliary noise detection device, and a computer.

  19. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  20. Corrosion of container and infrastructure materials under clay repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debruyn, W.; Dresselaers, J.; Vermeiren, P.; Kelchtermans, J.; Tas, H.

    1991-01-01

    With regard to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste, it was recommended in a IAEA Technical Committee meeting to perform tests in realistic environments corresponding with normal and accidental conditions, to qualify and apply corrosion monitoring techniques for corrosion evaluation under real repository conditions and to develop corrosion and near-field evolution models. The actual Belgian experimental programme for the qualification of a container for long-term HLW storage in clay formations complies with these recommendations. The emphasis in the programme is indeed on in situ corrosion testing and monitoring and on in situ control of the near-field chemistry. Initial field experiments were performed in a near-surface clay quarry at Terhaegen. Based on a broad laboratory material screening programme and in agreement with the Commission of the European Communities, three reference materials were chosen for extensive in situ overpack testing. Ti/0.2 Pd and Hastelloy C-4 were chosen as reference corrosion resistant materials and a low-carbon steel as corrosion allowance reference material. This report summarizes progress made in the material qualification programme since the CEC contract of 1983-84. 57 Figs.; 15 Tabs.; 18 Refs

  1. Corrosion/95 conference papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The papers in this conference represent the latest technological advances in corrosion control and prevention. The following subject areas are covered: cathodic protection in natural waters; materials for fossil fuel combustion and conversion systems; modern problems in atmospheric corrosion; innovative ideas for controlling the decaying infrastructure; deposits and their effects on corrosion in industry; volatile high temperature and non aqueous corrosion inhibitors; corrosion of light-weight and precoated metals for automotive application; refining industry corrosion; corrosion in pulp and paper industry; arctic/cold weather corrosion; materials selection for waste incinerators and associated equipment; corrosion measurement technology; environmental cracking of materials; advancing technology in the coating industry; corrosion in gas treating; green inhibition; recent advances in corrosion control of rail equipment; velocity effects and erosion corrosion in oil and gas production; marine corrosion; corrosion of materials in nuclear systems; underground corrosion control; corrosion in potable and industrial water systems in buildings and its impact on environmental compliance; deposit related boiler tube failures; boiler systems monitoring and control; recent developments and experiences in reactive metals; microbiologically influenced corrosion; corrosion and corrosion control for steel reinforced concrete; international symposium on the use of 12 and 13 Cr stainless steels in oil and gas production environments; subsea corrosion /erosion monitoring in production facilities; fiberglass reinforced pipe and tubulars in oilfield service; corrosion control technology in power transmission and distribution; mechanisms and methods of scale and deposit control; closing the loop -- results oriented cooling system monitoring and control; and minimization of aqueous discharge

  2. In-situ reduced graphene oxide-polyvinyl alcohol composite coatings as protective layers on magnesium substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingkai Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple and feasible method was developed to fabricate in-situ reduced graphene oxide-polyvinyl alcohol composite (GO-PVA coatings as protective layers on magnesium substrates. Polyvinyl alcohol was used as an in-situ reductant to transform GO into reduced GO. Contiguous and uniform GO-PVA coatings were prepared on magnesium substrates by dip-coating method, and were further thermally treated at 120 °C under ambient condition to obtain in-situ reduced GO-PVA coatings. Owing to the reducing effect of PVA, thermal treatment at low temperature led to effective in-situ reduction of GO as confirmed by XRD, Raman, FTIR and XPS tests. The corrosion current density of magnesium substrates in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution could be lowered to its 1/25 when using in-situ reduced GO-PVA coatings as protective layers.

  3. In situ measurement of diffusivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berne, F.; Pocachard, J.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of molecular diffusion controls the migration of contaminants in very low-permeability porous media, like underground facilities for the storage of hazardous waste. Determining of relevant diffusion coefficients is therefore of prime importance. A few techniques exist for in situ measurement of the quantity, but they suffer from many handicaps (duration, complexity and cost of the experiments). We propose here two innovative methods that have some potential to improve the situation. So far, we have found them feasible on the basis of design calculations and laboratory experiments. This work is presently protected by a patent. (author)

  4. In situ measurement of diffusivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berne, Ph.; Pocachard, J.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of molecular diffusion controls the migration of contaminants in very low-permeability porous media, like underground facilities for the storage of hazardous waste. Determining the relevant diffusion coefficients is, therefore, of prime importance. A few techniques exist for the in situ measurement of that quantity, but they suffer from many handicaps (duration, complexity and cost of the experiments). We propose here two innovative methods that have some potential to improve this situation. So far, we have found them feasible on the basis of design calculations and laboratory experiments. This work is presently protected by a patent. (author)

  5. In situ dehydration of yugawaralite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artioli, G.; Ståhl, Kenny; Cruciani, G.

    2001-01-01

    The structural response of the natural zeolite yugawaralite (CaAl2Si6O16. 4H(2)O) upon thermally induced dehydration has been studied by Rietveld analysis of temperature-resolved powder diffraction data collected in situ in the temperature range 315-791 K using synchrotron radiation. The room...... progressively disappearing as the dehydration proceeds. The yugawaralite structure reacts to the release of water molecules with small changes in the Ca-O bond distances and minor distortions of the tetrahedral framework up to about 695 K. Above this temperature the Ca coordination falls below 7 (four framework...

  6. Aircraft Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    attribud au choix de traitements et de rev~tements spproprids. Au contrairo, dens d’sutros structures des corrosions iirportsntea se sont msnifestdes...au traitement . micaniqus qui provoque une compression de surface - h1l’spplication i1’une double protection comportant oxydation snodique et...chlore mais dans une proportion semblable b cells d’une eau de vil)e ; - lea solides, d’aprbs lea analyses chimique et criatallographique, paraissaiont

  7. Corrosion and Materials Performance in biomass fired and co-fired power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, OH; Biede, O

    2003-01-01

    not previously encountered in coal-fired power plants. The type of corrosion attack can be directly ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. In woodchip boilers, a similar corrosion rate and corrosion mechanism has on some occasions been observed. Co-firing of straw (10...... and 20% energy basis) with coal has shown corrosion rates lower than those in straw-fired plants. With both 10 and 20% straw, no chlorine corrosion was seen. This paper will describe the results from in situ investigations undertaken in Denmark on high temperature corrosion in biomass fired plants....... Results from 100% straw-firing, woodchip and co-firing of straw with coal will be reported. The corrosion mechanisms observed are summarized and the corrosion rates for 18-8 type stainless steels are compared....

  8. The Growth of Small Corrosion Fatigue Cracks in Alloy 7075

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics of small (greater than 35 micrometers) surface and corner cracks in aluminum alloy 7075 is established. The early stage of crack growth is studied by performing in situ long focal length microscope (500×) crack length measurements in laboratory air and 1% sodium chloride (NaCl) environments. To quantify the "small crack effect" in the corrosive environment, the corrosion fatigue crack propagation behavior of small cracks is compared to long through-the-thickness cracks grown under identical experimental conditions. In salt water, long crack constant K(sub max) growth rates are similar to small crack da/dN.

  9. Corrosion monitoring in a straw-fired power plant using an electrochemical noise probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappeln, Frederik Vilhelm; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina

    2007-01-01

    Electrochemical Noise Measurements have been carried out in situ in a straw-fired power plant using an experimental probe constructed from alumina and AlSl 347 steel. Based on a framework of controlled laboratory experiments it has been found that electrochemical noise has the unique ability...... to provide in-situ monitoring of intergranular corrosion in progress. The probe had a lifetime of two months. It was shown that down-time corrosion in the boiler was negligible. Electrochemical noise data indicated that metal temperatures around 590 degrees C should be avoided as the intergranular corrosion...

  10. Four Models of In Situ Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter; Krogh, Kristian; Paltved, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In situ simulation is characterized by being situated in the clinical environment as opposed to the simulation laboratory. But in situ simulation bears a family resemblance to other types of on the job training. We explore a typology of in situ simulation and suggest that there are f......Introduction In situ simulation is characterized by being situated in the clinical environment as opposed to the simulation laboratory. But in situ simulation bears a family resemblance to other types of on the job training. We explore a typology of in situ simulation and suggest...... that there are four fruitful approaches to in situ simulation: (1) In situ simulation informed by reported critical incidents and adverse events from emergency departments (ED) in which team training is about to be conducted to write scenarios. (2) In situ simulation through ethnographic studies at the ED. (3) Using...... the following processes: Transition processes, Action processes and Interpersonal processes. Design and purpose This abstract suggests four approaches to in situ simulation. A pilot study will evaluate the different approaches in two emergency departments in the Central Region of Denmark. Methods The typology...

  11. Corrosion Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corrosion Testing Facility is part of the Army Corrosion Office (ACO). It is a fully functional atmospheric exposure site, called the Corrosion Instrumented Test...

  12. Production of mullite-zirconia ceramics composites by 'In situ' reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, F.C.L. de; Cairo, C.A.A.; Piorino Neto, F.; Devezas, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    Mullita-zirconia ceramic composites were produced by 'In situ' reaction of alumina and brazilian zircon. The ideal curve of thermal treatment (reaction + sinterization) was determined for the obtention of composites of maximum mechanical resistence. The retained fraction of tetragonal fase was evaluated by X-ray difraction and correlated with the values of mechanical resistence obtained by different treatment curves. The performance of the developed composites under corrosion and thermal shock was evaluated by glass casting. (Author) [pt

  13. Liver hanging maneuver for right hemiliver in situ donation – anatomical considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Trotovšek, B.; Gadžijev, E.M.; Ravnik, D.; Hribernik, M.

    2006-01-01

    Background. An anatomical study was carried out to evaluate the safety of the liver hanging maneuver for the right hemiliver in living donor and in situ splitting transplantation. During this procedure a 4–6 cm blind dissection is performed between the inferior vena cava and the liver. Short subhepatic veins entering the inferior vena cava from segments 1 and 9 could be torn with consequent hemorrhage. Materials and methods. One hundred corrosive casts of livers were evaluated to establish th...

  14. Prediction of reinforcement corrosion using corrosion induced cracks width in corroded reinforced concrete beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Inamullah; François, Raoul; Castel, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the evolution of reinforcement corrosion in comparison to corrosion crack width in a highly corroded reinforced concrete beam. Cracking and corrosion maps of the beam were drawn and steel reinforcement was recovered from the beam to observe the corrosion pattern and to measure the loss of mass of steel reinforcement. Maximum steel cross-section loss of the main reinforcement and average steel cross-section loss between stirrups were plotted against the crack width. The experimental results were compared with existing models proposed by Rodriguez et al., Vidal et al. and Zhang et al. Time prediction models for a given opening threshold are also compared to experimental results. Steel cross-section loss for stirrups was also measured and was plotted against the crack width. It was observed that steel cross-section loss in the stirrups had no relationship with the crack width of longitudinal corrosion cracks. -- Highlights: •Relationship between crack and corrosion of reinforcement was investigated. •Corrosion results of natural process and then corresponds to in-situ conditions. •Comparison with time predicting model is provided. •Prediction of load-bearing capacity from crack pattern was studied

  15. In situ bypass og diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Leif Panduro; Schroeder, T V; Lorentzen, J E

    1993-01-01

    decreased survival rate was found in diabetics (p useful in the treatment of critical ischaemia of the lower limb in diabetic patients. The overall results in diabetic patients, whether insulin-dependent or not, were equal to those in non-diabetic......From 1986 through to 1990 a total of 483 in situ bypass procedures were performed in 444 patients. Preoperative risk-factors were equally distributed among diabetic (DM) and non-diabetic (NDM) patients, except for smoking habits (DM:48%, NDM:64%, p = 0.002) and cardiac disease (DM:45%, NDM:29%, p...... = 0.005). Critical limb-ischaemia was more often present in diabetic than non-diabetic patients (DM:57%, NDM:36%, p = 0.0002). Diabetic patients had a significantly lower distal anastomosis than non-diabetic patients (p = 0.00001). There were no differences among diabetic and non-diabetic patients...

  16. In situ treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This document describes the plans for the in situ treatment zone (ISTZ) treatability test for groundwater contaminated with strontium-90. The treatability test is to be conducted at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, in a portion of the 100-N Area adjacent to the Columbia River referred to as N-Springs. The purpose of the treatability test is to evaluate the effectiveness of an innovative technology to prevent the discharge of strontium-90 contaminated groundwater into the Columbia River. The ISTZ is a passive technology that consists of placing a treatment agent in the path of the groundwater. The treatment agent must restrict target radioactive contaminants and provide time for the contaminant to decay to acceptable levels. The permeability of the treatment zone must be greater than or equal to that of the surrounding sediments to ensure that the contaminated groundwater flows through the treatment zone agent and not around the agent

  17. Corrosion technology. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.H.

    1989-01-01

    This book has been produced for dissemination of information on corrosion technology, corrosion hazards and its control. Chapter one of this book presents an overall view of the subject and chapter 2-5 deals with electrochemical basics, types of corrosion, pourbaix diagrams and form of corrosion. The author explains polarization/kinetics of corrosion, passivity, aqueous corrosion and corrosion testing and monitoring in 6-11 chapters. The author hopes it will provide incentive to all those interested in the corrosion technology. (A.B.)

  18. Corrosion/94 conference papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The approximately 500 papers from this conference are divided into the following sections: Rail transit systems--stray current corrosion problems and control; Total quality in the coatings industry; Deterioration mechanisms of alloys at high temperatures--prevention and remediation; Research needs and new developments in oxygen scavengers; Computers in corrosion control--knowledge based system; Corrosion and corrosivity sensors; Corrosion and corrosion control of steel reinforced concrete structures; Microbiologically influenced corrosion; Practical applications in mitigating CO 2 corrosion; Mineral scale deposit control in oilfield-related operations; Corrosion of materials in nuclear systems; Testing nonmetallics for life prediction; Refinery industry corrosion; Underground corrosion control; Mechanisms and applications of deposit and scale control additives; Corrosion in power transmission and distribution systems; Corrosion inhibitor testing and field application in oil and gas systems; Decontamination technology; Ozone in cooling water applications, testing, and mechanisms; Corrosion of water and sewage treatment, collection, and distribution systems; Environmental cracking of materials; Metallurgy of oil and gas field equipment; Corrosion measurement technology; Duplex stainless steels in the chemical process industries; Corrosion in the pulp and paper industry; Advances in cooling water treatment; Marine corrosion; Performance of materials in environments applicable to fossil energy systems; Environmental degradation of and methods of protection for military and aerospace materials; Rail equipment corrosion; Cathodic protection in natural waters; Characterization of air pollution control system environments; and Deposit-related problems in industrial boilers. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  19. DOE In Situ Remediation Integrated Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISRP) supports and manages a balanced portfolio of applied research and development activities in support of DOE environmental restoration and waste management needs. ISRP technologies are being developed in four areas: containment, chemical and physical treatment, in situ bioremediation, and in situ manipulation (including electrokinetics). the focus of containment is to provide mechanisms to stop contaminant migration through the subsurface. In situ bioremediation and chemical and physical treatment both aim to destroy or eliminate contaminants in groundwater and soils. In situ manipulation (ISM) provides mechanisms to access contaminants or introduce treatment agents into the soil, and includes other technologies necessary to support the implementation of ISR methods. Descriptions of each major program area are provided to set the technical context of the ISM subprogram. Typical ISM needs for major areas of in situ remediation research and development are identified

  20. Bio-camouflage of anatase nanoparticles explored by in situ high-resolution electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ana R; Mukherjee, Arijita; Hu, Xuan; Shafien, Shayan; Ghodsi, Reza; He, Kun; Gemini-Piperni, Sara; Wang, Canhui; Klie, Robert F; Shokuhfar, Tolou; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Borojevic, Radovan; Rocha, Luis A; Granjeiro, José M

    2017-08-03

    While titanium is the metal of choice for most prosthetics and inner body devices due to its superior biocompatibility, the discovery of Ti-containing species in the adjacent tissue as a result of wear and corrosion has been associated with autoimmune diseases and premature implant failures. Here, we utilize the in situ liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a liquid flow holder and graphene liquid cells (GLCs) to investigate, for the first time, the in situ nano-bio interactions between titanium dioxide nanoparticles and biological medium. This imaging and spectroscopy methodology showed the process of formation of an ionic and proteic bio-camouflage surrounding Ti dioxide (anatase) nanoparticles that facilitates their internalization by bone cells. The in situ understanding of the mechanisms of the formation of the bio-camouflage of anatase nanoparticles may contribute to the definition of strategies aimed at the manipulation of these NPs for bone regenerative purposes.

  1. In Situ Hybridization Pada Kanker Payudara

    OpenAIRE

    Diah Witari, Ni Putu

    2014-01-01

    Kesulitan yang dijumpai pada penanganan kanker payudara adalah terjadinya kekambuhan atau relaps. Deteksi status HER2 pada pasien merupakan salah satu upaya untuk mendeteksi terjadinya relaps dan juga untuk menentukan jenis terapi yang ada diberikan. Ekspresi protein HER2 dapat dideteksi dengan immunohistochemistry (IHC), sedangkan mutasi gen HER2 dapat dideteksi dengan teknik in situ hybridization baik berupa fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) ataupun chromogenic in situ hy...

  2. Training for teamwork through in situ simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Asta; Poehlman, Jon; Bollenbacher, John; Riggan, Scott; Davis, Stan; Miller, Kristi; Ivester, Thomas; Kahwati, Leila

    2015-01-01

    In situ simulations allow healthcare teams to practice teamwork and communication as well as clinical management skills in a team's usual work setting with typically available resources and equipment. The purpose of this video is to demonstrate how to plan and conduct in situ simulation training sessions, with particular emphasis on how such training can be used to improve communication and teamwork. The video features an in situ simulation conducted at a labour and delivery unit in response to postpartum hemorrhage. PMID:26294962

  3. In situ leaching of uranium in South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, D.

    1998-01-01

    The proposed two new uranium mines at Beverley and Honeymoon, South Australia plan to use the cheap but potentially polluting process of in situ leaching (ISL) and permission has already been given for experimental underground leaching at Beverley. The mining industry describes ISL as environmentally benign because, instead of excavating, a corrosive liquid such as sulphuric acid is used. The liquid, sometimes 10000 times more acid than the aquifer water, is pumped into the ground in order to leach out the uranium and the resulting solution is then pumped to the surface where the uranium is extracted. Because the groundwater is salty and radioactive, the mining companies regard it as useless, so its contamination by ISL is considered of no concern. Salty radioactive water can be purified or desalinated and such processes are commonly used by mining companies such as Western Mining Corporation at Roxby Downs. (author)

  4. The SENSEI Generic In Situ Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayachit, Utkarsh [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Whitlock, Brad [Intelligent Light, Rutherford, NJ (United States); Wolf, Matthew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Loring, Burlen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Geveci, Berk [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Lonie, David [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Bethel, E. Wes [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-04-11

    The SENSEI generic in situ interface is an API that promotes code portability and reusability. From the simulation view, a developer can instrument their code with the SENSEI API and then make make use of any number of in situ infrastructures. From the method view, a developer can write an in situ method using the SENSEI API, then expect it to run in any number of in situ infrastructures, or be invoked directly from a simulation code, with little or no modification. This paper presents the design principles underlying the SENSEI generic interface, along with some simplified coding examples.

  5. Corrosion chemistry closing comments: opportunities in corrosion science facilitated by operando experimental characterization combined with multi-scale computational modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, John R

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in characterization tools, computational capabilities, and theories have created opportunities for advancement in understanding of solid-fluid interfaces at the nanoscale in corroding metallic systems. The Faraday Discussion on Corrosion Chemistry in 2015 highlighted some of the current needs, gaps and opportunities in corrosion science. Themes were organized into several hierarchical categories that provide an organizational framework for corrosion. Opportunities to develop fundamental physical and chemical data which will enable further progress in thermodynamic and kinetic modelling of corrosion were discussed. These will enable new and better understanding of unit processes that govern corrosion at the nanoscale. Additional topics discussed included scales, films and oxides, fluid-surface and molecular-surface interactions, selected topics in corrosion science and engineering as well as corrosion control. Corrosion science and engineering topics included complex alloy dissolution, local corrosion, and modelling of specific corrosion processes that are made up of collections of temporally and spatially varying unit processes such as oxidation, ion transport, and competitive adsorption. Corrosion control and mitigation topics covered some new insights on coatings and inhibitors. Further advances in operando or in situ experimental characterization strategies at the nanoscale combined with computational modelling will enhance progress in the field, especially if coupling across length and time scales can be achieved incorporating the various phenomena encountered in corrosion. Readers are encouraged to not only to use this ad hoc organizational scheme to guide their immersion into the current opportunities in corrosion chemistry, but also to find value in the information presented in their own ways.

  6. Resistance of various coatings to high temperature corrosion in HCl and SO{sub 2} containing environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cizner, Josef; Mlnarik, Jakub; Hruska, Jan [SVUM a.s., Prague (Czech Republic). Lab. of High Temperature Corrosion

    2010-07-01

    For high efficiency of the steam turbines it is necessary to produce steam of temperature at least 400 C, which in conjunction with specific composition of combustion gases causes fireside corrosion problems. The combustion gases contain aggressive compounds ike HCl and SO{sub 2} and some other elements which can form deposits on heat exchanging surfaces e.g. calcium, potassium salts etc. Using of high-alloy steels or nickel-based alloys is very costly and also these materials could have lower thermal conductivity. A cheaper solution is to produce a coating on low (medium)-alloy steel. Common heat-resistant steels show very short lifetime under these conditions. The solution is then to use the appropriate coatings. Some types of coatings can be applied even inside older boilers. In this work we tested many coatings composition (nickel-based, aluminium-based etc. As well as with different processing method - arc sprayed coating, weld deposits, HVOF, etc.) on 16Mo3 steel. In particular their high temperature corrosion behaviour in model atmosphere containing SO{sub 2} and HCl and also under deposit of fly ash was studied. (orig.)

  7. Understanding corrosion via corrosion product characterization: II. Role of alloying elements in improving the corrosion resistance of Zn-Al-Mg coatings on steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volovitch, P.; Vu, T.N.; Allely, C.; Abdel Aal, A.; Ogle, K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Origins of better corrosion resistance of ZnAlMg coatings than galvanized steel. → Comparative study of corrosion products formed on ZnAlMg, ZnMg and Zn coatings. → Modeling of dissolution and precipitation stages of corrosion. → At early stages Mg stabilizes protective zinc basic salts during dry-wet cycling. → At later stages Al dissolves at high pH forming protective layered double hydroxides. - Abstract: Corrosion products are identified on Zn, ZnMg and ZnAlMg coatings in cyclic corrosion tests with NaCl or Na 2 SO 4 containing atmospheres. For Mg-containing alloys the improved corrosion resistance is achieved by stabilization of protective simonkolleite and zinc hydroxysulfate. At later stages, the formation of layered double hydroxides (LDH) is observed for ZnAlMg. According to thermodynamic modeling, Mg 2+ ions bind the excess of carbonate or sulfate anions preventing the formation of soluble or less-protective products. A preferential dissolution of Zn and Mg at initial stages of corrosion is confirmed by in situ dissolution measurement. The physicochemical properties of different corrosion products are compared.

  8. Effect of zinc injection on BWR fuel cladding corrosion. Pt. 1. Study on an accelerated corrosion condition to evaluate corrosion resistance of zircaloy-2 fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hirotaka; Kanbe, Hiromu; Furuya, Masahiro

    2002-01-01

    Japanese BWR utilities have a plan to apply zinc injection to the primary coolant in order to reduce radioactivity accumulation on the structure. Prior to applying the zinc injection to BWR plants, it is necessary to evaluate the effect of zinc injection on corrosion resistance of fuel cladding. The objective of this report was to examine the accelerated corrosion condition for evaluation of BWR fuel cladding corrosion resistance under non-irradiated conditions, as the first step of a zinc injection evaluation study. A heat transfer corrosion test facility, in which a two phase flow condition could be achieved, was designed and constructed. The effects of heat flux, void fraction and solution temperature on BWR fuel cladding corrosion resistance were quantitatively investigated. The main findings were as follows. (1) In situ measurements using high speed camera and a void sensor together with one dimensional two phase flow analysis results showed that a two phase flow simulated BWR core condition can be obtained in the corrosion test facility. (2) The heat transfer corrosion test results showed that the thickness of the zirconium oxide layer increased with increasing solution temperature and was independent of heat flux and void fraction. The corrosion accelerating factor was about 2.5 times in the case of a temperature increase from 288degC to 350degC. (author)

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in situ experimental program for HLW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) will be a facility to demonstrate the environmental and operational safety of storing radioactive wastes in a deep geologic bedded salt facility. The WIPP will be located in southeastern New Mexico, approximately 30 miles east of the city of Carlsbad. The major focus of the pilot plant operation involves ERDA defense related low and intermediate-level transuranic wastes. The scope of the project also specifically includes experimentation utilizing commercially generated high-level wastes, or alternatively, spent unreprocessed fuel elements. WIPP HLW experiments are being conducted in an inter-related laboratory, bench-scale, and in situ mode. This presentation focuses on the planned in situ experiments which, depending on the availability of commercially reprocessed waste plus delays in the construction schedule of the WIPP, will begin in approximately 1985. Such experiments are necessary to validate preceding laboratory results and to provide actual, total conditions of geologic storage which cannot be adequately simulated. One set of planned experiments involves emplacing bare HLW fragments into direct contact with the bedded salt environment. A second set utilizes full-size canisters of waste emplaced in the salt in the same manner as planned for a future HLW repository. The bare waste experiments will study in an accelerated manner waste-salt bed-brine interactions including matrix integrity/degradation, brine leaching, system chemistry, and potential radionuclide migration through the salt bed. Utilization of full-size canisters of HLW in situ permits us to demonstrate operational effectiveness and safety. Experiments will evaluate corrosion and compatibility interactions between the waste matrix, canister and overpack materials, getter materials, stored energy, waste buoyancy, etc. Using full size canisters also allows us to demonstrate engineered retrievability of wastes, if necessary, at the end of experimentation

  10. In situ observation of lithium hydride hydrolysis by DRIFT spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awbery, Roy P.; Broughton, Duncan A.; Tsang, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    Polycrystalline LiH was studied in situ using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy to investigate the effect water vapour has on the rate of production of the corrosion products, particularly LiOH. The reaction rate of the formation of surface LiOH was monitored by measurement of the hydroxyl (OH) band at 3676 cm -1 . The initial hydrolysis rate of LiH exposed to water vapour at 50% relative humidity was found to be almost two times faster than LiH exposed to water vapour at 2% relative humidity. The hydrolysis rate was shown to be initially very rapid followed by a much slower, almost linear rate. The change in hydrolysis rate was attributed to the formation of a coherent layer of LiOH on the LiH surface. Exposure to lower levels of water vapour appeared to result in the formation of a more coherent corrosion product, resulting in effective passivation of the surface to further attack from water

  11. In situ geochemical properties of clays subject to thermal loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.A.

    1980-01-01

    Compositional variation and geochemical environment in an argillaceous unit are a function of age, depth of burial and mode of origin. This paper considers the variation limits likely to be encountered in potential repository host rocks and examines the significance of factors such as porosity, pore-fluid pressure, total fluid content, and major and accessory mineral component behaviors in controlling the geochemical environment in the neighbourhood of a thermally active waste canister. Particular attention is paid to the use of Eh-pH diagrams in assessing corrosion environments and nuclide speciation. The paper outlines the variables which must be considered when endeavouring to interpret such plots (e.g. temperature, concentration, concurrent reactions and probabilities) and uses the behavior of various iron minerals found in clay deposits under specific conditions to illustrate the complexities. The overall thermal stability of various clay and accessory minerals is discussed and extended to attempt to predict behavior under deep repository conditions, using available data on the diagenetic characteristics of clay-rich sediments. The physical behavior of fluids in plastic clays is considered and methods evaluated for deriving induced geochemical conditions in a thermally active repository. The latter section is particularly related to canister corrosion studies, in situ experiments, and waste dissolution parameters

  12. PRINS and in situ PCR protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gosden, John R

    1997-01-01

    ... mapping of DNA sequences on chromosomes and location of gene expression followed the invention and refinement of in situ hybridization. Among the most recent technical developments has been the use of oligonucleotide primers to detect and amplify or extend complementary sequences in situ, and it is to this novel field that PRINS and In S...

  13. Technology assessment of in situ uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of the PNL portion of the Technology Assessment project is to provide a description of the current in situ uranium mining technology; to evaluate, based on available data, the environmental impacts and, in a limited fashion, the health effects; and to explore the impediments to development and deployment of the in situ uranium mining technology

  14. The In Situ Vitrification Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.

    1988-10-01

    The Columbia Section of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) is pleased to submit the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) Project to the Pacific Northwest Council for consideration as the Outstanding Civil Engineering Achievement. The ISV process, developed by Battelle-Northwest researchers beginning in 1980, converts contaminated soils and sludges to a glass and crystalline product. In this way it stabilizes hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes and makes them chemically inert. This report describes the process. A square array of four molybdenum electrodes is inserted into the ground to the desired treatment depth. Because soil is not electrically conductive when the moisture has been driven off, a conductive mixture of flaked graphite and glass frit is placed among the electrodes as a starter path. An electrical potential is applied to the electrodes to establish an electric current in the starter path. The resultant power heats the starter path and surrounding soil to 2000/degree/C, well above the initial soil-melting temperature of 1100/degree/C to 1400/degree/C. The graphite starter path is eventually consumed by oxidation, and the current is transferred to the molten soil, which is electrically conductive. As the molten or vitrified zone grows, it incorporates radionuclides and nonvolatile hazardous elements, such as heavy metals, and destroys organic components by pyrolysis. 2 figs

  15. In situ vitrification: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, L.L.; Fields, D.E.

    1989-11-01

    The in situ vitrification process (ISV) converts contaminated soils and sludges to a glass and crystalline product. The process appears to be ideally suited for on site treatment of both wet and dry wastes. Basically, the system requires four molybdenum electrodes, an electrical power system for vitrifying the soil, a hood to trap gaseous effluents, an off-gas treatment system, an off-gas cooling system, and a process control station. Mounted in three transportable trailers, the ISV process can be moved from site to site. The process has the potential for treating contaminated soils at most 13 m deep. The ISV project has won a number of outstanding achievement awards. The process has also been patented with exclusive worldwide rights being granted to Battelle Memorial Institute for nonradioactive applications. While federal applications still belong to the Department of Energy, Battelle transferred the rights of ISV for non-federal government, chemical hazardous wastes to a separate corporation in 1989 called Geosafe. This report gives a review of the process including current operational behavior and applications

  16. Distillation of shale in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Ganahl, C F

    1922-07-04

    To distill buried shale or other carbon containing compounds in situ, a portion of the shale bed is rendered permeable to gases, and the temperature is raised to the point of distillation. An area in a shale bed is shattered by explosives, so that it is in a relatively finely divided form, and the tunnel is then blocked by a wall, and fuel and air are admitted through pipes until the temperature of the shale is raised to such a point that a portion of the released hydrocarbons will burn. When distillation of the shattered area takes place and the lighter products pass upwardly through uptakes to condensers and scrubbers, liquid oil passes to a tank and gas to a gasometer while heavy unvaporized products in the distillation zone collect in a drain, flow into a sump, and are drawn off through a pipe to a storage tank. In two modifications, methods of working are set out in cases where the shale lies beneath a substantially level surface.

  17. In situ QCM and TM-AFM investigations of the early stages of degradation of silver and copper surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleber, Ch.; Hilfrich, U.; Schreiner, M.

    2007-01-01

    The early stages of atmospheric corrosion of pure copper and pure silver specimens were investigated performing in situ tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM), in situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The information obtained by TM-AFM is the change of the topography of the sample surfaces with emphasis on the shape and lateral distribution of the corrosion products grown within the first hours of weathering. The simultaneously performed in situ QCM measurements are indicating the mass changes due to possibly occurring corrosive processes on the surface during weathering and are therefore a valuable tool for the determination of corrosion rates. Investigations were carried out in synthetic air at different levels of relative humidity (RH) with and without addition of 250 ppb SO 2 as acidifying agent. On a polished copper surface the growth of corrosion products could be observed by TM-AFM analysis at 60% RH without any addition of acidifying gases [M. Wadsak, M. Schreiner, T. Aastrup, C. Leygraf, Surf. Sci. 454-456 (2000) 246-250]. On a weathered copper surface the addition of SO 2 to the moist air stream leads to the formation of additional features as already described in the literature [M. Wadsak, M. Schreiner, T. Aastrup, C. Leygraf, Surf. Sci. 454-456 (2000) 246-250; Ch. Kleber, J. Weissenrieder, M. Schreiner, C. Leygraf, Appl. Surf. Sci. 193 (2002) 245-253]. Exposing a silver specimen to humidity leads to the degradation of the surface structure as well as to a formation of corrosion products, which could be detected by in situ QCM measurements. After addition of 250 ppb SO 2 to the moist gas stream an increase of the formed feature's volume on the silver surface could be observed by TM-AFM measurements. The results obtained additionally from the in situ QCM measurements confirm the influence of SO 2 due to a further increase of the mass of the formed corrosion layer (and therefore an increase of the

  18. Corrosion of Magnesium in Multimaterial System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Vineet V.; Agnew, Sean

    2017-08-16

    The TMS Magnesium Committee has been actively involved in presenting cutting-edge research and development and the latest trends related to magnesium and its alloys to industry and academia. Topics including magnesium alloy development, applications, mechanism of deformation and corrosion, thermomechanical processing, modelling, etc. have been captured year after year through the Magnesium Technology symposium and conference proceedings at TMS and through special topics in JOM. Every year, based on the unanimous endorsement from the industry and academia, a topic is selected to address the latest developments within this subject in JOM. In continuation with last year’s coverage of Advances and Achievements in In-Situ Analysis of Corrosions and Structure–Property Relationship in Mg Alloys,[1] this year’s topic focuses on the Corrosion of Magnesium in Multimaterial Systems. Magnesium, the lightest of all the structural materials, has garnered much interest in the transportation, electronics packaging, defense equipments and industries alike and are more commonly being incorporated in multimaterial design concepts.[2-4] However, the application of the same is limited due to its highly corrosive nature, and understanding and mitigating the corrosion of magnesium has been a major research challenge.

  19. Accelerated Corrosion Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Treaty Organization, Brussels, 1971), p. 449. 14. D. 0. Sprowls, T. J. Summerson, G. M. Ugianski, S. G. Epstein, and H. L. Craig , Jr., in Stress...National Association of Corrosion Engineers Houston, TX, 1972). 22. H. L. Craig , Jr. (ed.), Stress Corrosion-New Approaches, ASTM-STP- 610 (American...62. M. Hishida and H. Nakada, Corrosion 33 (11) 403 (1977). b3. D. C. Deegan and B. E. Wilde, Corrosion 34 (6), 19 (1978). 64. S. Orman, Corrosion Sci

  20. A study on the initiation of pitting corrosion in carbon steel in chloride-containing media using scanning electrochemical probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Bin; Hu Ronggang; Ye Chenqing; Li Yan; Lin Changjian

    2010-01-01

    Scanning electrochemical probes of corrosion potential and chloride ions were developed for the in situ monitoring of localized corrosion processes of reinforcing steel in NaCl-containing solution. The results indicated that the chloride ions (Cl - ) preferentially adsorbed and accumulated at the imperfect/defective sites, resulting in initiation and propagation of pitting corrosion on the reinforcing steel surface. An electron microprobe analyzer (EMPA) was used to examine the corrosion morphology and elemental distribution at the corroded location to investigate the origins of the preferential Cl - adsorption and pitting corrosion. By combining the in situ and ex situ images, we concluded that manganese sulfide inclusions in reinforcing steel are the most susceptible defects to pitting corrosion in chloride-containing solution.

  1. Corrosion/96 conference papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Topics covered by this conference include: cathodic protection in natural waters; cleaning and repassivation of building HVAC systems; worldwide opportunities in flue gas desulfurization; advancements in materials technology for use in oil and gas service; fossil fuel combustion and conversion; technology of corrosion inhibitors; computers in corrosion control--modeling and information processing; recent experiences and advances of austenitic alloys; managing corrosion with plastics; corrosion measurement technology; corrosion inhibitors for concrete; refining industry; advances in corrosion control for rail and tank trailer equipment; CO 2 corrosion--mechanisms and control; microbiologically influenced corrosion; corrosion in nuclear systems; role of corrosion in boiler failures; effects of water reuse on monitoring and control technology in cooling water applications; methods and mechanisms of scale and deposit control; corrosion detection in petroleum production lines; underground corrosion control; environmental cracking--relating laboratory results and field behavior; corrosion control in reinforced concrete structures; corrosion and its control in aerospace and military hardware; injection and process addition facilities; progress reports on the results of reinspection of deaerators inspected or repaired per RP0590 criteria; near 100% volume solids coating technology and application methods; materials performance in high temperature environments containing halides; impact of toxicity studies on use of corrosion/scale inhibitors; mineral scale deposit control in oilfield related operations; corrosion in gas treating; marine corrosion; cold climate corrosion; corrosion in the pulp and paper industry; gaseous chlorine alternatives in cooling water systems; practical applications of ozone in recirculating cooling water systems; and water reuse in industry. Over 400 papers from this conference have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  2. The present and future on surface analysis for corrosion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Surface analysis for corrosion study was reviewed. For the study, the in-situ analysis was desired to describe the real feature. Light i.e., electromagnetic wave from gamma rays to infrared light has been used for the in-situ measurement of the corroded surface, although various ideas should be introduced for the study. For the application of the electromagnetic waves, a suitable window material and a suitable distance between the window and specimen surface depending on the properties of the wave must be selected. Electron spectroscopy including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) is not applicable for the in-situ study and, however, it is very available for the corrosion study from the following points; elemental analysis, state analysis of the element, and microscopic analysis. In future, the tip enhance Raman scattering (TERS) for which the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is combined with the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) may be useful for the in-situ corrosion study. (author)

  3. Corrosion of structural materials and electrochemistry in high temperature water of nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke

    2014-01-01

    The latest experiences with corrosion in the cooling systems of nuclear power plants are reviewed. High temperature cooling water causes corrosion of structural materials, which often leads to adverse effects in the plants, e.g., generating defects in materials of major components and fuel claddings, increasing shutdown radiation and increasing the volume of radwaste sources. Corrosion behaviors are much affected by water qualities and differ according to the values of water qualities and the materials themselves. In order to establish reliable operation, each plant requires its own unique optimal water chemistry control based on careful consideration of its system, materials and operational history. Electrochemistry is one of key issues that determine corrosion related problems but it is not the only issue. Most phenomena for corrosion related problems, e.g., flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC), intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC), primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) and thinning of fuel cladding materials, can be understood based on an electrochemical index, e.g., electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP), conductivities and pH. The most important electrochemical index, ECP, can be measured at elevated temperature and applied to in situ sensors of corrosion conditions to detect anomalous conditions of structural materials at their very early stages. In the paper, theoretical models based on electrochemistry to estimate wall thinning rate of carbon steel piping due to flow-accelerated corrosion and corrosive conditions determining IGSCC crack initiation and growth rate are introduced. (author)

  4. Proceedings of the International Congress (12th), Corrosion Control for Low-Cost Reliability, Held in Houston, Texas on September 19 -24, 1993. Volume 6. Electric Power Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-24

    700 A. Perkins ........................................................................... 882 308 Dissolution and Precipitation Phenomena in...Ohsumi ............................... 4060 135 In-Situ Gravimetry of Corrosion of Iron Thin Films Combined with Surface Analytical Techniques M . Seo

  5. Development of an in situ fatigue sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A prototype in situ fatigue sensor has been designed, constructed and evaluated experimentally for its ability to monitor the accumulation of fatigue damage in a cyclically loaded steel structure, e.g., highway bridge. The sensor consists of multiple...

  6. In Situ Aerosol Detector, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is developing new platform systems that have the potential to benefit Earth science research activities, which include in situ instruments for atmospheric...

  7. Past In-Situ Burning Possibilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yoshioka, Gary

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of conducting in-situ burning (ISB) using current technology on post 1967 major oil spills over 10,00 barrels in North America and over 50,00 barrels in South America and Europe...

  8. Observatory Magnetometer In-Situ Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Marusenkov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental validation of the in-situ calibration procedure, which allows estimating parameters of observatory magnetometers (scale factors, sensor misalignment without its operation interruption, is presented. In order to control the validity of the procedure, the records provided by two magnetometers calibrated independently in a coil system have been processed. The in-situ estimations of the parameters are in very good agreement with the values provided by the coil system calibration.

  9. In-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Jose A; Chupas, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Helps researchers develop new catalysts for sustainable fuel and chemical production Reviewing the latest developments in the field, this book explores the in-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts, enabling readers to take full advantage of the sophisticated techniques used to study heterogeneous catalysts and reaction mechanisms. In using these techniques, readers can learn to improve the selectivity and the performance of catalysts and how to prepare catalysts as efficiently as possible, with minimum waste. In-situ Characterization of Heterogeneous Catalysts feat

  10. Unintended and in situ amorphisation of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priemel, P A; Grohganz, H; Rades, T

    2016-05-01

    Amorphisation of poorly water-soluble drugs is one approach that can be applied to improve their solubility and thus their bioavailability. Amorphisation is a process that usually requires deliberate external energy input. However, amorphisation can happen both unintentionally, as in process-induced amorphisation during manufacturing, or in situ during dissolution, vaporisation, or lipolysis. The systems in which unintended and in situ amorphisation has been observed normally contain a drug and a carrier. Common carriers include polymers and mesoporous silica particles. However, the precise mechanisms by which in situ amorphisation occurs are often not fully understood. In situ amorphisation can be exploited and performed before administration of the drug or possibly even within the gastrointestinal tract, as can be inferred from in situ amorphisation observed during in vitro lipolysis. The use of in situ amorphisation can thus confer the advantages of the amorphous form, such as higher apparent solubility and faster dissolution rate, without the disadvantage of its physical instability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. New application technology for 'in situ' pipeline protection using pigging techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretorius, Louis Charles [Corrocoat SA (PTY) Ltd., Durban (South Africa)

    2005-07-01

    Pigging of long pipelines is a technique for in situ (field) coating, creating seamless internal structural linings. Originally developed for cleaning pipes, the system was adapted to apply internal anti-corrosion protection to pipes using a thin epoxy layer, which had some problems in weld coverage, stress cracking, poor cold weather curing and the inability to fill pitting corrosion metal loss. New coating materials, revised application methods and modified pigging equipment have made it possible to apply in situ liquid film coatings up to 1 mm thick, as an internal corrosion barrier to pipes, in a single application (similar to continuous screeding) resulting in a bonded 'GRP pipe within a steel pipe'. The method can be used for new projects on fully welded pipe lines avoiding coating problems associated with flange joints and/or couplings, or for refurbishment of old pipelines, varying from 150-900 mm diameter, up to 12 km long. Pipes can be buried, submerged, continuously welded or flanged. Many different pipes, such as oil platform to shore based pipelines, can all be treated using this method. Thick film polymer pigging techniques create new possibilities for Engineers to extend the life of pipeline systems, with significant cost savings compared to replacement pipe. (author)

  12. In-situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements of zirconium alloy oxide conductivity: Relationship to hydrogen pickup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couet, Adrien; Motta, Arthur T.; Ambard, Antoine; Livigni, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • In-situ electrochemistry on zirconium alloys in 360 °C pure water show oxide layer resistivity changes during corrosion. • A linear relationship is observed between oxide resistivity and instantaneous hydrogen pickup fraction. • The resistivity of the oxide layer formed on Zircaloy-4 (and thus its hydrogen pickup fraction) is higher than on Zr-2.5Nb. - Abstract: Hydrogen pickup during nuclear fuel cladding corrosion is a critical life-limiting degradation mechanism for nuclear fuel. Following a program dedicated to zirconium alloys, corrosion, it has been hypothesized that oxide electronic resistivity determines hydrogen pickup. In-situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy experiments were performed on Zircaloy-4 and Zr-2.5Nb alloys in 360 °C water. The oxide resistivity was measured as function of time. The results show that as the oxide resistivity increases so does the hydrogen pickup fraction. The resistivity of the oxide layer formed on Zircaloy-4 is higher than on Zr-2.5Nb, resulting in a higher hydrogen pickup fraction of Zircaloy-4, compared to Zr-2.5Nb.

  13. Catastrophes caused by corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    PETROVIC ZORAN C.

    2016-01-01

    For many years, huge attention has been paid to the problem of corrosion damage and destruction of metallic materials. Experience shows that failures due to corrosion problems are very important, and statistics at the world level shows that the damage resulting from the effects of various forms of corrosion is substantial and that, for example, in industrialized countries it reaches 4-5% of national incomes. Significant funds are determined annually for the prevention and control of corrosion...

  14. Modelling of Corrosion Cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Modelling of corrosion cracking of reinforced concrete structures is complicated as a great number of uncertain factors are involved. To get a reliable modelling a physical and mechanical understanding of the process behind corrosion in needed.......Modelling of corrosion cracking of reinforced concrete structures is complicated as a great number of uncertain factors are involved. To get a reliable modelling a physical and mechanical understanding of the process behind corrosion in needed....

  15. Erosion-corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghili, B.

    1999-05-01

    A literature study on erosion-corrosion of pipings in the nuclear industry was performed. Occurred incidents are reviewed, and the mechanism driving the erosion-corrosion is described. Factors that influence the effect in negative or positive direction are treated, as well as programs for control and inspection. Finally, examples of failures from databases on erosion-corrosion are given in an attachment

  16. Microbiological corrosion of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladislavlev, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    Problems is considered of development of the microbiological corrosion of the NPP equipment. The main attention is paid to the selective character of microbiological corrosion in zones of welded joints of austenitic steels. It is noted that the presence of technological defects promotes growth of corrosional damages. Methods for microbiological corrosion protection are discussed

  17. Management of Reinforcement Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, André; Geiker, Mette Rica; Møller, Per

    Reinforcement corrosion is the most important cause for deterioration of reinforced concrete structures, both with regard to costs and consequences. Thermodynamically consistent descriptions of corrosion mechanisms are expected to allow the development of innovative concepts for the management...... of reinforcement corrosion....

  18. Real Time Corrosion Monitoring in Lead and Lead-Bismuth Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Stubbins; Alan Bolind; Ziang Chen

    2010-02-25

    The objective of this research program is to develop a real-time, in situ corrosion monitoring technique for flowing liquid Pb and eutectic PbBi (LBE) systems in a temperature range of 400 to 650 C. These conditions are relevant to future liquid metal cooled fast reactor operating parameters. THis program was aligned with the Gen IV Reactor initiative to develp technologies to support the design and opertion of a Pb or LBE-cooled fast reactor. The ability to monitor corrosion for protection of structural components is a high priority issue for the safe and prolonged operation of advanced liquid metal fast reactor systems. In those systems, protective oxide layers are intentionally formed and maintained to limit corrosion rates during operation. This program developed a real time, in situ corrosion monitoring tecnique using impedance spectroscopy (IS) technology.

  19. The influence of yttrium (Y) on the corrosion of Mg-Y binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ming; Schmutz, Patrik; Uggowitzer, Peter J.; Song Guangling; Atrens, Andrej

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The Y-intermetallic can accelerate corrosion and Y can increase the protectiveness of the surface layer. → In 0.1 M NaCl, the corrosion rate of Mg-Y alloys increased with increasing Y due to the Y intermetallic. → In 0.1 M NaCl, there was filiform corrosion. → In 0.1 M Na 2 SO 4 , the corrosion rate of Mg-Y alloys decreased with increasing Y in the range 3-7%Y. → Hydrogen evolution was observed from particular parts of the alloy surface. - Abstract: Corrosion of Mg-Y alloys was studied using electrochemical evaluations, immersion tests and direct observations. There were two important effects. In 0.1 M NaCl, the corrosion rate increased with increasing Y content due to increasing amounts of the Y-containing intermetallic. In 0.1 M Na 2 SO 4 , the corrosion rate decreased with increasing Y content above 3%, attributed to a more protective surface film, despite the intermetallic. The corrosion rate evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was somewhat smaller than that evaluated from H evolution as expected from the Mg corrosion mechanism. A mechanism is proposed for filiform corrosion. Direct in situ corrosion observations revealed that a predominant feature was hydrogen evolution from particular parts of the alloy surface.

  20. Comparative study of in-situ filter test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, M.; Stevens, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    Available methods of testing high efficiency particulate aerosol (HEPA) filters in-situ have been reviewed. In order to understand the relationship between the results produced by different methods a selection has been compared. Various pieces of equipment for generating and detecting aerosols have been tested and their suitability assessed. Condensation-nuclei, DOP (di-octyl phthalate) and sodium-flame in-situ filter test methods have been studied, using the 500 cfm (9000 m 3 /h) filter test rig at Harwell and in the field. Both the sodium-flame and DOP methods measure the penetration through leaks and filter material. However the measured penetration through filtered leaks depends on the aerosol size distribution and the detection method. Condensation-nuclei test methods can only be used to measure unfiltered leaks since condensation nuclei have a very low penetration through filtered leaks. A combination of methods would enable filtered and unfiltered leaks to be measured. A condensation-nucleus counter using n-butyl alcohol as the working fluid has the advantage of being able to detect any particle up to 1 μm in diameter, including DOP, and so could be used for this purpose. A single-particle counter has not been satisfactory because of interference from particles leaking into systems under extract, particularly downstream of filters, and because the concentration of the input aerosol has to be severely limited. The sodium-flame method requires a skilled operator and may cause safety and corrosion problems. The DOP method using a total light scattering detector has so far been the most satisfactory. It is fairly easy to use, measures reasonably low values of penetration and gives rapid results. DOP has had no adverse effect on HEPA filters over a long series of tests

  1. Corrosion of metallic materials. Dry corrosion, aqueous corrosion and corrosion by liquid metal, methods of protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helie, Max

    2015-01-01

    This book is based on a course on materials given in an engineering school. The author first gives an overview of metallurgy issues: metallic materials (pure metals, metallic alloys), defects of crystal lattices (point defects, linear defects or dislocations), equilibrium diagrams, steels and cast, thermal processing of steels, stainless steels, aluminium and its alloys, copper and its alloys. The second part addresses the properties and characterization of surfaces and interfaces: singularity of a metal surface, surface energy of a metal, energy of grain boundaries, adsorption at a material surface, metal-electrolyte interface, surface oxide-electrolyte interface, techniques of surface analysis. The third chapter addresses the electrochemical aspects of corrosion: description of the corrosion phenomenon, free enthalpy of a compound and free enthalpy of a reaction, case of dry corrosion (thermodynamic aspect, Ellingham diagram, oxidation mechanisms, experimental study, macroscopic modelling), case of aqueous corrosion (electrochemical thermodynamics and kinetics, experimental determination of corrosion rate). The fourth part addresses the different forms of aqueous corrosion: generalized corrosion (atmospheric corrosion, mechanisms and tests), localized corrosion (galvanic, pitting, cracking, intergranular, erosion and cavitation), particular cases of stress cracking (stress corrosion, fatigue-corrosion, embrittlement by hydrogen), and bi-corrosion (of non alloyed steels, of stainless steels, and of aluminium and copper alloys). The sixth chapter addresses the struggle and the protection against aqueous corrosion: methods of prevention, scope of use of main alloys, geometry-based protection of pieces, use of corrosion inhibitors, use of organic or metallic coatings, electrochemical protection. The last chapter proposes an overview of corrosion types in industrial practices: in the automotive industry, in the oil industry, in the aircraft industry, and in the

  2. In situ targeted MRI detection of Helicobacter pylori with stable magnetic graphitic nanocapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunjie; Hu, Xiaoxiao; Ding, Ding; Zou, Yuxiu; Xu, Yiting; Wang, Xuewei; Zhang, Yin; Chen, Long; Chen, Zhuo; Tan, Weihong

    2017-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is implicated in the aetiology of many diseases. Despite numerous studies, a painless, fast and direct method for the in situ detection of H. pylori remains a challenge, mainly due to the strong acidic/enzymatic environment of the gastric mucosa. Herein, we report the use of stable magnetic graphitic nanocapsules (MGNs), for in situ targeted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detection of H. pylori. Several layers of graphene as the shell effectively protect the magnetic core from corrosion while retaining the superior contrast effect for MRI in the gastric environment. Boronic-polyethylene glycol molecules were synthesized and modified on the MGN surface for targeted MRI detection. In a mouse model of H. pylori-induced infection, H. pylori was specifically detected through both T2-weighted MR imaging and Raman gastric mucosa imaging using functionalized MGNs. These results indicated that enhancement of MRI using MGNs may be a promising diagnostic and bioimaging platform for very harsh conditions.

  3. Co-firing straw and coal in a 150-MWe utility boiler: in situ measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P. F.B.; Andersen, Karin Hedebo; Wieck-Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    A 2-year demonstration program is carried out by the Danish utility I/S Midtkraft at a 150-MWe PF-boiler unit reconstructed for co-firing straw and coal. As a part of the demonstration program, a comprehensive in situ measurement campaign was conducted during the spring of 1996 in collaboration...... with the Technical University of Denmark. Six sample positions have been established between the upper part of the furnace and the economizer. The campaign included in situ sampling of deposits on water/air-cooled probes, sampling of fly ash, flue gas and gas phase alkali metal compounds, and aerosols as well...... deposition propensities and high temperature corrosion during co-combustion of straw and coal in PF-boilers. Danish full scale results from co-firing straw and coal, the test facility and test program, and the potential theoretical support from the Technical University of Denmark are presented in this paper...

  4. In-situ bioremediation via horizontal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazen, T.C.; Looney, B.B.; Enzien, M.; Franck, M.M.; Fliermans, C.B.; Eddy, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    This project is designed to demonstrate in situ bioremediation of groundwater and sediment contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Indigenous microorganisms were stimulated to degrade TCE, PCE and their daughter products in situ by addition of nutrients to the contaminated zone. In situ biodegradation is a highly attractive technology for remediation because contaminants are destroyed, not simply moved to another location or immobilized, thus decreasing costs, risks, and time, while increasing efficiency and public and regulatory acceptability. Bioremediation has been found to be among the least costly technologies in applications where it will work (Radian 1989). Subsurface soils and water adjacent to an abandoned process sewer line at the SRS have been found to have elevated levels of TCE (Marine and Bledsoe 1984). This area of subsurface and groundwater contamination is the focus of a current integrated demonstration of new remediation technologies utilizing horizontal wells. Bioremediation has the potential to enhance the performance of in situ air stripping as well as offering stand-alone remediation of this and other contaminated sites (Looney et al. 1991). Horizontal wells could also be used to enhance the recovery of groundwater contaminants for bioreactor conversions from deep or inaccessible areas (e.g., under buildings) and to enhance the distribution of nutrient or microbe additions in an in situ bioremediation

  5. Efficacy monitoring of in situ fuel bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.; Borchert, S.; Heard, C.

    1996-01-01

    The wide-scale, multiple-purpose use of fossil fuels throughout the industrialized world has resulted in the inadvertent contamination of myriad environments. Given the scope and magnitude of these environmental contamination problems, bioremediation often represents the only practical and economically feasible solution. This is especially true when depth of contamination, magnitude of the problem, and nature of contaminated material preclude other remedial actions, short of the no-response alternative. From the perspective, the effective, safe and scientifically valid use of in situ bioremediation technologies requires cost-efficient and effective implementation strategies in combination with unequivocal approaches for monitoring efficacy of performance. Accordingly, with support from the SERDP program, the authors are field-testing advanced in situ bioremediation strategies and new approaches in efficacy monitoring that employ techniques instable carbon and nitrogen isotope biogeochemistry. One field demonstration has been initiated at the NEX site in Port Hueneme, CA (US Navy's National Test Site). The objectives are: (1) to use stable isotopes as a biogeochemical monitoring tool for in situ bioremediation of refined petroleum (i.e., BTEX), and (2) to use vertical groundwater circulation technology to effect in situ chemical containment and enhanced in situ bioremediation

  6. Review on the development of truly portable and in-situ capillary electrophoresis systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, A. P.; Cranny, A.; Harris, N. R.; Green, N. G.; Wharton, J. A.; Wood, R. J. K.; Stokes, K. R.

    2013-04-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a technique which uses an electric field to separate a mixed sample into its constituents. Portable CE systems enable this powerful analysis technique to be used in the field. Many of the challenges for portable systems are similar to those of autonomous in-situ analysis and therefore portable systems may be considered a stepping stone towards autonomous in-situ analysis. CE is widely used for biological and chemical analysis and example applications include: water quality analysis; drug development and quality control; proteomics and DNA analysis; counter-terrorism (explosive material identification) and corrosion monitoring. The technique is often limited to laboratory use, since it requires large electric fields, sensitive detection systems and fluidic control systems. All of these place restrictions in terms of: size, weight, cost, choice of operating solutions, choice of fabrication materials, electrical power and lifetime. In this review we bring together and critique the work by researchers addressing these issues. We emphasize the importance of a holistic approach for portable and in-situ CE systems and discuss all the aspects of the design. We identify gaps in the literature which require attention for the realization of both truly portable and in-situ CE systems.

  7. Review on the development of truly portable and in-situ capillary electrophoresis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, A P; Cranny, A; Harris, N R; Green, N G; Wharton, J A; Wood, R J K; Stokes, K R

    2013-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a technique which uses an electric field to separate a mixed sample into its constituents. Portable CE systems enable this powerful analysis technique to be used in the field. Many of the challenges for portable systems are similar to those of autonomous in-situ analysis and therefore portable systems may be considered a stepping stone towards autonomous in-situ analysis. CE is widely used for biological and chemical analysis and example applications include: water quality analysis; drug development and quality control; proteomics and DNA analysis; counter-terrorism (explosive material identification) and corrosion monitoring. The technique is often limited to laboratory use, since it requires large electric fields, sensitive detection systems and fluidic control systems. All of these place restrictions in terms of: size, weight, cost, choice of operating solutions, choice of fabrication materials, electrical power and lifetime. In this review we bring together and critique the work by researchers addressing these issues. We emphasize the importance of a holistic approach for portable and in-situ CE systems and discuss all the aspects of the design. We identify gaps in the literature which require attention for the realization of both truly portable and in-situ CE systems. (topical review)

  8. Deformation processes in functional materials studied by in situ neutron diffraction and ultrasonic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sittner, P.; Novak, V.; Landa, M.; Lukas, P.

    2007-01-01

    The unique thermomechanical functions of shape memory alloys (hysteretic stress-strain-temperature responses) not their structural properties (as strength, fatigue, corrosion resistance, etc.) are primarily utilized in engineering applications. In order to better understand and predict the functional behavior, we have recently employed two dedicated non-invasive in situ experimental methods capable to follow the deformation/transformation processes in thermomechanically loaded polycrystalline samples. The in situ neutron diffraction method takes advantage of the ability of thermal neutrons to penetrate bulk samples. As a diffraction technique sensitive to interplanar spacings in crystalline solids, it provides in situ information on the changes in crystal structure, phase composition, phase stress and texture in the transforming samples. The combined in situ ultrasonic and electric resistance method follows variations of the electric resistance as well as speed and attenuation of acoustic waves propagating through the transforming sample. The acoustic waves are mainly sensitive to changes of elastic properties accompanying the deformation/transformation processes. The latter method thus follows the changes in interatomic bonds rather than changes in the interplanar lattice spacings focused in the neutron diffraction method. The methods are thus complementary. They are briefly described and selected experimental results obtained recently on NiTi alloys are presented and discussed

  9. Sapphire: a better material for atomization and in situ collection of silver volatile species for atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musil, Stanislav, E-mail: stanomusil@biomed.cas.cz; Matoušek, Tomáš; Dědina, Jiří

    2015-06-01

    Sapphire is presented as a high temperature and corrosion resistant material of an optical tube of an atomizer for volatile species of Ag generated by the reaction with NaBH{sub 4}. The modular atomizer design was employed which allowed to carry out the measurements in two modes: (i) on-line atomization and (ii) in situ collection (directly in the optical tube) by means of excess of O{sub 2} over H{sub 2} in the carrier gas during the trapping step and vice versa in the volatilization step. In comparison with quartz atomizers, the sapphire tube atomizer provides a significantly increased atomizer lifetime as well as substantially improved repeatability of the Ag in situ collection signals shapes. In situ collection of Ag in the sapphire tube atomizer was highly efficient (> 90%). Limit of detection in the on-line atomization mode and in situ collection mode, respectively, was 1.2 ng ml{sup −1} and 0.15 ng ml{sup −1}. - Highlights: • Sapphire was tested as a new material of an atomizer tube for Ag volatile species. • Two measurement modes were investigated: on-line atomization and in situ collection. • In situ collection of Ag was highly efficient (> 90%) with LOD of 0.15 ng ml{sup −1}. • No devitrification of the sapphire tube observed in the course of several months.

  10. Experiments and models of general corrosion and flow-assisted corrosion of materials in nuclear reactor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, William Gordon

    Corrosion and material degradation issues are of concern to all industries. However, the nuclear power industry must conform to more stringent construction, fabrication and operational guidelines due to the perceived additional risk of operating with radioactive components. Thus corrosion and material integrity are of considerable concern for the operators of nuclear power plants and the bodies that govern their operations. In order to keep corrosion low and maintain adequate material integrity, knowledge of the processes that govern the material's breakdown and failure in a given environment are essential. The work presented here details the current understanding of the general corrosion of stainless steel and carbon steel in nuclear reactor primary heat transport systems (PHTS) and examines the mechanisms and possible mitigation techniques for flow-assisted corrosion (FAC) in CANDU outlet feeder pipes. Mechanistic models have been developed based on first principles and a 'solution-pores' mechanism of metal corrosion. The models predict corrosion rates and material transport in the PHTS of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and the influence of electrochemistry on the corrosion and flow-assisted corrosion of carbon steel in the CANDU outlet feeders. In-situ probes, based on an electrical resistance technique, were developed to measure the real-time corrosion rate of reactor materials in high-temperature water. The probes were used to evaluate the effects of coolant pH and flow on FAC of carbon steel as well as demonstrate of the use of titanium dioxide as a coolant additive to mitigated FAC in CANDU outlet feeder pipes.

  11. ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES FOR ISCO METHODS IN-SITU FENTON OXIDATION IN-SITU PERMANGANATE OXIDATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The advantages and disadvantages of in-situ Fenton oxidation and in-situ permanganate oxidation will be presented. This presentation will provide a brief overview of each technology and a detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each technology. Included in the ...

  12. Fighting corrosion in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopalan, K S; Rangaswamy, N S

    1979-03-01

    A survey covers the cost of corrosion in India; methods of preventing corrosion in industrial plants; some case histories, including the prevention of corrosion in pipes through which fuels are pumped to storage and the stress-corrosion cracking of evaporators in fertilizer plants; estimates of the increase in demand in 1979-89 for anticorrosion products and processes developed by the Central Electrochemical Research Institute (CECRI) at Karaikudi, India; industries that may face corrosion problems requiring assistance from CECRI, including the light and heavy engineering structural, and transport industries and the chemical industry; and some areas identified for major efforts, including the establishment of a Corrosion Advisory Board with regional centers and the expansion of the Tropical Corrosion Testing Station at Mandapam Camp, Tamil Nadu.

  13. In situ Raman Spectroscopy of Oxide Films on Zirconium Alloy in Simulated PWR Primary Water Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Ho; Choi, Kyoung Joon; Yoo, Seung Chang; Kim, Ji Hyun [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The two layered oxide structure is formed in pre-transition oxide for the zirconium alloy in high temperature water environment. It is known that the corrosion rate is related to the volume fraction of zirconium oxide and the pores in the oxides; therefore, the aim of this paper is to investigate the oxidation behavior in the pretransition zirconium oxide in high-temperature water chemistry. In this work, Raman spectroscopy was used for in situ investigations for characterizing the phase of zirconium oxide. In situ Raman spectroscopy is a well-suited technique for investigating in detail the characteristics of oxide films in a high-temperature corrosion environment. In previous studies, an in situ Raman system was developed for investigating the oxides on nickel-based alloys and low alloy steels in high-temperature water environment. Also, the early stage oxidation behavior of zirconium alloy with different dissolved hydrogen concentration environments in high temperature water was treated in the authors' previous study. In this study, a specific zirconium alloy was oxidized and investigated with in situ Raman spectroscopy for 100 d oxidation, which is close to the first transition time of the zirconium alloy oxidation. The ex situ investigation methods such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to further characterize the zirconium oxide structure. As oxidation time increased, the Raman peaks of tetragonal zirconium oxide were merged or became weaker. However, the monoclinic zirconium oxide peaks became distinct. The tetragonal zirconium oxide was just found near the O/M interface and this could explain the Raman spectra difference between the 30 d result and others.

  14. In situ testing of titanium and mild steel nuclear waste containers at the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in situ tests on the corrosion of titanium and mild steel for high level waste containers is presented. The tests at Sandia have moved out of the laboratory into a test underground facility in order to evaluate the performance of the waste package material. The tests are being performed under both near-reference and accelerated salt repository conditions. Some containers are filled with high level waste glass (non-radioactive); others contain electric heaters. Backfill material is either bentonite/sand or crushed salt. In other tests metals and glasses are exposed directly to brine. The tests are designed to study the corrosion and metallurgy of the canister and overpack materials; the feasibility and performance of backfill materials; and near-field effects such as brine migration

  15. In-situ neutron diffraction study of Zircaloy 4 subjected to biaxial tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharghouri, M.A. [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada); McDonald, D.; Xiao, L. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Zircaloy-4 is widely used as fuel element cladding in nuclear reactors. Pellet-clad interaction (PCI) failure is a concern for many water reactor fuel designs. Extensive work on the mechanism of PCI failure has led to the conclusion that stress corrosion cracking (SCC) induced by iodine vapour in the temperature range relevant to fuel operation is the most probable cause of PCI failure in zirconium alloy fuel element cladding. In-situ neutron diffraction measurements performed on tubular Zircaloy-4 specimens simultaneously pulled in tension and pressurized internally will provide information on the effects of stress biaxiality on the distribution of stresses at the crystal level during loading. (author)

  16. In situ macromolecular crystallography using microbeams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axford, Danny; Owen, Robin L; Aishima, Jun; Foadi, James; Morgan, Ann W; Robinson, James I; Nettleship, Joanne E; Owens, Raymond J; Moraes, Isabel; Fry, Elizabeth E; Grimes, Jonathan M; Harlos, Karl; Kotecha, Abhay; Ren, Jingshan; Sutton, Geoff; Walter, Thomas S; Stuart, David I; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2012-05-01

    Despite significant progress in high-throughput methods in macromolecular crystallography, the production of diffraction-quality crystals remains a major bottleneck. By recording diffraction in situ from crystals in their crystallization plates at room temperature, a number of problems associated with crystal handling and cryoprotection can be side-stepped. Using a dedicated goniometer installed on the microfocus macromolecular crystallography beamline I24 at Diamond Light Source, crystals have been studied in situ with an intense and flexible microfocus beam, allowing weakly diffracting samples to be assessed without a manual crystal-handling step but with good signal to noise, despite the background scatter from the plate. A number of case studies are reported: the structure solution of bovine enterovirus 2, crystallization screening of membrane proteins and complexes, and structure solution from crystallization hits produced via a high-throughput pipeline. These demonstrate the potential for in situ data collection and structure solution with microbeams. © 2012 International Union of Crystallography

  17. Unintended and in situ amorphisation of pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priemel, P A; Grohganz, H; Rades, T

    2016-01-01

    Amorphisation of poorly water-soluble drugs is one approach that can be applied to improve their solubility and thus their bioavailability. Amorphisation is a process that usually requires deliberate external energy input. However, amorphisation can happen both unintentionally, as in process......-induced amorphisation during manufacturing, or in situ during dissolution, vaporisation, or lipolysis. The systems in which unintended and in situ amorphisation has been observed normally contain a drug and a carrier. Common carriers include polymers and mesoporous silica particles. However, the precise mechanisms...... of in situ amorphisation can thus confer the advantages of the amorphous form, such as higher apparent solubility and faster dissolution rate, without the disadvantage of its physical instability....

  18. In situ vitrification: Application to buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callow, R.A.; Thompson, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Two in situ vitrification field tests were conducted in June and July 1990 at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification is a technology for in-place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form and is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to assess the general suitability of the process to remediate buried waste structures found at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests were designed as part of a treatability study to provide essential information on field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes, and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology provided valuable operational control for successfully processing the high metal content waste. The results indicate that in situ vitrification is a feasible technology for application to buried waste. 2 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Oil companies push in-situ recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, H.

    1977-01-01

    Possibly, a third Athabaska tar-sand plant using surface mining will be built in the 1980's, but future development beyond that point will probably depend on in-situ recovery. The discussion of in-situ recovery focusses on the effect it will have on the Canadian chemical industry, for example, the market for sodium hydroxide. To obtain the highest yields of oil from bitumen, an external source of hydrogen is necessary; for example Syncrude imports natural gas to make hydrogen for desulphurization. Gasification of coal is a possible source of hydrogen. Research on hydrocracking is progressing. Use of a prototype CANDU OCR reactor to raise the hot steam necessary for in-situ recovery has been suggested. Venezuela is interested in Canadian upgrading technology. (N.D.H.)

  20. Non-Destructive Evaluation for Corrosion Monitoring in Concrete: A Review and Capability of Acoustic Emission Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Ahmad; Chai, Hwa Kian; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.; Alver, Ninel

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion of reinforced concrete (RC) structures has been one of the major causes of structural failure. Early detection of the corrosion process could help limit the location and the extent of necessary repairs or replacement, as well as reduce the cost associated with rehabilitation work. Non-destructive testing (NDT) methods have been found to be useful for in-situ evaluation of steel corrosion in RC, where the effect of steel corrosion and the integrity of the concrete structure can be assessed effectively. A complementary study of NDT methods for the investigation of corrosion is presented here. In this paper, acoustic emission (AE) effectively detects the corrosion of concrete structures at an early stage. The capability of the AE technique to detect corrosion occurring in real-time makes it a strong candidate for serving as an efficient NDT method, giving it an advantage over other NDT methods. PMID:26251904

  1. Non-Destructive Evaluation for Corrosion Monitoring in Concrete: A Review and Capability of Acoustic Emission Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Zaki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion of reinforced concrete (RC structures has been one of the major causes of structural failure. Early detection of the corrosion process could help limit the location and the extent of necessary repairs or replacement, as well as reduce the cost associated with rehabilitation work. Non-destructive testing (NDT methods have been found to be useful for in-situ evaluation of steel corrosion in RC, where the effect of steel corrosion and the integrity of the concrete structure can be assessed effectively. A complementary study of NDT methods for the investigation of corrosion is presented here. In this paper, acoustic emission (AE effectively detects the corrosion of concrete structures at an early stage. The capability of the AE technique to detect corrosion occurring in real-time makes it a strong candidate for serving as an efficient NDT method, giving it an advantage over other NDT methods.

  2. In situ viscometry by optical trapping interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzmán, C.; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Köszali, R.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate quantitative in situ viscosity measurements by tracking the thermal fluctuations of an optically trapped microsphere subjected to a small oscillatory flow. The measured power spectral density of the sphere's positions displays a characteristic peak at the driving frequency of the f......We demonstrate quantitative in situ viscosity measurements by tracking the thermal fluctuations of an optically trapped microsphere subjected to a small oscillatory flow. The measured power spectral density of the sphere's positions displays a characteristic peak at the driving frequency...

  3. In situ soil remediation using electrokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehler, M.F.; Surma, J.E.; Virden, J.W.

    1994-11-01

    Electrokinetics is emerging as a promising technology for in situ soil remediation. This technique is especially attractive for Superfund sites and government operations which contain large volumes of contaminated soil. The approach uses an applied electric field to induce transport of both radioactive and hazardous waste ions in soil. The transport mechanisms include electroosmosis, electromigration, and electrophoresis. The feasibility of using electrokinetics to move radioactive 137 Cs and 60 Co at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, is discussed. A closed cell is used to provide in situ measurements of 137 Cs and 60 Co movement in Hanford soil. Preliminary results of ionic movement, along with the corresponding current response, are presented

  4. Corrosion principles and surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, J.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter examines the important strategies provided by the newer ideas of corrosion science and engineering that surface modification techniques must utilize to help prevent corrosion, especially the most damaging kind of aqueous corrosion, localized corrosion. Provides a brief introduction to the principles underlying the phenomenon of corrosion in order to use them to discuss surface modification strategies to combat corrosion. Discusses the electrochemistry of corrosion; the thermodynamics of corrosion; the kinetics of corrosion; thermodynamic strategies; and kinetic strategies (formation of more protective passive films; resistance to breakdown; ductility; repassivation)

  5. Research on atmospheric corrosion of steel using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, M.; Uchida, H.; Konishi, H.; Mizuki, J.

    2004-01-01

    Correlation between local structure around Cr in the protective rust layer on weathering steel and protective performance of the rust layer is presented as an example of corrosion research using synchrotron radiation which has recently been applied in various research fields as a useful tool. In addition, in situ observation of initial process of rust formation on steel is also mentioned. It was pointed out by considering the X-ray absorption fine structure spectra that the nanostructure of the protective rust layer on weathering steel primarily comprises of small Cr-goethite crystals containing surface adsorbed and/or intergranular CrO x 3-2X complex anions. This CrO x 3-2X explains the protective performance of the rust layer originated by dense aggregation of fine crystals with cation selectivity of the Cr-goethite. It is very advantageous to employ white X-rays for in situ observation of rusting process of a carbon steel covered with electrolyte thin films because rust structure might change very quickly. This in situ observation revealed the effect of ion species on the change in rust phase during wet/dry repeating. It can be said that application of synchrotron radiation on corrosion research is so useful to understand the nanostructure of surface oxides which closely relate to corrosion behavior of metals and alloys. (author)

  6. Corrosion of structural materials and electrochemistry in high temperature water of nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke

    2008-01-01

    The latest experiences with corrosion in the cooling systems of nuclear power plants are reviewed. High temperature cooling water causes corrosion of structural materials, which often leads to adverse effects in the plants, e.g., increased shutdown radiation, generation of defects in materials of major components and fuel claddings, and increased volume of radwaste sources. Corrosion behavior is greatly affected by water quality and differs according to the water quality values and the materials themselves. In order to establish reliable operation, each plant requires its own unique optimal water chemistry control based on careful consideration of its system, materials and operational history. Electrochemistry is one of the key issues that determine corrosion-related problems, but it is not the only issue. Most corrosion-related phenomena, e.g., flow accelerated corrosion (FAC), intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC), primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) and thinning of fuel cladding materials, can be understood based on an electrochemical index, e.g., the electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP), conductivities and pH. The most important electrochemical index, the ECP, can be measured at elevated temperature and applied to in situ sensors of corrosion conditions to detect anomalous conditions of structural materials at their very early stages. (orig.)

  7. Paleozoic in situ spores and pollen. Lycopsida

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bek, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 296, 1/6 (2017), s. 1-111 ISSN 0375-0299 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/12/2053 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : in situ spores * reproductive organs * Lycopsida * Paleozoic Sub ject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Paleontology Impact factor: 1.333, year: 2016

  8. Smoothsort, an alternative for sorting in situ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, E.W.

    1982-01-01

    Like heapsort - which inspired it - smoothsort is an algorithm for sorting in situ. It is of order N · log N in the worst case, but of order N in the best case, with a smooth transition between the two. (Hence its name.)

  9. Recovering uranium from coal in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    An underground carbonaceous deposit containing other mineral values is burned in situ. The underground hot zone is cooled down to temperature below the boiling point of a leachig solution. The leaching solution is percolated through the residial ash, with the pregnant solution recovered for separation of the mineral values in surface facilities

  10. In Situ TEM Creation of Nanowire Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Sardar Bilal

    Integration of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) as active components in devices requires that desired mechanical, thermal and electrical interfaces can be established between the nanoscale geometry of the SiNW and the microscale architecture of the device. In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM),...

  11. In Situ Flash Pyrolysis of Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Niels

    In-Situ Flash Pyrolysis of Straw Ph.D. dissertation by Niels Bech Submitted: April 2007. Supervisors: Professor Kim Dam-Johansen, Associate Professor Peter Arendt Jensen Erfaringerne med forbrænding af halm opnået gennem et årti har vist, at en proces der kan koncentrere energien på marken, fjerne...

  12. IN SITU LEAD IMMOBILIZATION BY APATITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead contamination is of environmental concern due to its effect on human health. The purpose of this study was to develop a technology to immobilize Pb in situ in contaminated soils and wastes using apatite. Hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(O...

  13. In Situ Cleanable Alternative HEPA Filter Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, D. J.; Terry, M. T.

    2002-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, located at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina, is currently testing two types of filter media for possible deployment as in situ regenerable/cleanable High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. The filters are being investigated to replace conventional, disposable, glass-fiber, HEPA filters that require frequent removal, replacement, and disposal. This is not only costly and subjects site personnel to radiation exposure, but adds to the ever-growing waste disposal problem. The types of filter media being tested, as part of a National Energy Technology Laboratory procurement, are sintered nickel metal and ceramic monolith membrane. These media were subjected to a hostile environment to simulate conditions that challenge the high-level waste tank ventilation systems. The environment promoted rapid filter plugging to maximize the number of filter loading/cleaning cycles that would occur in a specified period of time. The filters were challenged using nonradioactive simulated high-level waste materials and atmospheric dust; materials that cause filter pluggage in the field. The filters are cleaned in situ using an aqueous solution. The study found that both filter media were insensitive to high humidity or moisture conditions and were easily cleaned in situ. The filters regenerated to approximately clean filter status even after numerous plugging and in situ cleaning cycles. Air Techniques International is conducting particle retention testing on the filter media at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility. The filters are challenged using 0.3-mm di-octyl phthalate particles. Both the ceramic and sintered media have a particle retention efficiency > 99.97%. The sintered metal and ceramic filters not only can be cleaned in situ, but also hold great potential as a long life alternative to conventional HEPA filters. The Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Technical Report, ''HEPA Filters Used in the Department of

  14. Contemporary management of ductal carcinoma in situ and lobular carcinoma in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng-Gyasi, Samilia; Ong, Cecilia; Hwang, E Shelley

    2016-06-01

    The management of in situ lesions ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) continues to evolve. These diagnoses now comprise a large burden of mammographically diagnosed cancers, and with a global trend towards more population-based screening, the incidence of these lesions will continue to rise. Because outcomes following treatment for DCIS and LCIS are excellent, there is emerging controversy about what extent of treatment is optimal for both diseases. Here we review the current approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of both DCIS and LCIS. In addition, we will consider potential directions for future management of these lesions.

  15. Monitoring Microbially Influenced Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    and diffusional effects and unreliable corrosion rates, when biofilm and ferrous sulphide corrosion products cover the steel surface. Corrosion rates can be overestimated by a factor of 10 to 100 by electrochemical techniques. Weight loss coupons and ER are recommended as necessary basic monitoring techniques......Abstract Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of carbon steel may occur in media with microbiological activity of especially sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The applicability and reliability of a number of corrosion monitoring techniques for monitoring MIC has been evaluated in experiments....... EIS might be used for detection of MIC as the appearance of very large capacitances can be attributed to the combined ferrous sulphide and biofilm formation. Capacitance correlates directly with sulphide concentration in sterile sulphide media. Keywords: Corrosion monitoring, carbon steel, MIC, SRB...

  16. SRB seawater corrosion project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozack, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of 2219 aluminum when exposed to seawater was characterized. Controlled corrosion experiments at three different temperatures (30, 60 and 100 C) and two different environments (seawater and 3.5 percent salt solution) were designed to elucidate the initial stages in the corrosion process. It was found that 2219 aluminum is an active catalytic surface for growth of Al2O3, NaCl, and MgO. Formation of Al2O3 is favored at lower temperatures, while MgO is favored at higher temperatures. Visible corrosion products are formed within 30 minutes after seawater exposure. Corrosion characteristics in 3.5 percent salt solution are different than corrosion in seawater. Techniques utilized were: (1) scanning electron microscopy, (2) energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and (3) Auger electron spectroscopy.

  17. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces, in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP intends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years. ISR IP is an applied research and development program broadly addressing known DOE environmental restoration needs. Analysis of a sample of 334 representative sites by the Office of Environmental Restoration has shown how many sites are amenable to in situ remediation: containment--243 sites; manipulation--244 sites; bioremediation--154 sites; and physical/chemical methods--236 sites. This needs assessment is focused on near-term restoration problems (FY93--FY99). Many other remediations will be required in the next century. The major focus of the ISR EP is on the long term development of permanent solutions to these problems. Current needs for interim actions to protect human health and the environment are also being addressed.

  18. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces, in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP intends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years. ISR IP is an applied research and development program broadly addressing known DOE environmental restoration needs. Analysis of a sample of 334 representative sites by the Office of Environmental Restoration has shown how many sites are amenable to in situ remediation: containment--243 sites; manipulation--244 sites; bioremediation--154 sites; and physical/chemical methods--236 sites. This needs assessment is focused on near-term restoration problems (FY93--FY99). Many other remediations will be required in the next century. The major focus of the ISR EP is on the long term development of permanent solutions to these problems. Current needs for interim actions to protect human health and the environment are also being addressed

  19. Evaluation of microstructural effects on the corrosion behaviour of AZ91D magnesium alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan; Aung, Naing Naing; Zhou, W.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of microconstituents on the corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of AZ91D alloy prepared by die-casting and ingot casting route has been investigated in 3.5% NaCl solution at pH 7.25. The experimental techniques used include constant immersion technique, in-situ corrosion monitoring....... The corrosion products for ingot consisted of Mg(OH)(2) with small amounts beta phase, magnesium-aluminum oxide and MgH2 while for die-cast, the product showed a highly amorphous structure. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  20. The application of neutron reflectometry and atomic force microscopy in the study of corrosion inhibitor films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Douglas; Blom, Annabelle; Bailey, Stuart; Nelson, Andrew; Schulz, Jamie; De Marco, Roland; Kinsella, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Corrosion inhibitor molecules function by adsorbing to a steel surface and thus prevent oxidation of the metal. The interfacial structures formed by a range of corrosion inhibitor molecules have been investigated by in situ measurements based on atomic force microscopy and neutron reflectometry. Inhibitors investigated include molecules cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC), dodecyl pyridinium chloride (DPC), 1-hydroxyethyl-2-oleic imidazoline (OHEI) and cetyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (CDMBAC). This has shown that the inhibitor molecules adsorb onto a surface in micellar structures. Corrosion measurements confirmed that maximum inhibition efficiency coincides with the solution critical micelle concentration

  1. Mapping the concentration changes during the dynamic processes of crevice corrosion by digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HENGLEI JIA

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic process of crevice corrosion during anodic dissolution of a crevice electrode in a 5.0 mmol dm-3 NaCl solution has been studied by digital holographic reconstruction. Digital holographic reconstruction has been proved to be an effective and in situ technique to detect the changes in the solution concentration because useful and direct information can be obtained from the three-dimensional images. It provides a valuable method for a better understanding of the mechanism of crevice corrosion by studying the dynamic processes of changes in the solution concentration at the interface of crevice corrosion.

  2. Microbially induced corrosion of carbon steel in deep groundwater environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauliina eRajala

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The metallic low and intermediate level radioactive waste generally consists of carbon steel and stainless steels. The corrosion rate of carbon steel in deep groundwater is typically low, unless the water is very acidic or microbial activity in the environment is high. Therefore, the assessment of microbially induced corrosion of carbon steel in deep bedrock environment has become important for evaluating the safety of disposal of radioactive waste. Here we studied the corrosion inducing ability of indigenous microbial community from a deep bedrock aquifer. Carbon steel coupons were exposed to anoxic groundwater from repository site 100 m depth (Olkiluoto, Finland for periods of three and eight months. The experiments were conducted at both in situ temperature and room temperature to investigate the response of microbial population to elevated temperature. Our results demonstrate that microorganisms from the deep bedrock aquifer benefit from carbon steel introduced to the nutrient poor anoxic deep groundwater environment. In the groundwater incubated with carbon steel the planktonic microbial community was more diverse and 100-fold more abundant compared to the environment without carbon steel. The betaproteobacteria were the most dominant bacterial class in all samples where carbon steel was present, whereas in groundwater incubated without carbon steel the microbial community had clearly less diversity. Microorganisms induced pitting corrosion and were found to cluster inside the corrosion pits. Temperature had an effect on the species composition of microbial community and also affected the corrosion deposits layer formed on the surface of carbon steel.

  3. Nuclear Waste Package Mockups: A Study of In-situ Redox State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helean, K.; Anderson, B.; Brady, P. V.

    2006-05-01

    The Yucca Mountain Repository (YMR), located in southern Nevada, is to be the first facility in the U.S. for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuels. Total system performance assessment(TSPA) has indicated that among the major radionuclides contributing to dose are Np, Tc, and I. These three radionuclides are mobile in most geochemical settings, and therefore sequestering them within the repository horizon is a priority for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Corroding steel may offset radionuclide transport processes within the proposed waste packages at YMR by retaining radionuclides, creating locally reducing conditions, and reducing porosity. Ferrous iron has been shown to reduce UO22+ to UO2s, and some ferrous iron-bearing ion-exchange materials have been shown to adsorb radionuclides and heavy metals. Locally reducing conditions may lead to the reduction and subsequent immobilization of problematic dissolved species such as TcO4-, NpO2+, and UO22+ and can also inhibit corrosion of spent nuclear fuel. Water occluded during corrosion produces bulky corrosion products, and consequently less porosity is available for water and radionuclide transport. The focus of this study is on the nature of Yucca Mountain waste package corrosion products and their effects on local redox conditions, radionuclide transport, and porosity. In order to measure in-situ redox, six small-scale (1:40) waste package mockups were constructed using A516 and 316 stainless steel, the same materials as the proposed Yucca Mountain waste packages. The mockups are periodically injected with a simulated groundwater and the accumulated effluent and corrosion products are evaluated for their Fe(II)/Fe(III) content and mineralogy. Oxygen fugacities are then calculated and, thus, in-situ redox conditions are determined. Early results indicate that corrosion products are largely amorphous Fe-oxyhydroxides, goethite and magnetite. That information together with the

  4. The corrosion of depleted uranium in terrestrial and marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toque, C.; Milodowski, A.E.; Baker, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Depleted Uranium alloyed with titanium is used in armour penetrating munitions that have been fired in a number of conflict zones and testing ranges including the UK ranges at Kirkcudbright and Eskmeals. The study presented here evaluates the corrosion of DU alloy cylinders in soil on these two UK ranges and in the adjacent marine environment of the Solway Firth. The estimated mean initial corrosion rates and times for complete corrosion range from 0.13 to 1.9 g cm −2 y −1 and 2.5–48 years respectively depending on the particular physical and geochemical environment. The marine environment at the experimental site was very turbulent. This may have caused the scouring of corrosion products and given rise to a different geochemical environment from that which could be easily duplicated in laboratory experiments. The rate of mass loss was found to vary through time in one soil environment and this is hypothesised to be due to pitting increasing the surface area, followed by a build up of corrosion products inhibiting further corrosion. This indicates that early time measurements of mass loss or corrosion rate may be poor indicators of late time corrosion behaviour, potentially giving rise to incorrect estimates of time to complete corrosion. The DU alloy placed in apparently the same geochemical environment, for the same period of time, can experience very different amounts of corrosion and mass loss, indicating that even small variations in the corrosion environment can have a significant effect. These effects are more significant than other experimental errors and variations in initial surface area. -- Highlights: ► In-situ experiments were conducted to evaluate corrosion rates of depleted uranium. ► Samples were corroded in marine sediments, open sea water and two terrestrial soils. ► The depleted uranium titanium alloy corroded fastest in the marine environments. ► Rates of mass loss can vary through time if corrosion products are not removed.

  5. Corrosion control. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this text is to train engineers and technologists not just to understand corrosion but to control it. Materials selection, coatings, chemical inhibitors, cathodic and anodic protection, and equipment design are covered in separate chapters. High-temperature oxidation is discussed in the final two chapters ne on oxidation theory and one on controlling oxidation by alloying and with coatings. This book treats corrosion and high-temperature oxidation separately. Corrosion is divided into three groups: (1) chemical dissolution including uniform attack, (2) electrochemical corrosion from either metallurgical or environmental cells, and (3) stress-assisted corrosion. Corrosion is logically grouped according to mechanisms rather than arbitrarily separated into different types of corrosion as if they were unrelated. For those university students and industry personnel who approach corrosion theory very hesitantly, this text will present the electrochemical reactions responsible for corrosion summed up in only five simple half-cell reactions. When these are combined on a polarization diagram, which is also explained in detail, the electrochemical processes become obvious. For those who want a text stripped bare of electrochemical theory, several noted sections can be omitted without loss of continuity. However, the author has presented the material in such a manner that these sections are not beyond the abilities of any high school graduate who is interested in technology

  6. Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...

  7. Monitoring corrosion and chemistry phenomena in supercritical aqueous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.D.; Pang, J.; Liu, C.; Kriksunov, L.; Medina, E.; Villa, J.; Bueno, J.

    1994-01-01

    The in situ monitoring of the chemistry and electrochemistry of aqueous heat transport fluids in thermal (nuclear and fossil) power plants is now considered essential if adequate assessment and close control of corrosion and mass transfer phenomena are to be achieved. Because of the elevated temperatures and pressures involved. new sensor technologies are required that are able to measure key parameters under plant operating conditions for extended periods of time. In this paper, the authors outline a research and development program that is designed to develop practical sensors for use in thermal power plants. The current emphasis is on sensors for measuring corrosion potential, pH, the concentrations of oxygen and hydrogen, and the electrochemical noise generated by corrosion processes at temperatures ranging from ∼250 C to 500 C. The program is currently at the laboratory stage, but testing of prototype sensors in a coal-fired supercritical power plant in Spain will begin shortly

  8. Field experience with advanced methods of on-line monitoring of water chemistry and corrosion degradation in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellwag, B.; Aaltonen, P.; Hickling, J.

    1997-01-01

    Advanced methods for on-line, in-situ water chemistry and corrosion monitoring in nuclear power stations have been developed during the past decade. The terms ''on-line'' and ''in-situ'' characterize approaches involving continuous measurement of relevant parameters in high temperature water, preferably directly in the systems and components and not in removed samples at room temperature. This paper describes the field experience to-date with such methods in terms of three examples: (1) On-line chemistry monitoring of the primary coolant during shutdown of a Type WWER-440 PWR. (2) Redox and corrosion potential measurements in final feedwater preheaters and steam generators of two large KWU PWRs over several cycles of plant operation. (3) Real-time, in-situ corrosion surveillance inside the calundia vault of a CANDU reactor. The way in which water chemistry sensors and corrosion monitoring sensors complement each other is outlined: on-line, in-situ measurement of pH, conductivity and redox potential gives information about the possible corrosivity of the environment. Electrochemical noise techniques display signals of corrosion activity under the actual environmental conditions. A common experience gained from separate use of these different types of sensors has been that new and additional information about plants and their actual process conditions is obtained. Moreover, they reveal the intimate relationship between the operational situation and its consequences for the quality of the working fluid and the corrosion behaviour of the plant materials. On this basis, the efficiency of the existing chemistry sampling and control system can be checked and corrosion degradation can be minimized. Furthermore, activity buildup in the primary circuit can be studied. Further significant advantages can be expected from an integration of these various types of sensors into a common water chemistry and corrosion surveillance system. For confirmation, a complete set of sensors

  9. Field experience with advanced methods of on-line monitoring of water chemistry and corrosion degradation in nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stellwag, B [Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Erlangen (Germany); Aaltonen, P [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hickling, J [CML GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    Advanced methods for on-line, in-situ water chemistry and corrosion monitoring in nuclear power stations have been developed during the past decade. The terms ``on-line`` and ``in-situ`` characterize approaches involving continuous measurement of relevant parameters in high temperature water, preferably directly in the systems and components and not in removed samples at room temperature. This paper describes the field experience to-date with such methods in terms of three examples: (1) On-line chemistry monitoring of the primary coolant during shutdown of a Type WWER-440 PWR. (2) Redox and corrosion potential measurements in final feedwater preheaters and steam generators of two large KWU PWRs over several cycles of plant operation. (3) Real-time, in-situ corrosion surveillance inside the calundia vault of a CANDU reactor. The way in which water chemistry sensors and corrosion monitoring sensors complement each other is outlined: on-line, in-situ measurement of pH, conductivity and redox potential gives information about the possible corrosivity of the environment. Electrochemical noise techniques display signals of corrosion activity under the actual environmental conditions. A common experience gained from separate use of these different types of sensors has been that new and additional information about plants and their actual process conditions is obtained. Moreover, they reveal the intimate relationship between the operational situation and its consequences for the quality of the working fluid and the corrosion behaviour of the plant materials. On this basis, the efficiency of the existing chemistry sampling and control system can be checked and corrosion degradation can be minimized. Furthermore, activity buildup in the primary circuit can be studied. Further significant advantages can be expected from an integration of these various types of sensors into a common water chemistry and corrosion surveillance system. (Abstract Truncated)

  10. Corrosion in the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brondel, D [Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France); Edwards, R [Schlumberger Well Services, Columbus, OH (United States); Hayman, A [Etudes et Productions Schlumberger, Clamart (France); Hill, D [Schlumberger Dowell, Tulsa, OK (United States); Mehta, S [Schlumberger Dowell, St. Austell (United Kingdom); Semerad, T [Mobil Oil Indonesia, Inc., Sumatra (Indonesia)

    1994-04-01

    Corrosion costs the oil industry billions of dollars a year, a fact that makes the role of the corrosion engineer an increasingly important one. Attention is paid to how corrosion affects every aspect of exploration and production, from offshore rigs to casing. Also the role of corrosion agents such as drilling and production fluids is reviewed. Methods of control and techniques to monitor corrosion are discussed, along with an explanation of the chemical causes of corrosion. 21 figs., 32 refs.

  11. In-situ synthesis of hydrogen peroxide in a novel Zn-CNTs-O2 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao-bo; Yang, Zhao; Peng, Lin; Zhou, An-lan; Liu, Yan-lan; Liu, Yong

    2018-02-01

    A novel strategy of in-situ synthesis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was formulated and evaluated. Oxygen was selectively reduced to H2O2 combined with electrochemical corrosion of zinc in the Zn-CNTs-O2 system. The ratio of zinc and CNTs, heat treatment temperature, and operational parameters such as composite dosage, initial pH, solution temperature, oxygen flow rate were systematically investigated to improve the efficiency of H2O2 generation. The Zn-CNTs composite (weight ratio of 2.5:1) prepared at 500 °C showed the maximum H2O2 accumulation concentration of 293.51 mg L-1 within 60 min at the initial pH value of 3.0, Zn-CNTs dosage of 0.4 g and oxygen flow rate of 400 mL min-1. The oxygen was reduced through two-electron pathway to hydrogen peroxide on CNTs while the zinc was oxidized in the system and the dissolved zinc ions convert to zinc hydroxide and depositing on the surface of CNTs. It was proposed that the increment of direct H2O2 production was caused by the improvement of the formed Zn/CNTs corrosion cell. This provides promising strategy for in-situ synthesis and utilization of hydrogen peroxide in the novel Zn-CNTs-O2 system, which enhances the environmental and economic attractiveness of the use of H2O2 as green oxidant for wastewater treatments.

  12. Stress-Assisted Corrosion in Boiler Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preet M Singh; Steven J Pawel

    2006-05-27

    A number of industrial boilers, including in the pulp and paper industry, needed to replace their lower furnace tubes or decommission many recovery boilers due to stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) on the waterside of boiler tubes. More than half of the power and recovery boilers that have been inspected reveal SAC damage, which portends significant energy and economic impacts. The goal of this project was to clarify the mechanism of stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) of boiler tubes for the purpose of determining key parameters in its mitigation and control. To accomplish this in-situ strain measurements on boiler tubes were made. Boiler water environment was simulated in the laboratory and effects of water chemistry on SAC initiation and growth were evaluated in terms of industrial operations. Results from this project have shown that the dissolved oxygen is single most important factor in SAC initiation on carbon steel samples. Control of dissolved oxygen can be used to mitigate SAC in industrial boilers. Results have also shown that sharp corrosion fatigue and bulbous SAC cracks have similar mechanism but the morphology is different due to availability of oxygen during boiler shutdown conditions. Results are described in the final technical report.

  13. Atomic level characterization in corrosion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Philippe; Maurice, Vincent

    2017-06-01

    Atomic level characterization brings fundamental insight into the mechanisms of self-protection against corrosion of metals and alloys by oxide passive films and into how localized corrosion is initiated on passivated metal surfaces. This is illustrated in this overview with selected data obtained at the subnanometre, i.e. atomic or molecular, scale and also at the nanometre scale on single-crystal copper, nickel, chromium and stainless steel surfaces passivated in well-controlled conditions and analysed in situ and/or ex situ by scanning tunnelling microscopy/spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. A selected example of corrosion modelling by ab initio density functional theory is also presented. The discussed aspects include the surface reconstruction induced by hydroxide adsorption and formation of two-dimensional (hydr)oxide precursors, the atomic structure, orientation and surface hydroxylation of three-dimensional ultrathin oxide passive films, the effect of grain boundaries in polycrystalline passive films acting as preferential sites of passivity breakdown, the differences in local electronic properties measured at grain boundaries of passive films and the role of step edges at the exposed surface of oxide grains on the dissolution of the passive film. This article is part of the themed issue 'The challenges of hydrogen and metals'.

  14. Effect of Fe ion concentration on corrosion of carbon steel in CO2 environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska, Magdalena; Gudme, J.; Rubin, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the corrosion behaviour of steel wires in solutions containing different concentrations of Fe2+ was investigated by the linear polarisation resistance method, while the evolution of pH was monitored in situ and changes of the Fe2+ concentration were monitored ex situ. Characterisation...

  15. Effect of grain size on corrosion of nanocrystalline copper in NaOH solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Wei; Xu Yimin; Wang Qiming; Shi Peizhen; Yan Mi

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Coppers display an active-passive-transpassive behaviour with duplex passive film. → Grain size variation has little effect on the overall corrosion behaviour of Cu. → Little effect on corrosion may be due to duplex passivation in NaOH solution. → Bulk nanocrystalline Cu show bamboo-like flake corrosion structure. - Abstract: Effect of grain size on corrosion of bulk nanocrystalline copper was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization measurements in 0.1 M NaOH solution. Bulk nanocrystalline copper was prepared by inert gas condensation and in situ warm compress (IGCWC) method. The grain sizes of all bulk nanocrystalline samples were determined to be 48, 68 and 92 nm using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that bulk coppers displayed an active-passive-transpassive behaviour with duplex passive films. From polycrystalline to nanocrystalline, grain size variation showed little effect on the overall corrosion resistance of copper samples.

  16. The application of in situ analytical transmission electron microscopy to the study of preferential intergranular oxidation in Alloy 600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, M.G., E-mail: m.g.burke@manchester.ac.uk; Bertali, G.; Prestat, E.; Scenini, F.; Haigh, S.J.

    2017-05-15

    In situ analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can provide a unique perspective on dynamic reactions in a variety of environments, including liquids and gases. In this study, in situ analytical TEM techniques have been applied to examine the localised oxidation reactions that occur in a Ni-Cr-Fe alloy, Alloy 600, using a gas environmental cell at elevated temperatures. The initial stages of preferential intergranular oxidation, shown to be an important precursor phenomenon for intergranular stress corrosion cracking in pressurized water reactors (PWRs), have been successfully identified using the in situ approach. Furthermore, the detailed observations correspond to the ex situ results obtained from bulk specimens tested in hydrogenated steam and in high temperature PWR primary water. The excellent agreement between the in situ and ex situ oxidation studies demonstrates that this approach can be used to investigate the initial stages of preferential intergranular oxidation relevant to nuclear power systems. - Highlights: • In situ analytical TEM has been performed in 1 bar H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O vapor at 360–480 °C. • Nanoscale GB migration and solute partitioning correlate with ex situ data for Alloy 600 in H{sub 2}-steam. • This technique can provide new insights into localised reactions associated with localised oxidation.

  17. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Brady, Patrick V

    2014-04-29

    An in situ recovery of uranium operation involves circulating reactive fluids through an underground uranium deposit. These fluids contain chemicals that dissolve the uranium ore. Uranium is recovered from the fluids after they are pumped back to the surface. Chemicals used to accomplish this include complexing agents that are organic, readily degradable, and/or have a predictable lifetime in an aquifer. Efficiency is increased through development of organic agents targeted to complexing tetravalent uranium rather than hexavalent uranium. The operation provides for in situ immobilization of some oxy-anion pollutants under oxidizing conditions as well as reducing conditions. The operation also artificially reestablishes reducing conditions on the aquifer after uranium recovery is completed. With the ability to have the impacted aquifer reliably remediated, the uranium recovery operation can be considered inherently safe.

  18. In situ hydrogen loading on zirconium powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maimaitiyili, Tuerdi, E-mail: tuerdi.maimaitiyili@mah.se; Blomqvist, Jakob [Malmö University, Östra Varvsgatan 11 A, Malmö, Skane 20506 (Sweden); Steuwer, Axel [Lund University, Ole Römers väg, Lund, Skane 22100 (Sweden); Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Gardham Avenue, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Bjerkén, Christina [Malmö University, Östra Varvsgatan 11 A, Malmö, Skane 20506 (Sweden); Zanellato, Olivier [Ensam - Cnam - CNRS, 151 Boulevard de l’Hôpital, Paris 75013 (France); Blackmur, Matthew S. [Materials Performance Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Andrieux, Jérôme [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue J Horowitz, Grenoble 38043 (France); Université de Lyon, 43 Bd du 11 novembre 1918, Lyon 69100 (France); Ribeiro, Fabienne [Institut de Radioprotection et Sûreté Nucléaire, IRSN, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2015-06-26

    Commercial-grade Zr powder loaded with hydrogen in situ and phase transformations between various Zr and ZrH{sub x} phases have been monitored in real time. For the first time, various hydride phases in a zirconium–hydrogen system have been prepared in a high-energy synchrotron X-ray radiation beamline and their transformation behaviour has been studied in situ. First, the formation and dissolution of hydrides in commercially pure zirconium powder were monitored in real time during hydrogenation and dehydrogenation, then whole pattern crystal structure analysis such as Rietveld and Pawley refinements were performed. All commonly reported low-pressure phases presented in the Zr–H phase diagram are obtained from a single experimental arrangement.

  19. In situ synthesis of protein arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingyue; Stoevesandt, Oda; Taussig, Michael J

    2008-02-01

    In situ or on-chip protein array methods use cell free expression systems to produce proteins directly onto an immobilising surface from co-distributed or pre-arrayed DNA or RNA, enabling protein arrays to be created on demand. These methods address three issues in protein array technology: (i) efficient protein expression and availability, (ii) functional protein immobilisation and purification in a single step and (iii) protein on-chip stability over time. By simultaneously expressing and immobilising many proteins in parallel on the chip surface, the laborious and often costly processes of DNA cloning, expression and separate protein purification are avoided. Recently employed methods reviewed are PISA (protein in situ array) and NAPPA (nucleic acid programmable protein array) from DNA and puromycin-mediated immobilisation from mRNA.

  20. In situ remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Marozas, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to develop cost-efficient techniques for remediating uranium contaminated groundwater at DOE Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites nationwide, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) deployed a pilot scale research project at an UMTRA site in Durango, CO. Implementation included design, construction, and subsequent monitoring of an in situ passive reactive barrier to remove Uranium from the tailings pile effluent. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment various forms of metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. Conceptually the iron media reduces and/or adsorbs uranium in situ to acceptable regulatory levels. In addition, other metals such as Se, Mo, and As have been removed by the reductive/adsorptive process. The primary objective of the experiment was to eliminate the need for surface treatment of tailing pile effluent. Experimental design, and laboratory and field results are discussed with regard to other potential contaminated groundwater treatment applications

  1. In situ bioremediation of Hanford groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeen, R.S.; Roberson, K.R.; Workman, D.J.; Petersen, J.N.; Shouche, M.

    1992-04-01

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 40+ years of operations at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. Some of these wastes were discharged to the soil column and many of the waste components, including nitrate, carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), and several radionuclides, have been detected in the Hanford groundwater. Current DOE policy prohibits the disposal of contaminated liquids directly to the environment, and remediation of existing contaminated groundwaters may be required. In situ bioremediation is one technology currently being developed at Hanford to meet the need for cost effective technologies to clean groundwater contaminated with CCl 4 , nitrate, and other organic and inorganic contaminants. This paper focuses on the latest results of an on going effort to develop effective in situ remediation strategies through the use of predictive simulations

  2. WIPP/SRL in-situ tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamsey, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    The Materials Interface Interactions Test (MIIT) is the only in-situ program involving the burial of simulated high-level waste forms operating in the United States. Fifteen glass and waste form compositions and their proposed package materials, supplied by 7 countries, are interred in salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. A joint effort between Sandia National Laboratories and Savannah River Laboratory, MIIT is the largest international cooperative in-situ venture yet undertaken. The objective of the current study is to document the waste form compositions used in the MIIT program and then to examine compositional correlations based on structural considerations, bonding energies, and surface layer formation. These correlations show important similarities between the many different waste glass compositions studied world wide and suggest that these glasses would be expected to perform well and in a similar manner

  3. In situ hydrogen loading on zirconium powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimaitiyili, Tuerdi; Blomqvist, Jakob; Steuwer, Axel; Bjerkén, Christina; Zanellato, Olivier; Blackmur, Matthew S.; Andrieux, Jérôme; Ribeiro, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Commercial-grade Zr powder loaded with hydrogen in situ and phase transformations between various Zr and ZrH x phases have been monitored in real time. For the first time, various hydride phases in a zirconium–hydrogen system have been prepared in a high-energy synchrotron X-ray radiation beamline and their transformation behaviour has been studied in situ. First, the formation and dissolution of hydrides in commercially pure zirconium powder were monitored in real time during hydrogenation and dehydrogenation, then whole pattern crystal structure analysis such as Rietveld and Pawley refinements were performed. All commonly reported low-pressure phases presented in the Zr–H phase diagram are obtained from a single experimental arrangement

  4. In situ health monitoring of piezoelectric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Scott L. (Inventor); Drouant, George J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An in situ health monitoring apparatus may include an exciter circuit that applies a pulse to a piezoelectric transducer and a data processing system that determines the piezoelectric transducer's dynamic response to the first pulse. The dynamic response can be used to evaluate the operating range, health, and as-mounted resonance frequency of the transducer, as well as the strength of a coupling between the transducer and a structure and the health of the structure.

  5. Squamous cell carcinoma in situ after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambara, Takeshi; Nishiyama, Takafumi; Yamada, Rie; Nagatani, Tetsuo; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Asami

    1997-01-01

    We report two cases with Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) in situ caused by irradiation to hand eczemas, resistant to any topical therapies. Both of our cases clinically show palmer sclerosis and flexor restriction of the fingers, compatible to chronic radiation dermatitis. Although SCC arising in chronic radiation dermatitis is usually developed ten to twenty years after irradiation, in our cases SCC were found more than forty years after irradiation. (author)

  6. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: The Whole Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Ujas; Chhor, Chloe M; Mercado, Cecilia L

    2018-02-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a noninvasive malignant breast disease traditionally described as a precursor lesion to invasive breast cancer. With screening mammography, DCIS now accounts for approximately 20% of newly diagnosed cancer cases. DCIS is not well understood because of its heterogeneous nature. Studies have aimed to assess prognostic factors to characterize its risk of invasive potential; however, there still remains a lack of uniformity in workup and treatment. We summarize current knowledge of DCIS and the ongoing controversies.

  7. In-Situ Burn Gaps Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This Report) UNCLAS//Public 20. Security Class (This Page) UNCLAS//Public 21. No of Pages 76 22. Price UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 RDC | Merrick...surveillance and spotting techniques/equipment to keep responders in the heaviest oil concentrations where their operation to skim , burn, or disperse...Offshore Oil Skim And Burn System For Use With Vessels Of Opportunity. UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 RDC | Merrick, et al. Public | June 2015 In-Situ Burn Gaps

  8. Corrosion evaluation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Uh Chul; Han, Jeong Ho; Nho, Kye Ho; Lee, Eun Hee; Kim, Hong Pyo; Hwang, Seong Sik; Lee, Deok Hyun; Hur, Do Haeng; Kim, Kyung Mo.

    1997-09-01

    A multifrequency ACPD system was assembled which can measure very small crack. Stress corrosion cracking test system with SSRT operating high temperature was installed. Stress corrosion cracking test of newly developed alloy 600 and existing alloy 600 was carried out in steam atmosphere of 400 deg C. No crack was observed in both materials within a test period of 2,000 hrs. Corrosion fatigue test system operating at high temperature was installed in which fatigue crack was measured by CDPD. Lead enhanced the SCC of the Alloy 600 in high temperature water, had a tendency to modify a cracking morphology from intergranular to transgranular. Pit initiation preferentially occurred at Ti-rich carbide. Resistance to pit initiation decreased with increasing temperature up to 300 deg C. Test loop for erosion corrosion was designed and fabricated. Thin layer activation technique was very effective in measuring erosion corrosion. Erosion corrosion of a part of secondary side pipe was evaluated by the Check Family Codes of EPRI. Calculated values of pipe thickness by Check Family Codes coincided with the pipe thickness measured by UT with an error of ± 20%. Literature review on turbine failure showed that failure usually occurred in low pressure turbine rotor disc and causes of failure are stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue. (author). 12 refs., 20 tabs., 77 figs

  9. Aluminum Corrosion and Turbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longtin, F.B.

    2003-01-01

    Aluminum corrosion and turbidity formation in reactors correlate with fuel sheath temperature. To further substantiate this correlation, discharged fuel elements from R-3, P-2 and K-2 cycles were examined for extent of corrosion and evidence of breaking off of the oxide film. This report discusses this study

  10. Demystifying Controlling Copper Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The LCR systematically misses the highest health and corrosion risk sites for copper. Additionally, there are growing concerns for WWTP copper in sludges and discharge levels. There are many corrosion control differences between copper and lead. This talk explains the sometimes c...

  11. Archaeological analogs and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, D.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the high level and long life radioactive wastes disposal deep underground, the ANDRA built a research program on the material corrosion. In particular they aim to design containers for a very long time storage. Laboratory experiments are in progress and can be completed by the analysis of metallic archaeological objects and their corrosion after hundred years. (A.L.B.)

  12. Evaluation on corrosively dissolved gold induced by alkanethiol monolayer with atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Zhong; Zhang Ling; Guo Chaoyan; Gong Fuchun; Long Shu; Tan Shuzhen; Xia Changbin; Xu Fen; Sun Lixian

    2009-01-01

    We have monitored a gold corrosive dissolution behavior accompanied in n-alkanethiol like n-dodecanethiol assembled process with in situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and then observed it with atomic force microscopy (AFM) which showed an evident image of corrosive defects or holes produced on gold substrate, corresponding to gold dissolution induced by the alkanethiol molecules in the presence of oxygen. For detection of the dissolved gold defects during alkanethiol assembled process, an atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) has been carried out in this paper, and the detection limit for the dissolved gold could be evaluated to be 15.4 ng/mL. The amount of dissolved gold from the substrates of gold plates as functions of immersion time, acid media, solvents and thiol concentration has been examined in the oxygen saturated solutions. In comparison with in situ QCM method, the kinetics behavior of the long-term gold corrosion on the gold plates in 1.0 mmol/L of n-dodecanethiol solution determined with AAS method was a slow process, and its corrosion rate on gold dissolution could be evaluated to be about 4.4 x 10 -5 ng.cm -2 .s -1 , corresponding to 1.3 x 10 8 Au atoms.cm -2 .s -1 , that was much smaller than that of initial rate monitored with in situ QCM. Both kinetics equations obtained with QCM and AAS showed a consistent corrosion behavior on gold surfaces.

  13. In situ macromolecular crystallography using microbeams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axford, Danny; Owen, Robin L.; Aishima, Jun [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Foadi, James [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Morgan, Ann W.; Robinson, James I. [University of Leeds, Leeds LS9 7FT (United Kingdom); Nettleship, Joanne E.; Owens, Raymond J. [Research Complex at Harwell, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory R92, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Moraes, Isabel [Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Fry, Elizabeth E.; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Harlos, Karl; Kotecha, Abhay; Ren, Jingshan; Sutton, Geoff; Walter, Thomas S. [University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Stuart, David I. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Evans, Gwyndaf, E-mail: gwyndaf.evans@diamond.ac.uk [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-17

    A sample environment for mounting crystallization trays has been developed on the microfocus beamline I24 at Diamond Light Source. The technical developments and several case studies are described. Despite significant progress in high-throughput methods in macromolecular crystallography, the production of diffraction-quality crystals remains a major bottleneck. By recording diffraction in situ from crystals in their crystallization plates at room temperature, a number of problems associated with crystal handling and cryoprotection can be side-stepped. Using a dedicated goniometer installed on the microfocus macromolecular crystallography beamline I24 at Diamond Light Source, crystals have been studied in situ with an intense and flexible microfocus beam, allowing weakly diffracting samples to be assessed without a manual crystal-handling step but with good signal to noise, despite the background scatter from the plate. A number of case studies are reported: the structure solution of bovine enterovirus 2, crystallization screening of membrane proteins and complexes, and structure solution from crystallization hits produced via a high-throughput pipeline. These demonstrate the potential for in situ data collection and structure solution with microbeams.

  14. A Novel in situ Trigger Combination Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzatu, Adrian; Warburton, Andreas; Krumnack, Nils; Yao, Wei-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Searches for rare physics processes using particle detectors in high-luminosity colliding hadronic beam environments require the use of multi-level trigger systems to reject colossal background rates in real time. In analyses like the search for the Higgs boson, there is a need to maximize the signal acceptance by combining multiple different trigger chains when forming the offline data sample. In such statistically limited searches, datasets are often amassed over periods of several years, during which the trigger characteristics evolve and their performance can vary significantly. Reliable production cross-section measurements and upper limits must take into account a detailed understanding of the effective trigger inefficiency for every selected candidate event. We present as an example the complex situation of three trigger chains, based on missing energy and jet energy, to be combined in the context of the search for the Higgs (H) boson produced in association with a W boson at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We briefly review the existing techniques for combining triggers, namely the inclusion, division, and exclusion methods. We introduce and describe a novel fourth in situ method whereby, for each candidate event, only the trigger chain with the highest a priori probability of selecting the event is considered. The in situ combination method has advantages of scalability to large numbers of differing trigger chains and of insensitivity to correlations between triggers. We compare the inclusion and in situ methods for signal event yields in the CDF WH search.

  15. In situ rheology of yeast biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnoni, Lorena I; Tarifa, María C; Lozano, Jorge E; Genovese, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the in situ rheological behavior of yeast biofilms growing on stainless steel under static and turbulent flow. The species used (Rhodototula mucilaginosa, Candida krusei, Candida kefyr and Candida tropicalis) were isolated from a clarified apple juice industry. The flow conditions impacted biofilm composition over time, with a predominance of C. krusei under static and turbulent flow. Likewise, structural variations occurred, with a tighter appearance under dynamic flow. Under turbulent flow there was an increase of 112 μm in biofilm thickness at 11 weeks (p < 0.001) and cell morphology was governed by hyphal structures and rounded cells. Using the in situ growth method introduced here, yeast biofilms were determined to be viscoelastic materials with a predominantly solid-like behavior, and neither this nor the G'0 values were significantly affected by the flow conditions or the growth time, and at large deformations their weak structure collapsed beyond a critical strain of about 1.5-5%. The present work could represent a starting point for developing in situ measurements of yeast rheology and contribute to a thin body of knowledge about fungal biofilm formation.

  16. In situ Raman mapping of art objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondeel, Ph.; Moens, L.; Vandenabeele, P.

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy has grown to be one of the techniques of interest for the investigation of art objects. The approach has several advantageous properties, and the non-destructive character of the technique allowed it to be used for in situ investigations. However, compared with laboratory approaches, it would be useful to take advantage of the small spectral footprint of the technique, and use Raman spectroscopy to study the spatial distribution of different compounds. In this work, an in situ Raman mapping system is developed to be able to relate chemical information with its spatial distribution. Challenges for the development are discussed, including the need for stable positioning and proper data treatment. To avoid focusing problems, nineteenth century porcelain cards are used to test the system. This work focuses mainly on the post-processing of the large dataset which consists of four steps: (i) importing the data into the software; (ii) visualization of the dataset; (iii) extraction of the variables; and (iv) creation of a Raman image. It is shown that despite the challenging task of the development of the full in situ Raman mapping system, the first steps are very promising. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology’. PMID:27799424

  17. In situ macromolecular crystallography using microbeams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axford, Danny; Owen, Robin L.; Aishima, Jun; Foadi, James; Morgan, Ann W.; Robinson, James I.; Nettleship, Joanne E.; Owens, Raymond J.; Moraes, Isabel; Fry, Elizabeth E.; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Harlos, Karl; Kotecha, Abhay; Ren, Jingshan; Sutton, Geoff; Walter, Thomas S.; Stuart, David I.; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2012-01-01

    A sample environment for mounting crystallization trays has been developed on the microfocus beamline I24 at Diamond Light Source. The technical developments and several case studies are described. Despite significant progress in high-throughput methods in macromolecular crystallography, the production of diffraction-quality crystals remains a major bottleneck. By recording diffraction in situ from crystals in their crystallization plates at room temperature, a number of problems associated with crystal handling and cryoprotection can be side-stepped. Using a dedicated goniometer installed on the microfocus macromolecular crystallography beamline I24 at Diamond Light Source, crystals have been studied in situ with an intense and flexible microfocus beam, allowing weakly diffracting samples to be assessed without a manual crystal-handling step but with good signal to noise, despite the background scatter from the plate. A number of case studies are reported: the structure solution of bovine enterovirus 2, crystallization screening of membrane proteins and complexes, and structure solution from crystallization hits produced via a high-throughput pipeline. These demonstrate the potential for in situ data collection and structure solution with microbeams

  18. Human activity and rest in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roenneberg, Till; Keller, Lena K; Fischer, Dorothee; Matera, Joana L; Vetter, Céline; Winnebeck, Eva C

    2015-01-01

    Our lives are structured by the daily alternation of activity and rest, of wake and sleep. Despite significant advances in circadian and sleep research, we still lack answers to many of the most fundamental questions about this conspicuous behavioral pattern. We strongly believe that investigating this pattern in entrained conditions, real-life and daily contexts-in situ-will help the field to elucidate some of these central questions. Here, we present two common approaches for in situ investigation of human activity and rest: the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) and actimetry. In the first half of this chapter, we provide detailed instructions on how to use and interpret the MCTQ. In addition, we give an overview of the main insights gained with this instrument over the past 10 years, including some new findings on the interaction of light and age on sleep timing. In the second half of this chapter, we introduce the reader to the method of actimetry and share our experience in basic analysis techniques, including visualization, smoothing, and cosine model fitting of in situ recorded data. Additionally, we describe our new approach to automatically detect sleep from activity recordings. Our vision is that the broad use of such easy techniques in real-life settings combined with automated analyses will lead to the creation of large databases. The resulting power of big numbers will promote our understanding of such fundamental biological phenomena as sleep. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of an autoclave with zirconia crystal windows for in-situ observation of sample surface under primary water conditions of pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumura, Takuya; Totsuka, Nobuo; Arioka, Koji [Inst. of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan); Nakajima, Nobuo

    2002-09-01

    Elucidating the mechanism for primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) is important for improving the reliability of structural materials in the primary system of pressurized water reactors (PWR). For this purpose, visualization of corrosion material surface in the primary coolant environment is effective, but it was impossible because of lack of suitable window material. Yttria stabilized zirconia was newly selected as a candidate for in-situ window material in the primary coolant environment of PWR. Its sufficient corrosion resistance was proved by measuring the transmissivity of light after being immersed in the primary coolant environment. A new autoclave with two windows of yttria-stabilized zirconia was developed. The corrosion material surfaces of Alloy600 and SUS304 in the primary coolant environment were clearly observed with this autoclave. Observations of cracks generated on the surface of SUS304 specimen, suggest that its generation time depends on temperature. (author)

  20. Erosion and erosion-corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isomoto, Yoshinori

    2008-01-01

    It is very difficult to interpret the technical term of erosion-corrosion' which is sometimes encountered in piping systems of power plants, because of complicated mechanisms and several confusing definitions of erosion-corrosion phenomena. 'FAC (flow accelerated corrosion)' is recently introduced as wall thinning of materials in power plant systems, as a representative of 'erosion-corrosion'. FAC is, however, not necessarily well understood and compared with erosion-corrosion. This paper describes firstly the origin, definition and fundamental understandings of erosion and erosion-corrosion, in order to reconsider and reconfirm the phenomena of erosion, erosion-corrosion and FAC. Next, typical mapping of erosion, corrosion, erosion-corrosion and FAC are introduced in flow velocity and environmental corrosiveness axes. The concept of damage rate in erosion-corrosion is finally discussed, connecting dissolution rate, mass transfer of metal ions in a metal oxide film and film growth. (author)

  1. Exploratory shaft liner corrosion estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, D.R.

    1985-10-01

    An estimate of expected corrosion degradation during the 100-year design life of the Exploratory Shaft (ES) is presented. The basis for the estimate is a brief literature survey of corrosion data, in addition to data taken by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. The scope of the study is expected corrosion environment of the ES, the corrosion modes of general corrosion, pitting and crevice corrosion, dissimilar metal corrosion, and environmentally assisted cracking. The expected internal and external environment of the shaft liner is described in detail and estimated effects of each corrosion mode are given. The maximum amount of general corrosion degradation was estimated to be 70 mils at the exterior and 48 mils at the interior, at the shaft bottom. Corrosion at welds or mechanical joints could be significant, dependent on design. After a final determination of corrosion allowance has been established by the project it will be added to the design criteria. 10 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Mars Oxygen In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Oxygen In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiment (MOXIE) will be the first in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) technology demonstration on Mars. Competitively...

  3. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: IN SITU ELECTROKINETIC EXTRACTION SYSTEM - SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed an in situ soil remediation system that uses electrokinetic principles to remediate hexavalent chromium-contaminated unsaturated or partially saturated soils. The technology involves the in situ application of direct current to the...

  4. Corrosion fatigue of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaehn, H.; Wagner, G.H.

    1976-01-01

    Corrosion fatigue phenomena can be classified into two main groups according to the electrochemical state of the metal surface in the presence of electrolytes: the active and the passive state with an important sub-group of corrosion fatigue in the unstable passive state. The allowable stress for structures exposed to the conjoint action of corrosion and fatigue is influenced by many factors: kind of media, number of cycles, frequency, mean stress, size, notches, loading mode, alloy composition and mechanical strength. A critical literature review shows contradictory results if a classification by the electrochemical surface state is not applied. Case histories and counter measures illustrate the practical importance of corrosion fatigue in many branches of industry as well as the urgent need for a better knowledge about the mutual influence of the phenomena to get rules by which the engineer can appraise the risk of corrosion fatigue. (orig.) [de

  5. Mechanical properties enhancement and microstructure study of Al-Si-TiB2 in situ composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, S. K.; Majhi, J.; Pattnaik, A. B.; Sahoo, J. K.; Das, Swagat

    2018-03-01

    Al–Si alloy-based composite is one of the most promising MMC materials owing to its outstanding mechanical properties, wear and corrosion resistance, low cost and ability to be synthesized via conventional casting routes. Challenges in achieving clean interface between reinforced particles and matrix alloy have been overcome by means of in-situ techniques of fabrication. Present investigation is concerned with synthesizing Al-Si-TiB2 in-situ composites through stir casting route using K2TiF6 and KBF4 halide salts for exothermic salt metal reaction. X-Ray diffraction analysis revealed the existence of TiB2 in the prepared samples. Effect of TiB2in-situ particles in the Al-Si base alloy has been investigated from the results obtained from optical microscopy as well as SEM study and wear analysis with a pin on disc wear testing apparatus. Improved hardness and wear properties were observed with addition of TiB2.

  6. Fabrication and testing of an electrochemical microcell for in situ soft X-ray microspectroscopy measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoncelli, A.; Kaulich, B.; Kiskinova, M.; Mele, C.; Prasciolu, M.; Sgura, I.; Bozzini, B.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we report on the fabrication and testing of a novel concept of electrochemical microcell for in-situ soft X-ray microspectroscopy in transmission. The microcell, fabricated by electron-beam lithography, implements an improved electrode design, with optimal current density distribution and minimised ohmic drop, allowing the same three-electrode electrochemical control achievable with traditional cells. Moreover standard electroanalytical measurements, such as cyclic voltammetry, can be routinely performed. As far as the electrolyte is concerned, we selected a room-temperature ionic-liquid. Some of the materials belonging to this class, in addition to a broad range of outstanding electrochemical properties, feature two highlights that are crucial for in situ, soft X-ray transmission work: spinnability, enabling accurate thickness control, and stability to UHV, allowing operation of an open cell in the analysis chamber vacuum (10-6 mbar). The cell can, of course, be used also with non-vacuum stable electrolytes in the sealed version developed in previous work in our group. In this study, the microcell designed, fabricated and tested in situ by applying an anodic polarisation to a Au electrode and following the formation of a distribution of corrosion features. This specific material combination presented in this work does not limit the cell concept, that can implement any electrodic material grown by lithography, any liquid electrolyte and any spinnable solid electrolyte.

  7. In Situ X-ray Diffraction Studies of Cathode Materials in Lithium Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, X. Q.; Sun, X.; McBreen, J.; Mukerjee, S.; Gao, Yuan; Yakovleva, M. V.; Xing, X. K.; Daroux, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    system during charge and discharge. The in situ XRD technique was used by Reimers, Li,and Dahn to study the LiCoO 2 , LiNiO 2 , and LiMn 2 O 4 systems. Their results of these studies have demonstrated that in situ XRD can provide more detailed information about the cathode material structural changes during charge-discharge. Conventional x-ray sources were used in these studies and the beryllium windows were used in the in situ cells. Provisions were made to prevent corrosion of the beryllium windows during charge-discharge. For this reason, the in situ cells were often designed quite differently than a real battery. More seriously, the problem of beryllium corrosion restricted the voltage range of the cell below 4.5 V. This limited the use of this technique to study the effects of overcharge which is very important to the thermal stability of the cathodes. Using the plastic lithium battery technology, Amatucci, Tarascon, and Klein constructed an in situ XRD cell, which allows structural investigations at voltages greater than 5 V without any beryllium window corrosion. However, all of these in situ XRD studies using conventional x-ray sources probe the cell in reflection geometry. Therefore, the observed structural changes are predominantly from the top few microns of the electrode coating, which might not be representative for the whole coating during charge-discharge especially when the rate is high

  8. Fundamental Studies of the Role of Grain Boundaries on Uniform Corrosion of Advanced Nuclear Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri, Mitra; Motta, Arthur; Marquis, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this proposal is to develop fundamental understanding of the role of grain boundaries in stable oxide growth. To understand the process of oxide layer destabilization, it is necessary to observe the early stages of corrosion. During conventional studies in which a sample is exposed and examined after removal from the autoclave, the destabilization process will normally have already taken place, and is only examined post facto. To capture the instants of oxide destabilization, it is necessary to observe it in situ; however, significant questions always arise as to the influence of the corrosion geometry and conditions on the corrosion process. Thus, a combination of post facto examinations and in situ studies is proposed, which also combines state-of-the-art characterization techniques to derive a complete understanding of the destabilization process and the role of grain boundaries.

  9. Fundamental Studies of the Role of Grain Boundaries on Uniform Corrosion of Advanced Nuclear Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, Mitra [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Motta, Arthur [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Marquis, Emmanuelle [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-05-20

    The main objective of this proposal is to develop fundamental understanding of the role of grain boundaries in stable oxide growth. To understand the process of oxide layer destabilization, it is necessary to observe the early stages of corrosion. During conventional studies in which a sample is exposed and examined after removal from the autoclave, the destabilization process will normally have already taken place, and is only examined post facto. To capture the instants of oxide destabilization, it is necessary to observe it in situ; however, significant questions always arise as to the influence of the corrosion geometry and conditions on the corrosion process. Thus, a combination of post facto examinations and in situ studies is proposed, which also combines state-of-the-art characterization techniques to derive a complete understanding of the destabilization process and the role of grain boundaries.

  10. In situ ultrasonic examination of high-strength steam generator support bolts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jusino, A.

    1985-01-01

    Currently employed high-strength steam generator support bolting material (designed prior to ASME Section III Part NF or Component Supports), 38.1 mm in diameter, in combination with high preloads are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking because of the relatively low stress corrosion resistance (K/sub ISCC/) properties. These bolts are part of the pressurized water reactor steam generator supports at the integral support pads (three per steam generator, with each pad housing six, eight, or ten bolts depending on the design). The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission concerns for high-strength bolting were identified in NUREG-0577, ''Potential for Low Fracture Toughness and Laminar Tearing in PWR Steam Generator and Reactor Coolant Pump Supports,'' which was issued for comment on unresolved safety issue A-12. Subsequently, the bolting issues were addressed in generic issue B29. One of the issues deals specifically with high-strength bolting materials, which are vulnerable to stress corrosion cracking. A Westinghouse Owners Group funded program was established to develop in situ ultrasonic examination techniques to determine steam generator support bolting integrity at the head-to-shank and first-thread locations. This program was established in order to determine bolting integrity in place. Ultrasonic techniques were developed for both socket-head and flat-head bolt configurations. As a result of this program, in situ ultrasonic examination techniques were developed for examination of PWR steam generator support bolts. By employing these techniques utilities will be able to ensure the integrity of this in-place bolting without incurring the costs previously experienced during removal for surface examinations

  11. Novel in-situ lamella fabrication technique for in-situ TEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavan, Megan; Daly, Dermot; Rummel, Andreas; McCarthy, Eoin K; McAuley, Cathal; Nicolosi, Valeria

    2018-03-29

    In-situ transmission electron microscopy is rapidly emerging as the premier technique for characterising materials in a dynamic state on the atomic scale. The most important aspect of in-situ studies is specimen preparation. Specimens must be electron transparent and representative of the material in its operational state, amongst others. Here, a novel fabrication technique for the facile preparation of lamellae for in-situ transmission electron microscopy experimentation using focused ion beam milling is developed. This method involves the use of rotating microgrippers during the lift-out procedure, as opposed to the traditional micromanipulator needle and platinum weld. Using rotating grippers, and a unique adhesive substance, lamellae are mounted onto a MEMS device for in-situ TEM annealing experiments. We demonstrate how this technique can be used to avoid platinum deposition as well as minimising damage to the MEMS device during the thinning process. Our technique is both a cost effective and readily implementable alternative to the current generation of preparation methods for in-situ liquid, electrical, mechanical and thermal experimentation within the TEM as well as traditional cross-sectional lamella preparation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. In situ Tournemire argillite / iron metal interactions: results after 10 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillet, A.

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of a long lived radioactive waste storage concept in deep geological layer developed by Andra, IRSN leads an in situ study on the Experimental Station of Tournemire, in association with EDF to determine the interactions steel/argillite in a natural context. After 10 years of interaction, two drillings overcoring performed to characterize the processing of the Tournemire argillite in contact with carbon and stainless steels and to compare reactive phenomena highlighted and those induced by simulations tools combining chemistry and transport. Argillite/carbon steel samples show a significant corrosion of steel disk. Iron released, in the form of rings and cracks in the rock, disrupts the argillite in contact resulting in mineralogical and structural changes. Iron oxides precipitation and a calcite and smectitic leaf of mixed-layers I/S dissolution are identified. A succession of areas: metal/metal corroded/argillite disturbed/argillite is highlighted and porosity variations are observed on the interfaces between two areas. Geochemical simulations show that major changes are initiated speedily during establishment of the system and the oxygen trapped in the closed system is consumed by the corrosion of steel but mostly it diffuses into the surrounding material through concentration gradient. Argillite/stainless steel samples have a very low pitting corrosion of steel disk. This does not seem to affect the mineralogy of the argillite in contact. (author)

  13. Automated Methods Of Corrosion Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Reeve, John Ch

    1997-01-01

    The chapter describes the following automated measurements: Corrosion Measurements by Titration, Imaging Corrosion by Scanning Probe Microscopy, Critical Pitting Temperature and Application of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Permeation Cell.......The chapter describes the following automated measurements: Corrosion Measurements by Titration, Imaging Corrosion by Scanning Probe Microscopy, Critical Pitting Temperature and Application of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Permeation Cell....

  14. Preparation and properties of in-situ growth of carbon nanotubes reinforced hydroxyapatite coating for carbon/carbon composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shoujie, E-mail: jlliushoujie@126.com; Li, Hejun, E-mail: lihejun@nwpu.edu.cn; Su, Yangyang, E-mail: suyangyang@mail.nwpu.edu.cn; Guo, Qian, E-mail: 1729299905@163.com; Zhang, Leilei, E-mail: zhangleilei@nwpu.edu.cn

    2017-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess excellent mechanical properties for their role playing in reinforcement as imparting strength to brittle hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic coating. However, there are few reports relating to the in-situ grown carbon nanotubes reinforced hydroxyapatite (CNTs-HA) coating. Here we demonstrate the potential application in reinforcing biomaterials by an attempt to use in-situ grown of CNTs strengthen HA coating, using a combined method composited of injection chemical vapor deposition (ICVD) and pulsed electrodeposition. The microstructure, phases and chemical compositions of CNTs-HA coatings were characterized by various advanced methods. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicated that CNTs-HA coatings avoided the inhomogeneous dispersion of CNTs inside HA coating. The result show that the interfacial shear strength between CNTs-HA coating and the C/C composite matrix reaches to 12.86 ± 1.43 MPa. Potenitodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies show that the content of CNTs affects the corrosion resistance of CNTs-HA coating. Cell culturing and simulated body fluid test elicit the biocompatibility with living cells and bioactivity of CNTs-HA coatings, respectively. - Highlights: • A novel bioceramic composite coating of hydroxyapatite reinforced with in-situ grown carbon nanotubes was fabricated. • The doping of carbon nanotubes had almost no impact on the biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite coatings. • The doping of carbon nanotubes improved corrosion resistance of hydroxyapatite coatings in simulated human body solution.

  15. Voltammetric, in-situ spectroelectrochemical and in-situ electrocolorimetric characterization of phthalocyanines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koca, Atif [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Marmara University, Goeztepe, 34722 Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: akoca@eng.marmara.edu.tr; Bayar, Serife; Dincer, Hatice A. [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Istanbul, Maslak, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey); Gonca, Erguen [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, TR34500 B.Cekmece, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-04-01

    In this work, electrochemical, and in-situ spectroelectrochemical characterization of the metallophthalocyanines bearing tetra-(1,1-(dicarbethoxy)-2-(2-methylbenzyl))-ethyl 3,10,17,24-tetra chloro groups were performed. Voltammetric and in-situ spectroelectrochemical measurements show that while cobalt phthalocyanine complex gives both metal-based and ring-based redox processes, zinc and copper phthalocyanines show only ring-based reduction and oxidation processes. The redox processes are generally diffusion-controlled, reversible and one-electron transfer processes. Differently lead phthalocyanine demetallized during second oxidation reaction while it was stable during reduction processes. An in-situ electrocolorimetric method, based on the 1931 CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) system of colorimetry, has been applied to investigate the color of the electro-generated anionic and cationic forms of the complexes for the first time in this study.

  16. TSSM: The in situ exploration of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustenis, A.; Lunine, J. I.; Lebreton, J. P.; Matson, D.; Reh, K.; Beauchamp, P.; Erd, C.

    2008-09-01

    The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) mission was born when NASA and ESA decided to collaborate on two missions independently selected by each agency: the Titan and Enceladus mission (TandEM), and Titan Explorer, a 2007 Flagship study. TandEM, the Titan and Enceladus mission, was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call. The mission concept is to perform remote and in situ investigations of Titan primarily, but also of Enceladus and Saturn's magentosphere. The two satellites are tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TSSM will study Titan as a system, including its upper atmosphere, the interactions with the magnetosphere, the neutral atmosphere, surface, interior, origin and evolution, as well as the astrobiological potential of Titan. It is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini- Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time for Titan, several close flybys of Enceladus). One overarching goal of the TSSM mission is to explore in situ the atmosphere and surface of Titan. In the current mission architecture, TSSM consists of an orbiter (under NASA's responsibility) with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus and Titan flybys before stabilizing in an orbit around Titan alone, therein delivering in situ elements (a Montgolfière, or hot air balloon, and a probe/lander). The latter are being studied by ESA. The balloon will circumnavigate Titan above the equator at an altitude of about 10 km for several months. The

  17. Corrosion in power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventakeshwarlu, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    A brief account of the problem areas encountered as a result of corrosion in the electrical power industry including nuclear power industry is given and some of the measures contemplated and/or implemented to control corrosion are outlined. The corrosion problems in the steam generators and cladding tubes of the nuclear power plant have an added dimension of radioactivation which leads to contamination and radiation field. Importance of monitoring water quality and controlling water chemistry by addition of chemicals is emphasised. (M.G.B.)

  18. Corrosion of reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-01-15

    Much operational experience and many experimental results have accumulated in recent years regarding corrosion of reactor materials, particularly since the 1958 Geneva Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, where these problems were also discussed. It was, felt that a survey and critical appraisal of the results obtained during this period had become necessary and, in response to this need, IAEA organized a Conference on the Corrosion of Reactor Materials at Salzburg, Austria (4-9 June 1962). It covered many of the theoretical, experimental and engineering problems relating to the corrosion phenomena which occur in nuclear reactors as well as in the adjacent circuits

  19. In-situ thermal testing program strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    In the past year the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project has implemented a new Program Approach to the licensing process. The Program Approach suggests a step-wise approach to licensing in which the early phases will require less site information than previously planned and necessitate a lesser degree of confidence in the longer-term performance of the repository. Under the Program Approach, the thermal test program is divided into two principal phases: (1) short-term in situ tests (in the 1996 to 2000 time period) and laboratory thermal tests to obtain preclosure information, parameters, and data along with bounding information for postclosure performance; and (2) longer-term in situ tests to obtain additional data regarding postclosure performance. This effort necessitates a rethinking of the testing program because the amount of information needed for the initial licensing phase is less than previously planned. This document proposes a revised and consolidated in situ thermal test program (including supporting laboratory tests) that is structured to meet the needs of the Program Approach. A customer-supplier model is used to define the Project data needs. These data needs, along with other requirements, were then used to define a set of conceptual experiments that will provide the required data within the constraints of the Program Approach schedule. The conceptual thermal tests presented in this document represent a consolidation and update of previously defined tests that should result in a more efficient use of Project resources. This document focuses on defining the requirements and tests needed to satisfy the goal of a successful license application in 2001, should the site be found suitable

  20. In-situ burning: NIST studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    In-situ burning of spilled oil has distinct advantages over other countermeasures. It offers the potential to convert rapidly large quantities of oil into its primary combustion products, carbon dioxide and water, with a small percentage of other unburned and residue byproducts. Because the oil is converted to gaseous products of combustion by burning, the need for physical collection, storage, and transport of recovered fluids is reduced to the few percent of the original spill volume that remains as residue after burning. Burning oil spills produces a visible smoke plume containing smoke particulate and other products of combustion which may persist for many kilometers from the burn. This fact gives rise to public health concerns, related to the chemical content of the smoke plume and the downwind deposition of particulate, which need to be answered. In 1985, a joint Minerals Management Service (MMS) and Environment Canada (EC) in-situ burning research program was begun at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This research program was designed to study the burning of large crude oil spills on water and how this burning would affect air quality by quantifying the products of combustion and developing methods to predict the downwind smoke particulate deposition. To understand the important features of in-situ burning, it is necessary to perform both laboratory and mesoscale experiments. Finally, actual burns of spilled oil at sea will be necessary to evaluate the method at the anticipated scale of actual response operations. In this research program there is a continuing interaction between findings from measurements on small fire experiments performed in the controlled laboratory environments of NIST and the Fire Research Institute (FRI) in Japan, and large fire experiments at facilities like the USCG Fire Safety and Test Detachment in Mobile, Alabama where outdoor liquid fuel burns in large pans are possible

  1. The treatment of in situ breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fentiman, I.S.

    1989-01-01

    Carcinoma in situ is the earliest histologically recognisable form of malignancy and as such provides an opportunity to treat the disease in a curative way. The two major variants, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) will be considered separately as the two conditions have divergent natural histories. DCIS is increasing in incidence since microcalcification may be detected radiologically in the screening of asymptomatic women. The extent of microcalcification may not indicate the extent of disease. It has yet to be determined whether there is a difference in behaviour of the tumour forming and the asymptomatic types of DCIS. After a biopsy has shown DCIS there will be residual DCIS at the biopsy site in one-third of patients, and multifocal DCIS in another third. A coexistent infiltrating carcinoma may be present in up to 16%. Due to sampling problems areas of invasion may be missed. Axillary nodal metastases are found in only 1% of patients with histological DCIS. Radical surgery by total or modified mastectomy is almost curative, but 3% of patients will die of metastases. Taking results of uncontrolled trials, local relapse rates are as follows: excision alone 50%, wide excision 30%, wide excision plus radiotherapy 20%. Two prospective trials are underway run by the EORTC and NSABP in which patients with DCIS are treated by wide excision with or without external radiotherapy. LCIS is usually an incidental finding with a bilateral predisposition to subsequent infiltrating carcinomas. Curative procedures such as bilateral mastectomy with reconstruction may represent overtreatment. A systemic rather than local approach would seem appropriate and a trial is now underway run by the EORTC in which patients with histologically confirmed LCIS are randomised to observation alone or to receive tamoxifen 20 mg daily for 5 years. (orig./MG)

  2. Modelling reinforcement corrosion in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Alexander; Geiker, Mette Rica; Stang, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    A physio-chemical model for the simulation of reinforcement corrosion in concrete struc-tures was developed. The model allows for simulation of initiation and subsequent propaga-tion of reinforcement corrosion. Corrosion is assumed to be initiated once a defined critical chloride threshold......, a numerical example is pre-sented, that illustrates the formation of corrosion cells as well as propagation of corrosion in a reinforced concrete structure....

  3. Corrosion of PWR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnsey, R.

    1979-01-01

    Some designs of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators have experienced a variety of corrosion problems which include stress corrosion cracking, tube thinning, pitting, fatigue, erosion-corrosion and support plate corrosion resulting in 'denting'. Large international research programmes have been mounted to investigate the phenomena. The operational experience is reviewed and mechanisms which have been proposed to explain the corrosion damage are presented. The implications for design development and for boiler and feedwater control are discussed. (author)

  4. Corrosion studies on selected metallic materials for application in nuclear waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smailos, E.; Fiehn, B.; Gago, J.A.; Azkarate, I.

    1994-03-01

    In previous corrosion studies, carbon steels and the alloy Ti 99.8-Pd were identified as promising materials for heat-generating nuclear waste containers acting as a radionuclide barrier in a rock-salt repository. To characterize the long-term corrosion behaviour of these materials in more detail, a research programme including laboratory-scale and in-situ corrosion studies has been undertaken jointly by KfK and ENRESA/INASMET. In the period under review, gamma irradiation corrosion studies of up to about 6 months at 10 Gy/h and stress corrosion cracking studies at slow strain rates (10 -4 -10 -7 s -1 ) were performed on three preselected carbon steels in disposal relevant brines (NaCl-rich, MgCl 2 -rich) at 90 C and 150 C (TStE 355, TStE 460, 15 MnNi 6.3). Moreover, results were obtained from long-term in-situ corrosion studies (maximum test duration 9 years) conducted on carbon steel, Ti 99.8-Pd, Hastelloy C4, Ni-resist D4, and Si-cast iron in boreholes in the Asse salt mine. (orig./MM) [de

  5. Development of in-situ monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bong Soo; Cho, Dong Hyun; Yoo, Wook Jae; Heo, Ji Yeon

    2010-03-01

    Development of in-situ monitoring system using an optical fiber to measure the real time temperature variation of subsurface water for the evaluation of flow characteristics. We describe the feasibility of developing a fiber-optic temperature sensor using a thermochromic material. A sensor-tip is fabricated by mixing of a thermochromic material powder. The relationships between the temperatures and the output voltages of detectors are determined to measure the temperature of water. It is expected that the fiber-optic temperature monitoring sensor using thermochromic material can be used to measure the real time temperature variation of subsurface water

  6. Reasonable assurance and in-situ testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoderick, J.E.; Nelson, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy is currently preparing site characterization plans for sites being considered for the first geologic repository. The site investigations described in these plans will be aimed at providing ''reasonable assurance'' to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission that the performance objectives and criteria specified in 10 CFR Part 60 will be met. The in-situ testing being planned by the DOE for site characterization, and the subsequent testing conducted as part of performance confirmation, reflects how the basis for ''reasonable assurance'' will change through the licensing process

  7. In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Tate, Lanetra C. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Gibson, Tracy L. (Inventor); Jolley, Scott T. (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An in-situ system for detecting damage in an electrically conductive wire. The system includes a substrate at least partially covered by a layer of electrically conductive material forming a continuous or non-continuous electrically conductive layer connected to an electrical signal generator adapted to delivering electrical signals to the electrically conductive layer. Data is received and processed to identify damage to the substrate or electrically conductive layer. The electrically conductive material may include metalized carbon fibers, a thin metal coating, a conductive polymer, carbon nanotubes, metal nanoparticles or a combination thereof.

  8. Computer Aided in situ Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chongtay, Rocio A.; Hansen, John Paulin; Decker, Lone

    . One of the most common and successfully used treatments for phobic conditions has been Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), which helps people learn to detect thinking patterns that trigger the irrational fear and to replace them with more realistic ideas. The health and financial impacts in society...... presented here is being designed in a modular and scalable fashion. The web-based module can be accessed anywhere any time from a PC connected to the internet and can be used alone or as supplement for a location-based module for in situ gradual exposure therapy....

  9. In Situ Preservation of Historic Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, R.; Brooks, R.

    The loss of the Mir space station is shown to symbolize a new consciousness of the value of space artefacts. The reasons why such artefacts as Mir become historic objects worthy of preservation are examined. Preservation of space vehicles in situ is discussed, with particular reference to safety, monitoring and long term costs. An argument is made for a wider definition for World Heritage designations to include material beyond the surface of the Earth, and for international bodies to assess, monitor and oversee these projects. Such heritage sites are seen as an economic driver for the development of space tourism in the 21st century.

  10. PAEDIATRIC URETERIC CALCULI: IN-SITU EXTRACORPOREAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Il navait ni obstruction urétérale ni infection urinaire. De légères hématuries et coliques transitoires ont été observées après la lithotripsie. Conclusion Chez lenfant, la lithotripsie extra-corporelle in situ est une procédure efficace dans le traitement des calculs urétéraux quelque soit le siège. Il ny a aucune morbidité liée à la ...

  11. Characterisation of corrosion products on pipeline steel under cathodic protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanarde, Lise [Gaz de France Research and Development Division, 361 avenue du President Wilson, BP33, 93211 Saint Denis La Plaine (France)]|[UPR15 du CNRS, Laboratoire des Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, C.P. 133, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Campaignolle, Xavier; Karcher, Sebastien; Meyer, Michel [Gaz de France Research and Development Division, 361 avenue du President Wilson, BP33, 93211 Saint Denis La Plaine (France); Joiret, Suzanne [UPR15 du CNRS, Laboratoire des Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, C.P. 133, 4 Place Jussieu 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2004-07-01

    . The corrosion products were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, SEM and X-rays diffraction. In-situ tests with the Raman spectrometer were carried out to monitor the corrosion products evolution with time. (authors)

  12. Corrosion of valve metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draley, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    A general survey related to the corrosion of valve metals or film-forming metals. The way these metals corrode with some general examples is described. Valve metals form relatively perfect oxide films with little breakdown or leakage when anodized

  13. Corrosion in Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan; Gudla, Helene Virginie Conseil; Verdingovas, Vadimas

    2017-01-01

    Electronic control units, power modules, and consumer electronics are used today in a wide variety of varying climatic conditions. Varying external climatic conditions of temperature and humidity can cause an uncontrolled local climate inside the device enclosure. Uncontrolled humidity together...... and high density packing combined with the use of several materials, which can undergo electrochemical corrosion in the presence of water film formed due to humidity exposure and bias conditions on the PCBA surface. This article provides a short review of the corrosion reliability issues of electronics due...... to the use of electronics under varying humidity conditions. Important PCBA aspects, which are fundamental to the corrosion cell formation under humid conditions, are discussed. Effect of hygroscopic residues from the process and service and their role in assisting water film build up and corrosion...

  14. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    species grow as multicel- lular filaments called hyphae forming a mycelium, some fungal species also grow as single cells. Sexual and asexual...reinforced fluorinated 18 MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION polyimide composites due to hyphae penetration into resin interiors. The

  15. Carbon Dioxide Corrosion:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup

    2008-01-01

    CO2 corrosion is a general problem in the industry and it is expensive. The focus of this study is an oil gas production related problem. CO2 corrosion is observed in offshore natural gas transportation pipelines. A general overview of the problem is presented in chapter 1. The chemical system...... with the basic thermodynamics of electrolytes in chapter 2, the extension and general description of electrolyte mass transport in chapter 3, and the electrochemical kinetics of corrosion in chapter 4. A literature overview of CO2 corrosion is shown in chapter 5 and possible extensions of the models...... and validated against heat capacity data. The model is also fitted to experimental data produced and shown in chapter 8 for SLE in the Na2CO3-NaHCO3-MEG-H2O system. The application of the above model is shown in chapter 9. Here the thermodynamic correction factors are calculated. These show how the diffusion...

  16. BWR steel containment corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, C.P.; Bagchi, G.

    1996-04-01

    The report describes regulatory actions taken after corrosion was discovered in the drywell at the Oyster Creek Plant and in the torus at the Nine Mile Point 1 Plant. The report describes the causes of corrosion, requirements for monitoring corrosion, and measures to mitigate the corrosive environment for the two plants. The report describes the issuances of generic letters and information notices either to collect information to determine whether the problem is generic or to alert the licensees of similar plants about the existence of such a problem. Implementation of measures to enhance the containment performance under severe accident conditions is discussed. A study by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) of the performance of a degraded containment under severe accident conditions is summarized. The details of the BNL study are in the appendix to the report.

  17. Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Bodo

    1995-01-01

    Describes a simple and reliable test method used to investigate the corrosion-inhibiting effects of various chelating agents on aluminum pigments in aqueous alkaline media. The experiments that are presented require no complicated or expensive electronic equipment. (DDR)

  18. Disappearance of the in situ component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvet, B.; Le Pechoux, C.; Calais, G.; Reynaud-Bougnoux, A.; Bougnoux, P.; Le Floch, O.; Fetisoff, F.; Lemseffer, A.; Body, G.; Lansac, J.

    1992-01-01

    Local recurrence after conservative treatment of breast cancer is associated with a significant risk for metastasis. In order to identify criteria predictive of metastasis in this subset of women, a series of 35 patients with local relapse was analyzed among 512 consecutive patients treated with tumorectomy and radiotherapy. When relapse occurred within 2 years of initial treatment, overall 2-year survival from the time of local relapse was 39.5%. When local relapse occurred more than 2 years from initial therapy, 2-year survival was 80.5% (p<0.001). Pathological slides of both initial and recurrent tumors were reviewed and compared. In 17 patients, local relapse and initial tumor had the same morphological features, with an in-situ component either absent or present in the same proportion. Metastasis occurred in two of these patients. In contrast, 9 of 12 patients in whom the proportion of non-invasive carcinoma had decreased at the time of local recurrence developed metastasis. Overall 2-year survival from the time of relapse was significantly better in the former group of patients (93.3% versus 52.5%, p<0.05). It is concluded that early relapses have a poor prognostic significance and that disappearance of the in-situ component or increase of the invasive component at the time of relapse is a feature predictive of tumor-related death and that more intensive therapy might benefit to this subset of women. (author). 26 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  19. Enzyme Engineering for In Situ Immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Fabian B H; Chen, Shuxiong; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2016-10-14

    Enzymes are used as biocatalysts in a vast range of industrial applications. Immobilization of enzymes to solid supports or their self-assembly into insoluble particles enhances their applicability by strongly improving properties such as stability in changing environments, re-usability and applicability in continuous biocatalytic processes. The possibility of co-immobilizing various functionally related enzymes involved in multistep synthesis, conversion or degradation reactions enables the design of multifunctional biocatalyst with enhanced performance compared to their soluble counterparts. This review provides a brief overview of up-to-date in vitro immobilization strategies while focusing on recent advances in enzyme engineering towards in situ self-assembly into insoluble particles. In situ self-assembly approaches include the bioengineering of bacteria to abundantly form enzymatically active inclusion bodies such as enzyme inclusions or enzyme-coated polyhydroxyalkanoate granules. These one-step production strategies for immobilized enzymes avoid prefabrication of the carrier as well as chemical cross-linking or attachment to a support material while the controlled oriented display strongly enhances the fraction of accessible catalytic sites and hence functional enzymes.

  20. In situ bioremediation under high saline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosshard, B.; Raumin, J.; Saurohan, B.

    1995-01-01

    An in situ bioremediation treatability study is in progress at the Salton Sea Test Base (SSTB) under the NAVY CLEAN 2 contract. The site is located in the vicinity of the Salon Sea with expected groundwater saline levels of up to 50,000 ppm. The site is contaminated with diesel, gasoline and fuel oils. The treatability study is assessing the use of indigenous heterotrophic bacteria to remediate petroleum hydrocarbons. Low levels of significant macro nutrients indicate that nutrient addition of metabolic nitrogen and Orthophosphate are necessary to promote the process, requiring unique nutrient addition schemes. Groundwater major ion chemistry indicates that precipitation of calcium phosphorus compounds may be stimulated by air-sparging operations and nutrient addition, which has mandated the remedial system to include pneumatic fracturing as an option. This presentation is tailored at an introductory level to in situ bioremediation technologies, with some emphasize on innovations in sparge air delivery, dissolved oxygen uptake rates, nutrient delivery, and pneumatic fracturing that should keep the expert's interest

  1. In situ migration experiment in argillaceous formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hidekazu

    1990-01-01

    International cooperative R and D has been performed within the five years framework of the bilateral agreement between PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation) and SCK/CEN (Studiecentrum voor Kernergie/Centre D'etude de L'energie Nucleaire, Mol, Belgium) which is focused on 'The Migration Experiment in argillaceous formation.' This Tertiary argillaceous formation, called Boom clay, is located at about 230m depth in Mol-Dessel area, Belgium. The argillaceous rock is considered to have a high capability for retardation to radionuclides when they migrate in geosphere because of a high content of clay minerals and dissolved carbon-rich pore water. The main purpose of this collaboration work is to characterize the migration phenomena in sedimentary rock through understanding of the behaviour of radionuclides migration in the argillaceous formation. The present report describes the preliminary results of in situ one-dimensional migration experiment with labelled clay core emplaced in borehole under advective condition. In the experiment, radioactive tracer Sr-85 and Eu-152+154 have been used in order to determine the apparent dispersion coefficient and retardation factor of Boom clay. Finally, the following conclusions were obtained by in situ measurement and calculation based on a appropriate migration model; a) From the Sr-85 experiment, diffusive behavior is interpreted to be a dominant phenomena on radionuclides transportation. b) From the Eu-152+154 experiment, very small non-retarded fraction is observed. (author)

  2. In situ SU-8 silver nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren V. Fischer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite materials containing metal nanoparticles are of considerable interest in photonics and optoelectronics applications. However, device fabrication of such materials always encounters the challenge of incorporation of preformed nanoparticles into photoresist materials. As a solution to this problem, an easy new method of fabricating silver nanocomposites by an in situ reduction of precursors within the epoxy-based photoresist SU-8 has been developed. AgNO3 dissolved in acetonitrile and mixed with the epoxy-based photoresist SU-8 forms silver nanoparticles primarily during the pre- and post-exposure soft bake steps at 95 °C. A further high-temperature treatment at 300 °C resulted in the formation of densely homogeneously distributed silver nanoparticles in the photoresist matrix. No particle growth or agglomeration of nanoparticles is observed at this point. The reported new in situ silver nanocomposite materials can be spin coated as homogeneous thin films and structured by using UV lithography. A resolution of 5 µm is achieved in the lithographic process. The UV exposure time is found to be independent of the nanoparticle concentration. The fabricated silver nanocomposites exhibit high plasmonic responses suitable for the development of new optoelectronic and optical sensing devices.

  3. Mitigating in situ oil sands carbon costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theriault, D.J.; Peterson, J. [Laricina Energy Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Heinrichs, H. [Canadian Chemical Technology Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Carbon capture and sequestration is a complex problem with a variety of dimensions that need to be considered. The political, social, and regulatory pressures are forcing carbon costs on the oil sands industry in an effort to reduce the carbon footprint of oil sands operations. This paper reviewed the political, social, and regulatory pressures and obligations for the in-situ oil sands industry. It presented the views and insights of Laricina Energy on the carbon challenge. It also described the initiatives that Laricina Energy is taking to manage these imperatives and outlined the challenges the industry is facing. The purpose of the paper was to encourage dialogue and collaboration by the oil sands industry. The paper also described the dimensions of the carbon problem and how the industry can contribute to a solution. Last, the paper reviewed the parameters of carbon dioxide or greenhouse gas containment and storage issues. It was concluded that the regulatory and policy requirements need to be clarified so that industry understands the new business landscape as well as the requirements that influence the economics of in-situ oil sands development. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  5. Corrosion of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.J.; Adolphson, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of beryllium in aqueous and elevated-temperature oxidizing environments has been extensively studied for early-intended use of beryllium in nuclear reactors and in jet and rocket propulsion systems. Since that time, beryllium has been used as a structural material in les corrosive environments. Its primary applications include gyro systems, mirror and reentry vehicle structures, and aircraft brakes. Only a small amount of information has been published that is directly related to the evaluation of beryllium for service in the less severe or normal atmospheric environments associated with these applications. Despite the lack of published data on the corrosion of beryllium in atmospheric environments, much can be deduced about its corrosion behavior from studies of aqueous corrosion and the experiences of fabricators and users in applying, handling, processing, storing, and shipping beryllium components. The methods of corrosion protection implemented to resist water and high-temperature gaseous environments provide useful information on methods that can be applied to protect beryllium for service in future long-term structural applications

  6. Preliminary study on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel in Horonobe groundwater environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Naoki; Kogawa, Noritaka; Maeda, Kazuto

    2006-08-01

    It is necessary to understand the corrosion behavior of candidate overpack materials to plan the in-situ engineered barrier test at underground laboratory constructing at Horonobe and to design the overpacks suitable to Horonobe environment. The preliminary corrosion tests of carbon steel which is a candidate material for overpacks were carried out using artificial groundwater and actual groundwater sampled at Horonobe. As the results of anodic polarization experiments, the anodic polarization curves of carbon steel in buffer material were active dissolution type, and the corrosion type of carbon steel in Horonobe groundwater environment was expected to be general corrosion. The results of immersion test under air equilibrium condition showed that the degrees of corrosion localization were not exceeded the data obtained in previous studies. The trend of corrosion rates in buffer material under anaerobic condition were similar to the data obtained in previous studies. Based on the experimental results, it was confirmed that the corrosion assessment model and assumed corrosion rate in second progress report (H12 report) can be applied to the assessment for Horonobe groundwater condition. (author)

  7. A clustering based method to evaluate soil corrosivity for pipeline external integrity management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Ayako; Wang, Hui; Liang, Robert Y.; Castaneda, Homero

    2015-01-01

    One important category of transportation infrastructure is underground pipelines. Corrosion of these buried pipeline systems may cause pipeline failures with the attendant hazards of property loss and fatalities. Therefore, developing the capability to estimate the soil corrosivity is important for designing and preserving materials and for risk assessment. The deterioration rate of metal is highly influenced by the physicochemical characteristics of a material and the environment of its surroundings. In this study, the field data obtained from the southeast region of Mexico was examined using various data mining techniques to determine the usefulness of these techniques for clustering soil corrosivity level. Specifically, the soil was classified into different corrosivity level clusters by k-means and Gaussian mixture model (GMM). In terms of physical space, GMM shows better separability; therefore, the distributions of the material loss of the buried petroleum pipeline walls were estimated via the empirical density within GMM clusters. The soil corrosivity levels of the clusters were determined based on the medians of metal loss. The proposed clustering method was demonstrated to be capable of classifying the soil into different levels of corrosivity severity. - Highlights: • The clustering approach is applied to the data extracted from a real-life pipeline system. • Soil properties in the right-of-way are analyzed via clustering techniques to assess corrosivity. • GMM is selected as the preferred method for detecting the hidden pattern of in-situ data. • K–W test is performed for significant difference of corrosivity level between clusters

  8. Alternatieve in situ bodemsaneringstechnieken; literatuuronderzoek bij het project "In Situ Biorestauratie" Asten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheuter AJ; LBG

    1997-01-01

    In developing in situ remediation most of the focus used to be on techniques using infiltration water to supply oxygen to the location. Later, techniques were developed in which soil was flushed with air to enhance the oxygen availability to microorganisms. The aim of the study reported here was to

  9. Corrosion of target and structural materials in water irradiated by an 800 MeV proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, D.P.; Kanner, G.S.; Lillard, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation enhanced, aqueous corrosion of solid neutron-targets such as tungsten or tantalum, or target cladding or structural materials such as superalloys and stainless steels, is a significant concern in accelerator-driven transmutation technologies. In this paper we briefly describe our current methods for control and in situ monitoring of corrosion in accelerator cooling water loops. Using floating, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), we have measured the corrosion rates of aluminum 6061, copper, Inconel 718, and 304L stainless steel in the flow loop of a water target irradiated by a μamp, 800 MeV proton beam. Impedance spectroscopy allows us to model the corrosion process of a material as an equivalent electrical circuit. Thus the polarization resistance, which is inversely proportional to the corrosion rate, can be extracted from the frequency response of a metal specimen. During a three month period, without the use of corrosion mitigation techniques, we observed increases of several orders of magnitude in the water conductivity and the corrosion rates. The increase in corrosion is at least partially attributed to a build up of peroxide in our pseudo-closed loop system. In this paper we also briefly describe our second generation experiments, scheduled to begin in late 1996. In these experiments we plan to measure the corrosion rates of tungsten, tantalum, Inconel 718, 316L and 304L stainless steel, HT-9 austenitic stainless steel, and aluminum 5053. Two or three electrode probes of each material are being placed directly in the proton beam, in a high neutron flux region, or a significant distance from the high radiation area. We will be measuring corrosion rates, changes in pH and conductivity, and we will be establishing parameters for filtration and mitigation of corrosion. We will also discuss our ideas for making in situ measurements of water radiolysis using optical and laser diagnostic techniques

  10. Monitoring corrosion rates and localised corrosion in low conductivity water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring of low corrosion rates and localised corrosion in a media with low conductivity is a challenge. In municipal district heating, quality control may be improved by implementing on-line corrosion monitoring if a suitable technique can be identified to measure both uniform and localised...... corrosion. Electrochemical techniques (LPR, EIS, crevice corrosion current) as well as direct measurement techniques (high-sensitive electrical resistance, weight loss) have been applied in operating plants. Changes in the corrosion processes are best monitored in non-aggressive, low conductivity media...

  11. CORROSION RESISTANT ZEOLITE COATINGS BY IN-SITU CRYSTALLIZATION. (R828134)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  12. Corrosion and anticorrosion. Industrial practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranger, G.; Mazille, H.

    2002-01-01

    This book comprises 14 chapters written with the collaboration of about 50 French experts of corrosion. It is complementary to another volume entitled 'corrosion of metals and alloys' and published by the same editor. This volume comprises two parts: part 1 presents the basic notions of corrosion phenomena, the properties of surfaces, the electrochemical properties of corrosion etc.. Part 2 describes the most frequent forms of corrosion encountered in industrial environments and corresponding to specific problems of protection: marine environment, atmospheric corrosion, galvanic corrosion, tribo-corrosion, stress corrosion etc.. The first 8 chapters (part 1) treat of the corrosion problems encountered in different industries and processes: oil and gas production, chemical industry, phosphoric acid industry, PWR-type power plants, corrosion of automobile vehicles, civil engineering and buildings, corrosion of biomaterials, non-destructive testing for the monitoring of corrosion. The other chapters (part 2) deal with anticorrosion and protective coatings and means: choice of materials, coatings and surface treatments, thick organic coatings and enamels, paints, corrosion inhibitors and cathodic protection. (J.S.)

  13. In-situ Planetary Subsurface Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.; Weber, R. C.; Dimech, J. L.; Kedar, S.; Neal, C. R.; Siegler, M.

    2017-12-01

    Geophysical and seismic instruments are considered the most effective tools for studying the detailed global structures of planetary interiors. A planet's interior bears the geochemical markers of its evolutionary history, as well as its present state of activity, which has direct implications to habitability. On Earth, subsurface imaging often involves massive data collection from hundreds to thousands of geophysical sensors (seismic, acoustic, etc) followed by transfer by hard links or wirelessly to a central location for post processing and computing, which will not be possible in planetary environments due to imposed mission constraints on mass, power, and bandwidth. Emerging opportunities for geophysical exploration of the solar system from Venus to the icy Ocean Worlds of Jupiter and Saturn dictate that subsurface imaging of the deep interior will require substantial data reduction and processing in-situ. The Real-time In-situ Subsurface Imaging (RISI) technology is a mesh network that senses and processes geophysical signals. Instead of data collection then post processing, the mesh network performs the distributed data processing and computing in-situ, and generates an evolving 3D subsurface image in real-time that can be transmitted under bandwidth and resource constraints. Seismic imaging algorithms (including traveltime tomography, ambient noise imaging, and microseismic imaging) have been successfully developed and validated using both synthetic and real-world terrestrial seismic data sets. The prototype hardware system has been implemented and can be extended as a general field instrumentation platform tailored specifically for a wide variety of planetary uses, including crustal mapping, ice and ocean structure, and geothermal systems. The team is applying the RISI technology to real off-world seismic datasets. For example, the Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment (LSPE) deployed during the Apollo 17 Moon mission consisted of four geophone instruments

  14. Radiological aspects of in situ uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROWN, STEVEN H.

    2007-01-01

    In the last few years, there has been a significant increase in the demand for Uranium as historical inventories have been consumed and new reactor orders are being placed. Numerous mineralized properties around the world are being evaluated for Uranium recovery and new mining / milling projects are being evaluated and developed. Ore bodies which are considered uneconomical to mine by conventional methods such as tunneling or open pits, can be candidates for non-conventional recovery techniques, involving considerably less capital expenditure. Technologies such as Uranium in situ leaching in situ recovery (ISL / ISR), have enabled commercial scale mining and milling of relatively small ore pockets of lower grade, and may make a significant contribution to overall world wide uranium supplies over the next ten years. Commercial size solution mining production facilities have operated in the US since 1975. Solution mining involves the pumping of groundwater, fortified with oxidizing and complexing agents into an ore body, solubilizing the uranium in situ, and then pumping the solutions to the surface where they are fed to a processing plant. Processing involves ion exchange and may also include precipitation, drying or calcining and packaging operations depending on facility specifics. This paper presents an overview of the ISR process and the health physics monitoring programs developed at a number of commercial scale ISL / ISR Uranium recovery and production facilities as a result of the radiological character of these processes. Although many radiological aspects of the process are similar to that of conventional mills, conventional-type tailings as such are not generated. However, liquid and solid byproduct materials may be generated and impounded. The quantity and radiological character of these by products are related to facility specifics. Some special monitoring considerations are presented which are required due to the manner in which Radon gas is evolved in

  15. In-Situ Subsurface Coating of Corroded Steel Sheet Pile Structures: Final Report on Project F08-AR06

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    shrink cement grout or epoxy resin in the gap between old and new steel , shown in Figure 19. This was the reason why the perforated piles needed to...be made liquid-tight with cement grout or epoxy. Other- wise, the material injected between the old and new steel would be lost be- hind the old steel ...ER D C/ CE RL T R- 17 -3 5 DoD Corrosion Prevention and Control Program In-Situ Subsurface Coating of Corroded Steel Sheet Pile

  16. Laser cladding in-situ carbide particle reinforced Fe-based composite coatings with rare earth oxide addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴朝锋; 马明星; 刘文今; 钟敏霖; 张红军; 张伟明

    2009-01-01

    Particulate reinforced metal matrix composite(PR-MMC) has excellent properties such as good wear resistance,corrosion resistance and high temperature properties.Laser cladding is usually used to form PR-MMC on metal surface with various volume fractions of ceramic particles.Recent literatures showed that laser melting of powder mixture containing carbon and carbide-forming elements,was favorable for the formation of in-situ synthesized carbide particles.In this paper,rare earth oxide(RE2O3) was added into t...

  17. In situ uranium stabilization by microbial metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turick, Charles E.; Knox, Anna S.; Leverette, Chad L.; Kritzas, Yianne G.

    2008-01-01

    Microbial melanin production by autochthonous bacteria was explored in this study as a means to increase U immobilization in U contaminated soil. This article demonstrates the application of bacterial physiology and soil ecology for enhanced U immobilization in order to develop an in situ, U bio-immobilization technology. We have demonstrated microbial production of a metal chelating biopolymer, pyomelanin, in U contaminated soil from the Tims Branch area of the Department of Energy (DOE), Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, as a result of tyrosine amendments. Bacterial densities of pyomelanin producers were >10 6 cells per g wet soil. Pyomelanin demonstrated U complexing and mineral binding capacities at pH 4 and 7. In laboratory studies, in the presence of goethite or illite, pyomelanin enhanced U sequestration by these minerals. Tyrosine amended soils in a field test demonstrated increased U sequestration capacity following pyomelanin production up to 13 months after tyrosine treatments

  18. Design Games for In-Situ Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The mobile culture has spawned a host of context-based products, like location-based and tag-based applications. This presents a new challenge for the designer. There is a need of design methods that acknowledge the context and allows it to influence the design ideas. This article focuses...... on a design problem where an in-situ design practice may further the early design process: the case of designing a pervasive game. Pervasive games are computer games, played using the city as a game board and often using mobile phones with GPS. Some contextual design methods exist, but we propose an approach...... sitestorming, is based on a game using Situationistic individual exploration of the site and different types of game cards, followed by a joint evaluation of the generated ideas. A series of evaluations showed that the designers found the method enjoyable to use, that the method motivated idea generation...

  19. In-situ SEM electrochemistry and radiolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Nilsen, Rolf Erling Robberstad; Norby, Poul

    are backscattered and an image is reconstructed by the microscope. But the high energy electrons are a form of ionising radiation which can significantly affect the chemistry in liquid experiments. Ionising radiation can split water, produce radicals, reduce dissolved metal ions to metal particles, and more...... experiments. During the course of these studies it has also been possible to improve on the EC-SEM system. This has resulted in pyrolysed carbon electrodes, which offer the benefit of stability at 0.75 V higher potentials than traditional gold thin-film electrodes. With the quantitative insight...... microelectrodes on the windows to enable studies of electrohcemical processes. In this way it is possible to perform in-situ electrochemical experiments such as electroplating and charge and discharge analysis of battery electrodes. In a typical liquid cell, electrons are accelerated to sufficiently high energies...

  20. Reverse osmosis membrane allows in situ regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonhomme, N.; Menjeaud, C.; Poyet, C.

    1989-01-01

    The use of mineral membranes on metallic supports has provided a novel solution to the problem of filtration by the reverse osmosis process. A new reverse osmosis membrane is described which is capable of resisting high operational temperatures (120 0 C), fluctuations in pH(3 to 12) and high pressure (100 bar), as well as significant chlorine concentrations. In addition, the membrane can be regenerated in-situ on the same porous metal support. Numerous membranes can thus be used over the multi-year life of the porous support. Moreover, accidental damage to the membrane is of no great consequence as the membrane itself can be easily replaced. The life of the installation can thus be extended and the overall cost of filtration reduced. The membrane's various applications include water and effluent treatment in the nuclear power industry. (author)

  1. In situ vitrification applications to hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liikala, S.

    1989-01-01

    In Situ Vitrification is a new hazardous waste remediation alternative that should be considered for contaminated soil matrices. According to the authors the advantages of using ISV include: technology demonstrated at field scale; applicable to a wide variety of soils and contaminants; pyrolyzer organics and encapsulates inorganics; product durable over geologic time period; no threat of harm to the public from exposure; and applications available for barrier walls and structural support. The use of ISV on a large scale basis has thus far been limited to the nuclear industry but has tremendous potential for widespread applications to the hazardous waste field. With the ever changing regulations for the disposal of hazardous waste in landfills, and the increasing positive analytical data of ISV, the process will become a powerful source for on-site treatment and hazardous waste management needs in the very near future

  2. Cryogenic in situ microcompression testing of Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupinacci, A.; Kacher, J.; Eilenberg, A.; Shapiro, A.A.; Hosemann, P.; Minor, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing plasticity mechanisms below the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature is traditionally difficult to accomplish in a systematic fashion. Here, we use a new experimental setup to perform in situ cryogenic mechanical testing of pure Sn micropillars at room temperature and at −142 °C. Subsequent electron microscopy characterization of the micropillars shows a clear difference in the deformation mechanisms at room temperature and at cryogenic temperatures. At room temperature, the Sn micropillars deformed through dislocation plasticity, while at −142 °C they exhibited both higher strength and deformation twinning. Two different orientations were tested, a symmetric (1 0 0) orientation and a non-symmetric (4 5 ¯ 1) orientation. The deformation mechanisms were found to be the same for both orientations

  3. Refractive regression after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mabel K; Chang, John Sm; Chan, Tommy Cy

    2018-04-26

    Uncorrected refractive errors are a leading cause of visual impairment across the world. In today's society, laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) has become the most commonly performed surgical procedure to correct refractive errors. However, regression of the initially achieved refractive correction has been a widely observed phenomenon following LASIK since its inception more than two decades ago. Despite technological advances in laser refractive surgery and various proposed management strategies, post-LASIK regression is still frequently observed and has significant implications for the long-term visual performance and quality of life of patients. This review explores the mechanism of refractive regression after both myopic and hyperopic LASIK, predisposing risk factors and its clinical course. In addition, current preventative strategies and therapies are also reviewed. © 2018 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  4. Permaflood, formation in situ of surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapo, G

    1972-01-01

    The present paper described a new process to produce surfactants in situ in which advantage is taken of the chemical reaction of oxidation in the liquid phase. This process consists of injecting a front of oxidizing agents and reaction compounds, in order to avoid the precipitation of the reaction products and to avoid the interaction between the surfactants produced and the calcium and magnesium in the connate water. Many different types of oxidizing agents as sodium dichromate, hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate, sodium hypochlorite, etc., are used. Also, there is considered the use of catalyzers with these oxidizing agents and the variation of the pH of the oxidizing front (permanaganate was the first oxidant used to check the technical and economic possibilities of this process in the laboratory). The process is called Permaflood, so named because potassium permanganate was the first oxidant used to check the technical and economic possibilities of this process in the laboratory.

  5. In situ vitrification of buried waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shade, J.W.; Thompson, L.E.; Kindle, C.H.

    1991-04-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a remedial technology initially developed to treat soils contaminated with a variety of organics, heavy metals, and/or radioactive materials. Recent tests have indicated the feasibility of applying the process to buried wastes including containers, combustibles, and buried metals. In addition, ISV is being considered for application to the emplacement of barriers and to the vitrification of underground tanks. This report provides a review of some of the recent experiences of applying ISV in engineering-scale and pilot-scale tests to wastes containing organics, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic metals buried in sealed containers, and buried ferrous metals, with emphasis on the characteristics of the vitrified product and adjacent soil. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  6. In-situ trainable intrusion detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symons, Christopher T.; Beaver, Justin M.; Gillen, Rob; Potok, Thomas E.

    2016-11-15

    A computer implemented method detects intrusions using a computer by analyzing network traffic. The method includes a semi-supervised learning module connected to a network node. The learning module uses labeled and unlabeled data to train a semi-supervised machine learning sensor. The method records events that include a feature set made up of unauthorized intrusions and benign computer requests. The method identifies at least some of the benign computer requests that occur during the recording of the events while treating the remainder of the data as unlabeled. The method trains the semi-supervised learning module at the network node in-situ, such that the semi-supervised learning modules may identify malicious traffic without relying on specific rules, signatures, or anomaly detection.

  7. IN SITU URANIUM STABILIZATION BY MICROBIAL METABOLITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turick, C; Anna Knox, A; Chad L Leverette,C; Yianne Kritzas, Y

    2006-11-29

    Soil contaminated with U was the focus of this study in order to develop in-situ, U bio-immobilization technology. We have demonstrated microbial production of a metal chelating biopolymer, pyomelanin, in U contaminated soil from the Tims Branch area of the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of tyrosine amendments. Bacterial densities of pyomelanin producers were >106 cells/g wet soil. Pyomelanin demonstrated U chelating and mineral binding capacities at pH 4 and 7. In laboratory studies, in the presence of goethite or illite, pyomelanin enhanced U sequestration by these minerals. Tyrosine amended soils in field tests demonstrated increased U sequestration capacity following pyomelanin production up to 13 months after tyrosine treatments.

  8. In situ erosion of cohesive sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, H.J.; Ockenden, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in tidal power schemes and the effect of a tidal energy barrage on the environment. A large man-made environmental change, such as a barrage, would be expected to have significant effects on the sediment distribution and stability of an estuary and these effects need to be assessed when considering a tidal barrage project. This report describes the development of apparatus for in-situ measurements of cohesive sediment erosion on inter-tidal mudflats. Development of the prototype field erosion bell and field testing was commissioned on behalf of the Department of Trade and Industry by the Energy Technology Support Unit (ETSU). This later work commenced in August 1991 and was completed in September 1992. (Author)

  9. The Effect of Low-Quantity Cr Addition on the Corrosion Behaviour of Dual-Phase High Carbon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Handoko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrial application of high carbon low alloy steel with the dual-phase structure of martensite and austenite has increased drastically in recent years. Due to its excellent compression strength and its high abrasion resistance, this grade of steel has used as a high performance cutting tool and in press machinery applications. By increasing the usage of more corrosive media in industrial practice and increasing the demand for reducing the production cost, it is crucial to understand the effect of the small addition of Cr on the corrosion behaviour of this grade of steel. In this study, this effect was investigated using Secondary Electron Microscopy (SEM and in-situ Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM in the sodium chloride solution. Also, the corrosion rate was measured using the Tafel polarisation curve. It has been found that the small addition of Cr increased the stability of retained austenite, thus improving its corrosion resistance and reducing its corrosion rate. This effect has been acquired through in-situ high resolution topography images in which the samples were submerged in a corrosive solution. It has been demonstrated that the corrosion rate was reduced when the stability of austenite enhanced.

  10. In-situ burning of spilled oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennyson, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation provided an overview of results from the Minerals Management Service's (MMS) funded research on in situ burning of spilled oil. The program began in 1983 to determine the limitations of this innovative response strategies. Specific physical variables evaluated were slick thickness, degree of weathering (sparging), sea state, wind velocities, air and water temperatures, degrees of emulsification and degree of ice-coverage. All of the oils tested burned with 50 to 95 percent removal ratios as long as emulsification had not occurred. Slick thickness of 3mm or thicker were required to sustain ignition and extinguishment occurred when the slick reached approximately 1mm thick. The next phase of the research involved quantitative analysis of the pollutants created by in situ burning including chemical composition of the parent oil, burn residue, and airborne constituents. These studies were conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with emphasis on particulate, and gaseous components created by the burning process. Research efforts over several years, and a variety of crude oils, yielded data which indicated that aldehydes ketones, dioxans, furans, and polyaromatic compounds (PAHS) were not formed in the burning process. The airborne pollutants reflected similar concentrations of these compounds that were present in the parent oil. Lighter molecular weight PAHs tended to be converted to higher molecular weight compounds. Heavier molecular weight compounds are considered less acutely toxic than lighter molecular weight PAHS. Predominant burn products released into the air were by weight: 75% carbon dioxide, 12% water vapor, 10% soot, 3% carbon monoxide and 0.2% other products including those listed above

  11. PERFORMANCE CONFIRMATION IN-SITU INSTRUMENTATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N.T. Raczka

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify and analyze the types of in-situ instruments and methods that could be used in support of the data acquisition portion of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The PC program will require geomechanical , geophysical, thermal, and hydrologic instrumentation of several kinds. This analysis is being prepared to document the technical issues associated with each type of measurement during the PC period. This analysis utilizes the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a) as its starting point. The scope of this analysis is primarily on the period after the start of waste package emplacement and before permanent closure of the repository, a period lasting between 15 and 300 years after last package emplacement (Stroupe 2000, Attachment 1, p. 1). The primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the design criteria as presented in the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a). The scope of this analysis will be limited to the instrumentation related to parameters that require continuous monitoring of the conditions underground. (2) Preliminary identification and listing of the data requirements and parameters as related to the current repository layout in support of PC monitoring. (3) Preliminary identification of methods and instrumentation for the acquisition of the required data. Although the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a) defines a broad range of data that must be obtained from a variety of methods, the focus of this analysis is on instrumentation related to the performance of the rock mass and the formation of water in the repository environment, that is obtainable from in-situ observation, testing, and monitoring

  12. In Situ Field Testing of Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This revision updates data and analyses presented in the initial issue of this AMR. This AMR was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' and ''Technical Work Plan for UZ Flow, Transport, and Coupled Processes Process Model Report. These activities were performed to investigate in situ flow and transport processes. The evaluations provide the necessary framework to: (1) refine and confirm the conceptual model of matrix and fracture processes in the unsaturated zone (UZ) and (2) analyze the impact of excavation (including use of construction water and effect of ventilation) on the UZ flow and transport processes. This AMR is intended to support revisions to ''Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport'' and ''Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Process Model Report''. In general, the results discussed in this AMR are from studies conducted using a combination or a subset of the following three approaches: (1) air-injection tests, (2) liquid-release tests, and (3) moisture monitoring using in-drift sensors or in-borehole sensors, to evaluate the impact of excavation, ventilation, and construction-water usage on the surrounding rocks. The liquid-release tests and air-injection tests provide an evaluation of in situ fracture flow and the competing processes of matrix imbibition. Only the findings from testing and data not covered in the ''Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data'' are analyzed in detail in the AMR

  13. In situ permeability testing of rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, E.W.; Lagus, P.L.; Broce, R.D.; Lie, K.

    1981-04-01

    Storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes in bedded salt formations requires a knowledge of the in situ permeability of SENM rock salt. Since assumptions for safety assessments have been made in which these wastes could generate gas pressures on the order of the lithostatic pressure over geologic time scales, the permeability of the surrounding formation becomes an important parameter for determining the manner in which the gases will be contained or dispersed. This report describes the series of tests conducted in the AEC-7 borehole, located near the WIPP site, to determine the in situ gas flow characteristics of the bedded salt. In these tests, compressed air was injected into the borehole and flow into the surrounding formation measured. These measured flow rates were interpreted in terms of formation permeabilities and porosities which were, in turn, used as modeling parameters for the repository response analysis. Two series of field tests were performed. The first series consisted of a number of whole-hole flow tests conducted to provide preliminary design information required for future operation of a guarded straddle packer system capable of measuring permeabilities > or = 0.1 μdarcy. The second series of tests were conducted using the Systems, Science and Software (S-Cubed) designed guarded straddle packer system. In these interval permeability tests, 100-foot lengths of borehole were isolated and the flow characteristics of the surrounding formation examined. In this report, a complete description of the test procedures, instrumentation, and measurement techniques is first given. The analytical/numerical methods used for data interpretation are then presented, followed by results of the interval and permeability tests. (The whole-hole tests are summarized in Appendix A.) Conclusions are presented in the final section

  14. In Situ Field Testing of Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Wang

    2001-12-14

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This revision updates data and analyses presented in the initial issue of this AMR. This AMR was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' and ''Technical Work Plan for UZ Flow, Transport, and Coupled Processes Process Model Report. These activities were performed to investigate in situ flow and transport processes. The evaluations provide the necessary framework to: (1) refine and confirm the conceptual model of matrix and fracture processes in the unsaturated zone (UZ) and (2) analyze the impact of excavation (including use of construction water and effect of ventilation) on the UZ flow and transport processes. This AMR is intended to support revisions to ''Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport'' and ''Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Process Model Report''. In general, the results discussed in this AMR are from studies conducted using a combination or a subset of the following three approaches: (1) air-injection tests, (2) liquid-release tests, and (3) moisture monitoring using in-drift sensors or in-borehole sensors, to evaluate the impact of excavation, ventilation, and construction-water usage on the surrounding rocks. The liquid-release tests and air-injection tests provide an evaluation of in situ fracture flow and the competing processes of matrix imbibition. Only the findings from testing and data not covered in the ''Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data'' are analyzed in detail in the AMR.

  15. Irradiated accelerated corrosion of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raiman, S.S.; Wang, P.; Was, G.S.

    2015-01-01

    Type 316L stainless steel was exposed to a simulated PWR environment with in-situ proton irradiation to investigate the effect of simultaneous irradiation and corrosion. To enable these experiments, a dedicated beamline was constructed to transport a 3.2 MeV proton beam from a tandem accelerator, through the sample that also acts as the window between the beamline vacuum and a corrosion cell designed to flow primary water at 320 C. degrees and 13.1 MPa. Experiments were conducted on 316L stainless steel samples which were irradiated for 24 hours in 320 C. degrees water with 3 ppm H 2 , at dose rates of 7*10 -6 dpa/s and 7*10 -7 dpa/s, for 4, 24, and 72 hours. A dual-layer oxide formed on the samples, with an inner layer rich in Cr with Fe and Ni content, and an outer layer of Fe oxides. Samples were characterized with TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy), EDS, and Raman spectroscopy to determine the effect of irradiation. Irradiated samples were found to have a thinner and more porous inner oxide which was deficient in chromium. The outer oxide was found to have significant hematite content, suggesting that irradiation led to an increase in ECP (Electro-Chemical Potential) at the oxide-solution interface, causing accelerated dissolution of the oxide under irradiation. (authors)

  16. Solution (in situ leach) mining of uranium: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhaida, A.J. Jr.; Kelly, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    Increases in the demand for and price of uranium have made in-situ mining an attractive alternative to the open-pit and underground U mining methods. Up to 50% of the known ore-bearing sandstone in the western U.S. can be mined using the in-situ mining method. In-situ mining also offers a significant environmental advantage. Restoration of the contaminated groundwater is discussed

  17. In-situ gelling polymers for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the research involving in situ gelling polymers and can be used as a guidebook for academics, industrialists and postgraduates interested in this area. This work summaries the academic contributions from the top authorities in the field and explore the fundamental principles of in situ gelling polymeric networks, along with examples of their major applications. This book aims to provide an up-to-date resource of in situ gelling polymer research.

  18. Evaluation of corrosive behavior of SAE 5155 by corrosion environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Jae Pil; Park, Keyung Dong

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the influence of shot peening and corrosive condition for corrosion property was investigated on immersed in 3.5% NaCl, 10% HNO 3 + 3% HF, 6% FeCl 3 . The immersion test was performed on two kinds of specimen. The immersion periods was performed 30days. Corrosion potential, weight loss were investigated from experimental results. From test results, the effect of shot peening on the corrosion was evaluated

  19. In situ characterization of natural pyrite bioleaching using electrochemical noise technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo-bao; Yang, Hong-ying; Li, Hai-jun

    2016-02-01

    An in situ characterization technique called electrochemical noise (ECN) was used to investigate the bioleaching of natural pyrite. ECN experiments were conducted in four active systems (sulfuric acid, ferric-ion, 9k culture medium, and bioleaching solutions). The ECN data were analyzed in both the time and frequency domains. Spectral noise impedance spectra obtained from power spectral density (PSD) plots for different systems were compared. A reaction mechanism was also proposed on the basis of the experimental data analysis. The bioleaching system exhibits the lowest noise resistance of 0.101 MΩ. The bioleaching of natural pyrite is considered to be a bio-battery reaction, which distinguishes it from chemical oxidation reactions in ferric-ion and culture-medium (9k) solutions. The corrosion of pyrite becomes more severe over time after the long-term testing of bioleaching.

  20. A mini-catalogue of metal corrosion products studied by Raman microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, M.; Smith, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full text.The extensive development of physical methods of analysis since the beginning of this century has revolutionised the classical observation techniques most frequently used by the archaeologist. Raman Microscopy (RM) appears to be one of the most promising tools due to the many advantages that it offers: e.g. non-destructive, in situ, micro-analysis. RM is being applied to many archaeological fields as well as to industrial or environmental sectors. In relation with parallel studies made on the identification of corrosion products on archaeological materials, and according to the principal condition for the RM characterisation of an unknown product being the comparison of its Raman spectrum with known standard spectra, the essential aim of this study is to build a mini-catalogue of standard corrosion products susceptible to be found on metallic objects; these could be from archaeological as well as from modern contexts. However, it is noted that the identification of a corrosion product may suggest either an urgent intervention from the restoration team (in the case of active corrosion products), or a stabilisation of the corrosion layer if this is considered to be a protective layer. All the standard samples are natural minerals coming from the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris (France) and correspond to the corrosion products most frequently found on metals such copper, zinc, lead or tin. These samples have been analyzed by RM and also confirmed by powder x-ray diffraction analysis. This catalogue, including more than 30 standard species corresponding to the most common metal corrosion products, is very useful for the different studies in progress in collaboration with different archaeological metal restoration teams. The near future will probably see a mobile Raman Microprobe (MRM) equipped with many different mini-catalogues on the site of a corroded mettalic bridge, a corroded canalisation or under the sea to rapidly identify the different

  1. Microbiologically induced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Biological attack is a problem that can affect all metallic materials in a variety of environments and systems. In the power industry, corrosion studies have focused on condensers and service water systems where slime, barnacles, clams, and other macro-organisms are easily detected. Efforts have been made to eliminate the effect of these organisms through the use of chlorination, backflushing, organic coating, or thermal shock. The objective is to maintain component performance by eliminating biofouling and reducing metallic corrosion. Recently, corrosion of power plant components by micro-organisms (bacteria) has been identified even in very clean systems. A system's first exposure to microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC) occurs during its first exposure to an aqueous environment, such as during hydrotest or wet layup. Corrosion of buried pipelines by sulfate-reducing bacteria has been studied by the petrochemical industry for years. This paper discusses various methods of diagnosing, monitoring, and controlling MIC in a variety of systems, as well as indicates areas where further study is needed

  2. Corrosion failure analysis as related to prevention of corrosion failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suss, H.

    1977-10-01

    The factors and conditions which have contributed to many of the corrosion related service failures are discussed based on a review of actual case histories. The anti-corrosion devices which developed as a result of these failure analyses are reviewed, and the method which must be adopted and used to take advantage of the available corrosion prevention techniques is discussed

  3. Corrosion testing facilities in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, R.; Subramanian, Venu

    1981-01-01

    Major types of corrosion tests, establishment of specifications on corrosion testing and scope of their application in practice are briefly described. Important organizations in the world which publish specifications/standards are listed. Indian organizations which undertake corrosion testing and test facilities available at them are also listed. Finally in an appendix, a comprehensive list of specifications relevant to corrosion testing is given. It is arranged under the headings: environmental testing, humidity tests, salt spray/fog tests, immersion tests, specification corrosion phenomena, (tests) with respect to special corrosion media, (tests) with respect to specific corrosion prevention methods, and specific corrosion tests using electrical and electrochemical methods (principles). Each entry in the list furnishes information about: nature of the test, standard number, and its specific application. (M.G.B.)

  4. Materials and corrosion characterization using the confocal resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tigges, C.P.; Sorensen, N.R.; Hietala, V.M.; Plut, T.A. [and others

    1997-05-01

    Improved characterization and process control is important to many Sandia and DOE programs related to manufacturing. Many processes/structures are currently under-characterized including thin film growth, corrosion and semiconductor structures, such as implant profiles. A sensitive tool is required that is able to provide lateral and vertical imaging of the electromagnetic properties of a sample. The confocal resonator is able to characterize the surface and near-surface impedance of materials. This device may be applied to a broad range of applications including in situ evaluation of thin film processes, physical defect detection/characterization, the characterization of semiconductor devices and corrosion studies. In all of these cases, the technology should work as a real-time process diagnostic or as a feedback mechanism regarding the quality of a manufacturing process. This report summarizes the development and exploration of several diagnostic applications.

  5. Irradiation-accelerated corrosion of reactor core materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, David; Was, Gary; Jiao, Zhijie

    2012-09-01

    irradiation will include all three effects: water radiolysis, electronic excitation, and displacement damage. Electron irradiation will omit the displacement damage, while the corrosion potential can be manipulated separately by chemical additives. Extensive ex-situ diagnostics will be applied to examine the structure and morphology of corrosion films grown under the three different conditions. In situ diagnostics will include Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance measurements as irradiation proceeds. The experimental challenge for proton irradiation with 3.4 MeV protons, is the very high stopping power of the steel, which necessitates samples at the vacuum-high pressure water interface of only 35 microns thickness. The high stopping power of protons also guarantees a very high dose rate to the water (and also the oxide film) within microns of the surface. To mimic this high dose rate and its corresponding local corrosion potential, very high electron beam currents are required. The presentation will review previous work in this area, and highlight the gaps in available knowledge of radiation-enhanced corrosion. The new experiments will be described in detail, and the most recent results will be presented. (authors)

  6. Acid corrosion inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, N G

    1964-04-28

    An acid corrosion inhibitor is prepared by a 2-stage vacuum evaporation of effluents obtained from the ammonia columns of the coking oven plant. The effluent, leaving a scrubber in which the phenols are removed at a temperature of 98$C, passes through a quartz filter and flows into a heated chamber in which it is used for preheating a solution circulating through a vacuum unit, maintaining the temperature of the solution at 55$ to 60$C. The effluent enters a large tank in which it is boiled at 55$ to 60$C under 635 to 640 mm Hg pressure. Double evaporation of this solution yields a very effective acid corrosion inhibitor. Its corrosion-preventing effect is 97.9% compared with 90.1% for thiourea and 88.5% for urotropin under identical conditions.

  7. Plastics for corrosion inhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Goldade, Victor A; Makarevich, Anna V; Kestelman, Vladimir N

    2005-01-01

    The development of polymer composites containing inhibitors of metal corrosion is an important endeavour in modern materials science and technology. Corrosion inhibitors can be located in a polymer matrix in the solid, liquid or gaseous phase. This book details the thermodynamic principles for selecting these components, their compatibility and their effectiveness. The various mechanisms of metal protection – barrier, inhibiting and electromechanical – are considered, as are the conflicting requirements placed on the structure of the combined material. Two main classes of inhibited materials (structural and films/coatings) are described in detail. Examples are given of structural plastics used in friction units subjected to mechano-chemical wear and of polymer films/coatings for protecting metal objects against corrosion.

  8. Corrosion Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Russ Braunling

    2004-10-31

    The Corrosion Monitoring System (CMS) program developed and demonstrated a continuously on-line system that provides real-time corrosion information. The program focused on detecting pitting corrosion in its early stages. A new invention called the Intelligent Ultrasonic Probe (IUP) was patented on the program. The IUP uses ultrasonic guided waves to detect small defects and a Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) algorithm to provide an image of the pits. Testing of the CMS demonstrated the capability to detect pits with dimensionality in the sub-millimeter range. The CMS was tested in both the laboratory and in a pulp and paper industrial plant. The system is capable of monitoring the plant from a remote location using the internet.

  9. Stochastic theory of fatigue corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haiyun

    1999-10-01

    A stochastic theory of corrosion has been constructed. The stochastic equations are described giving the transportation corrosion rate and fluctuation corrosion coefficient. In addition the pit diameter distribution function, the average pit diameter and the most probable pit diameter including other related empirical formula have been derived. In order to clarify the effect of stress range on the initiation and growth behaviour of pitting corrosion, round smooth specimen were tested under cyclic loading in 3.5% NaCl solution.

  10. Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi [Wading River, NY

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to metal surfaces having thereon an ultrathin (e.g., less than ten nanometer thickness) corrosion-resistant film, thereby rendering the metal surfaces corrosion-resistant. The corrosion-resistant film includes an at least partially crosslinked amido-functionalized silanol component in combination with rare-earth metal oxide nanoparticles. The invention also relates to methods for producing such corrosion-resistant films.

  11. In situ EC-AFM study of the effect of nanocrystals on the passivation and pit initiation in an Al-based metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.D.; Liu, Z.W.; Wang, Z.M.; Wang, J.Q.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The nanoscale corrosion on Al-rich glass was characterised by in situ EC-AFM. • The nanocrystals were identified from amorphous matrix by tapping mode AFM. • The formation of corrosion products is associated with the galvanic coupling. • The nanocrystals changed the local structure and component of the passive film. - Abstract: The effect of nanocrystals on pit initiation in metallic glasses is an unresolved issue. The passive film formation and pit initiation in the Al–Ni–Ce metallic glass were investigated using in situ electrochemical atomic force microscope (EC-AFM). The α-Al nanophases were identified from the amorphous matrix based upon the phase imaging in the tapping mode AFM. In the early stage of the passive film formation, the corrosion products Al(OH) 3 formed on the α-Al nanoparticles due to the galvanic coupling. The corrosion products incorporated into the passive film changed the local structure and component of the passive film, lowering its stability

  12. Stress-corrosion cracks behavior under underground disposal environment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isei, Takehiro; Seto, Masahiro; Ogata, Yuji; Wada, Yuji; Utagawa, Manabu; Kosugi, Masayuki

    2000-01-01

    This study is composed by two sub-theme of study on stress-corrosion cracking under an environment of disposal on radioactive wastes and control technique on microscopic crack around the disposal cavity, and aims at experimental elucidation on forming mechanism of stress-corrosion cracking phenomenon on rocks and establishment of its control technique. In 1998 fiscal year, together with an investigation on effect of temperature on fracture toughness and on stress-corrosion cracks performance of sedimentary rocks (sandy rocks), an investigation on limit of the stress-corrosion cracking by addition of chemicals and on crack growth in a rock by in-situ observation using SEM were carried out. As a result, it was formed that fracture toughness of rocks reduced at more than 100 centigrade of temperature, that a region showing an equilibrium between water supply to crack end and crack speed appeared definitely, that a limit of stress-corrosion cracking appeared by addition of chemicals, and that as a result of observing crack advancement of saturated rock by in-situ observation of crack growth using SEM, a process zone was formed at the front of main crack due to grain boundary fracture. (G.K.)

  13. Electrochemical corrosion of carbon steel exposed to biodiesel/simulated seawater mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Wei [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Department of Civil Engineering, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO 80217 (United States); Jenkins, Peter E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO 80217 (United States); Ren Zhiyong, E-mail: zhiyong.ren@ucdenver.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO 80217 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterized the unique corrosion behaviour of carbon steel in the biodiesel/seawater environment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Illustrated the in situ anode and cathode distribution using a wire beam electrode approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elucidated the corrosion mechanisms based on ion transfer and oxygen concentration gradient. - Abstract: The electrochemical corrosion of carbon steel exposed to a mixture of biodiesel and 3.5% NaCl solution simulated seawater was characterized using wire beam electrode (WBE) technique. Both optical images and in situ potential and current measurements showed that all the anodes and most cathodes formed in the water phase, but the cathodes were mainly located along the water/biodiesel interface. Due to oxygen concentration gradient and cross-phase ion transfer, low corrosion currents were also detected in biodiesel phase. Further anode reaction was partially blocked by iron rust, but the alkali residual in biodiesel may interact with corrosion and deteriorate biodiesel quality.

  14. Corrosion behaviour of carbon steel in the Tournemire clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foct, F.; Dridi, W.; Cabrera, J.; Savoye, S.

    2004-01-01

    Carbon steels are possible materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste containers for long term geological disposal in argillaceous environments. Experimental studies of the corrosion behaviour of such materials has been conducted in various conditions. Concerning the numerous laboratory experiments, these conditions (water and clay mixture or compacted clay) mainly concern the bentonite clay that would be used for the engineered barrier. On the opposite, only few in-situ experiments has been conducted directly in the local clay of the repository site (such as Boom clay, etc.). In order to better estimate the corrosion behaviour of carbon steels in natural clay site conditions, an experimental study has been conducted jointly by EDF and IRSN in the argillaceous French site of Tournemire. In this study, A42 carbon steel specimens have been exposed in 3 different zones of the Tournemire clay formation. The first type of environmental conditions concerns a zone where the clay has not been affected by the excavation (EDZ) of the main tunnel neither by the main fracture zone of the clay formation. The second and third ones are located in the EDZ of the tunnel. In the second zone, an additional aerated water flows from the tunnel, whereas it does not in the third place. Some carbon steel specimens have been extracted after several years of exposure to these conditions. The average corrosion rate has been measured by the weight loss technique and the pitting corrosion depth has been evaluated under an optical microscope. Corrosion products have also been characterised by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction technique. Results are then discussed regarding the surrounding environmental conditions. Calculations of the oxygen transport from the tunnel through the clay and of the clay re-saturation can explain, in a first approach, the corrosion behaviour of the carbon steel in the different tested zones. (authors)

  15. Rhenium corrosion in chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, A.D.; Shkol'nikov, S.N.; Vetyukov, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    The results investigating rhenium corrosion in chloride melts containing sodium, potassium and chromium ions by a gravimetry potentials in argon atmosphere in a sealing quarth cell are described. Rhenium corrosion is shown to be rather considerable in melts containing CrCl 2 . The value of corrosion rate depending on temperature is determined

  16. IN-SITU TRITIUM BETA DETECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthold, J.W.; Jeffers, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye. Based on the results achieved, it is premature to initiate Phase 2 and commit to a prototype

  17. IN-SITU TRITIUM BETA DETECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.W. Berthold; L.A. Jeffers

    1998-04-15

    The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye. Based on the results achieved, it is premature to initiate Phase 2 and commit to a prototype

  18. Accelerated cyclic corrosion tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prošek T.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated corrosion testing is indispensable for material selection, quality control and both initial and residual life time prediction for bare and painted metallic, polymeric, adhesive and other materials in atmospheric exposure conditions. The best known Neutral Salt Spray (NSS test provides unrealistic conditions and poor correlation to exposures in atmosphere. Modern cyclic accelerated corrosion tests include intermittent salt spray, wet and dry phases and eventually other technical phases. They are able to predict the material performance in service more correctly as documented on several examples. The use of NSS should thus be restricted for quality control.

  19. Achievments of corrosion science and corrosion protection technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, M.; Stehjl, R.

    1985-01-01

    Problems of corrosion-mechanical strength of metals, effect of corrosive media on creep characteristics are presented. New concepts of the mechanism of corrosion cracking and its relation to hydrogen embrittlement are described. Kinetics and mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement effect on the process of corrosion cracking of different steels and alloys are considered. The dependence of such types of failure on various structural factors is shown. Data on corrosion cracking of high-strength aluminium and titanium alloys, mechanism of the processes and protective methods are given

  20. Experimental Measurement of In Situ Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbo, Maria; Milkereit, Bernd; Nasseri, Farzine; Schmitt, Douglas; Young, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The World Stress Map data is determined by stress indicators including earthquake focal mechanisms, in situ measurement in mining, oil and gas boreholes as well as the borehole cores, and geologic data. Unfortunately, these measurements are not only infrequent but sometimes infeasible, and do not provide nearly enough data points with high accuracy to correctly infer stress fields in deep mines around the world. Improvements in stress measurements of Earth's crust is fundamental to several industries such as oil and gas, mining, nuclear waste management, and enhanced geothermal systems. Quantifying the state of stress and the geophysical properties of different rock types is a major complication in geophysical monitoring of deep mines. Most stress measurement techniques involve either the boreholes or their cores, however these measurements usually only give stress along one axis, not the complete stress tensor. The goal of this project is to investigate a new method of acquiring a complete stress tensor of the in situ stress in the Earth's crust. This project is part of a comprehensive, exploration geophysical study in a deep, highly stressed mine located in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, and focuses on two boreholes located in this mine. These boreholes are approximately 400 m long with NQ diameters and are located at depths of about 1300 - 1600 m and 1700 - 2000 m. Two borehole logging surveys were performed on both boreholes, October 2013 and July 2015, in order to perform a time-lapse analysis of the geophysical changes in the mine. These multi-parameter surveys include caliper, full waveform sonic, televiewer, chargeability (IP), and resistivity. Laboratory experiments have been performed on borehole core samples of varying geologies from each borehole. These experiments have measured the geophysical properties including elastic modulus, bulk modulus, P- and S-wave velocities, and density. The apparatus' used for this project are geophysical imaging cells capable

  1. Siderite as a Corrosion Product on Archaeological Iron from a Waterlogged Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, H.; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Gregory, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the occurrence of siderite (FeCO3) on iron artifacts excavated from the waterlogged peat and gyttja sediment of the Danish Iron Age site Nydam Mose. Siderite was identified by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron...... microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), which showed only minor contents of other minerals in the corrosion scales. The implications of the formation of siderite as a corrosion product are discussed in terms of its possible passivating properties and thermodynamic stability in situ...

  2. Corrosion testing of selected packaging materials for disposal of high-level waste glass in rock salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smailos, E.; Schwarzkopf, W.; Koester, R.; Fiehn, B.; Halm, G.

    1990-05-01

    In previous corrosion studies performed in salt brines, unalloyed steels, Ti 99.8-Pd and Hastelloy C4 have proved to be the most promising materials for long-term resistant packagings to be used in heat-generating waste (vitrified HLW, spent fuel) disposal in rock-salt formations. To characterise the corrosion behaviour of these materials in more detail, further in-depth laboratory-scale and in-situ corrosion studies have been performed in the present study. Besides the above-mentioned materials, also some in-situ investigations of the iron-base materials Ni-Resist D2 and D4, cast iron and Si-cast iron have been carried out in order to complete the results available to date. (orig.) [de

  3. Anodized titanium and stainless steel in contact with CFRP: an electrochemical approach considering galvanic corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Yves; Tognini, Roger; Mayer, Joerg; Virtanen, Sannakaisa

    2007-09-15

    The combination of different materials in an implant gives the opportunity to better fulfill the requirements that are needed to improve the healing process. However, using different materials increases the risk of galvanic coupling corrosion. In this study, coupling effects of gold-anodized titanium, stainless steel for biomedical applications, carbon fiber reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFRP), and CFRP containing tantalum fibers are investigated electrochemically and by long-term immersion experiments in simulated body fluid (SBF). Potentiodynamic polarization experiments (i/E curves) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of the separated materials showed a passive behavior of the metallic samples. Anodized titanium showed no corrosion attacks, whereas stainless steel is highly susceptibility for localized corrosion. On the other side, an active dissolution behavior of both of the CFRPs in the given environment could be determined, leading to delaminating of the carbon fibers from the matrix. Long-term immersion experiments were carried out using a set-up especially developed to simulate coupling conditions of a point contact fixator system (PC-Fix) in a biological environment. Electrochemical data were acquired in situ during the whole immersion time. The results of the immersion experiments correlate with the findings of the electrochemical investigation. Localized corrosion attacks were found on stainless steel, whereas anodized titanium showed no corrosion attacks. No significant differences between the two CFRP types could be found. Galvanic coupling corrosion in combination with crevice conditions and possible corrosion mechanisms are discussed. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. High temperature (salt melt) corrosion tests with ceramic-coated steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schütz, Adelheid [University Bayreuth, Metals and Alloys, Ludwig-Thoma-Str. 36b, D-95447 Bayreuth (Germany); Günthner, Martin; Motz, Günter [University Bayreuth, Ceramic Materials Engineering, L.-Thoma-Str. 36b, D-95447 Bayreuth (Germany); Greißl, Oliver [EnBW Kraftwerke AG, Schelmenwasenstraße 13-15, D-70567 Stuttgart (Germany); Glatzel, Uwe, E-mail: uwe.glatzel@uni-bayreuth.de [University Bayreuth, Metals and Alloys, Ludwig-Thoma-Str. 36b, D-95447 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    Thermal recycling of refuse in waste-to-energy plants reduces the problems connected to waste disposal, and is an alternative source of electric energy. However, the combustion process in waste incinerators results in a fast degradation of the steam-carrying superheater steel tubes by corrosive attack and abrasive wear. Higher firing temperatures are used to increase their efficiency but lead to higher corrosion rates. It is more economical to apply protective coatings on the superheater steel tubes than to replace the base material. In-situ tests were conducted in a waste-to-energy plant first in order to identify and quantify all involved corrosive elements. Laboratory scale experiments with salt melts were developed accordingly. The unprotected low-alloyed steel displayed substantial local corrosion. Corrosion was predominant along the grain boundaries of α-ferrite. The corrosion rate was further increased by FeCl{sub 3} and a mixture of HCL and FeCl{sub 3}. Coatings based on pre-ceramic polymers with specific filler particles were engineered to protect superheater tubes. Tests proved their suitability to protect low-alloYed steel tubes from corrosive attack under conditions typical for superheaterS in waste incinerators, rendering higher firing temperatures in waste-to-energy plants possible. - Highlights: • Corrosion wall thickness losses of 400 μm/2 weeks occurred in a waste incinerator. • Abrasion is a major problem on superheater tubes in waste incinerators. • Laboratory salt melt tests can simulate metal corrosion in waste incinerators. • Corrosion protection coatings for steel (temperature: max. 530 °C) were developed. • Higher steam temperatures are possible in WIs with the developed coatings.

  5. NiTi Alloys for Tribological Applications: The Role of In-Situ Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in 2004, NASA initiated the investigation and development of, Nitinol 60, a nickel-rich and dimensionally stable version of shape memory alloy Nitinol 55, as an alternative to bearing steel. Early investigations showed it to be hard and impervious to aqueous corrosion but the fundamental reasons for these properties were unknown. Shape memory alloys made from equiatomic Ni-Ti are widely known for their unique dimensional instability behavior that can be triggered by thermal and mechanical stress. The nickel-rich alloys exhibit no such dimension change property and have high hardness but have largely been overlooked by industry and the engineering community. Though steel is the dominant material of choice for mechanical components (bearings and gears) it has intrinsic limitations related to corrosion and plastic deformation. In contrast, Ni-Ti alloys are intrinsically rustproof and can withstand high contact loads without damage (denting). Over the last decade, focused RD to exploit these alloys for new applications has revealed that in-situ nano-scale phases that form during processing are largely responsible for NiTis remarkable properties. In this presentation, the state-of-art of nickel-rich NiTi alloys will be introduced and the nanotechnology behind their intriguing behavior will be addressed. The presentation will include discussion of how NASA is adopting this new technology inside the space station water recycling system as a pathfinder for more down-to-earth tribological challenges.

  6. Contribution of in situ acoustic emission analysis coupled with thermogravimetry to study zirconium alloy oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Haj, O.; Peres, V.; Serris, E.; Cournil, M.; Grosjean, F.; Kittel, J.; Ropital, F.

    2015-01-01

    Zirconium alloy (zircaloy-4) corrosion behavior under oxidizing atmosphere at high temperature was studied using thermogravimetric experiment associated with acoustic emission analysis. Under a mixture of oxygen and air in helium, an acceleration of the corrosion is observed due to the detrimental effect of nitrogen which produces zirconium nitride. The kinetic rate increases significantly after a kinetic transition (breakaway). This acceleration is accompanied by an acoustic emission (AE) activity. Most of the acoustic emission bursts were recorded after the kinetic transition or during the cooling of the sample. Acoustic emission signals analysis allows us to distinguish different populations of cracks in the ZrO 2 layer. These cracks have also been observed by SEM on post mortem cross section of oxidized samples and by in-situ microscopy observations on the top surface of the sample during oxidation. The numerous small convoluted thin cracks observed deeper in the zirconia scale are not detected by the AE technique. From these studies we can conclude that mechanisms as irreversible mechanisms, as cracks initiation and propagation, generate AE signals

  7. In situ Raman spectroscopy studies of bulk and surface metal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Wachs, I.E.; Jehng, J.M.; Deo, G.; Guliants, V.V.; Benziger, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    Bulk V-P-O and model supported vanadia catalysts were investigated with in situ Raman spectroscopy during n-butane oxidation to maleic anhydride in order to determine the fundamental molecular structure-reactivity/selectivity insights that can be obtained from such experiments. The in situ Raman

  8. In situ investigation of catalysts for alcohol synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duchstein, Linus Daniel Leonhard; Sharafutdinov, Irek; Wu, Qiongxiao

    consists of three complimentary in situ techniques: (1) Activity measurements based on a reactor connected to a gas chromatograph (GC), (2) In situ x-ray diffractometer (XRD) measurements based on a reactor cell connected to a mass spectrometer (MS), and (3) environmental TEM (ETEM) that allows...... distribution, measured both macroscopically (XRD) and microscopically (ETEM), with the catalytic activity....

  9. Development of the integrated in situ Lasagna process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, S.; Athmer, C.; Sheridan, P.

    1995-01-01

    Contamination in deep, low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in uniform delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ methods such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, and pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites

  10. Development of an in situ polymeric hydrogel implant of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and characterize in situ gel-forming implants of methylprednisolone for the treatment of spinal cord injuries. Methods: In situ hydrogels of methylprednisolone were prepared by dispersing polylactide glycolic acid (PLGA) polymer and methylprednisolone in N-methyl-pyrrolidone solvent, and subsequent ...

  11. An overview of in situ waste treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, S.; Hyde, R.A.; Piper, R.B.; Roy, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    In situ technologies are becoming an attractive remedial alternative for eliminating environmental problems. In situ treatments typically reduce risks and costs associated with retrieving, packaging, and storing or disposing-waste and are generally preferred over ex situ treatments. Each in situ technology has specific applications, and, in order to provide the most economical and practical solution to a waste problem, these applications must be understood. This paper presents an overview of thirty different in situ remedial technologies for buried wastes or contaminated soil areas. The objective of this paper is to familiarize those involved in waste remediation activities with available and emerging in situ technologies so that they may consider these options in the remediation of hazardous and/or radioactive waste sites. Several types of in situ technologies are discussed, including biological treatments, containment technologies, physical/chemical treatments, solidification/stabilization technologies, and thermal treatments. Each category of in situ technology is briefly examined in this paper. Specific treatments belonging to these categories are also reviewed. Much of the information on in situ treatment technologies in this paper was obtained directly from vendors and universities and this information has not been verified

  12. An expert support model for in situ soil remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okx, J.P.; Stein, A.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents an expert support model for in situ soil remediation. It combines knowledge and experiences obtained from previous in situ soil remediations. The aim of this model is to optimise knowledge transfer among the various parties involved in contaminated site management. Structured

  13. Some implications of in situ uranium mining technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, C.E.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Cole, R.J.; Keller, D.; Mellinger, P.J.; Wallace, R.W.

    1980-09-01

    A technology assessment was initiated in March 1979 of the in-situ uranium mining technology. This report explores the impediments to development and deployment of this technology and evaluates the environmental impacts of a generic in-situ facility. The report is divided into the following sections: introduction, technology description, physical environment, institutional and socioeconomic environment, impact assessment, impediments, and conclusions

  14. In Situ Bioremediation of Energetic Compounds in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    negligible. Thus, this project clearly shows that in situ bioremediation of explosives in groundwater using active-passive cosubstrate addition can...Arlington, NJ, offices), the National Research Council (NRC) Biotechnology Research Institute (Montreal, Canada) and the Environmental Technology...NDAB are unlikely to accumulate during in situ anaerobic bioremediation explosives using cheese whey as a cosubstrate. 7.4 ADEQUATE DISTRIBUTION OF

  15. Comparison of in situ nutrient degradabilities of alternative by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    level of inclusion in the concentrate portion of lactating dairy cattle diets, ... Two rumen fistulated multiparous lactating Holstein cows were used for the in situ study. ... vitamins. Feeds were offered twice daily at 09:00 and 18:00. The in situ bag ...

  16. paediatric ureteric calculi: in-situ extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective To evaluate prospectively the efficacy of in-situ extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in the treatment of ureteric calculi in the paediatric age group. Patients and Methods Twenty children (aged 2.2 16 years) with 22 ureteric stones were evaluated and treated with in-situ ESWL using the Dornier S lithotripter ...

  17. Challenges in subsurface in situ remediation of chlorinated solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette Martina; Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann; Christiansen, Camilla Maymann

    2014-01-01

    Chlorinated solvent source zones in the subsurface pose a continuous threat to groundwater quality at many sites worldwide. In situ remediation of these sites is particularly challenging in heterogeneous fractured media and where the solvents are present as DNAPL. In situ remediation by chemical...

  18. Incomplete copolymer degradation of in situ chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdillon, Pierre; Boissenot, Tanguy; Goldwirt, Lauriane; Nicolas, Julien; Apra, Caroline; Carpentier, Alexandre

    2018-02-17

    In situ carmustine wafers containing 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) are commonly used for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma to overcome the brain-blood barrier. In theory, this chemotherapy diffuses into the adjacent parenchyma and the excipient degrades in maximum 8 weeks but no clinical data confirms this evolution, because patients are rarely operated again. A 75-year-old patient was operated twice for recurrent glioblastoma, and a carmustine wafer was implanted during the second surgery. Eleven months later, a third surgery was performed, revealing unexpected incomplete degradation of the wafer. 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance was performed to compare this wafer to pure BCNU and to an unused copolymer wafer. In the used wafer, peaks corresponding to hydrophobic units of the excipient were no longer noticeable, whereas peaks of the hydrophilic units and traces of BCNU were still present. These surprising results could be related to the formation of a hydrophobic membrane around the wafer, thus interfering with the expected diffusion and degradation processes. The clinical benefit of carmustine wafers in addition to the standard radio-chemotherapy remains limited, and in vivo behavior of this treatment is not completely elucidated yet. We found that the wafer may remain after several months. Alternative strategies to deal with the blood-brain barrier, such as drug-loaded liposomes or ultrasound-opening, must be explored to offer larger drug diffusion or allow repetitive delivery.

  19. Backfilling of deposition tunnels, in situ alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keto, P.

    2007-04-01

    The backfilling process described in this report is based on in situ compaction of a mixture of bentonite and ballast (30:70) into the deposition tunnel. This method has been tested in practice in various field tests by SKB, most recently in the Prototype repository test performed at Aespoe HRL. The backfill mixture is prepared above ground and transported to the repository level with a tank truck. The material is compacted into layers with an inclination of 35 deg C and a thickness of approximately 20 cm. The compaction is performed with a vibratory plate attached to a boom of an excavator. In order to keep up with the required canister installation rate determined for the Finnish repository, at least 13 layers need to be compacted daily. This means working in 2-3 shifts on the working days that are available for backfilling operations. The dry densities achieved in field tests for the wall/roof section of the backfill have been insufficient compared with the dry density criteria set for the backfill. In theory, it may be possible to reach dry densities that fulfil the criteria, although with a relatively small safety margin. Another open issue is whether the mixture of bentonite and ballast has sufficient self-healing ability to seal-off erosion channels after the tunnels have been closed and the backfill has reached full saturation. (orig.)

  20. Enhancing in situ bioremediation with pneumatic fracturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Peyton, B.M.; Liskowitz, J.L.; Fitzgerald, C.; Schuring, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    A major technical obstacle affecting the application of in situ bioremediation is the effective distribution of nutrients to the subsurface media. Pneumatic fracturing can increase the permeability of subsurface formations through the injection of high pressure air to create horizontal fracture planes, thus enhancing macro-scale mass-transfer processes. Pneumatic fracturing technology was demonstrated at two field sites at Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Tests were performed to increase the permeability for more effective bioventing, and evaluated the potential to increase permeability and recovery of free product in low permeability soils consisting of fine grain silts, clays, and sedimentary rock. Pneumatic fracturing significantly improved formation permeability by enhancing secondary permeability and by promoting removal of excess soil moisture from the unsaturated zone. Postfracture airflows were 500% to 1,700% higher than prefracture airflows for specific fractured intervals in the formation. This corresponds to an average prefracturing permeability of 0.017 Darcy, increasing to an average of 0.32 Darcy after fracturing. Pneumatic fracturing also increased free-product recovery rates of number 2 fuel from an average of 587 L (155 gal) per month before fracturing to 1,647 L (435 gal) per month after fracturing

  1. In situ vitrification on buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, S.O.

    1992-01-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is being evaluated as a remedial treatment technology for buried mixed and transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and can be related to buried wastes at other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. There are numerous locations around the DOE Complex where wastes were buried in the ground or stored for future burial. The Buried Waste Program (BWP) is conducting a comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the Department of Energy - Field Office Idaho (DOE-ID). As part of the RI/FS, an ISV scoping study on the treatability of the SDA mixed low-level and mixed TRU waste is being performed for applicability to remediation of the waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The ISV project being conducted at the INEL by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. consists of a treatability investigation to collect data to satisfy nine CERCLA criteria with regards to the SDA. This treatability investigation involves a series of experiments and related efforts to study the feasibility of ISV for remediation of mixed and TRU waste disposed of at the SDA

  2. In situ grouting of buried transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.

    1987-01-01

    This task is a demonstration and evaluation of the in situ hydrologic stabilization of buried transuranic waste at a humid site via grout injection. Two small trenches, containing buried transuranic waste, were filled with 34,000 liters of polyacrylamide grout. Initial field results have indicated that voids within the trenches were totally filled by the grout and that the intratrench hydraulic conductivity was reduced to below field-measurable values. The grout was also completely contained within the two trenches as no grout constituents were observed in the 12 perimeter ground water monitoring wells. Polyacrylamide grout was selected for field demonstration over polyacrylate grout because of its superior performance in laboratory degradation studies. Also supporting the selection of polyacrylamide was the difficulty of controlling the set time of the acrylate polymerization process in the presence of potassium ferricyanide. Based on preliminary degradation monitoring, polyacrylamide was estimated to have a microbiological half-life of 115 years in the test soil. However, this calculated value is likely to be conservatively low because microbial degradation of the grout set accelerator or residual monomer may be contributing most to the measured microbial respiration. Addition work, using 14 C-labeled acrylate and acrylamide grouts, is being carried out to more accurately estimate the grouts' microbiological half-life

  3. Innovative technologies for in-situ remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragaini, R.; Aines, R.; Knapp, R.; Matthews, S.; Yow, J.

    1994-06-01

    LLNL is developing several innovative remediation technologies as long-term improvements to the current pump and treat approaches to cleaning up contaminated soils and groundwater. These technologies include dynamic underground stripping, in-situ microbial filters, and remediation using bremsstrahlung radiation. Concentrated underground organic contaminant plumes are one of the most prevalent groundwater contamination sources. The solvent or fuel can percolate deep into the earth, often into water-bearing regions. Collecting as a separate, liquid organic phase called dense non-aqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs), or light NAPLs (LNAPLs), these contaminants provide a source term that continuously compromises surrounding groundwater. This type of spill is one of the most difficult environmental problems to remediate. Attempts to remove such material requires a huge amount of water which must be washed through the system to clean it, requiring decades. Traditional pump and treat approaches have not been successful. LLNL has developed several innovative technologies to clean up NAPL contamination. Detailed descriptions of these technologies are given

  4. In Situ Immobilization of Selenium in Sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Robert C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stewart, Thomas Austin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This project focused on the use of a sorbent, carbonated apatite, to immobilize selenium in the environment. It is know that apatite will sorb selenium and based on the mechanism of sorption it is theorized that carbonated apatite will be more effective that pure apatite. Immobilization of selenium in the environment is through the use of a sorbent in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB). A PRB can be constructed by trenching and backfill with the sorbent or in the case of apatite as the sorbent formed in situ using the apatite forming solution of Moore (2003, 2004). There is very little data on selenium sorption by carbonated apatite in the literature. Therefore, in this work, the basic sorptive properties of carbonated apatite were investigated. Carbonated apatite was synthesized by a precipitation method and characterized. Batch selenium kinetic and equilibrium experiments were performed. The results indicate the carbonated apatite contained 9.4% carbonate and uptake of selenium as selenite was rapid; 5 hours for complete uptake of selenium vs. more than 100 hours for pure hydroxyapatite reported in the literature. Additionally, the carbonated apatite exhibited significantly higher distribution coefficients in equilibrium experiments than pure apatite under similar experimental conditions. The next phase of this work will be to seek additional funds to continue the research with the goal of eventually demonstrating the technology in a field application.

  5. In situ biodenitrification of nitrate surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, G.C.; Ballew, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project has successfully operated a full-scale in situ biodenitrification system to treat water with elevated nitrate levels in abandoned raffinate pits. Bench- and pilot-scale studies were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the process and to support its full-scale design and application. Bench testing evaluated variables that would influence development of an active denitrifying biological culture. The variables were carbon source, phosphate source, presence and absence of raffinate sludge, addition of a commercially available denitrifying microbial culture, and the use of a microbial growth medium. Nitrate levels were reduced from 750 mg/L NO 3 -N to below 10 mg/L NO 3 -N within 17 days. Pilot testing simulated the full-scale process to determine if nitrate levels could be reduced to less than 10 mg/L NO 3 -N when high levels are present below the sludge surface. Four separate test systems were examined along with two control systems. Nitrates were reduced from 1,200 mg/L NO 3 -N to below 2 mg/L NO 3 -N within 21 days. Full-scale operation has been initiated to denitrify 900,000-gal batches alternating between two 1-acre ponds. The process used commercially available calcium acetate solution and monosodium/disodium phosphate solution as a nutrient source for indigenous microorganisms to convert nitrates to molecular nitrogen and water

  6. In situ vitrification: Process and products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindle, C.; Koegler, S.

    1991-06-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is an electrically powered thermal treatment process that converts soil into a chemically inert and stable glass and crystalline product. It is similar in concept to bringing a simplified glass manufacturing process to a site and operating it in the ground, using the soil as a glass feed stock. Gaseous emissions are contained, scrubbed, and filtered. When the process is completed, the molten volume cools producing a block of glass and crystalline material that resembles natural obsidian commingled with crystalline phases. The product passes US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) leach resistance tests, and it can be classified as nonhazardous from a chemical hazard perspective. ISV was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) for application to contaminated soils. It is also being adapted for applications to buried waste, underground tanks, and liquid seepage sites. ISV's then-year development period has included tests on many different site conditions. As of January 1991 there have been 74 tests using PNL's ISV equipment; these tests have ranged from technology development tests using nonhazardous conditions to hazardous and radioactive tests. 2 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  7. Assessment of a biological in situ remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuerdemann, H.; Lund, N.C.; Gudehus, G.

    1995-01-01

    A field experiment using a bioventing technique has been conducted at the center of contamination at a former gasworks site for 3 years. The emphasis of this investigation is to determine the efficiency of in situ remediation. Due to an extremely heterogeneous distribution of contamination it was impossible to satisfactorily quantify the reduction of hydrocarbons. However, a comparison of highly contaminated soil samples shows a qualitative alteration. The analyses of pollutant composition reveal a significant decrease of low condensed PAHs up to anthracene. The relative increase of high condensed PAHs in the contaminant composition indicates a PAH degradation of 54%. Soil respiration is used to assess the course of remediation. Continuous monitoring of O 2 and CO 2 in the used air leads to an amount of about 2,400 kg of decomposed organics. Large-scale elution tests show a reduction of the sum parameters for the organic pollution of the flushing water of 80%. The PAHs have dropped about 97%. The Microtox test indicates a detoxification of 98%

  8. In-situ combustion with solvent injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Silva, J.; Kakade, G. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]|[Maharashtra Inst. of Technology, Pune (India)

    2008-10-15

    The effects of combining in situ combustion and heavy hydrocarbon naphtha vapor injection techniques in a heavy oil reservoir were investigated. Oil production rates and steam injection efficiencies were considered. The technique was also combined with toe-to-heel air injection (THAI) processes. The study showed that the modified THAI process achieved high rates of recovery for both primary production and as a follow-up technique in partially depleted reservoirs after cyclic steam and cold production. Oil produced using the modified THAI technique was also partially upgraded by the process. Results of the vapour chamber pressure calculations showed that the volume of oil produced by naphtha assisted gravity drainage was between 1 to 3 times higher than amounts of oil produced by SAGD processes during the same amount of time. The naphtha injection process produced more oil than the steam only process. However, high amounts of naphtha were needed to produce oil. Injection and production rates during the naphtha injection process were higher. Naphtha vapor was injected near the heel of a horizontal producer well. The vapor acted as a thermal and diluent mechanism in order to reduce the viscosity of the heavy oil . 9 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  9. PROSCARA Inc. in-situ burning summary paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    In-situ burning as a viable response tactic in the event of an oil spill, was discussed. Key factors which influence a decision to use burning were enumerated, including a detailed analysis of the environmental effects of in-situ burning on soils. The critical parameters were time, soil heating and extent of oil penetration into the soil. It was noted that on water-saturated and frozen soil in-situ burning had no adverse effects. The advantages and disadvantages of in-situ burning vis-a-vis conventional mechanical recovery were discussed. Factors that do, and factors that do not support decisions in favour of in-situ burning were listed. 4 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Corrosion resistant cemented carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a corrosion resistant cemented carbide composite. It comprises: a granular tungsten carbide phase, a semi-continuous solid solution carbide phase extending closely adjacent at least a portion of the grains of tungsten carbide for enhancing corrosion resistance, and a substantially continuous metal binder phase. The cemented carbide composite consisting essentially of an effective amount of an anti-corrosion additive, from about 4 to about 16 percent by weight metal binder phase, and with the remaining portion being from about 84 to about 96 percent by weight metal carbide wherein the metal carbide consists essentially of from about 4 to about 30 percent by weight of a transition metal carbide or mixtures thereof selected from Group IVB and of the Periodic Table of Elements and from about 70 to about 96 percent tungsten carbide. The metal binder phase consists essentially of nickel and from about 10 to about 25 percent by weight chromium, the effective amount of an anti-corrosion additive being selected from the group consisting essentially of copper, silver, tine and combinations thereof

  11. Corrosion resistant steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubchenko, A.S.; Borisov, V.P.; Latyshev, V.B.

    1980-01-01

    Corrosion resistant steel for production of sheets and tubes containing C, Mn, Cr, Si, Fe is suggested. It is alloyed with vanadium and cerium for improving tensile properties and ductility. The steel can be melted by a conventional method in electric-arc or induction furnaces. The mentioned steel is intended to be used as a substitute for nickel-bearing austenitic steels

  12. Corrosion in seawater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrikson, S.

    1988-01-01

    Highly alloyed stainless steels have been exposed to natural chlorinated and chlorine-free seawater at 35 deg. C. Simulated tube-tubesheet joints, weld joints and galvanic couples with titanium, 90/10 CuNi and NiAl bronze were tested and evaluated for corrosion. The corrosion rates of various anode materials - zinc, aluminium and soft iron - were also determined. Finally the risk of hydrogen embrittlement of tubes of ferritic stainless steels and titanium as a consequence of cathodic protection was studied. An attempt was also made to explain the cracking mechanism of the ferritic steels by means of transmission electron microscopy. One important conclusion of the project is that chlorinated seawater is considerably more corrosive to stainless steels than chlorine-free water, whereas chlorination reduces the rate of galvanic corrosion of copper materials coupled to stainless steels. Hydrogen embrittlement of ferritic stainless steels and titanium as a consequence of cathodic protection of carbon steel or cast iron in the same structure can be avoided by strict potentiostatic control of the applied potential. (author)

  13. Corrosion resistant composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ul'yanin, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Foundations for corrosion-resistant composite materials design are considered with account of components compatibility. Fibrous and lamellar composites with metal matrix, dispersion-hardened steels and alloys, refractory metal carbides-, borides-, nitrides-, silicides-based composites are described. Cermet compositions and fields of their application, such as protective coatings for operation in agressive media at high temperatures, are presented

  14. Smart Coatings for Corrosion Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Li, Wendy; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Johnsey, Marissa N.

    2016-01-01

    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. It is essential to detect corrosion when it occurs, and preferably at its early stage, so that action can be taken to avoid structural damage or loss of function. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional, smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it.

  15. Preliminary study of corrosion mechanisms of actinides alloys: calibration of FT-IR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnien, Veronique; Cadignan, Marx; Faivret, Olivier; Rosa, Gaelle

    2008-01-01

    In situ analyzes of gaseous atmospheres could be performed by FT-IR spectroscopy in order to study the corrosion reactions of actinides. Nevertheless experimental conditions and the nature of studied species have a strong effect on IR absorption laws. Thus a prior calibration of our set-up is required to obtain an accurate estimation of gas concentration. For this purpose, the behavior of several air pure gases has been investigated according to their concentration from IR spectra. Reproducible results revealed subsequent increases of the most significant peak areas with gas pressure and small deviations from Beer Lambert's law. This preliminary work allowed to determine precise absorption laws for each studied pure gas in our in situ experimental conditions. Besides our FT-IR set-up was well suitable to quantitative analysis of gaseous atmosphere during corrosion reactions. Finally the effect of foreign gas will be investigated through more complex air mixtures to obtain a complete calibration network. (authors)

  16. Corrosion potential analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Karl F.

    1998-03-01

    Many cities in the northeastern U.S. transport electrical power from place to place via underground cables, which utilize voltages from 68 kv to 348 kv. These cables are placed in seamless steel pipe to protect the conductors. These buried pipe-type-cables (PTCs) are carefully designed and constantly pressurized with transformer oil to prevent any possible contamination. A protective coating placed on the outside diameter of the pipe during manufacture protects the steel pipe from the soil environment. Notwithstanding the protection mechanisms available, the pipes remain vulnerable to electrochemical corrosion processes. If undetected, corrosion can cause the pipes to leak transformer oil into the environment. These leaks can assume serious proportions due to the constant pressure on the inside of the pipe. A need exists for a detection system that can dynamically monitor the corrosive potential on the length of the pipe and dynamically adjust cathodic protection to counter local and global changes in the cathodic environment surrounding the pipes. The northeastern United States contains approximately 1000 miles of this pipe. This milage is critical to the transportation and distribution of power. So critical, that each of the pipe runs has a redundant double running parallel to it. Invocon, Inc. proposed and tested a technically unique and cost effective solution to detect critical corrosion potential and to communicate that information to a central data collection and analysis location. Invocon's solution utilizes the steel of the casing pipe as a communication medium. Each data gathering station on the pipe can act as a relay for information gathered elsewhere on the pipe. These stations must have 'smart' network configuration algorithms that constantly test various communication paths and determine the best and most power efficient route through which information should flow. Each network station also performs data acquisition and analysis tasks that ultimately

  17. Comparison of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization for Low and High Throughput HER2 Genetic Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tim S; Espersen, Maiken Lise Marcker; Kofoed, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    cancer patients with HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) results scored as 0/1+, 2+, and 3+. HER2 genetic status was analysed using chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Scoring results were documented through digital image analysis. The cancer region...

  18. Mobile evaporator corrosion test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozeveld, A.; Chamberlain, D.B.

    1997-05-01

    Laboratory corrosion tests were conducted on eight candidates to select a durable and cost-effective alloy for use in mobile evaporators to process radioactive waste solutions. Based on an extensive literature survey of corrosion data, three stainless steel alloys (304L, 316L, AL-6XN), four nickel-based alloys (825, 625, 690, G-30), and titanium were selected for testing. The corrosion tests included vapor phase, liquid junction (interface), liquid immersion, and crevice corrosion tests on plain and welded samples of candidate materials. Tests were conducted at 80 degrees C for 45 days in two different test solutions: a nitric acid solution. to simulate evaporator conditions during the processing of the cesium ion-exchange eluant and a highly alkaline sodium hydroxide solution to simulate the composition of Tank 241-AW-101 during evaporation. All of the alloys exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in the alkaline test solution. Corrosion rates were very low and localized corrosion was not observed. Results from the nitric acid tests showed that only 316L stainless steel did not meet our performance criteria. The 316L welded interface and crevice specimens had rates of 22.2 mpy and 21.8 mpy, respectively, which exceeds the maximum corrosion rate of 20 mpy. The other welded samples had about the same corrosion resistance as the plain samples. None of the welded samples showed preferential weld or heat-affected zone (HAZ) attack. Vapor corrosion was negligible for all alloys. All of the alloys except 316L exhibited either open-quotes satisfactoryclose quotes (2-20 mpy) or open-quotes excellentclose quotes (<2 mpy) corrosion resistance as defined by National Association of Corrosion Engineers. However, many of the alloys experienced intergranular corrosion in the nitric acid test solution, which could indicate a susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in this environment

  19. MENDING THE IN SITU MANIPULATION BARRIER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN, S.W.

    2006-02-06

    In early 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland and Fluor Hanford requested technical assistance from the DOE Headquarters EM-23 Technical Assistance Program to provide a team of technical experts to develop recommendations for mending the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) Barrier in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site in Washington State. To accommodate this request, EM-23 provided support to convene a group of technical experts from industry, a national laboratory, and a DOE site to participate in a 2 1/2-day workshop with the objective of identifying and recommending options to enhance the performance of the 100-D Area reactive barrier and of a planned extension to the northeast. This report provides written documentation of the team's findings and recommendations. In 1995, a plume of dissolved hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], which resulted from operation of the D/DR Reactors at the Hanford site, was discovered along the Columbia River shoreline and in the 100-D Area. Between 1999 and 2003, a reactive barrier using the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) technology, was installed a distance of 680 meters along the river to reduce the Cr(VI) in the groundwater. The ISRM technology creates a treatment zone within the aquifer by injection of sodium dithionite, a strong reducing agent that scavenges dissolved oxygen (DO) from the aquifer and reduces ferric iron [Fe(III)], related metals, and oxy-ions. The reduction of Fe(III) to ferrous [Fe(II)] iron provides the primary reduction capacity to reduce Cr(VI) to the +3 state, which is less mobile and less toxic. Bench-scale and field-scale treatability tests were initially conducted to demonstrate proof-of principle and to provide data for estimation of barrier longevity. These calculations estimated barrier longevity in excess of twenty years. However, several years after initial and secondary treatment, groundwater in a number of wells has been found to contain elevated chromium (Cr) concentrations

  20. Correlative change of corrosion behavior with the microstructure of AZ91 Mg alloy modified with Y additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Ruiling, E-mail: jrl014014@163.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010051 (China); Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Lina [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010051 (China); Zhang, Wei [Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 62 Wencui Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Guo, Feng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010051 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • The effect of Y addition into the AZ91 Mg alloys was investigated. • Initial stage of corrosion was studied by in-situ 3D digital microscopy observation. • The potential difference was investigated by Kelvin probe force microscopy. • The effect of Y addition on the corrosion mechanisms of AZ91 alloy was studied. - Abstract: Microstructure characterization of the AZ91 magnesium alloys with or without rare earth element yttrium (Y) has been revealed by SEM, EDS and EPMA. Some Y-rich phases can be found in the magnesium alloys with Y additions. The fraction of β-Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} phase obvious decreases and turns into granular distribution with the increase of Y addition instead of original wet distribution along grain boundaries. The results of the potentiodynamic polarization tests show that the corrosion resistance of AZ91 alloy is improved with appropriate Y additions. But an in-situ observation of 3D digital microscopy for the initial stage of corrosion of the magnesium alloy with 0.9%Y addition shows that Y-rich phases act as cathodic effect and the α phases in the vicinity of them acting as anode are corroded. So the additions of Y have a beneficial effect that can depress the overall corrosion of AZ91 alloy, whereas its harmful effect is related to Y-rich phases because they present the highest Volta potential difference from the adjacent matrix and they can drive galvanic corrosion.

  1. Correlative change of corrosion behavior with the microstructure of AZ91 Mg alloy modified with Y additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Ruiling; Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Wei; Guo, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of Y addition into the AZ91 Mg alloys was investigated. • Initial stage of corrosion was studied by in-situ 3D digital microscopy observation. • The potential difference was investigated by Kelvin probe force microscopy. • The effect of Y addition on the corrosion mechanisms of AZ91 alloy was studied. - Abstract: Microstructure characterization of the AZ91 magnesium alloys with or without rare earth element yttrium (Y) has been revealed by SEM, EDS and EPMA. Some Y-rich phases can be found in the magnesium alloys with Y additions. The fraction of β-Mg 17 Al 12 phase obvious decreases and turns into granular distribution with the increase of Y addition instead of original wet distribution along grain boundaries. The results of the potentiodynamic polarization tests show that the corrosion resistance of AZ91 alloy is improved with appropriate Y additions. But an in-situ observation of 3D digital microscopy for the initial stage of corrosion of the magnesium alloy with 0.9%Y addition shows that Y-rich phases act as cathodic effect and the α phases in the vicinity of them acting as anode are corroded. So the additions of Y have a beneficial effect that can depress the overall corrosion of AZ91 alloy, whereas its harmful effect is related to Y-rich phases because they present the highest Volta potential difference from the adjacent matrix and they can drive galvanic corrosion

  2. Aluminum surface corrosion and the mechanism of inhibitors using pH and metal ion selective imaging fiber bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szunerits, Sabine; Walt, David R

    2002-02-15

    The localized corrosion behavior of a galvanic aluminum copper couple was investigated by in situ fluorescence imaging with a fiber-optic imaging sensor. Three different, but complementary methods were used for visualizing remote corrosion sites, mapping the topography of the metal surface, and measuring local chemical concentrations of H+, OH-, and Al3+. The first method is based on a pH-sensitive imaging fiber, where the fluorescent dye SNAFL was covalently attached to the fiber's distal end. Fluorescence images were acquired as a function of time at different areas of the galvanic couple. In a second method, the fluorescent dye morin was immobilized on the fiber-optic imaging sensor, which allowed the in situ localization of corrosion processes on pure aluminum to be visualized over time by monitoring the release of Al3+. The development of fluorescence on the aluminum surface defined the areas associated with the anodic dissolution of aluminum. We also investigated the inhibition of corrosion of pure aluminum by CeCl3 and 8-hydroxyquinoline. The decrease in current, the decrease in the number of active sites on the aluminum surface, and the faster surface passivation are all consistent indications that cerium chloride and 8-hydroxyquinoline inhibit corrosion effectively. From the number and extent of corrosion sites and the release of aluminum ions monitored with the fiber, it was shown that 8-hydroxyquinoline is a more effective inhibitor than cerium chloride.

  3. Environmental monitoring with in-situ gamma spectrometer; Umweltueberwachung mit in-situ-Gamma-Spektrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, S. [ENVINET GmbH, Haar (Germany)

    2014-01-20

    The in-situ gamma spectroscopy allows large area and continuous monitoring of the radio nuclides and there composition in the environment. In comparison to the gamma dose rate measurement the additional spectral information gives the possibility for a quick and effective action in the case of a man-made radiation exposition in the environment. The knowledge respectively localization of the possible nuclides, which a responsible for the increased dose rate, supports responsible organization in the quick identification of the situation, definition of the actions and tracking of the temporal and local process of the radiation exposition. Due to dedicate actions the risk for people and environment is reduced.

  4. IN SITU MEASUREMENT OF BEDROCK EROSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Rieke-Zapp

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available While long term erosion rates of bedrock material may be estimated by dating methods, current day erosion rates are – if at all available – based on rough estimates or on point measurements. Precise quantification of short term erosion rates are required to improve our understanding of short term processes, for input in landscape evolution models, as well as for studying the mechanics and efficiency of different erosion processes in varying geomorphological settings. Typical current day erosion rates in the European Alps range from sub-millimetre to several millimetres per year depending on the dominant erosion processes. The level of surveying accuracy required for recurring sub-millimetre to millimetre measurements in the field is demanding. A novel surveying setup for in-situ measurement of bedrock erosion was tested recently in three different locations in Switzerland. Natural bedrock was investigated in the Gornera gorge close to Zermatt. Further on, bedrock samples were installed in exposed locations in the Erlenbach research watershed close to Einsiedeln, and in the Illgraben debris flow channel, located in the Canton Schwyz and Valais, respectively. A twofold measurement approach was chosen for all locations. For the first setup control points providing an absolute reference frame for recurrent measurements were embedded close to the area of interest. Close range photogrammetry was applied to measure surface changes on the bedrock samples. The precision for surface measurements in the field was 0.1 mm (1 σ and thus suitable for the application. The equipment needed for the surveys can easily be carried to the field. At one field site a structured light scanner was used along with the photogrammetric setup. Although the current generation of structured light scanners appeared less suitable for field application, data acquisition was much faster and checking the data for completeness in the field was straight forward. The latest

  5. High Fidelity In Situ Shoulder Dystocia Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Pelikan, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: Resident physicians, emergency department (ED staff Introduction: Precipitous deliveries are high acuity, low occurrence in most emergency departments. Shoulder dystocia is a rare but potentially fatal complication of labor that can be relieved by specific maneuvers that must be implemented in a timely manner. This simulation is designed to educate resident learners on the critical management steps in a shoulder dystocia presenting to the emergency department. A special aspect of this simulation is the unique utilization of the “Noelle” model with an instructing physician at bedside maneuvering the fetus through the stations of labor and providing subtle adjustments to fetal positioning not possible though a mechanized model. A literature search of “shoulder dystocia simulation” consists primarily of obstetrics and mid-wife journals, many of which utilize various mannequin models. None of the reviewed articles utilized a bedside provider maneuvering the fetus with the Noelle model, making this method unique. While the Noelle model is equipped with a remote-controlled motor that automatically rotates and delivers the baby either to the head or to the shoulders and can produce a turtle sign and which will prevent delivery of the baby until signaled to do so by the instructor, using the bedside instructor method allows this simulation to be reproduced with less mechanistically advanced and lower cost models.1-5 Objectives: At the end of this simulation, learners will: 1 Recognize impending delivery and mobilize appropriate resources (ie, both obstetrics [OB] and NICU/pediatrics; 2 Identify risk factors for shoulder dystocia based on history and physical; 3 Recognize shoulder dystocia during delivery; 4 Demonstrate maneuvers to relieve shoulder dystocia; 5 Communicate with team members and nursing staff during resuscitation of a critically ill patient. Method: High-fidelity simulation. Topics: High fidelity, in situ, Noelle model

  6. Cost performance assessment of in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Showalter, W.E.; Letellier, B.C.; Booth, S.R.; Barnes-Smith, P.

    1992-01-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a thermal treatment technology with promise for the destruction or immobilization of hazardous materials in contaminated soils. It has developed over the past decade to a level of maturity where meaningful cost effectiveness studies may be performed. The ISV process melts 4 to 25 m 2 of undisturbed soil to a maximum depth of 6 m into an obsidian-like glass waste form by applying electric current (3750 kill) between symmetrically spaced electrodes. Temperatures of approximately 2000 degree C drive off and destroy complex organics which are captured in an off-gas treatment system, while radio-nuclides are incorporated into the homogeneous glass monolith. A comparative life-cycle cost evaluation between mobile rotary kiln incineration and ISV was performed to quantitatively identify appropriate performance regimes and components of cost which are sensitive to the implementation of each technology. Predictions of melt times and power consumption were obtained from an ISV performance model over ranges of several parameters including electrode spacing, soil moisture, melt depth, electrical resistivity, and soil density. These data were coupled with manpower requirements, capitalization costs, and a melt placement optimization routine to allow interpolation over a wide variety of site characteristics. For the purpose of this study, a single site scenario representative of a mixed waste evaporation pond was constructed. Preliminary comparisons between ISV and incineration show that while operating costs are comparable, ISV avoids secondary treatment and monitored storage of radioactive waste that would be required following conventional incineration. It is the long term storage of incinerated material that is the most expensive component

  7. In-Situ Roughening of Polymeric Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadpour, Hamed; Allbritton, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    A method to perform in-situ roughening of arrays of microstructures weakly adherent to an underlying substrate was presented. SU8, 1002F, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microstructures were roughened by polishing with a particle slurry. The roughness and the percentage of dislodged or damaged microstructures was evaluated as a function of the roughening time for both SU8 and 1002F structures. A maximal RMS roughness of 7-18 nm for the surfaces was obtained within 15 to 30 s of polishing with the slurry. This represented a 4-9 fold increase in surface roughness relative to that of the native surface. Less than 0.8% of the microstructures on the array were removed or damage after 5 min of polishing. Native and roughened arrays were assessed for their ability to support fibronectin adhesion and cell attachment and growth. The quantity of adherent fibronectin was increased on roughened arrays by two-fold over that on native arrays. Cell adhesion to the roughened surfaces was also increased compared to native surfaces. Surface roughening with the particle slurry also improved the ability to stamp molecules onto the substrate during microcontact printing. Roughening both the PDMS stamp and substrate resulted in up to a 20-fold improvement in the transfer of BSA-Alexa Fluor 647 from the stamp to the substrate. Thus roughening of micron-scale surfaces with a particle slurry increased the adhesion of biomolecules as well as cells to microstructures with little to no damage to large scale arrays of the structures. PMID:20423129

  8. In Situ Measurement of Bedrock Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke-Zapp, D. H.; Beer, A.; Turowski, J. M.; Campana, L.

    2012-07-01

    While long term erosion rates of bedrock material may be estimated by dating methods, current day erosion rates are - if at all available - based on rough estimates or on point measurements. Precise quantification of short term erosion rates are required to improve our understanding of short term processes, for input in landscape evolution models, as well as for studying the mechanics and efficiency of different erosion processes in varying geomorphological settings. Typical current day erosion rates in the European Alps range from sub-millimetre to several millimetres per year depending on the dominant erosion processes. The level of surveying accuracy required for recurring sub-millimetre to millimetre measurements in the field is demanding. A novel surveying setup for in-situ measurement of bedrock erosion was tested recently in three different locations in Switzerland. Natural bedrock was investigated in the Gornera gorge close to Zermatt. Further on, bedrock samples were installed in exposed locations in the Erlenbach research watershed close to Einsiedeln, and in the Illgraben debris flow channel, located in the Canton Schwyz and Valais, respectively. A twofold measurement approach was chosen for all locations. For the first setup control points providing an absolute reference frame for recurrent measurements were embedded close to the area of interest. Close range photogrammetry was applied to measure surface changes on the bedrock samples. The precision for surface measurements in the field was 0.1 mm (1 σ) and thus suitable for the application. The equipment needed for the surveys can easily be carried to the field. At one field site a structured light scanner was used along with the photogrammetric setup. Although the current generation of structured light scanners appeared less suitable for field application, data acquisition was much faster and checking the data for completeness in the field was straight forward. The latest generation of compact

  9. Corrosion failure due to flux residues in an electronic add-on device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Minzari, Daniel; Rathinavelu, Umadevi

    2010-01-01

    of the electrochemical behavior metallic materials (alloys) used in the switch and risk of electrochemical migration (ECM) between the switch components in presence of flux residues was also carried out. Investigations included potentiodynamic polarization measurements on the switch electrodes using a micro......-electrochemical technique, in situ ECM studies, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Failure of the switches was found to be either due to the flux residue acting as an nsulating layer or as a corrosion accelerator causing ECM....

  10. An Overview of New Progresses in Understanding Pipeline Corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, M. YJ; Varela, F.; Huo, Y.; Gupta, R.; Abreu, D.; Mahdavi, F.; Hinton, B.; Forsyth, M. [Deakin University, Victoria (Australia)

    2016-12-15

    An approach to achieving the ambitious goal of cost effectively extending the safe operation life of energy pipeline to 100 years is the application of health monitoring and life prediction tools that are able to provide both long-term remnant pipeline life prediction and in-situ pipeline condition monitoring. A critical step is the enhancement of technological capabilities that are required for understanding and quantifying the effects of key factors influencing buried steel pipeline corrosion and environmentally assisted materials degradation, and the development of condition monitoring technologies that are able to provide in-situ monitoring and site-specific warning of pipeline damage. This paper provides an overview of our current research aimed at developing new sensors and electrochemical cells for monitoring, categorising and quantifying the level and nature of external pipeline and coating damages under the combined effects of various inter-related variables and processes such as localised corrosion, coating cracking and disbondment, cathodic shielding, transit loss of cathodic protection.

  11. Horonobe underground research laboratory project. The plan for the in-situ experiments in Phase 2 and Phase 3 in/around URL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Hiroya

    2005-09-01

    This report describes for preliminary research plan in Phase 2 and Phase 3 taken into consideration of expected geological environment at location of URL based on the results of the investigations until FY 2003/2004. Duration of construction phase and total cost are considered as important factors for planning as well. The below items are planned for in-situ experiments in Phase 2 and Phase 3 in/around URL are planning. Phase 2. (In-situ experiments for understanding of geological environment) Geological survey at tunnel. Inflow measurement in shafts. Water pressure monitoring and groundwater sampling around shafts during excavation of URL. Investigation for EDZ around shafts. Stress measurement on support. Detail investigations for geological environment around drifts. Excavation disturbance experiment in a drift. Investigation for desaturation zone and REDOX condition around drifts. (Engineered barrier system) In-situ experiment on low-alkali concrete. In-situ experiment for gas migration in engineering barrier system. Phase 3. (In-situ experiments for understanding of geological environment) EDZ experiment for stress interference. Investigation of long-term behavior of EDZ around drifts. Detail investigation on fault/fault zone. Monitoring for the change of geological environment at earthquake. Backfill test in boreholes. (Engineered barrier system) T-H-M-C experiment. In-situ experiment for corrosion of overpack. Investigation of the influence of a concrete to engineering barrier system and geological environment. In-situ experiment for interference between backfill material and geological environment. Backfill test in a drift. (Safety assessment) Tracer tests in engineering barrier system, natural barrier and fault/fault zone. (author)

  12. Corrosion Evaluation and Corrosion Control of Steam Generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeng, W. Y.; Kim, U. C.; Sung, K. W.; Na, J. W.; Lee, Y. H.; Lee, D. H.; Kim, K. M.

    2008-06-01

    Corrosion damage significantly influences the integrity and efficiency of steam generator. Corrosion problems of steam generator are unsolved issues until now even though much effort is made around world. Especially the stress corrosion cracking of heat exchange materials is the first issue to be solved. The corrosion protection method of steam generator is important and urgent for the guarantee of nuclear plant's integrity. The objectives of this study are 1) to evaluate the corrosion properties of steam generator materials, 2) to optimize the water chemistry of steam generator and 3) to develop the corrosion protection method of primary and secondary sides of steam generator. The results will be reflected to the water chemistry guideline for improving the integrity and efficiency of steam generator in domestic power plants

  13. Stress corrosion and corrosion fatigue crack growth monitoring in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senadheera, T.; Shipilov, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Environmentally assisted cracking (including stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue) is one of the major causes for materials failure in a wide variety of industries. It is extremely important to understand the mechanism(s) of environmentally assisted crack propagation in structural materials so as to choose correctly from among the various possibilities-alloying elements, heat treatment of steels, parameters of cathodic protection, and inhibitors-to prevent in-service failures due to stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue. An important step towards understanding the mechanism of environmentally assisted crack propagation is designing a testing machine for crack growth monitoring and that simultaneously provides measurement of electrochemical parameters. In the present paper, a direct current (DC) potential drop method for monitoring crack propagation in metals and a testing machine that uses this method and allows for measuring electrochemical parameters during stress corrosion and corrosion fatigue crack growth are described. (author)

  14. Corrosion Evaluation and Corrosion Control of Steam Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeng, W. Y.; Kim, U. C.; Sung, K. W.; Na, J. W.; Lee, Y. H.; Lee, D. H.; Kim, K. M

    2008-06-15

    Corrosion damage significantly influences the integrity and efficiency of steam generator. Corrosion problems of steam generator are unsolved issues until now even though much effort is made around world. Especially the stress corrosion cracking of heat exchange materials is the first issue to be solved. The corrosion protection method of steam generator is important and urgent for the guarantee of nuclear plant's integrity. The objectives of this study are 1) to evaluate the corrosion properties of steam generator materials, 2) to optimize the water chemistry of steam generator and 3) to develop the corrosion protection method of primary and secondary sides of steam generator. The results will be reflected to the water chemistry guideline for improving the integrity and efficiency of steam generator in domestic power plants.

  15. NOVEL IN-SITU METAL AND MINERAL EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn O' Gorman; Hans von Michaelis; Gregory J. Olson

    2004-09-22

    This white paper summarizes the state of art of in-situ leaching of metals and minerals, and describes a new technology concept employing improved fragmentation of ores underground in order to prepare the ore for more efficient in-situ leaching, combined with technology to continuously improve solution flow patterns through the ore during the leaching process. The process parameters and economic benefits of combining the new concept with chemical and biological leaching are described. A summary is provided of the next steps required to demonstrate the technology with the goal of enabling more widespread use of in-situ leaching.

  16. Scanning reference electrode techniques in localized corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, H.S.; Vyas, B.

    1979-04-01

    The principles, advantages, and implementations of scanning reference electrode techniques are reviewed. Data related to pitting, intergranular corrosion, welds and stress corrosion cracking are presented. The technique locates the position of localized corrosion and can be used to monitor the development of corrosion and changes in the corrosion rate under a wide range of conditions

  17. Corrosion control for low-cost reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This conference was held September 19-24, 1993 in Houston, Texas to provide a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on corrosion. Topics of interest focus on the following: atmospheric corrosion; chemical process industry corrosion; high temperature corrosion; and corrosion of plant materials. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  18. CHECWORKS integrated software for corrosion control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schefski, C.; Pietralik; Hazelton, T.

    1997-01-01

    CHECWORKS, a comprehensive software package for managing Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC, also called erosion-corrosion and flow-assisted corrosion) concerns, is expanding to include other systems and other aspects of corrosion control in CANDU reactors. This paper will outline CHECWORKS applications at various CANDU stations and further plans for CHECWORKS to become a code for comprehensive corrosion control management. (author)

  19. Water chemistry and corrosion control of cladding and primary circuit components. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    corrosion and water chemistry control has been carried out between PWR/BWR and WWER specialists which is beneficial to both parties. During this meeting corrosion and water chemistry specialists from countries operating BWRs, PHWRs, PWRs, RBMKs and WWERs exchanged with the recent results on optimization of water chemistry parameters and Zr-based alloys composition to reduce corrosion and dose rates. This publication addresses the engineers and scientists working in the areas of structural materials development, water side corrosion and nuclear power plants chemists. The 27 papers from 17 countries were grouped into five sessions which covered corrosion experience in nuclear power plants and test facilities, impact of irradiation, water chemistry and material composition on corrosion, crud formation and dose rates, fundamental studies of corrosion and modelling and in situ measurements

  20. Adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolland, Meike; Segal, Amanda; Allpress, Stephen; Miranda, Alina; Frost, Felicity A; Sterrett, Gregory F

    2002-12-25

    The current study examines 1) the sensitivity of detection and 2) sampling and screening/diagnostic error in the cytologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) of the cervix. The data were taken from public and private sector screening laboratories reporting 25,000 and 80,000 smears, respectively, each year. The study group was comprised of women with a biopsy diagnosis of AIS or AIS combined with a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) who were accessioned by the Western Australian Cervical Cytology Registry (WACCR) between 1993-1998. Cervical smears reported by the Western Australia Centre for Pathology and Medical Research (PathCentre) or Western Diagnostic Pathology (WDP) in the 36 months before the index biopsy was obtained were retrieved. A true measure of the sensitivity of detection could not be determined because to the authors' knowledge the exact prevalence of disease is unknown at present. For the current study, sensitivity was defined as the percentage of smears reported as demonstrating a possible or definite high-grade epithelial abnormality (HGEA), either glandular or squamous. Sampling error was defined as the percentage of smears found to have no HGEA on review. Screening/diagnostic error was defined as the percentage of smears in which HGEA was not diagnosed initially but review demonstrated possible or definite HGEA. Sensitivity also was calculated for a randomly selected control group of biopsy proven cases of Grade 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 3) accessioned at the WACCR in 1999. For biopsy findings of AIS alone, the diagnostic "sensitivity" of a single smear was 47.6% for the PathCentre and 54.3% for WDP. Nearly all the abnormalities were reported as glandular. The sampling and screening/diagnostic errors were 47.6% and 4.8%, respectively, for the PathCentre and 33.3% and 12.3%, respectively, for WDP. The results from the PathCentre were better for AIS plus HSIL than for AIS alone, but the results from WDP were

  1. satellite and in-situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Jesús Salas Pérez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La distribución espacial y temporal de la circulación superficial de la Bahía de Banderas se obtuvo con el empleo de series temporales de rapidez de viento, temperatura superficial del mar (AVHR radiómetro y un termógrafo, nivel del mar y trazas ascendentes y descendentes del radar altimétrico ERS-2. El período que abarca dichos datos es de cuatro años, ya que comenzó en el verano de 1997 y finalizó en el invierno de 2002. La marea en la Bahía es mixta (F=0.25 con predominio del armónico M2. La bahía no muestra características de resonancia con la marea del mar abierto. Amplitudes promedio de 30 cms., resultan en corrientes de marea de pocos cms./s. Las bajas frecuencias (periodos mayores a tres días parecen ser los principales generadores de la circulación marina en esta área, en la que predomina el periodo estacional sobre los otros periodos. FEOs fueron aplicadas a las componentes de velocidad, calculadas con observaciones de altimetría medidas en la boca de la Bahía, las cuales mostraron dos principales distribuciones espaciales. El primer periodo de distribución, que se extendió desde febrero hasta julio, muestra un flujo de entrada por la porción norte/sur de la bahía, con un flujo de salida por su boca (distribución anticiclónica. El segundo periodo se extiende desde agosto hasta diciembre y es opuesto al primero (distribución ciclónica. Las características de la circulación aquí presentadas son hipotéticas y observaciones de velocidad medidas in-situ deben confirmarlas

  2. Anti-Corrosion Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    SuperSpan RM 8000 is an anti-corrosion coating which effectively counteracts acid degradation, abrasive wear, and cracking in power industry facilities. It was developed by RM Industrial Products Company, Inc. with NERAC assistance. It had previously been necessary to shut down plants to repair or replace corroded duct-work in coal burning utilities. NASA-developed technology was especially useful in areas relating to thermoconductivity of carbon steel and the bonding characteristics of polymers. The product has sold well.

  3. Corrosion in power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    The proceedings contain the full texts of 25 papers of which 10 fall under the INIS Subject Scope. They concern the problems of corrosion in WWER type nuclear power plants. The topics include structural materials and equipment of the primary and the secondary circuits of nuclear power plants, components used in disposal of spent nuclear fuel, sodium valves for fast reactors and basic study of the properties of materials used in nuclear power. (Z.M.). 12 figs., 6 tabs., 46 refs

  4. Air corrosion in storing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazaudier, F.; Feron, D.; Baklouti, M.; Midoux, N.

    2001-01-01

    The air corrosiveness of a radioactive waste package has been estimated in a store inside which the environmental conditions are supposed to be rather close to the outside ones. It is expressed according to the ISO 9223 standard, from the humidification value and the amounts of sulfur dioxide and chlorine ions. A computer code has been perfected too; the thermal behaviour of the package can then been determined. (O.M.)

  5. Corrosion Protection of Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, R. S.; Nelson, W. B.

    1963-07-01

    Treatment of aluminum-base metal surfaces in an autoclave with an aqueous chromic acid solution of 0.5 to 3% by weight and of pH below 2 for 20 to 50 hrs at 160 to 180 deg C produces an extremely corrosion-resistant aluminum oxidechromium film on the surface. A chromic acid concentration of 1 to 2% and a pH of about 1 are preferred.

  6. Corrosion of beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elston, J.; Caillat, R.

    1958-01-01

    Data are reported on the volatilization rate of beryllium oxide in moist air depending on temperature and water vapour concentration. They are concerned with powder samples or sintered shapes of various densities. For sintered samples, the volatilization rate is very low under the following conditions: - temperature: 1300 deg. C, - water vapour concentration in moist air: 25 g/m 3 , - flow rate: 12 I/hour corresponding to a speed of 40 m/hour on the surface of the sample. For calcinated powders (1300 deg. C), grain growth has been observed under a stream of moist air at 1100 deg. C. For instance, grain size changes from 0,5 to at least 2 microns after 500 hours of exposure at this temperature. Furthermore, results data are reported on corrosion of sintered beryllium oxide in pressurized water. At 250 deg. C, under a pressure of 40 kg/cm 2 water is very slightly corrosive; however, internal strains are revealed. Finally, some features on the corrosion in liquid sodium are exposed. (author) [fr

  7. Zircaloy-4 corrosion in PWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyfitch, S.; Smalley, W.R.; Roberts, E.

    1985-01-01

    Zircaloy-4 waterside corrosion has been studied extensively in the nuclear industry for a number of years. Following the early crud-related corrosion failures in the Saxton test reactor, Westinghouse undertook numerous programs to minimize crud deposition on fuel rods in power reactors through primary coolant chemistry control. Modern plants today are operating with improved coolant chemistry guidelines, and crud deposition levels are very low in proportion to earlier experience. Zircaloy-4 corrosion under a variety of coolant chemistry, heat flux and exposure conditions has been studied extensively. Experience to date, even in relatively high coolant temperature plants, has indicated that -for both fuel cladding and structural components- Zircaloy-4 waterside corrosion performance has been excellent. Recognizing future industry trends, however, which will result in Zircaloy-4 being subjected to ever increasing corrosion duties, Westinghouse will continue accumulating Zircaloy-4 corrosion experience in large power plants. 13 refs.

  8. Nuclear corrosion science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Understanding corrosion mechanisms, the systems and materials they affect, and the methods necessary for accurately measuring their incidence is of critical importance to the nuclear industry for the safe, economic and competitive running of its plants. This book reviews the fundamentals of nuclear corrosion. Corrosion of nuclear materials, i.e. the interaction between these materials and their environments, is a major issue for plant safety as well as for operation and economic competitiveness. Understanding these corrosion mechanisms, the systems and materials they affect, and the methods to accurately measure their incidence is of critical importance to the nuclear industry. Combining assessment techniques and analytical models into this understanding allows operators to predict the service life of corrosion-affected nuclear plant materials, and to apply the most appropriate maintenance and mitigation options to ensure safe long term operation. This book critically reviews the fundamental corrosion mechani...

  9. Pipe Lines – External Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Babor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two areas of corrosion occur in pipe lines: corrosion from the medium carried inside the pipes; corrosion attack upon the outside of the pipes (underground corrosion. Electrolytic processes are also involved in underground corrosion. Here the moisture content of the soil acts as an electrolyte, and the ions required to conduct the current are supplied by water-soluble salts (chlorides, sulfates, etc. present in the soil. The nature and amount of these soluble materials can vary within a wide range, which is seen from the varying electrical conductivity and pH (varies between 3 and 10. Therefore the characteristics of a soil will be an important factor in under-ground corrosion.

  10. Modeling In Situ Bioremediation of Perchlorate-Contaminated Groundwater

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Secody, Roland E

    2007-01-01

    .... An innovative technology was recently developed which uses dual-screened treatment wells to mix an electron donor into perchlorate-contaminated groundwater in order to effect in situ bioremediation...

  11. In situ vitrification program treatability investigation progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrenholz, D.A.

    1991-02-01

    This document presents a summary of the efforts conducted under the in situ vitrification treatability study during the period from its initiation in FY-88 until FY-90. In situ vitrification is a thermal treatment process that uses electrical power to convert contaminated soils into a chemically inert and stable glass and crystalline product. Contaminants present in the soil are either incorporated into the product or are pyrolyzed during treatment. The treatability study being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory by EG ampersand G Idaho is directed at examining the specific applicability of the in situ vitrification process to buried wastes contaminated with transuranic radionuclides and other contaminants found at the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. This treatability study consists of a variety of tasks, including engineering tests, field tests, vitrified product evaluation, and analytical models of the in situ vitrification process. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Bulk Copper Electrodeposition on Gold Imaged by In Situ STM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Møller, Per

    1996-01-01

    Electrochemical measurements were carried out simultaneously with acquisition of in situ STM images of copper electrodeposition at low cathodic overpotentials and subsequent dissolution from the underlying polycrystalline gold surfaces. The morphologies of the copper deposits were examined...

  13. Cytogenetic, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and agronomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F3 generations of a wheat-Psathyrostachys huashanica intergeneric cross. Their agronomic traits were evaluated in the field and their meiotic behaviors and chromosome composition were analyzed by cytogenetic and GISH (genomic in situ ...

  14. In situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvent with natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabold, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    A bioremediation system for the removal of chlorinated solvents from ground water and sediments is described. The system involves the the in-situ injection of natural gas (as a microbial nutrient) through an innovative configuration of horizontal wells

  15. In situ sampling cart development engineering task plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFord, D.K.

    1995-01-01

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) supports the development for facility use of the next generation in situ sampling system for characterization of tank vapors. In situ sampling refers to placing sample collection devices (primarily sorbent tubes) directly into the tank headspace, then drawing tank gases through the collection devices to obtain samples. The current in situ sampling system is functional but was not designed to provide the accurate flow measurement required by today's data quality objectives (DQOs) for vapor characterization. The new system will incorporate modern instrumentation to achieve much tighter control. The next generation system will be referred to in this ETP as the New In Situ System (NISS) or New System. The report describes the current sampling system and the modifications that are required for more accuracy

  16. Ductal carcinoma in situ: a proposal for a new classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, R.; Peterse, J. L.; Millis, R. R.; Eusebi, V.; Faverly, D.; van de Vijver, M. J.; Zafrani, B.

    1994-01-01

    Details of a proposed new classification for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are presented. This is based, primarily, on cytonuclear differentiation and, secondarily, on architectural differentiation (cellular polarisation). Three categories are defined. First is poorly differentiated DCIS composed

  17. Comparison of GRACE with in situ hydrological measurement data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of GRACE with in situ hydrological measurement data shows storage depletion in Hai River basin, Northern China. ... of the world, their application in conjunction with hydrological models could improve hydrological studies.

  18. Anchoring Technology for In Situ Exploration of Small Bodie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steltzner, A.; Nasif, A.

    2000-01-01

    Comets, asteroids and other small bodies found in the solar system do not possess enough gravity to ensure spacecraft contact forces sufficient to allow many types of in situ science, such as core or surface sampling.

  19. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Implementing In Situ Thermal Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over recent years, the use of in situ thermal technologies such as electrical resistance heating, thermal conductive heating, and steam enhanced extraction to remediate contaminated sites has notably increased.

  20. Planetary Volatiles Extractor for In Situ Resource Utilization, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) or ?living off the land relies on exploiting local resources and in turn reducing burden of transporting supplies. NASA has...

  1. Development of an in situ polymeric hydrogel implant of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All rights reserved. ... inflammatory activity (paw edema test) and in vivo motor function activity in a rat ... Conclusions: The in situ hydrogels of methylprednisolone developed may be .... in the left hind paw in all rats. .... Continuous brain-derived.

  2. In-Situ Burning of Crude Oil on Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens

    in the small scale water basin. Boilovers were also observed during the burning of a heavy crude oil with a substantial light fraction without a water layer, however, which suggests that water is not essential for boilover occurrence. Further studies are required to determine the conditions under which......The fire dynamics and fire chemistry of in-situ burning of crude oil on water was studied in order to improve predictions on the suitability of this oil spill response method. For this purpose, several operational parameters were studied to determine the factors that control the burning efficiency...... of in-situ burning, i.e. the amount of oil (in wt%) removed from the water surface by the burning process. The burning efficiency is the main parameter for expressing the oil removal effectiveness of in-situ burning as response method and is thus relevant for suitability predictions of in-situ burning...

  3. In-situ polymerization PLOT columns I: divinylbenzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, T. C.

    1992-01-01

    A novel method for preparation of porous-layer open-tubular (PLOT) columns is described. The method involves a simple and reproducible, straight-forward in-situ polymerization of monomer directly on the metal tube.

  4. Fathead minnow whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This study demonstrates the potential of whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH), in conjunction with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR)...

  5. Advanced hydraulic fracturing methods to create in situ reactive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdoch, L.

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the use of hydraulic fracturing to increase permeability in geologic formations where in-situ remedial action of contaminant plumes will be performed. Several in-situ treatment strategies are discussed including the use of hydraulic fracturing to create in situ redox zones for treatment of organics and inorganics. Hydraulic fracturing methods offer a mechanism for the in-situ treatment of gently dipping layers of reactive compounds. Specialized methods using real-time monitoring and a high-energy jet during fracturing allow the form of the fracture to be influenced, such as creation of assymmetric fractures beneath potential sources (i.e. tanks, pits, buildings) that should not be penetrated by boring. Some examples of field applications of this technique such as creating fractures filled with zero-valent iron to reductively dechlorinate halogenated hydrocarbons, and the use of granular activated carbon to adsorb compounds are discussed

  6. OceanSITES RAMA daily in-situ data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — OceanSITES daily in-situ data. OceanSITES Global Tropical Moored Buoy Array Research Moored Array for African-Asian-Australian Monsoon Analysis and Prediction (RAMA)...

  7. In situ Transesterification of Microalgal Oil to Produce Algal Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This research was to process whole microalgae cells for biodiesel production without first extracting lipids. The ultimate : goal is develop a novel process for algal biodiesel production directly from microalgae cells in a single step, i.e., in situ...

  8. Accelerated Stress-Corrosion Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Test procedures for accelerated stress-corrosion testing of high-strength aluminum alloys faster and provide more quantitative information than traditional pass/fail tests. Method uses data from tests on specimen sets exposed to corrosive environment at several levels of applied static tensile stress for selected exposure times then subsequently tensile tested to failure. Method potentially applicable to other degrading phenomena (such as fatigue, corrosion fatigue, fretting, wear, and creep) that promote development and growth of cracklike flaws within material.

  9. Corrosion of fuel assembly materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noe, M.; Frejaville, G.; Beslu, P.

    1985-08-01

    Corrosion of zircaloy-4 is reviewed in relation with previsions of improvement in PWRs performance: higher fuel burnup; increase coolant temperature, implying nucleate boiling on the hot clad surfaces; increase duration of the cycle due to load-follow operation. Actual knowledge on corrosion rates, based partly on laboratory tests, is insufficient to insure that external clad corrosion will not constitute a limitation to these improvements. Therefore, additional testing within representative conditions is felt necessary [fr

  10. Corrosion Monitoring of Flexible Metallic Substrates for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trystan Watson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two techniques for monitoring corrosion within a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC system are presented, which enable continuous, high sensitivity, in situ measurement of electrolyte breakdown associated with DSCs fabricated on metals. The first method uses UV/Vis reflectance spectrophotometry in conjunction with encapsulation cells, which incorporate a 25 μm thick electrolyte layer, to provide highly resolved triiodide absorption data. The second method uses digital image capture to extract colour intensity data. Whilst the two methods provide very similar kinetic data on corrosion, the photographic method has the advantage that it can be used to image multiple samples in large arrays for rapid screening and is also relatively low cost. This work shows that the triiodide electrolyte attacks most metals that might be used for structural applications. Even a corrosion resistant metal, such as aluminium, can be induced to corrode through surface abrasion. This result should be set in the context with the finding reported here that certain nitrogen containing heterocyclics used in the electrolyte to enhance performance also act as corrosion inhibitors with significant stabilization for metals such as iron. These new techniques will be important tools to help develop corrosion resistant metal surfaces and corrosion inhibiting electrolytes for use in industrial scale devices.

  11. Investigation of monitoring technologies for heat transfer corrosion in reprocessing equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukatani, I.; Kiuchi, K.

    2004-01-01

    Two types of in-situ monitoring techniques using electrical resistance methods were developed for estimating the wall thinning of heat transfer tubes used in evaporators for Purex process on commercial reprocessing plants. The corrosion rate is accelerated with oxidizer ions formed by the thermal decomposition of nitric acid under heat flux. An in-situ corrosion sensor was developed for estimating the corrosion rate of heat transfer tubes using miniature heat transfer tube specimens under heat flux control. It is possible to simulate the heating condition as same as heat transfer tubes. The applicability was evaluated by setting it in gas-liquid separator in a mock-up evaporator for acid recovery. The sensitivity of electric resistance methods is increased with decreasing the residual thickness of probe tube. The other is the electrical potential drop method using direct current so-called the field signature method. It is applicable to estimate the corrosiveness of reprocessing nitric acid by setting it on the drain tube in evaporator. The sensitivity to the thinning rate of tubes wall machined artificially was obtained within ±10% to the wall thickness. It has the non-sensitive region nearly 0.1mm up to begin working. The practical applicability has been also evaluated by setting it in a mock-up evaporator. (author)

  12. Model and calculation of in situ stresses in anisotropic formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuezhi, W.; Zijun, L.; Lixin, H. [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, (China)

    1997-08-01

    In situ stresses in transversely isotropic material in relation to wellbore stability have been investigated. Equations for three horizontal in- situ stresses and a new formation fracture pressure model were described, and the methodology for determining the elastic parameters of anisotropic rocks in the laboratory was outlined. Results indicate significantly smaller differences between theoretically calculated pressures and actual formation pressures than results obtained by using the isotropic method. Implications for improvements in drilling efficiency were reviewed. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  13. A review of in situ investigations in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.

    1985-01-01

    In situ investigations for the disposal of radioactive wastes in rock salt formations have the longest history in the field. Well known names are Project Salt Vault (PSV) which was performed in the Lyons Mine, Kansas/USA, and the Asse salt mine in Germany. The overall objective for in situ investigations is twofold: 1. To produce all necessary data for the construction and operation of repositories and 2. to produce all necessary data for a performance assessment for repositories

  14. Matrix diffusion model. In situ tests using natural analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasilainen, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-11-01

    Matrix diffusion is an important retarding and dispersing mechanism for substances carried by groundwater in fractured bedrock. Natural analogues provide, unlike laboratory or field experiments, a possibility to test the model of matrix diffusion in situ over long periods of time. This thesis documents quantitative model tests against in situ observations, done to support modelling of matrix diffusion in performance assessments of nuclear waste repositories. 98 refs. The thesis includes also eight previous publications by author.

  15. Matrix diffusion model. In situ tests using natural analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasilainen, K.

    1997-11-01

    Matrix diffusion is an important retarding and dispersing mechanism for substances carried by groundwater in fractured bedrock. Natural analogues provide, unlike laboratory or field experiments, a possibility to test the model of matrix diffusion in situ over long periods of time. This thesis documents quantitative model tests against in situ observations, done to support modelling of matrix diffusion in performance assessments of nuclear waste repositories

  16. In-situ observation of structure formation in polymer processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Hiroki

    2009-01-01

    In-situ X-ray scattering in polymer processing is a crucial method to elucidate the mechanism of structure formation in the process. Fiber spinning is one such process primarily imposing extensional deformation on polymeric melt at the spin-line during rapid cooling. In-situ small-angle X-ray scattering using synchrotron radiation on the spinning process allows direct observation of the transient structure developing in the process. (author)

  17. Numerical simulation of vertical infiltration for leaching fluid in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinxuan; Shi Weijun; Zhang Weimin

    1998-01-01

    Based on the analysis of movement law of leaching fluid in breaking and leaching experiment in situ, the movement of leaching fluid can be divided into two main stages in the leaching process in situ: Vertical Infiltration in unsaturation zone and horizontal runoff in saturation zone. The corresponding mathematics models are sep up, and the process of vertical infiltration of leaching fluid is numerically simulated

  18. In-Situ Bioremediation of Perchlorate in Groundwater and Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Liyan

    2012-01-01

    Historical, uncontrolled disposal practices have made perchlorate a significant threat to drinking water supplies in the United States. In-situ bioremediation (ISB) technologies are cost effective and provide an environmental friendly solution for treating contaminated groundwater and soil. In situ bioremediation was considered as an option for treatment of perchlorate in groundwater and soil in Lockheed Martin Corporation's Beaumont Site 2 (Beaumont, CA). Based on the perchlorate distribu...

  19. Characterization of VPO ammoxidation catalysts by in situ methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.; Luecke, B.; Brueckner, A.; Steinike, U. [Institut fuer Angewandte Chemie Berlin-Adlershof e.V., Berlin (Germany); Brzezinka, K.W. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Meisel, M. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie

    1998-12-31

    In-situ methods are well known as powerful tools in studying catalyst formation processes, their solid state properties under working conditions and the interaction with the feed, intermediates and products to reveal reaction mechanisms. This paper gives a short overview on results of intense studies using in-situ techniques to reveal VPO catalyst generation processes, interaction of educts, intermediates and products with VPO catalyst surfaces and mechanistic insights. Catalytic data of the ammoxidation of toluene on different VPOs complete these findings. The precursor-catalyst transformation processes were preferently investigated by in-situ XRD, in-situ Raman and in-situ ESR spectroscopy. The interaction of aromatic molecules and intermediates, resp., and VPO solid surfaces was followed by in-situ ESR and in-situ FTIR spectroscopy. Mechanistic information was mainly obtained using in-situ FTIR spectroscopy and the temporal-analysis-of-products (TAP) technique. Catalytic studies were carried out in a fixed-bed microreactor on pure (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}(VO){sub 3}(P{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sub 2}, generated [(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}(VO{sub 3})(P{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sub 2}+V{sub x}O{sub y}] catalysts, having different V{sub x}O{sub y} proportions by use of VOHPO{sub 4} x 1/2H{sub 2}O (V/P=1) and recently studied (VO){sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} x 7 H{sub 2}O (V/P=1.5) precursors; the well-known (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} was used for comparison. (orig.)

  20. Remediation of SRS Basins by In Situ Stabilization/Solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, A.

    1999-01-01

    In the late summer of 1998, the Savannah River Site began remediation of two radiologically contaminated basins using in situ stabilization. These two high-risk, unlined basins contain radiological contaminants, which potentially pose significant risks to human health and the environment. The selected remedy involves in situ stabilization/solidification of the contaminated wastes (basin and pipeline soils, pipelines, vegetation, and other debris) followed by installation of a low permeability soil cover