WorldWideScience

Sample records for in-plane electric field

  1. In-plane electric field controlled ferromagnetism and anisotropic magnetoresistance in an LSMO/PMN-PT heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qi; Xu, Xiaoguang; Wang, Fang; Lu, Yunhao; Chen, Jikun; Wu, Yanjun; Meng, Kangkang; Wu, Yong; Miao, Jun; Jiang, Yong

    2018-06-01

    We report the in-plane electric field controlled ferromagnetism of La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO) films epitaxially deposited on [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.7-(PbTiO3)0.3 (PMN-PT) (001), (011) and (111) single crystal substrates. The in-plane coercivities (H c∥) and remanences of the LSMO films greatly depend on the in-plane electric field applied on the PMN-PT (001) and (011) substrates. The experimental change of H c∥ is consistent with the Stoner–Wohlfarth model and first principle calculation with the electric field varying from ‑10 to 10 kV cm‑1. Moreover, the Curie temperature and anisotropic magnetoresistance of the LSMO films can also be manipulated by an in-plane electric field. Finally, the LSMO/PMN-PT (001) heterostructure is designed to be a new kind of magnetic signal generator with the source of electric field.

  2. On the smoothness of electric fields near plane gratings of cylindrical conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, D.L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The electric field near an infinite plane grating of equally spaced round rods at the same potential, forming the boundary of a uniform field, is determined analytically to good accuracy by conformal transformations and evaluated numerically. This contribution, which has a frankly pedagogical flavor, to the Klaus Halbach Festschrift is offered to honor his displayed mastery of conformal techniques. Although the numerical work and the form of its presentation are new, the transformation used is not original. However, to locate its antecedents in an archival journal it was necessary to seek out a paper published in 1923 (close to the year of his birth, and of mine), in a place obscure to modern physicists, so the authors efforts cannot be said to replicate recent published work. A new insight is obtained in the form of a simple estimate of departures from field uniformity at all distances from rods of any size.

  3. Electric field measurements in a nanosecond pulse discharge in atmospheric air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simeni Simeni, Marien; Frederickson, Kraig; Lempert, Walter R; Adamovich, Igor V; Goldberg, Benjamin M; Zhang, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the results of temporally and spatially resolved electric field measurements in a nanosecond pulse discharge in atmospheric air, sustained between a razor edge high-voltage electrode and a plane grounded electrode covered by a thin dielectric plate. The electric field is measured by picosecond four-wave mixing in a collinear phase-matching geometry, with time resolution of approximately 2 ns, using an absolute calibration provided by measurements of a known electrostatic electric field. The results demonstrate electric field offset on the discharge center plane before the discharge pulse due to surface charge accumulation on the dielectric from the weaker, opposite polarity pre-pulse. During the discharge pulse, the electric field follows the applied voltage until ‘forward’ breakdown occurs, after which the field in the plasma is significantly reduced due to charge separation. When the applied voltage is reduced, the field in the plasma reverses direction and increases again, until the weak ‘reverse’ breakdown occurs, producing a secondary transient reduction in the electric field. After the pulse, the field is gradually reduced on a microsecond time scale, likely due to residual surface charge neutralization by transport of opposite polarity charges from the plasma. Spatially resolved electric field measurements show that the discharge develops as a surface ionization wave. Significant surface charge accumulation on the dielectric surface is detected near the end of the discharge pulse. Spatially resolved measurements of electric field vector components demonstrate that the vertical electric field in the surface ionization wave peaks ahead of the horizontal electric field. Behind the wave, the vertical field remains low, near the detection limit, while the horizontal field is gradually reduced to near the detection limit at the discharge center plane. These results are consistent with time-resolved measurements of electric field

  4. A Line Integral Representation of the Physical Optics Far Field from Plane PEC Scatterers Illuminated by Electric or Magnetic Hertzian Dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, S.; Meincke, Peter; Jørgensen, E.

    2002-01-01

    We derive a line integral representation of the physical optics (PO) scattered far field that yields the exact same result as the conventional surface radiation integral. This representation applies to a perfectly electrically conducting plane scatterer illuminated by electric or magnetic Hertzian...... dipoles....

  5. Optimal distance of multi-plane sensor in three-dimensional electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhenhua; Yue, Shihong; Sun, Benyuan; Wang, Huaxiang

    2017-12-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a visual imaging technique for obtaining the conductivity and permittivity distributions in the domain of interest. As an advanced technique, EIT has the potential to be a valuable tool for continuously bedside monitoring of pulmonary function. The EIT applications in any three-dimensional (3 D) field are very limited to the 3 D effects, i.e. the distribution of electric field spreads far beyond the electrode plane. The 3 D effects can result in measurement errors and image distortion. An important way to overcome the 3 D effect is to use the multiple groups of sensors. The aim of this paper is to find the best space resolution of EIT image over various electrode planes and select an optimal plane spacing in a 3 D EIT sensor, and provide guidance for 3 D EIT electrodes placement in monitoring lung function. In simulation and experiment, several typical conductivity distribution models, such as one rod (central, midway and edge), two rods and three rods, are set at different plane spacings between the two electrode planes. A Tikhonov regularization algorithm is utilized for reconstructing the images; the relative error and the correlation coefficient are utilized for evaluating the image quality. Based on numerical simulation and experimental results, the image performance at different spacing conditions is evaluated. The results demonstrate that there exists an optimal plane spacing between the two electrode planes for 3 D EIT sensor. And then the selection of the optimal plane spacing between the electrode planes is suggested for the electrodes placement of multi-plane EIT sensor.

  6. Three-Dimensional Interaction of a Large Number of Dense DEP Particles on a Plane Perpendicular to an AC Electrical Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanchuan Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of dielectrophoresis (DEP particles in an electric field has been observed in many experiments, known as the “particle chains phenomenon”. However, the study in 3D models (spherical particles is rarely reported due to its complexity and significant computational cost. In this paper, we employed the iterative dipole moment (IDM method to study the 3D interaction of a large number of dense DEP particles randomly distributed on a plane perpendicular to a uniform alternating current (AC electric field in a bounded or unbounded space. The numerical results indicated that the particles cannot move out of the initial plane. The similar particles (either all positive or all negative DEP particles always repelled each other, and did not form a chain. The dissimilar particles (a mixture of positive and negative DEP particles always attracted each other, and formed particle chains consisting of alternately arranged positive and negative DEP particles. The particle chain patterns can be randomly multitudinous depending on the initial particle distribution, the electric properties of particles/fluid, the particle sizes and the number of particles. It is also found that the particle chain patterns can be effectively manipulated via tuning the frequency of the AC field and an almost uniform distribution of particles in a bounded plane chip can be achieved when all of the particles are similar, which may have potential applications in the particle manipulation of microfluidics.

  7. Electric field controlled reversible magnetic anisotropy switching studied by spin rectification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hengan; Fan, Xiaolong; Wang, Fenglong; Jiang, Changjun; Rao, Jinwei; Zhao, Xiaobing; Xue, Desheng; Gui, Y. S.; Hu, C.-M.

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, spin rectification was used to study the electric field controlled dynamic magnetic properties of the multiferroic composite which is a Co stripe with induced in-plane anisotropy deposited onto a Pb(Mg 1∕3 Nb 2∕3 )O 3 -PbTiO 3 substrate. Due to the coupling between piezoelectric and magnetoelastic effects, a reversible in-plane anisotropy switching has been realized by varying the history of the applied electric field. This merit results from the electric hysteresis of the polarization in the nonlinear piezoelectric regime, which has been proved by a butterfly type electric field dependence of the in-plane anisotropy field. Moreover, the electric field dependent effective demagnetization field and linewidth have been observed at the same time

  8. Effects of the reconnection electric field on crescent electron distribution functions in asymmetric guide field reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessho, N.; Chen, L. J.; Hesse, M.; Wang, S.

    2017-12-01

    In asymmetric reconnection with a guide field in the Earth's magnetopause, electron motion in the electron diffusion region (EDR) is largely affected by the guide field, the Hall electric field, and the reconnection electric field. The electron motion in the EDR is neither simple gyration around the guide field nor simple meandering motion across the current sheet. The combined meandering motion and gyration has essential effects on particle acceleration by the in-plane Hall electric field (existing only in the magnetospheric side) and the out-of-plane reconnection electric field. We analyze electron motion and crescent-shaped electron distribution functions in the EDR in asymmetric guide field reconnection, and perform 2-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations to elucidate the effect of reconnection electric field on electron distribution functions. Recently, we have analytically expressed the acceleration effect due to the reconnection electric field on electron crescent distribution functions in asymmetric reconnection without a guide field (Bessho et al., Phys. Plasmas, 24, 072903, 2017). We extend the theory to asymmetric guide field reconnection, and predict the crescent bulge in distribution functions. Assuming 1D approximation of field variations in the EDR, we derive the time period of oscillatory electron motion (meandering + gyration) in the EDR. The time period is expressed as a hybrid of the meandering period and the gyro period. Due to the guide field, electrons not only oscillate along crescent-shaped trajectories in the velocity plane perpendicular to the antiparallel magnetic fields, but also move along parabolic trajectories in the velocity plane coplanar with magnetic field. The trajectory in the velocity space gradually shifts to the acceleration direction by the reconnection electric field as multiple bounces continue. Due to the guide field, electron distributions for meandering particles are bounded by two paraboloids (or hyperboloids) in the

  9. Wireless Open-Circuit In-Plane Strain and Displacement Sensor Requiring No Electrical Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A wireless in-plane strain and displacement sensor includes an electrical conductor fixedly coupled to a substrate subject to strain conditions. The electrical conductor is shaped between its ends for storage of an electric field and a magnetic field, and remains electrically unconnected to define an unconnected open-circuit having inductance and capacitance. In the presence of a time-varying magnetic field, the electrical conductor so-shaped resonates to generate harmonic electric and magnetic field responses. The sensor also includes at least one electrically unconnected electrode having an end and a free portion extending from the end thereof. The end of each electrode is fixedly coupled to the substrate and the free portion thereof remains unencumbered and spaced apart from a portion of the electrical conductor so-shaped. More specifically, at least some of the free portion is disposed at a location lying within the magnetic field response generated by the electrical conductor. A motion guidance structure is slidingly engaged with each electrode's free portion in order to maintain each free portion parallel to the electrical conductor so-shaped.

  10. Photoionization microscopy of Rydberg hydrogen atom in a non-uniform electrical field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Shao-Hao; Wang De-Hua; Chen Zhao-Hang; Chen Qiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the photoionization microscopy of the Rydberg hydrogen atom in a gradient electric field for the first time. The observed oscillatory patterns in the photoionization microscopy are explained within the framework of the semiclassical theory, which can be considered as a manifestation of interference between various electron trajectories arriving at a given point on the detector plane. In contrast with the photoionization microscopy in the uniform electric field, the trajectories of the ionized electron in the gradient electric field will become chaotic. An infinite set of different electron trajectories can arrive at a given point on the detector plane, which makes the interference pattern of the electron probability density distribution extremely complicated. Our calculation results suggest that the oscillatory pattern in the electron probability density distribution depends sensitively on the electric field gradient, the scaled energy and the position of the detector plane. Through our research, we predict that the interference pattern in the electron probability density distribution can be observed in an actual photoionization microscopy experiment once the external electric field strength and the position of the electron detector plane are reasonable. This study provides some references for the future experimental research on the photoionization microscopy of the Rydberg atom in the non-uniform external fields. (paper)

  11. Electric field controlled reversible magnetic anisotropy switching studied by spin rectification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hengan; Fan, Xiaolong, E-mail: fanxiaolong@lzu.edu.cn; Wang, Fenglong; Jiang, Changjun; Rao, Jinwei; Zhao, Xiaobing; Xue, Desheng [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gui, Y. S.; Hu, C.-M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2014-03-10

    In this letter, spin rectification was used to study the electric field controlled dynamic magnetic properties of the multiferroic composite which is a Co stripe with induced in-plane anisotropy deposited onto a Pb(Mg{sub 1∕3}Nb{sub 2∕3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} substrate. Due to the coupling between piezoelectric and magnetoelastic effects, a reversible in-plane anisotropy switching has been realized by varying the history of the applied electric field. This merit results from the electric hysteresis of the polarization in the nonlinear piezoelectric regime, which has been proved by a butterfly type electric field dependence of the in-plane anisotropy field. Moreover, the electric field dependent effective demagnetization field and linewidth have been observed at the same time.

  12. effect of earth discontinued to the electrical field distribution in rod

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Khechekhouche and D. Ben Attous

    2016-09-01

    Sep 1, 2016 ... Department of Electrical Engineering Biskr. Received: ... ntinuous plane; the electric field; homogeneous plane; the finite dence ..... [02] I. Fofana, A. Beroul and A. Boubakeur, “Influence of Insulating Barriers on Positive Long.

  13. Electric Chern-Simons term, enlarged exotic Galilei symmetry and noncommutative plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmo, Mariano A. del; Plyushchay, Mikhail S.

    2006-01-01

    The extended exotic planar model for a charged particle is constructed. It includes a Chern-Simons-like term for a dynamical electric field, but produces usual equations of motion for the particle in background constant uniform electric and magnetic fields. The electric Chern-Simons term is responsible for the noncommutativity of the boost generators in the 10-dimensional enlarged exotic Galilei symmetry algebra of the extended system. The model admits two reduction schemes by the integrals of motion, one of which reproduces the usual formulation for the charged particle in external constant electric and magnetic fields with associated field-deformed Galilei symmetry, whose commuting boost generators are identified with the nonlocal in time Noether charges reduced on-shell. Another reduction scheme, in which electric field transmutes into the commuting space translation generators, extracts from the model a free particle on the noncommutative plane described by the twofold centrally extended Galilei group of the nonrelativistic anyons

  14. Electric-field-induced flow-aligning state in a nematic liquid crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatriansyah, Jaka Fajar; Orihara, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    The response of shear stress to a weak ac electric field as a probe is measured in a nematic liquid crystal under shear flow and dc electric fields. Two states with different responses are clearly observed when the dc electric field is changed at a constant shear rate: the flow aligning and non-flow aligning states. The director lies in the shear plane in the flow aligning state and out of the plane in the non-flow aligning state. Through application of dc electric field, the non-flow aligning state can be changed to the flow aligning state. In the transition from the flow aligning state to the non-flow aligning state, it is found that the response increases and the relaxation time becomes longer. Here, the experimental results in the flow aligning state are discussed on the basis of the Ericksen-Leslie theory.

  15. Relativistic Bosons in Time-Harmonic Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhucianu, Ovidiu; Dariescu, Marina-Aura; Dariescu, Ciprian

    2012-02-01

    In the present paper, we consider a bi-dimensional thin sample, placed in a strong harmonically oscillating electric field and a static magnetic induction, both directed along the normal to the sample's plane. The Klein-Gordon equation describing the relativistic bosons leads to a Mathieu's type equation for the temporal part of the wave functions. It follows that, for the electric field pulsation inside a computable range, depending on the external fields intensities, the amplitude functions are turning from oscillatory to exponentially growing modes. For ultra-relativistic particles, one can recover the periodic stationary amplitude behavior.

  16. Electric field induced instabilities in free emulsion films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchoukov, P.; Dabros, T. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada); Mostowfi, F. [Schlumberger DBR Technology Center, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Panchev, N. [Champion Technologies Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Czarnecki, J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reported on a study that investigated the mechanism of electric field-induced breakdown of free emulsion films. Instability patterns were observed on the plane of a water-oil-water film following electric polarization. The length-scales of the instabilities were measured by analyzing images immediately after applying the electric field. Linear stability analysis was used to calculate the theoretical dominant wavelengths. The calculated values were found to be in good agreement with measured values. The films were formed in a thin film apparatus modified so that the oil film separated 2 aqueous phase compartments, each in contact with a platinum electrode. This enabled the measurement of disjoining pressure while applying the electric field to the film. It was concluded that breakdown of thin films induced by electric field has many applications, including electrostatic de-emulsification/desalination of crude oil and emulsion stability measurements. It was concluded that electroporation and dielectric breakdown may be responsible for electric field-induced breakdown. This study also presented evidence of an increase in electric field-induced instabilities in emulsion films resulting in rupture. tabs., figs.

  17. Out-of-plane strain and electric field tunable electronic properties and Schottky contact of graphene/antimonene heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuc, Huynh V.; Hieu, Nguyen N.; Hoi, Bui D.; Phuong, Le T. T.; Hieu, Nguyen V.; Nguyen, Chuong V.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the electronic properties of graphene/monolayer antimonene (G/m-Sb) heterostructure have been studied using the density functional theory (DFT). The effects of out-of-plane strain (interlayer coupling) and electric field on the electronic properties and Schottky contact of the G/m-Sb heterostructure are also investigated. The results show that graphene is bound to m-Sb layer by a weak van-der-Waals interaction with the interlayer distance of 3.50 Å and the binding energy per carbon atom of -39.62 meV. We find that the n-type Schottky contact is formed at the G/m-Sb heterostructure with the Schottky barrier height (SBH) of 0.60 eV. By varying the interlayer distance between graphene and the m-Sb layer we can change the n-type and p-type SBH at the G/m-Sb heterostructure. Especially, we find the transformation from n-type to p-type Schottky contact with decreasing the interlayer distance. Furthermore, the SBH and the Schottky contact could be controlled by applying the perpendicular electric field. With the positive electric field, electrons can easily transfer from m-Sb to graphene layer, leading to the transition from n-type to p-type Schottky contact.

  18. Reduction of the internal electric field in GaN/AlN quantum dots grown on the a-plane of SiC substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garro, N.; Cros, A.; Budagosky, J.A.; Cantarero, A. [Institut de Ciencia dels Materials, Universitat de Valencia, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Vinattieri, A.; Gurioli, M. [INFM, Dept. of Physics and LENS, Universita di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Founta, S.; Mariette, H.; Daudin, B. [CEA-CNRS Group ' ' Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs' ' , Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, CEA Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2005-11-01

    We present a study of the emission of a multi-layer stack of self-assembled GaN/AlN quantum dots grown on the a-plane of 6H-SiC. We look for signatures of the internal electric field in the power dependence of the time-integrated and time-resolved photoluminescence spectra. The lack of a dynamical red-shift reveals that internal electric fields are significantly reduced in these dots. A band on the low energy side of the emission is observed whose intensity quenches fast when increasing the temperature. The polarization selection rules of the emission are examined in order to determine the physical nature of this band. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. A new loss mechanism in graphene nanoresonators due to the synthetic electric fields caused by inherent out-of-plane membrane corrugations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firsova, N E; Firsov, Yu A

    2012-01-01

    For the first time the influence of out-of-plane deformations, which always exist in graphene, on the non-stationary processes is considered for the case of a monolayer graphene nanoresonator. A new loss mechanism for this device caused by dissipative intra-valley currents stipulated by synthetic electric fields is studied. These fields are generated by time-dependent gauge fields arising in a graphene membrane due to its intrinsic out-of-plane distortions and the influence of the external periodic electromotive force. The corresponding formula for the quality factor has a quantum mechanical origin and includes quantum mechanical parameters. This loss mechanism accounts for an essential part (about 40%) of losses in a graphene nanoresonator and it is specific just for graphene. The ways of minimization of this kind of dissipation (an increase in the quality factor of the electromechanical system) are discussed. It is explained why one can enhance the quality factor by correctly choosing a combination of strains (by strain engineering). In addition, it is shown that the quality factor can be increased by switching on a magnetic field perpendicular to the graphene membrane.

  20. Heat transfer enhancement induced by electrically generated convection in a plane layer of dielectric liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traoré, P; Wu, J; Romat, H; Louste, C; Perez, A; Koulova, D

    2012-01-01

    The electro-thermo-convective motion in a plane horizontal dielectric liquid layer subjected to simultaneous action of electric field and thermal gradient is numerically investigated. We consider the case of a strong unipolar charge injection C = 10 from above or below. Therefore in this context, we only take into account the Coulomb force, disregarding the dielectric one. The effect of the electric field on the heat transfer is analyzed through the characterization of the time history of the Nusselt number as well as its evolution according to the characteristic dimensionless electric parameter T. It is demonstrated that the electric effects dominate the buoyancy ones resulting in an electrically induced convection which significantly enhance the heat transfer.

  1. Dual-layer electrode-driven liquid crystal lens with electrically tunable focal length and focal plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. A.; Lin, C. F.; Lin, J. P.; Zeng, X. Y.; Yan, Q.; Zhou, X. T.; Guo, T. L.

    2018-04-01

    Electric-field-driven liquid crystal (ELC) lens with tunable focal length and their depth of field has been extensively applied in 3D display and imaging systems. In this work, a dual-layer electrode-driven liquid crystal (DELC) lens with electrically tunable focal length and controllable focal plane is demonstrated. ITO-SiO2-AZO electrodes with the dual-layer staggered structure on the top substrate are used as driven electrodes within a LC cell, which permits the establishment of an alternative controllability. The focal length of the DELC lens can be adjusted from 1.41 cm to 0.29 cm when the operating voltage changes from 15 V to 40 V. Furthermore, the focal plane of the DELC lens can selectively move by changing the driving method of the applied voltage to the next driven electrodes. This work demonstrates that the DELC lens has potential applications in imaging systems because of electrically tunable focal length and controllable focal plane.

  2. Electric-field induced spin accumulation in the Landau level states of topological insulator thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Zhuo Bin; Chowdhury, Debashree; Basu, Banasri; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.

    2017-08-01

    A topological insulator (TI) thin film differs from the more typically studied thick TI system in that the former has both a top and a bottom surface where the states localized at both surfaces can couple to one other across the finite thickness. An out-of-plane magnetic field leads to the formation of discrete Landau level states in the system, whereas an in-plane magnetization breaks the angular momentum symmetry of the system. In this work, we study the spin accumulation induced by the application of an in-plane electric field to the TI thin film system where the Landau level states and inter-surface coupling are simultaneously present. We show, via Kubo formula calculations, that the in-plane spin accumulation perpendicular to the magnetization due to the electric field vanishes for a TI thin film with symmetric top and bottom surfaces. A finite in-plane spin accumulation perpendicular to both the electric field and magnetization emerges upon applying either a differential magnetization coupling or a potential difference between the two film surfaces. This spin accumulation results from the breaking of the antisymmetry of the spin accumulation around the k-space equal-energy contours.

  3. High electrical conductivity in out of plane direction of electrodeposited Bi2Te3 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Muñoz Rojo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The out of plane electrical conductivity of highly anisotropic Bi2Te3 films grown via electro-deposition process was determined using four probe current-voltage measurements performed on 4.6 - 7.2 μm thickness Bi2Te3 mesa structures with 80 - 120 μm diameters sandwiched between metallic film electrodes. A three-dimensional finite element model was used to predict the electric field distribution in the measured structures and take into account the non-uniform distribution of the current in the electrodes in the vicinity of the probes. The finite-element modeling shows that significant errors could arise in the measured film electrical conductivity if simpler one-dimensional models are employed. A high electrical conductivity of (3.2 ± 0.4 ⋅ 105 S/m is reported along the out of plane direction for Bi2Te3 films highly oriented in the [1 1 0] direction.

  4. Study of electric field distorted by space charges under positive lightning impulse voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zezhong; Geng, Yinan

    2018-03-01

    Actually, many insulation problems are related to electric fields. And measuring electric fields is an important research topic of high-voltage engineering. In particular, the electric field distortion caused by space charge is the basis of streamer theory, and thus quantitatively measuring the Poisson electric field caused by space charge is significant to researching the mechanism of air gap discharge. In this paper, we used our photoelectric integrated sensor to measure the electric field distribution in a 1-m rod-plane gap under positive lightning impulse voltage. To verify the reliability of this quantitative measurement, we compared the measured results with calculated results from a numerical simulation. The electric-field time domain waveforms on the axis of the 1-m rod-plane out of the space charge zone were measured with various electrodes. The Poisson electric fields generated by space charge were separated from the Laplace electric field generated by applied voltages, and the amplitudes and variations were measured for various applied voltages and at various locations. This work also supplies the feasible basis for directly measuring strong electric field under high voltage.

  5. Electric fields and field-aligned current generation in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeev, I.I.; Belenkaya, E.S.; Kalegaev, V.V.; Lyutov, Yu.G.

    1993-01-01

    The authors present a calculation of the electric potential, field-aligned currents, and plasma convection caused by the penetration of the solar wind electric field into the magnetosphere. Ohm's law and the continuity equation of ionospheric currents are used. It is shown that the large-scale convection system is reversed in the plasma sheet flanks. In this region the plasma flow is antisunward earthward of the neutral line and sunward tailward of it. The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) B z dependences on the dimension of the magnetopause open-quotes windowsclose quotes which are intersected by open field lines, on the potential drop across the polar cap, and on the distance to the neutral line are determined. Because of the IMF effect and the effect of seasonal or daily variations of the geomagnetic field which violate its symmetry relative to the equatorial plane, there may arise a potential drop along field lines which causes field-aligned currents. The values and directions of these currents, the field-aligned potential drop, and a self-consistent solution for the potential at the ionosphere level for high field-aligned conductivity have been determined. 41 refs., 7 figs

  6. Modelling of radial electric field profile for different divertor configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhansky, V; Kaveeva, E; Voskoboynikov, S; Counsell, G; Kirk, A; Meyer, H; Coster, D; Conway, G; Schirmer, J; Schneider, R

    2006-01-01

    The impact of divertor configuration on the structure of the radial electric field has been simulated by the B2SOLPS5.0 transport fluid code. It is shown that the change in the parallel flows in the scrape-off layer, which are transported through the separatrix due to turbulent viscosity and diffusivity, should result in variation of the radial electric field and toroidal rotation in the separatrix vicinity. The modelling predictions are compared with the measurements of the radial electric field for the low field side equatorial mid-plane of ASDEX Upgrade in lower, upper and double-null (DN) divertor configurations. The parallel (toroidal) flows in the scrape-off layer and mechanisms for their formation are analysed for different geometries. It is demonstrated that a spike in the electric field exists at the high field side equatorial mid-plane in the connected DN divertor configuration. Its origin is connected with different potential drops between the separatrix vicinity and divertor plates in the two disconnected scrape-off layers, while the separatrix should be at almost the same potential. The spike might be important for additional turbulent suppression

  7. Effect of earth discontinued to the electrical field distribution in rod ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper, will present some results of investigations carried out on electric field distribution on the surface of a discontinuous plane of short rod-plane air gap arrangement. For this purpose, we have used different results obtained by an experimental model and a numerical method for computation used the finite elements ...

  8. Intercorrelated in-plane and out-of-plane ferroelectricity in ultrathin two-dimensional layered semiconductor In2Se3

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Chaojie; Hu, Weijin; Yan, Xingxu; Addiego, Christopher; Gao, Wenpei; Wang, Yao; Wang, Zhe; Li, Linze; Cheng, Yingchun; Li, Peng; Zhang, Xixiang; Alshareef, Husam N.; Wu, Tao; Zhu, Wenguang; Pan, Xiaoqing; Li, Lain-Jong

    2018-01-01

    Enriching the functionality of ferroelectric materials with visible-light sensitivity and multiaxial switching capability would open up new opportunities for their applications in advanced information storage with diverse signal manipulation functions. We report experimental observations of robust intra-layer ferroelectricity in two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals layered -In2Se3 ultrathin flakes at room temperature. Distinct from other 2D and conventional ferroelectrics, In2Se3 exhibits intrinsically intercorrelated out-of-plane and in-plane polarization, where the reversal of the out-of-plane polarization by a vertical electric field also induces the rotation of the in-plane polarization. Based on the in-plane switchable diode effect and the narrow bandgap (~1.3 eV) of ferroelectric In2Se3, a prototypical non-volatile memory device, which can be manipulated both by electric field and visible light illumination, is demonstrated for advancing data storage technologies.

  9. Intercorrelated in-plane and out-of-plane ferroelectricity in ultrathin two-dimensional layered semiconductor In2Se3

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Chaojie

    2018-01-30

    Enriching the functionality of ferroelectric materials with visible-light sensitivity and multiaxial switching capability would open up new opportunities for their applications in advanced information storage with diverse signal manipulation functions. We report experimental observations of robust intra-layer ferroelectricity in two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals layered -In2Se3 ultrathin flakes at room temperature. Distinct from other 2D and conventional ferroelectrics, In2Se3 exhibits intrinsically intercorrelated out-of-plane and in-plane polarization, where the reversal of the out-of-plane polarization by a vertical electric field also induces the rotation of the in-plane polarization. Based on the in-plane switchable diode effect and the narrow bandgap (~1.3 eV) of ferroelectric In2Se3, a prototypical non-volatile memory device, which can be manipulated both by electric field and visible light illumination, is demonstrated for advancing data storage technologies.

  10. Effect of electric field configuration on streamer and partial discharge phenomena in a hydrocarbon insulating liquid under AC stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z; Liu, Q; Wang, Z D

    2016-01-01

    This paper concerns pre-breakdown phenomena, including streamer characteristics from a fundamental perspective and partial discharge (PD) measurements from an industrial perspective, in a hydrocarbon insulating liquid. The aim was to investigate the possible changes of the liquid’s streamer and PD characteristics and their correlations when the uniformity of the AC electric field varies. In the experiments, a plane-to-plane electrode system incorporating a needle protrusion was used in addition to a needle-to-plane electrode system. When the applied electric field became more uniform, fewer radial branches occurred and streamer propagation towards the ground electrode was enhanced. The transition from streamer propagation dominated breakdown in divergent fields to streamer initiation dominated breakdown in uniform fields was evidenced. Relationships between streamer and PD characteristics were established, which were found to be electric field dependent. PD of the same apparent charge would indicate longer streamers if the electric field is more uniform. (paper)

  11. Dose distributions of pendulum fields in the field border plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrader, R.

    1986-01-01

    Calculations (program SIDOS-U2) and LiF measurements taken in a cylindric water phantom are used to investigate the isodose distributions of different pendulum irradiation methods (Co-60) in a plane which is parallel to the central ray plane and crosses the field borders at the depth of the axis. The dose values compared to the maximum values of the central ray plane are completely different for each pendulum method. In case of monoaxial pendulum methods around small angles, the maximum dose value found in the border plane is less than 50% of the dose in the central ray plane. The relative maximum of the border plane moves to tissues laying in a greater depth. In case of bi-axial methods, the maximum value of the border plane can be much more than 50% of the maximum dose measured in the central ray plane. (orig.) [de

  12. Electric-field modulation of ferromagnetism in hexagonal chromium telluride thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Ryota; Oikawa, Haruyoshi; Yamawaki, Kazuma; Kuroda, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    We report the electric-field modulation of magnetism of a hexagonal Cr 1-δ Te thin film. A gate voltage V G is ap-plied in the field effect capacitor (FEC) structure consisting of electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) of an ion liquid and a 2nm-thick Cr 1-δ Te layer grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and the magnetization of the layer is directly measured using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer in the both configurations with magnetic fields perpendicular or parallel to the film plane. As a result, we observe a clear change in the magnetization vs. magnetic field (M-H) curves by applying VG at a low temperature of 15 K in the perpendicular field configuration; the magnetization increases and the coercivity decreases by applying either positive or negative gate voltage. When the temperature is increased up to 160K, slightly lower than the Curie temperature, or the magnetization was measured in the in-plane field configuration, the magnetization increases similarly by applying either positive or negative gate voltage, but the amount of the increase becomes much smaller. A possible mechanism of the electric-field modulation is discussed in relation to the Cr vacancies in the Cr 1-δ Te layer. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Electric-field modulation of ferromagnetism in hexagonal chromium telluride thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Ryota; Oikawa, Haruyoshi; Yamawaki, Kazuma; Kuroda, Shinji [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    We report the electric-field modulation of magnetism of a hexagonal Cr{sub 1-δ}Te thin film. A gate voltage V{sub G} is ap-plied in the field effect capacitor (FEC) structure consisting of electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) of an ion liquid and a 2nm-thick Cr{sub 1-δ}Te layer grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and the magnetization of the layer is directly measured using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer in the both configurations with magnetic fields perpendicular or parallel to the film plane. As a result, we observe a clear change in the magnetization vs. magnetic field (M-H) curves by applying VG at a low temperature of 15 K in the perpendicular field configuration; the magnetization increases and the coercivity decreases by applying either positive or negative gate voltage. When the temperature is increased up to 160K, slightly lower than the Curie temperature, or the magnetization was measured in the in-plane field configuration, the magnetization increases similarly by applying either positive or negative gate voltage, but the amount of the increase becomes much smaller. A possible mechanism of the electric-field modulation is discussed in relation to the Cr vacancies in the Cr{sub 1-δ}Te layer. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Electric field mapping and auroral Birkeland currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, R.L.; Larson, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic field lines, electric fields and equipotentials have been mapped throughout the magnetosphere in the vicinity of strong Birkeland currents. It was found that a uniform electric field at either the ionospheric or the equatorial end of a field line can map to a highly structured field at the other end if strong Birkeland currents are located nearby. The initiation of sheet currents of the region 1 - region 2 scale size and intensity resulted in magnetic field line displacements of about 1/2 hour in local time between equatorial and ionospheric end points. As a result, a uniform dawn to dusk electric field at the equator mapped to an ionospheric electric field with strong inward pointing components in the dusk hemisphere. Similar distortions were produced by Birkeland currents associated with narrow east-west-aligned auroral arcs. A specific model for the auroral current system, based on ionospheric measurements during a large substorm, was used to study effects seen during disturbed periods. An iterative procedure was developed to generate a self-consistent current system even in the presence of highly twisted field lines. The measured ionospheric electric field was projected tot he equatorial plane in the presence of the model Birkeland current system. Several physical processes were seen to influence ionospheric and equatorial electric fields, and the associated plasma convection, during a substorm

  15. Intercorrelated In-Plane and Out-of-Plane Ferroelectricity in Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Layered Semiconductor In2Se3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chaojie; Hu, Wei-Jin; Yan, Xingxu; Addiego, Christopher; Gao, Wenpei; Wang, Yao; Wang, Zhe; Li, Linze; Cheng, Yingchun; Li, Peng; Zhang, Xixiang; Alshareef, Husam N; Wu, Tom; Zhu, Wenguang; Pan, Xiaoqing; Li, Lain-Jong

    2018-02-14

    Enriching the functionality of ferroelectric materials with visible-light sensitivity and multiaxial switching capability would open up new opportunities for their applications in advanced information storage with diverse signal manipulation functions. We report experimental observations of robust intralayer ferroelectricity in two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals layered α-In 2 Se 3 ultrathin flakes at room temperature. Distinct from other 2D and conventional ferroelectrics, In 2 Se 3 exhibits intrinsically intercorrelated out-of-plane and in-plane polarization, where the reversal of the out-of-plane polarization by a vertical electric field also induces the rotation of the in-plane polarization. On the basis of the in-plane switchable diode effect and the narrow bandgap (∼1.3 eV) of ferroelectric In 2 Se 3 , a prototypical nonvolatile memory device, which can be manipulated both by electric field and visible light illumination, is demonstrated for advancing data storage technologies.

  16. Photodetachment electron flux of H− in combined electric and magnetic fields with arbitrary orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, De-hua

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •On the basis of the semiclassical theory, the photodetachment electron flux of H − in combined electric field and magnetic field with arbitrary orientation has been studied for the first time. •Our calculation results suggest that the electron flux distributions on the detector plane is not only related to the angle between the electric and magnetic fields, but also related to the electron energy. •Our studies may guide the future experimental researches in the photodetachment microscopy of some more complex negative ions in the presence of external fields. -- Abstract: On the basis of the semi-classical theory, we calculate the photodetachment electron flux of H − in combined electric field and magnetic field with arbitrary orientation. Our results suggest that the electron flux distributions on the detector plane is not only related to the angle between the electric and magnetic fields, but also related to the electron energy. With the increase of the angle between the electric and magnetic field, the oscillating region in the electron flux distributions becomes smaller. In addition, we find with the increase of the detached electron's energy, the oscillating structure in the flux distributions becomes much more complicated. Therefore, the oscillation in the detached electron flux distributions can be controlled by adjusting the angle between the electric and magnetic field and the detached electron's energy. We hope that our studies may guide the future experimental researches in the photodetachment microscopy of negative ion in the presence of external fields

  17. Theoretical study of in-plane response of magnetic field sensor to magnetic beads in an in-plane homogeneous field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2008-01-01

    We present a systematic theoretical study of the average in-plane magnetic field on square and rectangular magnetic field sensors from a single magnetic bead and a monolayer of magnetic beads magnetized by an in-plane externally applied homogeneous magnetic field. General theoretical expressions...... are derived such that the sensor response and its dependence on the sensor size, spacer layer thickness, bead diameter, and bead susceptibility can easily be evaluated. The average magnetic field from a single bead close to the sensor shows a strong dependence on the position of the bead and a change of sign...... when the bead passes the edge of the sensor in the direction of the applied field. Analytical approximations are derived for the average field from a homogeneous monolayer of beads for beads much smaller than the sensor dimension and for a bead size chosen to minimize the position sensitivity...

  18. Optical properties of an elliptic quantum ring: Eccentricity and electric field effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejan, Doina; Stan, Cristina; Niculescu, Ecaterina C.

    2018-04-01

    We have theoretically studied the electronic and optical properties of a GaAs/AlGaAs elliptic quantum ring under in-plane electric field. The effects of an eccentric internal barrier -placed along the electric field direction, chosen as x-axis- and incident light polarization are particularly taken into account. The one-electron energy spectrum and wave functions are found using the adiabatic approximation and the finite element method within the effective-mass model. We show that it is possible to repair the structural distortion by applying an appropriate in-plane electric field, and the compensation is almost complete for all electronic states under study. For both concentric and eccentric quantum ring the intraband optical properties are very sensitive to the electric field and probe laser polarization. As expected, in the systems with eccentricity distortions the energy spectrum, as well as the optical response, strongly depends on the direction of the externally applied electric field, an effect that can be used as a signature of ring eccentricity. We demonstrated the possibility of generating second harmonic response at double resonance condition for incident light polarized along the x-axis if the electric field or/and eccentric barrier break the inversion symmetry. Also, strong third harmonic signal can be generated at triple resonance condition for a specific interval of electric field values when using y-polarized light.

  19. In-plane anisotropy of the electric field gradient in Ba(Fe 1 -xCox)2As2 observed by 75As NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Masayuki; Ichikawa, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Yoshiaki; Sato, Masatoshi; Itoh, Masayuki

    2018-05-01

    We have performed 75As NMR measurements on single crystals to investigate the nematic behavior via the in-plane anisotropy of the electronic state at the As site far from Co impurities in the representative iron arsenides Ba (Fe1-xCox) 2As2 . From the analysis of the angular dependence of the NMR satellites in the c plane using the binominal distribution, we find that there is the in-plane fourfold symmetry breaking, namely, the orthorhombic-type anisotropy in the electric field gradient (EFG) at the As site with no Co atom at the nearest neighboring Fe sites even in the tetragonal phase of both BaFe2As2 and Ba (Fe1-xCox) 2As2(x ≠0 ) . The NMR spectrum in the antiferromagnetically ordered state of BaFe2As2 is shown not to support a nanotwin model on the basis of the nematic order proposed from the pair-distribution analysis of neutron scattering data. Based on results of the x and temperature T dependences of the in-plane anisotropy in the wide x and T ranges, the symmetry breaking is concluded to come from the local orthorhombic domains induced by disorder such as Co impurities or lattice imperfections. Furthermore, we find that the asymmetry parameter of EFG η obeys the Curie-Weiss law which may be governed by nematic susceptibility, and the Weiss temperature becomes zero at xc˜0.05 in Ba (Fe1-xCox) 2As2 .

  20. Coherent field propagation between tilted planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Johannes; Worku, Norman Girma; Gross, Herbert

    2017-10-01

    Propagating electromagnetic light fields between nonparallel planes is of special importance, e.g., within the design of novel computer-generated holograms or the simulation of optical systems. In contrast to the extensively discussed evaluation between parallel planes, the diffraction-based propagation of light onto a tilted plane is more burdensome, since discrete fast Fourier transforms cannot be applied directly. In this work, we propose a quasi-fast algorithm (O(N 3  log N)) that deals with this problem. Based on a proper decomposition into three rotations, the vectorial field distribution is calculated on a tilted plane using the spectrum of plane waves. The algorithm works on equidistant grids, so neither nonuniform Fourier transforms nor an explicit complex interpolation is necessary. The proposed algorithm is discussed in detail and applied to several examples of practical interest.

  1. Piezoelectric components wirelessly driven by dipole antenna-like electric field generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhuyan, S., E-mail: elesatya@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Kumar, R.; Panda, S.K. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Hu, J. [Lab of Precision Drive, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210026 (China)

    2011-08-25

    Highlights: > Wireless energy transmission technique. > Dipole antenna-like electric field generator. > Piezoelecctric resonance. > Finite element analyses. > Simulations and experimental verifications. - Abstract: A new technique of transmitting electric energy wirelessly to piezoelectric components by using a dipole antenna-like electric field generator is explored. Two square size brass plate-shaped live and ground electrodes are used to form a dipole antenna-like electric field generator. When the dipole antenna-like electric field generator in electric resonance with an inductor, a maximum output power of 2.72 mW and an energy conversion efficiency of 0.0174% have been achieved wirelessly by the piezoelectric plate area of 40 mm{sup 2} operating in the thickness vibration mode, placed at the center 4 mm away from the antenna plane with an optimum electrical load of 1365 {Omega}, resonant frequency of 782 kHz, 1 cm electrodes separation, 2500 cm{sup 2} electrode area of dipole antenna-like structure, and input ac source power of 15.58 W applied to the series of dipole antenna-like structure and inductor. The theoretically calculated results have been validated by the experimental studies. It is seen that at the resonance frequency and optimum electrical load, the output power of the wirelessly driven piezoelectric component decreases with the size of piezoelectric component, distance of piezoelectric component from the electrode of antenna plane, but increases with the antenna electrode area.

  2. Vector electric field measurement via position-modulated Kelvin probe force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Ryan P.; Smieska, Louisa M.; Tirmzi, Ali Moeed; Marohn, John A.

    2017-10-01

    High-quality spatially resolved measurements of electric fields are critical to understanding charge injection, charge transport, and charge trapping in semiconducting materials. Here, we report a variation of frequency-modulated Kelvin probe force microscopy that enables spatially resolved measurements of the electric field. We measure electric field components along multiple directions simultaneously by employing position modulation and lock-in detection in addition to numeric differentiation of the surface potential. We demonstrate the technique by recording linescans of the in-plane electric field vector in the vicinity of a patch of trapped charge in a 2,7-diphenyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (DPh-BTBT) organic field-effect transistor. This technique is simple to implement and should be especially useful for studying electric fields in spatially inhomogeneous samples like organic transistors and photovoltaic blends.

  3. Analysis of electrical-field-dependent Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and magnetocrystalline anisotropy in a two-dimensional ferromagnetic monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Shi, Mengchao; Lu, Jiwu; Anantram, M. P.

    2018-02-01

    We analyze the impacts of the electric field on the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, magnetocrystalline anisotropy, and intrinsic ferromagnetism of the recently discovered two-dimensional ferromagnetic chromium tri-iodide (Cr I3 ) monolayer, by combining density functional theory and Monte Carlo simulations. By taking advantage of the counterbalancing effects of anisotropic symmetric exchange energy and antisymmetric exchange energy, it is shown that the intrinsic ferromagnetism can be manipulated by externally applied off-plane electric fields. The results quantitatively reveal the impacts of off-plane electric field on the lattice structure, magnetic anisotropy energy, symmetric and antisymmetric exchange energies, Curie temperature, magnetic hysteresis, and coercive field. The physical mechanism of all-electrical control of magnetism proposed here is useful for creating next-generation magnetic device technologies based on the recently discovered two-dimensional ferromagnetic crystals.

  4. Electric field measurements in a nanosecond pulse discharge by picosecond CARS/4-wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ben; Shkurenkov, Ivan; Adamovich, Igor; Lempert, Walter

    2014-10-01

    Time-resolved electric field measurements in hydrogen by picosecond CARS/4-wave mixing are presented. Measurements are carried out in a high voltage nanosecond pulse discharge in hydrogen in plane-to-plane geometry, at pressures of up to several hundred Torr, and with a time resolution of 0.2 ns. Absolute calibration of the diagnostics is done using a sub-breakdown high voltage pulse of 12 kV/cm. A diffuse discharge is obtained by applying a peak high voltage pulse of 40 kV/cm between the electrodes. It is found that breakdown occurs at a lower field, 15--20 kV/cm, after which the field in the plasma is reduced rapidly due to plasma self shielding The experimental results are compared with kinetic modeling calculations, showing good agreement between the measured and the predicted electric field.

  5. Characterization of complementary electric field coupled resonant surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Thomas H.; Gollub, Jonah; Sajuyigbe, Soji; Smith, David R.; Cummer, Steven A.

    2008-11-01

    We present angle-resolved free-space transmission and reflection measurements of a surface composed of complementary electric inductive-capacitive (CELC) resonators. By measuring the reflection and transmission coefficients of a CELC surface with different polarizations and particle orientations, we show that the CELC only responds to in-plane magnetic fields. This confirms the Babinet particle duality between the CELC and its complement, the electric field coupled LC resonator. Characterization of the CELC structure serves to expand the current library of resonant elements metamaterial designers can draw upon to make unique materials and surfaces.

  6. Electric field driven orbital order-disorder transition in LaMnO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Dipten

    2012-01-01

    The external stimulation such as mechanical pressure magnetic field, electric field, and optical pulse driven phase transition and concomitant gigantic response in physical properties in terms of orders of magnitude jump in electrical resistivity, magnetization, thermoelectric power, or optical constants etc in strongly correlated electron systems has fascinated the researchers for more than two decades now. The underlying physics is nontrivial and the application potential is enormous. We report here our observation of pulsed electric field driven orbital order-disorder transition in canonical orbital ordered system LaMnO 3 . The LaMnO 3 , with orthorhombic crystallographic structure (space group Pbnm), possesses A-type magnetic order below T N (∼ 140 K) and C-type orbital order, with ordering of active 3d 3x 2 -r 2 /3d 3y 2 -r 2 orbitals within a plane and stacking across the plane, below Too (∼ 750 K). We have studied the electrical current-voltage characteristics as well as the differential thermal scans across a wide temperature range 80-800 K under pulsed field on a high quality single crystal of LaMnO 3 . We show how under pulsed electric field, T00 shifts towards lower temperature and the latent heat of the transition decreases monotonically. We also show that the electrical resistivity jumps by more than five orders of magnitude beyond a threshold electric field a low temperature (∼ 80 K). The field driven transition turns out to be originating electro-migration of lattice defects and consequent depinning of orbital domains. The orbital order in LaMnO 3 is not a continuum. It is granular because of interaction with lattice strain, defects, or even interference between Jahn-Teller and MnO 6 tilt order. The domains are pinned by the defects. The electric field driven migration leads to depinning transition. The model of depinning of charge density waves appears to be fitting the data observed in the present case closely, since the orbital order in La

  7. Radial-Electric-Field Piezoelectric Diaphragm Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Robert G.; Working, Dennis C.; Mossi, Karla; Castro, Nicholas D.; Mane, Pooma

    2009-01-01

    In a recently invented class of piezoelectric diaphragm pumps, the electrode patterns on the piezoelectric diaphragms are configured so that the electric fields in the diaphragms have symmetrical radial (along-the-surface) components in addition to through-the-thickness components. Previously, it was accepted in the piezoelectric-transducer art that in order to produce the out-of-plane bending displacement of a diaphragm needed for pumping, one must make the electric field asymmetrical through the thickness, typically by means of electrodes placed on only one side of the piezoelectric material. In the present invention, electrodes are placed on both sides and patterned so as to produce substantial radial as well as through-the-thickness components. Moreover, unlike in the prior art, the electric field can be symmetrical through the thickness. Tests have shown in a given diaphragm that an electrode configuration according to this invention produces more displacement than does a conventional one-sided electrode pattern. The invention admits of numerous variations characterized by various degrees of complexity. Figure 1 is a simplified depiction of a basic version. As in other piezoelectric diaphragm pumps of similar basic design, the prime mover is a piezoelectric diaphragm. Application of a suitable voltage to the electrodes on the diaphragm causes it to undergo out-of-plane bending. The bending displacement pushes a fluid out of, or pulls the fluid into, a chamber bounded partly by the diaphragm. Also as in other diaphragm pumps in general, check valves ensure that the fluid flows only in through one port and only out through another port.

  8. Electrified BPS giants: BPS configurations on giant gravitons with static electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali-Akbari, Mohammad; Sheikh-Jabbari, Mohammad Mahdi

    2007-01-01

    We consider D3-brane action in the maximally supersymmetric type IIB plane-wave background. Upon fixing the light-cone gauge, we obtain the light-cone Hamiltonian which is manifestly supersymmetric. The 1/2 BPS solutions of this theory (solutions which preserve 16 supercharges) are either of the form of spherical three branes, the giant gravitons, or zero size point like branes. We then construct specific classes of 1/4 BPS solutions of this theory in which static electric field on the brane is turned on. These solutions are deformations about either of the two 1/2 BPS solutions. In particular, we study in some detail 1/4 BPS configurations with electric dipole on the three sphere giant, i.e. BIons on the giant gravitons, which we hence call BIGGons. We also study BPS configurations corresponding to turning on a background uniform constant electric field. As a result of this background electric field the three sphere giant is deformed to squashed sphere, while the zero size point like branes turn into circular or straight fundamental strings in the plane-wave background, with their tension equal to the background electric field

  9. Structural and morphological changes in P3HT thin film transistors applying an electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Deepak Kumar; Grigorian, Souren; Pietsch, Ullrich [University of Siegen (Germany); Flesch, Heinz; Resel, Roland [University of Siegen (Germany); Graz University of Technology (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    We report on electric field dependent crystalline structure and morphological changes of drop casting and spin coated poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) thin films. In order to probe the morphological changes induced by an applied electric field the samples were covered with thin source/drain electrodes separated by a small channel of 2 mm width. A series of x-ray reflectivity, X-ray grazing incidence out-of-plane and in-plane scans have been performed as function of the applied electric voltage. The (100) peak shows a decrease in intensity with increase of the applied electric field. This might be caused by Joule heating and the creation of current induced defects in the P3HT film. On other hand the (020) peak intensity shows much stronger changes with applied field. Considering the *-* stacking direction the measured effect can be directly related to a change in the electric transport. The observed changes in structure are reversible and the current-voltage cycle can be repeated several times. For X-ray reflectivity major changes have been found close to critical angle of total external reflection indicating the film becomes less dense and increases in surface roughness with increase of the voltage. This change in surface behaviour could be confirmed by in-situ AFM measurements.

  10. X-ray diffraction study of KTP (KTiOPO4) crystals under a static electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, M.T.; Klapper, H.; Bolt, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    X-ray diffraction studies are made on ion-conducting potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) crystals with in situ DC electric field along different crystallographic directions. The X-ray rocking curves recorded with an electric field along the polar b axis (which is the direction of ion conduction) show a strong enhancement of the 040 reflection intensity (reflecting planes normal to the b axis) whereas the h0l reflections (reflecting planes parallel to the polar axis) do not show any intensity change. For an electric field normal to the polar axis no intensity change, either in 040 or in h0l reflections occurs. This observation is supplemented by X-ray topography. The 040 X-ray topographs recorded with in situ electric field along b exhibit strong extinction contrast in the form of striations parallel to the polar (ion-conduction) axis. The 040 intensity increase and the striation contrast are attributed to lattice deformation by the space-charge polarization due to the movement of the K + ions under the influence of the electric field. (orig.)

  11. Bidirectional ionic wind in nonpremixed counterflow flames with DC electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Daegeun

    2016-05-05

    Under an electric field, ions in the reaction zone of a flame generate a bulk flow motion called ionic wind. Because the majority of ions are positive, ionic wind is commonly considered to be unidirectional toward the cathode. A more thorough understanding of the effects of electric fields on flames could be obtained by clarifying the role of minor negative ions in the ionic wind. Here, we report on the effects of direct current on nonpremixed counterflow flames by visualizing the ionic wind. We found that the original flow field separates near the flame when it locates at a flow stagnation plane, resulting in a double-stagnant flow configuration. This evidences a bidirectional ionic wind blowing from the flame to both the cathode and the anode due to the positive and the negative ions, respectively. Meanwhile, an electric body force pulls the flame toward the cathode. Thus, the electric field affects the strain rate and the axial location of the stoichiometry, which are important for characterizing nonpremixed counterflow flames. In addition, measurement of the electric current density roughly showed a nearly saturated current when these flames restabilized under relatively high voltage. Detailed explanations of flame behavior, electric currents, and flow characteristics of various fuels are discussed in this study.

  12. Measurement of electric field and gradient in the plasma sheath using clusters of floating microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, T. E.; Katschke, M. R.; Wells, K. D.

    2007-01-01

    A method for measuring the time-averaged vertical electric field and its gradient in the plasma sheath using clusters with n=2 or 3 floating microspheres of known mass is described. The particle charge q is found by determining the ratio of the breathing frequency to the center-of-mass frequency for horizontal (in-plane) oscillations. The electric field at the position of the particles is then calculated using the measured charge-to-mass ratio, and the electric-field gradient is determined from the vertical resonance frequency. The Debye length is also found. Experimental results are in agreement with a simple sheath model

  13. Models of Quantum Space Time: Quantum Field Planes

    OpenAIRE

    Mack, G.; Schomerus, V.

    1994-01-01

    Quantum field planes furnish a noncommutative differential algebra $\\Omega$ which substitutes for the commutative algebra of functions and forms on a contractible manifold. The data required in their construction come from a quantum field theory. The basic idea is to replace the ground field ${\\bf C}$ of quantum planes by the noncommutative algebra ${\\cal A}$ of observables of the quantum field theory.

  14. Analytic solution of the potential and electric field of a jet type drift chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weltin, A

    1988-02-15

    Starting from the known two-dimensional potential of a multiwire proportional chamber, the analytic expressions of the potential and the electric field are derived for a jet type drift chamber with a central wire plane of alternating sense and potential wires. The design goal of any jet chamber, namely the periodicity of the electric drift field, is imposed as a boundary condition at the beginning. In this way, the formulae are short and can be easily evaluated. In particular, expressions are given for the mean potential of the central wire plane, the drift field and the wire surface fields. Moreover, wire cathodes frequently used in jet chambers are described by analytic expressions. For a given drift field the difference of the potential as compared to a continuous metal cathode is presented. These results allowed to construct a two-dimensional computer simulation of the full OPAL jet chamber with no explicit periodicity but all its boundaries. Using field shaping electrodes a geometrically short yet quite satisfactory termination of a sense wire plane is demonstrated. Finally an example is presented, which is calculated in detail.

  15. Characterizing the spin orbit torque field-like term in in-plane magnetic system using transverse field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Feilong [School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Data Storage Institute, A*STAR Agency for Science, Technology and Research, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Goolaup, Sarjoosing; Li, Sihua; Lim, Gerard Joseph; Tan, Funan; Engel, Christian; Zhang, Senfu; Ma, Fusheng; Lew, Wen Siang, E-mail: wensiang@ntu.edu.sg [School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Zhou, Tiejun [Data Storage Institute, A*STAR Agency for Science, Technology and Research, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore)

    2016-08-28

    In this work, we present an efficient method for characterizing the spin orbit torque field-like term in an in-plane magnetized system using the harmonic measurement technique. This method does not require a priori knowledge of the planar and anomalous hall resistances and is insensitive to non-uniformity in magnetization, as opposed to the conventional harmonic technique. We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that the field-like term in the Ta/Co/Pt film stack with in-plane magnetic anisotropy can be obtained by an in-plane transverse field sweep as expected, and magnetization non-uniformity is prevented by the application of fixed magnetic field. The experimental results are in agreement with the analytical calculations.

  16. Transverse kinetics of a charged drop in an external electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, S.; Komoshvili, K.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a non-equilibrium behavior of a small, dense and charged drop in the transverse plane. A collective motion of the drop’s particles with constant entropy is described. Namely, we solve Vlasov’s equation with non-isotropic initial conditions. Thereby a non-equilibrium distribution function of the process of the droplet evolution in the transverse plane is calculated. An external electric field is included in the initial conditions of the equation that affects on the form of the obtained solution. Applicability of the results to the description of initial states of quark-gluon plasma is also discussed

  17. Transverse kinetics of a charged drop in an external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondarenko, S.; Komoshvili, K. [Ariel University (Israel)

    2016-01-22

    We investigate a non-equilibrium behavior of a small, dense and charged drop in the transverse plane. A collective motion of the drop’s particles with constant entropy is described. Namely, we solve Vlasov’s equation with non-isotropic initial conditions. Thereby a non-equilibrium distribution function of the process of the droplet evolution in the transverse plane is calculated. An external electric field is included in the initial conditions of the equation that affects on the form of the obtained solution. Applicability of the results to the description of initial states of quark-gluon plasma is also discussed.

  18. Incorporation of in-plane interconnects to reflow bonding for electrical functionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moğulkoç, B; Jansen, H V; Ter Brake, H J M; Elwenspoek, M C

    2011-01-01

    Incorporation of in-plane electrical interconnects to reflow bonding is studied to provide electrical functionality to lab-on-a-chip or microfluidic devices. Reflow bonding is the packaging technology, in which glass tubes are joined to silicon substrates at elevated temperatures. The tubes are used to interface the silicon-based fluidic devices and are directly compatible with standard Swagelok® connectors. After the bonding, the electrically conductive lines will allow probing into the volume confined by the tube, where the fluidic device operates. Therefore methods for fabricating electrical interconnects that survive the bonding procedure at elevated temperature and do not alter the properties of the bond interface are investigated

  19. Electric field control of deterministic current-induced magnetization switching in a hybrid ferromagnetic/ferroelectric structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kaiming; Yang, Meiyin; Ju, Hailang; Wang, Sumei; Ji, Yang; Li, Baohe; Edmonds, Kevin William; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Bao; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Shuai; Zheng, Houzhi; Wang, Kaiyou

    2017-07-01

    All-electrical and programmable manipulations of ferromagnetic bits are highly pursued for the aim of high integration and low energy consumption in modern information technology. Methods based on the spin-orbit torque switching in heavy metal/ferromagnet structures have been proposed with magnetic field, and are heading toward deterministic switching without external magnetic field. Here we demonstrate that an in-plane effective magnetic field can be induced by an electric field without breaking the symmetry of the structure of the thin film, and realize the deterministic magnetization switching in a hybrid ferromagnetic/ferroelectric structure with Pt/Co/Ni/Co/Pt layers on PMN-PT substrate. The effective magnetic field can be reversed by changing the direction of the applied electric field on the PMN-PT substrate, which fully replaces the controllability function of the external magnetic field. The electric field is found to generate an additional spin-orbit torque on the CoNiCo magnets, which is confirmed by macrospin calculations and micromagnetic simulations.

  20. Tripolar electric field Structure in guide field magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Song; Huang, Shiyong; Zhou, Meng; Ni, Binbin; Deng, Xiaohua

    2018-03-01

    It has been shown that the guide field substantially modifies the structure of the reconnection layer. For instance, the Hall magnetic and electric fields are distorted in guide field reconnection compared to reconnection without guide fields (i.e., anti-parallel reconnection). In this paper, we performed 2.5-D electromagnetic full particle simulation to study the electric field structures in magnetic reconnection under different initial guide fields (Bg). Once the amplitude of a guide field exceeds 0.3 times the asymptotic magnetic field B0, the traditional bipolar Hall electric field is clearly replaced by a tripolar electric field, which consists of a newly emerged electric field and the bipolar Hall electric field. The newly emerged electric field is a convective electric field about one ion inertial length away from the neutral sheet. It arises from the disappearance of the Hall electric field due to the substantial modification of the magnetic field and electric current by the imposed guide field. The peak magnitude of this new electric field increases linearly with the increment of guide field strength. Possible applications of these results to space observations are also discussed.

  1. Tripolar electric field Structure in guide field magnetic reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the guide field substantially modifies the structure of the reconnection layer. For instance, the Hall magnetic and electric fields are distorted in guide field reconnection compared to reconnection without guide fields (i.e., anti-parallel reconnection. In this paper, we performed 2.5-D electromagnetic full particle simulation to study the electric field structures in magnetic reconnection under different initial guide fields (Bg. Once the amplitude of a guide field exceeds 0.3 times the asymptotic magnetic field B0, the traditional bipolar Hall electric field is clearly replaced by a tripolar electric field, which consists of a newly emerged electric field and the bipolar Hall electric field. The newly emerged electric field is a convective electric field about one ion inertial length away from the neutral sheet. It arises from the disappearance of the Hall electric field due to the substantial modification of the magnetic field and electric current by the imposed guide field. The peak magnitude of this new electric field increases linearly with the increment of guide field strength. Possible applications of these results to space observations are also discussed.

  2. Calculation of accelerating electric fields in the CO2 injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, E.

    1999-01-01

    The accelerating structure in the injecting cyclotron for O.A.E. can be divided, if one takes the inflector exit as departure point, into the following two regions: 1. the relatively complex central zone comprising three accelerating gaps which is flanked by vertical pillars destined to increase the transit time factor and, at the same time, to reduce the influence of electric field vertical components; 2. the so-called 'large radius' subsequent zone where the gaps are no longer radially delimited. To study the behavior of the individual trajectories in these fields, the equations of motion must be integrated step by step (for instance by Runge-Kutta method) what implies the knowledge of field (or at least of potential) in every point. This is the method for the calculation of potential contour maps which is presented here; the potentials are static, and a sinusoidal time variation is subsequently applied to perform dynamical calculations. The paper has the following sections: 1. Introduction; 2. Potential and large radius field components; 2.1. Calculation of median plane potential; 2.2. Calculation of the off-median-plane potential and field; 3. Potential in the central region; 4. Further Developments

  3. Electric field measurements at subcritical, oblique bow shock crossings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wygant, J.R.; Bensadoun, M.; Mozer, F.S.

    1987-01-01

    Electric field measurements at oblique, subcritical bow shock crossings are presented from the ISEE 1 University of California, Berkeley, double-probe electric field experiment. The measurements averaged over the 3-s spin period of the spacecraft provide the first observations of the large-scale (100 km) laminar oscillations in the longitudinal component of the electric field associated with the whistler precursor which is characteristic of these dispersive shocks. The amplitude of the oscillations increases from ∼0.5 mV/m to a maximum of 6 mV/m across the magnetic ramp of the shock (directed along the shock normal). The calculated electric potential drops across the shocks varied from 340 to 550 volts, which is 40-60% of the observed loss of kinetic energy associated with the bulk flow of the ions. These measurements suggest that at these shocks the additional deceleration of incident ions is due to the Lorentz force. The contributions to the normal component of the large-scale electric field at the shock due to the parallel and perpendicular components (relative to the magnetic field) of the electric field are evaluated. It is shown that the perpendicular component of the electric field dominates, accounting for most of the cross-shock potential, but that there is a nonnegligible parallel component. This large-scale parallel component has a magnitude of 1-2 mV/m which sometimes results in a potential well for electrons with a depth of ∼150 eV. It is experimentally demonstrated that the dominance of the perpendicular over the parallel component of the electric field resulted in a correlation between the longitudinal component of the large-scale electric field and the fluctuations in the magnetic field component perpendicular to the coplanarity plane

  4. Investigation of the in-plane and out-of-plane electrical properties of metallic nanoparticles in dielectric matrix thin films elaborated by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D.; Puyoo, E.; Le Berre, M.; Militaru, L.; Koneti, S.; Malchère, A.; Epicier, T.; Roiban, L.; Albertini, D.; Sabac, A.; Calmon, F.

    2017-11-01

    Pt nanoparticles in a Al2O3 dielectric matrix thin films are elaborated by means of atomic layer deposition. These nanostructured thin films are integrated in vertical and planar test structures in order to assess both their in-plane and out-of-plane electrical properties. A shadow edge evaporation process is used to develop planar devices with electrode separation distances in the range of 30 nm. Both vertical and planar test structures show a Poole-Frenkel conduction mechanism. Low trap energy levels (<0.1 eV) are identified for the two test structures which indicates that the Pt islands themselves are not acting as traps in the PF mechanism. Furthermore, a more than three order of magnitude current density difference is observed between the two geometries. This electrical anisotropy is attributed to a large electron mobility difference in the in-plane and out-of-plane directions which can be related to different trap distributions in both directions.

  5. An electric field in a gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harpaz, Amos

    2005-01-01

    The behaviour of an electric field in a gravitational field is analysed. It is found that due to the mass (energy) of the electric field, it is subjected to gravity and it falls in the gravitational field. This fall curves the electric field, a stress force (a reaction force) is created, and the interaction of this reaction force with the static charge gives rise to the creation of radiation

  6. Structural control of metamaterial oscillator strength and electric field enhancement at terahertz frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiser, G. R.; Seren, H. R.; Strikwerda, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    The design of artificial nonlinear materials requires control over internal resonant charge densities and local electric field distributions. We present a MM design with a structurally controllable oscillator strength and local electric field enhancement at terahertz frequencies. The MM consists...... of a split ring resonator (SRR) array stacked above an array of closed conducting rings. An in-plane, lateral shift of a half unit cell between the SRR and closed ring arrays results in an increase of the MM oscillator strength by a factor of 4 and a 40% change in the amplitude of the resonant electric field...

  7. Electric fields in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falthammar, C.G.

    1989-01-01

    Electric field measurements on the satellites GEOS-1, GEOS-2, ISEE-1, and Viking have extended the empirical knowledge of electric fields in space so as to include the outer regions of the magnetosphere. While the measurements confirm some of the theoretically expected properties of the electric fields, they also reveal unexpected features and a high degree of complexity and variability. The existence of a magnetospheric dawn-to-dusk electric field, as expected on the basis of extrapolation from low altitude measurements, is confirmed in an average sense. However, the actual field exhibits large spatial and temporal variations, including strong fields of inductive origin. At the magnetopause, the average (dawn-to-dusk directed) tangential electric field component is typically obscured by irregular fluctuations of larger amplitude. The magnetic-field aligned component of the electric field, which is of particular importance for ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling and for auroral acceleration, is even now very difficult to measure directly. However, the data from electric field measurements provide further support for the conclusion, based on a variety of evidence, that a non-vanishing magnetic-field aligned electric field exists in the auroral acceleration region

  8. Quantitative compositional analysis and field-evaporation behavior of ordered Ni4Mo on an atomic plane-by-plane basis: an atom-probe field-ion microscope study. MSC report No. 4802

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, M.; Seidman, D.N.

    1982-10-01

    The (211) fundamental and (101) superlattice planes, of the bct lattice, were analysed chemically on an atomic plane-by-plane basis. It was demonstrated that the composition of each individual plane can be determined as a function of depth without any ambiguity. The overall average Mo concentration was measured to be 17.1 at. % for the (211) fundamental plane. Details of the field evaporation behavior of the (211) fundamental and (101) superlattice planes were studied. The field-evaporation behavior is described in terms of the field-evaporation rate, the order of the field evaporated ions, etc. Each individual atomic plane field evaporated on an atomic plane-by-plane basis for the (211) fundamental plane. While for (101) superlattice plane a group of planes consisting of one plane of Mo atoms and four planes of Ni atoms field-evaporated as a unit. An abnormal increase in the number of Mo atoms was found in the central portion of the (211) fundamental plane. Possible mechanisms for the abnormal field evaporation rate are discussed. It is concluded that the atom probe technique can be used to follow the physics and chemistry of the field-evaporation process and the chemistry of the alloy as a function of position, on a subnanometer scale, throughout the specimen. 13 figures

  9. University students' conceptions of the electric and magnetic fields and their interrelationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesonen, M H P; Asikainen, M A; Hirvonen, P E

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on students' conceptions of electric and magnetic fields at university level and of the interrelations between them. A total of 33 students participated in a paper and pencil test after the completion of first-year electricity and second-year electromagnetism courses. The conceptions were investigated in the contexts of a charged particle, a charging capacitor, electromagnetic induction, and an electromagnetic plane wave. The results show that students do not include the vector nature of field quantities in their reasoning. In addition, learning the interactions between electric and magnetic fields is very challenging for university students. Even after completing relevant studies, the students had difficulty in recognizing the symmetry relations between the electric and magnetic fields in all of the areas under study. Consequently, it appears that the concepts of electric and magnetic fields and their interrelations should be emphasized not only in the context of electromagnetism but also in other relevant areas such as electricity and optics. Explicit recommendations are presented in the discussion section at the end of this paper.

  10. Electric field effect of GaAs monolayer from first principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiongyao Wu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Using first-principle calculations, we investigate two-dimensional (2D honeycomb monolayer structures composed of group III-V binary elements. It is found that such compound like GaAs should have a buckled structure which is more stable than graphene-like flat structure. This results a polar system with out-of-plane dipoles arising from the non-planar structure. Here, we optimized GaAs monolayer structure, then calculated the electronic band structure and the change of buckling height under external electric field within density functional theory using generalized gradient approximation method. We found that the band gap would change proportionally with the electric field magnitude. When the spin-orbit coupling (SOC is considered, we revealed fine spin-splitting at different points in the reciprocal space. Furthermore, the valence and conduction bands spin-splitting energies due to SOC at the K point of buckled GaAs monolayers are found to be weakly dependent on the electric field strength. Finally electric field effects on the spin texture and second harmonic generation are discussed. The present work sheds light on the control of physical properties of GaAs monolayer by the applied electric field.

  11. Electrical alignment of antenna coordinate system in a planar near-field setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, Anders P.; Nielsen, Jeppe Majlund; Pivnenko, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a simple and efficient electrical alignment procedure known as flip-test is adapted and applied to check and correct two errors in the mechanical setup of a planar near-field system: the mis-pointing of the z-axis of the antenna coordinate system with respect to the scan plane...... and the displacement of the center point of the scan plane with respect to the z-axis of the antenna coordinate system. Simulations of the errors and their correction algorithms were carried out with different models of antennas composed of Hertzian dipoles and an optimum algorithm was then selected. The proposed...

  12. Effect of rotating electric field on 3D complex (dusty) plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörner, L.; Nosenko, V.; Ivlev, A. V.; Zhdanov, S. K.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.; Kroll, M.; Schablinski, J.; Block, D.

    2011-06-01

    The effect of rotating electric field on 3D particle clusters suspended in rf plasma was studied experimentally. Spheroidal clusters were suspended inside a glass box mounted on the lower horizontal rf electrode, with gravity partially balanced by thermophoretic force. Clusters rotated in the horizontal plane, in response to rotating electric field that was created inside the box using conducting coating on its inner surfaces ("rotating wall" technique). Cluster rotation was always in the direction of applied field and had a shear in the vertical direction. The angular speed of rotation was 104-107 times lower than applied frequency. The experiment is compared to a recent theory.

  13. Ionization and acoustical instability of a low temperature magnetized plasma in a combined (direct and alternating) electrical field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andropov, V.G.; Sinkevich, O.A.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that the ionization front which moves through a gas along a magnetic field in a combined electrical field, which lies in the plane of the front, may be unstable, as a result of the development of an ionization instability in the plasma behind the front. The criterion of instability of the ionization front does not greatly differ from the criterion of instability of an infinite plasma. The ionization front in the magnetic field is stable only in an electrical field of circular polarization or in a combined field in which the direct and alternating electrical fields are orthogonal and the Joule heat liberation from them is equal. The generation of sound is possible in a magnetized plasma in an alternating electrical field orthogonal to a magnetic due to the parametric acoustical instability at the frequency of the external electrical field. 8 refs

  14. Electric field measurements in a dielectric barrier nanosecond pulse discharge with sub-nanosecond time resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M; Shkurenkov, Ivan; Adamovich, Igor V; Lempert, Walter R; O’Byrne, Sean

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of time-resolved electric field measurements in a nanosecond discharge between two plane electrodes covered by dielectric plates, using picosecond four-wave mixing diagnostics. For absolute calibration, the IR signal was measured in hydrogen at a pressure of 440 Torr, for electrostatic electric field ranging from 0 to 8 kV cm −1 . The calibration curve (i.e. the square root of IR signal intensity versus electric field) was shown to be linear. By measuring the intensities of the pump, Stokes, and IR signal beam for each laser shot during the time sweep across the high-voltage pulse, temporal evolution of the electric field in the nanosecond pulse discharge was determined with sub-nanosecond time resolution. The results are compared to kinetic modeling predictions, showing good agreement, including non-zero electric field offset before the main high voltage pulse, breakdown moment, and reduction of electric field in the plasma after breakdown. The difference between the experimental results and model predictions is likely due to non-1D structure of the discharge. Comparison with the kinetic modeling predictions shows that electric field in the nanosecond pulse discharge is controlled primarily by electron impact excitation and charge accumulation on the dielectric surfaces. (paper)

  15. Influence of in-plane field on the stability of vertical Bloch lines in the walls of OHB at various bias fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, G.X.; Wang, L.N.; Zhen, C.M.; Nie, X.F.

    2006-01-01

    The stability of vertical Bloch line (VBL) chains subjected to in-plane field (H ip ) was statistically studied for the ordinary hard bubbles (OHB) in garnet bubble films at various bias fields (H b ). The dumbbell domains were also investigated. We found that (H ip (1) ) IID ip (1) ) ID ip (1) ) OHB and (H ip (2) ) IID =(H ip (2) ) ID =(H ip (2) ) OHB when keeping H b unchanged. With the increasing of H b , the in-plane field H ip (1) , H ip * and H ip (2) all decrease, while the in-plane field range [H ip (1) , H ip * ] and [H ip (1) , H ip (2) ] become narrower. Here, H ip (1) is the initial critical in-plane field where VBLs in the walls of three types of hard domains are annihilated, H ip * stands for the in-plane field where the retention rate of three types of hard domains R reduces to zero, and H ip (2) is the lowest in-plane field where VBLs in their corresponding hard domains are annihilated completely

  16. Electric-field Induced Microdynamics of Charged Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyongok eKang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electric-field induced phase/state transitions are observed in AC electric fields with small amplitudes and low frequencies in suspensions of charged fibrous viruses (fd, which are model systems for highly charged rod-like colloids. Texture- and particle-dynamics in these field-induced states, and on crossing transition lines, are explored by image time-correlation and dynamic light scattering, respectively. At relatively low frequencies, starting from a system within the isotropic-nematic coexistence region, a transition from a nematic to a chiral nematic is observed, as well as a dynamical state where nematic domains melt and reform. These transitions are preliminary due to field-induced dissociation/association of condensed ions. At higher frequencies a uniform state is formed that is stabilized by hydrodynamic interactions through field-induced electro-osmotic flow where the rods align along the field direction. There is a point in the field-amplitude versus frequency plane where various transition lines meet. This point can be identified as a non-equilibrium critical point, in the sense that a length scale and a time scale diverge on approach of that point. The microscopic dynamics exhibits discontinuities on crossing transition lines that were identified independently by means of image and signal correlation spectroscopy.

  17. Dielectrics in electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Raju, Gorur G

    2003-01-01

    Discover nontraditional applications of dielectric studies in this exceptionally crafted field reference or text for seniors and graduate students in power engineering tracks. This text contains more than 800 display equations and discusses polarization phenomena in dielectrics, the complex dielectric constant in an alternating electric field, dielectric relaxation and interfacial polarization, the measurement of absorption and desorption currents in time domains, and high field conduction phenomena. Dielectrics in Electric Fields is an interdisciplinary reference and text for professionals and students in electrical and electronics, chemical, biochemical, and environmental engineering; physical, surface, and colloid chemistry; materials science; and chemical physics.

  18. Dirac particle in a plane wave field and the semi-classical approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourouaine, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Mentouri University, Constantine (Algeria)

    2005-04-01

    In this paper we investigate the influence of photon represented by plane wave field on Dirac particle in the context of path integral approach given by Fradkin and Gitman formalism. In our case, although the action relative to Dirac particle in plane wave field seems to be non quadratic, the result obtained by semi-classical approach is the same as that found by an exact calculation. Hence; when we add the plane wave field to any quadratic actions related to Fradkin and Gitman approach, the total action behaves like quadratic. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Dirac particle in a plane wave field and the semi-classical approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourouaine, S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the influence of photon represented by plane wave field on Dirac particle in the context of path integral approach given by Fradkin and Gitman formalism. In our case, although the action relative to Dirac particle in plane wave field seems to be non quadratic, the result obtained by semi-classical approach is the same as that found by an exact calculation. Hence; when we add the plane wave field to any quadratic actions related to Fradkin and Gitman approach, the total action behaves like quadratic. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Electric field vector measurements in a surface ionization wave discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M; Adamovich, Igor V; Lempert, Walter R; Böhm, Patrick S; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the results of time-resolved electric field vector measurements in a short pulse duration (60 ns full width at half maximum), surface ionization wave discharge in hydrogen using a picosecond four-wave mixing technique. Electric field vector components are measured separately, using pump and Stokes beams linearly polarized in the horizontal and vertical planes, and a polarizer placed in front of the infrared detector. The time-resolved electric field vector is measured at three different locations across the discharge gap, and for three different heights above the alumina ceramic dielectric surface, ∼100, 600, and 1100 μm (total of nine different locations). The results show that after breakdown, the discharge develops as an ionization wave propagating along the dielectric surface at an average speed of 1 mm ns −1 . The surface ionization wave forms near the high voltage electrode, close to the dielectric surface (∼100 μm). The wave front is characterized by significant overshoot of both vertical and horizontal electric field vector components. Behind the wave front, the vertical field component is rapidly reduced. As the wave propagates along the dielectric surface, it also extends further away from the dielectric surface, up to ∼1 mm near the grounded electrode. The horizontal field component behind the wave front remains quite significant, to sustain the electron current toward the high voltage electrode. After the wave reaches the grounded electrode, the horizontal field component experiences a secondary rise in the quasi-dc discharge, where it sustains the current along the near-surface plasma sheet. The measurement results indicate presence of a cathode layer formed near the grounded electrode with significant cathode voltage fall, ≈3 kV, due to high current density in the discharge. The peak reduced electric field in the surface ionization wave is 85–95 Td, consistent with dc breakdown field estimated from the Paschen

  1. Electric fields in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faelthammar, C.G.

    1989-12-01

    The electric field plays an important role in the complex plasma system called the magnetosphere. In spite of this, direct measurement of this quantity are still scarce except in its lowest-altitude part, i.e. the ionosphere. The large scale ionospheric electric field has been determined from measurement on the ground and in low satellite orbit. For most of the magnetosphere, our concepts of the electric field have mostly been based on theoretical considerations and extrapolations of the ionspheric electric field. Direct, in situ, electric field measurements in the outer parts of the magnetosphere have been made only relatively recently. A few satellite missions. most recently the Viking mission, have extended the direct empirical knowledge so as to include major parts of the magnetosphere. These measurements have revealed a number of unexpected features. The actual electric field has been found to have unexpectedly strong space and time variations, which reflect the dynamic nature of the system. Examples are give of measured electric fields in the plasmasphere, the plasmasheet, the neutral sheet, the magnetotail, the flanks of the magnetosphere, the dayside magnetopause and the auroral acceleration region. (author)

  2. Electric Field Distribution and Switching Impulse Discharge under Shield Ball Surface Scratch Defect in an UHVDC Hall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianghai Geng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The dimension and surface state of shielding fittings in ultra high voltage direct current (UHVDC converter station valve halls have a great influence on their surface electric field and switching impulse characteristics, which are important parameters confirming the air gap distance in the valve hall. The characteristics of impulse discharge under different lengths, dent degrees and burrs around the scratches of Φ1.3 m shield balls with a 2 m sphere-plane gap length were tested, in the UHVDC testing base of the Hebei Electric Power Research Institute. The discharge characteristics under the influence of the surface scratches of the shield ball were obtained. The results demonstrate that the discharge voltage of sphere-plane gap decreases obviously when there are unpolished scratches on the surface of the shield ball. However, when the scratches are polished, the discharge voltage has no significant impact. At the same time, a 1:1 full-scale impulse test model was established based on the finite element method. The electric field intensity and the space electric field distribution of the shield ball were obtained under the influence of scratches with or without burrs. The results of the simulation show that when the surface of the shield ball is smooth, the electric field distribution around it is even. The electric field intensity on the surface of the shield ball increases obviously when there are burrs around the scratches. When there is no burr around the scratches, the length and depth of the scratches have no obvious effect on its electric field distribution. Meanwhile, calculation results are consistent with test results. The results can provide an important basis for the design and optimization of shielding fittings, and technical support for its localization.

  3. Absolute parametric instability in a nonuniform plane plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper reports an analysis of the effect of spatial plasma nonuniformity on absolute parametric instability (API) of electrostatic waves in magnetized plane waveguides subjected to an intense high-frequency (HF) electric field using the separation method. In this case the effect of strong static magnetic field is considered.

  4. Plasma drift towards a plane equipotential surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1984-03-01

    Recently Alfven has qualitatively described how a collisionless plasma drifts in crossed electric and magnetic fields towards an infinite conducting plate of constant potential. In the present note we quantitatively study three models which are closely related to Alfven's model. It is found that when the plasma comes sufficiently close to a plane equipotential surface (conducting plate) it is deflected approximately along the surface. The deflection is not caused by pressure effects but rather by the electric and magnetic fields. Small fluxes of ions and electrons also cross the plane equipotential surface. These fluxes account for an electric current in the plasma which induces a magnetic field in the same direction as the total magnetic field assumed to be homogeneous. It is shown that if the Alfven number, M(sub)A, is much smaller than unity in the volume considered the magnetic field induced by plasma currents is small compared to the total magnetic field. However, if M(sub)A is of the order of unity or larger the total magnetic field is to a substantial degree generated by plasma currents. (Author)

  5. Rocket measurements of electric fields, electron density and temperature during the three phases of auroral substorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, G.; Block, L.; Lindqvist, P.-A.

    1979-12-01

    On Jan. 27, 1979, three rocket payloads were launched from Kiruna, Sweden, into different phases of two successive auroral substorms. Among other experiments, the payloads carried the RIT double probe electric field experiments, providing electric field, electron density and temperature data, which are presented here. These are discussed in association with observations of particles, ionospheric drifts (STARE) and electric fields in the equatorial plane (GEOS). The motions of the auroral forms, as obtained from auroral pictures are compared with the E x B/B 2 drifts and the currents calculated from the rocket electric field and density measurements with the equivalent current system deduced from ground based magnetometer data (SMA). (Auth.)

  6. Evaluation of planar 3D electrical capacitance tomography: from single-plane to dual-plane configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Hsin-Yu; Qiu, Chang-Hua; Soleimani, Manuchehr

    2015-01-01

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is a non-invasive imaging technique that is sensitive to the dielectric permittivity property of an object. Conventional ECT systems have a circular/cylindrical or rectangular geometry, in which the electrode plates are usually spaced equally around the tank. It is the most common configuration as it can be easily applied to industrial pipelines. However, under some circumstances, the full access to the imaging geometry may not be applicable due to the limitation of the process area. In those cases, and with limited access, planar ECT sensors can fit the process structure if access to only one side is possible. A single-plane ECT configuration has been proposed for such applications. However, the planar array often suffers from a lack of sensitivity and difficulty with depth detection. To better understand these limitations we investigate the imaging performance from the single-plane ECT to dual-plane ECT structure. The limitations and constraints of the planar configuration will also be discussed. Several experiments were conducted using both single-plane and dual-plane configurations to evaluate the potential applications. The initial results are promising, and the quality of the reconstructed images are compared with the real condition for process validation. (paper)

  7. Absolute parametric instability in a nonuniform plane plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The paper reports an analysis of the effect of spatial plasma nonuniformity on absolute parametric instability (API) of electrostatic waves in magnetized plane waveguides subjected to an intense high-frequency (HF) electric field using the separation method. In this case the effect of strong static magnetic field is ...

  8. Peculiarities of gadolinium molybdate change-over using alternating electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, A.N.; Zlokazov, M.V.; Prokolov, A.L.; Tikhomirova, N.A.; Shuvalov, L.A.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kristallografii)

    1984-01-01

    Experimental investigation into processes of total repolarization of a gadolinium molybdate monocrystal Gd(MoO 4 ) 3 -GMO following alternating electric effects is conduced. The process of total change-over of the GMO monocrystal with a capillar layer of weak-conductive liquid deposited on its polar surfaces at application of alternating stationary electric field is shown to proceed through sidewise traverse of the single plane domain boundary of one and the same crystallographical orientation (110) in the coordinate system of monodomain state being changed-over

  9. Peculiarities of gadolinium molybdate change-over using alternating electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, A N; Zlokazov, M V; Prokolov, A L; Tikhomirova, N A; Shuvalov, L A [Moskovskij Inzhenerno-Fizicheskij Inst. (USSR); AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kristallografii)

    1984-06-01

    Experimental investigation into processes of total repolarization of a gadolinium molybdate monocrystal Gd(MoO/sub 4/)/sub 3/-GMO following alternating electric effects is conduced. The process of total change-over of the GMO monocrystal with a capillar layer of weak-conductive liquid deposited on its polar surfaces at application of alternating stationary electric field is shown to proceed through sidewise traverse of the single plane domain boundary of one and the same crystallographical orientation (110) in the coordinate system of monodomain state being changed-over.

  10. Electrical impedance tomography in 3D using two electrode planes: characterization and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Justin; Adler, Andy

    2016-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) uses body surface electrical stimulation and measurements to create conductivity images; it shows promise as a non-invasive technology to monitor the distribution of lung ventilation. Most applications of EIT have placed electrodes in a 2D ring around the thorax, and thus produced 2D cross-sectional images. These images are unable to distinguish out-of-plane contributions, or to image volumetric effects. Volumetric EIT can be calculated using multiple electrode planes and a 3D reconstruction algorithm. However, while 3D reconstruction algorithms are available, little has been done to understand the performance of 3D EIT in terms of the measurement configurations available. The goal of this paper is to characterize the phantom and in vivo performance of 3D EIT with two electrode planes. First, phantom measurements are used to measure the reconstruction characteristics of seven stimulation and measurement configurations. Measurements were then performed on eight healthy volunteers as a function of body posture, postures, and with various electrode configurations. Phantom results indicate that 3D EIT using two rings of electrodes provides reasonable resolution in the electrode plane but low vertical resolution. For volunteers, functional EIT images are created from inhalation curve features to analyze the effect of posture (standing, sitting, supine and decline) on regional lung behaviour. An ability to detect vertical changes in lung volume distribution was shown for two electrode configurations. Based on tank and volunteer results, we recommend the use of the 'square' stimulation and measurement pattern for two electrode plane EIT.

  11. Techniques to measure complex-plane fields

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2014-09-25

    Full Text Available In this work we construct coherent superpositions of Gaussian and vortex modes which can be described to occupy the complex-plane. We demonstrate how these fields can be experimentally constructed in a digital, controllable manner with a spatial...

  12. Remote Sensing of the Reconnection Electric Field From In Situ Multipoint Observations of the Separatrix Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T. K. M.; Nakamura, R.; Varsani, A.; Genestreti, K. J.; Baumjohann, W.; Liu, Y.-H.

    2018-05-01

    A remote sensing technique to infer the local reconnection electric field based on in situ multipoint spacecraft observation at the reconnection separatrix is proposed. In this technique, the increment of the reconnected magnetic flux is estimated by integrating the in-plane magnetic field during the sequential observation of the separatrix boundary by multipoint measurements. We tested this technique by applying it to virtual observations in a two-dimensional fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulation of magnetic reconnection without a guide field and confirmed that the estimated reconnection electric field indeed agrees well with the exact value computed at the X-line. We then applied this technique to an event observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission when crossing an energetic plasma sheet boundary layer during an intense substorm. The estimated reconnection electric field for this event is nearly 1 order of magnitude higher than a typical value of magnetotail reconnection.

  13. In-plane nuclear field formation investigated in single self-assembled quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, S.; Matsusaki, R.; Kaji, R.; Adachi, S.

    2018-02-01

    We studied the formation mechanism of the in-plane nuclear field in single self-assembled In0.75Al0.25As /Al0.3Ga0.7As quantum dots. The Hanle curves with an anomalously large width and hysteretic behavior at the critical transverse magnetic field were observed in many single quantum dots grown in the same sample. In order to explain the anomalies in the Hanle curve indicating the formation of a large nuclear field perpendicular to the photo-injected electron spin polarization, we propose a new model based on the current phenomenological model for dynamic nuclear spin polarization. The model includes the effects of the nuclear quadrupole interaction and the sign inversion between in-plane and out-of-plane components of nuclear g factors, and the model calculations reproduce successfully the characteristics of the observed anomalies in the Hanle curves.

  14. Electric Field Fluctuations in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Dayton; Limmer, David; Chandler, David

    2013-03-01

    Charge transfer in solution, such as autoionization and ion pair dissociation in water, is governed by rare electric field fluctuations of the solvent. Knowing the statistics of such fluctuations can help explain the dynamics of these rare events. Trajectories short enough to be tractable by computer simulation are virtually certain not to sample the large fluctuations that promote rare events. Here, we employ importance sampling techniques with classical molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water to study statistics of electric field fluctuations far from their means. We find that the distributions of electric fields located on individual water molecules are not in general gaussian. Near the mean this non-gaussianity is due to the internal charge distribution of the water molecule. Further from the mean, however, there is a previously unreported Bjerrum-like defect that stabilizes certain large fluctuations out of equilibrium. As expected, differences in electric fields acting between molecules are gaussian to a remarkable degree. By studying these differences, though, we are able to determine what configurations result not only in large electric fields, but also in electric fields with long spatial correlations that may be needed to promote charge separation.

  15. Influence of initial velocity on trajectories of a charged particle in uniform crossed electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khotimah, Siti Nurul; Viridi, Sparisoma; Widayani

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic and electric fields can cause a charged particle to form interesting trajectories. In general, each trajectory is discussed separately in university physics textbooks for undergraduate students. In this work, a solution of a charged particle moving in a uniform electric field at right angles to a uniform magnetic field (uniform crossed electric and magnetic fields) is reported; it is limited to particle motion in a plane. Specific solutions and their trajectories are obtained only by varying the initial particle velocity. The result shows five basic trajectory patterns, i.e., straight line, sinusoid-like, cycloid, cycloid-like with oscillation, and circle-like. The region of each trajectory is also mapped in the initial velocity space of the particle. This paper is intended for undergraduate students and describes further the trajectories of a charged particle through the regions of electric and magnetic fields influenced by initial condition of the particle, where electromagnetic radiation of an accelerated particle is not considered. (paper)

  16. Solutions for the motion of an electron in electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagrov, V.G.; Gitman, D.M.; Jushin, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    New exact solutions of the Lorentz, Hamilton--Jacobi, Klein--Gordon, and Dirac equations for an electron moving in the field of a plane wave and in electric and magnetic fields were found. The electric and magnetic fields are parallel to the direction of propagation of the plane wave. The magnetic field is constant and the electric field is an arbitrary function of the combination ct-z

  17. DC Electric Field measurement in the Mid-latitude Ionosphere during MSTID by S-520-27 Sounding Rocket Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishisaka, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Tanaka, M.; Abe, T.; Kumamoto, A.

    2015-12-01

    In the middle latitude ionospheric F region, mainly in summer, wave structures of electron density that have wave length of 100-200 km and period of one hour are observed. This phenomena is called Medium Scale Traveling Ionosphiric Disturbance; MSTID. MSTID has been observed by GPS receiving network, and its characteristic were studied. In the past, MSTID was thought to be generated by the Perkins instability, but its growth ratio was too small to be effective so far smaller than the real. Recently coupling process between ionospheric E and F regions are studied by using two radars and by computer simulations. Through these studies, we now have hypothesis that MSTID is generated by the combination of E-F region coupling and Perkins instability. The S-520-27 sounding rocket experiment on E-layer and F-layer was planned in order to verify this hypothesis. S-520-27 sounding rocket was launched at 23:57 JST on 20th July, 2013 from JAXA Uchinoura Space Center. S-520-27 sounding rocket reached 316km height. The S-520-27 payload was equipped with Electric Field Detector (EFD) with a two set of orthogonal double probes to measure DC electric field in the spin plane of the payload. The electrodes of two double probe antennas were used to gather the potentials which were detected with high impedance pre-amplifier using the floating (unbiased) double probe technique. As a results of measurements of DC electric fields by the EFD, the natural electric field was about +/-5mV/m, and varied the direction from southeast to east. Then the electric field was mapped to the horizontal plane at 280km height along the geomagnetic field line. In this presentation, we show the detail result of DC electric field measurement by S-520-27 sounding rocket and then we discuss about the correlation between the natural electric field and TEC variation by using the GPS-TEC.

  18. Measurement of in-plane magnetic relaxation in RE-123 coated conductors by use of scanning Hall probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiohara, K.; Higashikawa, K.; Inoue, M.; Kiss, T.; Iijima, Y.; Saitoh, T.; Yoshizumi, M.; Izumi, T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We have investigated electric field criterion of in-plane critical current density. ► We could measure magnetic relaxation in a remanent state. ► The SHPM results show good agreement with the measurements by the 4-probe method. -- Abstract: We have investigated electric field criterion of in-plane critical current density in a coated conductor characterized by scanning Hall-probe microscopy (SHPM). From remanent field distribution and its relaxation measurements, we could obtain critical current distribution and induced electric field simultaneously by considering the Biot-Savart law and the Faraday’s law, respectively. These results lead us to evaluate a distribution of local critical current density and the corresponding criterion of electric field. As a result, it was found that the electric field criterion for the SHPM analysis was several orders lower than that used in the conventional 4-probe resistive method. However, the data point obtained by the SHPM shows good agreement with E–J curve analytically extended from the measurements by the 4-probe method. This means that we could characterize in-plane distribution of critical current density in a coated conductor at an electric field criterion quantitatively by this method in a nondestructive manner. These findings will be very important information since the uniformity of local critical current density in a coated conductor at extremely low electric fields is a key issue (1) especially for DC applications, (2) for quality control of coated conductors, and (3) for the standardization of the characterization of critical current among different methods

  19. A new GTD slope diffraction coefficient for plane wave illumination of a wedge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumholt, Michael; Breinbjerg, Olav

    1997-01-01

    Two wedge problems including slope diffraction are solved: one in which the incident field is a non-uniform plane wave, and one in which it is an inhomogeneous plane wave. The two solutions lead to the same GTD slope diffraction coefficient. This coefficient reveals the existence of a coupling...... effect between a transverse magnetic (or transverse electric) incident plane wave and the transverse electric (or transverse magnetic) slope-diffracted field. The coupling effect is not described by the existing GTD slope diffraction coefficient...

  20. Influence of rotating in-plane field on vertical Bloch lines in the walls of second kind of dumbbell domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, H.Y.; Hu, H.N.; Sun, Y.P.; Nie, X.F.

    2004-01-01

    Influence of rotating in-plane field on vertical Bloch lines in the walls of second kind of dumbbell domains (IIDs) was investigated, and a critical in-plane field range [H ip 1 ,H ip 2 ] of which vertical-Bloch lines (VBLs) annihilated in IIDs is found under rotating in-plane field (H ip 1 is the maximal critical in-plane-field of which hard domains remain stable, H ip 2 is the minimal critical in-plane-field of which all of the hard domains convert to soft bubbles (SBs, without VBLs)). It shows that the in-plane field range [H ip 1 , H ip 2 ] changes with the change of the rotating angle Δφ H ip 1 maintains stable, while H ip 2 decreases with the decreasing of rotating angle Δφ. Comparing it with the spontaneous shrinking experiment of IIDs under both bias field and in-plane field, we presume that under the application of in-plane field there exists a direction along which the VBLs in the domain walls annihilate most easily, and it is in the direction that domain walls are perpendicular to the in-plane field

  1. Time-of-flight mass spectrometer using an imaging detector and a rotating electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Atsushi; Kameo, Yutaka; Nakashima, Mikio

    2008-01-01

    A new technique for minor isotope analysis that uses a rotating electric field and an imaging detector is described. The rotating electric field is generated by six cylindrically arranged plane electrodes with multi-phase sinusoidal wave voltage. When ion packets that are discriminated by time-of-flight enter the rotating electric field, they are circularly deflected, rendering a spiral image on the fluorescent screen of the detector. This spiral image represents m/z values of ions as the position and abundance of ions as brightness. For minor isotopes analyses, the micro channel plate detector under gate control operation is used to eliminate the influence of high intensity of major isotopes. (author)

  2. Metallic electrical transport in inter-graphitic planes of an individual tubular carbon nanocone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q; Gao, R X; Qu, S L [Department of Optics and Electronics Science, Harbin Institute of Technology at Wei Hai, Weihai 264209 (China); Li, J J; Gu, C Z [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)], E-mail: wq19750505@tom.com

    2009-04-08

    Tubular carbon cones (TCCs) with a herring-bone-like graphitic structure are synthesized on gold wire via the bias-assisted hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method. The electrical transport properties of an individual TCC are studied in the temperature range from 300 to 500 K by using a double probe scanning electron microscopy (DPSEM) in situ electrical measurement system. The high-resistance I-V characteristics of W-TCC-Au back-to-back double junctions show that electrons tunnel through the W-TCC junction, while thermoionic transport through the Au-TCC junction contributes to low-resistance properties. Temperature dependence of the electrical characteristics indicates that inter-graphitic-plane electrical transport in TCC is metallic.

  3. Influence of the oscillating electric field on the photodetachment of H− ion in a static electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, De-hua

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The photodetachment of H − in an oscillating electric field has been studied using the time-dependent closed orbit theory. • An analytical formula for calculating the photodetachement cross section has been put forward. • Our study provides a clear physical picture for the photodetachment of negative ion in an oscillating electric filed. • Our work is useful in guiding the experimental research for the photodetachment dynamics in the time-dependent field. - Abstract: Using the time-dependent closed orbit theory, we study the photodetachment of H − ion in a time-dependent electric field. The photodetachment cross section is specifically studied in the presence of a static electric field plus an oscillating electric field. We find that the photodetachment of negative ion in the time-dependent electric field becomes much more complicated than the case in a static electric field. The oscillating electric field can weaken the photodetachment cross section greatly when the strength of the oscillating electric field is less than the static electric field. However, as the strength of the oscillating electric field is larger than the static electric field, four types of closed orbits are identified for the detached electron, which makes the oscillating amplitude in the photodetachment cross section gets increased again. The connection between the detached electron’s closed orbit with the oscillating cross section is analyzed quantitatively. This study provides a clear and intuitive picture for the understanding of the connections between quantum and classical description for the time-dependent Hamiltonian systems and may guide the future experimental research for the photodetachment dynamics in the time-dependent electric field.

  4. Oscillations of oblate drop between heterogeneous plates under uniform electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashina, M. A.; Alabuzhev, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The forced oscillations of the incompressible fluid drop under the action of the uniform electric field are considered. In equilibrium, the drop has the form of a circular cylinder bounded axially by the parallel solid planes; the contact angle is right. An incompressible fluid of different density surrounds the drop. The external electric field acts as an external force that causes motion of the contact line. In order to describe this contact line motion, the modified Hocking boundary condition is applied: the velocity of the contact line is proportional to the deviation of the contact angle and the speed of the fast relaxation processes, whose frequency is proportional to twice the frequency of the electric field. The case of heterogeneous plates is investigated. We assume that the Hocking parameter depends on the polar angle in this case. The function describing the change in the coefficient of the interaction between the plate and the fluid (the contact line) is expanded in a series of the Laplace operator eigenfunctions.

  5. Planned waveguide electric field breakdown studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Faya; Li Zenghai

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental setup for X-band rf breakdown studies. The setup is composed of a section of WR90 waveguide with a tapered pin located at the middle of the waveguide E-plane. Another pin is used to rf match the waveguide so it operates in a travelling wave mode. By adjusting the penetration depth of the tapered pin, different surface electric field enhancements can be obtained. The setup will be used to study the rf breakdown rate dependence on power flow in the waveguide for a constant maximum surface electric field on the pin. Two groups of pins have been designed. The Q of one group is different and very low. The other has a similar Q. With the test of the two groups of pins, we should be able to discern how the net power flow and Q affect the breakdown. Furthermore, we will apply an electron beam treatment to the pins to study its effect on breakdown. Overall, these experiments should be very helpful in understanding rf breakdown phenomena and could significantly benefit the design of high gradient accelerator structures.

  6. Relative contribution of ionospheric conductivity and electric field to the auroral electrojets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamide, Y.; Vickrey, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    Data from continuous scans of the Chatanika radar beam along the magnetic meridian plane are used to the determine the latitudinal profile of height-integrated ionospheric conductivities and horizontal electric fields, from which the latitudinal distribution of ionospheric currents is deduced. The observations cover invariant latitudes between 62 0 and 68 0 , where the IMS Alaska meridian chain of magnetometers was also in operation. Although the conductivities and the electric fields are interrelated, the relative importance of the two in driving the eastward and westward auroral electrojet currents can be assessed. It is found that for moderate and large current densities (i.e., > or approx. =0.2 A/m), the northward electric field strength increases as the magnitude of the eastward electrojet in the evening sector increases. The height-integrated Hall conductivity stays generally at the level of 10 mhos even when the current density becomes as large as 1 A/m. However, when the eastward electrojet is small, substantial electric fields of 10-20 mV/m may still exist as if the magnetosphere has a persistent voltage source. There appear to be two distinct components to the westward electrojet. In the midnight and early morning sestors (>0300 MLT) intensity is characterized by a weak southward electric field and a high Hall conductivity, whereas its late morning portion (>0300 MLT) is dominated by a strong southward electric field

  7. Two-dimensional electron states bound to an off-plane donor in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno-Alfonso, A; Candido, L; Hai, G-Q

    2010-01-01

    The states of an electron confined in a two-dimensional (2D) plane and bound to an off-plane donor impurity center, in the presence of a magnetic field, are investigated. The energy levels of the ground state and the first three excited states are calculated variationally. The binding energy and the mean orbital radius of these states are obtained as a function of the donor center position and the magnetic field strength. The limiting cases are discussed for an in-plane donor impurity (i.e. a 2D hydrogen atom) as well as for the donor center far away from the 2D plane in strong magnetic fields, which corresponds to a 2D harmonic oscillator.

  8. Electric field measurements in nanosecond pulse discharges in air over liquid water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeni Simeni, Marien; Baratte, Edmond; Zhang, Cheng; Frederickson, Kraig; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2018-01-01

    Electric field in nanosecond pulse discharges in ambient air is measured by picosecond four-wave mixing, with absolute calibration by a known electrostatic field. The measurements are done in two geometries, (a) the discharge between two parallel cylinder electrodes placed inside quartz tubes, and (b) the discharge between a razor edge electrode and distilled water surface. In the first case, breakdown field exceeds DC breakdown threshold by approximately a factor of four, 140 ± 10 kV cm-1. In the second case, electric field is measured for both positive and negative pulse polarities, with pulse durations of ˜10 ns and ˜100 ns, respectively. In the short duration, positive polarity pulse, breakdown occurs at 85 kV cm-1, after which the electric field decreases over several ns due to charge separation in the plasma, with no field reversal detected when the applied voltage is reduced. In a long duration, negative polarity pulse, breakdown occurs at a lower electric field, 30 kV cm-1, after which the field decays over several tens of ns and reverses direction when the applied voltage is reduced at the end of the pulse. For both pulse polarities, electric field after the pulse decays on a microsecond time scale, due to residual surface charge neutralization by transport of opposite polarity charges from the plasma. Measurements 1 mm away from the discharge center plane, ˜100 μm from the water surface, show that during the voltage rise, horizontal field component (Ex ) lags in time behind the vertical component (Ey ). After breakdown, Ey is reduced to near zero and reverses direction. Further away from the water surface (≈0.9 mm), Ex is much higher compared to Ey during the entire voltage pulse. The results provide insight into air plasma kinetics and charge transport processes near plasma-liquid interface, over a wide range of time scales.

  9. Study of the electric Held in HTS tape caused by perpendicular AC magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roiberg, V; Kopansky, F.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text: In a previous work we studied the influence of AC magnetic fields on voltage-currents (V-I) characteristics of high temperature superconducting (HTS) multi filament BSCC0-2223 tapes. It was found that AC magnetic fields perpendicular to the ab plane (the wide surface of the tape) cause a linear decrease of the critical current (IC) with amplitude of the AC magnetic field. The degradation of IC in .AC field was explained by the geometrical model according to which the transport current floe: is confined to the central zone of the tape where .AC field does not penetrate. For deeper understanding of the observed phenomena we carried out a study of the time dependence of the electric field during the cycle of AC field. At the same time we expanded the frequency range to low frequencies down to 1 Hz. The main results of the work are as following. 1. The time modulation of the electric field E in the HTS tape carrying transport DC current has the double frequency relating to AC magnetic field. 2. In field amplitudes less than 70 G the electric field modulation decreases with increasing frequency in opposite to its well-pronounced increase in higher AC field amplitudes. Alcove 70 G, the electric field increases with increasing the frequency of the external magnetic field. The wave forms of the electric field are different in both amplitudes ranges. 3. E-I curves of the tape in low amplitudes are frequency independent and coincide with E-l curves in AC field with intensity equal to the AC field amplitude. 4. In high AC field amplitudes, a strong dependence of the E-I curves on frequency is observed in the frequency range of 1-40 Hz and no dependence is observed in higher frequencies. Our results suggest that a combination of the geometrical model with flux creep concepts is necessary for a better understanding of the electric field behavior in our measurement conditions

  10. The annihilation of vertical-Bloch lines in the walls of hard domains to which bias fields and in-plane fields are alternately applied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, H.Y.; Hu, H.N.; Nie, X.F.

    2001-01-01

    The annihilation of vertical-Bloch lines in magnetic domain walls of the ordinary hard bubbles, to which both bias fields and in-plane fields are alternately applied, is investigated experimentally. The influence of an in-plane magnetic field on ordinary hard bubbles (OHB), dumbbell domains of the first kind (ID), and dumbbell domains of the second kind (IID) was analyzed, and a critical in-plane field range [H ip 0 ,H ip 2 ] for vertical Bloch line (VBL) annihilation was found. For the three types of hard domains (H ip 0 is the minimum critical in-plane field of VBLs which begin to be unstable, H ip 2 is the minimum critical in-plane field which only needs to be applied one time for collapse of all OHBs), the critical field range is the same with H ip 0 ≅8πM s . We hypothesize that there exists a direction along which the vertical-Bloch lines in the domain walls are annihilated most easily. It is also observed that the stability of vertical-Bloch lines in the domain walls does not depend on the initial state. This provides a more detailed description of the minimum critical in-plane field than previously known

  11. Analysis of Surface Electric Field Measurements from an Array of Electric Field Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, G.; Thayer, J. P.; Deierling, W.

    2016-12-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has operated an distributed array of over 30 electric field mills over the past 18 years, providing a unique data set of surface electric field measurements over a very long timespan. In addition to the electric field instruments there are many meteorological towers around KSC that monitor the local meteorological conditions. Utilizing these datasets we have investigated and found unique spatial and temporal signatures in the electric field data that are attributed to local meteorological effects and the global electric circuit. The local and global scale influences on the atmospheric electric field will be discussed including the generation of space charge from the ocean surf, local cloud cover, and a local enhancement in the electric field that is seen at sunrise.

  12. Electrical impedance along connective tissue planes associated with acupuncture meridians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammerschlag Richard

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acupuncture points and meridians are commonly believed to possess unique electrical properties. The experimental support for this claim is limited given the technical and methodological shortcomings of prior studies. Recent studies indicate a correspondence between acupuncture meridians and connective tissue planes. We hypothesized that segments of acupuncture meridians that are associated with loose connective tissue planes (between muscles or between muscle and bone visible by ultrasound have greater electrical conductance (less electrical impedance than non-meridian, parallel control segments. Methods We used a four-electrode method to measure the electrical impedance along segments of the Pericardium and Spleen meridians and corresponding parallel control segments in 23 human subjects. Meridian segments were determined by palpation and proportional measurements. Connective tissue planes underlying those segments were imaged with an ultrasound scanner. Along each meridian segment, four gold-plated needles were inserted along a straight line and used as electrodes. A parallel series of four control needles were placed 0.8 cm medial to the meridian needles. For each set of four needles, a 3.3 kHz alternating (AC constant amplitude current was introduced at three different amplitudes (20, 40, and 80 μAmps to the outer two needles, while the voltage was measured between the inner two needles. Tissue impedance between the two inner needles was calculated based on Ohm's law (ratio of voltage to current intensity. Results At the Pericardium location, mean tissue impedance was significantly lower at meridian segments (70.4 ± 5.7 Ω compared with control segments (75.0 ± 5.9 Ω (p = 0.0003. At the Spleen location, mean impedance for meridian (67.8 ± 6.8 Ω and control segments (68.5 ± 7.5 Ω were not significantly different (p = 0.70. Conclusion Tissue impedance was on average lower along the Pericardium meridian, but not

  13. AC electric field induced dipole-based on-chip 3D cell rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhal, Prateek; Chase, J Geoffrey; Gaynor, Paul; Oback, Björn; Wang, Wenhui

    2014-08-07

    The precise rotation of suspended cells is one of the many fundamental manipulations used in a wide range of biotechnological applications such as cell injection and enucleation in nuclear transfer (NT) cloning. Noticeably scarce among the existing rotation techniques is the three-dimensional (3D) rotation of cells on a single chip. Here we present an alternating current (ac) induced electric field-based biochip platform, which has an open-top sub-mm square chamber enclosed by four sidewall electrodes and two bottom electrodes, to achieve rotation about the two axes, thus 3D cell rotation. By applying an ac potential to the four sidewall electrodes, an in-plane (yaw) rotating electric field is generated and in-plane rotation is achieved. Similarly, by applying an ac potential to two opposite sidewall electrodes and the two bottom electrodes, an out-of-plane (pitch) rotating electric field is generated and rolling rotation is achieved. As a prompt proof-of-concept, bottom electrodes were constructed with transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) using the standard lift-off process and the sidewall electrodes were constructed using a low-cost micro-milling process and then assembled to form the chip. Through experiments, we demonstrate rotation of bovine oocytes of ~120 μm diameter about two axes, with the capability of controlling the rotation direction and the rate for each axis through control of the ac potential amplitude, frequency, and phase shift, and cell medium conductivity. The maximum observed rotation rate reached nearly 140° s⁻¹, while a consistent rotation rate reached up to 40° s⁻¹. Rotation rate spectra for zona pellucida-intact and zona pellucida-free oocytes were further compared and found to have no effective difference. This simple, transparent, cheap-to-manufacture, and open-top platform allows additional functional modules to be integrated to become a more powerful cell manipulation system.

  14. Earth's electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    The earth becomes charged during thunderstorm activity and discharges through the weak conducting atmosphere. Balloon and rocket studies infer that a high altitude electric field penetrates virtually unattenuated through the atmosphere, at least as far as balloon heights. The field has two primary sources. At low and mid latitudes, interaction between the earth's magnetic field and the neutral wind creates electric fields. At latitudes above 60 0 , the high altitude electrical structure is dominated by the interaction between the solar wind and the earth's magnetic field. The auroral light is emitted by atmospheric atoms and molecules excited by electrons with potentials of many thousands volts. The potentials are induced by the solar wind. Recent satellite data shows that the electrons get this energy by passing through a localized electric field about 6000 km above the auroral zone. Several rocket and satellite experiments used to study the earth's electric field are discussed

  15. Electronic and optical properties of finite carbon nanotubes in an electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, R B; Lee, C H; Chang, C P; Lin, M F

    2007-01-01

    The effects, caused by the geometric structure and an electric field (E), on the electronic and optical properties of quasi-zero-dimensional finite carbon nanotubes are explored by employing the tight-binding model coupled with curvature effects. Electronic properties (state energies, symmetry of electronic states, energy spacing and state degeneracy) are significantly affected by the magnitude and the direction of the electric field and the geometric structure (radius, length and chirality). The electric field, by lowering the symmetry of finite carbon nanotubes, modifies the electronic properties. Thus, the optical excitation spectra, excited by electric polarization parallel to the nanotube axis, exhibit rich delta-function-like peaks, which reveal the characteristics of the electronic properties. Therefore it follows that geometric structure and E influence the low-energy absorption spectra, i.e. the change of frequency of the first peak, the alternation of the peak height and the production of the new peaks. There are more absorption peaks when E is oriented closer to the cross-section plane. Moreover, the very complicated optical absorption spectra are characteristic for the individual chiral carbon nanotube due to its specific geometric structure. Above all, the predicted absorption spectra and the associated electronic properties could be verified by optical measurements

  16. Electrophoresis in strong electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barany, Sandor

    2009-01-01

    Two kinds of non-linear electrophoresis (ef) that can be detected in strong electric fields (several hundred V/cm) are considered. The first ("classical" non-linear ef) is due to the interaction of the outer field with field-induced ionic charges in the electric double layer (EDL) under conditions, when field-induced variations of electrolyte concentration remain to be small comparatively to its equilibrium value. According to the Shilov theory, the non-linear component of the electrophoretic velocity for dielectric particles is proportional to the cubic power of the applied field strength (cubic electrophoresis) and to the second power of the particles radius; it is independent of the zeta-potential but is determined by the surface conductivity of particles. The second one, the so-called "superfast electrophoresis" is connected with the interaction of a strong outer field with a secondary diffuse layer of counterions (space charge) that is induced outside the primary (classical) diffuse EDL by the external field itself because of concentration polarization. The Dukhin-Mishchuk theory of "superfast electrophoresis" predicts quadratic dependence of the electrophoretic velocity of unipolar (ionically or electronically) conducting particles on the external field gradient and linear dependence on the particle's size in strong electric fields. These are in sharp contrast to the laws of classical electrophoresis (no dependence of V(ef) on the particle's size and linear dependence on the electric field gradient). A new method to measure the ef velocity of particles in strong electric fields is developed that is based on separation of the effects of sedimentation and electrophoresis using videoimaging and a new flowcell and use of short electric pulses. To test the "classical" non-linear electrophoresis, we have measured the ef velocity of non-conducting polystyrene, aluminium-oxide and (semiconductor) graphite particles as well as Saccharomice cerevisiae yeast cells as a

  17. An Exact Line Integral Representation of the Physical Optics Far Field from Plane PEC Scatterers Illuminnated by Hertzian Dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Meincke, Peter; Jørgensen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    We derive a line integral representation of the physical optics scattered far field that yields the exact same result as the conventional surface radiation integral. This representation applies to a perfectly electrically conducting plane scatterer illuminated by electric or magnetic Hertzian...... dipoles. The source and observation points can take on almost arbitrary positions. To illustrate the exactness and efficiency of the new line integral, numerical comparisons with the conventional surface radiation integral are carried out....

  18. Tunability of the Quantum Spin Hall Effect in Bi(110) Films: Effects of Electric Field and Strain Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng-Shi; Ji, Wei-Xiao; Li, Ping; Hu, Shu-Jun; Cai, Li; Zhang, Chang-Wen; Yan, Shi-Shen

    2017-06-28

    The quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect is promising for achieving dissipationless transport devices due to their robust gapless edge states inside insulating bulk gap. However, the currently discussed QSH insulators usually suffer from ultrahigh vacuum or low temperature due to the small bulk gap, which limits their practical applications. Searching for large-gap QSH insulators is highly desirable. Here, the tunable QSH state of a Bi(110) films with a black phosphorus (BP) structure, which is robust against structural deformation and electric field, is explored by first-principles calculations. It is found that the two-monolayer BP-Bi(110) film obtains a tunable large bulk gap by strain engineering and its QSH effect shows a favorable robustness within a wide range of combinations of in-plane and out-of-plane strains, although a single in-plane compression or out-of-plane extension may restrict the topological phase due to the self-doping effect. More interestingly, in view of biaxial strain, two competing physics on band topology induced by bonding-antibonding and p x,y -p z band inversions are obtained. Meanwhile, the QSH effect can be persevered under an electric field of up to 0.9 V/Å. Moreover, with appropriate in-plane strain engineering, a nontrivial topological phase in a four-monolayer BP-Bi(110) film is identified. Our findings suggest that these two-dimensional BP-Bi(110) films are ideal platforms of the QSH effect for low-power dissipation devices.

  19. Measurements of Electric Field in a Nanosecond Pulse Discharge by 4-WAVE Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratte, Edmond; Adamovich, Igor V.; Simeni Simeni, Marien; Frederickson, Kraig

    2017-06-01

    Picosecond four-wave mixing is used to measure temporally and Picosecond four-wave mixing is used to measure temporally and spatially resolved electric field in a nanosecond pulse dielectric discharge sustained in room air and in an atmospheric pressure hydrogen diffusion flame. Measurements of the electric field, and more precisely the reduced electric field (E/N) in the plasma is critical for determination rate coefficients of electron impact processes in the plasma, as well as for quantifying energy partition in the electric discharge among different molecular energy modes. The four-wave mixing measurements are performed using a collinear phase matching geometry, with nitrogen used as the probe species, at temporal resolution of about 2 ns . Absolute calibration is performed by measurement of a known electrostatic electric field. In the present experiments, the discharge is sustained between two stainless steel plate electrodes, each placed in a quartz sleeve, which greatly improves plasma uniformity. Our previous measurements of electric field in a nanosecond pulse dielectric barrier discharge by picosecond 4-wave mixing have been done in air at room temperature, in a discharge sustained between a razor edge high-voltage electrode and a plane grounded electrode (a quartz plate or a layer of distilled water). Electric field measurements in a flame, which is a high-temperature environment, are more challenging because the four-wave mixing signal is proportional to the to square root of the difference betwen the populations of N2 ground vibrational level (v=0) and first excited vibrational level (v=1). At high temperatures, the total number density is reduced, thus reducing absolute vibrational level populations of N2. Also, the signal is reduced further due to a wider distribution of N2 molecules over multiple rotational levels at higher temperatures, while the present four-wave mixing diagnostics is using spectrally narrow output of a ps laser and a high

  20. Tripolar electric field Structure in guide field magnetic reconnection

    OpenAIRE

    S. Fu; S. Huang; M. Zhou; B. Ni; X. Deng

    2018-01-01

    It has been shown that the guide field substantially modifies the structure of the reconnection layer. For instance, the Hall magnetic and electric fields are distorted in guide field reconnection compared to reconnection without guide fields (i.e., anti-parallel reconnection). In this paper, we performed 2.5-D electromagnetic full particle simulation to study the electric field structures in magnetic reconnection under different initial guide fields (Bg). Once the amplit...

  1. Molecular dynamics in high electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, M.; Cune, L.C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New method for rotation molecular spectra in high electric fields. • Parametric resonances – new features in spectra. • New elementary excitations in polar solids from dipolar interaction (“dipolons”). • Discussion about a possible origin of the ferroelectricity from dipolar interactions. - Abstract: Molecular rotation spectra, generated by the coupling of the molecular electric-dipole moments to an external time-dependent electric field, are discussed in a few particular conditions which can be of some experimental interest. First, the spherical-pendulum molecular model is reviewed, with the aim of introducing an approximate method which consists in the separation of the azimuthal and zenithal motions. Second, rotation spectra are considered in the presence of a static electric field. Two particular cases are analyzed, corresponding to strong and weak fields. In both cases the classical motion of the dipoles consists of rotations and vibrations about equilibrium positions; this motion may exhibit parametric resonances. For strong fields a large macroscopic electric polarization may appear. This situation may be relevant for polar matter (like pyroelectrics, ferroelectrics), or for heavy impurities embedded in a polar solid. The dipolar interaction is analyzed in polar condensed matter, where it is shown that new polarization modes appear for a spontaneous macroscopic electric polarization (these modes are tentatively called “dipolons”); one of the polarization modes is related to parametric resonances. The extension of these considerations to magnetic dipoles is briefly discussed. The treatment is extended to strong electric fields which oscillate with a high frequency, as those provided by high-power lasers. It is shown that the effect of such fields on molecular dynamics is governed by a much weaker, effective, renormalized, static electric field.

  2. Effect of electric field on the oscillator strength and cross-section for intersubband transition in a semiconductor quantum ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S; Das, N R

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the oscillator strength and cross-section for intersubband optical transition in an n-type semiconductor quantum ring of cylindrical symmetry in the presence of an electric field perpendicular to the plane of the ring. The analysis is done considering Kane-type band non-parabolicity of the semiconductor and assuming that the polarization of the incident radiation is along the axis of the ring. The results show that the oscillator strength decreases and the transition energy increases with the electric field. The assumption of a parabolic band leads to an overestimation of the oscillator strength. The effects of the electric field, band non-parabolicity and relaxation time on absorption cross-section for intersubband transition in a semiconductor quantum ring are also shown. (paper)

  3. Photoluminescence energy transitions in GaAs-Ga1-xAlxAs double quantum wells: Electric and magnetic fields and hydrostatic pressure effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, S.Y.; Mora-Ramos, M.E.; Duque, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    The photoluminescence energy transitions in GaAs-Ga 1-x Al x As coupled double quantum wells are presented by considering the simultaneous effects of applied electric and magnetic fields and hydrostatic pressure. Calculations have been made in the framework of the effective mass and parabolic band approximations and using a variational procedure. The electric field is taken to be oriented along the growth direction of the heterostructure whereas for the magnetic field both in-plane and in-growth directions have been considered. The results show that the hydrostatic pressure and the applied electric field are two useful tools to tune the direct and indirect exciton transitions in such heterostructures. Our results are in good agreement with previous experimental findings in double quantum wells under applied electric field and hydrostatic pressure.

  4. Magnetic field sensor for isotropically sensing an incident magnetic field in a sensor plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Bharat B. (Inventor); Wan, Hong (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic field sensor that isotropically senses an incident magnetic field. This is preferably accomplished by providing a magnetic field sensor device that has one or more circular shaped magnetoresistive sensor elements for sensing the incident magnetic field. The magnetoresistive material used is preferably isotropic, and may be a CMR material or some form of a GMR material. Because the sensor elements are circular in shape, shape anisotropy is eliminated. Thus, the resulting magnetic field sensor device provides an output that is relatively independent of the direction of the incident magnetic field in the sensor plane.

  5. Precessional switching of antiferromagnets by electric field induced Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T. H.; Grünberg, P.; Han, S. H.; Cho, B. K.

    2018-05-01

    Antiferromagnetic insulators (AFIs) have attracted much interest from many researchers as promising candidates for use in ultrafast, ultralow-dissipation spintronic devices. As a fast method of reversing magnetization, precessional switching is realized when antiferromagnetic Néel orders l =(s1+s2 )/2 surmount the magnetic anisotropy or potential barrier in a given magnetic system, which is described well by the antiferromagnetic plane pendulum (APP) model. Here, we report that, as an alternative switching scenario, the direct coupling of an electric field with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction, which stems from spin-orbit coupling, is exploited for optimal switching. We derive the pendulum equation of motion of antiferromagnets, where DM torque is induced by a pulsed electric field. The temporal DM interaction is found to not only be in the form of magnetic torques (e.g., spin-orbit torque or magnetic field) but also modifies the magnetic potential that limits l 's activity; as a result, appropriate controls (e.g., direction, magnitude, and pulse shape) of the induced DM vector realize deterministic reversal in APP. The results present an approach for the control of a magnetic storage device by means of an electric field.

  6. Electric field gradients in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, G.

    1979-01-01

    A review of the recent works on electric field gradient in metals is given. The main emphasis is put on the temperature dependence of the electric field gradient in nonmagnetic metals. Some methods of investigation of this effect using nuclear probes are described. One of them is nuclear accoustic resonance method. (S.B.)

  7. Electric conductivity of TlInTe2 monocrystal in strong electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarbaliev, M.M.; Godzhaev, Eh.M.; Gadzhiev, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    Electric condUctivity of the TlInTe 2 single crystal in strong electric fields has been studied in the range of 77-300 K. The electron part of the TlInTe 2 dielectric constant has been found to be 4. The dependence of the activation energy of current carriers on the electric field strength is constructed and the value of the activation energy of current carriers in the absence of an electric field is determined by the extrapolation method. The results of the experiments are in good agreement with the Frenkel-Pool theory, and this affords grounds for asserting that the obtained dependences of electric conductivity on temperature and the electric field strength are defined by variation in the current carrier concentration due to action of the thermal-electron ionization mechanism

  8. Electric Potential and Electric Field Imaging with Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Ed

    2016-01-01

    The technology and techniques for remote quantitative imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic fields in and around objects and in free space is presented. Electric field imaging (EFI) technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or existing electric potentials and electric fields, or an externally generated electrostatic field may be used for (illuminating) volumes to be inspected with EFI. The baseline sensor technology, electric field sensor (e-sensor), and its construction, optional electric field generation (quasistatic generator), and current e-sensor enhancements (ephemeral e-sensor) are discussed. Demonstrations for structural, electronic, human, and memory applications are shown. This new EFI capability is demonstrated to reveal characterization of electric charge distribution, creating a new field of study that embraces areas of interest including electrostatic discharge mitigation, crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for advanced sensors, dielectric morphology of structures, inspection of containers, inspection for hidden objects, tether integrity, organic molecular memory, and medical diagnostic and treatment efficacy applications such as cardiac polarization wave propagation and electromyography imaging.

  9. Model of Dirac field interacting with material plane within Symanzik’s approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pismak Yu. M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The model for the interaction of a spinor field with a material plane is constructed in the framework of the Symanzik’s approach. The characteristics of scattering process of Dirac particles on the plane are calculated. The bounced states localized near the plane are investigated.The model can find application to a wide class of phenomena arising by the interaction of quantum electrodynamics fields with two-dimensional materials.

  10. Examination into the maximum rotational frequency for an in-plane switched active waveplate device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, A J; Elston, S J; Raynes, E P

    2005-01-01

    An examination of an active waveplate device using a one-dimensional model, giving numerical and analytical results, is presented. The model calculates the director and twist configuration by minimizing the free energy of the system with simple homeotropic boundary conditions. The effect of varying the in-plane electric field in both magnitude and direction is examined, and it is shown that the twist through the cell is constant in time as the field is rotated. As the electric field is rotated, the director field lags behind by an angle which increases as the frequency of the electric field rotation increases. When this angle reaches approximately π/4 the director field no longer follows the electric field in a uniform way. Using mathematical analysis it is shown that the conditions on which the director profile will fail to follow the rotating electric field depend on the frequency of electric field rotation, the magnitude of the electric field, the dielectric anisotropy and the viscosity of the liquid crystal

  11. Electronic in-plane symmetry breaking at field-tuned quantum criticality in CeRhIn5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, F; Helm, T; Shirer, K R; Bachmann, M D; Balicas, L; Chan, M K; Ramshaw, B J; McDonald, R D; Balakirev, F F; Jaime, M; Bauer, E D; Moll, P J W

    2017-08-17

    Electronic nematic materials are characterized by a lowered symmetry of the electronic system compared to the underlying lattice, in analogy to the directional alignment without translational order in nematic liquid crystals. Such nematic phases appear in the copper- and iron-based high-temperature superconductors, and their role in establishing superconductivity remains an open question. Nematicity may take an active part, cooperating or competing with superconductivity, or may appear accidentally in such systems. Here we present experimental evidence for a phase of fluctuating nematic character in a heavy-fermion superconductor, CeRhIn 5 (ref. 5). We observe a magnetic-field-induced state in the vicinity of a field-tuned antiferromagnetic quantum critical point at H c  ≈ 50 tesla. This phase appears above an out-of-plane critical field H* ≈ 28 tesla and is characterized by a substantial in-plane resistivity anisotropy in the presence of a small in-plane field component. The in-plane symmetry breaking has little apparent connection to the underlying lattice, as evidenced by the small magnitude of the magnetostriction anomaly at H*. Furthermore, no anomalies appear in the magnetic torque, suggesting the absence of metamagnetism in this field range. The appearance of nematic behaviour in a prototypical heavy-fermion superconductor highlights the interrelation of nematicity and unconventional superconductivity, suggesting nematicity to be common among correlated materials.

  12. APPLYING THE THEORY OF THE PLANE IN THE CIVIL ENGINEERING FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARZA Carmen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To avoid the routine of buildings composed of classical geometric bodies, some methods used in contemporary architecture consist in: the use of intersected solids, the cutting with planes in different positions, as well as the recomposing of volumes. In this paper, after a theoretical introduction regarding the intersections of planes, from both analytically and graphically point of view, the authors approach applications of these in the achievement of some elements in the civil engineering field.

  13. Field and electric potential of conductors with fractal geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, Thiago A de; Mota, Fernando de B; Miranda, Jose G V; Andrade, Roberto F S; Castilho, Caio M C de [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitario da Federacao, 40210-340, Salvador (Brazil)

    2007-11-28

    In this study, the behavior of the electric field and its potential are investigated in a region bounded by a rough fractal surface and a distant plane. Both boundaries, maintained at distinct potential values, are assumed to be conductors and, as such, the electric potential is obtained by numerically solving Laplace's equation subject to the appropriate Dirichlet's condition. The rough boundaries, generated by the ballistic deposition and fractal Brownian motion methods, are characterized by the values of the surface roughness W and the local fractal dimension df = 3-{alpha}, where {alpha} is the usual roughness exponent. The equipotential surfaces, obtained from Laplace's equation, are characterized by these same parameters. Results presented show how df depends on the potential value, on the method used to generate the boundary and on W. The behavior of the electric field with respect to the equipotential surface is also considered. Its average intensity was found to increase as a function of the average distance from the equipotential to the fractal boundary; however, its intensity reaches a maximum before decreasing towards an asymptotic constant value, an effect that increases as the value of W increases.

  14. Field and electric potential of conductors with fractal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, Thiago A de; Mota, Fernando de B; Miranda, Jose G V; Andrade, Roberto F S; Castilho, Caio M C de

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the behavior of the electric field and its potential are investigated in a region bounded by a rough fractal surface and a distant plane. Both boundaries, maintained at distinct potential values, are assumed to be conductors and, as such, the electric potential is obtained by numerically solving Laplace's equation subject to the appropriate Dirichlet's condition. The rough boundaries, generated by the ballistic deposition and fractal Brownian motion methods, are characterized by the values of the surface roughness W and the local fractal dimension df = 3-α, where α is the usual roughness exponent. The equipotential surfaces, obtained from Laplace's equation, are characterized by these same parameters. Results presented show how df depends on the potential value, on the method used to generate the boundary and on W. The behavior of the electric field with respect to the equipotential surface is also considered. Its average intensity was found to increase as a function of the average distance from the equipotential to the fractal boundary; however, its intensity reaches a maximum before decreasing towards an asymptotic constant value, an effect that increases as the value of W increases

  15. Pulsed electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of pulsed electric fields (PEF) was first proposed in 1967 to change the behavior or microorganisms. The electric field phenomenon was identified as membrane rupture theory in the 1980s. Increasing the membrane permeability led to the application of PEF assisted extraction of cellular co...

  16. Geometrical optics in the near field: local plane-interface approach with evanescent waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Gaurav; Hyvärinen, Heikki J; Tervo, Jani; Turunen, Jari

    2015-01-12

    We show that geometrical models may provide useful information on light propagation in wavelength-scale structures even if evanescent fields are present. We apply a so-called local plane-wave and local plane-interface methods to study a geometry that resembles a scanning near-field microscope. We show that fair agreement between the geometrical approach and rigorous electromagnetic theory can be achieved in the case where evanescent waves are required to predict any transmission through the structure.

  17. Discovery of Enhanced Magnetoelectric Coupling through Electric Field Control of Two-Magnon Scattering within Distorted Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xu; Zhou, Ziyao; Dong, Guohua; Feng, Mengmeng; Zhang, Yijun; Zhao, Shishun; Hu, Zhongqiang; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Liu, Yaohua; Liu, Ming

    2017-09-26

    Electric field control of dynamic spin interactions is promising to break through the limitation of the magnetostatic interaction based magnetoelectric (ME) effect. In this work, electric field control of the two-magnon scattering (TMS) effect excited by in-plane lattice rotation has been demonstrated in a La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 (LSMO)/Pb(Mn 2/3 Nb 1/3 )-PbTiO 3 (PMN-PT) (011) multiferroic heterostructure. Compared with the conventional strain-mediated ME effect, a giant enhancement of ME effect up to 950% at the TMS critical angle is precisely determined by angular resolution of the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurement. Particularly, a large electric field modulation of magnetic anisotropy (464 Oe) and FMR line width (401 Oe) is achieved at 173 K. The electric-field-controllable TMS effect and its correlated ME effect have been explained by electric field modulation of the planar spin interactions triggered by spin-lattice coupling. The enhancement of the ME effect at various temperatures and spin dynamics control are promising paradigms for next-generation voltage-tunable spintronic devices.

  18. Motion of ionizing electric-field solitons in a bounded plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagar'kov, A.; Rutkevich, I.

    1981-01-01

    A theory is derived for the motion of fast ionization waves along a plane slab of a weakly ionized plasma. The properties of the ionization wave are shown to be closely related to the motion of a two-dimensional surface-charge wave along the slab boundaries. As a result, the ionization wave is quite different from a one-dimensional wave. A quasi-one-dimensional description is used for the wave motion, in which the initial equations are averaged over the transverse coordinate. The relationship between the normal component of the current density at the plasma boundary and the amplitude of the electric potential from the linear theory for a surface wave is used to close the system of averaged equations. Self-similar solutions are derived for these equations; the solutions describe space-charge solitons and electric-field solitons which ionize the plasma. The theory is used to explain the motion of fast ionization waves in long discharge tubes

  19. Electric fields in plasmas under pulsed currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsigutkin, K.; Doron, R.; Stambulchik, E.; Bernshtam, V.; Maron, Y.; Fruchtman, A.; Commisso, R. J.

    2007-01-01

    Electric fields in a plasma that conducts a high-current pulse are measured as a function of time and space. The experiment is performed using a coaxial configuration, in which a current rising to 160 kA in 100 ns is conducted through a plasma that prefills the region between two coaxial electrodes. The electric field is determined using laser spectroscopy and line-shape analysis. Plasma doping allows for three-dimensional spatially resolved measurements. The measured peak magnitude and propagation velocity of the electric field is found to match those of the Hall electric field, inferred from the magnetic-field front propagation measured previously

  20. Electrical field of electrical appliances versus distance: A preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, Nur Badariah Ahmad; Nordin, Farah Hani; Ismail, Fakaruddin Ali Ahmad; Alkahtani, Ammar Ahmed; Balasubramaniam, Nagaletchumi; Hock, Goh Chin; Shariff, Z A M

    2013-01-01

    Every household electrical appliance that is plugged in emits electric field even if it is not operating. The source where the appliance is plugged into and the components of household electrical appliance contribute to electric field emission. The electric field may cause unknown disturbance to the environment or also affect the human health and the effect might depends on the strength of the electric field emitted by the appliance. This paper will investigate the strength of the electric field emitted by four different electrical appliances using spectrum analyser. The strength will be captured at three different distances; (i) 1m (ii) 2m and (iii) 3m and analysis of the strength of the electrical field is done based on the three different distances. The measurement results show that the strength of the electric field is strongest when it is captured at 1m and the weakest at 3m from the electrical appliance. The results proved that the farther an object is located from the electrical appliance; the less effect the magnetic field has.

  1. The role of magnetic-field-aligned electric fields in auroral acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, L.P.; Faelthammar, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    Electric field measurements on the Swedish satellite Viking have confirmed and extended earlier observations on S3-3 and provided further evidence of the role of dc electric fields in auroral acceleration processes. On auroral magnetic field lines the electric field is strongly fluctuating both transverse and parallel to the magnetic field. The significance of these fluctuations for the auroral acceleration process is discussed. A definition of dc electric fields is given in terms of their effects on charged particles. Fluctuations below several hertz are experienced as dc by typical auroral electrons if the acceleration length is a few thousand kilometers. For ions the same is true below about 0.1 Hz. The magnetic-field-aligned (as well as the transverse) component of the electric field fluctuations has a maximum below 1 Hz, in a frequency range that appears as dc to the electrons but not to the ions. This allows it to cause a selective acceleration, which may be important in explaining some of the observed characteristics of auroral particle distributions. The electric field observations on Viking support the conclusion that magnetic-field-aligned potential drops play an important role in auroral acceleration, in good agreement with particle observations boht on Viking and on the DE satellites. They also show that a large part, or even all, of the accelerating potential drop may be accounted for by numerous weak (about a volt) electric double layers, in agreement with earlier observations on the S3-3 satellite and with an early theoretical suggestion by L. Block

  2. Study of electric field pulsation in helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, S; Itoh, K

    2011-01-01

    A model for the experimental results of the periodic oscillation of the electric field, so-called the electric field pulsation, observed in the Compact Helical Device (Fujisawa et al 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 2256) and the Large Helical Device (Shimizu et al 2010 Plasma Fusion Res. 5 S1015) is presented. A self-generated oscillation of the radial electric field is shown as the simulation result in helical plasmas. The reduction of the anomalous transport diffusivity in the core region is observed due to the strong shear of the radial electric field when the positive electric field is shown in the core region in the periodic oscillation of E r . Two different time scales are found in the self-generated oscillation, which are the transport time scale and the fast time scale at the transition of the radial electric field. This oscillation because of the hysteresis characteristic is attributed to the electric field pulsation observed in helical plasmas. The parameter region of the condition for the self-generated oscillation is derived. It is shown that the multiple solutions of the radial electric field for the ambipolar condition are necessary but not sufficient for obtaining the self-generated oscillation.

  3. The convection electric field in auroral substorms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerløv, Jesper Wittendorff; Hoffman, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) electric field and ion drift data are used in a statistical study of the ionospheric convection electric field in bulge-type auroral substorms. Thirty-one individual DE 2 substorm crossings were carefully selected and organized by the use of global auroral images obtained...... this database enabled us to compile a model of the ionospheric convection electric field. The characteristics of the premidnight convection reversal show a pronounced local time dependency. Far west of the surge it is a fairly well defined point reversal or convection shear. Approaching the surge and within...... the surge it is a region of weak electric fields increasing in width toward midnight that separates regions of equatorward and poleward electric fields. Therefore we adopt the term Harang region rather than the Harang discontinuity for the premidnight convection reversal. A relatively narrow convection...

  4. Electric fields and electrical insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    2002-01-01

    The adoption of a field-theoretical approach to problems arising in the framework of electrical insulation is discussed with reference to six main topics, which have been addressed over the last 30 years. These include uniform field electrodes, Green's differential equation, electrode surface...... roughness, induced charge, electrostatic probes, and partial discharge transients, together with several follow-on aspects. Each topic is introduced and thereafter the progress achieved through the use of a field-theoretical approach is reviewed. Because the topics cover a wide spectrum of conditions......, it is amply demonstrated that such an approach can lead to significant progress in many areas of electrical insulation....

  5. Experimental Investigation of the Corona Discharge in Electrical Transmission due to AC/DC Electric Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuangpian Phanupong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, using of High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC transmission to maximize the transmission efficiency, bulk power transmission, connection of renewable power source from wind farm to the grid is of prime concern for the utility. However, due to the high electric field stress from Direct Current (DC line, the corona discharge can easily be occurred at the conductor surface leading to transmission loss. Therefore, the polarity effect of DC lines on corona inception and breakdown voltage should be investigated. In this work, the effect of DC polarity and Alternating Current (AC field stress on corona inception voltage and corona discharge is investigated on various test objects, such as High Voltage (HV needle, needle at ground plane, internal defect, surface discharge, underground cable without cable termination, cable termination with simulated defect and bare overhead conductor. The corona discharge is measured by partial discharge measurement device with high-frequency current transformer. Finally, the relationship between supply voltage and discharge intensity on each DC polarity and AC field stress can be successfully determined.

  6. Experimental analysis of a TEM plane transmission line for DNA studies at 900 MHz EM fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belloni, F; Doria, D; Lorusso, A; Nassisi, V; Velardi, L; Alifano, P; Monaco, C; Tala, A; Tredici, M; Raino, A

    2006-01-01

    A suitable plane transmission line was developed and its behaviour analysed at 900 MHz radiofrequency fields to study DNA mutability and the repair of micro-organisms. In this work, utilizing such a device, we investigated the behaviour of DNA mutability and repair of Escherichia coli strains. The transmission line was very simple and versatile in changing its characteristic resistance and field intensity by varying its sizes. In the absence of cell samples inside the transmission line, the relative modulation of the electric and/or magnetic field was ±31% with respect to the mean values, allowing the processing of more samples at different exposure fields in a single run. A slight decrease in spontaneous mutability to rifampicin-resistance of the E. coli JC411 strain was demonstrated in mismatch-repair proficient samples exposed to the radio-frequency fields during their growth on solid medium

  7. Cryosurgery with Pulsed Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Charlotte S.; Rubinsky, Boris

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that combining the minimally invasive surgical techniques of cryosurgery and pulsed electric fields will eliminate some of the major disadvantages of these techniques while retaining their advantages. Cryosurgery, tissue ablation by freezing, is a well-established minimally invasive surgical technique. One disadvantage of cryosurgery concerns the mechanism of cell death; cells at high subzero temperature on the outer rim of the frozen lesion can survive. Pulsed electric fields (PEF) are another minimally invasive surgical technique in which high strength and very rapid electric pulses are delivered across cells to permeabilize the cell membrane for applications such as gene delivery, electrochemotherapy and irreversible electroporation. The very short time scale of the electric pulses is disadvantageous because it does not facilitate real time control over the procedure. We hypothesize that applying the electric pulses during the cryosurgical procedure in such a way that the electric field vector is parallel to the heat flux vector will have the effect of confining the electric fields to the frozen/cold region of tissue, thereby ablating the cells that survive freezing while facilitating controlled use of the PEF in the cold confined region. A finite element analysis of the electric field and heat conduction equations during simultaneous tissue treatment with cryosurgery and PEF (cryosurgery/PEF) was used to study the effect of tissue freezing on electric fields. The study yielded motivating results. Because of decreased electrical conductivity in the frozen/cooled tissue, it experienced temperature induced magnified electric fields in comparison to PEF delivered to the unfrozen tissue control. This suggests that freezing/cooling confines and magnifies the electric fields to those regions; a targeting capability unattainable in traditional PEF. This analysis shows how temperature induced magnified and focused PEFs could be used to

  8. Cryosurgery with pulsed electric fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte S Daniels

    Full Text Available This study explores the hypothesis that combining the minimally invasive surgical techniques of cryosurgery and pulsed electric fields will eliminate some of the major disadvantages of these techniques while retaining their advantages. Cryosurgery, tissue ablation by freezing, is a well-established minimally invasive surgical technique. One disadvantage of cryosurgery concerns the mechanism of cell death; cells at high subzero temperature on the outer rim of the frozen lesion can survive. Pulsed electric fields (PEF are another minimally invasive surgical technique in which high strength and very rapid electric pulses are delivered across cells to permeabilize the cell membrane for applications such as gene delivery, electrochemotherapy and irreversible electroporation. The very short time scale of the electric pulses is disadvantageous because it does not facilitate real time control over the procedure. We hypothesize that applying the electric pulses during the cryosurgical procedure in such a way that the electric field vector is parallel to the heat flux vector will have the effect of confining the electric fields to the frozen/cold region of tissue, thereby ablating the cells that survive freezing while facilitating controlled use of the PEF in the cold confined region. A finite element analysis of the electric field and heat conduction equations during simultaneous tissue treatment with cryosurgery and PEF (cryosurgery/PEF was used to study the effect of tissue freezing on electric fields. The study yielded motivating results. Because of decreased electrical conductivity in the frozen/cooled tissue, it experienced temperature induced magnified electric fields in comparison to PEF delivered to the unfrozen tissue control. This suggests that freezing/cooling confines and magnifies the electric fields to those regions; a targeting capability unattainable in traditional PEF. This analysis shows how temperature induced magnified and focused

  9. Multisubband electron mobility in a parabolic quantum well structure under the influence of an applied electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, N.; Sahu, T.

    2014-01-01

    We study the multisubband electron mobility in a barrier delta doped Al x Ga 1−x As parabolic quantum well structure under the influence of an applied electric field perpendicular to the interface plane. We consider the alloy fraction x = 0.3 for barriers and vary x from 0.0 to 0.1 for the parabolic well. Electrons diffuse into the well and confine within the triangular like potentials near the interfaces due to Coulomb interaction with ionized donors. The parabolic structure potential, being opposite in nature, partly compensates the Coulomb potential. The external electric field further amends the potential structure leading to an asymmetric potential profile. Accordingly the energy levels, wave functions and occupation of subbands change. We calculate low temperature electron mobility as a function of the electric field and show that when two subbands are occupied, the mobility is mostly dominated by ionised impurity scattering mediated by intersubband effects. As the field increases transition from double subband to single subband occupancy occurs. A sudden enhancement in mobility is obtained due to curtailment of intersubband effects. Thereafter the mobility is governed by both impurity and alloy disorder scatterings. Our analysis of mobility as a function of the electric field for different structural parameters shows interesting results. (semiconductor physics)

  10. Generation of tunable terahertz out-of-plane radiation using Josephson vortices in modulated layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savel'ev, Sergey; Yampol'skii, Valery; Rakhmanov, Alexander; Nori, Franco

    2005-01-01

    We show that a moving Josephson vortex in spatially modulated layered superconductors generates out-of-plane THz radiation. Remarkably, the magnetic and in-plane electric fields radiated are of the same order, which is very unusual for any good-conducting medium. Therefore, the out-of-plane radiation can be emitted to the vacuum without the standard impedance mismatch problem. Thus, the proposed tunable THz emitter for out-of-plane radiation can be more efficient than the standard one which radiates only along the ab-plane

  11. Anisotropic universal conductance fluctuations in disordered quantum wires with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit interaction and an applied in-plane magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheid, Matthias; Adagideli, İnanç; Richter, Klaus; Nitta, Junsaku

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the transport properties of narrow quantum wires realized in disordered two-dimensional electron gases in the presence of k-linear Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit interaction, and an applied in-plane magnetic field. Building on previous work (Scheid et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 266401), we find that in addition to the conductance, the universal conductance fluctuations also feature anisotropy with respect to the magnetic field direction. This anisotropy can be explained solely from the symmetries exhibited by the Hamiltonian as well as the relative strengths of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit interaction and thus can be utilized to detect this ratio from purely electrical measurements

  12. Nonpremixed flame in a counterflow under electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Daegeun

    2016-05-08

    Electrically assisted combustion has been studied in order to control or improve flame characteristics, and emphasizing efficiency and emission regulation. Many phenomenological observations have been reported on the positive impact of electric fields on flame, however there is a lack of detailed physical mechanisms for interpreting these. To clarify the effects of electric fields on flame, I have investigated flame structure, soot formation, and flow field with ionic wind electrical current responses in nonpremixed counterflow flames. The effects of direct current (DC) electric field on flame movement and flow field was also demonstrated in premixed Bunsen flames. When a DC electric field was applied to a lower nozzle, the flames moved toward the cathode side due to Lorentz force action on the positive ions, soot particles simultaneously disappeared completely and laser diagnostics was used to identify the results from the soot particles. To understand the effects of an electric field on flames, flow visualization was performed by Mie scattering to check the ionic wind effect, which is considered to play an important role in electric field assisted combustion. Results showed a bidirectional ionic wind, with a double-stagnant flow configuration, which blew from the flame (ionic source) toward both the cathode and the anode. This implies that the electric field affects strain rate and the axial location of stoichiometry, important factors in maintaining nonpremixed counterflow flames; thus, soot formation of the counterflow flame can also be affected by the electric field. In a test of premixed Bunsen flames having parallel electrodes, flame movement toward the cathode and bidirectional ionic wind were observed. Using PIV measurement it was found that a created radial velocity caused by positive ions (i.e. toward a cathode), was much faster than the velocity toward the anode. Even in a study of alternating current (AC) electric fields, bidirectional ionic wind could

  13. Electric Field Effects in RUS Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Timothy W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ten Cate, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Allured, Bradley [UNIV NEVADA, RENO; Carpenter, Michael A [CAMBRIDGE UNIV. UK

    2009-09-21

    Much of the power of the Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) technique is the ability to make mechanical resonance measurements while the environment of the sample is changed. Temperature and magnetic field are important examples. Due to the common use of piezoelectric transducers near the sample, applied electric fields introduce complications, but many materials have technologically interesting responses to applied static and RF electric fields. Non-contact optical, buffered, or shielded transducers permit the application of charge and externally applied electric fields while making RUS measurements. For conducting samples, in vacuum, charging produces a small negative pressure in the volume of the material - a state rarely explored. At very high charges we influence the electron density near the surface so the propagation of surface waves and their resonances may give us a handle on the relationship of electron density to bond strength and elasticity. Our preliminary results indicate a charge sign dependent effect, but we are studying a number of possible other effects induced by charging. In dielectric materials, external electric fields influence the strain response, particularly in ferroelectrics. Experiments to study this connection at phase transformations are planned. The fact that many geological samples contain single crystal quartz suggests a possible use of the piezoelectric response to drive vibrations using applied RF fields. In polycrystals, averaging of strains in randomly oriented crystals implies using the 'statistical residual' strain as the drive. The ability to excite vibrations in quartzite polycrystals and arenites is explored. We present results of experimental and theoretical approaches to electric field effects using RUS methods.

  14. The principal part of plane vector fields with fixed Newton diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezovskaya, F.

    1991-09-01

    Considering the main part of a plane vector field in a neighbourhood of a singular point 0(0,0) it is well known that if the singularity real parts of eigenvalues are non-zero, the linear part of the vector field provides the topological normal form and tangents of all the o-curves. The problem is to find the main part of a plane vector field which would provide the topological orbital normal form in a neighbourhood of singular point and asymptotics of all characteristics trajectories. In this work the solution to the problem for the generic ease of so-called nondegenerate vector fields, using Newton diagram is given. 13 refs, 5 figs

  15. Fatigue crack propagation under combined cyclic mechanical loading and electric field in piezoelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakihara, Kaori; Tanaka, Keisuke; Akiniwa, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Yasuyoshi; Mukai, Hirokatsu

    2006-01-01

    Fatigue crack propagation tests of PZT specimens were performed under cyclic four-point bending with and without superposition of electric fields. The specimens were poled in the longitudinal direction (PL specimens) perpendicular to the crack plane. The crack propagation rate for the case of open circuit was faster than that for the case of short circuit. The application of a negative or positive electric field parallel to the poling direction accelerated the crack propagation rate, and the amount of acceleration was larger for the case of the negative field. The change of the crack propagation rate with crack extension can be divided into three regions. In the region I, the crack propagation rate decreases with increasing crack length, and then turn to increase in the region III. In the region II, the propagation rate is nearly constant. The mechanisms of fatigue crack propagation were correlated to domain switching near the crack tip. The grain boundary fracture was predominant in the low-rate region, while transgranular fracture became abundant on the unstable fracture surface. (author)

  16. Effect of applied DC electric fields in flame spread over polyethylene-coated electrical wire

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Young Kyu

    2011-03-01

    We experimentally investigated the effect of applied DC electric fields on the flame spread over polyethylene-coated electrical wire. The flame-spread rates over electrical wire with negative and positive DC electric fields from 0 to ±7 kV were measured and analyzed. We compared the results for DC electric fields with previous results for AC electric fields. We explored whether or not various flame shapes could be obtained with DC electric fields and the main reason for the flame-spread acceleration, particularly at the end of the electrical wire, for AC electric fields. We found that DC electric fields do not significantly affect the flame-spread rates. However, the flame shape is mildly altered by the ionic wind effect even for DC electric fields. The flame-spread rate is relevant to the flame shape and the slanted direction in spite of the mild impact. A possible explanation for the flame spread is given by a thermal-balance mechanism and fuel-vapor jet. © 2011 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers.

  17. Photoluminescence energy transitions in GaAs-Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As double quantum wells: Electric and magnetic fields and hydrostatic pressure effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, S.Y. [Grupo de Educacion en Ciencias Experimentales y Matematicas-GECEM, Facultad de Educacion, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.c [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia)

    2009-12-15

    The photoluminescence energy transitions in GaAs-Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As coupled double quantum wells are presented by considering the simultaneous effects of applied electric and magnetic fields and hydrostatic pressure. Calculations have been made in the framework of the effective mass and parabolic band approximations and using a variational procedure. The electric field is taken to be oriented along the growth direction of the heterostructure whereas for the magnetic field both in-plane and in-growth directions have been considered. The results show that the hydrostatic pressure and the applied electric field are two useful tools to tune the direct and indirect exciton transitions in such heterostructures. Our results are in good agreement with previous experimental findings in double quantum wells under applied electric field and hydrostatic pressure.

  18. A semi-analytical study of positive corona discharge in wire–plane electrode configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanallah, K; Pontiga, F; Chen, J H

    2013-01-01

    Wire-to-plane positive corona discharge in air has been studied using an analytical model of two species (electrons and positive ions). The spatial distributions of electric field and charged species are obtained by integrating Gauss's law and the continuity equations of species along the Laplacian field lines. The experimental values of corona current intensity and applied voltage, together with Warburg's law, have been used to formulate the boundary condition for the electron density on the corona wire. To test the accuracy of the model, the approximate electric field distribution has been compared with the exact numerical solution obtained from a finite element analysis. A parametrical study of wire-to-plane corona discharge has then been undertaken using the approximate semi-analytical solutions. Thus, the spatial distributions of electric field and charged particles have been computed for different values of the gas pressure, wire radius and electrode separation. Also, the two dimensional distribution of ozone density has been obtained using a simplified plasma chemistry model. The approximate semi-analytical solutions can be evaluated in a negligible computational time, yet provide precise estimates of corona discharge variables. (paper)

  19. A semi-analytical study of positive corona discharge in wire-plane electrode configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanallah, K.; Pontiga, F.; Chen, J. H.

    2013-08-01

    Wire-to-plane positive corona discharge in air has been studied using an analytical model of two species (electrons and positive ions). The spatial distributions of electric field and charged species are obtained by integrating Gauss's law and the continuity equations of species along the Laplacian field lines. The experimental values of corona current intensity and applied voltage, together with Warburg's law, have been used to formulate the boundary condition for the electron density on the corona wire. To test the accuracy of the model, the approximate electric field distribution has been compared with the exact numerical solution obtained from a finite element analysis. A parametrical study of wire-to-plane corona discharge has then been undertaken using the approximate semi-analytical solutions. Thus, the spatial distributions of electric field and charged particles have been computed for different values of the gas pressure, wire radius and electrode separation. Also, the two dimensional distribution of ozone density has been obtained using a simplified plasma chemistry model. The approximate semi-analytical solutions can be evaluated in a negligible computational time, yet provide precise estimates of corona discharge variables.

  20. Vacuum instability in a random electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krive, I.V.; Pastur, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    The reaction of the vacuum on an intense spatially homogeneous random electric field is investigated. It is shown that a stochastic electric field always causes a breakdown of the boson vacuum, and the number of pairs of particles which are created by the electric field increases exponentially in time. For the choice of potential field in the form of a dichotomic random process we find in explicit form the dependence of the average number of pairs of particles on the time of the action of the source of the stochastic field. For the fermion vacuum the average number of pairs of particles which are created by the field in the lowest order of perturbation theory in the amplitude of the random field is independent of time

  1. Stability of plane Poiseuille flow of viscoelastic fluids in the presence of a transverse magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hifdi Ahmed

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The linear stability of plan Poiseuille flow of an electrically conducting viscoelastic fluid in the presence of a transverse magnetic field is investigated numerically. The fourth-order Sommerfeld equation governing the stability analysis is solved by spectral method with expansions in lagrange’s polynomials, based on collocation points of Gauss-Lobatto. The critical values of Reynolds number, wave number and wave speed are computed. The results are shown through the neutral curve. The main purpose of this work is to check the combined effect of magnetic field and fluid’s elasticity on the stability of the plane Poiseuille flow. Based on the results obtained in this work, the magnetic field is predicted to have a stabilizing effect on the Poiseuille flow of viscoelastic fluids. Hence, it will be shown that for second-order fluids (K 0 is that the critical Reynolds numbers Rec increase when the Hartman number M increases for certain value of elasticity number K and decrease for others. The latter result is in contrast to previous studies.

  2. Hofstadter spectrum in electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunold, Alejandro; Torres, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    The problem of Bloch electrons in two dimensions subjected to magnetic and intense electric fields is investigated. Magnetic translations, electric evolution, and energy translation operators are used to specify the solutions of the Schroedinger equation. For rational values of the magnetic flux quanta per unit cell and commensurate orientations of the electric field relative to the original lattice, an extended superlattice can be defined and a complete set of mutually commuting space-time symmetry operators is obtained. Dynamics of the system is governed by a finite difference equation that exactly includes the effects of: an arbitrary periodic potential, an electric field orientated in a commensurable direction of the lattice, and coupling between Landau levels. A weak periodic potential broadens each Landau level in a series of minibands, separated by the corresponding minigaps. The addition of the electric field induces a series of avoided and exact crossing of the quasienergies, for sufficiently strong electric field the spectrum evolves into equally spaced discreet levels, in this 'magnetic Stark ladder' the energy separation is an integer multiple of hE/aB, with a the lattice parameter

  3. Multiphoton processes in the field of two-frequency circularly polarized plane electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, An

    1997-01-01

    The authors solve Dirac's equation for an electron in the field of a two-frequency plane electromagnetic wave, deriving general formulae for the probabilities of radiation of a photon by the electron, and for the probabilities for pair production by a photon when the two-frequency wave is circularly polarized. In contrast to the case of a monochromatic-plane electromagnetic wave, when an electron is in the field of a two-frequency circularly polarized wave, besides the absorption of multiphotons and emission of simple harmonics of the individual waves, stimulated multiphoton emission processes and various composite harmonic-photon emission processes are occurred: when a high-energy photon is in a such a field, multiphoton processes also follow the pair production processes

  4. Effects of the Electric Field on the Direct Loss Asymmetries on TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of the radial electric fields upon the direct loss asymmetries have been studied for low energy (0.1-1keV)ions. The analysis shows the permanence of the predominant downwards asymmetry that is only slightly modified in the poloidal rotation direction for moderate electric fields. In TJ-II this poloidal rotation is directed towards decreasing poloidal angles for positive (outward) electric fields and the ions drift along the same direction. Nevertheless for very strong fields the lost particles concentrate in the extreme plasma periphery (at the same time that the rate loss decreases strongly) and have no time, any more, to feel the poloidal rotation before escaping. The gaps between the TF coils receive the most of the losses. On the Vacuum Vessel the losses have a very strong concentration along the Hard Core, in particular on the PLT-2 plane plate (the one that is placed down at Phi=0 degree centigree) and a moderate preference for the 2''nd toroidal octant of each period. The poloidal rotation is much less visible than on the plasma border. The resulting power loads are small. (Author)

  5. Enhanced electrical conductivity in graphene and boron nitride nanoribbons in large electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegel, Raad

    2018-02-01

    Based on data of density function theory (DFT) as the input of tight binding model, the electrical conductivity (σ(T)) of graphene nanoribbos (GNRs) and Boron Nitride nanoribbos (BNNRs) under external electric fields with different wide are studied using the Green's function method. The BNNRs are wide band gap semiconductor and they are turned into metal depending on their electric field strength. The σ(T) shows increasing in low temperature region and after reaching the maximum value, it will decrease in high temperature region. In lower temperature ranges, the electrical conductivity of the GNRs is greater than that of the BNNRs. In a low temperature region, the σ(T) of GNRs increases linearly with temperature unlike the BNNRs. The electrical conductivity are strongly dependent on the electric field strength.

  6. Electric and magnetic fields in medicine and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Papers Include: The effects of low frequency (50 Hz) magnetic fields on neuro-chemical transmission in vitro; Morphological changes in E Coli subjected to DC electrical fields; An investigation of some claimed biological effects of electromagnetic fields; Electrical phenomena and bone healing - a comparison of contemporary techniques; Clinical evaluations of a portable module emitting pulsed RF energy; The design, construction and performance of a magnetic nerve stimulator; The principle of electric field tomography and its application to selective read-out of information from peripheral nerves; Applied potential tomography - clinical applications; Impendance imaging using a linear electrode array; Mathematics as an aid to experiment: human body currents induced by power frequency electric fields; Effects of electric field near 750KV transmission line and protection against their harmful consequences; Leukemia and electromagnetic fields: a case-control study; Overhead power lines and childhood cancer; Magnetic measurement of nerve action currents - a new intraoperative recording technique; The potential use of electron spin resonance or impedance measurement to image neuronal electrical activity in the human brain

  7. Field dependence of magnetic viscosity of CoCrTa in-plane media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan le kim, P.L.K.; Lodder, J.C.; Popma, T.J.A.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we will present a study of magnetic viscosity as a function of applied field of CoCrTa/Cr in-plane media. The viscosity versus applied field curves (viscosity curves) of the samples exhibit a sharp peak at remanence coercivity (Hcr). Their activation volume was found to be close to the

  8. Electric field modulation of magnetic anisotropy and microwave absorption properties in Fe50Ni50/Teflon composite films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjun Xia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fe50Ni50 nanoparticle films with the size about 6 nm were deposited by a high energetic cluster deposition source. An electric field of about 0 - 40 kV was applied on the sample platform when the films were prepared. The field assisted deposition technique can dramatically induce in-plane magnetic anisotropy. To probe the microwave absorption properties, the Fe50Ni50 nanoparticles were deliberately deposited on the dielectric Teflon sheet. Then the laminated Fe50Ni50/Teflon composites were used to do reflection loss scan. The results prove that the application of electric field is an effective avenue to improve the GHz microwave absorption performance of our magnetic nanoparticles films expressed by the movement of reflection loss peak to high GHz region for the composites.

  9. The reduced basis method for the electric field integral equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fares, M.; Hesthaven, J.S.; Maday, Y.; Stamm, B.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the reduced basis method (RBM) as an efficient tool for parametrized scattering problems in computational electromagnetics for problems where field solutions are computed using a standard Boundary Element Method (BEM) for the parametrized electric field integral equation (EFIE). This combination enables an algorithmic cooperation which results in a two step procedure. The first step consists of a computationally intense assembling of the reduced basis, that needs to be effected only once. In the second step, we compute output functionals of the solution, such as the Radar Cross Section (RCS), independently of the dimension of the discretization space, for many different parameter values in a many-query context at very little cost. Parameters include the wavenumber, the angle of the incident plane wave and its polarization.

  10. Streaming from the Equator of a Drop in an External Electric Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau, Quentin; Vlahovska, Petia M

    2017-07-21

    Tip streaming generates micron- and submicron-sized droplets when a thin thread pulled from the pointy end of a drop disintegrates. Here, we report streaming from the equator of a drop placed in a uniform electric field. The instability generates concentric fluid rings encircling the drop, which break up to form an array of microdroplets in the equatorial plane. We show that the streaming results from an interfacial instability at the stagnation line of the electrohydrodynamic flow, which creates a sharp edge. The flow draws from the equator a thin sheet which destabilizes and sheds fluid cylinders. This streaming phenomenon provides a new route for generating monodisperse microemulsions.

  11. Quantum particle in a potential well field and in an electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyunter, U.; Olejnik, V.P.

    1990-01-01

    Solutions of the Dirac equation in the field of δ-like potential well with arbitrary symmetry and in uniform electric field were obtained and analyzed. It is shown that wave function and energy of electron in bound state in the absence of electric field depend sufficiently on the type of potential well symmetry. 1 ref

  12. The induced electric field distribution in the solar atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rong; Yang Zhi-Liang; Deng Yuan-Yong

    2013-01-01

    A method of calculating the induced electric field is presented. The induced electric field in the solar atmosphere is derived by the time variation of the magnetic field when the accumulation of charged particles is neglected. In order to derive the spatial distribution of the magnetic field, several extrapolation methods are introduced. With observational data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager aboard NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory taken on 2010 May 20, we extrapolate the magnetic field from the photosphere to the upper atmosphere. By calculating the time variation of the magnetic field, we can get the induced electric field. The derived induced electric field can reach a value of 10 2 V cm −1 and the average electric field has a maximum point at the layer 360 km above the photosphere. The Monte Carlo method is used to compute the triple integration of the induced electric field.

  13. Out-of-plane coercive field of Ni80Fe20 antidot arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Chunhong; Chen Ke; Lue Ling; Zhao Jianwei; Chen Peng

    2010-01-01

    The out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy and out-of-plane magnetization reversal process of nanoscale Ni 80 Fe 20 antidot arrays deposited by magnetron sputtering technique on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane are investigated. The angular dependence of out-of-plane remanent magnetization of Ni 80 Fe 20 antidot arrays shows that the maximum remanence is in-plane and the squareness of the out-of-plane hysteresis loop follow a |cos θ| dependence. The angular dependence of out-of-plane coercivity of Ni 80 Fe 20 antidot arrays shows that the maximum coercivity lies on the surface of a cone with its symmetric axis normal to the sample plane, which indicates a transition of magnetic reversal from curling to coherent rotation when changing the angle between the applied magnetic field and the sample plane.

  14. Out-of-plane coercive field of Ni 80Fe 20 antidot arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chunhong; Chen, Ke; Lü, Ling; Zhao, Jianwei; Chen, Peng

    2010-11-01

    The out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy and out-of-plane magnetization reversal process of nanoscale Ni 80Fe 20 antidot arrays deposited by magnetron sputtering technique on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane are investigated. The angular dependence of out-of-plane remanent magnetization of Ni 80Fe 20 antidot arrays shows that the maximum remanence is in-plane and the squareness of the out-of-plane hysteresis loop follow a |cos θ| dependence. The angular dependence of out-of-plane coercivity of Ni 80Fe 20 antidot arrays shows that the maximum coercivity lies on the surface of a cone with its symmetric axis normal to the sample plane, which indicates a transition of magnetic reversal from curling to coherent rotation when changing the angle between the applied magnetic field and the sample plane.

  15. Ambilpolar Electric Field and Diffusive Cooling of Electrons in Meteor Trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasko, V. P.; Kelley, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Kelley and Price [GRL, 44, 2987, 2017] recently indicated that ambipolar electric fields may play a role in dynamics of dense plasmas generated by meteors. In the present work we discuss time dynamics of relaxation of electron temperature in meteor trails under relatively common conditions when meteor trail diffusion is not affected by the geomagnetic field (i.e., at low altitudes where both electrons and ions are not magnetized, or at higher altitudes in the plane defined by the trail and magnetic field when meteor trail is not aligned with the geomagnetic field [Ceplecha et al., Space Sci. Rev., 84, 327, 1998, and references therein]). The rate of ambipolar diffusion is a function of temperature and pressure [e.g., Hocking et al., Ann. Geophys., 34, 1119, 2016; Silber et al., Mon. Not. RAS, 469, 1869, 2017] and there is a significant spectroscopic evidence of initial plasma temperatures in meteor trails on the order 4400 deg K [Jennikens et al., Astrobiology, 4, 81, 2004]. For a representative altitude of 105 km chosen for our studies the results are consistent with previous analysis conducted in [Baggeley and Webb, J. Atm. Terr. Phys., 39, 1399, 1977; Ceplecha et al., 1998] indicating that the electron temperature remains elevated for significant time durations measured in tens of milliseconds. Our results indicate that in terms of their magnitudes the ambipolar electric fields can exceed the critical breakdown field of air, consistent with ideas expressed by Kelley and Price [GRL, 44, 2987, 2017], however, under considered conditions these fields lead to acceleration of electron cooling, with electron temperatures falling below the ambient air temperature (below 224 deg K at 105 km altitude). These effects are referred to as diffusive cooling [e.g., Rozhansky and Tsendin, Transport phenomena in partially ionized plasma, Taylor & Francis, 2001, p. 449] and represent a process in which diffusing electrons move against the force acting on them from ambipolar

  16. Chaotic motion of a harmonically bound charged particle in a magnetic field, in the presence of a half-plane barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, Bernardus J.; Wiegel, F.W.; Creswick, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    The motion in the plane of an harmonically bound charged particle interacting with a magnetic field and a half-plane barrier along the positive x-axis is studied. The magnetic field is perpendicular to the plane in which the particle moves. This motion is integrable in between collisions of the

  17. Electric Field Imaging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NDE historically has focused technology development in propagating wave phenomena with little attention to the field of electrostatics and emanating electric fields....

  18. Apparatuses and methods for generating electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R; McJunkin, Timothy R; Tremblay, Paul L

    2013-08-06

    Apparatuses and methods relating to generating an electric field are disclosed. An electric field generator may include a semiconductive material configured in a physical shape substantially different from a shape of an electric field to be generated thereby. The electric field is generated when a voltage drop exists across the semiconductive material. A method for generating an electric field may include applying a voltage to a shaped semiconductive material to generate a complex, substantially nonlinear electric field. The shape of the complex, substantially nonlinear electric field may be configured for directing charged particles to a desired location. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed.

  19. Electric field prediction for a human body-electric machine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannides, Maria G; Papadopoulos, Peter J; Dimitropoulou, Eugenia

    2004-01-01

    A system consisting of an electric machine and a human body is studied and the resulting electric field is predicted. A 3-phase induction machine operating at full load is modeled considering its geometry, windings, and materials. A human model is also constructed approximating its geometry and the electric properties of tissues. Using the finite element technique the electric field distribution in the human body is determined for a distance of 1 and 5 m from the machine and its effects are studied. Particularly, electric field potential variations are determined at specific points inside the human body and for these points the electric field intensity is computed and compared to the limit values for exposure according to international standards.

  20. ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS ELECTRIC AND GASOLINE-POWERED VEHICLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, Richard A; Kavet, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Measurements were conducted to investigate electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) from 120 Hz to 10 kHz and 1.2 to 100 kHz in 9 electric or hybrid vehicles and 4 gasoline vehicles, all while being driven. The range of fields in the electric vehicles enclosed the range observed in the gasoline vehicles. Mean magnetic fields ranged from nominally 0.6 to 3.5 µT for electric/hybrids depending on the measurement band compared with nominally 0.4 to 0.6 µT for gasoline vehicles. Mean values of electric fields ranged from nominally 2 to 3 V m -1 for electric/hybrid vehicles depending on the band, compared with 0.9 to 3 V m -1 for gasoline vehicles. In all cases, the fields were well within published exposure limits for the general population. The measurements were performed with Narda model EHP-50C/EHP-50D EMF analysers that revealed the presence of spurious signals in the EHP-50C unit, which were resolved with the EHP-50D model. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Electric field measurements in a near atmospheric pressure nanosecond pulse discharge with picosecond electric field induced second harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M.; Chng, Tat Loon; Dogariu, Arthur; Miles, Richard B.

    2018-02-01

    We present an optical electric field measurement method for use in high pressure plasma discharges. The method is based upon the field induced second harmonic generation technique and can be used for localized electric field measurements with sub-nanosecond resolution in any gaseous species. When an external electric field is present, a dipole is induced in the typically centrosymmetric medium, allowing for second harmonic generation with signal intensities which scale by the square of the electric field. Calibrations have been carried out in 100 Torr room air, and a minimum sensitivity of 450 V/cm is demonstrated. Measurements were performed with nanosecond or faster temporal resolution in a 100 Torr room air environment both with and without a plasma present. It was shown that with no plasma present, the field follows the applied voltage to gap ratio, as measured using the back current shunt method. When the electric field is strong enough to exceed the breakdown threshold, the measured field was shown to exceed the anticipated voltage to gap ratio which is taken as an indication of the ionization wave front as it sweeps through the plasma volume.

  2. High electric field conduction in low-alkali boroaluminosilicate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Priyanka; Yuan, Mengxue; Gao, Jun; Furman, Eugene; Lanagan, Michael T.

    2018-02-01

    Electrical conduction in silica-based glasses under a low electric field is dominated by high mobility ions such as sodium, and there is a transition from ionic transport to electronic transport as the electric field exceeds 108 V/m at low temperatures. Electrical conduction under a high electric field was investigated in thin low-alkali boroaluminosilicate glass samples, showing nonlinear conduction with the current density scaling approximately with E1/2, where E is the electric field. In addition, thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) characterization was carried out on room-temperature electrically poled glass samples, and an anomalous discharging current flowing in the same direction as the charging current was observed. High electric field conduction and TSDC results led to the conclusion that Poole-Frenkel based electronic transport occurs in the mobile-cation-depleted region adjacent to the anode, and accounts for the observed anomalous current.

  3. Plasma Flows in Crossed Magnetic and Electric Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belikov, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the magnitude and direction of an external electric field on the plasma flowing through a magnetic barrier is studied by numerically solving two-fluid MHD equations. The drift velocity of the plasma flow and the distribution of the flow electrons over transverse velocities are found to depend on the magnitude and direction of the electric field. It is shown that the direction of the induced longitudinal electric field is determined by the direction of the external field and that the electric current generated by the plasma flow significantly disturbs the barrier field

  4. Electric-field-induced modification in Curie temperature of Co monolayer on Pt(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kohji; Oba, Mikito; Akiyama, Toru; Ito, Tomonori; Weinert, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Magnetism induced by an external electric field (E-field) has received much attention as a potential approach for controlling magnetism at the nano-scale with the promise of ultra-low energy power consumption. Here, the E-field-induced modification of the Curie temperature for a prototypical transition-metal thin layer of a Co monolayer on Pt(111) is investigated by first-principles calculations by using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method that treats spin-spiral structures in an E-field. An applied E-field modifies the magnon (spin-spiral formation) energies by a few meV, which leads to a modification of the exchange pair interaction parameters within the classical Heisenberg model. With inclusion of the spin-orbit coupling (SOC), the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and the Dzyaloshinskii-Morita interaction are obtained by the second variation SOC method. An E-field-induced modification of the Curie temperature is demonstrated by Monte Carlo simulations, in which a change in the exchange interaction is found to play a key role.

  5. The relationship between anatomically correct electric and magnetic field dosimetry and published electric and magnetic field exposure limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavet, R.; Dovan, T.; Patrick Reilly, J.

    2012-01-01

    Electric and magnetic field exposure limits published by International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and Inst. of Electrical and Electronics Engineers are aimed at protection against adverse electro-stimulation, which may occur by direct coupling to excitable tissue and, in the case of electric fields, through indirect means associated with surface charge effects (e.g. hair vibration, skin sensations), spark discharge and contact current. For direct coupling, the basic restriction (BR) specifies the not-to-be-exceeded induced electric field. The key results of anatomically based electric and magnetic field dosimetry studies and the relevant characteristics of excitable tissue were first identified. This permitted us to assess the electric and magnetic field exposure levels that induce dose in tissue equal to the basic restrictions, and the relationships of those exposure levels to the limits now in effect. We identify scenarios in which direct coupling of electric fields to peripheral nerve could be a determining factor for electric field limits. (authors)

  6. Electrode Cooling Effect on Out-Of-Phase Electrothermal Streaming in Rotating Electric Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyu Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we focus on investigating electrothermal flow in rotating electric fields (ROT-ETF, with primary attention paid to the horizontal traveling-wave electrothermal (TWET vortex induced at the center of the electric field. The frequency-dependent flow profiles in the microdevice are analyzed using different heat transfer models. Accordingly, we address in particular the importance of electrode cooling in ROT-ETF as metal electrodes of high thermal conductivity, while substrate material of low heat dissipation capability is employed to develop such microfluidic chips. Under this circumstance, cooling of electrode array due to external natural convection on millimeter-scale electrode pads for external wire connection occurs and makes the internal temperature maxima shift from the electrode plane to a bit of distance right above the cross-shaped interelectrode gaps, giving rise to reversal of flow rotation from a typical repulsion-type to attraction-type induction vortex, which is in good accordance with our experimental observations of co-field TWET streaming at frequencies in the order of reciprocal charge relaxation time of the bulk fluid. These results point out a way to make a correct interpretation of out-of-phase electrothermal streaming behavior, which holds great potential for handing high-conductivity analytes in modern microfluidic systems.

  7. Influence of Magnetic Field on Electric Charge Transport in Holomiun Thin Films at Low Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dudas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Holmium thin films were prepared by evaporation in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV and high precision electrical resistance measurements were performed on them as well as on holomium bulk sample in the wide temperature range from 4,2 K up to the room temperature. Electric charge transport is profoundly influenced by the magnetic structure at low temperatures and a "knee-like" resistance anomaly was observed near the transportation from paramagnetic state to basal-plane spiral structure in bulk with the Neel temperature TN=128,9 K and below ~ 122 K in thin Ho films in a thickness range from 98 nm to 215 nm. Unexpected resistance minimum at ~ 9 K and a slope´s charge of the R vs. T curve near ~ 170 K was observed in 215 nm thin film. Application of magnetic field parallel to the substrate and thin film plane for temperatures below ~ 150 K caused the decrease of resistence value with increasing magnetic flux density. Increasing suppression of the TN value up to ~ 5 K with increasing flux density value up to 5 T was observed in Ho films. 

  8. Focal plane detector for QDD spectrography in Institute of Nuclear Study and detector for SMART 2nd focal plane in RIKEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchi, Yoshihide [Tokyo Univ., Tanashi (Japan). Inst. for Nuclear Study

    1996-09-01

    The focal plane detector for QDD spectrography in Institute of Nuclear Study was composed of drift space and a proportional counter tube, and the latter is composed of position detector and two delta E detector for recognizing the particles. In this detector, a uniform parallel electric field can be obtained by placing a guard plate at the same height as that of a drift plate outer place of the detector. On the other hand, the detector for SMART 2nd focal plate in RIKEN is composed of drift space and a single wire proportional counter, and has two cathode read out single wire drift counters set so as to hold the focal plane. (G.K.)

  9. Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography for determining electric field distribution during electroporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranjc, Matej; Miklavcic, Damijan; Bajd, Franci; Serša, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Electroporation is a phenomenon caused by externally applied electric field to cells that results in an increase of cell membrane permeability to various molecules. Accurate coverage of the tissue with a sufficiently large electric field presents one of the most important conditions for successful membrane permeabilization. Applications based on electroporation would greatly benefit with a method for monitoring the electric field, especially if it could be done in situ. As the membrane electroporation is a consequence of an induced transmembrane potential, which is directly proportional to the local electric field, we have been investigating current density imaging and magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography techniques to determine the electric field distribution during electroporation. In this paper, we present comparison of current density and electric field distribution in an agar phantom and in a liver tissue exposed to electroporation pulses. As expected, a region of increased electrical conductivity was observed in the liver tissue exposed to sufficiently high electric field but not in agar phantom.

  10. Synaptic Effects of Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Asif

    Learning and sensory processing in the brain relies on the effective transmission of information across synapses. The strength and efficacy of synaptic transmission is modifiable through training and can be modulated with noninvasive electrical brain stimulation. Transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), specifically, induces weak intensity and spatially diffuse electric fields in the brain. Despite being weak, electric fields modulate spiking probability and the efficacy of synaptic transmission. These effects critically depend on the direction of the electric field relative to the orientation of the neuron and on the level of endogenous synaptic activity. TES has been used to modulate a wide range of neuropsychiatric indications, for various rehabilitation applications, and cognitive performance in diverse tasks. How can a weak and diffuse electric field, which simultaneously polarizes neurons across the brain, have precise changes in brain function? Designing therapies to maximize desired outcomes and minimize undesired effects presents a challenging problem. A series of experiments and computational models are used to define the anatomical and functional factors leading to specificity of TES. Anatomical specificity derives from guiding current to targeted brain structures and taking advantage of the direction-sensitivity of neurons with respect to the electric field. Functional specificity originates from preferential modulation of neuronal networks that are already active. Diffuse electric fields may recruit connected brain networks involved in a training task and promote plasticity along active synaptic pathways. In vitro, electric fields boost endogenous synaptic plasticity and raise the ceiling for synaptic learning with repeated stimulation sessions. Synapses undergoing strong plasticity are preferentially modulated over weak synapses. Therefore, active circuits that are involved in a task could be more susceptible to stimulation than inactive circuits

  11. The Focal Plane Assembly for the Athena X-Ray Integral Field Unit Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, B. D.; Van Weers, H.; van der Kuur, J.; den Hartog, R.; Akamatsu, H.; Argan, A.; Bandler, S. R.; Barbera, M.; Barret, D.; Bruijn, M. P.; hide

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes a preliminary design concept for the focal plane assembly of the X-ray Integral Field Unit on the Athena spacecraft, an imaging microcalorimeter that will enable high spectral resolution imaging and point-source spectroscopy. The instrument's sensor array will be a 3840-pixel transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter array, with a frequency domain multiplexed SQUID readout system allowing this large-format sensor array to be operated within the thermal constraints of the instrument's cryogenic system. A second TES detector will be operated in close proximity to the sensor array to detect cosmic rays and secondary particles passing through the sensor array for off-line coincidence detection to identify and reject events caused by the in-orbit high-energy particle background. The detectors, operating at 55 mK, or less, will be thermally isolated from the instrument cryostat's 2 K stage, while shielding and filtering within the FPA will allow the instrument's sensitive sensor array to be operated in the expected environment during both on-ground testing and in-flight operation, including stray light from the cryostat environment, low-energy photons entering through the X-ray aperture, low-frequency magnetic fields, and high-frequency electric fields.

  12. Effect of the averaging volume and algorithm on the in situ electric field for uniform electric- and magnetic-field exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Takano, Yukinori; Fujiwara, Osamu; Kamimura, Yoshitsugu

    2010-01-01

    The present study quantified the volume-averaged in situ electric field in nerve tissues of anatomically based numeric Japanese male and female models for exposure to extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields. A quasi-static finite-difference time-domain method was applied to analyze this problem. The motivation of our investigation is that the dependence of the electric field induced in nerve tissue on the averaging volume/distance is not clear, while a cubical volume of 5 x 5 x 5 mm 3 or a straight-line segment of 5 mm is suggested in some documents. The influence of non-nerve tissue surrounding nerve tissue is also discussed by considering three algorithms for calculating the averaged in situ electric field in nerve tissue. The computational results obtained herein reveal that the volume-averaged electric field in the nerve tissue decreases with the averaging volume. In addition, the 99th percentile value of the volume-averaged in situ electric field in nerve tissue is more stable than that of the maximal value for different averaging volume. When including non-nerve tissue surrounding nerve tissue in the averaging volume, the resultant in situ electric fields were not so dependent on the averaging volume as compared to the case excluding non-nerve tissue. In situ electric fields averaged over a distance of 5 mm were comparable or larger than that for a 5 x 5 x 5 mm 3 cube depending on the algorithm, nerve tissue considered and exposure scenarios. (note)

  13. Electric-field-induced modification in Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction of Co monolayer on Pt(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kohji; Akiyama, Toru; Ito, Tomonori; Ono, Teruo; Weinert, Michael

    Magnetism induced by an external electric field (E-field) has received much attention as a potential approach for controlling magnetism at the nano-scale with the promise of ultra-low energy power consumption. Here, the E-field-induced modification of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) for a prototypical transition-metal thin layer of a Co monolayer on Pt(111) is investigated by first-principles calculations by using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method that treats spin-spiral structures in an E-field. With inclusion of the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) by the second variational method for commensurate spin-spiral structures, the DMI constants were estimated from an asymmetric contribution in the total energy with respect to the spin-spiral wavevector. The results predicted that the DMI is modified by the E-field, but the change is found to be small compared to that in the exchange interaction (a symmetric contribution in the total energy) by a factor of ten.

  14. Frictionless contact analysis of a functionally graded piezoelectric layered half-plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Liaoliang; Yang Jie; Kitipornchai, Sritawat; Wang Yuesheng

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the frictionless contact problem of a layered half-plane made of functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) in the plane strain state under the action of a rigid punch whose shape may be flat, triangular or cylindrical. It is assumed that the punch is a perfect electrical insulator with zero electric charge distribution. The electroelastic properties of the FGPM layer vary exponentially along the thickness direction. By using the Fourier integral transform technique, the problem is reduced to a Cauchy singular integral equation which is then numerically solved to determine the contact pressure, contact region, maximum indentation depth, normal stress, electrical potential and electric displacement fields. The stress intensity factor is also given to quantitatively characterize the singularity behavior of the contact pressure at the ends of a flat and triangular punch. Numerical results show that both the material property gradient of the FGPM layer and the punch geometry have a significant influence on the contact performance of the FGPM layered half-plane

  15. Monrelativistic particle in a magnetic field in two-dimensional Lobachevsky space, the cylindrical coordinates and the Poincare half-plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovsiyu, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Exact solutions of the Schrodinger equation in the two-dimensional Riemannian space of negative curvature, the hyperbolic Lobachevsky plane, in the presence of an external magnetic field, which is an analog of a uniform magnetic field in the Minkowski space, are constructed. The description uses the cylindrical and quasi-Cartesian coordinates. The quasi-Cartesian coordinates determine the Poincare half-plane. In the both coordinate systems, the Schrodinger equation is solved exactly, the wave functions are constructed. A generalized formula for energy levels is found, which describes the quantized motion of a particle in a magnetic field in the Lobachevsky plane. (authors)

  16. Plane Couette flow in the presence of a strong centrifugal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.A.

    1982-05-01

    The Pomraning problem of plane Couette flow in a strong centrifugal field is studied by several methods: a half-range polynomial expansion of the linearized BGK equation; the Liu-Lees method; and a new matching approximation constructed to give the correct solution in the free-molecule limit. The matching approximation, which appears valid for strong enough centrifugal field, predicts major differences from hydrodynamic behaviour, and suggests ways in which the lack of convergence of one method studied may be corrected. (author)

  17. Underwater electric field detection system based on weakly electric fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wei; Wang, Tianyu; Wang, Qi

    2018-04-01

    Weakly electric fish sense their surroundings in complete darkness by their active electric field detection system. However, due to the insufficient detection capacity of the electric field, the detection distance is not enough, and the detection accuracy is not high. In this paper, a method of underwater detection based on rotating current field theory is proposed to improve the performance of underwater electric field detection system. First of all, we built underwater detection system based on the theory of the spin current field mathematical model with the help of the results of previous researchers. Then we completed the principle prototype and finished the metal objects in the water environment detection experiments, laid the foundation for the further experiments.

  18. Solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation in the field of a plane electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starostin, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    A solution is obtained of the Bethe--Salpeter equation for positronium in the field of linearly and circularly polarized plane electromagnetic waves at frequencies much higher than atomic. It is not assumed that the field is weak

  19. Equilibrium configurations of the conducting liquid surface in a nonuniform electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubarev, N. M.; Zubareva, O. V.

    2011-01-01

    Possible equilibrium configurations of the free surface of a conducting liquid deformed by a nonuniform external electric field are investigated. The liquid rests on an electrode that has the shape of a dihedral angle formed by two intersecting equipotential half-planes (conducting wedge). It is assumed that the problem has plane symmetry: the surface is invariant under shift along the edge of the dihedral angle. A one-parametric family of exact solutions for the shape of the surface is found in which the opening angle of the region above the wedge serves as a parameter. The solutions are valid when the pressure difference between the inside and outside of the liquid is zero. For an arbitrary pressure difference, approximate solutions to the problem are constructed and it is demonstrated the approximation error is small. It is found that, when the potential difference exceeds a certain threshold value, equilibrium solutions are absent. In this case, the region occupied by the liquid disintegrates, the disintegration scenario depending on the opening angle.

  20. Simultaneous Generalizations of the Theorems of Ceva and Menelaus for Field Planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Kelly B.; Powers, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    In 1992, Klamkin and Liu proved a very general result in the Extended Euclidean Plane that contains the theorems of Ceva and Menelaus as special cases. In this article, we extend the Klamkin and Liu result to projective planes "PG"(2, F) where F is a field. (Contains 2 figures.)

  1. Field-Induced Superconductivity in Electric Double Layer Transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ueno, Kazunori; Shimotani, Hidekazu; Yuan, Hongtao; Ye, Jianting; Kawasaki, Masashi; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    Electric field tuning of superconductivity has been a long-standing issue in solid state physics since the invention of the field-effect transistor (FET) in 1960. Owing to limited available carrier density in conventional FET devices, electric-field-induced superconductivity was believed to be

  2. Influence of hydrostatic pressure on the built-in electric field in ZnO/ZnMgO quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teisseyre, Henryk, E-mail: teiss@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of High Pressure, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokołowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Kaminska, Agata; Suchocki, Andrzej; Kozanecki, Adrian [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Birner, Stefan [nextnano GmbH, Südmährenstr. 21, 85586 Poing (Germany); Young, Toby D. [Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Pawińskiego, 5b, 02-106 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-06-07

    We used high hydrostatic pressure to perform photoluminescence measurements on polar ZnO/ZnMgO quantum well structures. Our structure oriented along the c-direction (polar direction) was grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on a-plane sapphire. Due to the intrinsic electric field, which exists in polar wurtzite structure at ambient pressure, we observed a red shift of the emission related to the quantum-confined Stark effect. In the high hydrostatic pressure experiment, we observed a strong decrease of the quantum well pressure coefficients with increased thickness of the quantum wells. Generally, a narrower quantum well gave a higher pressure coefficient, closer to the band-gap pressure coefficient of bulk material 20 meV/GPa for ZnO, while for wider quantum wells it is much lower. We observed a pressure coefficient of 19.4 meV/GPa for a 1.5 nm quantum well, while for an 8 nm quantum well the pressure coefficient was equal to 8.9 meV/GPa only. This is explained by taking into account the pressure-induced increase of the strain in our structure. The strain was calculated taking in to account that in-plane strain is not equal (due to fact that we used a-plane sapphire as a substrate) and the potential distribution in the structure was calculated self-consistently. The pressure induced increase of the built-in electric field is the same for all thicknesses of quantum wells, but becomes more pronounced for thicker quantum wells due to the quantum confined Stark effect lowering the pressure coefficients.

  3. Manipulation of positron orbits in a dipole magnetic field with fluctuating electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, H.; Horn-Stanja, J.; Nißl, S.; Stenson, E. V.; Hergenhahn, U.; Pedersen, T. Sunn; Singer, M.; Dickmann, M.; Hugenschmidt, C.; Stoneking, M. R.; Danielson, J. R.; Surko, C. M.

    2018-01-01

    We report the manipulation of positron orbits in a toroidal dipole magnetic field configuration realized with electric fields generated by segmented electrodes. When the toroidal circulation motion of positrons in the dipole field is coupled with time-varying electric fields generated by azimuthally segmented outer electrodes, positrons undergo oscillations of their radial positions. This enables quick manipulation of the spatial profiles of positrons in a dipole field trap by choosing appropriate frequency, amplitude, phase, and gating time of the electric fields. According to numerical orbit analysis, we applied these electric fields to positrons injected from the NEPOMUC slow positron facility into a prototype dipole field trap experiment with a permanent magnet. Measurements with annihilation γ-rays clearly demonstrated the efficient compression effects of positrons into the strong magnetic field region of the dipole field configuration. This positron manipulation technique can be used as one of essential tools for future experiments on the formation of electron-positron plasmas.

  4. Design and fabrication of a 3D-structured gold film with nanopores for local electric field enhancement in the pore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant-Jacob, James A; Zin Oo, Swe; Carpignano, Francesca; Brocklesby, William S; Melvin, Tracy; Boden, Stuart A; Charlton, Martin D B

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensionally structured gold membrane films with nanopores of defined, periodic geometries are designed and fabricated to provide the spatially localised enhancement of electric fields by manipulation of the plasmons inside nanopores. Square nanopores of different size and orientation relative to the pyramid are considered for films in aqueous and air environments, which allow for control of the position of electric fields within the structure. Designs suitable for use with 780 nm light were created. Here, periodic pyramidal cavities produced by potassium hydroxide etching to the {111} planes of (100) silicon substrates are used as templates for creating a periodic, pyramidal structured, free-standing thin gold film. Consistent with the findings from the theoretical studies, a nano-sized hole of 50 nm square was milled through the gold film at a specific location in the cavity to provide electric field control which can subsequently used for enhancement of fluorescence or Raman scattering of molecules in the nanopore. (paper)

  5. Design and fabrication of a 3D-structured gold film with nanopores for local electric field enhancement in the pore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant-Jacob, James A.; Zin Oo, Swe; Carpignano, Francesca; Boden, Stuart A.; Brocklesby, William S.; Charlton, Martin D. B.; Melvin, Tracy

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensionally structured gold membrane films with nanopores of defined, periodic geometries are designed and fabricated to provide the spatially localised enhancement of electric fields by manipulation of the plasmons inside nanopores. Square nanopores of different size and orientation relative to the pyramid are considered for films in aqueous and air environments, which allow for control of the position of electric fields within the structure. Designs suitable for use with 780 nm light were created. Here, periodic pyramidal cavities produced by potassium hydroxide etching to the {111} planes of (100) silicon substrates are used as templates for creating a periodic, pyramidal structured, free-standing thin gold film. Consistent with the findings from the theoretical studies, a nano-sized hole of 50 nm square was milled through the gold film at a specific location in the cavity to provide electric field control which can subsequently used for enhancement of fluorescence or Raman scattering of molecules in the nanopore.

  6. Water co-adsorption and electric field effects on borohydride structures on Os(1 1 1) by first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escaño, Mary Clare Sison, E-mail: mcescano@u-fukui.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Arevalo, Ryan Lacdao [Department of Precision Science and Technology and Applied Physics, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Gyenge, Elod [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Kasai, Hideaki [Department of Precision Science and Technology and Applied Physics, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: ► Difference in Pt, Os electronic structures lead to different borohydride structures. ► Promotion of B–H bond breaking on Os due to water effects. ► Control of borohydride structure on Os catalyst using electric field. -- Abstract: Periodic density functional theory calculations are performed to investigate the nature of the BH{sub 4ad} and its interaction with H{sub 2}O{sub ad} in the presence of homogenous electric field. We observed a significant charge polarity of BH{sub 4ad} on Os(1 1 1) and such property could explain the electrostatic interaction with water monomer (H{sub ad}) with its HOH plane parallel to the surface. This interaction changes the BH{sub ad} molecular structure to BH{sub 3ad} + H{sub ad}. In the presence of homogenous electric field, the water co-adsorption effect is reduced due to the stabilization of H{sub 2}O{sub ad} on the surface and the deviation of the O–H bond from the plane, decreasing the electrostatic interaction between BH{sub 4ad} and H{sub 2}O{sub ad}. These fundamental findings imply accessible control of borohydride structures on an electrode surface, which could be relevant for direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) and reversible hydrogen storage/release applications.

  7. Water co-adsorption and electric field effects on borohydride structures on Os(1 1 1) by first-principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escaño, Mary Clare Sison; Arevalo, Ryan Lacdao; Gyenge, Elod; Kasai, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Difference in Pt, Os electronic structures lead to different borohydride structures. ► Promotion of B–H bond breaking on Os due to water effects. ► Control of borohydride structure on Os catalyst using electric field. -- Abstract: Periodic density functional theory calculations are performed to investigate the nature of the BH 4ad and its interaction with H 2 O ad in the presence of homogenous electric field. We observed a significant charge polarity of BH 4ad on Os(1 1 1) and such property could explain the electrostatic interaction with water monomer (H ad ) with its HOH plane parallel to the surface. This interaction changes the BH ad molecular structure to BH 3ad + H ad . In the presence of homogenous electric field, the water co-adsorption effect is reduced due to the stabilization of H 2 O ad on the surface and the deviation of the O–H bond from the plane, decreasing the electrostatic interaction between BH 4ad and H 2 O ad . These fundamental findings imply accessible control of borohydride structures on an electrode surface, which could be relevant for direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) and reversible hydrogen storage/release applications

  8. End-shorting and electric field in edge plasmas with application to field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, Loren C.

    2002-01-01

    The shorting of open field lines where they intersect external boundaries strongly modifies the transverse electric field all along the field lines. The modified electric field is found by an extension of the familiar Boltzmann relation for the electric potential. This leads to a prediction of the electric drift. Flow generation by electrical shorting is applied here to three aspects of elongated field-reversed configurations: plasma rotation rate; the particle-loss spin-up mechanism; and the sustainability of the rotating magnetic field current drive method

  9. Plane-wave spectrum approach for the calculation of electromagnetic absorption under near-field exposure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, I.; Gandhi, O.P.; Hagmann, M.J.; Riazi, A.

    1980-01-01

    The exposure of humans to electromagnetic near fields has not been sufficiently emphasized by researcher. We have used the plane-wave-spectrum approach to evaluate the electromagnetic field and determine the energy deposited in a lossy, homogeneous, semi-infinite slab placed in the near field of a source leaking radiation. Values of the fields and absorbed energy in the target are obtained by vector summation of the contributions of all the plane waves into which the prescribed field is decomposed. Use of a fast Fourier transform algorithm contributes to the high efficiency of the computations. The numerical results show that, for field distributions that are nearly constant over a physical extent of at least a free-space wavelength, the energy coupled into the target is approximately equal to the resulting from plane-wave exposed

  10. Problems related to macroscopic electric fields in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faelthammar, C.

    1977-01-01

    The macroscopic electric fields in the magnetosphere originate from internal as well as external sources. The fields are intimately coupled with the dynamics of magnetospheric plasma convection. They also depend on the complicated electrical properties of the hot collisionless plasma. Macroscopic electric fields are responsible for some important kinds of energization of charged particles that take place in the magnetosphere and affect not only particles of auroral energy but also, by multistep processes, trapped high-energy particles. A particularly interesting feature of magnetospheric electric fields is that they can have substantial components along the geomagnetic field, as has recently been confirmed by observations. Several physical mechanisms have been identified by which such electric fields can be supported even when collisions between particles are negligible. Comments are made on the magnetic mirror effect, anomalous resistivity, the collisionless thermoelectric effect, and electric double layers, emphasizing key features and differences and their significance in the light of recent observational data

  11. Electric field measurements in high pressure discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitko, S.V.; Ochkin, V.N.; Serdyuchenko, A.Yu.; Tskhai, S.N.

    2001-01-01

    Electric fields define a wide range of interactions and phenomena at different phases of matter both on micro- and macro-level. Investigation of electric fields behavior provides a key for understanding of these phenomena and their application

  12. Electric arc behaviour in dynamic magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Put'ko, V.F.

    2000-01-01

    The behaviour of an electric arc in different time-dependent (dynamic) magnetic fields was investigated. New possibilities were found for spatial and energy stabilisation of a discharge, for intensifying heat exchange, extending the electric arc and distributed control of electric arc plasma. Rotating, alternating and travelling magnetic fields were studied. It was found that under the effect of a relatively low frequency of variations of dynamic magnetic fields (f 1000 Hz) the arc stabilised at the axis of the discharge chamber, the pulsation level decreased and discharge stability increased. The borders between these two arc existence modes were formed by a certain critical field variation frequency the period of which was determined by the heat relaxation time of the discharge. (author)

  13. Intense laser effects on nonlinear optical absorption and optical rectification in single quantum wells under applied electric and magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duque, C.A.; Kasapoglu, E.; Sakiroglu, S.; Sari, H.; Soekmen, I.

    2011-01-01

    In this work the effects of intense laser on the electron-related nonlinear optical absorption and nonlinear optical rectification in GaAs-Ga 1-x Al x As quantum wells are studied under, applied electric and magnetic field. The electric field is applied along the growth direction of the quantum well whereas the magnetic field has been considered to be in-plane. The calculations were performed within the density matrix formalism with the use of the effective mass and parabolic band approximations. The intense laser effects are included through the Floquet method, by modifying the confining potential associated to the heterostructure. Results are presented for the nonlinear optical absorption, the nonlinear optical rectification and the resonant peak of these two optical processes. Several configurations of the dimensions of the quantum well, the applied electric and magnetic fields, and the incident intense laser radiation have been considered. The outcome of the calculation suggests that the nonlinear optical absorption and optical rectification are non-monotonic functions of the dimensions of the heterostructure and of the external perturbations considered in this work.

  14. Temperature/electric field scaling in Ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajjaji, Abdelowahed, E-mail: Hajjaji12@gmail.co [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique et Ferroelectricite, LGEF, INSA LYON, Bat. Gustave Ferrie, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Guyomar, Daniel; Pruvost, Sebastien [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique et Ferroelectricite, LGEF, INSA LYON, Bat. Gustave Ferrie, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Touhtouh, Samira [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, LPMC, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, 24000 El-Jadida, Maroc (Morocco); Yuse, Kaori [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique et Ferroelectricite, LGEF, INSA LYON, Bat. Gustave Ferrie, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Boughaleb, Yahia [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, LPMC, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, 24000 El-Jadida, Maroc (Morocco)

    2010-07-01

    The effects of the field amplitude (E) and temperature on the polarization and their scaling relations were investigated on rhombohedral PMN-xPT ceramics. The scaling law was based on the physical symmetries of the problem and rendered it possible to express the temperature variation ({Delta}{theta}) as an electric field equivalent {Delta}E{sub eq}=({alpha}+2{beta}xP(E,{theta}{sub 0}))x{Delta}{theta}. Consequently, this was also the case for the relationship between the entropy ({Gamma}) and polarization (P). Rhombohedral Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3}){sub 0.75}Ti{sub 0.25}O{sub 3} ceramics were used for the verification. It was found that such an approach permitted the prediction of the maximal working temperature, using only purely electrical measurements. It indicates that the working temperature should not exceed 333 K. This value corresponds to the temperature maximum before the dramatic decrease of piezoelectric properties. Reciprocally, the polarization behavior under electrical field can be predicted, using only purely thermal measurements. The scaling law enabled a prediction of the piezoelectric properties (for example, d{sub 31}) under an electrical field replacing the temperature variation ({Delta}{theta}) by {Delta}E/({alpha}+2{beta}xp(E,{theta}{sub 0})). Inversely, predictions of the piezoelectric properties (d{sub 31}) as a function of temperature were permitted using purely only electrical measurements.

  15. Temperature/electric field scaling in Ferroelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajjaji, Abdelowahed; Guyomar, Daniel; Pruvost, Sebastien; Touhtouh, Samira; Yuse, Kaori; Boughaleb, Yahia

    2010-01-01

    The effects of the field amplitude (E) and temperature on the polarization and their scaling relations were investigated on rhombohedral PMN-xPT ceramics. The scaling law was based on the physical symmetries of the problem and rendered it possible to express the temperature variation (Δθ) as an electric field equivalent ΔE eq =(α+2βxP(E,θ 0 ))xΔθ. Consequently, this was also the case for the relationship between the entropy (Γ) and polarization (P). Rhombohedral Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 ) 0.75 Ti 0.25 O 3 ceramics were used for the verification. It was found that such an approach permitted the prediction of the maximal working temperature, using only purely electrical measurements. It indicates that the working temperature should not exceed 333 K. This value corresponds to the temperature maximum before the dramatic decrease of piezoelectric properties. Reciprocally, the polarization behavior under electrical field can be predicted, using only purely thermal measurements. The scaling law enabled a prediction of the piezoelectric properties (for example, d 31 ) under an electrical field replacing the temperature variation (Δθ) by ΔE/(α+2βxp(E,θ 0 )). Inversely, predictions of the piezoelectric properties (d 31 ) as a function of temperature were permitted using purely only electrical measurements.

  16. Electric field measurements in the auroral E region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahon, H.P.; Smiddy, M.; Sagalyn, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    Dipole electric field, positive ion and electron densities and temperatures, vehicle potential, and plasma sheath measurements have been made in the auroral E region by means of rockets flown from Fort Churchill, Canada. These results are described and compared over the altitude region 100 to 165 km. On a rocket flight launched on 10 December 1969 during very quiet conditions, adjacent to a stable, low intensity auroral arc, the plasma density and temperatures are found to be high and the electric fields large and steady. Electric field components of the order of -17 mv m -1 to +6 mv m -1 were measured along the Earth's magnetic field. The plasma results indicate that these fields may be contributing to enhanced electron temperatures. On a flight of 9 March 1970 during a large magnetic storm with widespread auroral activity, lower plasma densities and temperatures and much smaller and more erratic electric fields were observed with no significant component parallel to the magnetic field. (auth)

  17. ion in crossed gradient electric and magnetic fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Photodetachment cross-section for variousexternal fields and the laser polarization are calculated and displayed. A comparison with the photodetachment cross-section in crossed uniform electric and magnetic fields or in a single gradient electric field has been made.The agreement of our results with the above two special ...

  18. In-Plane Magnetic Field Effect on the Transport Properties in a Quasi-3D Quantum Well Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.; Clark, R.; Lumpkin, N.; O'Brien, J.; Reno, J.; Simmons, J.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, B.

    1999-01-01

    The transport properties of a quasi-three-dimensional, 200 layer quantum well structure are investigated at integer filling in the quantum Hall state. We find that the transverse magnetoresistance R xx , the Hall resistance R xy , and the vertical resistance R zz all follow a similar behavior with both temperature and in-plane magnetic field. A general feature of the influence of increasing in-plane field B in is that the Hall conductance quantization first improves, but above a characteristic value B C in , the quantization is systematically removed. We consider the interplay of the chid edge state transport and the bulk (quantum Hall) transport properties. This mechanism may arise from the competition of the cyclotron energy with the superlattice band structure energies. A comparison of the resuIts with existing theories of the chiral edge state transport with in-plane field is also discussed

  19. Control of the radial electric field shear by modification of the magnetic field configuration in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Yokoyama, M.

    2005-01-01

    Control of the radial electric field, E r , is considered to be important in helical plasmas, because the radial electric field and its shear are expected to reduce neoclassical and anomalous transport, respectively. In general, the radial electric field can be controlled by changing the collisionality, and positive or negative electric fields have been obtained by decreasing or increasing the electron density, respectively. Although the sign of the radial electric field can be controlled by changing the collisionality, modification of the magnetic field is required to achieve further control of the radial electric field, especially to produce a strong radial electric field shear. In the Large Helical Device (LHD) the radial electric field profiles are shown to be controlled by the modification of the magnetic field by (1) changing the radial profile of the effective helical ripples, ε h (2) creating a magnetic island with an external perturbation field coil and (3) changing the local island divertor coil current

  20. Control of the radial electric field shear by modification of the magnetic field configuration in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Yokoyama, M.

    2005-01-01

    Control of the radial electric field, E γ , is considered to be important in helical plasmas, because the radial electric field and its shear are expected to reduce neoclassical and anomalous transport, respectively. In general, the radial electric field can be controlled by changing the collisionality, and positive or negative electric field have been obtained by decreasing or increasing the electron density, respectively. Although the sign of the radial electric field can be controlled by changing the collisionality, modification of the magnetic field is required to achieve further control of the radial electric field, especially producing a strong radial electric field shear. In the Large Helical Device (LHD) the radial electric field profiles are shown to be controlled by the modification of the magnetic field by 1) changing the radial profile of the helical ripples, ε h , 2) creating a magnetic island with an external perturbation field coil and 3) changing the local island divertor coil current. (author)

  1. Laser ablation of titanium in liquid in external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkov, A.A. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); The Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education, “Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University)”, 9 Institutskiy per., 141700, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Barmina, E.V., E-mail: barminaev@gmail.com [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shafeev, G.A. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), 31, Kashirskoye Highway, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Voronov, V.V. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-01

    Highlights: • Ablation of a bulk Ti target by 10 ps laser pulses in liquid is experimentally studied in external DC electric field. • Applied cathodic bias leads to increase in average size of self-organized nanostructures formed upon ablation of titanium target. • Laser ablation of Ti target in external electric field results in generation of elongated titanium oxide nanoparticles. - Abstract: Ablation of a bulk Ti target by 10 ps laser pulses in water is experimentally studied in external DC electric field. It is demonstrated that both lateral size of nanostructures (NS) on Ti surface and their density depend on the electric field applied to the target. Scanning Electron Microscopy of NS reveals the shift of their size distribution function toward larger sizes with applied field (cathodic bias, 25 V DC). Density of mushroom-like NS with applied electric field amounts to 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2}. X-ray diffraction of generated nanoparticles (NPs) shows difference in the crystallographic structure of NPs of non-stoichiometric Ti oxides generated with and without electric field. This conclusion is corroborated with the optical absorption spectroscopy of obtained colloids. Transmission Electron Microscopy of NPs also shows difference in morphology of particles produced with and without cathodic bias. The results are interpreted on the basis of instability of the melt on Ti surface in the electric field.

  2. Control of superconductivity by means of electric-field-induced strain in superconductor/piezoelectric hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamopoulos, D.; Zeibekis, M.; Zhang, S. J.

    2018-01-01

    The controlled modification of superconductivity by any means, specifically in hybrid systems, has attracted much interest in the recent decades. Here, we present experimental data and phenomenological modeling on the control of TC of superconducting (SC) Nb thin films, with thickness 3 nm ≤ dN b≤50 nm, under the application of in-plane strain, S(Eex) induced by an external out-of-plane electric field, Eex to piezoelectric (PE) single crystals, namely, ( 1 -x )Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-xPT), with x = 0.27 and 0.31. We report experimental modification of TC of Nb by Eex, accurately described by a phenomenological model that incorporates the constitutive relation S(Eex) of PMN-xPT. The systematic experimental-phenomenological modeling approach introduced here is generic and paves the way for an understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms in any SC/PE hybrid.

  3. Spiking patterns of a hippocampus model in electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Men Cong; Wang Jiang; Qin Ying-Mei; Wei Xi-Le; Deng Bin; Che Yan-Qiu

    2011-01-01

    We develop a model of CA3 neurons embedded in a resistive array to mimic the effects of electric fields from a new perspective. Effects of DC and sinusoidal electric fields on firing patterns in CA3 neurons are investigated in this study. The firing patterns can be switched from no firing pattern to burst or from burst to fast periodic firing pattern with the increase of DC electric field intensity. It is also found that the firing activities are sensitive to the frequency and amplitude of the sinusoidal electric field. Different phase-locking states and chaotic firing regions are observed in the parameter space of frequency and amplitude. These findings are qualitatively in accordance with the results of relevant experimental and numerical studies. It is implied that the external or endogenous electric field can modulate the neural code in the brain. Furthermore, it is helpful to develop control strategies based on electric fields to control neural diseases such as epilepsy. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  4. Effects of applied electric field during postannealing on the tunable properties of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yidong; Cheng Jinbo; Pan Bai; Wu Di; Meng Xiangkang; Liu Zhiguo

    2005-01-01

    The impact of postannealing in electric field on the structure, tunability, and dielectric behavior of rf magnetron sputtering derived (Ba,Sr)TiO 3 films has been studied. It has been demonstrated that postannealing in the proper electric field can increase the dielectric constant and the tunability remarkably and destroy the symmetry of capacitance-voltage characteristics of the films. The increased out-of-plane lattice constant and the appearance of the hysteresis loops in the electric-annealed films indicated the formation of small polar regions with tetragonal structure, which are responsible for the increased dielectric constant and tunability. It was proposed that the segregation of Ti 3+ ions caused by electric annealing could induce the formation of BaTiO 3 -like regions, which are ferroelectric at room temperature

  5. Effects of applied electric field during postannealing on the tunable properties of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yidong; Cheng, Jinbo; Pan, Bai; Wu, Di; Meng, Xiangkang; Liu, Zhiguo

    2005-08-01

    The impact of postannealing in electric field on the structure, tunability, and dielectric behavior of rf magnetron sputtering derived (Ba,Sr)TiO3 films has been studied. It has been demonstrated that postannealing in the proper electric field can increase the dielectric constant and the tunability remarkably and destroy the symmetry of capacitance-voltage characteristics of the films. The increased out-of-plane lattice constant and the appearance of the hysteresis loops in the electric-annealed films indicated the formation of small polar regions with tetragonal structure, which are responsible for the increased dielectric constant and tunability. It was proposed that the segregation of Ti3+ ions caused by electric annealing could induce the formation of BaTiO3-like regions, which are ferroelectric at room temperature.

  6. Quark pair creation in color electric fields and effects of magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanji, Noato

    2010-01-01

    The time evolution of a system where a uniform and classical SU(3) color electric field and quantum fields of quarks interact with each other is studied focusing on non-perturbative pair creation and its back reaction. We characterize a color direction of an electric field in a gauge invariant way, and investigate its dependence. Momentum distributions of created quarks show plasma oscillation as well as quantum effects such as the Pauli blocking and interference. Pressure of the system is also calculated, and we show that pair creation moderates degree of anisotropy of pressure. Furthermore, enhancement of pair creation and induction of chiral charge under a color magnetic field which is parallel to an electric field are discussed.

  7. Pulsed electric field inactivation in a microreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF) is a novel, non-thermal pasteurization method which uses short, high electric field pulses to inactivate microorganisms. The advantage of a pasteurization method like PEF compared to regular heat pasteurization is that the taste, flavour, texture and nutritional value

  8. Detection of electric field around field-reversed configuration plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeyama, Taeko; Hiroi, Masanori; Nogi, Yasuyuki; Ohkuma, Yasunori

    2010-01-01

    Electric-field probes consisting of copper plates are developed to measure electric fields in a vacuum region around a plasma. The probes detect oscillating electric fields with a maximum strength of approximately 100 V/m through a discharge. Reproducible signals from the probes are obtained with an unstable phase dominated by a rotational instability. It is found that the azimuthal structure of the electric field can be explained by the sum of an n=2 mode charge distribution and a convex-surface electron distribution on the deformed separatrix at the unstable phase. The former distribution agrees with that anticipated from the diamagnetic drift motions of plasma when the rotational instability occurs. The latter distribution suggests that an electron-rich plasma covers the separatrix.

  9. Interactions between Radial Electric Field, Transport and Structure in Helical Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Katsumi and others

    2006-01-01

    Control of the radial electric field is considered to be important in helical plasmas, because the radial electric field and its shear are expected to reduce neoclassical and anomalous transport, respectively. Particle and heat transport, that determines the radial structure of density and electron profiles, sensitive to the structure of radial electric field. On the other hand, the radial electric field itself is determined by the plasma parameters. In general, the sign of the radial electric field is determined by the plasma collisionality, while the magnitude of the radial electric field is determined by the temperature and/or density gradients. Therefore the structure of radial electric field and temperature and density are strongly coupled through the particle and heat transport and formation mechanism of radial electric field. Interactions between radial electric field, transport and structure in helical plasmas is discussed based on the experiments on Large Helical Device

  10. Path integral for Dirac particle in plane wave field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeggari, S.; Boudjedaa, T.; Chetouani, L.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of a relativistic spinning particle in interaction with an electromagnetic plane wave field is treated via path integrals. The dynamics of the spin of the particle is described using the supersymmetric action proposed by Fradkin and Gitman. The problem has been solved by using two identities, one bosonic and the other fermionic, which are related directly to the classical equations of motion. The exact expression of the relative Green's function is given and the result agrees with those of the literature. Further, the suitably normalized wave functions are also extracted. (orig.)

  11. Path integral for Dirac particle in plane wave field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeggari, S.; Boudjedaa, T.; Chetouani, L. [Mentouri Univ., Constantine (Algeria). Dept. of Physique

    2001-10-01

    The problem of a relativistic spinning particle in interaction with an electromagnetic plane wave field is treated via path integrals. The dynamics of the spin of the particle is described using the supersymmetric action proposed by Fradkin and Gitman. The problem has been solved by using two identities, one bosonic and the other fermionic, which are related directly to the classical equations of motion. The exact expression of the relative Green's function is given and the result agrees with those of the literature. Further, the suitably normalized wave functions are also extracted. (orig.)

  12. Electric field dependence of the spin relaxation anisotropy in (111) GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balocchi, A; Amand, T; Renucci, P; Duong, Q H; Marie, X; Wang, G; Liu, B L

    2013-01-01

    Time-resolved optical spectroscopy experiments in (111)-oriented GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells (QWs) show a strong electric field dependence of the conduction electron spin relaxation anisotropy. This results from the interplay between the Dresselhaus and Rashba spin splitting in this system with C 3v symmetry. By varying the electric field applied perpendicular to the QW plane from 20 to 50 kV cm −1 the anisotropy of the spin relaxation time parallel (τ s ∥ ) and perpendicular (τ s ⊥ ) to the growth axis can be first canceled and eventually inversed with respect to the one usually observed in III–V zinc-blende QW (τ s ⊥ = 2τ s ∥ ). This dependence stems from the nonlinear contributions of the k-dependent conduction band spin splitting terms which begin to play the dominant spin relaxing role while the linear Dresselhaus terms are compensated by the Rashba ones through the applied bias. A spin density matrix model for the conduction band spin splitting including both linear and cubic terms of the Dresselhaus Hamiltonian is used which allows a quantitative description of the measured electric field dependence of the spin relaxation anisotropy. The existence of an isotropic point where the spin relaxation tensor reduces to a scalar is predicted and confirmed experimentally. The spin splitting compensation electric field and collision processes type in the QW can be likewise directly extracted from the model without complementary measurements. (paper)

  13. Effect of radial electric field inhomogeneity on anomalous cross field plasma flux in Heliotron/Torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Tomejiro; Sanuki, Heiji.

    1996-01-01

    Anomalous cross field plasma fluxes induced by the electric field fluctuations has been evaluated in a rotating plasma with shear flow in a helical system. The anomalous ion flux is evaluated by the contribution from ion curvature drift resonance continuum in the test particle model. The radial electric field induces the Doppler frequency shift which disappears in the frequency integrated anomalous flux. The inhomogeneity of the electric field (shear flow effect), however, induces a new force term in the flux. The curvature drift resonance also induces a new force term '/ which, however, did not make large influence in the ion flux in the CHS configuration. The shear flow term in the flux combined with the electric field in neoclassical flux reduces to a first order differential equation which governs the radial profile of the electric field. Numerical results indicate that the shear flow effect is important for the anomalous cross field flux and for determination of the radial electric field particularly in the peripheral region. (author)

  14. Influence of in-plane field on vertical Bloch line in the walls of the second kind of dumbbell domains at various temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.P.; Liu, S.P.; Guo, G.X.; Zhen, C.M.; Tang, G.D.; Sun, H.Y.; Nie, X.F.

    2004-01-01

    The stability of vertical Bloch lines (VBLs) in the second kind of dumbbell domain (IIDs) walls in liquid phase epitaxy garnet bubble films subjected to an in-plane field at various temperatures is studied experimentally. It is found that there exists a critical in-plane field range depending on temperature, in which vertical Bloch lines (VBLs) in the second kind of IIDs walls are unstable, i.e., [Hip(1)(T),Hip(2)(T)]. Here, Hip(1)(T) is the initial critical in-plane field at which VBLs in the walls of IIDs annihilate; while Hip(2)(T) is the lowest in-plane field at which all VBLs in the walls of IIDs have annihilated completely. Also, the critical in-plane field range [Hip(1)(T),Hip(2)(T)],Hip(1)(T) and Hip(2)(T) all decrease with the temperature increasing. Hip(1)(T) and Hip(2)(T) reach zero at T0' and T0, respectively

  15. Longitudinal and transverse electric field measurements in resonant cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Dechun; Chen Linfeng; Zheng Xiaoyue

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents a measuring technique for the electric field distribution of high order modes in resonant cavities. A perturbing bead-like cage made with metallic wires are developed for S-band field measurements, which can be used to detect a small electric field component in the presence of other strong electric or magnetic field components (That means high sensitivity and high directivity). In order to avoid orientation error for the cage with very high directivity, two parallel threads were used for supporting the perturbing cage. A simple mechanical set-up is described. The cage can be driven into the cavity on-axis or off-axis in any azimuth for the longitudinal and transverse electric field measurements

  16. Atomistic modeling of metal surfaces under electric fields: direct coupling of electric fields to a molecular dynamics algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Djurabekova, Flyura; Pohjonen, Aarne; Nordlund, Kai

    2011-01-01

    The effect of electric fields on metal surfaces is fairly well studied, resulting in numerous analytical models developed to understand the mechanisms of ionization of surface atoms observed at very high electric fields, as well as the general behavior of a metal surface in this condition. However, the derivation of analytical models does not include explicitly the structural properties of metals, missing the link between the instantaneous effects owing to the applied field and the consequent response observed in the metal surface as a result of an extended application of an electric field. In the present work, we have developed a concurrent electrodynamic–molecular dynamic model for the dynamical simulation of an electric-field effect and subsequent modification of a metal surface in the framework of an atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) approach. The partial charge induced on the surface atoms by the electric field is assessed by applying the classical Gauss law. The electric forces acting on the partially...

  17. Nanomechanical electric and electromagnetic field sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datskos, Panagiotis George; Lavrik, Nickolay

    2015-03-24

    The present invention provides a system for detecting and analyzing at least one of an electric field and an electromagnetic field. The system includes a micro/nanomechanical oscillator which oscillates in the presence of at least one of the electric field and the electromagnetic field. The micro/nanomechanical oscillator includes a dense array of cantilevers mounted to a substrate. A charge localized on a tip of each cantilever interacts with and oscillates in the presence of the electric and/or electromagnetic field. The system further includes a subsystem for recording the movement of the cantilever to extract information from the electric and/or electromagnetic field. The system further includes a means of adjusting a stiffness of the cantilever to heterodyne tune an operating frequency of the system over a frequency range.

  18. Field distribution and DNA transport in solid tumors during electric field-mediated gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Joshua W; Yuan, Fan

    2008-02-01

    Gene therapy has a great potential in cancer treatment. However, the efficacy of cancer gene therapy is currently limited by the lack of a safe and efficient means to deliver therapeutic genes into the nucleus of tumor cells. One method under investigation for improving local gene delivery is based on the use of pulsed electric field. Despite repeated demonstration of its effectiveness in vivo, the underlying mechanisms behind electric field-mediated gene delivery remain largely unknown. Without a thorough understanding of these mechanisms, it will be difficult to further advance the gene delivery. In this review, the electric field-mediated gene delivery in solid tumors will be examined by following individual transport processes that must occur in vivo for a successful gene transfer. The topics of examination include: (i) major barriers for gene delivery in the body, (ii) distribution of electric fields at both cell and tissue levels during the application of external fields, and (iii) electric field-induced transport of genes across each of the barriers. Through this approach, the review summarizes what is known about the mechanisms behind electric field-mediated gene delivery and what require further investigations in future studies.

  19. Effects of an electric field on white sharks: in situ testing of an electric deterrent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie Huveneers

    Full Text Available Elasmobranchs can detect minute electromagnetic fields, <1 nV cm(-1, using their ampullae of Lorenzini. Behavioural responses to electric fields have been investigated in various species, sometimes with the aim to develop shark deterrents to improve human safety. The present study tested the effects of the Shark Shield Freedom7™ electric deterrent on (1 the behaviour of 18 white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias near a static bait, and (2 the rates of attacks on a towed seal decoy. In the first experiment, 116 trials using a static bait were performed at the Neptune Islands, South Australia. The proportion of baits taken during static bait trials was not affected by the electric field. The electric field, however, increased the time it took them to consume the bait, the number of interactions per approach, and decreased the proportion of interactions within two metres of the field source. The effect of the electric field was not uniform across all sharks. In the second experiment, 189 tows using a seal decoy were conducted near Seal Island, South Africa. No breaches and only two surface interactions were observed during the tows when the electric field was activated, compared with 16 breaches and 27 surface interactions without the electric field. The present study suggests that the behavioural response of white sharks and the level of risk reduction resulting from the electric field is contextually specific, and depends on the motivational state of sharks.

  20. Modeling of Electromagnetic Fields in Parallel-Plane Structures: A Unified Contour-Integral Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stumpf

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A unified reciprocity-based modeling approach for analyzing electromagnetic fields in dispersive parallel-plane structures of arbitrary shape is described. It is shown that the use of the reciprocity theorem of the time-convolution type leads to a global contour-integral interaction quantity from which novel both time- and frequency-domain numerical schemes can be arrived at. Applications of the numerical method concerning the time-domain radiated interference and susceptibility of parallel-plane structures are discussed and illustrated on numerical examples.

  1. Influence of temperature on the critical in-plane field range for VBLs in the walls of hard domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, X.F.; Guo, G.X.; Xu, J.P.; Liu, S.P.; Wang, L.N.; Huo, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of temperature on the critical in-plane field range for vertical Bloch lines in the walls of three kinds of hard domains is investigated experimentally. It is found that for each kind of three hard domains, there exists a critical in-plane field range, i. e. [H ip (1) (T),H ip (2) (T)], which depends on temperatures and in which vertical Bloch lines are unstable. Here, H ip (1) (T) is the initial critical in-plane field where VBLs in the walls of three kinds of hard domains are annihilated, and H ip (2) (T) is the lowest in-plane field where VBLs in their corresponding hard domains are annihilated completely. H ip (1) (T), H ip (2) (T) and [H ip (1) (T),H ip (2) (T)], all decrease as the temperature increase. Furthermore, H ip (1) (T) and H ip (2) (T) reach zero at T 0 1 and T 0 , respectively. In addition, there exists a relationship among them, when T is unchanged, H ip (1) (T) of the three kinds of hard domains (ordinary hard bubbles (OHB), first kind of dumbbell domain (ID) and second kind of dumbbell domains (IID)) decrease successively, and theirH ip (2) (T) are the same

  2. Effects of an Electric Field on White Sharks: In Situ Testing of an Electric Deterrent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huveneers, Charlie; Rogers, Paul J.; Semmens, Jayson M.; Beckmann, Crystal; Kock, Alison A.; Page, Brad; Goldsworthy, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Elasmobranchs can detect minute electromagnetic fields, shark deterrents to improve human safety. The present study tested the effects of the Shark Shield Freedom7™ electric deterrent on (1) the behaviour of 18 white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) near a static bait, and (2) the rates of attacks on a towed seal decoy. In the first experiment, 116 trials using a static bait were performed at the Neptune Islands, South Australia. The proportion of baits taken during static bait trials was not affected by the electric field. The electric field, however, increased the time it took them to consume the bait, the number of interactions per approach, and decreased the proportion of interactions within two metres of the field source. The effect of the electric field was not uniform across all sharks. In the second experiment, 189 tows using a seal decoy were conducted near Seal Island, South Africa. No breaches and only two surface interactions were observed during the tows when the electric field was activated, compared with 16 breaches and 27 surface interactions without the electric field. The present study suggests that the behavioural response of white sharks and the level of risk reduction resulting from the electric field is contextually specific, and depends on the motivational state of sharks. PMID:23658766

  3. Carrier heating in disordered conjugated polymers in electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukmirovic, Nenad; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2010-01-26

    The electric field dependence of charge carrier transport and the effect of carrier heating in disordered conjugated polymers were investigated. A parameter-free multiscale methodology consisting of classical molecular dynamics simulation for the generation of the atomic structure, large system electronic structure and electron-phonon coupling constants calculations and the procedure for extracting the bulk polymer mobility, was used. The results suggested that the mobility of a fully disordered poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) polymer increases with electric field which is consistent with the experimental results on samples of regiorandom P3HT and different from the results on more ordered regioregular P3HT polymers, where the opposite trend is often observed at low electric fields. We calculated the electric field dependence of the effective carrier temperature and showed however that the effective temperature cannot be used to replace the joint effect of temperature and electric field, in contrast to previous theoretical results from phenomenological models. Such a difference was traced to originate from the use of simplified Miller-Abrahams hopping rates in phenomenological models in contrast to our considerations that explicitly take into account the electronic state wave functions and the interaction with all phonon modes.

  4. Electric-field-modified Feshbach resonances in ultracold atom–molecule collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Dong; Li Ya; Feng Eryin; Huang Wuying

    2017-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of near zero-energy Feshbach resonances in ultracold collisions of atom and molecule, taking the He–PH system as an example, subject to superimposed electric and magnetic static fields. We find that the electric field can induce Feshbach resonance which cannot occur when only a magnetic field is applied, through couplings of the adjacent rotational states of different parities. We show that the electric field can shift the position of the magnetic Feshbach resonance, and change the amplitude of resonance significantly. Finally, we demonstrate that, for narrow magnetic Feshbach resonance as in most cases of ultracold atom–molecule collision, the electric field may be used to modulate the resonance, because the width of resonance in electric field scale is relatively larger than that in magnetic field scale. (paper)

  5. Ionization and recombination in attosecond electric field pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Solov'ev, Eugene A.; Briggs, John S.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the results of a previous communication [Dimitrovski et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083003 (2004)], we study ionization and excitation of a hydrogenic atom from the ground and first excited states in short electric field pulses of several cycles. A process of ionization and recombination which occurs periodically in time is identified, for both small and extremely large peak electric field strengths. In the limit of large electric peak fields closed-form analytic expressions for the population of the initial state after single- and few-cycle pulses are derived. These formulas, strictly valid for asymptotically large momentum transfer from the field, give excellent agreement with fully numerical calculations for all momentum transfers

  6. Molecules with an induced dipole moment in a stochastic electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, Y B; Ben-Shimol, Y

    2013-10-01

    The mean-field dynamics of a molecule with an induced dipole moment (e.g., a homonuclear diatomic molecule) in a deterministic and a stochastic (fluctuating) electric field is solved to obtain the decoherence properties of the system. The average (over fluctuations) electric dipole moment and average angular momentum as a function of time for a Gaussian white noise electric field are determined via perturbative and nonperturbative solutions in the fluctuating field. In the perturbative solution, the components of the average electric dipole moment and the average angular momentum along the deterministic electric field direction do not decay to zero, despite fluctuations in all three components of the electric field. This is in contrast to the decay of the average over fluctuations of a magnetic moment in a Gaussian white noise magnetic field. In the nonperturbative solution, the component of the average electric dipole moment and the average angular momentum in the deterministic electric field direction also decay to zero.

  7. MgB2 superconducting particles in a strong electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, R.; Xu, X.; Amr, E.

    2003-01-01

    The electric-field induced ball formation has been observed with MgB 2 powder in a strong static or quasi-static electric field. The effect of temperature and magnetic field on the ball formation shows surprising features. For quite a wide range of temperature from T c =39 K and below, the ball size is proportional to (1-T/T c ). As the temperature further goes below 20 K, the ball size becomes almost a constant. If MgB 2 particles are in a strong electric field and a moderate magnetic field, the electric-field induced balls align in the magnetic-field direction to form ball chains

  8. Enhanced Dielectronic Recombination in Crossed Electric and Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robicheaux, F.; Pindzola, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    The dependence of the dielectronic recombination cross section on crossed electric and magnetic fields is described. The enhancement of this cross section due to a static electric field is further increased when a magnetic field is added perpendicular to the electric field. Calculation of this field induced enhancement is presented for a realistic atomic model, and the mechanism for the enhancement is discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  9. Theoretical study of structure of electric field in helical toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, S.; Itoh, K.

    2001-06-01

    A set of transport equations is analyzed, including the bifurcation of the electric field. The structure of the electric field is studied by use of the theoretical model for the anomalous transport diffusivities. The steep gradient of the electric field is obtained at the electric domain. The suppression of the anomalous transport diffusivity is studied in the presence of the strong shear of the electric field. The hard transition with the multiple ambipolar solutions is examined in the structure of the radial electric field. The details of the structure of the electric domain interface are investigated. (author)

  10. Pentacene Excitons in Strong Electric Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnke, Klaus; Turkowski, Volodymyr; Kabakchiev, Alexander; Lutz, Theresa; Rahman, Talat S; Kern, Klaus

    2018-02-05

    Electroluminescence spectroscopy of organic semiconductors in the junction of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) provides access to the polarizability of neutral excited states in a well-characterized molecular geometry. We study the Stark shift of the self-trapped lowest singlet exciton at 1.6 eV in a pentacene nanocrystal. Combination of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) with experiment allows for assignment of the observation to a charge-transfer (CT) exciton. Its charge separation is perpendicular to the applied field, as the measured polarizability is moderate and the electric field in the STM junction is strong enough to dissociate a CT exciton polarized parallel to the applied field. The calculated electric-field-induced anisotropy of the exciton potential energy surface will also be of relevance to photovoltaic applications. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Static electric fields modify the locomotory behaviour of cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christopher W; Hunt, Edmund; Sharkh, Suleiman; Newland, Philip L

    2011-06-15

    Static electric fields are found throughout the environment and there is growing interest in how electric fields influence insect behaviour. Here we have analysed the locomotory behaviour of cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in response to static electric fields at levels equal to and above those found in the natural environment. Walking behaviour (including velocity, distance moved, turn angle and time spent walking) were analysed as cockroaches approached an electric field boundary in an open arena, and also when continuously exposed to an electric field. On approaching an electric field boundary, the greater the electric field strength the more likely a cockroach would be to turn away from, or be repulsed by, the electric field. Cockroaches completely exposed to electric fields showed significant changes in locomotion by covering less distance, walking slowly and turning more often. This study highlights the importance of electric fields on the normal locomotory behaviour of insects.

  12. Statistical framework for the utilization of simultaneous pupil plane and focal plane telemetry for exoplanet imaging. I. Accounting for aberrations in multiple planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazin, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    A new generation of telescopes with mirror diameters of 20 m or more, called extremely large telescopes (ELTs), has the potential to provide unprecedented imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanetary systems, if the difficulties in achieving the extremely high dynamic range required to differentiate the planetary signal from the star can be overcome to a sufficient degree. Fully utilizing the potential of ELTs for exoplanet imaging will likely require simultaneous and self-consistent determination of both the planetary image and the unknown aberrations in multiple planes of the optical system, using statistical inference based on the wavefront sensor and science camera data streams. This approach promises to overcome the most important systematic errors inherent in the various schemes based on differential imaging, such as angular differential imaging and spectral differential imaging. This paper is the first in a series on this subject, in which a formalism is established for the exoplanet imaging problem, setting the stage for the statistical inference methods to follow in the future. Every effort has been made to be rigorous and complete, so that validity of approximations to be made later can be assessed. Here, the polarimetric image is expressed in terms of aberrations in the various planes of a polarizing telescope with an adaptive optics system. Further, it is shown that current methods that utilize focal plane sensing to correct the speckle field, e.g., electric field conjugation, rely on the tacit assumption that aberrations on multiple optical surfaces can be represented as aberration on a single optical surface, ultimately limiting their potential effectiveness for ground-based astronomy.

  13. Stabilization effect of a strong HF electrical field on beam-plasma interaction in a relativistic plasma waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shorbagy, K.H.

    2000-07-01

    The influence effect of a strong HF electrical field on the excitation of surface waves by an electron beam under the development of instability of low-density electron beam passing through plane relativistic plasma is investigated. Starting from the two fluid plasma model we separate the problem into two parts. The 'temporal' (dynamical) part enables us to find the frequencies and growth rates of unstable waves. This part within the redefinition of natural (eigen) frequencies coincide with the system describing HF suppression of the Buneman instability in a uniform unbounded plasma. Natural frequencies of oscillations and spatial distribution of the amplitude of the self-consistent electrical field are obtained by solving a boundary value problem ('spatial' part) considering a specific spatial distribution of plasma density. Plasma electrons are considered to have a relativistic velocity. It is shown that a HF electric field has no essential influence on dispersion characteristics of unstable surface waves excited in a relativistic plasma waveguide by a low-density electron beam. The region of instability only slightly narrowing and the growth rate decreases by a small parameter and this result has been reduced compared to nonrelativistic plasma. Also, it is found that the plasma electrons have not affected the solution of the space part of the problem. (author)

  14. Azimuthal electric fields and ambipolarity in a multiple-helicity torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, D.E.; Shaing, K.C.

    1985-01-01

    In a torsatron there are multiple solutions to the ambipolarity relationship for the electric field. If the electric field is small over some region of space then the self-consistent poloidal electric field can be important and lead to potential islands. If the plasma is in the superbanana plateau regime, then slow resonant particles limit the rate of change of the electric field and, hence, give a minimum width for the spatial zone where the plasma is changing roots of the ambipolarity relationship

  15. Wire Probe Antenna (WPT) and Electric Field Detector (EFD0 of Plasma Wave Experiment (PWE) aboard ARASE: Specifications and Evaluation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, S.; Kasaba, Y.; Ishisaka, K.; Kasahara, Y.; Imachi, T.; Yagitani, S.; Kojima, H.; Kurita, S.; Shoji, M.; Hori, T.; Shinbori, A.; Teramoto, M.; Miyoshi, Y.; Nakagawa, T.; Takahashi, N.; Nishimura, Y.; Matsuoka, A.; Tsuchiya, F.; Kumamoto, A.; Nomura, R.

    2017-12-01

    This paper summarizes the specifications and the evaluation results of Wire Probe Antenna (WPT) and Electric Field Detector (EFD), which are the key parts of Plasma Wave Experiment (PWE) aboard the Arase satellite, in their initial operations and the beginning phase of the full observations. WPT consists of the two dipole antennas as electric field sensors with 32m tip-to-tip length, with a sphere probe (6 cm diameter) attached at each end of wires (length: 15-m). They are extended orthogonally in the spin plane which is roughly perpendicular to the Sun. It enables the PWE to measure the E-field from DC to 10 MHz. This system is almost compatible to the WPT of the Plasma Wave Investigation (PWI) aboard BepiColombo Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter, except the material of the spherical probe (ERG: Aluminium alloy, MMO: Titanium-alloy). This paper shows the extended length evaluated by the Lorentz force (spacecraft velocity x B-field) and the antenna impedance as the basic information of the E-field measurement capability of the PWE E-field receivers, with the evaluation for the possible degradation of the probe surface coated by TiAlN as BepiColombo. EFD is the 2-channel low frequency electric receiver as a part of EWO (EFD/WFC/OFA), for the measurement of 2ch electric field in the spin-plane with the sampling rate of 512 Hz (dynamic range: +-200 mV/m, +-3 V/m) and the 4ch spacecraft potential with the sampling rate of 128 Hz (dynamic range: +-100 V), respectively, with the bias control capability fed to the WPT probes. The electric field in DC - 232Hz provides the capability to detect (1) the fundamental information of the plasma dynamics and accelerations and (2) the characteristics of MHD and ion waves with their Poynting vectors with the data measured by MGF and PWE/WFC-B connected to PWE/SCM. The spacecraft potential provides the electron density information with UHR frequency. This paper also introduces the data sets and their calibration status.

  16. Propagation of magnetostatic spin waves in an yttrium iron garnet film for out-of-plane magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Wonbae; Lim, Jinho; Trossman, Jonathan; Tsai, C. C.; Ketterson, John B.

    2018-06-01

    We have observed the propagation of spin waves across a thin yttrium iron garnet film on (1 1 1) gadolinium gallium garnet for magnetic fields inclined with respect to the film plane. Two principle planes were studied: that for H in the plane defined by the wave vector k and the plane normal, n, with limiting forms corresponding to the Backward Volume and Forward Volume modes, and that for H in the plane perpendicular to k, with limiting forms corresponding to the Damon-Eshbach and Forward Volume modes. By exciting the wave at one edge of the film and observing the field dependence of the phase of the received signal at the opposing edge we determined the frequency vs. wavevector relation, ω = ω (k), of various propagating modes in the film. Avoided crossings are observed in the Damon-Eshbach and Forward Volume regimes when the propagating mode intersects the higher, exchange split, volume modes, leading to an extinction of the propagating mode; analysis of the resulting behavior allows a determination of the exchange parameter. The experimental results are compared with theoretical simulations.

  17. Neoclassical transport and radial electric fields in TJ-K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahbarnia, K.; Greiner, F.; Ramisch, M.; Stroth, U.; Greiner, F.

    2003-01-01

    The neoclassical transport is investigated in the torsatron TJ-K, which is operated with a low-temperature plasma. In the low-collisionality regime neoclassical losses are not intrinsically ambipolar, leading to the formation of a radial electric field which acts on both neoclassical and turbulent transport. This electric field is measured with a combination of Langmuir and emissive probes. The data are compared with the ambipolar electric field calculated with an analytic model. The experimental fields are positive and larger than the calculated ones. Direct losses of the fast electrons might explain this discrepancy. (orig.)

  18. Electric field with bipolar structure during magnetic reconnection without a guide field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun

    2014-05-01

    We present a study on the polarized electric field during the collisionless magnetic reconnection of antiparallel fields using two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The simulations demonstrate clearly that electron holes and electric field with bipolar structure are produced during magnetic reconnection without a guide field. The electric field with bipolar structure can be found near the X-line and on the separatrix and the plasma sheet boundary layer, which is consistent with the observations. These structures will elongate electron's time staying in the diffusion region. In addition, the electric fields with tripolar structures are also found in our simulation.

  19. In situ nanoscale refinement by highly controllable etching of the (111) silicon crystal plane and its influence on the enhanced electrical property of a silicon nanowire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Yibin; Dai Pengfei; Gao Anran; Li Tie; Zhou Ping; Wang Yuelin

    2011-01-01

    Nanoscale refinement on a (100) oriented silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer was introduced by using tetra-methyl-ammonium hydroxide (TMAH, 25 wt%) anisotropic silicon etchant, with temperature kept at 50 °C to achieve precise etching of the (111) crystal plane. Specifically for a silicon nanowire (SiNW) with oxide sidewall protection, the in situ TMAH process enabled effective size reduction in both lateral (2.3 nm/min) and vertical (1.7 nm/min) dimensions. A sub-50 nm SiNW with a length of microns with uniform triangular cross-section was achieved accordingly, yielding enhanced field effect transistor (FET) characteristics in comparison with its 100 nm-wide pre-refining counterpart, which demonstrated the feasibility of this highly controllable refinement process. Detailed examination revealed that the high surface quality of the (111) plane, as well as the bulk depletion property should be the causes of this electrical enhancement, which implies the great potential of the as-made cost-effective SiNW FET device in many fields. (semiconductor materials)

  20. Silicon Photomultiplier Performance in High ELectric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, J.; Morad, J.

    2016-12-01

    Roughly 27% of the universe is thought to be composed of dark matter. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) relies on the emission of light from xenon atoms after a collision with a dark matter particle. After a particle interaction in the detector, two things can happen: the xenon will emit light and charge. The charge (electrons), in the liquid xenon needs to be pulled into the gas section so that it can interact with gas and emit light. This allows LUX to convert a single electron into many photons. This is done by applying a high voltage across the liquid and gas regions, effectively ripping electrons out of the liquid xenon and into the gas. The current device used to detect photons is the photomultiplier tube (PMT). These devices are large and costly. In recent years, a new technology that is capable of detecting single photons has emerged, the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). These devices are cheaper and smaller than PMTs. Their performance in a high electric fields, such as those found in LUX, are unknown. It is possible that a large electric field could introduce noise on the SiPM signal, drowning the single photon detection capability. My hypothesis is that SiPMs will not observe a significant increase is noise at an electric field of roughly 10kV/cm (an electric field within the range used in detectors like LUX). I plan to test this hypothesis by first rotating the SiPMs with no applied electric field between two metal plates roughly 2 cm apart, providing a control data set. Then using the same angles test the dark counts with the constant electric field applied. Possibly the most important aspect of LUX, is the photon detector because it's what detects the signals. Dark matter is detected in the experiment by looking at the ratio of photons to electrons emitted for a given interaction in the detector. Interactions with a low electron to photon ratio are more like to be dark matter events than those with a high electron to photon ratio. The ability to

  1. A Model for Periodic Nonlinear Electric Field Structures in Space Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.N.S.; Shi Jiankui; Liu Zhenxing

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present a physical model to explain the generation mechanism of nonlinear periodic waves with a large amplitude electric field structures propagating obliquely and exactly parallel to the magnetic field. The 'Sagdeev potential' from the MHD equations is derived and the nonlinear electric field waveforms are obtained when the Mach number, direction of propagation, and the initial electric field satisfy certain plasma conditions. For the parallel propagation, the amplitude of the electric field waves with ion-acoustic mode increases with the increase of initial electric field and Mach number but its frequency decreases with the increase of Mach number. The amplitude and frequency of the electric field waves with ion-cyclotron mode decrease with the increase of Mach number and become less spiky, and its amplitude increases with the increase of initial electric field. For the oblique propagation, only periodic electric field wave with an ion-cyclotron mode obtained, its amplitude and frequency increase with the increase of Mach number and become spiky. From our model the electric field structures show periodic, spiky, and saw-tooth behaviours corresponding to different plasma conditions.

  2. Dependence of electrical property on the applied magnetic fields in spin coated Fe(III)-Phorphyrin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utari; Kusumandari; Purnama, B.; Mudasir; Abraha, K.

    2016-01-01

    We report here on the experimental results of the effect of external magnetic field on the current flow in plane surface of Fe(III)-porphyrin thin layer. The deposition of the Fe(III)- porphyrin thin layer was done by spin coating method. The I-V characteristics of film were measured by means of two point probes. The sample of layer number N = 4 was used to evaluate the magnetic effect on the electrical currents. The ohmic characteristics of the I-V film measurement were obtained. The current decreases when magnetic field is applied to the system and saturated current is obtained at a given magnetic field. Here, the decrease in the current can be attributed to the recombination of carrier charge under the magnetic field. In addition, the magnitude of the saturated current is found to increase with the increase in the voltage used. (paper)

  3. Electric field effects in hyperexcitable neural tissue: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Uniform electric fields applied to neural tissue can modulate neuronal excitability with a threshold value of about 1mV mm -1 in normal physiological conditions. However, electric fields could have a lower threshold in conditions where field sensitivity is enhanced, such as those simulating epilepsy. Uniform electrical fields were applied to hippocampal brain slices exposed to picrotoxin, high potassium or low calcium solutions. The results in the low calcium medium show that neuronal activity can be completely blocked in 10% of the 30 slices tested with a field amplitude of 1mV mm -1 . These results suggest that the threshold for this effect is clearly smaller than 1mV mm -1 . The hypothesis that the extracellular resistance could affect the sensitivity to the electrical fields was tested by measuring the effect of the osmolarity of the extracellular solution on the efficacy of the field. A 10% decrease on osmolarity resulted in a 56% decrease ( n =4) in the minimum field required for full suppression. A 14% in osmolarity produced an 81% increase in the minimum field required for full suppression. These results show that the extracellular volume can modulate the efficacy of the field and could lower the threshold field amplitudes to values lower than ∼1mmV mm -. (author)

  4. ESTIMATING ELECTRIC FIELDS FROM VECTOR MAGNETOGRAM SEQUENCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, G. H.; Welsch, B. T.; Abbett, W. P.; Bercik, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    Determining the electric field distribution on the Sun's photosphere is essential for quantitative studies of how energy flows from the Sun's photosphere, through the corona, and into the heliosphere. This electric field also provides valuable input for data-driven models of the solar atmosphere and the Sun-Earth system. We show how observed vector magnetogram time series can be used to estimate the photospheric electric field. Our method uses a 'poloidal-toroidal decomposition' (PTD) of the time derivative of the vector magnetic field. These solutions provide an electric field whose curl obeys all three components of Faraday's Law. The PTD solutions are not unique; the gradient of a scalar potential can be added to the PTD electric field without affecting consistency with Faraday's Law. We then present an iterative technique to determine a potential function consistent with ideal MHD evolution; but this field is also not a unique solution to Faraday's Law. Finally, we explore a variational approach that minimizes an energy functional to determine a unique electric field, a generalization of Longcope's 'Minimum Energy Fit'. The PTD technique, the iterative technique, and the variational technique are used to estimate electric fields from a pair of synthetic vector magnetograms taken from an MHD simulation; and these fields are compared with the simulation's known electric fields. The PTD and iteration techniques compare favorably to results from existing velocity inversion techniques. These three techniques are then applied to a pair of vector magnetograms of solar active region NOAA AR8210, to demonstrate the methods with real data. Careful examination of the results from all three methods indicates that evolution of the magnetic vector by itself does not provide enough information to determine the true electric field in the photosphere. Either more information from other measurements, or physical constraints other than those considered here are necessary to find

  5. Non-relativistic scalar field on the quantum plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahan, A.

    2005-01-01

    We apply the coherent state approach to the non-commutative plane to check the one-loop finiteness of the two-point and four-point functions of a non-relativistic scalar field theory in 2+1 dimensions. We show that the two-point and four-point functions of the model are finite at one-loop level and one recovers the divergent behavior of the model in the limit θ->0 + by appropriate redefinition of the non-commutativity parameter

  6. High breakdown electric field in β-Ga2O3/graphene vertical barristor heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaodong; Esqueda, Ivan S.; Ma, Jiahui; Tice, Jesse; Wang, Han

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we study the high critical breakdown field in β-Ga2O3 perpendicular to its (100) crystal plane using a β-Ga2O3/graphene vertical heterostructure. Measurements indicate a record breakdown field of 5.2 MV/cm perpendicular to the (100) plane that is significantly larger than the previously reported values on lateral β-Ga2O3 field-effect-transistors (FETs). This result is compared with the critical field typically measured within the (100) crystal plane, and the observed anisotropy is explained through a combined theoretical and experimental analysis.

  7. Absence of effects of an in-plane magnetic field in a quasi-two-dimensional electron system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, F. T.; Sánchez-Monroy, J. A.

    2018-03-01

    The dynamics of a quasi-two-dimensional electron system (q2DES) in the presence of a tilted magnetic field is reconsidered employing the thin-layer method. We derive the effective equations for relativistic and nonrelativistic q2DESs. Through a perturbative expansion, we show that while the magnetic length is much greater than the confinement width, the in-plane magnetic field only affects the particle dynamics through the spin. Therefore, effects due to an in-plane magnetic vector potential reported previously in the literature for 2D quantum rings, 2D quantum dots and graphene are fictitious. In particular, the so-called pseudo chiral magnetic effect recently proposed in graphene is not realistic.

  8. Radiation of Electron in the Field of Plane Light Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelinsky, A.; Drebot, I.V.; Grigorev, Yu.N.; Zvonareva, O.D.; Tatchyn, R.

    2006-01-01

    Results of integration of a Lorentz equation for a relativistic electron moving in the field of running, plane, linear polarized electromagnetic wave are presented in the paper. It is shown that electron velocities in the field of the wave are almost periodic functions of time. For calculations of angular spectrum of electron radiation intensity expansion of the electromagnetic field in a wave zone into generalized Fourier series was used. Expressions for the radiation intensity spectrum are presented in the paper. Derived results are illustrated for electron and laser beam parameters of NSC KIPT X-ray generator NESTOR. It is shown that for low intensity of the interacting electromagnetic wave the results of energy and angular spectrum calculations in the frame of classical electrodynamics completely coincide with calculation results produced using quantum electrodynamics. Simultaneously, derived expressions give possibilities to investigate dependence of energy and angular Compton radiation spectrum on phase of interaction and the interacting wave intensity

  9. Out-of-plane coercive field of Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} antidot arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunhong, Gao [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Ke, Chen [Chongqing Electric Power College, Chongqing (China); Ling, Lue; Jianwei, Zhao [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Chen Peng, E-mail: pchen@swu.edu.c [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2010-11-15

    The out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy and out-of-plane magnetization reversal process of nanoscale Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} antidot arrays deposited by magnetron sputtering technique on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane are investigated. The angular dependence of out-of-plane remanent magnetization of Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} antidot arrays shows that the maximum remanence is in-plane and the squareness of the out-of-plane hysteresis loop follow a |cos {theta}| dependence. The angular dependence of out-of-plane coercivity of Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} antidot arrays shows that the maximum coercivity lies on the surface of a cone with its symmetric axis normal to the sample plane, which indicates a transition of magnetic reversal from curling to coherent rotation when changing the angle between the applied magnetic field and the sample plane.

  10. Parallel electric fields from ionospheric winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    The possible production of electric fields parallel to the magnetic field by dynamo winds in the E region is examined, using a jet stream wind model. Current return paths through the F region above the stream are examined as well as return paths through the conjugate ionosphere. The Wulf geometry with horizontal winds moving in opposite directions one above the other is also examined. Parallel electric fields are found to depend strongly on the width of current sheets at the edges of the jet stream. If these are narrow enough, appreciable parallel electric fields are produced. These appear to be sufficient to heat the electrons which reduces the conductivity and produces further increases in parallel electric fields and temperatures. Calculations indicate that high enough temperatures for optical emission can be produced in less than 0.3 s. Some properties of auroras that might be produced by dynamo winds are examined; one property is a time delay in brightening at higher and lower altitudes

  11. Radiation of an electron in an electric field. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedosov, N.I.; Flesher, G.I.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of electron radiation in a field of a travelling electric wave is solved by methods of classical electrodynamics. Such a field may serve as a model of a field on the linear accelerator axis. It is shown that the total radiation power, as well as the spectral-angular distribution of the radiation energy of an electron travelling in a longitudinal electric wave coincide with radiation in a stationary uniform electric field with the strength equal to that of the wave at the point where the particle velocity becomes close to the velocity of light [ru

  12. Effect of variable viscosity on laminar convection flow of an electrically conducting fluid in uniform magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid on a continuous moving flat plate in presence of uniform transverse magnetic field, is studied. The flat plate which is continuously moving in its own plane with a constant speed is considered to be isothermally heated. Assuming the fluid viscosity as an inverse linear function of temperature, the nature of fluid velocity and temperature in presence of uniform magnetic field are shown for changing viscosity parameter at different layers of the medium. Numerical solutions are obtained by using Runge-Kutta and Shooting method. The coefficient of skin friction and the rate of heat transfer are calculated at different viscosity parameter and Prandt l number. .

  13. Large non-volatile tuning of magnetism mediated by electric field in Fe–Al/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–PbTiO3 heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhendong; Gao, Cunxu; Wei, Yanping; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Yutian; Zhang, Chao; Ma, Zhikun

    2017-01-01

    Electric-field control of magnetism is now an attractive trend to approach a new kind of fast, low-power-cost memory device. In this work, we report a strong non-volatile electric control of magnetism in an Fe–Al/Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 –PbTiO 3 heterostructure. In this system, a 90° rotation of the in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy is exhibited during the increase of the external electric field, which means the easy axis turns into a hard axis and the hard axis turns into an easy one. Additionally, a non-volatile switch of the remanence is observed after a sweeping of the electric field from 0 kV cm −1 to  ±  10 kV cm −1 , then back to 0 kV cm −1 . More interestingly, a 20% non-volatile magnetic state tuning driven by individual pulse electric fields is shown in contrast to large tuning up to 120% caused by pulse electric fields with small assistant pulse magnetic fields, which means a 180° reverse of the magnetization. These remarkable behaviors demonstrated in this heterostructure reveal a promising potential application in magnetic memory devices mediated by electric fields. (paper)

  14. Near-field imaging of out-of-plane light scattering in photonic crystal slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volkov, Valentyn; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey; Taillaert, Dirk

    2003-01-01

    A collection scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) is used to image the propagating of light at telecommunication wavelengths (1520-1570 nm) along photonic crystal (PC) slabs, which combine slab waveguides with in-plane PCs consisting of one- and two-dimensional gratings. The efficient out...

  15. A miniature sensor for electrical field measurements in dusty planetary atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renno, N O; Rogacki, S; Kok, J F; Kirkham, H

    2008-01-01

    Dusty phenomena such as regular wind-blown dust, dust storms, and dust devils are the most important, currently active, geological processes on Mars. Electric fields larger than 100 kV/m have been measured in terrestrial dusty phenomena. Theoretical calculations predict that, close to the surface, the bulk electric fields in martian dusty phenomena reach the breakdown value of the isolating properties of thin martian air of about a few 10 kV/m. The fact that martian dusty phenomena are electrically active has important implications for dust lifting and atmospheric chemistry. Electric field sensors are usually grounded and distort the electric fields in their vicinity. Grounded sensors also produce large errors when subject to ion currents or impacts from clouds of charged particles. Moreover, they are incapable of providing information about the direction of the electric field, an important quantity. Finally, typical sensors with more than 10 cm of diameter are not capable of measuring electric fields at distances as small as a few cm from the surface. Measurements this close to the surface are necessary for studies of the effects of electric fields on dust lifting. To overcome these shortcomings, we developed the miniature electric-field sensor described in this article.

  16. Inductive electric field at the magnetopause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkila, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    The electric field data for two crossings of the magnetopause by ISEE-1 on November 20, 1977, have been analyzed with high time resolution. In both cases the electric field has a negative dawn-dusk component in the boundary layer, so it must reverse somewhere within the current layer to the positive value outside. If there is a component parallel to the moving magnetopause current it is small, and by no means obvious. In the case of the exit crossing from the boundary layer to the magnetosheath the data show that the electric field vector is turning for about two seconds at roughly the satellite spin rate; this changing direction suggests that the electric field has a curl. Such a curl could be caused by a travelling localized perturbation of the magnetopause surface current associated with impulsive plasma transport through the magnetopause

  17. Soap-film flow induced by electric fields in asymmetric frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollaei, S.; Nasiri, M.; Soltanmohammadi, N.; Shirsavar, R.; Ramos, A.; Amjadi, A.

    2018-04-01

    Net fluid flow of soap films induced by (ac or dc) electric fields in asymmetric frames is presented. Previous experiments of controllable soap film flow required the simultaneous use of an electrical current passing through the film and an external electric field or the use of nonuniform ac electric fields. Here a single voltage difference generates both the electrical current going through the film and the electric field that actuates on the charge induced on the film. The film is set into global motion due to the broken symmetry that appears by the use of asymmetric frames. If symmetric frames are used, the film flow is not steady but time dependent and irregular. Finally, we study numerically these film flows by employing the model of charge induction in ohmic liquids.

  18. Electric Field-Controlled Ion Transport In TiO2 Nanochannel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Jing, Wenheng; Li, Shuaiqiang; Shen, Hao; Xing, Weihong

    2015-06-03

    On the basis of biological ion channels, we constructed TiO2 membranes with rigid channels of 2.3 nm to mimic biomembranes with flexible channels; an external electric field was employed to regulate ion transport in the confined channels at a high ionic strength in the absence of electrical double layer overlap. Results show that transport rates for both Na+ and Mg2+ were decreased irrespective of the direction of the electric field. Furthermore, a voltage-gated selective ion channel was formed, the Mg2+ channel closed at -2 V, and a reversed relative electric field gradient was at the same order of the concentration gradient, whereas the Na+ with smaller Stokes radius and lower valence was less sensitive to the electric field and thus preferentially occupied and passed the channel. Thus, when an external electric field is applied, membranes with larger nanochannels have promising applications in selective separation of mixture salts at a high concentration.

  19. Observation and interpretation of particle and electric field measurements inside and adjacent to an active auroral arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, C.W.; Kelley, M.C.

    1977-01-01

    A Javelin sounding rocket instrumented to measure electric fields, energetic particles, and suprathermal electrons was flown across an auroral display in the late expansion phase of a substorm. Four distinct regions of fields and particles were interpreted here in light of our present understanding of auroral dynamics.r of 10 and resemble fluxes mesured in the equatorial plane during the expansion phase. The hard fluxes in the equatorward zone are further energized and may act as a source for the outer radiation belt as inward convection further energizes them

  20. Study of electric capacitors using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Neamț

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A capacitor is made of two armatures and a dielectric between the two armatures. In this paper, we are going to study the plane capacitor , which is made of two equal metal armatures, plane and parallel, having the S surface, situated at a distance d much shorter than the armatures dimensions, between which there is a liniar, homogenous and isotropic dielectric having a constant electrical permittivity.The purpose of studying the plane capacitor, through MEF, presented in this paper,is to establish the stress to which the dielectrics may be subject to, in daily practice, and the influence that their superposition in an electric field has, on each of them. The study of the plane capacitor , finalised with observations on the raise of the dependence of the electric field intensity in air on the size of the air layer and having as parameter the type of dielectric material introduced between the armatures, is an example of confirmation or invalidation of the possibility and utility of using layers of dielectrics between the armatures of the capacitors.

  1. Electric-field assisted spin torque nano-oscillator and binary frequency shift keying modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangli; Chen, Hao-Hsuan; Zhang, Zongzhi; Liu, Yaowen

    2018-04-01

    Electric-controlled magnetization precession introduces technologically relevant possibility for developing spin torque nano-oscillators (STNO) with potential applications in microwave emission. Using the perpendicularly magnetized magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), we show that the magnetization oscillation frequency can be tuned by the co-action of electric field and spin polarized current. The dynamical phase diagram of MTJ-based STNO is analytically predicted through coordinate transformation from the laboratory frame to the rotation frame, by which the nonstationary out-of-plane magnetization precession process is therefore transformed into the stationary process in the rotation frame. Furthermore, using this STNO as a microwave source, we numerically demonstrate that the bit signal can be transmitted by a binary frequency shift keying (BFSK) modulation technique. The BFSK scheme shows good modulation features with no transient state.

  2. Numerical simulation of the leaky dielectric microdroplet generation in electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Reza; Manshadi, Mohammad Karim Dehghan

    2016-07-01

    Microdroplet generation has a vast range of applications in the chemical, biomedical, and biological sciences. Several devices are applied to produce microdroplets, such as Co-flow, T-junction and Flow-focusing. The important point in the producing process is controlling the separated fluid volume in these devices. On the other hand, a large number of liquids, especially aqueous one, are influenced by electric or magnetic fields. As a consequence, an electric field could be used in order to affect the separated fluid volume. In this study, effects of an electric field on the microdroplet generation in a Co-flow device are investigated numerically. Furthermore, effects of some electrical properties such as permittivity on the separating process of microdroplets are studied. Leaky dielectric and perfect dielectric models are used in this investigation. According to the results, in the microdroplet generating process, leaky dielectric fluids show different behaviors, when an electric field is applied to the device. In other words, in a constant electric field strength, the volume of generated microdroplets can increase or decrease, in comparison with the condition without the electric field. However, for perfect dielectric fluids, droplet volume always decreases with increasing the electric field strength. In order to validate the numerical method of this study, deformation of a leaky dielectric droplet in an electric field is investigated. Results are compared with Taylor theoretical model.

  3. Radial electric fields for improved tokamak performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downum, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of externally-imposed radial electric fields on the fusion energy output, energy multiplication, and alpha-particle ash build-up in a TFTR-sized, fusing tokamak plasma is explored. In an idealized tokamak plasma, an externally-imposed radial electric field leads to plasma rotation, but no charge current flows across the magnetic fields. However, a realistically-low neutral density profile generates a non-zero cross-field conductivity and the species dependence of this conductivity allows the electric field to selectively alter radial particle transport

  4. Midday reversal of equatorial ionospheric electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Rastogi

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the geomagnetic and ionospheric data at equatorial and low-latitude stations in India over the 20 year period 1956–1975 is described. The reversal of the electric field in the ionosphere over the magnetic equator during the midday hours indicated by the disappearance of the equatorial sporadic E region echoes on the ionograms is a rare phenomenon occurring on about 1% of time. Most of these events are associated with geomagnetically active periods. By comparing the simultaneous geomagnetic H field at Kodaikanal and at Alibag during the geomagnetic storms it is shown that ring current decreases are observed at both stations. However, an additional westward electric field is superimposed in the ionosphere during the main phase of the storm which can be strong enough to temporarily reverse the normally eastward electric field in the dayside ionosphere. It is suggested that these electric fields associated with the V×Bz electric fields originate at the magnetopause due to the interaction of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field.

  5. Midday reversal of equatorial ionospheric electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Rastogi

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the geomagnetic and ionospheric data at equatorial and low-latitude stations in India over the 20 year period 1956–1975 is described. The reversal of the electric field in the ionosphere over the magnetic equator during the midday hours indicated by the disappearance of the equatorial sporadic E region echoes on the ionograms is a rare phenomenon occurring on about 1% of time. Most of these events are associated with geomagnetically active periods. By comparing the simultaneous geomagnetic H field at Kodaikanal and at Alibag during the geomagnetic storms it is shown that ring current decreases are observed at both stations. However, an additional westward electric field is superimposed in the ionosphere during the main phase of the storm which can be strong enough to temporarily reverse the normally eastward electric field in the dayside ionosphere. It is suggested that these electric fields associated with the V×Bz electric fields originate at the magnetopause due to the interaction of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field.

  6. Electron Cooling and Isotropization during Magnetotail Current Sheet Thinning: Implications for Parallel Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, San; Artemyev, A. V.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2017-11-01

    Magnetotail current sheet thinning is a distinctive feature of substorm growth phase, during which magnetic energy is stored in the magnetospheric lobes. Investigation of charged particle dynamics in such thinning current sheets is believed to be important for understanding the substorm energy storage and the current sheet destabilization responsible for substorm expansion phase onset. We use Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) B and C observations in 2008 and 2009 at 18 - 25 RE to show that during magnetotail current sheet thinning, the electron temperature decreases (cooling), and the parallel temperature decreases faster than the perpendicular temperature, leading to a decrease of the initially strong electron temperature anisotropy (isotropization). This isotropization cannot be explained by pure adiabatic cooling or by pitch angle scattering. We use test particle simulations to explore the mechanism responsible for the cooling and isotropization. We find that during the thinning, a fast decrease of a parallel electric field (directed toward the Earth) can speed up the electron parallel cooling, causing it to exceed the rate of perpendicular cooling, and thus lead to isotropization, consistent with observation. If the parallel electric field is too small or does not change fast enough, the electron parallel cooling is slower than the perpendicular cooling, so the parallel electron anisotropy grows, contrary to observation. The same isotropization can also be accomplished by an increasing parallel electric field directed toward the equatorial plane. Our study reveals the existence of a large-scale parallel electric field, which plays an important role in magnetotail particle dynamics during the current sheet thinning process.

  7. Electric field and temperature effects in irradiated MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, M. A. G., E-mail: marcilei@fei.edu.br; Santos, R. B. B.; Leite, F. G.; Araújo, N. E.; Cirne, K. H.; Melo, M. A. A.; Rallo, A. [Centro Universitário da FEI, São Bernardo do Campo, S.P. (Brazil); Aguiar, Vitor A. P.; Aguirre, F.; Macchione, E. L. A.; Added, N.; Medina, N. H. [Instituto de Física da USP, São Paulo, S.P. (Brazil)

    2016-07-07

    Electronic devices exposed to ionizing radiation exhibit degradation on their electrical characteristics, which may compromise the functionality of the device. Understanding the physical phenomena responsible for radiation damage, which may be specific to a particular technology, it is of extreme importance to develop methods for testing and recovering the devices. The aim of this work is to check the influence of thermal annealing processes and electric field applied during irradiation of Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET) in total ionizing dose experiments analyzing the changes in the electrical parameters in these devices.

  8. Magnetic field generation device for magnetohydrodynamic electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, Yoshihiko.

    1993-01-01

    An existent magnetic field generation device for magnetohydrodynamic electric power generation comprises at least a pair of permanent magnets disposed to an inner circumferential surface of a yoke having such a cross sectional area that two pairs of parallel sides are present, in which different magnetic poles are opposed while interposing a flow channel for a conductive fluid therebetween. Then, first permanent magnets which generate main magnetic fields are disposed each at a gap sandwiching a plane surface including a center axis of a flow channel for the conductive fluid. Second permanent magnets which generate auxiliary magnetic fields are disposed to an inner circumferential surface of a yoke intersecting the yoke to which the first permanent magnets are disposed. The magnetic poles on the side of the flow channel for the second permanent magnets have identical polarity with that of the magnetic poles of the adjacent first permanent magnets. As a result, a magnetic flux density in the flow channel for the conductive fluid can be kept homogeneous and at a high level from a position of the axial line of the flow channel to the outer circumference, thereby enabling to remarkably improve a power generation efficiency. (N.H.)

  9. Quasi-Static Electric Field Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A generator for producing an electric field for with an inspection technology system is provided. The generator provides the required variable magnitude quasi-static electric fields for the "illumination" of objects, areas and volumes to be inspected by the system, and produces human-safe electric fields that are only visible to the system. The generator includes a casing, a driven, non-conducting and triboelectrically neutral rotation shaft mounted therein, an ungrounded electrostatic dipole element which works in the quasi-static range, and a non-conducting support for mounting the dipole element to the shaft. The dipole element has a wireless motor system and a charging system which are wholly contained within the dipole element and the support that uses an electrostatic approach to charge the dipole element.

  10. Hydrogenic donor in a quantum well with an electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, K.; Balasubramanian, S.; Tomak, M.

    1985-08-01

    Variational calculations of the binding energy of a hydrogenic donor in a quantum well formed by GaAs and Gasub(1-x)A1sub(x)As with a constant electric field are performed for different electric fields and well widths. A critical electric field is defined and its variation with well width is presented. (author)

  11. Nonlinear piezoelectricity in epitaxial ferroelectrics at high electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, Alexei; Sichel, Rebecca; Lee, Ho Nyung; Landahl, Eric C; Adams, Bernhard; Dufresne, Eric M; Evans, Paul G

    2008-01-18

    Nonlinear effects in the coupling of polarization with elastic strain have been predicted to occur in ferroelectric materials subjected to high electric fields. Such predictions are tested here for a PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 ferroelectric thin film at electric fields in the range of several hundred MV/m and strains reaching up to 2.7%. The piezoelectric strain exceeds predictions based on constant piezoelectric coefficients at electric fields from approximately 200 to 400 MV/m, which is consistent with a nonlinear effect predicted to occur at corresponding piezoelectric distortions.

  12. High frequency electric field spikes formed by electron beam-plasma interaction in plasma density gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunell, H.; Loefgren, T.

    1997-02-01

    In the electron beam-plasma interaction at an electric double layer the beam density is much higher than in the classical beam-plasma experiments. The wave propagation takes place along the density gradient, that is present at the high potential side of the double layer. Such a case is studied experimentally by injecting the electron beam from a plane cathode, without any grids suppressing the gradient, and by particle simulations. The high frequency field concentrates in a sharp 'spike' with a half width of the order of one wavelength. The spike is found to be a standing wave surrounded by regions dominated by propagating waves. It forms at a position where its frequency is close to the local plasma frequency. The spike forms also when the electric field is well below the threshold for modulational instability, and long before a density cavity is formed in the simulations. Particle simulations reveal that, at the spike, there is a backward travelling wave that, when it is strongly damped, accelerates electrons back towards the cathode. In a simulation of a homogeneous plasma without the density gradient no spike is seen, and the wave is purely travelling instead of standing. 9 refs

  13. Control of magnetism in Co by an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, D.; Ono, T.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we review the recent experimental developments on electric-field switching of ferromagnetism in ultra-thin Co films. The application of an electric field changes the electron density at the surface of the Co film, which results in modulation of its Curie temperature. A capacitor structure consisting of a gate electrode, a solid-state dielectric insulator and a Co bottom electrode is used to observe the effect. To obtain a larger change in the electron density, we also fabricated an electric double-layer capacitor structure using an ionic liquid. A large change in the Curie temperature of ∼100 K across room temperature is achieved with this structure. The application of the electric field influences not only the Curie temperature but also the domain-wall motion. A change in the velocity of a domain wall prepared in a Co micro-wire of more than one order of magnitude is observed. Possible mechanisms to explain the above-mentioned electric-field effects in Co ultra-thin films are discussed.

  14. Control of magnetism in Co by an electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, D; Ono, T

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we review the recent experimental developments on electric-field switching of ferromagnetism in ultra-thin Co films. The application of an electric field changes the electron density at the surface of the Co film, which results in modulation of its Curie temperature. A capacitor structure consisting of a gate electrode, a solid-state dielectric insulator and a Co bottom electrode is used to observe the effect. To obtain a larger change in the electron density, we also fabricated an electric double-layer capacitor structure using an ionic liquid. A large change in the Curie temperature of ∼100 K across room temperature is achieved with this structure. The application of the electric field influences not only the Curie temperature but also the domain-wall motion. A change in the velocity of a domain wall prepared in a Co micro-wire of more than one order of magnitude is observed. Possible mechanisms to explain the above-mentioned electric-field effects in Co ultra-thin films are discussed. (topical review)

  15. Electrical and magnetic fields of the power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The availability of electrical energy in all areas of life is guaranteed by a widely ramified power grid. When electricity is transported, magnetic fields are created in addition to the electrical fields. In this brochure one will learn more about the causes and effects of electrical and magnetic fields as well as protection concepts and preventive measures. [de

  16. The flame structure in round and plane propane microjet combustion in a transverse acoustic field at low Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, V. V.; Grek, G. R.; Katasonov, M. M.; Korobeinichev, O. P.; Litvinenko, Yu. A.; Shmakov, A. G.

    2014-12-01

    The results of experimental studies of the structure and features of flame evolution under propane combustion in round and plane microjet flows at low Reynolds numbers in a transverse acoustic field are discussed in this paper. The specific features of flame evolution under these conditions are shown. Based on the new information obtained on free microjet evolution, new phenomena in flame evolution in a transverse acoustic field with round and plane propane microjet combustion are discovered and explained.

  17. Electric fields in nonhomogeneously doped silicon. Summary of simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotov, I.V.; Humanic, T.J.; Nouais, D.; Randel, J.; Rashevsky, A.

    2006-01-01

    Variations of the doping concentration inside a silicon device result in electric field distortions. These distortions, 'parasitic' fields, have been observed in Silicon Drift Detectors [D. Nouais, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 501 (2003) 119; E. Crescio, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 539 (2005) 250]. Electric fields inside a silicon device can be calculated for a given doping profile. In this study, the ATLAS device simulator. [Silvaco International, 4701 Patrick Henry Drive, Bldg.2, Santa Clara, CA 95054, USA and s imulation/atlas.html>] was used to calculate the electric field inside an inhomogeneously doped device. Simulations were performed for 1D periodic doping profiles. Results show strong dependence of the parasitic field strength on the 'smoothness' of the doping profile

  18. Geomagnetic storms and electric fields in the equatorial ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    Using direct measurements of equatorial electric field during a geomagnetic storm it is shown that the large decrease in the field observed near the dip equator is due to the reversal of the equatorial electrojet current. This is caused by the imposition of an additional westward electric field on the equatorial ionosphere which was originated by the interaction of solar wind with the interplanetary magnetic field. (author)

  19. Electric field imaging of single atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Naoya; Seki, Takehito; Sánchez-Santolino, Gabriel; Findlay, Scott D.; Kohno, Yuji; Matsumoto, Takao; Ishikawa, Ryo; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    In scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), single atoms can be imaged by detecting electrons scattered through high angles using post-specimen, annular-type detectors. Recently, it has been shown that the atomic-scale electric field of both the positive atomic nuclei and the surrounding negative electrons within crystalline materials can be probed by atomic-resolution differential phase contrast STEM. Here we demonstrate the real-space imaging of the (projected) atomic electric field distribution inside single Au atoms, using sub-Å spatial resolution STEM combined with a high-speed segmented detector. We directly visualize that the electric field distribution (blurred by the sub-Å size electron probe) drastically changes within the single Au atom in a shape that relates to the spatial variation of total charge density within the atom. Atomic-resolution electric field mapping with single-atom sensitivity enables us to examine their detailed internal and boundary structures. PMID:28555629

  20. Extraction of the Electric Field in Field Plate Assisted RESURF Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksteen, B.K.; Dhar, S.; Heringa, A.; Koops, G.E.J.; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart

    2012-01-01

    It has previously been reported that the lateral electric field (Ex) in the drain extension of thin SOI HV (700V) field plate assisted RESURF devices can be extracted from their ID-VD characteristics in the subthreshold regime. In this work the prerequisites for valid field extraction and the

  1. On the evaluation of rectangular plane-extended sources and their associated radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oner, Feda

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an efficient and reliable analytical procedure for the evaluation of rectangular plane-extended sources and their associated radiation fields. Integrals with integer and non-integer values appear in the evaluation of the radiation field distribution. The latter results from a homogeneous rectangular plane target bombarded by hollow-cylindrical ion beams, the elementary areas anisotropically emitting in non-dispersive media, and fast neutrons produced in non-dispersive media by sealed-off neutron generating tubes (NGT) in an axi-symmetric situation [Hubbell, J.H., Bach, R.L., Lamkin, J.C., 1960. Radiation from a rectangular source. J. Res. NBS 64C (2), 121-137; Hubbell, J.H., 1963a. A power series buildup factor formulation. Application to rectangular and offaxis disk source problems. J. Res. NBS 67C, 291-306, Hubbell, J.H., 1963b. Dose fields from plane sources using point-source data. Nucleonics 21 (8), 144-148; Timus et al., 2005a. Plane rectengular tritium target response to excitation by uniform distributed normal accelerated deuteron beam. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 63, 823-839; Timus et al., 2005b. Analytical characterization of radiation fields generated by certain witch-type distributed axi-symmetrical ion beams. Arab J. Nucl. Sci. Appl. 38(I) 253-264]. In these references, the resulting expressions are represented as infinite linear combinations of basic J q (a, b, z) integrals. With the help of relation for J q (a, b, z), we can evaluate the high terms of energy expressions, which have been proposed in the above-mentioned references. The extensive test calculations show that the proposed algorithm in this work is the most efficient one in practical computations

  2. Magnetospheric electric fields and auroral oval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Harri; Pedersen, Arne; Craven, John D.; Frank, L. A.

    1992-01-01

    DC electric field variations in a synchronous orbit (GEOS 2) during four substorms in the time sector 19 to 01 LT were investigated. Simultaneously, the imaging photometer on board DE 1 provided auroral images that are also utilized. Substorm onset is defined here as a sudden appearance of large electric fields. During the growth phase, the orientation of the electric field begins to oscillate some 30 min prior to onset. About 10 min before the onset GEOS 2 starts moving into a more tenuous plasma, probably due to a thinning of the current sheet. The onset is followed by a period of 10 to 15 min during which large electric fields occur. This interval can be divided into two intervals. During the first interval, which lasts 4 to 8 min, very large fields of 8 to 20 mV/m are observed, while the second interval contains relatively large fields (2 to 5 mV/m). A few min after the onset, the spacecraft returns to a plasma region of higher electron fluxes which are usually larger than before substorm. Some 30 min after onset, enhanced activity, lasting about 10 min, appears in the electric field. One of the events selected offers a good opportunity to study the formation and development of the Westward Traveling Surge (WST). During the traversal of the leading edge of the WTS (approximately 8 min) a stable wave mode at 5.7 mHz is detected.

  3. Electric field spikes formed by electron beam endash plasma interaction in plasma density gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunell, H.; Loefgren, T.

    1997-01-01

    In the electron beam endash plasma interaction at an electric double layer the beam density is much higher than in the classical beam endash plasma experiments. The wave propagation takes place along the density gradient that is present at the high potential side of the double layer. Such a case is studied experimentally by injecting the electron beam from a plane cathode, without any grids suppressing the gradient, and by particle simulations. The high frequency field concentrates in a sharp open-quotes spikeclose quotes with a half width of the order of one wavelength. The spike is found to be a standing wave surrounded by regions dominated by propagating waves. It forms at a position where its frequency is close to the local plasma frequency. The spike forms also when the electric field is well below the threshold for modulational instability, and long before a density cavity is formed in the simulations. Particle simulations reveal that, at the spike, there is a backward traveling wave that, when it is strongly damped, accelerates electrons back towards the cathode. In a simulation of a homogeneous plasma without the density gradient no spike is seen, and the wave is purely travelling instead of standing. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  4. Parallel PWTD-Accelerated Explicit Solution of the Time Domain Electric Field Volume Integral Equation

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yang

    2016-03-25

    A parallel plane-wave time-domain (PWTD)-accelerated explicit marching-on-in-time (MOT) scheme for solving the time domain electric field volume integral equation (TD-EFVIE) is presented. The proposed scheme leverages pulse functions and Lagrange polynomials to spatially and temporally discretize the electric flux density induced throughout the scatterers, and a finite difference scheme to compute the electric fields from the Hertz electric vector potentials radiated by the flux density. The flux density is explicitly updated during time marching by a predictor-corrector (PC) scheme and the vector potentials are efficiently computed by a scalar PWTD scheme. The memory requirement and computational complexity of the resulting explicit PWTD-PC-EFVIE solver scale as ( log ) s s O N N and ( ) s t O N N , respectively. Here, s N is the number of spatial basis functions and t N is the number of time steps. A scalable parallelization of the proposed MOT scheme on distributed- memory CPU clusters is described. The efficiency, accuracy, and applicability of the resulting (parallelized) PWTD-PC-EFVIE solver are demonstrated via its application to the analysis of transient electromagnetic wave interactions on canonical and real-life scatterers represented with up to 25 million spatial discretization elements.

  5. Parallel PWTD-Accelerated Explicit Solution of the Time Domain Electric Field Volume Integral Equation

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yang; Al-Jarro, Ahmed; Bagci, Hakan; Michielssen, Eric

    2016-01-01

    A parallel plane-wave time-domain (PWTD)-accelerated explicit marching-on-in-time (MOT) scheme for solving the time domain electric field volume integral equation (TD-EFVIE) is presented. The proposed scheme leverages pulse functions and Lagrange polynomials to spatially and temporally discretize the electric flux density induced throughout the scatterers, and a finite difference scheme to compute the electric fields from the Hertz electric vector potentials radiated by the flux density. The flux density is explicitly updated during time marching by a predictor-corrector (PC) scheme and the vector potentials are efficiently computed by a scalar PWTD scheme. The memory requirement and computational complexity of the resulting explicit PWTD-PC-EFVIE solver scale as ( log ) s s O N N and ( ) s t O N N , respectively. Here, s N is the number of spatial basis functions and t N is the number of time steps. A scalable parallelization of the proposed MOT scheme on distributed- memory CPU clusters is described. The efficiency, accuracy, and applicability of the resulting (parallelized) PWTD-PC-EFVIE solver are demonstrated via its application to the analysis of transient electromagnetic wave interactions on canonical and real-life scatterers represented with up to 25 million spatial discretization elements.

  6. Electrosensitization Increases Antitumor Effectiveness of Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Muratori, Claudia; Pakhomov, Andrei G.; Heller, Loree; Casciola, Maura; Gianulis, Elena; Grigoryev, Sergey; Xiao, Shu; Pakhomova, O. N.

    2017-01-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric fields are emerging as a new modality for tissue and tumor ablation. We previously reported that cells exposed to pulsed electric fields develop hypersensitivity to subsequent pulsed electric field applications. This phenomenon, named electrosensitization, is evoked by splitting the pulsed electric field treatment in fractions (split-dose treatments) and causes in vitro a 2- to 3-fold increase in cytotoxicity. The aim of this study was to show the benefit of split-d...

  7. Effect of AC electric fields on flame spread over electrical wire

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Minkuk

    2011-01-01

    The effect of electric fields on the characteristics of flame spread over insulated electrical wire has been investigated experimentally by varying AC voltage and frequency applied to the wire in the normal gravity condition. The polyethylene (PE) insulated electrical wire was placed horizontally on electrically non-conducting posts and one end of the wire was connected to the high voltage terminal. Thus, the electrical system is the single electrode configuration. The wire was ignited at one end and the flame spread rate along the wire has been measured from the images using a video camera. Two distinct regimes existed depending on the applied AC frequency. In the low frequency regime, the flame spread rate decreased with the frequency and voltage. While in the high frequency regime, it decreased initially with voltage and then increased. At high frequency, the spread rate was even over that without applying electric fields. This result implies that fire safety codes developed without considering the effect of electric fields may require modifications. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of The Combustion Institute. All rights reserved.

  8. Far-field divergence of a vectorial plane wave diffracted by a circular aperture from the vectorial structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Guo-Quan

    2011-01-01

    Based on the vectorial structure of an electromagnetic wave, the analytical and concise expressions for the TE and TM terms of a vectorial plane wave diffracted by a circular aperture are derived in the far-field. The expressions of the energy flux distributions of the TE term, the TM term and the diffracted plane wave are also presented. The ratios of the power of the TE and TM terms to that of the diffracted plane wave are examined in the far-field. In addition, the far-field divergence angles of the TE term, the TM term and the diffracted plane wave, which are related to the energy flux distribution, are investigated. The different energy flux distributions of the TE and TM terms result in the discrepancy of their divergence angles. The influences of the linearly polarized angle and the radius of the circular aperture on the far-field divergence angles of the TE term, the TM term and the diffracted plane wave are discussed in detail. This research may promote the recognition of the optical propagation through a circular aperture. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  9. Ultrafast Electric Field Pulse Control of Giant Temperature Change in Ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Y.; Liu, S.; Lindenberg, A. M.; Rappe, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    There is a surge of interest in developing environmentally friendly solid-state-based cooling technology. Here, we point out that a fast cooling rate (≈1011 K /s ) can be achieved by driving solid crystals to a high-temperature phase with a properly designed electric field pulse. Specifically, we predict that an ultrafast electric field pulse can cause a giant temperature decrease up to 32 K in PbTiO3 occurring on few picosecond time scales. We explain the underlying physics of this giant electric field pulse-induced temperature change with the concept of internal energy redistribution: the electric field does work on a ferroelectric crystal and redistributes its internal energy, and the way the kinetic energy is redistributed determines the temperature change and strongly depends on the electric field temporal profile. This concept is supported by our all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of PbTiO3 and BaTiO3 . Moreover, this internal energy redistribution concept can also be applied to understand electrocaloric effect. We further propose new strategies for inducing giant cooling effect with ultrafast electric field pulse. This Letter offers a general framework to understand electric-field-induced temperature change and highlights the opportunities of electric field engineering for controlled design of fast and efficient cooling technology.

  10. Measurement of electric fields in the H-1NF heliac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, B.W.; Howard, J.

    1999-01-01

    There are a number of laser induced fluorescence techniques which can be used to measure internal plasma electric fields. It is planned to use a technique based on Stark mixing of energy levels in a supersonic beam containing metastable helium atoms to measure radial electric fields in H-1NF. Enhanced values of radial electric field are associated with improved confinement modes in H-1NF and other magnetically confined plasmas

  11. Nanoscale electron manipulation in metals with intense THz electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Jun; Yoshioka, Katsumasa; Minami, Yasuo; Katayama, Ikufumi

    2018-03-01

    Improved control over the electromagnetic properties of metals on a nanoscale is crucial for the development of next-generation nanoelectronics and plasmonic devices. Harnessing the terahertz (THz)-electric-field-induced nonlinearity for the motion of electrons is a promising method of manipulating the local electromagnetic properties of metals, while avoiding undesirable thermal effects and electronic transitions. In this review, we demonstrate the manipulation of electron delocalization in ultrathin gold (Au) films with nanostructures, by intense THz electric-field transients. On increasing the electric-field strength of the THz pulses, the transmittance in the THz-frequency region abruptly decreases around the percolation threshold. The observed THz-electric-field-induced nonlinearity is analysed, based on the Drude-Smith model. The results suggest that ultrafast electron delocalization occurs by electron tunnelling across the narrow insulating bridge between the Au nanostructures, without material breakdown. In order to quantitatively discuss the tunnelling process, we perform scanning tunnelling microscopy with carrier-envelope phase (CEP)-controlled single-cycle THz electric fields. By applying CEP-controlled THz electric fields to the 1 nm nanogap between a metal nanotip and graphite sample, many electrons could be coherently driven through the quantum tunnelling process, either from the nanotip to the sample or vice versa. The presented concept, namely, electron tunnelling mediated by CEP-controlled single-cycle THz electric fields, can facilitate the development of nanoscale electron manipulation, applicable to next-generation ultrafast nanoelectronics and plasmonic devices.

  12. Externally controlled local magnetic field in a conducting mesoscopic ring coupled to a quantum wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, Santanu K.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, the possibility of regulating local magnetic field in a quantum ring is investigated theoretically. The ring is coupled to a quantum wire and subjected to an in-plane electric field. Under a finite bias voltage across the wire a net circulating current is established in the ring which produces a strong magnetic field at its centre. This magnetic field can be tuned externally in a wide range by regulating the in-plane electric field, and thus, our present system can be utilized to control magnetic field at a specific region. The feasibility of this quantum system in designing spin-based quantum devices is also analyzed

  13. Creation of vector bosons by an electric field in curved spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangal, E. Ersin; Yanar, Hilmi; Havare, Ali; Sogut, Kenan

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the creation rate of massive spin-1 bosons in the de Sitter universe by a time-dependent electric field via the Duffin–Kemmer–Petiau (DKP) equation. Complete solutions are given by the Whittaker functions and particle creation rate is computed by using the Bogoliubov transformation technique. We analyze the influence of the electric field on the particle creation rate for the strong and vanishing electric fields. We show that the electric field amplifies the creation rate of charged, massive spin-1 particles. This effect is analyzed by considering similar calculations performed for scalar and spin-1/2 particles. -- Highlights: •Duffin–Kemmer–Petiau equation is solved exactly in the presence of an electrical field. •Solutions were made in (1+1)-dimensional curved spacetime. •Particle creation rate for the de Sitter model is calculated. •Pure gravitational or pure electrical field effect on the creation rate is analyzed

  14. The bee, the flower and the electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects use several different senses to forage on flowers, and detect floral cues such as color, shape, pattern, humidity and chemical volatiles. This presentation will present our discovery of a previously unappreciated sensory capacity in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris: the detection of floral electric fields. We show that these floral fields act as informational cues, and that they can be affected by the visit of naturally electrically charged bees. Like visual cues, floral electric fields exhibit variations in pattern and structure, which can be discriminated by bumblebees. We also show that such electric field information contributes to the complex array of floral cues that together improve a pollinator’s memory of floral rewards. Floral electric fields arise from complex interactions with the surrounding atmosphere, an interaction between plants and their environment that not well understood. Because floral electric fields can change within seconds, this new sensory modality - electrostatic field detection- may facilitate rapid and dynamic communication between flowers and their pollinators.

  15. Charged Hadron Properties in Background Electric Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detmold, William; Tiburzi, Brian C.; Walker-Loud, Andre

    2010-01-01

    We report on a lattice calculation demonstrating a novel new method to extract the electric polarizability of charged pseudo-scalar mesons by analyzing two point correlation functions computed in classical background electric fields. A staple component of any electrodynamics or quantum mechanics course is the electric polarizability. Neutral material immersed in a weak external field polarizes, internally setting up an electric dipole moment, aligned so as to minimize the energy. At the atomic level, the electron clouds are distorted creating these microscopic dipole moments. The same process occurs at the hadronic level but the polarization effects are now constrained by the strong force. Polarizabilities of these bound QCD states can be viewed as a distortion of the charged pion cloud of a given hadron. One can use lattice QCD to non-perturbatively compute the quark and gluon interactions in the presence of background electric (or magnetic) fields. For sufficiently weak background fields, the low energy properties of the hadrons can be rigorously computed using effective field theory. With this treatment, a picture of hadrons emerges from chiral dynamics: that of a hadronic core surrounded by a pseudoscalar meson cloud. As some pseudoscalar mesons are charged, polarizabilities of hadrons encode the stiffness of the charged meson cloud (as well as that of the core). The form of pseudoscalar meson polarizabilities is consequently strongly constrained by chiral dynamics. However, beyond the leading order, the results depend upon essentially unknown low-energy constants, which must currently be estimated in a model-dependent fashion. In the case of the charged pion, the experimental measurement of the polarizability has proven difficult, both in the original measurement as well as the most recent published result. Currently, there is a 2-3 sigma discrepancy between the two-loop cPT prediction and the measured charged pion polarizability. New results with higher

  16. Critical electric field for maximum tunability in nonlinear dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdogan, E. K.; Safari, A.

    2006-09-01

    The authors develop a self-consistent thermodynamic theory to compute the critical electric field at which maximum tunability is attained in a nonlinear dielectric. They then demonstrate that the stored electrostatic free energy functional has to be expanded at least up to the sixth order in electric field so as to define the critical field, and show that it depends solely on the fourth and sixth order permittivities. They discuss the deficiency of the engineering tunability metric in describing nonlinear dielectric phenomena, introduce a critical field renormalized tunability parameter, and substantiate the proposed formalism by computing the critical electric field for prototypical 0.9Pb(Mg1/3,Nb2/3)-0.1PbTiO3 and Ba(Ti0.85,Sn0.15)O3 paraelectrics.

  17. Electric-field-control of magnetic anisotropy of Co0.6Fe0.2B0.2/oxide stacks using reduced voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Koji; Abraham, David W.; Gajek, Martin J.; Worledge, D. C.

    2012-08-01

    We have demonstrated purely electrical manipulation of the magnetic anisotropy of a Co0.6Fe0.2B0.2 film by applying only 8 V across the CoFeB/oxide stack. A clear transition from in-plane to perpendicular anisotropy was observed. The quantitative relationship between interface anisotropy energy and the applied electric-field was determined from the linear voltage dependence of the saturation field. By comparing the dielectric stacks of MgO/Al2O3 and MgO/HfO2/Al2O3, enhanced voltage control was also demonstrated, due to the higher dielectric constant of the HfO2. These results suggest the feasibility of purely electrical control of magnetization with small voltage bias for spintronics applications.

  18. Numerical Study of Electric Field Enhanced Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Jie

    2016-12-26

    Electric fields can be used to change and control flame properties, for example changing flame speed, enhancing flame stability, or reducing pollutant emission. The ions generated in flames are believed to play the primary role. Although experiments have been carried out to study electric field enhanced combustion, they are not sufficient to explain how the ions in a flame are affected by an electric field. It is therefore necessary to investigate the problem through numerical simulations. In the present work, the electric structure of stabilized CH4/air premixed flames at atmospheric pressure within a direct current field is studied using numerical simulations. This study consists of three parts. First, the transport equations are derived from the Boltzmann kinetic equation for each individual species. Second, a general method for computing the diffusivity and mobility of ions in a gas mixture is introduced. Third, the mechanisms for neutral and charged species are improved to give better predictions of the concentrations of charged species, based on experimental data. Following from this, comprehensive numerical results are presented, including the concentrations and fluxes of charged species, the distributions of the electric field and electric potential, and the electric current-voltage relation. Two new concepts introduced with the numerical results are the plasma sheath and dead zone in the premixed flame. A reactive plasma sheath and a Boltzmann relation sheath are discovered in the region near the electrodes. The plasma sheath penetrates into the flame gas when a voltage is applied, and penetrating further if the voltage is higher. The zone outside the region of sheath penetration is defined as the dead zone. With the two concepts, analytical solutions for the electric field, electric potential and current-voltage curve are derived. The solutions directly describe the electric structure of a premixed flame subject to a DC field. These analytical solutions

  19. Electric field confinement effect on charge transport in organic field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Kadashchuk, A.; Fishchuk, I.I.; Smaal, W.T.T.; Gelinck, G.H.; Broer, D.J.; Genoe, J.; Heremans, P.; Bässler, H.

    2012-01-01

    While it is known that the charge-carrier mobility in organic semiconductors is only weakly dependent on the electric field at low fields, the experimental mobility in organic field-effect transistors using silylethynyl-substituted pentacene is found to be surprisingly field dependent at low

  20. Electric fields and monopole currents in compact QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, M.; Faber, M.; Kainz, W.; Skala, P.

    1995-01-01

    The confinement in compact QED is known to be related to magnetic monopoles. Magnetic currents form a solenoid around electric flux lines between a pair of electric charges. This behaviour can be described by the dual version of Maxwell-London equations including a fluctuating string. We use a definition of magnetic monopole currents adjusted to the definition of the electric field strength on a lattice and get good agreement for field and current distributions between compact QED and the predictions of dual Maxwell-London equations. Further we show that the monopole fluctuations in the vacuum are suppressed by the flux tube. ((orig.))

  1. Time development of electric fields and currents in space plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Y. Lui

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Two different approaches, referred to as Bu and Ej, can be used to examine the time development of electric fields and currents in space plasmas based on the fundamental laws of physics. From the Bu approach, the required equation involves the generalized Ohm's law with some simplifying assumptions. From the Ej approach, the required equation can be derived from the equation of particle motion, coupled self-consistently with Maxwell's equation, and the definition of electric current density. Recently, some strong statements against the Ej approach have been made. In this paper, we evaluate these statements by discussing (1 some limitations of the Bu approach in solving the time development of electric fields and currents, (2 the procedure in calculating self-consistently the time development of the electric current in space plasmas without taking the curl of the magnetic field in some cases, and (3 the dependency of the time development of magnetic field on electric current. It is concluded that the Ej approach can be useful to understand some magnetospheric problems. In particular, statements about the change of electric current are valid theoretical explanations of change in magnetic field during substorms.

  2. Tikekar superdense stars in electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komathiraj, K.; Maharaj, S. D.

    2007-04-01

    We present exact solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell system of equations with a specified form of the electric field intensity by assuming that the hypersurface {t=constant} are spheroidal. The solution of the Einstein-Maxwell system is reduced to a recurrence relation with variable rational coefficients which can be solved in general using mathematical induction. New classes of solutions of linearly independent functions are obtained by restricting the spheroidal parameter K and the electric field intensity parameter α. Consequently, it is possible to find exact solutions in terms of elementary functions, namely, polynomials and algebraic functions. Our result contains models found previously including the superdense Tikekar neutron star model [J. Math. Phys. 31, 2454 (1990)] when K=-7 and α=0. Our class of charged spheroidal models generalize the uncharged isotropic Maharaj and Leach solutions [J. Math. Phys. 37, 430 (1996)]. In particular, we find an explicit relationship directly relating the spheroidal parameter K to the electromagnetic field.

  3. Optimization of Pockels electric field in transverse modulated optical voltage sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yifan; Xu, Qifeng; Chen, Kun-Long; Zhou, Jie

    2018-05-01

    This paper investigates the possibilities of optimizing the Pockels electric field in a transverse modulated optical voltage sensor with a spherical electrode structure. The simulations show that due to the edge effect and the electric field concentrations and distortions, the electric field distributions in the crystal are non-uniform. In this case, a tiny variation in the light path leads to an integral error of more than 0.5%. Moreover, a 2D model cannot effectively represent the edge effect, so a 3D model is employed to optimize the electric field distributions. Furthermore, a new method to attach a quartz crystal to the electro-optic crystal along the electric field direction is proposed to improve the non-uniformity of the electric field. The integral error is reduced therefore from 0.5% to 0.015% and less. The proposed method is simple, practical and effective, and it has been validated by numerical simulations and experimental tests.

  4. Abelian Toda field theories on the noncommutative plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Carnero, Iraida

    2005-10-01

    Generalizations of GL(n) abelian Toda and GL with tilde above(n) abelian affine Toda field theories to the noncommutative plane are constructed. Our proposal relies on the noncommutative extension of a zero-curvature condition satisfied by algebra-valued gauge potentials dependent on the fields. This condition can be expressed as noncommutative Leznov-Saveliev equations which make possible to define the noncommutative generalizations as systems of second order differential equations, with an infinite chain of conserved currents. The actions corresponding to these field theories are also provided. The special cases of GL(2) Liouville and GL with tilde above(2) sinh/sine-Gordon are explicitly studied. It is also shown that from the noncommutative (anti-)self-dual Yang-Mills equations in four dimensions it is possible to obtain by dimensional reduction the equations of motion of the two-dimensional models constructed. This fact supports the validity of the noncommutative version of the Ward conjecture. The relation of our proposal to previous versions of some specific Toda field theories reported in the literature is presented as well.

  5. Electric Potential and Electric Field Imaging with Dynamic Applications & Extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Ed

    2017-01-01

    The technology and methods for remote quantitative imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic fields in and around objects and in free space is presented. Electric field imaging (EFI) technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or existing electric potentials and electric fields, or an externally generated electrostatic field made be used for volumes to be inspected with EFI. The baseline sensor technology (e-Sensor) and its construction, optional electric field generation (quasi-static generator), and current e- Sensor enhancements (ephemeral e-Sensor) are discussed. Critical design elements of current linear and real-time two-dimensional (2D) measurement systems are highlighted, and the development of a three dimensional (3D) EFI system is presented. Demonstrations for structural, electronic, human, and memory applications are shown. Recent work demonstrates that phonons may be used to create and annihilate electric dipoles within structures. Phonon induced dipoles are ephemeral and their polarization, strength, and location may be quantitatively characterized by EFI providing a new subsurface Phonon-EFI imaging technology. Results from real-time imaging of combustion and ion flow, and their measurement complications, will be discussed. Extensions to environment, Space and subterranean applications will be presented, and initial results for quantitative characterizing material properties are shown. A wearable EFI system has been developed by using fundamental EFI concepts. These new EFI capabilities are demonstrated to characterize electric charge distribution creating a new field of study embracing areas of interest including electrostatic discharge (ESD) mitigation, manufacturing quality control, crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for advanced sensors, combustion science, on-orbit space potential, container inspection, remote characterization of electronic circuits and level of activation, dielectric morphology of

  6. Electrically induced magnetic fields; a consistent approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batell, Brian; Ferstl, Andrew

    2003-09-01

    Electromagnetic radiation exists because changing magnetic fields induce changing electric fields and vice versa. This fact often appears inconsistent with the way some physics textbooks solve particular problems using Faraday's law. These types of problems often ask students to find the induced electric field given a current that does not vary linearly with time. A typical example involves a long solenoid carrying a sinusoidal current. This problem is usually solved as an example or assigned as a homework exercise. The solution offered by many textbooks uses the approximation that the induced, changing electric field produces a negligible magnetic field, which is only valid at low frequencies. If this approximation is not explicitly acknowledged, then the solution appears inconsistent with the description of electromagnetic radiation. In other cases, when the problem is solved without this approximation, the electric and magnetic fields are derived from the vector potential. We present a detailed calculation of the electric and magnetic fields inside and outside the long solenoid without using the vector potential. We then offer a comparison of our solution and a solution given in an introductory textbook.

  7. Electron states in quantum rings with structural distortions under axial or in-plane magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planelles, J; Rajadell, F; Climente, J I

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive study of anisotropic quantum rings, QRs, subject to axial and in-plane magnetic field, both aligned and transverse to the anisotropy direction, is carried out. Elliptical QRs for a wide range of eccentricity values and also perfectly circular QRs including one or more barriers disturbing the QR current are considered. These models mimic anisotropic geometry deformations and mass diffusion occurring in the QR fabrication process. Symmetry considerations and simplified analytical models supply physical insight into the obtained numerical results. Our study demonstrates that, except for unusual extremely large eccentricities, QR geometry deformations only appreciably influence a few low-lying states, while the effect of barriers disturbing the QR current is stronger and affects all studied states to a similar extent. We also show that the response of the electron states to in-plane magnetic fields provides accurate information on the structural anisotropy

  8. Electric field bifurcation and transition in the core plasma of CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, A.; Iguchi, H.; Sanuki, H.; Itoh, K.; Okamura, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Hamada, Y.; Itoh, S.-I.

    1997-01-01

    In the CHS heliotron/torsatron, dynamic phenomena associated with transitions in radial electric field were observed during combined ECH+NBI heated plasmas. The observations with high temporal resolution confirmed a nonlinear relation between radial electric field and radial current to cause these phenomena associated with electric field bifurcation. (author)

  9. Influence of magnetic field on the electrical breakdown characteristics in cylindrical diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shouzhe; Uhm, Han S.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of magnetic field on the electrical breakdown properties is investigated by applying a magnetic field along the longitudinal direction in a cylindrical diode for two electrical polarities. Breakdown characteristics in a crossed magnetic field are analyzed with the equivalentreduced-electric-field concept and Townsend criterion. The discharge experiment at reduced pressure is carried out in the moderate magnetic field. Experimental investigation is concentrated on the magnetic dependent behavior of the electrical breakdown in the lower pressure side of Paschen's minimum. It is found that the electrical breakdown characteristics with respect to the magnetic field depend on electrical polarity of the cylindrical diode, which is interpreted by taking the gyromotion of the individual electrons in the diode into accounts under the moderate magnetic field in the lower pressure side of Paschen's minimum

  10. In-situ electric field in human body model in different postures for wireless power transfer system in an electrical vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamoto, Takuya; Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2015-01-01

    The in-situ electric field of an adult male model in different postures is evaluated for exposure to the magnetic field leaked from a wireless power transfer system in an electrical vehicle. The transfer system is located below the centre of the vehicle body and the transferred power and frequency are 7 kW and 85 kHz, respectively. The in-situ electric field is evaluated for a human model (i) crouching near the vehicle, (ii) lying on the ground with or without his arm stretched, (iii) sitting in the driver’s seat, and (iv) standing on a transmitting coil without a receiving coil. In each scenario, the maximum in-situ electric fields are lower than the allowable limit prescribed by international guidelines, although the local magnetic field strength in regions of the human body is higher than the allowable external magnetic field strength. The highest in-situ electric field is observed when the human body model is placed on the ground with his arm extended toward the coils, because of a higher magnetic field around the arm. (paper)

  11. In-situ electric field in human body model in different postures for wireless power transfer system in an electrical vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Takuya; Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2015-01-07

    The in-situ electric field of an adult male model in different postures is evaluated for exposure to the magnetic field leaked from a wireless power transfer system in an electrical vehicle. The transfer system is located below the centre of the vehicle body and the transferred power and frequency are 7 kW and 85 kHz, respectively. The in-situ electric field is evaluated for a human model (i) crouching near the vehicle, (ii) lying on the ground with or without his arm stretched, (iii) sitting in the driver's seat, and (iv) standing on a transmitting coil without a receiving coil. In each scenario, the maximum in-situ electric fields are lower than the allowable limit prescribed by international guidelines, although the local magnetic field strength in regions of the human body is higher than the allowable external magnetic field strength. The highest in-situ electric field is observed when the human body model is placed on the ground with his arm extended toward the coils, because of a higher magnetic field around the arm.

  12. Electric fields in nonhomogeneously doped silicon. Summary of simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotov, I.V. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)]. E-mail: kotov@mps.ohio-state.edu; Humanic, T.J. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Nouais, D. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Randel, J. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Rashevsky, A. [INFN, Sezione di Triste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2006-11-30

    Variations of the doping concentration inside a silicon device result in electric field distortions. These distortions, 'parasitic' fields, have been observed in Silicon Drift Detectors [D. Nouais, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 501 (2003) 119; E. Crescio, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 539 (2005) 250]. Electric fields inside a silicon device can be calculated for a given doping profile. In this study, the ATLAS device simulator. [Silvaco International, 4701 Patrick Henry Drive, Bldg.2, Santa Clara, CA 95054, USA and ] was used to calculate the electric field inside an inhomogeneously doped device. Simulations were performed for 1D periodic doping profiles. Results show strong dependence of the parasitic field strength on the 'smoothness' of the doping profile.

  13. Electric-field enhanced performance in catalysis and solid-state devices involving gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Bryan M.; Wachsman, Eric D.; Van Assche, IV, Frederick Martin

    2015-05-19

    Electrode configurations for electric-field enhanced performance in catalysis and solid-state devices involving gases are provided. According to an embodiment, electric-field electrodes can be incorporated in devices such as gas sensors and fuel cells to shape an electric field provided with respect to sensing electrodes for the gas sensors and surfaces of the fuel cells. The shaped electric fields can alter surface dynamics, system thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, and adsorption/desorption processes. In one embodiment, ring-shaped electric-field electrodes can be provided around sensing electrodes of a planar gas sensor.

  14. On an effect of interplanetary magnetic field on a distribution electric fields in the polar ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvarov, V.M.; Barashkov, P.D.

    1985-01-01

    The problem on the effect of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) on the distribution of electric fields in polar ionosphere is discussed. The problem on excitation of electric fields is reduced to the solution of the system of continuity equations for the current in three regions-northern polar cap, southern cap and the region outside the caps. It is shown that one succeeds in reproducing the observed types of distributions of electric fields

  15. Electrical breakdown of water in microgaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenbach, Karl; Kolb, Juergen; Xiao Shu; Katsuki, Sunao; Minamitani, Yasushi; Joshi, Ravindra

    2008-01-01

    Experimental and modeling studies on electrical breakdown in water in submillimeter gaps between pin and plane electrodes have been performed. Prebreakdown, breakdown and recovery of the water gaps were studied experimentally by using optical and electrical diagnostics with a temporal resolution on the order of one nanosecond. By using Mach-Zehnder interferometry, the electric field distribution in the prebreakdown phase was determined by means of the Kerr effect. Electric fields values in excess of the computed electric fields, which reach >4 MV cm -1 for applied electrical pulses of 20 ns duration, were recorded at the tip of the pin electrode, an effect which can be explained by a reduced permittivity of water at high electric fields. Breakdown of the gaps, streamer-to-arc transition, was recorded by means of high-speed electrical diagnostics, and through high-speed photography. It was shown, through simulations, that breakdown is initiated by field emission at the interface of preexisting microbubbles. Impact ionization within the micro-bubble's gas then contributes to plasma development. Experiments using pulse-probe methods and Schlieren diagnostics allowed us to follow the development of the disturbance caused by the breakdown over a time of more than milliseconds and to determine the recovery time of a water switch. In order to trigger water switches a trigger electrode with a triple point has been utilized. The results of this research have found application in the construction of compact pulse power generators for bioelectric applications.

  16. Positrons trapped in polyethylene: Electric field effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolaccini, M.; Bisi, A.; Gambarini, G.; Zappa, L.

    1978-01-01

    The intensity of the iot 2 -component of positrons annihilated in polyethylene is found to increase with increasing electric field, while the formation probability of the positron state responsible for this component remains independent of the field. (orig.) 891 HPOE [de

  17. Statistical analysis of the ratio of electric and magnetic fields in random fields generators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, R.; Nijenhuis, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present statistical models of the ratio of random electric and magnetic fields in mode-stirred reverberation chambers. This ratio is based on the electric and magnetic field statistics derived for ideal reverberation conditions. It provides a further performance indicator for

  18. Electric field measurement in the ionosphere using the time-of-flight technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Masato; Hayakawa, Hajime; Tsuruda, Koichiro

    1989-01-01

    The first successful electric field measurement in the ionosphere using the time-of-flight technique with a lithium ion beam was carried out on a S-520 sounding rocket launched from Kagoshima Space Center, Japan on January 15, 1987. The purpose of this experiment was to prove the validity of the time-of-flight technique when it is applied to the measurement of the dc electric field in the ionosphere. A time-coded ion beam was ejected from the rocket in the direction perpendicular to the Earth's magnetic field. The beam returned to the rocket twice per rocket spin when the initial beam direction was nearly perpendicular to the electric field. The electric field and the magnetic field were derived from the travel time of these return lithium ions. The accuracy of the electric field determination was ± 0.3 mV/m. The direction of the electric field was obtained from the direction of the returning ion beam after about one ion gyration. The main constituent of the measured electric field was a V x B field due to the rocket motion across the geomagnetic field. The ambient field was less than 1 mV/m. The magnetic field was measured with an accuracy of ± 2.7 nT in this experiment

  19. Electric-field gradients at Ta impurities in Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, Diego, E-mail: richard@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Departamento de Fisica e Instituto de Fisica La Plata (IFLP, CONICET La Plata), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 67, 1900 La Plata, Argentina. (Argentina); Munoz, Emiliano L. [Departamento de Fisica e Instituto de Fisica La Plata (IFLP, CONICET La Plata), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 67, 1900 La Plata, Argentina. (Argentina); Errico, Leonardo A. [Departamento de Fisica e Instituto de Fisica La Plata (IFLP, CONICET La Plata), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 67, 1900 La Plata, Argentina. (Argentina); Universidad Nacional del Noroeste Bonaerense (UNNOBA), Monteagudo 2772, 2700 Pergamino, Argentina. (Argentina); Renteria, Mario [Departamento de Fisica e Instituto de Fisica La Plata (IFLP, CONICET La Plata), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 67, 1900 La Plata, Argentina. (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    In this work we present an ab initio study of Ta-doped Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} semiconductor. Calculations were performed at dilute Ta impurities located at both cationic sites of the host structure, using the Augmented Plane Wave plus Local Orbitals (APW+lo) method. The structural atomic relaxations and the electric-field gradients (EFG) were studied for different charge states of the cell in order to simulate different ionization states of the double-donor Ta impurity. From the results for the EFG tensor at Ta impurity sites and the comparison with experimental results obtained using the Time-Differential {gamma}-{gamma} Perturbed-Angular-Correlations technique we could determined the structural distortions induced by the Ta impurity and the electronic structure of the doped-semiconductor.

  20. Acceleration of auroral particles by magnetic-field aligned electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, L.P.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements on the S3-3 and Viking satellites appear to show that at least a large fraction of magnetic field-aligned potential drops are made up of multiple double layers. Solitons and double layers in U-shaped potential structures give rise to spiky electric fields also perpendicular to the magnetic field in agreement with satellite measurements. The large scale potential structures associated with inverted V-events are built up of many similar short-lived structures on a small scale. Viking measurements indicate that electric fields parallel to the magnetic field are almost always directed upward

  1. Pair-breaking effects by parallel magnetic field in electric-field-induced surface superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabeta, Masahiro; Tanaka, Kenta K.; Onari, Seiichiro; Ichioka, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Zeeman effect shifts superconducting gaps of sub-band system, towards pair-breaking. • Higher-level sub-bands become normal-state-like electronic states by magnetic fields. • Magnetic field dependence of zero-energy DOS reflects multi-gap superconductivity. - Abstract: We study paramagnetic pair-breaking in electric-field-induced surface superconductivity, when magnetic field is applied parallel to the surface. The calculation is performed by Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory with s-wave pairing, including the screening effect of electric fields by the induced carriers near the surface. Due to the Zeeman shift by applied fields, electronic states at higher-level sub-bands become normal-state-like. Therefore, the magnetic field dependence of Fermi-energy density of states reflects the multi-gap structure in the surface superconductivity.

  2. Interaction between lf electric fields and biological bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Češelkoska Vesna C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Equivalent electrodes method is used for electric field calculation in the proximity of the various biological subjects exposed to an electric field in the LF range. Several results of the electric field intensity on the body surface and numerous graphical results for equipotential and equienergetic curves are presented.

  3. An Apparatus for Constructing an Electromagnetic Plane Wave Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneubil, Fabiana Botelho; Loures, Marcus Vinicius Russo; Amado, William

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report on an activity aimed at building an electromagnetic wave. This was part of a class on the concept of mass offered to a group of 20 pre-service Brazilian physics teachers. The activity consisted of building a plane wave using an apparatus in which it is possible to fit some rods representing electric and magnetic fields into…

  4. Remote sensing of mesospheric electric fields using MF radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, C. E.; Manson, A. H.; Martynenko, S. I.; Rozumenko, V. T.; Tyrnov, O. F.

    2004-07-01

    Large mesospheric electric fields can play an essential role in middle atmospheric electrodynamics (see, e.g., Goldberg, R. A., Middle Atmospheric Electrodynamics during MAP, Adv. Space Res. 10 (10) (1990) 209). The V/m electric fields of atmospheric origin can be the possible cause of large variations in the electron collision frequency at mesospheric altitudes, and this provides a unique opportunity to take measurements of electric fields in the lower ionosphere by using remote sensing instruments employing radiowave techniques. A technique has been proposed for making estimates of large mesospheric electric field intensities on the lower edge of the ionosphere by using MF radar data and the inherent effective electron collision frequency. To do this, data collected in Canada and Ukraine were utilized. The developed technique permits the changes in mesospheric electric field intensities to be derived from MF radar data in real time. The statistical analysis of data consistent with large mesospheric electric field intensities in the 60-67km region resulted in the following inferences. There are at least two mechanisms for the generation of large mesospheric electric fields in the mesosphere. The most likely mechanism, with a probability of 60-70%, is the summation of random fields from a large number of elementary small-scale mesospheric generators, which results in a one-parameter Rayleigh distribution of the total large mesospheric electric field intensity E with a mean value of approximately 0.7-0.9V/m in the 60-67km altitude region, or in the corresponding one-parameter exponential distribution of the intensity squared E2 of large mesospheric electric fields. The second mechanism of unknown nature, with 5-15% probability, gives rise to the sporadic appearance of large mesospheric electric field intensities E>2.5V/m with a mean of 4V/m. Statistically significant seasonal differences in the averaged large mesospheric electric field parameters have not been

  5. Commensurability oscillations in a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas subject to strong in-plane magnetic field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smrčka, Ludvík

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 77, Mar (2016), s. 108-113 ISSN 1386-9477 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : lateral superlattices * commensurability oscillations * in-plane magnetic field Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.221, year: 2016

  6. Low-pressure gas breakdown in longitudinal combined electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisovskiy, V A; Kharchenko, N D; Yegorenkov, V D

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains the complete experimental and analytical picture of gas breakdown in combined electric fields for arbitrary values of rf and dc fields. To obtain it, we continued the study of the discharge ignition modes in nitrogen with simultaneous application of dc and rf electric fields presented in Lisovskiy et al (2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 125207). To this end, we studied the effect of rf voltage on dc discharge ignition. When we applied an rf voltage exceeding the one corresponding to the minimum breakdown voltage of a self-sustained rf discharge, the curve of dependence of the dc breakdown voltage of a combined discharge on gas pressure was found to consist of two sections. We got the generalized gas breakdown criterion in the combined field valid for arbitrary values of rf and dc electric fields. The calculation results agree with experimental data satisfactorily.

  7. A semi-analytical stationary model of a point-to-plane corona discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanallah, K; Pontiga, F

    2012-01-01

    A semi-analytical model of a dc corona discharge is formulated to determine the spatial distribution of charged particles (electrons, negative ions and positive ions) and the electric field in pure oxygen using a point-to-plane electrode system. A key point in the modeling is the integration of Gauss' law and the continuity equation of charged species along the electric field lines, and the use of Warburg's law and the corona current–voltage characteristics as input data in the boundary conditions. The electric field distribution predicted by the model is compared with the numerical solution obtained using a finite-element technique. The semi-analytical solutions are obtained at a negligible computational cost, and provide useful information to characterize and control the corona discharge in different technological applications. (paper)

  8. Evaluation of DC electric field distribution of PPLP specimen based on the measurement of electrical conductivity in LN2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jae-Sang; Seong, Jae-Kyu; Shin, Woo-Ju; Lee, Jong-Geon; Cho, Jeon-Wook; Ryoo, Hee-Suk; Lee, Bang-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN 2 was successfully measured. •Based on the measured value of PPLP, DC field analysis was performed. •The electric field distribution was altered according to the DC applying stages. •The maximum electric field was observed during polarity reversal situation. •DC field analysis is important to determine the optimum design of DC HTS devices. -- Abstract: High temperature superconducting (HTS) cable has been paid much attention due to its high efficiency and high current transportation capability, and it is also regarded as eco-friendly power cable for the next generation. Especially for DC HTS cable, it has more sustainable and stable properties compared to AC HTS cable due to the absence of AC loss in DC HTS cable. Recently, DC HTS cable has been investigated competitively all over the world, and one of the key components of DC HTS cable to be developed is a cable joint box considering HVDC environment. In order to achieve the optimum insulation design of the joint box, analysis of DC electric field distribution of the joint box is a fundamental process to develop DC HTS cable. Generally, AC electric field distribution depends on relative permittivity of dielectric materials but in case of DC, electrical conductivity of dielectric material is a dominant factor which determines electric field distribution. In this study, in order to evaluate DC electric field characteristics of the joint box for DC HTS cable, polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP) specimen has been prepared and its DC electric field distribution was analyzed based on the measurement of electrical conductivity of PPLP in liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ). Electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN 2 has not been reported yet but it should be measured for DC electric field analysis. The experimental works for measuring electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN 2 were presented in this paper. Based on the experimental works, DC electric field distribution of

  9. Absorption measurement s in InSe single crystal under an applied electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ates, A.; Guerbulak, B.; Guer, E.; Yildirim, T.; Yildirim, M.

    2002-01-01

    InSe single crystal was grown by Bridgman-Stockberger method. Electric field effect on the absorption measurements have been investigated as a function of temperature in InSe single crystal. The absorption edge shifted towards longer wavelengths and decreased of intensity in absorption spectra under an electric field. Using absorption measurements, Urbach energy was calculated under an electric field. Applied electric field caused a increasing in the Urbach energy. At 10 K and 320 K, the first exciton energies were calculated as 1.350 and 1.311 eV for zero voltage and 1.334 and 1.301 eV for electric field respectively

  10. Electric-Field-Induced Magnetization Reversal in a Ferromagnet-Multiferroic Heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, J. T.; Trassin, M.; Ashraf, K.; Gajek, M.; He, Q.; Yang, S. Y.; Nikonov, D. E.; Chu, Y.-H.; Salahuddin, S.; Ramesh, R.

    2011-11-01

    A reversal of magnetization requiring only the application of an electric field can lead to low-power spintronic devices by eliminating conventional magnetic switching methods. Here we show a nonvolatile, room temperature magnetization reversal determined by an electric field in a ferromagnet-multiferroic system. The effect is reversible and mediated by an interfacial magnetic coupling dictated by the multiferroic. Such electric-field control of a magnetoelectric device demonstrates an avenue for next-generation, low-energy consumption spintronics.

  11. Quantum fields interacting with colliding plane waves: the stress-energy tensor and backreaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorca, M.; Verdaguer, E.

    1997-01-01

    Following a previous work on the quantization of a massless scalar field in a space-time representing the head on collision of two plane waves which focus into a Killing-Cauchy horizon, we compute the renormalized expectation value of the stress-energy tensor of the quantum field near that horizon in the physical state which corresponds to the Minkowski vacuum before the collision of the waves. It is found that for minimally coupled and conformally coupled scalar fields the respective stress-energy tensors are unbounded in the horizon. The specific form of the divergences suggests that when the semiclassical Einstein equations describing the backreaction of the quantum fields on the space-time geometry are taken into account, the horizon will acquire a curvature singularity. Thus the Killing-Cauchy horizon which is known to be unstable under ''generic'' classical perturbations is also unstable by vacuum polarization. The calculation is done following the point-splitting regularization technique. The dynamical colliding wave space-time has four quite distinct space-time regions, namely, one flat region, two single plane wave regions, and one interaction region. Exact mode solutions of the quantum field equation cannot be found exactly, but the blueshift suffered by the initial modes in the plane wave and interaction regions makes the use of the WKB expansion a suitable method of solution. To ensure the correct regularization of the stress-energy tensor, the initial flat modes propagated into the interaction region must be given to a rather high adiabatic order of approximation. (orig.)

  12. Electromagnetic processes in pulsars under strong electric and magnetic field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayasli, S.; Hacinliyan, A.; Oegelman, H.B.; Daugherty, I.K.

    1977-01-01

    It is believed that pulsars possess huge electric and magnetic fields. However, the electric field is commonly neglected in calculations of the rate of pair production, a process which is thought to be greatly important in the radiation mechanisms of pulsars. To see the effect of the electric field, the pair production is calculated for arbitrary electric and magnetic field configurations. The formulae thus obtained are then applied to pulsars. It is shown that the correction to the ''polar gap'' height calculated in the Ruderman and Sutherland model is negligible, although it might be important for the spectrum of emerging photons. (author)

  13. Crystal growth under external electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, Satoshi; Koizumi, Haruhiko; Nozawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Kozo

    2014-01-01

    This is a review article concerning the crystal growth under external electric fields that has been studied in our lab for the past 10 years. An external field is applied electrostatically either through an electrically insulating phase or a direct injection of an electric current to the solid-interface-liquid. The former changes the chemical potential of both solid and liquid and controls the phase relationship while the latter modifies the transport and partitioning of ionic solutes in the oxide melt during crystallization and changes the solute distribution in the crystal

  14. Crystal growth under external electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uda, Satoshi; Koizumi, Haruhiko; Nozawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Kozo [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-10-06

    This is a review article concerning the crystal growth under external electric fields that has been studied in our lab for the past 10 years. An external field is applied electrostatically either through an electrically insulating phase or a direct injection of an electric current to the solid-interface-liquid. The former changes the chemical potential of both solid and liquid and controls the phase relationship while the latter modifies the transport and partitioning of ionic solutes in the oxide melt during crystallization and changes the solute distribution in the crystal.

  15. Microstickies agglomeration by electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaotang Tony; Hsieh, Jeffery S

    2016-01-01

    Microstickies deposits on both paper machine and paper products when it agglomerates under step change in ionic strength, pH, temperature and chemical additives. These stickies increase the down time of the paper mill and decrease the quality of paper. The key property of microstickies is its smaller size, which leads to low removal efficiency and difficulties in measurement. Thus the increase of microstickies size help improve both removal efficiency and reduce measurement difficulty. In this paper, a new agglomeration technology based on electric field was investigated. The electric treatment could also increase the size of stickies particles by around 100 times. The synergetic effect between electric field treatment and detacky chemicals/dispersants, including polyvinyl alcohol, poly(diallylmethylammonium chloride) and lignosulfonate, was also studied.

  16. Ionizing gas breakdown waves in strong electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbeil, R.; Tidman, D. A.; Fernsler, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    A previous analysis by Albright and Tidman (1972) of the structure of an ionizing potential wave driven through a dense gas by a strong electric field is extended to include atomic structure details of the background atoms and radiative effects, especially, photoionization. It is found that photoionization plays an important role in avalanche propagation. Velocities, electron densities, and temperatures are presented as a function of electric field for both negative and positive breakdown waves in nitrogen.

  17. Moderate and high intensity pulsed electric fields

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermans, Rian Adriana Hendrika

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) processing has gained a lot of interest the last decades as mild processing technology as alternative to thermal pasteurisation, and is suitable for preservation of liquid food products such as fruit juices. PEF conditions typically applied at industrial scale for pasteurisation are high intensity pulsed electric fields aiming for minimal heat load, with an electric field strength (E) in the range of 15 − 20 kV/cm and pulse width (τ) between 2 − 20 μs. Alternativel...

  18. Electric field tuning of phase separation in manganite thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Lourembam, James; Wu, Jianchun; Ding, Junfeng; Lin, Weinan; Wu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the electric field effect on epitaxial Pr0.65(Ca0.75Sr0.25)0.35MnO3 thin films in electric double-layer transistors. Different from the conventional transistors with semiconducting channels, the sub(micrometer)-scale phase separation in the manganite channels is expected to result in inhomogeneous distribution of mobile carriers and local enhancement of electric field. The field effect is much larger in the low-temperature phase separation region compared to that in the high-temperature polaron transport region. Further enhancement of electroresistance is achieved by applying a magnetic field, and a 250% modulation of resistance is observed at 80 K, equivalent to an increase of the ferromagnetic metallic phase fraction by 0.51%, as estimated by the general effective medium model. Our results illustrate the complementary nature of electric and magnetic field effects in phase-separated manganites, providing insights on such novel electronic devices based on complex oxides.

  19. Electric field tuning of phase separation in manganite thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Lourembam, James

    2014-01-29

    In this paper, we investigate the electric field effect on epitaxial Pr0.65(Ca0.75Sr0.25)0.35MnO3 thin films in electric double-layer transistors. Different from the conventional transistors with semiconducting channels, the sub(micrometer)-scale phase separation in the manganite channels is expected to result in inhomogeneous distribution of mobile carriers and local enhancement of electric field. The field effect is much larger in the low-temperature phase separation region compared to that in the high-temperature polaron transport region. Further enhancement of electroresistance is achieved by applying a magnetic field, and a 250% modulation of resistance is observed at 80 K, equivalent to an increase of the ferromagnetic metallic phase fraction by 0.51%, as estimated by the general effective medium model. Our results illustrate the complementary nature of electric and magnetic field effects in phase-separated manganites, providing insights on such novel electronic devices based on complex oxides.

  20. Feasibility of maintaining in-plane polarization for a storage ring EDM search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Edward; Storage Ring EDM Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    A search for an electric dipole moment (EDM) on charged particles using a storage ring requires beam polarization lifetimes approaching 1000 s for in-plane polarization. A feasibility study using beam bunching and sextupole field adjustment is underway with a 0.97-GeV/c vector-polarized deuteron beam at COSY. The polarimeter consists of a thick carbon target positioned at the edge of the beam and the EDDA scintillation detectors. The DAQ system assigns a clock time to each polarimeter event. Once calibrated against the RF-cavity, the clock time is used to select events associated with a maximal sideways polarization (precessing at 120 kHz). With this tool, the in-plane polarization magnitude is tracked versus time. Electron cooling reduces the depolarization from finite emittance and second-order momentum spread acting through synchrotron oscillations. Further lifetime improvement to the level of hundreds of seconds is achieved by adjusting sextupole fields located in the COSY ring arcs at places of large transverse beta functions and dispersion. The dependence of the reciprocal of the lifetime on sextupole field strength is nearly linear, permitting an easy location of the best field values. These typically occur near loci of zero chromaticity. A search for an electric dipole moment (EDM) on charged particles using a storage ring requires beam polarization lifetimes approaching 1000 s for in-plane polarization. A feasibility study using beam bunching and sextupole field adjustment is underway with a 0.97-GeV/c vector-polarized deuteron beam at COSY. The polarimeter consists of a thick carbon target positioned at the edge of the beam and the EDDA scintillation detectors. The DAQ system assigns a clock time to each polarimeter event. Once calibrated against the RF-cavity, the clock time is used to select events associated with a maximal sideways polarization (precessing at 120 kHz). With this tool, the in-plane polarization magnitude is tracked versus time. Electron

  1. Plane-stress fields for sharp notches in pressure-sensitive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Abduljabbar, Abdulhamid

    2003-01-01

    The effect of pressure sensitive yield on materials toughness can be determined by investigating stress fields around cracks and notches. In this work, fully-developed plastic stress fields around sharp wedge-shaped notches of perfectly-plastic pressure-sensitive materials are investigated for plane-stress case and Mode 1 loading condition. The pressure-sensitive yielding behavior is represented using the Drucker-Prager criterion. Using equilibrium equations, boundary conditions, and the yield criterion, closed-form expressions for stress fields are derived. The analysis covers the gradual change in the notch angle and compares it with the limiting case of a pure horizontal crack. Effects of notch geometry and pressure sensitivity on stress fields are examined by considering different specimen geometries, as well as different levels of pressure sensitivity. Results indicate that while the stress values directly ahead of the notch-tip are not affected, the extent of stress sector at notch front is reduced, thereby causing increase in the radial stress value around the notch. As the pressure sensitivity increases the reduction of the stress sector directly ahead of the notch tip is more evident. Also, for high pressure sensitivity values, introduction of the notch angle reduces the variation of the stress levels. Results are useful for design of structural components. (author)

  2. Experimental vibroacoustic testing of plane panels using synthesized random pressure fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Olivier; Berry, Alain; Moreau, Stéphane

    2014-06-01

    The experimental reproduction of random pressure fields on a plane panel and corresponding induced vibrations is studied. An open-loop reproduction strategy is proposed that uses the synthetic array concept, for which a small array element is moved to create a large array by post-processing. Three possible approaches are suggested to define the complex amplitudes to be imposed to the reproduction sources distributed on a virtual plane facing the panel to be tested. Using a single acoustic monopole, a scanning laser vibrometer and a baffled simply supported aluminum panel, experimental vibroacoustic indicators such as the Transmission Loss for Diffuse Acoustic Field, high-speed subsonic and supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer excitations are obtained. Comparisons with simulation results obtained using a commercial software show that the Transmission Loss estimation is possible under both excitations. Moreover and as a complement to frequency domain indicators, the vibroacoustic behavior of the panel can be studied in the wave number domain.

  3. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) electrotransfer in electric field generated by corona discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zu-wu; Guo, Jia; Zeng, Han-cai; Ge, Chun-liang; Yu, Jiang

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism of the forming SO 2 negative ions and their electrotransfer in the corona discharge electric field was investigated in this paper. The experimental results showed that SO 2 electrotransfer occurred in the electric field with corona discharge, which had potential applications in removal of SO 2 of the flue gas from coal-fired power plants by electrotransfer. SO 2 electrotransfer was enhanced by higher electric-field intensity or a larger discharging area. Assistant uniform electric field after the corona discharge electric field would improve SO 2 electrotransfer. The increment of the desulphurization efficiency by SO 2 electrotransfer might reach as high as 50%. (author)

  4. Electrosensitization Increases Antitumor Effectiveness of Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Claudia; Pakhomov, Andrei G; Heller, Loree; Casciola, Maura; Gianulis, Elena; Grigoryev, Sergey; Xiao, Shu; Pakhomova, O N

    2017-01-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric fields are emerging as a new modality for tissue and tumor ablation. We previously reported that cells exposed to pulsed electric fields develop hypersensitivity to subsequent pulsed electric field applications. This phenomenon, named electrosensitization, is evoked by splitting the pulsed electric field treatment in fractions (split-dose treatments) and causes in vitro a 2- to 3-fold increase in cytotoxicity. The aim of this study was to show the benefit of split-dose treatments for in vivo tumor ablation by nanosecond pulsed electric field. KLN 205 squamous carcinoma cells were embedded in an agarose gel or grown subcutaneously as tumors in mice. Nanosecond pulsed electric field ablations were produced using a 2-needle probe with a 6.5-mm interelectrode distance. In agarose gel, splitting a pulsed electric field dose of 300, 300-ns pulses (20 Hz, 4.4-6.4 kV) in 2 equal fractions increased cell death up to 3-fold compared to single-train treatments. We then compared the antitumor effectiveness of these treatments in vivo. At 24 hours after treatment, sensitizing tumors by a split-dose pulsed electric field exposure (150 + 150, 300-ns pulses, 20 Hz, 6.4 kV) caused a 4- and 2-fold tumor volume reduction as compared to sham and single-train treatments, respectively. Tumor volume reduction that exceeds 75% was 43% for split-dose-treated animals compared to only 12% for single-dose treatments. The difference between the 2 experimental groups remained statistically significant for at least 1 week after the treatment. The results show that electrosensitization occurs in vivo and can be exploited to assist in vivo cancer ablation.

  5. Phonon-assisted transitions in crossed electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.R.

    1980-05-01

    A theory of the effect of a crossed electric, E, and magnetic, H, fields in the indirect transitions in semiconductors is developed. A semi-classical treatment is adopted where the electric field is considered as a small perturbation. A numerical application to GaP gives the limiting values of E/H valid to this approach. (author)

  6. On transient electric fields observed in chemical release experiments by rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, G.; Brenning, N.; Holmgren, G.; Haerendel, G.

    1986-06-01

    As a follow-up to the successful chemical release experiment Trigger in 1977, the TOR (Trigger Optimized Repetition) rocket was launched from Esrange on Oct. 24, 1984. Like in the Trigger experiment a large amplitude electric field pulse of 200 mV/m was detected shortly after the explosion. The central part of the pulse was found to be clearly correlated with an intense layer of swept up ambient particles behind a propagating shock-front. The field was directed towards the centre of the expanding ionized cloud, which is indicative of a polarisation electric field source. Expressions for this radial polarisation field and the much weaker azimuthal induced electric field are derived from a simple cylindrical model for the field and the expanding neutral cloud. Time profiles of the radial electric field are shown to be in good agreement with observations. (authors)

  7. Particle creation in colour-electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjorn, J.; Hughes, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    The decay of the Yang-Mills vacuum in a uniform colour-electric field is calculated using the method of Bogoliubov transformations. The result does not agree with that obtained by summation of the corresponding perturbation series. (orig.)

  8. Electric and magnetic field measurements in an outdoor electric power substation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safigianni, A.S.; Tsompanidou, C.G. [Democritus Univ. Thrace, Xanthi (Greece). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2006-07-01

    With the ever increasing environmental exposure to man-made electromagnetic fields (EMFs), public concern regarding the potential health hazards of exposure to electric and magnetic fields at extremely low frequencies (ELF) has also increased. This paper examined the ELF fields at a 150/20 kV outdoor electric power substation in Xanthi, Greece. Basic data regarding this substation was provided along with previous relevant research studies. The reference levels for safe general public and occupational exposure according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) was also presented. The instruments used to take the measurements were described and indicative results of the EMFs measurements in the substation were provided. In general, the measured magnetic flux density values were far below the reference level for safe public and occupational exposure. No significant differentiation was noted in these values in relation to body height. However, the levels were found to be in violation in two positions, near the capacitor banks. It was emphasized that these values greatly decreased with distance, and the positions where these high values were measured were not occupied by technicians when the capacitors were under voltage. In addition, it was emphasized that the measured magnetic flux density values were very small in the supervision room, where the supervisor of the substation works and in the ring zone where the public has access. All the measured electric field strength values were below the reference level for safe public and occupational exposure. It was concluded that the measured field values are within recognized guidelines and pose no danger for public or working personnel. 19 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  9. 3D modeling of electric fields in the LUX detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerib, D. S.; Alsum, S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Brás, P.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; Dobi, A.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Fallon, S. R.; Fan, A.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Genovesi, J.; Ghag, C.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kamdin, K.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Palladino, K. J.; Pease, E. K.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solmaz, M.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W. C.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Velan, V.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Xu, J.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.

    2017-11-01

    This work details the development of a three-dimensional (3D) electric field model for the LUX detector. The detector took data to search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) during two periods. After the first period completed, a time-varying non-uniform negative charge developed in the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) panels that define the radial boundary of the detector's active volume. This caused electric field variations in the detector in time, depth and azimuth, generating an electrostatic radially-inward force on electrons on their way upward to the liquid surface. To map this behavior, 3D electric field maps of the detector's active volume were generated on a monthly basis. This was done by fitting a model built in COMSOL Multiphysics to the uniformly distributed calibration data that were collected on a regular basis. The modeled average PTFE charge density increased over the course of the exposure from -3.6 to -5.5 μC/m2. From our studies, we deduce that the electric field magnitude varied locally while the mean value of the field of ~200 V/cm remained constant throughout the exposure. As a result of this work the varying electric fields and their impact on event reconstruction and discrimination were successfully modeled.

  10. Probing spin-polarized edge state superconductivity by Andreev reflection in in-plane magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinthaler, Rolf W.; Tkachov, Grigory; Hankiewicz, Ewelina M. [Faculty of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Finding signatures of unconventional superconductivity in Quantum Spin Hall systems is one of the challenges of solid state physics. Here we induce superconductivity in a 3D topological insulator thin film to cause the formation of helical edge states, which are protected against backscattering even in finite magnetic fields. Above a critical in-plane magnetic field, which is much smaller than the critical field of typical superconductors, the quasi-particle gap closes, giving rise to energy-dependent spin polarization. In this regime the spin-polarized edge state superconductivity can be detected by Andreev reflection. We propose measurement setups to experimentally observe the spin-dependent excess current and dI/dV characteristics.

  11. Quadrupole mass detector in the field of weak plane gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisova, L.B.

    1978-01-01

    Studied is the behaviour of the system which consists of two test particles connected by a string (quadrupole mass detector) and placed in the field of weak plane monochromatic gravitational waves. It is shown that at cross orientation of the detector the gravitational wave effecting such a system excites oscillations in it with the frequency equal to that of the gravitational wave source. The role of the driving force is played by the periodical change with the time of the equilibrium position. The gravitational wave does not influence the detector at its longitudinal orientation

  12. Electric-field-induced magnetic domain writing in a Co wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuki; Hirai, Takamasa; Koyama, Tomohiro; Chiba, Daichi

    2018-05-01

    We have demonstrated that the local magnetization in a Co microwire can be switched by an application of a gate voltage without using any external magnetic fields. The electric-field-induced reversible ferromagnetic phase transition was used to realize this. An internal stray field from a ferromagnetic gate electrode assisted the local domain reversal in the Co wire. This new concept of electrical domain switching may be useful for dramatically reducing the power consumption of writing information in a magnetic racetrack memory, in which a shift of a magnetic domain by electric current is utilized.

  13. Effect of the radial electric field on turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, B.A.; Lynch, V.E.

    1990-01-01

    For many years, the neoclassical transport theory for three- dimensional magnetic configurations, such as magnetic mirrors, ELMO Bumpy Tori (EBTs), and stellarators, has recognized the critical role of the radial electric field in the confinement. It was in these confinement devices that the first experimental measurements of the radial electric field were made and correlated with confinement losses. In tokamaks, the axisymmetry implies that the neoclassical fluxes are ambipolar and, as a consequence, independent of the radial electric field. However, axisymmetry is not strict in a tokamak with turbulent fluctuations, and near the limiter ambipolarity clearly breaks down. Therefore, the question of the effect of the radial electric field on tokamak confinement has been raised in recent years. In particular, the radial electric field has been proposed to explain the transition from L-mode to H-mode confinement. There is some initial experimental evidence supporting this type of explanation, although there is not yet a self-consistent theory explaining the generation of the electric field and its effect on the transport. Here, a brief review of recent results is presented. 27 refs., 4 figs

  14. Electric-field effects in optically generated spin transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M. Idrish

    2009-01-01

    Transport of spin-polarized electrons in semiconductors is studied experimentally. Spins are generated by optical excitation because of the selection rules governing optical transitions from heavy-hole and light-hole states to conduction-band states. Experiments designed for the control of spins in semiconductors investigate the bias-dependent spin transport process and detect the spin-polarized electrons during transport. A strong bias dependence is observed. The electric-field effects on the spin-polarized electron transport are also found to be depended on the excitation photon energy and temperature. Based on a field-dependent spin relaxation mechanism, the electric-field effects in the transport process are discussed.

  15. Electric-field effects in optically generated spin transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au

    2009-05-25

    Transport of spin-polarized electrons in semiconductors is studied experimentally. Spins are generated by optical excitation because of the selection rules governing optical transitions from heavy-hole and light-hole states to conduction-band states. Experiments designed for the control of spins in semiconductors investigate the bias-dependent spin transport process and detect the spin-polarized electrons during transport. A strong bias dependence is observed. The electric-field effects on the spin-polarized electron transport are also found to be depended on the excitation photon energy and temperature. Based on a field-dependent spin relaxation mechanism, the electric-field effects in the transport process are discussed.

  16. Electric field distribution and current emission in a miniaturized geometrical diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinpu; Wong, Patrick Y.; Yang, Penglu; Lau, Y. Y.; Tang, W.; Zhang, Peng

    2017-06-01

    We study the electric field distribution and current emission in a miniaturized geometrical diode. Using Schwarz-Christoffel transformation, we calculate exactly the electric field inside a finite vacuum cathode-anode (A-K) gap with a single trapezoid protrusion on one of the electrode surfaces. It is found that there is a strong field enhancement on both electrodes near the protrusion, when the ratio of the A-K gap distance to the protrusion height d /h spot checked against COMSOL simulations. We calculate the effective field enhancement factor for the field emission current, by integrating the local Fowler-Nordheim current density along the electrode surfaces. We systematically examine the electric field enhancement and the current rectification of the miniaturized geometrical diode for various geometric dimensions and applied electric fields.

  17. Effects of electric fields in polymerization on enthalpy of PMAA anhydridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Zhenqi; Liu Gang; Zhang Zhicheng

    2004-02-19

    PMAA (polymethacrylic acid) polymerized by {gamma}-irradiation in electric field forms six-membered cyclic anhydride during heating process and the enthalpy of PMAA anhydridization was determined by DSC. Why the endothermic peak of PMAA anhydridization in DSC curve between 200 and 300 deg. C appears is particularly explained by calculation. The relations between applied electric field and the enthalpy of PMAA anhydridization are studied. The results show that, with the increases of the intensity of electric field in polymerization, the enthalpy of PMAA forming anhydrides nonlinearly increase, which might be related to orientation of carboxylic acid groups of the PMAA in an electric field.

  18. A corotation electric field model of the Earth derived from Swarm satellite magnetic field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    Rotation of the Earth in its own geomagnetic field sets up a primary corotation electric field, compensated by a secondary electric field of induced electrical charges. For the geomagnetic field measured by the Swarm constellation of satellites, a derivation of the global corotation electric field inside and outside of the corotation region is provided here, in both inertial and corotating reference frames. The Earth is assumed an electrical conductor, the lower atmosphere an insulator, followed by the corotating ionospheric E region again as a conductor. Outside of the Earth's core, the induced charge is immediately accessible from the spherical harmonic Gauss coefficients of the geomagnetic field. The charge density is positive at high northern and southern latitudes, negative at midlatitudes, and increases strongly toward the Earth's center. Small vertical electric fields of about 0.3 mV/m in the insulating atmospheric gap are caused by the corotation charges located in the ionosphere above and the Earth below. The corotation charges also flow outward into the region of closed magnetic field lines, forcing the plasmasphere to corotate. The electric field of the corotation charges further extends outside of the corotating regions, contributing radial outward electric fields of about 10 mV/m in the northern and southern polar caps. Depending on how the magnetosphere responds to these fields, the Earth may carry a net electric charge.

  19. Electric field gradient in FeTiO3 by nuclear magnetic resonance and ab initio calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procházka, V; Stěpánková, H; Chlan, V; Tuček, J; Cuda, J; Kouřil, K; Filip, J; Zbořil, R

    2011-05-25

    Temperature dependence of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of (47)Ti and (49)Ti in polycrystalline ilmenite FeTiO(3) was measured in the range from 5 to 300 K under an external magnetic field of 9.401 T. NMR spectra collected between 300 and 77 K exhibit a resolved quadrupole splitting. The electric field gradient (EFG) tensor was evaluated for Ti nuclei and the ratio of (47)Ti and (49)Ti nuclear quadrupole moments was refined during the fitting procedure. Below 77 K, the fine structure of quadrupole splitting disappears due to the enormous increase of anisotropy. As a counterpart, ab initio calculations were performed using full potential augmented plane waves + local orbitals. The calculated EFG tensors for Ti and Fe were compared to the experimental ones evaluated from NMR and the Mössbauer spectroscopy experiments.

  20. Composite magnetorheological elastomers as dielectrics for plane capacitors: Effects of magnetic field intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Balasoiu

    Full Text Available The fabrication of composite magnetorheological elastomers (MRECs based on silicone rubber, carbonyl iron microparticles (10% vol. and polyurethane elastomer doped with 0%, 10% and 20% volume concentration TiO2 microparticles is presented. The obtained MRECs have the shape of thin foils and are used as dielectric materials for manufacturing plane capacitors. Using the plane capacitor method and expression of capacitance as a function of magnetic field intensity, combined with linear elasticity theory, the static magnetoelastic model of the composite is obtained and analyzed. Keywords: Magnetorheological elastomer, TiO2 microparticles, Silicone rubber, Carbonyl iron, Plane capacitor, Magnetoelasticity

  1. Effects of geomagnetic activity on the mesospheric electric fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Zadorozhny

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of three series of rocket measurements of mesospheric electric fields carried out under different geomagnetic conditions at polar and high middle latitudes are analysed. The measurements show a clear dependence of the vertical electric fields on geomagnetic activity at polar and high middle latitudes. The vertical electric fields in the lower mesosphere increase with the increase of geomagnetic indexes Kp and ∑Kp. The simultaneous increase of the vertical electric field strength and ion conductivity was observed in the mesosphere during geomagnetic disturbances. This striking phenomenon was displayed most clearly during the solar proton events of October, 1989 accompanied by very strong geomagnetic storm (Kp=8+. A possible mechanism of generation of the vertical electric fields in the mesosphere caused by gravitational sedimentation of charged aerosol particles is discussed. Simultaneous existence in the mesosphere of both the negative and positive multiply charged aerosol particles of different sizes is assumed for explanation of the observed V/m vertical electric fields and their behaviour under geomagnetically disturbed conditions.Keywords. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles · Ionosphere (electric fields and currents · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (atmospheric electricity

  2. Octupolar out-of-plane magnetic field structure generation during collisionless magnetic reconnection in a stressed X-point collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf von der Pahlen, J.; Tsiklauri, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15

    The out-of-plane magnetic field, generated by fast magnetic reconnection, during collisionless, stressed X-point collapse, was studied with a kinetic, 2.5D, fully electromagnetic, relativistic particle-in-cell numerical code, using both closed (flux conserving) and open boundary conditions on a square grid. It was discovered that the well known quadrupolar structure in the out-of-plane magnetic field gains four additional regions of opposite magnetic polarity, emerging near the corners of the simulation box, moving towards the X-point. The emerging, outer, magnetic field structure has opposite polarity to the inner quadrupolar structure, leading to an overall octupolar structure. Using Ampere's law and integrating electron and ion currents, defined at grid cells, over the simulation domain, contributions to the out-of-plane magnetic field from electron and ion currents were determined. The emerging regions of opposite magnetic polarity were shown to be the result of ion currents. Magnetic octupolar structure is found to be a signature of X-point collapse, rather than tearing mode, and factors relating to potential discoveries in experimental scenarios or space-craft observations are discussed.

  3. Impurity-related optical properties in rectangular-transverse section GaAs-Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As quantum well wires: Hydrostatic pressure and electric field effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J.W.; Duque, C.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellin (Colombia); Lopez, S.Y. [Facultad de Educacion, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellin (Colombia); Rodriguez, A.H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Apdo. Postal 20-364, San Angel 01000, Mexico DF (Mexico); Porras-Montenegro, N. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, AA 25360, Cali (Colombia)

    2007-01-15

    Using a variational procedure within the effective mass approximation, we have calculated the influence of an applied electric field and hydrostatic pressure on the shallow-impurity-related optical properties in a rectangular-transverse section GaAs-Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As quantum well wire. The electric field is applied in the plane of the transverse section of the wire and different angular directions have been considered. The results presented are for the impurity binding energy, its corresponding density of impurity states, and impurity-related transition energy and polarizability. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Control of the electric-field profile in the Hall thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchtman, A.; Fisch, N.J.; Raitses, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Control of the electric-field profile in the Hall thruster through the positioning of an additional electrode along the channel is shown theoretically to enhance the efficiency. The reduction of the potential drop near the anode by use of the additional electrode increases the plasma density there, through the increase of the electron and ion transit times, causing the ionization in the vicinity of the anode to increase. The resulting separation of the ionization and acceleration regions increases the propellant and energy utilizations. An abrupt sonic transition is forced to occur at the axial location of the additional electrode, accompanied by the generation of a large (theoretically infinite) electric field. This ability to generate a large electric field at a specific location along the channel, in addition to the ability to specify the electric potential there, allows us further control of the electric-field profile in the thruster. In particular, when the electron temperature is high, a large abrupt voltage drop is induced at the vicinity of the additional electrode, a voltage drop that can comprise a significant part of the applied voltage

  5. Influence of applied electric field annealing on the microwave properties of (Ba0.5Sr0.5)TiO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kwang-Hwan; Lee, Chil-Hyoung; Kang, Chong-Yun; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Lee, Young-Pak

    2007-04-01

    The effect of heat treatment in electric field on the structure and dielectric properties at microwave range of rf magnetron sputtering derived (Ba0.5Sr0.5)TiO3 thin films have been studied. It has been demonstrated that postannealing in the proper electric field can increase the dielectric constant and the tunability. The increased out-of-plane lattice constant in the electric-annealed films indicated the formation of small polar regions with tetragonal structure, which are responsible for the increased dielectric constant and tunability. It was proposed that the segregation of Ti3+ ions caused by electric annealing could induce the formation of BaTiO3-like regions, which are ferroelectric at room temperature. And in dielectric loss, as the Ti-O bonding lengths increase, the energy scattering on the ferroelectric mode also increases. So, the value of dielectric loss is slightly increased.

  6. Electrical-field-induced magnetic Skyrmion ground state in a two-dimensional chromium tri-iodide ferromagnetic monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Shi, Mengchao; Mo, Pinghui; Lu, Jiwu

    2018-05-01

    Using fully first-principles non-collinear self-consistent field density functional theory (DFT) calculations with relativistic spin-orbital coupling effects, we show that, by applying an out-of-plane electrical field on a free-standing two-dimensional chromium tri-iodide (CrI3) ferromagnetic monolayer, the Néel-type magnetic Skyrmion spin configurations become more energetically-favorable than the ferromagnetic spin configurations. It is revealed that the topologically-protected Skyrmion ground state is caused by the breaking of inversion symmetry, which induces the non-trivial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) and the energetically-favorable spin-canting configuration. Combining the ferromagnetic and the magnetic Skyrmion ground states, it is shown that 4-level data can be stored in a single monolayer-based spintronic device, which is of practical interests to realize the next-generation energy-efficient quaternary logic devices and multilevel memory devices.

  7. New Method for Solving Inductive Electric Fields in the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhamäki, H.

    2005-12-01

    We present a new method for calculating inductive electric fields in the ionosphere. It is well established that on large scales the ionospheric electric field is a potential field. This is understandable, since the temporal variations of large scale current systems are generally quite slow, in the timescales of several minutes, so inductive effects should be small. However, studies of Alfven wave reflection have indicated that in some situations inductive phenomena could well play a significant role in the reflection process, and thus modify the nature of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling. The input to our calculation method are the time series of the potential part of the ionospheric electric field together with the Hall and Pedersen conductances. The output is the time series of the induced rotational part of the ionospheric electric field. The calculation method works in the time-domain and can be used with non-uniform, time-dependent conductances. In addition no particular symmetry requirements are imposed on the input potential electric field. The presented method makes use of special non-local vector basis functions called Cartesian Elementary Current Systems (CECS). This vector basis offers a convenient way of representing curl-free and divergence-free parts of 2-dimensional vector fields and makes it possible to solve the induction problem using simple linear algebra. The new calculation method is validated by comparing it with previously published results for Alfven wave reflection from uniformly conducting ionosphere.

  8. Drift motion of a charged particle in the crossed axial magnetic and radial electric fields, and the electric field of a rotating potential wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliseev, Yu.N.; Stepanov, K.N.

    1983-01-01

    In the drift motion approximation solution of the problem is obtained on the motion of a nonrelativistic charged particle in the crossed axial magnetic and radial electric fields, and the electric field of a rotating potential wave under cherenkov and modified cyclotron resonances. The static radial electric field potential is supposed to be close to the parabolic one. The drift motion equations and their integrals are preseOted. The experimentally obtained effect of plasma ionic component division in the crossed fields under the excitation of ion cyclotron oscillations is explained with the help of the theory developed in the paper

  9. Ground plane detection for autonomous robots in complex environments inclined with flexed far-field terrains

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osunmakind, IO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, collective intelligence of the Emergent Situation Awareness (ESA) technology is proposed as a supportive strategy for autonomous robotic navigation. The ability to reveal uncertainties over time on flexed far-field is a ground plane...

  10. Influence of electric field, hydrostatic pressure and temperature on the electric state in a Poschl-Teller quantum well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakimyfard, A.; Barseghyan, M.G.; Kirakosyan, A.A.; Duque, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Influence of the electric field and hydrostatic pressure on the electronic states in a Poschl-Teller quantum well is studied. In the framework of variational method the dependences of the ground state energy on the electric field and hydrostatic pressure are calculated for different values of the potential parameters and the temperature. It is shown that the increase in the electric field leads to the increase in the ground state energy, while the increase in the well width leads to the strengthening of the electric field effect. The ground state energy decreases with increasing pressure and increases with increasing temperature

  11. Electric Field Controlled Magnetism in BiFeO3/Ferromagnet Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, M. B.; Chu, Y. H.; Martin, L. W.; Gajek, M.; Seidel, J.; Ramesh, R.; Scholl, A.; Fraile-Rodriguez, A.

    2008-03-01

    Electric field control of magnetism is a hot technological topic at the moment due to its potential to revolutionize today's devices. Magnetoelectric materials, those having both electric and magnetic order and the potential for coupling between the two, are a promising avenue to approach electric control. BiFeO3, both a ferroelectric and an antiferromagnet, is the only single phase room temperature magnetoelectric that is currently known. In addition to other possibilities, its multiferroic nature has potential in the very active field of exchange bias, where an antiferromagnetic thin film pins the magnetic direction of an adjoining ferromagnetic layer. Since this antiferromagnet is electrically tunable, this coupling could allow electric-field control of the ferromagnetic magnetization. Direction determination of antiferromagnetic domains in BFO has recently been shown using linear and circular dichroism studies. Recently, this technique has been extended to look at the magnetic domains of a ferromagnetic grown on top of BFO. The clear magnetic changes induced by application of electric fields reveal the possibility of electric control.

  12. Phase-field model of insulator-to-metal transition in VO2 under an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yin; Chen, Long-Qing

    2018-05-01

    The roles of an electric field and electronic doping in insulator-to-metal transitions are still not well understood. Here we formulated a phase-field model of insulator-to-metal transitions by taking into account both structural and electronic instabilities as well as free electrons and holes in VO2, a strongly correlated transition-metal oxide. Our phase-field simulations demonstrate that in a VO2 slab under a uniform electric field, an abrupt universal resistive transition occurs inside the supercooling region, in sharp contrast to the conventional Landau-Zener smooth electric breakdown. We also show that hole doping may decouple the structural and electronic phase transitions in VO2, leading to a metastable metallic monoclinic phase which could be stabilized through a geometrical confinement and the size effect. This work provides a general mesoscale thermodynamic framework for understanding the influences of electric field, electronic doping, and stress and strain on insulator-to-metal transitions and the corresponding mesoscale domain structure evolution in VO2 and related strongly correlated systems.

  13. Field-induced optically isotropic state in bent core nematic liquid crystals: unambiguous proof of field-induced optical biaxiality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elamain, Omaima; Komitov, Lachezar; Hegde, Gurumurthy; Fodor-Csorba, Katalin

    2013-01-01

    The behaviour of bent core (BC) nematic liquid crystals was investigated under dc applied electric field. The optically isotropic state of a sample containing BC nematic was observed under application of low dc electric fields. The quality of the dark state when the sample was inserted between two crossed polarizers was found to be superb and it did not change when rotating the sample between the polarizers. The coupling between the net molecular dipole moment and the applied dc electric field was considered as the origin of the out-of-plane switching of the BC molecules resulting in switching from the field-off bright state to the field-on dark state. The field-induced optically isotropic state is an unambiguous proof of the field-induced biaxiality in the BC nematic liquid crystal. A simple model explaining the appearance of the isotropic optical state in BC nematics and the switching of the sample slow axis between three mutually orthogonal directions under dc applied electric field is proposed. (paper)

  14. Evaluation of DC electric field distribution of PPLP specimen based on the measurement of electrical conductivity in LN2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae-Sang; Seong, Jae-Kyu; Shin, Woo-Ju; Lee, Jong-Geon; Cho, Jeon-Wook; Ryoo, Hee-Suk; Lee, Bang-Wook

    2013-11-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) cable has been paid much attention due to its high efficiency and high current transportation capability, and it is also regarded as eco-friendly power cable for the next generation. Especially for DC HTS cable, it has more sustainable and stable properties compared to AC HTS cable due to the absence of AC loss in DC HTS cable. Recently, DC HTS cable has been investigated competitively all over the world, and one of the key components of DC HTS cable to be developed is a cable joint box considering HVDC environment. In order to achieve the optimum insulation design of the joint box, analysis of DC electric field distribution of the joint box is a fundamental process to develop DC HTS cable. Generally, AC electric field distribution depends on relative permittivity of dielectric materials but in case of DC, electrical conductivity of dielectric material is a dominant factor which determines electric field distribution. In this study, in order to evaluate DC electric field characteristics of the joint box for DC HTS cable, polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP) specimen has been prepared and its DC electric field distribution was analyzed based on the measurement of electrical conductivity of PPLP in liquid nitrogen (LN2). Electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN2 has not been reported yet but it should be measured for DC electric field analysis. The experimental works for measuring electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN2 were presented in this paper. Based on the experimental works, DC electric field distribution of PPLP specimen was fully analyzed considering the steady state and the transient state of DC. Consequently, it was possible to determine the electric field distribution characteristics considering different DC applying stages including DC switching on, DC switching off and polarity reversal conditions.

  15. Effects of a Guide Field on the Larmor Electric Field and Upstream Electron Temperature Anisotropy in Collisionless Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ek-In, Surapat; Ruffolo, David [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Malakit, Kittipat [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Techonology, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani (Thailand); Shay, Michael A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Cassak, Paul A., E-mail: kmalakit@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-08-20

    We perform the first study of the properties of the Larmor electric field (LEF) in collisionless asymmetric magnetic reconnection in the presence of an out-of-plane (guide) magnetic field for different sets of representative upstream parameters at Earth’s dayside magnetopause with an ion temperature greater than the electron temperature (the ion-to-electron temperature ratio fixed at 2) using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. We show that the LEF does persist in the presence of a guide field. We study how the LEF thickness and strength change as a function of guide field and the magnetospheric temperature and reconnecting magnetic field strength. We find that the thickness of the LEF structure decreases, while its magnitude increases when a guide field is added to the reconnecting magnetic field. The added guide field makes the Larmor radius smaller, so the scaling with the magnetospheric ion Larmor radius is similar to that reported for the case without a guide field. Note, however, that the physics causing the LEF is not well understood, so future work in other parameter regimes is needed to fully predict the LEF for arbitrary conditions. We also find that a previously reported upstream electron temperature anisotropy arises in the vicinity of the LEF region both with and without a guide field. We argue that the generation of the anisotropy is linked to the existence of the LEF. The LEF can be used in combination with the electron temperature anisotropy as a signature to effectively identify dayside reconnection sites in observations.

  16. Effects of a Guide Field on the Larmor Electric Field and Upstream Electron Temperature Anisotropy in Collisionless Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ek-In, Surapat; Ruffolo, David; Malakit, Kittipat; Shay, Michael A.; Cassak, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    We perform the first study of the properties of the Larmor electric field (LEF) in collisionless asymmetric magnetic reconnection in the presence of an out-of-plane (guide) magnetic field for different sets of representative upstream parameters at Earth’s dayside magnetopause with an ion temperature greater than the electron temperature (the ion-to-electron temperature ratio fixed at 2) using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. We show that the LEF does persist in the presence of a guide field. We study how the LEF thickness and strength change as a function of guide field and the magnetospheric temperature and reconnecting magnetic field strength. We find that the thickness of the LEF structure decreases, while its magnitude increases when a guide field is added to the reconnecting magnetic field. The added guide field makes the Larmor radius smaller, so the scaling with the magnetospheric ion Larmor radius is similar to that reported for the case without a guide field. Note, however, that the physics causing the LEF is not well understood, so future work in other parameter regimes is needed to fully predict the LEF for arbitrary conditions. We also find that a previously reported upstream electron temperature anisotropy arises in the vicinity of the LEF region both with and without a guide field. We argue that the generation of the anisotropy is linked to the existence of the LEF. The LEF can be used in combination with the electron temperature anisotropy as a signature to effectively identify dayside reconnection sites in observations.

  17. Effects of geomagnetic activity on the mesospheric electric fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Zadorozhny

    Full Text Available The results of three series of rocket measurements of mesospheric electric fields carried out under different geomagnetic conditions at polar and high middle latitudes are analysed. The measurements show a clear dependence of the vertical electric fields on geomagnetic activity at polar and high middle latitudes. The vertical electric fields in the lower mesosphere increase with the increase of geomagnetic indexes Kp and ∑Kp. The simultaneous increase of the vertical electric field strength and ion conductivity was observed in the mesosphere during geomagnetic disturbances. This striking phenomenon was displayed most clearly during the solar proton events of October, 1989 accompanied by very strong geomagnetic storm (Kp=8+. A possible mechanism of generation of the vertical electric fields in the mesosphere caused by gravitational sedimentation of charged aerosol particles is discussed. Simultaneous existence in the mesosphere of both the negative and positive multiply charged aerosol particles of different sizes is assumed for explanation of the observed V/m vertical electric fields and their behaviour under geomagnetically disturbed conditions.

    Keywords. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles · Ionosphere (electric fields and currents · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (atmospheric electricity

  18. Two devices for atmospheric electric field measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombet, Andre; Hubert, Pierre.

    1977-02-01

    Two instruments installed at St Privat d'Allier for electric field measurement in connection with the rocket triggered lighting experiment program are described. The first one is a radioactive probe electrometer used as a warning device. The second is a field mill used for tape recording of electric field variation during the triggering events. Typical examples of such records are given [fr

  19. Generation mechanisms for magnetic-field-aligned electric fields in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faelthammar, C.-G.

    1977-09-01

    Magnetic-field-aligned electric fields in the magnetosphere can be generated in several different ways, and in this review some possible mechanisms are presented. Observational data now available indicates that more than one of the mechanisms mentioned are operative in the magnetosphere but it is not yet possible to evaluate their relative importance. (author)

  20. Evaluation of DC electric field distribution of PPLP specimen based on the measurement of electrical conductivity in LN{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jae-Sang; Seong, Jae-Kyu; Shin, Woo-Ju; Lee, Jong-Geon [Hanyang University, 408-2, 4th Engineering Bldg, Sa 3-dong, Sangrok-gu, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jeon-Wook; Ryoo, Hee-Suk [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, Gyungnam 641-120 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bang-Wook, E-mail: bangwook@hanyang.ac.kr [Hanyang University, 408-2, 4th Engineering Bldg, Sa 3-dong, Sangrok-gu, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN{sub 2} was successfully measured. •Based on the measured value of PPLP, DC field analysis was performed. •The electric field distribution was altered according to the DC applying stages. •The maximum electric field was observed during polarity reversal situation. •DC field analysis is important to determine the optimum design of DC HTS devices. -- Abstract: High temperature superconducting (HTS) cable has been paid much attention due to its high efficiency and high current transportation capability, and it is also regarded as eco-friendly power cable for the next generation. Especially for DC HTS cable, it has more sustainable and stable properties compared to AC HTS cable due to the absence of AC loss in DC HTS cable. Recently, DC HTS cable has been investigated competitively all over the world, and one of the key components of DC HTS cable to be developed is a cable joint box considering HVDC environment. In order to achieve the optimum insulation design of the joint box, analysis of DC electric field distribution of the joint box is a fundamental process to develop DC HTS cable. Generally, AC electric field distribution depends on relative permittivity of dielectric materials but in case of DC, electrical conductivity of dielectric material is a dominant factor which determines electric field distribution. In this study, in order to evaluate DC electric field characteristics of the joint box for DC HTS cable, polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP) specimen has been prepared and its DC electric field distribution was analyzed based on the measurement of electrical conductivity of PPLP in liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}). Electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN{sub 2} has not been reported yet but it should be measured for DC electric field analysis. The experimental works for measuring electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN{sub 2} were presented in this paper. Based on the experimental works, DC electric

  1. Plasmasheet boundary electric fields during substorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, A.

    1985-01-01

    Electric field data from the ISEE-1 and GEOS-2 satellites have been studied during two substorms when ISEE-1 was in a favourable position in the magneto-tail and GEOS-2 was in the afternoon/evening sector of the geostationary orbit. Both electric field measurements were carried out with spherical double probes, separately by 73.5 m on ISEE-1, and 42 m on GEOS-2. In one case GEOS-2, in the afternoon sector, detected an increase of the dawn-to-dusk electric field during plasmasheet thinning and approximately 10 minutes prior to a substorm expansion. At the time of this expansion ISEE-1 was most likely near an X-line, on the Earthward side and detected Earthward antiE x antiB velocities, in excess of 500 km s -1 . In another example ISEE-1 was most likely near an X-line, on the tailward side, and observed tailward antiE x antiB velocities which were followed, 5-20 minutes later, by characteristic oscillating electric fields (time scales of 10s-30s) on GEOS-2 near 23 local time. Such signatures have on many occasions been connected with observations of westward travelling surges near the GEOS-2 conjugated area in Scandinavia. The ISEE-1 observations of large-dawn-to-dusk electric fields were concentrated to the outer boundary of the plasmasheet, and in the case of the westward travelling surge. GEOS-2 was most likely at the inner, Earthward edge of the plasmasheet. Time delays between ISEE-1 and GEOS-2 indicate a propagation velocity comparable to the antiE x antiB velocity

  2. Reduced dielectric response in spatially varying electric fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    relations between the flux and the gradient of the polarization. Comparison between the theory and molecular dynamics simulations confirms this effect. The effect is significant for small length scale electric field variations and the inclusion of the flux is thus important in nanoscale modeling......In this paper, the dynamical equation for polarization is derived. From this the dielectric response to a spatially varying electric field is analyzed showing a reduced response due to flux of polarization in the material. This flux is modeled as a diffusive process through linear constitutive...

  3. Electric-field gradient characterization at 181Ta impurities in sapphire single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renteria, M.; Darriba, G.N.; Errico, L.A.; Munoz, E.L.; Eversheim, P.D.

    2005-01-01

    We report Perturbed-Angular-Correlation (PAC) experiments on corundum Al 2 O 3 single crystals implanted with 181 Hf/ 181 Ta ions at the ISKP at Bonn and measured at La Plata with high efficiency and time-resolution. The magnitude, asymmetry, and orientation (with respect to the crystalline axes) of the electric-field gradient (EFG) tensor were determined measuring the spin-rotation curves as a function of different orientations of the single crystals relative to the detector system. These results are analyzed in the framework of point-charge model and ab initio Full-Potential Linearized-Augmented Plane Wave calculations, and compared with EFG results coming from PAC experiments with 111 In/ 111 Cd impurities. This combined study enables the determination of lattice relaxations induced by the presence of the impurity and the state of charge of a deep impurity donor level in the band gap of the semiconductor. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Collisional ionization of Na by HBr in weak to strong electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safinya, K.A.; Gallagher, T.F.; Sandner, W.; Gounand, F.

    1985-01-01

    We report the effect of static electric fields on the collisional ionization of highly excited sodium atoms by HBr. The binding energy dependence of the collisional ionization cross section is measured at zero field and in static electric fields up to that point at which the atom field ionizes. The applied electric field lowers the ionization threshold of the atom from its zero field value. Therefore an atom near the ionization threshold in an electric field is of smaller size than a free field atom with the same binding energy. Thus measuring the binding energy dependence of the cross section at different values of the electric field allows us to study the effects of the physical size of the atom on the cross section. The effect of the electric field was to lower the measured ionization cross section. However, the binding energy dependence of the cross section remains unchanged at the level of our measurement accuracy. The measured cross sections are larger for larger atoms, exhibit a drop with increasing binding energy characteristic of rotational to electronic excitation transfer, and are of order 10 -12 --10 -11 cm 2 . A simple calculation based on dipole (J→ J-1) excitation transfer from the molecule to the atom predicts, with good agreement, the binding energy dependence of the cross section. The electric field dependence of the data however, is not shown in the theory

  5. A model of film boiling in the presence of electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrica, P.M.; Masson, V.; Clausse, A. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Barilochi (Argentina)

    1995-09-01

    Recently it was found that, when a strong electric field is applied around a heated wire, two distinct film boiling heat transfer regimes are observed. In this paper, a semi-empirical model is derived to analyze the pool boiling process in the presence of non uniform electric field. The model takes into account the dielectrophoretic force acting on the bubbles as they grow and the effect of the electric field on the most dangerous wavelength. It is shown how the transition between the two film boiling regimes is possible for high strength electric fields. The threshold voltage for transition, transition heat fluxes and hysteresis values are compared with experimental outcomes showing a satisfactory agreement.

  6. In-channel electrochemical detection in the middle of microchannel under high electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chung Mu; Joo, Segyeong; Bae, Je Hyun; Kim, Yang-Rae; Kim, Yongseong; Chung, Taek Dong

    2012-01-17

    We propose a new method for performing in-channel electrochemical detection under a high electric field using a polyelectrolytic gel salt bridge (PGSB) integrated in the middle of the electrophoretic separation channel. The finely tuned placement of a gold working electrode and the PGSB on an equipotential surface in the microchannel provided highly sensitive electrochemical detection without any deterioration in the separation efficiency or interference of the applied electric field. To assess the working principle, the open circuit potentials between gold working electrodes and the reference electrode at varying distances were measured in the microchannel under electrophoretic fields using an electrically isolated potentiostat. In addition, "in-channel" cyclic voltammetry confirmed the feasibility of electrochemical detection under various strengths of electric fields (∼400 V/cm). Effective separation on a microchip equipped with a PGSB under high electric fields was demonstrated for the electrochemical detection of biological compounds such as dopamine and catechol. The proposed "in-channel" electrochemical detection under a high electric field enables wider electrochemical detection applications in microchip electrophoresis.

  7. Hairy Slices: Evaluating the Perceptual Effectiveness of Cutting Plane Glyphs for 3D Vector Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andrew H; Butkiewicz, Thomas; Ware, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional vector fields are common datasets throughout the sciences. Visualizing these fields is inherently difficult due to issues such as visual clutter and self-occlusion. Cutting planes are often used to overcome these issues by presenting more manageable slices of data. The existing literature provides many techniques for visualizing the flow through these cutting planes; however, there is a lack of empirical studies focused on the underlying perceptual cues that make popular techniques successful. This paper presents a quantitative human factors study that evaluates static monoscopic depth and orientation cues in the context of cutting plane glyph designs for exploring and analyzing 3D flow fields. The goal of the study was to ascertain the relative effectiveness of various techniques for portraying the direction of flow through a cutting plane at a given point, and to identify the visual cues and combinations of cues involved, and how they contribute to accurate performance. It was found that increasing the dimensionality of line-based glyphs into tubular structures enhances their ability to convey orientation through shading, and that increasing their diameter intensifies this effect. These tube-based glyphs were also less sensitive to visual clutter issues at higher densities. Adding shadows to lines was also found to increase perception of flow direction. Implications of the experimental results are discussed and extrapolated into a number of guidelines for designing more perceptually effective glyphs for 3D vector field visualizations.

  8. Generation of superDreicer electric fields in the solar chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, V. V.; Kronshtadtov, P. V.; Stepanov, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    The electric field generation at the front of the current pulse, which originates in a coronal magnetic loop owing to the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor magnetic instability at loop footpoints, has been considered. During the τA ≈ l/V A ≈ 5-25 s time (where l is the plasma plume height entering a magnetic loop as a result of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability), a disturbance related to the magnetic field tension B ϕ( r,t), "escapes" the instability region with the Alfvén velocity in this case. As a result, an electric current pulse Iz( z - V A t), at the front of which an induction magnetic field E z, which is directed along the magnetic tube axis and can therefore accelerate particles, starts propagating along a magnetic loop with a characteristic scale of Δξ ≈ l. In the case of sufficiently large currents, when B ϕ 2/8π > p, an electric current pulse propagates nonlinearly, and a relatively large longitudinal electric field originates E z ≈ 2 I z 3 V A/ c 4a2Bz 2l, which can be larger than the Dreicer field, depending on the electric current value.

  9. Electric field measurements in a xenon discharge using Spark spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaars, E.; Bowden, M.D.; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of electric field distributions in a low-pressure xenon discharge are presented. The measurement technique is based on Stark spectroscopy, using a 2 + 1 excitation scheme with fluorescence dip detection. Electric fields can be measured by detecting Stark shifts of high-lying Rydberg

  10. Optical Remote Sensing of Electric Fields Above Thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, B. M.; Carlson, B. E.; Lauben, D.; Cohen, M.; Smith, D.; Inan, U. S.

    2010-12-01

    Measurement of thunderstorm electric fields typically require balloon-borne measurements in the region of interest. Such measurements are cumbersome and provide limited information at a single point. Remote sensing of electric fields by Kerr-effect induced optical polarization changes of background skylight circumvents many of these difficulties and can in principle provide a high-speed movie of electric field behavior. Above-thundercloud 100 kV/m quasi-static electric fields are predicted to produce polarization changes at above the part in one million level that should be detectable at a ground instrument featuring 1 cm2sr geometric factor and 1 kHz bandwidth (though more sensitivity is nonetheless desired). Currently available optical and electronic components may meet these requirements. We review the principles of this measurement and discuss the current status of a field-ready prototype instrument currently in construction.

  11. Correlations of filtration flux enhanced by electric fields in crossflow microfiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, K.; Nagase, Y. [Kurashiki University of Science and the Arts, Okayama (Japan). Department of Chemical Technology; Ohnishi, Y.; Nishihan, A.; Akagi, Y. [Okayama University of Science, Okayama (Japan). Department of Applied Chemistry

    1997-12-01

    The steady state filtration flux in electrically-enhanced crossflow microfiltration is estimated using a correlation equation proposed for several kinds of suspensions. Baker`s yeast and Rhodotorula glutinis were used as model samples of microbial cells, and PMMA particles were used as samples of non-living solids. Application of the electric field in crossflow microfiltration is a useful method for improving the filtration flux of these samples. High flux levels for the cells were achieved when an electric field above 3000 V/m was applied. The effect of the electric field in increasing the filtration flux of the steady state was analyzed theoretically using a force balance model where the viscous drag force, F{sub J}, the electrophoretic force, F{sub E}, and the re-entraining force, F{sub B}, were considered to act on a particle on the membrane surface under a steady state of filtration, respectively. From force balance analysis, it is found that on application of an electric field, the electro-osmotic effect can be neglected in the present study, so that the filtration flux of the steady state, J{sub ES}, can be presented by, J{sub ES}=U{sub EP}E+J{sub OS} where U{sub EP} is the electrophoretic mobility of particles and E is the electric field applied. J{sub OS} is the filtration flux in the absence of an electric field, which is correlated with the operating parameters for suspensions tested. 22 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Perturbation theory for the Bethe-Salpeter equation in the field of a plane electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starostin, V.S.; Litskevich, I.K.

    1990-01-01

    The completeness and orthogonality of the solutions of the Bethe-Salpeter equation is proven. A correct derivation of perturbation-theory equations is given. A generalization that includes the field of a plane electromagnetic wave is proposed. The rate of one-photon annihilation of positronium in this field is calculated. If the one-photon decay is allowed, the stationary states of the system are found (states of light-positronium)

  13. On the electric field model for an open magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Ashour-Abdalla, Maha; Walker, Raymond J.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a new canonical separator line type magnetospheric magnetic field and electric field model for use in magnetospheric calculations, we determine the magnetic and electric field by controlling the reconnection rate at the subsolar magnetopause. The model is applicable only for purely southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We have obtained a more realistic magnetotail configuration by applying a stretch transformation to an axially symmetric field solution. We also discuss the Stern singularity in which there is an electric field singlarity in the canonical separate line models for B(sub y) not = to 0 by using a new technique that solves for the electric field along a field line directly instead of determining it by a potential mapping. The singularity not only causes an infinite electric field on the polar cap, but also causes the boundary conditions at plus infinity and minus infinity in the solar wind to contradict each other. This means that the canonical separator line models do not represent the open magnetosphere well, except for the case of purely southward IMF.

  14. Technical Note: Computation of Electric Field Strength Necessary for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obviously, electric field is established by this charge. The effects of this field on the objects lying within its vicinity depend on its intensity. In this paper, the electric field of 33kV overhead line is considered. The aim of the paper is to determine the maximum electric field strength or potential gradient, E of the 33kV overhead ...

  15. Electric field effects in scanning tunneling microscope imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokbro, Kurt; Quaade, Ulrich; Grey, Francois

    1998-01-01

    We present a high-voltage extension of the Tersoff-Hamann theory of scanning tunneling microscope (STM) images, which includes the effect of the electric field between the tip and the sample. The theoretical model is based on first-principles electronic structure calculations and has no adjustable...... parameters. We use the method to calculate theoretical STM images of the monohydrate Si(100)-H(2x1) surface with missing hydrogen defects at -2V and find an enhanced corrugation due to the electric field, in good agreement with experimental images....

  16. h-Adaptive Mesh Generation using Electric Field Intensity Value as a Criterion (in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Toyonaga, Kiyomi; Cingoski, Vlatko; Kaneda, Kazufumi; Yamashita, Hideo

    1994-01-01

    Finite mesh divisions are essential to obtain accurate solution of two dimensional electric field analysis. It requires the technical knowledge to generate a suitable fine mesh divisions. In electric field problem, analysts are usually interested in the electric field intensity and its distribution. In order to obtain electric field intensity with high-accuracy, we have developed and adaptive mesh generator using electric field intensity value as a criterion.

  17. Strongly Anisotropic Electronic Transport at Landau Level Filling Factor ν =9/2 and ν =5/2 under a Tilted Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, W.; Tsui, D.C.; Pan, W.; Du, R.R.; Du, R.R.; Stormer, H.L.; Pfeiffer, L.N.; Baldwin, K.W.; West, K.W.; Stormer, H.L.; Stormer, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the influence of an increasing in-plane magnetic field on the states of half filling of Landau levels (ν=11/2, 9/2, 7/2, thinspandthinsp 5/2) of a two-dimensional electron system. In the electrically anisotropic phase at ν=9/2 and 11/2 an in-plane magnetic field of ∼1 - 2 T overcomes its initial pinning to the crystal lattice and reorients this phase. In the initially isotropic phases at ν=5/2 and 7/2 an in-plane magnetic field induces a strong electrical anisotropy. In all cases, for high in-plane fields the high-resistance axis is parallel to the direction of the in-plane field. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  18. Visualization of induced electric fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, van A.P.J.

    2005-01-01

    A cylindrical electrolytic tank between a set of Helmholtz coils provides a classroom demonstration of induced, nonconservative electric fields. The field strength is measured by a sensor consisting of a pair of tiny spheres immersed in the liquid. The sensor signal depends on position, frequency,

  19. Electric field stimulated growth of Zn whiskers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niraula, D.; McCulloch, J.; Irving, R.; Karpov, V. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Warrell, G. R.; Shvydka, Diana, E-mail: diana.shvydka@utoledo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toledo Health Science Campus, Toledo, Ohio 43614 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    We have investigated the impact of strong (∼10{sup 4} V/cm) electric fields on the development of Zn whiskers. The original samples, with considerable whisker infestation were cut from Zn-coated steel floors and then exposed to electric fields stresses for 10-20 hours at room temperature. We used various electric field sources, from charges accumulated in samples irradiated by: (1) the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope (SEM), (2) the electron beam of a medical linear accelerator, and (3) the ion beam of a linear accelerator; we also used (4) the electric field produced by a Van der Graaf generator. In all cases, the exposed samples exhibited a considerable (tens of percent) increase in whiskers concentration compared to the control sample. The acceleration factor defined as the ratio of the measured whisker growth rate over that in zero field, was estimated to approach several hundred. The statistics of lengths of e-beam induced whiskers was found to follow the log-normal distribution known previously for metal whiskers. The observed accelerated whisker growth is attributed to electrostatic effects. These results offer promise for establishing whisker-related accelerated life testing protocols.

  20. Electric field stimulated growth of Zn whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraula, D.; McCulloch, J.; Warrell, G. R.; Irving, R.; Karpov, V. G.; Shvydka, Diana

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the impact of strong (˜104 V/cm) electric fields on the development of Zn whiskers. The original samples, with considerable whisker infestation were cut from Zn-coated steel floors and then exposed to electric fields stresses for 10-20 hours at room temperature. We used various electric field sources, from charges accumulated in samples irradiated by: (1) the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope (SEM), (2) the electron beam of a medical linear accelerator, and (3) the ion beam of a linear accelerator; we also used (4) the electric field produced by a Van der Graaf generator. In all cases, the exposed samples exhibited a considerable (tens of percent) increase in whiskers concentration compared to the control sample. The acceleration factor defined as the ratio of the measured whisker growth rate over that in zero field, was estimated to approach several hundred. The statistics of lengths of e-beam induced whiskers was found to follow the log-normal distribution known previously for metal whiskers. The observed accelerated whisker growth is attributed to electrostatic effects. These results offer promise for establishing whisker-related accelerated life testing protocols.

  1. Dynamics of the spatial structure of pulsed discharges in dense gases in point cathode−plane anode gaps and their erosion effect on the plane electrode surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baksht, E. Kh.; Blinova, O. M.; Erofeev, M. V.; Karelin, V. I.; Ripenko, V. S.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Trenkin, A. A.; Shibitov, Yu. M.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of the spatial structure of the plasma of pulsed discharges in air and nitrogen in a nonuniform electric field and their erosion effect on the plane anode surface were studied experimentally. It is established that, at a nanosecond front of the voltage pulse, a diffuse discharge forms in the point cathode–plane anode gap due to the ionization wave propagating from the cathode. As the gap length decreases, the diffuse discharge transforms into a spark. A bright spot on the anode appears during the diffuse discharge, while the spark channel forms in the later discharge stage. The microstructure of autographs of anode spots and spark channels in discharges with durations of several nanoseconds is revealed. The autographs consist of up to 100 and more microcraters 5–100 μm in diameter. It is shown that, due to the short duration of the voltage pulse, a diffuse discharge can be implemented, several pulses of which do not produce appreciable erosion on the plane anode or the soot coating deposited on it.

  2. Application of high voltage electric field (HVEF) drying technology in potato chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yaxiang; Shi, Hua; Yang, Yaxin

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the drying efficiency and qualities of vegetable by high voltage electric field (HVEF), potato chips as a representative of vegetable was dried using a high voltage electric drying systems at 20°C. The shrinkage rate, water absorption and rehydration ratio of dried potato chips were measured. The results indicated that the drying rate of potato chips was significantly improved in the high voltage electric drying systems. The shrinkage rate of potato chips dried by high voltage electric field was 1.1% lower than that by oven drying method. And the rehydration rate of high voltage electric field was 24.6% higher than that by oven drying method. High voltage electric field drying is very advantageous and can be used as a substitute for traditional drying method.

  3. Magnetic fluid droplet in a harmonic electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvasov, D., E-mail: kvasovdmitry@gmail.com [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Naletova, V. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Beketova, E.; Dikanskii, Yu. [North-Caucasus Federal University, Stavropol (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-01

    A magnetic fluid droplet immersed in oil in an applied harmonic electric field is studied experimentally and theoretically. It is shown that deformations of the droplet observed experimentally are not described by the well-known theory. New double-layer droplet model which describes experimental data well is proposed. - Highlights: • The magnetic fluid droplet in the oil in a harmonic electric field is studied. • The paradoxical flattening effect of the droplet is observed experimentally. • For explaining this effect the model of the double-layer droplet is proposed. • Numerical and experimental data coincide qualitatively and quantitatively.

  4. Field emission study of ammonia absorption and catalytic decomposition on individual molybdenum planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abon, M.; Bergeret, G.; Tardy, B.

    1977-01-01

    A probe-hole field emission microscope was used to investigate the crystallographic specificity of ammonia adsorption at 200 and 300 K on (110), (100), (211) and (111) molybdenum crystal planes. Chemisorbed NH 3 causes a large work function decrease, especially at 200 K in agreement with an associative adsorption model which can also explain that this decrease is more important on the crystal planes of highest work function (At 200 K, Δpsi = -2.25 eV on Mo(110) compared to Δpsi = -1.55 eV on Mo(111). The decomposition of NH 3 was followed by measuring the work function changes for stepwise heating of the Mo tip covered with NH 3 at 200 K. On the four studied planes NH 3 decomposition and H 2 desorption are completed at about 400 K. Δpsi changes above 400 K depend on the crystal planes and have been related to two different nitrogen surface states. No inactive plane towards NH 3 adsorption and decomposition has been found but the noted crystallographic anisotropy in this low pressure study is relevant to the structure sensitive character of the NH 3 decomposition and synthesis reactions. (Auth.)

  5. External electric field effect on the binding energy of a hydrogenic donor impurity in InGaAsP/InP concentric double quantum rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min; Wang, Hailong; Gong, Qian; Wang, Shumin

    2018-04-01

    Within the framework of effective-mass envelope-function theory, the ground state binding energy of a hydrogenic donor impurity is calculated in the InGaAsP/InP concentric double quantum rings (CDQRs) using the plane wave method. The effects of geometry, impurity position, external electric field and alloy composition on binding energy are considered. It is shown that the peak value of the binding energy appears in two rings with large gap as the donor impurity moves along the radial direction. The binding energy reaches the peak value at the center of ring height when the donor impurity moves along the axial direction. The binding energy shows nonlinear variation with the increase of ring height. With the external electric field applied along the z-axis, the binding energy of the donor impurity located at zi ≥ 0 decreases while that located at zi < 0 increases. In addition, the binding energy decreases with increasing Ga composition, but increases with the increasing As composition.

  6. Fluctuations in collisional plasma in the presence of an external electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momot, A. I.; Zagorodny, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    The theory of large-scale fluctuations in a plasma is used to calculate the correlations functions of electron and ion density with regard to particle collisions described within the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) model and the presence of a constant external electric field. The changes of plasma particle distribution functions due to an external electric field and their influence on the plasma dielectric response are taken into account. The dispersion relations for longitudinal waves in such a plasma are studied in details. It is shown that external electric field can lead to the ion-acoustic wave instability and anomalous growth of the fluctuation level. Detailed numerical studies of the general relations for electron number density fluctuations are performed and the effect of external electric field on the fluctuation spectra is studied.

  7. Electric-field-induced superconductivity detected by magnetization measurements of an electric-double-layer capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Yuichi; Takeuchi, Yuki; Ye, Jianting; Yuan, Hongtao; Shimotani, Hidekazu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Nishimura, Takahiro; Sato, Tatsuya

    2010-01-01

    We report evidence for superconductivity induced by the application of strong electric fields onto the surface of a band insulator, ZrNCl, provided by the observation of a shielding diamagnetic signal. We introduced an electric-double-layer capacitor configuration and in situ magnetization measurements at low temperatures as a method to detect the novel electric-field-induced superconducting state. The results showed excellent agreement with a previous report using a transistor configuration, demonstrating that the present technique is a novel method for investigating the nonequilibrium phase induced by electric fields. (author)

  8. On the presence of electric currents in the solar atmosphere. I - A theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagyard, M.; Low, B. C.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1981-01-01

    The general magnetic field above the solar photosphere is divided by an elementary analysis based on Ampere's law into two parts: a potential field due to electric currents below the photosphere and a field produced by electric currents above the photosphere combined with the induced mirror currents. The latter, by symmetry, has a set of field lines lying in the plane taken to be the photosphere which may be constructed from given vector magnetograph measurements. These field lines also represent all the information on the electric currents above the photosphere that a magnetograph can provide. Theoretical illustrations are given, and implications for data analysis are discussed.

  9. Diffraction in the edge of a half plane in a bianisotropic media; Difraccion en el borde de un semiplano inmerso en un medio quiral bianisotropo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villaroel, C; Torres, H.; Zamorano, M.; Obligado, A. [Universidad de Tarapaca, Arica (Chile)

    2001-04-01

    The diffraction of a non uniform plane electromagnetic wave by the edge of a electrically perfectly conducting half plane in a bi-anisotropic media is rigorously analyzed. The high-frequency asymptotic expansion reveals the existence of a coupling effect between a transverse magnetic (or transverse electric) incident plane wave and the transverse electric (or transverse magnetic) slope-diffracted field. A numerical verification using the Mathematic software is presented. [Spanish] Se analiza rigurosamente la difraccion, de una onda plana electromagnetica no-uniforme, en el borde (edge) de un semiplano perfectamente conductor inmerso en un medio quiral (bi-anisotropo). La expansion asintotica de la solucion exacta en alta frecuencia, evidencia la existencia de un efecto de acoplamiento, entre la onda plana transversal magnetica incidente (o transversal electrica) y el campo transversal electrico producido por la difraccion-pendiente (o transversal magnetico). Los campos difractados se evaluan numericamente utilizando el software Matematica.

  10. Time-dependent electric field in Al/CdTe/Pt detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turturici, A.A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica,Università di Palermo,Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, Palermo 90128 (Italy); Abbene, L., E-mail: leonardo.abbene@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica,Università di Palermo,Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, Palermo 90128 (Italy); Franc, J.; Grill, R.; Dědič, V. [Institute of Physics of Charles University, MFF, Ke Karlovu 5, Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Principato, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica,Università di Palermo,Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, Palermo 90128 (Italy)

    2015-09-21

    Al/CdTe/Pt detectors are very attractive devices for high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy, even though they suffer from bias-induced time instability (polarization). Polarization phenomena cause a progressive time-degradation of the spectroscopic performance of the detectors, due to hole trapping and detrapping from deep acceptor levels that directly control the electric field distribution. In this work we present experimental investigations on the electric field profile of planar Al/CdTe/Pt detectors by means of Pockels effect measurements. The time/temperature dependence of the electric field was investigated in a long time window (up to 10 h) and the correlation with the reverse current transients was also studied. Two energy levels (0.62 eV and 1.16 eV) of the deep hole traps were measured, in agreement with our previous results obtained through electrical and spectroscopic approaches.

  11. Linear electric field time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funsten, Herbert O [Los Alamos, NM; Feldman, William C [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-06-10

    A linear electric field ion mass spectrometer having an evacuated enclosure with means for generating a linear electric field located in the evacuated enclosure and means for injecting a sample material into the linear electric field. A source of pulsed ionizing radiation injects ionizing radiation into the linear electric field to ionize atoms or molecules of the sample material, and timing means determine the time elapsed between ionization of atoms or molecules and arrival of an ion out of the ionized atoms or molecules at a predetermined position.

  12. Roles of electric field on toroidal magnetic confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae; Sanuki, Heiji; Fukuyama, Atsushi.

    1992-11-01

    Theoretical research on the influence of the electric field on the toroidal magnetic confinement is surveyed. The static electric field is first described. Physics pictures on the generation of the radial electric field and the influence on the confinement are shown. Neoclassical effects as well as the nonclassical processes are discussed. Emphasis is made on the connection with the improved confinement. Convective cell, i.e. the nonuniform potential on the magnetic surface is also discussed. The roles of the fluctuating electric field are then reviewed. The progress in the recent theories on the anomalous transport is addressed. Through these surveys, the impact of the experiments using the heavy ion beam probes on the modern plasma physics is illustrated. (author) 66 refs

  13. Evaluation of the induced electric field and compliance procedure for a wireless power transfer system in an electrical vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2013-01-01

    In this study, an induced electric field in a human body is evaluated for the magnetic field leaked from a wireless power transfer system for charging an electrical vehicle. The magnetic field from the wireless power transfer system is modelled computationally, and its effectiveness is confirmed by comparison with the field measured in a previous study. The induced electric field in a human standing around the vehicle is smaller than the allowable limit prescribed in international guidelines, although the magnetic field strength in the human body is locally higher than the allowable external field strength. Correlation between the external magnetic field and the induced electric field is confirmed to be reasonable at least in the standing posture, which is the case discussed in the international standard. Based on this finding, we discussed and confirmed the applicability of a three-point magnetic field measurement at heights of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m for safety compliance. (paper)

  14. Evaluation of the induced electric field and compliance procedure for a wireless power transfer system in an electrical vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2013-11-07

    In this study, an induced electric field in a human body is evaluated for the magnetic field leaked from a wireless power transfer system for charging an electrical vehicle. The magnetic field from the wireless power transfer system is modelled computationally, and its effectiveness is confirmed by comparison with the field measured in a previous study. The induced electric field in a human standing around the vehicle is smaller than the allowable limit prescribed in international guidelines, although the magnetic field strength in the human body is locally higher than the allowable external field strength. Correlation between the external magnetic field and the induced electric field is confirmed to be reasonable at least in the standing posture, which is the case discussed in the international standard. Based on this finding, we discussed and confirmed the applicability of a three-point magnetic field measurement at heights of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m for safety compliance.

  15. Electric field-induced reorganization of two-component supported bilayer membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, J T; Boxer, S G; McConnell, H M

    1997-12-09

    Application of electric fields tangent to the plane of a confined patch of fluid bilayer membrane can create lateral concentration gradients of the lipids. A thermodynamic model of this steady-state behavior is developed for binary systems and tested with experiments in supported lipid bilayers. The model uses Flory's approximation for the entropy of mixing and allows for effects arising when the components have different molecular areas. In the special case of equal area molecules the concentration gradient reduces to a Fermi-Dirac distribution. The theory is extended to include effects from charged molecules in the membrane. Calculations show that surface charge on the supporting substrate substantially screens electrostatic interactions within the membrane. It also is shown that concentration profiles can be affected by other intermolecular interactions such as clustering. Qualitative agreement with this prediction is provided by comparing phosphatidylserine- and cardiolipin-containing membranes.

  16. Structural and Functional Effect of an Oscillating Electric Field on the Dopamine-D3 Receptor: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Fallah

    Full Text Available Dopamine as a neurotransmitter plays a critical role in the functioning of the central nervous system. The structure of D3 receptor as a member of class A G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs has been reported. We used MD simulation to investigate the effect of an oscillating electric field, with frequencies in the range 0.6-800 GHz applied along the z-direction, on the dopamine-D3R complex. The simulations showed that at some frequencies, the application of an external oscillating electric field along the z-direction has a considerable effect on the dopamine-D3R. However, there is no enough evidence for prediction of changes in specific frequency, implying that there is no order in changes. Computing the correlation coefficient parameter showed that increasing the field frequency can weaken the interaction between dopamine and D3R and may decrease the Arg128{3.50}-Glu324{6.30} distance. Because of high stability of α helices along the z-direction, applying an oscillating electric field in this direction with an amplitude 10-time higher did not have a considerable effect. However, applying the oscillating field at the frequency of 0.6 GHz along other directions, such as X-Y and Y-Z planes, could change the energy between the dopamine and the D3R, and the number of internal hydrogen bonds of the protein. This can be due to the effect of the direction of the electric field vis-à-vis the ligands orientation and the interaction of the oscillating electric field with the dipole moment of the protein.

  17. Galvanotactic behavior of Tetrahymena pyriformis under electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dal Hyung; Kim, Paul Seung Soo; Kim, Min Jun; Lee, Kyoungwoo; Kim, JinSeok

    2013-01-01

    Tetrahymena pyriformis, a eukaryotic ciliate, swims toward a cathode in straight or cross-shaped microchannels under an applied electric field, a behavioral response called cathodal galvanotaxis. In straight channel experiments, a one-dimensional electric field was applied, and the galvanotactic swimming behavior of Tetrahymena pyriformis was observed and described in detail while the polarity of this field is switched. In most individual cases, the cell would immediately switch its direction toward the cathode; however, exceptional cases have been observed where cells exhibit a turning delay or do not turn after a polarity switch. In cross-channel experiments, feedback control using vision-based tracking was used to steer a cell in the microchannel intersection using a two-dimensional electric field generated by four electrodes placed at four ends of the cross channel. The motivation for this work is to study the swimming behavior of Tetrahymena pyriformis as a microrobot under the control of electric fields. (paper)

  18. Flame spread over inclined electrical wires with AC electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Seung J.; Park, Sun H.; Park, Jeong; Fujita, Osamu; Keel, Sang I.; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Flame spread over polyethylene-insulated electrical wires was studied experimentally with applied alternating current (AC) by varying the inclination angle (θ), applied voltage (VAC), and frequency (fAC). For the baseline case with no electric field

  19. Classical theory of electric and magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Good, Roland H

    1971-01-01

    Classical Theory of Electric and Magnetic Fields is a textbook on the principles of electricity and magnetism. This book discusses mathematical techniques, calculations, with examples of physical reasoning, that are generally applied in theoretical physics. This text reviews the classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, Maxwell's Equations, Lorentz Force, and Faraday's Law of Induction. The book also focuses on electrostatics and the general methods for solving electrostatic problems concerning images, inversion, complex variable, or separation of variables. The text also explains ma

  20. PHASE GRADIENT METHOD OF MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Ptitsyna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of electric and hybrid vehicles demands real time magnetic field control, for instance, for fire and electromagnetic safety. The article deals with a method of magnetic field measurements onboard electric cars taking into account peculiar features of these fields. The method is based on differential methods of measurements, and minimizes the quantity of magnetic sensors.

  1. Endogenous electric fields in embryos during development, regeneration and wound healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuccitelli, R.

    2003-01-01

    All embryos that have been investigated drive ionic currents through themselves and these currents will generate internal electric fields. Here, those examples in which such fields have been measured directly are discussed. The first such measurements were made in chick embryos and about 20 mV mm -1 was measured near the posterier intestinal portal in 2-4-day-old embryos. This electric field is important for the development of tail structures because reducing its magnitude results in abnormal tail development. The second embryonic electric field measured directly was in the axolotl, where a rostral-caudal field of about the same magnitude was detected. Modification of this field during neurulation but not gastrulation caused developmental abnormalities. Most recently, the development of left-right asymmetry in frog and chick embryos was found to require a voltage difference between blastomeres at a very early developmental stage. This field was measured in the chick embryo to be 10-20 mV mm -1 across the primitive streak. Mammalian skin wounds generate 150 mV mm -1 fields lateral to the wound and corneal epidermal wounds exhibit lateral fields of 40 mV mm -1 . The presence of these endogenous fields would suggest that exposures to external electric fields should be limited to magnitudes of less than 0.1 V m -1 . (author)

  2. Endogenous electric fields in embryos during development, regeneration and wound healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuccitelli, R

    2003-07-01

    All embryos that have been investigated drive ionic currents through themselves and these currents will generate internal electric fields. Here, those examples in which such fields have been measured directly are discussed. The first such measurements were made in chick embryos and about 20 mV mm-1 was measured near the posterier intestinal portal in 2-4-day-old embryos. This electric field is important for the development of tail structures because reducing its magnitude results in abnormal tail development. The second embryonic electric field measured directly was in the axolotl, where a rostral-caudal field of about the same magnitude was detected. Modification of this field during neurulation but not gastrulation caused developmental abnormalities. Most recently, the development of left-right asymmetry in frog and chick embryos was found to require a voltage difference between blastomeres at a very early developmental stage. This field was measured in the chick embryo to be 10-20 mV mm-1 across the primitive streak. Mammalian skin wounds generate 150 mV mm-1 fields lateral to the wound and corneal epidermal wounds exhibit lateral fields of 40 mV mm-1. The presence of these endogenous fields would suggest that exposures to external electric fields should be limited to magnitudes of less than 0.1 V m-1. (author)

  3. Relative work function of clean molybdenum single-crystal planes determined by field emission microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeret, G.; Abon, M.; Tardy, B.; Teichner, S.J.

    1974-01-01

    A probe-hole field emission microscope was used to determine the work function of clean molybdenum single crystal planes relative to the average work function of the field emitter, assumed to be 4.20 eV. Results are compared with other available data

  4. Photodetachment of negative ion in a gradient electric field near a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tian-Qi; Wang De-Hua; Han Cai; Liu Jiang; Liang Dong-Qi; Xie Si-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Based on closed-orbit theory, the photodetachment of H − in a gradient electric field near a metal surface is studied. It is demonstrated that the gradient electric field has a significant influence on the photodetachment of negative ions near a metal surface. With the increase of the gradient of the electric field, the oscillation in the photodetachment cross section becomes strengthened. Besides, in contrast to the photodetachment of H − near a metal surface in a uniform electric field, the oscillating amplitude and the oscillating region in the cross section of a gradient electric field also become enlarged. Therefore, we can use the gradient electric field to control the photodetachment of negative ions near a metal surface. We hope that our results will be useful for understanding the photodetachment of negative ions in the vicinity of surfaces, cavities, and ion traps. (atomic and molecular physics)

  5. Direct nanoscale imaging of evolving electric field domains in quantum structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Rudra Sankar; Razavipour, Seyed Ghasem; Dupont, Emmanuel; Xu, Chao; Laframboise, Sylvain; Wasilewski, Zbig; Hu, Qing; Ban, Dayan

    2014-11-28

    The external performance of quantum optoelectronic devices is governed by the spatial profiles of electrons and potentials within the active regions of these devices. For example, in quantum cascade lasers (QCLs), the electric field domain (EFD) hypothesis posits that the potential distribution might be simultaneously spatially nonuniform and temporally unstable. Unfortunately, there exists no prior means of probing the inner potential profile directly. Here we report the nanoscale measured electric potential distribution inside operating QCLs by using scanning voltage microscopy at a cryogenic temperature. We prove that, per the EFD hypothesis, the multi-quantum-well active region is indeed divided into multiple sections having distinctly different electric fields. The electric field across these serially-stacked quantum cascade modules does not continuously increase in proportion to gradual increases in the applied device bias, but rather hops between discrete values that are related to tunneling resonances. We also report the evolution of EFDs, finding that an incremental change in device bias leads to a hopping-style shift in the EFD boundary--the higher electric field domain expands at least one module each step at the expense of the lower field domain within the active region.

  6. Plane-wise sensitivity based inhomogeneous excitation fields for magnetorelaxometry imaging of magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgarten, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.baumgarten@tu-ilmenau.de [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, Technische Universität Ilmenau, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany); IJN-UTM Cardiovascular Engineering Centre, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Braune, Friedemann [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, Technische Universität Ilmenau, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Supriyanto, Eko [IJN-UTM Cardiovascular Engineering Centre, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Haueisen, Jens [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, Technische Universität Ilmenau, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Promising biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles share the need for a quantitative knowledge of their in vivo distribution. From multichannel magnetorelaxometry measurements with sequential activation of inhomogeneous excitation fields, the distribution can be quantitatively determined. In first studies, single excitation coils were consecutively activated. We aim at further advancing this imaging technology by suitable activation patterns involving multiple excitation coils. In this work, we propose the estimation of these patterns based on the spatial sensitivity in order to reduce the number of required measurements. The sensitivity of a voxel carrying magnetic nanoparticles is determined by its position relative to the sensors and the excitation field. Whereas the position is fixed within a given setup, the excitation is controlled by the currents in the coils. The currents required for a defined target sensitivity are estimated by solving an inverse problem. In our work, two target sensitivity paradigms are presented: (a) plane-wise activation, where only one plane with high sensitivities is sought and moved through the source space and (b) plane-wise non-activation, where all voxels except for one plane should receive high sensitivity. Our approach is investigated in simulation studies using a setup with a cubic region of interest and a planar sensor array. The imaging quality of both activation paradigms is evaluated. Our results demonstrate the principal applicability of this spatial sensitivity based approach for defining inhomogeneous activation patterns. The obtained patterns allow for a similar imaging quality using a lower number of activation sequences compared to the conventional single coil activation.

  7. Plane-wise sensitivity based inhomogeneous excitation fields for magnetorelaxometry imaging of magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgarten, Daniel; Braune, Friedemann; Supriyanto, Eko; Haueisen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Promising biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles share the need for a quantitative knowledge of their in vivo distribution. From multichannel magnetorelaxometry measurements with sequential activation of inhomogeneous excitation fields, the distribution can be quantitatively determined. In first studies, single excitation coils were consecutively activated. We aim at further advancing this imaging technology by suitable activation patterns involving multiple excitation coils. In this work, we propose the estimation of these patterns based on the spatial sensitivity in order to reduce the number of required measurements. The sensitivity of a voxel carrying magnetic nanoparticles is determined by its position relative to the sensors and the excitation field. Whereas the position is fixed within a given setup, the excitation is controlled by the currents in the coils. The currents required for a defined target sensitivity are estimated by solving an inverse problem. In our work, two target sensitivity paradigms are presented: (a) plane-wise activation, where only one plane with high sensitivities is sought and moved through the source space and (b) plane-wise non-activation, where all voxels except for one plane should receive high sensitivity. Our approach is investigated in simulation studies using a setup with a cubic region of interest and a planar sensor array. The imaging quality of both activation paradigms is evaluated. Our results demonstrate the principal applicability of this spatial sensitivity based approach for defining inhomogeneous activation patterns. The obtained patterns allow for a similar imaging quality using a lower number of activation sequences compared to the conventional single coil activation

  8. Electrical control of the anomalous valley Hall effect in antiferrovalley bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wen-Yi; Duan, Chun-Gang

    2017-08-01

    In analogy to all-electric spintronics, all-electric valleytronics, i.e., valley manipulation via electric means, becomes an exciting new frontier as it may bring revolutions in the field of data storage with ultra-high speed and ultra-low power consumption. The existence of the anomalous valley Hall effect in ferrovalley materials demonstrates the possibility of electrical detection for valley polarization. However, in previously proposed valley-polarized monolayers, the anomalous valley Hall effect is controlled by external magnetic fields. Here, through elaborate structural design, we propose the antiferrovally bilayer as an ideal candidate for realizing all-electric valleytronic devices. Using the minimal k.p model, we show that the energy degeneracy between valley indexes in such system can be lifted by electric approaches. Subsequently, the anomalous valley Hall effect strongly depends on the electric field as well. Taking the bilayer VSe2 as an example, all-electric tuning and detecting of anomalous valley Hall effect is confirmed by density-functional theory calculations, indicating that the valley information in such antiferrovalley bilayer can be reversed by an electric field perpendicular to the plane of the system and easily probed through the sign of the Hall voltage.

  9. Optimized design of micromachined electric field mills to maximize electrostatic field sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yu; Shafai, Cyrus

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design optimization of a micromachined electric field mill, in relation to maximizing its output signal. The cases studied are for a perforated electrically grounded shutter vibrating laterally over sensing electrodes. It is shown that when modeling the output signal of the sensor, the differential charge on the sense electrodes when exposed to vs. visibly shielded from the incident electric field must be considered. Parametric studies of device dimensions show that t...

  10. Recent Research Results in the Field of Electric Drives and Mechatronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vittek

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of research results achieved in the field of Electrical Drives and Mechatronics for the period of three years. The achieved outputs are formed into three individual parts. In the field of Electric Drives the most significant outputs have been achieved in the development of a new control algorithms for a.c. drives under general name 'Forced Dynamics Control' , in improvement of shaft sensorless control methods and in implementation of developed algorithms via digital signal processors. In the field of Electric Traction the most important results have been gained in optimization of power of traction vehicles andat development of diagnostic systems for evaluation of technical conditions of traction devices. In the field of Electric Machines the most important outputs have been achieved in the research of modern electronically commutated electrical machines, their performances in steady and transient states, new design method for their configuration and new methods for automatic parameters identification. In the end the list of the most important publications for all three parts is enclosed.

  11. Electric-field effects on electronic tunneling transport in magnetic barrier structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yong; Wang Hao; Gu Binglin; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2000-01-01

    Electronic transport properties in magnetic barrier structures under the influence of an electric field have been investigated. The results indicate that the characteristics of transmission resonance are determined not only by the structure and the incident wave vector but also strongly by the electric field. It is shown that the transmission coefficient at resonance in the low-energy range is suppressed by applying the electric field for electron tunneling through the magnetic barrier structure, arranged with identical magnetic barriers and wells. It is also shown that the transmission resonance is first enhanced up to optimal resonance, and then suppressed with further increased electric field for electron tunneling through the magnetic barrier structure, arranged with unidentical building blocks. Strong suppression of the current density is also found in the magnetic barrier structure, arranged with two different building blocks

  12. Dynamics analysis of extraction of manganese intensified by electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenrui; Tao, Changyuan; Li, Huizhan; Liu, Zuohua; Liu, Renlong

    2018-06-01

    In this study, a process reinforcement technology for leaching process of pyrolusite was developed. The electric field was introduced to decrease reaction temperature and improve the leaching rate of pyrolusite. The mechanisms of electric field intensifying leaching process of pyrolusite were investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) in detail. The results showed that the electric field could decrease obviously the apparent activation energy of leaching process of pyrolusite. The apparent activation energy of the leaching of pyrolusite intensified by electric field was calculated to be 53.76 kJ.mol-1. In addition, the leaching efficiency of manganese was effectively increased by 10% to 20% than that without electric field under the same conditions. This was because that the electron conduit between Fe (II)/Fe (III) and pyrite was dredged effectively by electric field.

  13. Electric-regulated enhanced in-plane uniaxial anisotropy in FeGa/PMN-PT composite using oblique pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Huang, Chaojuan; Turghun, Mutellip; Duan, Zhihua; Wang, Feifei; Shi, Wangzhou

    2018-04-01

    The FeGa film with in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy was fabricated onto different oriented single-crystal lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate using oblique pulsed laser deposition. An enhanced in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy field of FeGa film can be adjusted from 18 Oe to 275 Oe by tuning the oblique angle and polarizing voltage. The competitive relationship of shape anisotropy and strain anisotropy has been discussed, which was induced by oblique angle and polarizing voltage, respectively. The (100)-oriented and (110)-oriented PMN-PT show completely different characters on voltage-dependent magnetic properties, which could be attributed to various anisotropy directions depended on different strain directions.

  14. Plasma instabilities in high electric fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morawetz, K.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1994-01-01

    expression is derived for the nonequilibrium dielectric function epsilon(K, omega). For certain values of momenta K and frequency omega, Imepsilon(K, omega) becomes negative, implying a plasma instability. This new instability exists only for strong electric fields, underlining its nonequilibrium origin....

  15. Distribution of electric field and charge collection in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhin, I.E.; Zinets, O.S.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of electric field in silicon strip detectors is analyzed in the case of dull depletion as well as for partial depletion. Influence of inhomogeneous electric fields on the charge collection and performances of silicon strip detectors is discussed

  16. Basal-plane stacking faults in non-polar GaN studied by off-axis electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lewis Z-Y; Rao, D V Sridhara; Kappers, M J; Humphreys, C J [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Geiger, D, E-mail: ZL249@cam.ac.u [Triebenberg Laboratory, Institute for Structure Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2010-02-01

    We have studied basal-plane stacking faults in a non-polar (11-20) GaN epilayer using high-resolution electron microscopy and off-axis electron holography. The microstructure of the basal-plane stacking faults (BSFs) has been determined to be I{sub 1} type from high-resolution TEM images. High-resolution holograms along the [11-20] zone axis were obtained by off-axis electron holography on a Cs-corrected TEM, providing {approx}2 A spatial resolution in the reconstructed amplitude and phase images. Phase fluctuations across the stacking faults were detected, suggesting the presence of a built-in electric field. The uncertainties in the experiments and their interpretation are discussed.

  17. Terahertz electric field driven electric currents and ratchet effects in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganichev, Sergey D.; Weiss, Dieter; Eroms, Jonathan [Terahertz Center, University of Regensburg (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Terahertz field induced photocurrents in graphene were studied experimentally and by microscopic modeling. Currents were generated by cw and pulsed laser radiation in large area as well as small-size exfoliated graphene samples. We review general symmetry considerations leading to photocurrents depending on linear and circular polarized radiation and then present a number of situations where photocurrents were detected. Starting with the photon drag effect under oblique incidence, we proceed to the photogalvanic effect enhancement in the reststrahlen band of SiC and edge-generated currents in graphene. Ratchet effects were considered for in-plane magnetic fields and a structure inversion asymmetry as well as for graphene with non-symmetric patterned top gates. Lastly, we demonstrate that graphene can be used as a fast, broadband detector of terahertz radiation. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. IMF BY and the seasonal dependences of the electric field in the inner magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Matsui

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the electric field pattern at high latitudes depends on the polarity of the Y component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF BY and season. In this study, we investigate the seasonal and BY dependences in the inner magnetosphere using the perigee (4electric field perpendicular to the magnetic field, obtained by the electron drift instrument (EDI, which is based on a newly developed technique, well suited for measurement of the electric fields in the inner magnetosphere. These data are sorted by the polarities of IMF BZ and BY, and by seasons or hemispheres. It is demonstrated from our statistics that the electric fields in the inner magnetosphere depend on these quantities. The following three points are inferred: 1 The electric fields exhibit some differences statistically between Cluster locations at the Northern and Southern Hemispheres with the same dipole L and magnetic local time (MLT values and during the same IMF conditions. These differences in the electric fields might result from hemispherical differences in magnetic field geometry and/or those in field-aligned potential difference. 2 The IMF BY and seasonal dependence of the dawnside and duskside electric fields at 4in the polar convection cell. In addition, it is possible that these dependences are affected by the ionospheric conductivity and the field-aligned current. 3 The nightside electric field in the inner magnetosphere measured by Cluster is often similar to that in the magnetotail lobe. In the future, it will be necessary to incorporate these dependencies on IMF BY and season into a realistic model of the inner magnetospheric convection electric field. Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (Electric fields; Magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions; Solar windmagnetosphere interactions

  19. Plasma rotation by electric and magnetic fields in a discharge cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, H. E.; Hong, S. H.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical model for an electric discharge consisting of a spatially diverging plasma sustained electrically between a small ring cathode and a larger ring anode in a cylindrical chamber with an axial magnetic field is developed to study the rotation of the discharge plasma in the crossed electric and magnetic fields. The associated boundary-value problem for the coupled partial differential equations which describe the electric potential and the plasma velocity fields is solved in closed form. The electric field, current density, and velocity distributions are discussed in terms of the Hartmann number and the Hall coefficient. As a result of Lorentz forces, the plasma rotates with speeds as high as 1 million cm/sec around its axis of symmetry at typical conditions. As an application, it is noted that rotating discharges of this type could be used to develop a high-density plasma-ultracentrifuge driven by j x B forces, in which the lighter (heavier) ion and atom components would be enriched in (off) the center of the discharge cylinder.

  20. Electric fields, weighting fields, signals and charge diffusion in detectors including resistive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riegler, W.

    2016-01-01

    In this report we discuss static and time dependent electric fields in detector geometries with an arbitrary number of parallel layers of a given permittivity and weak conductivity. We derive the Green's functions i.e. the field of a point charge, as well as the weighting fields for readout pads and readout strips in these geometries. The effect of 'bulk' resistivity on electric fields and signals is investigated. The spreading of charge on thin resistive layers is also discussed in detail, and the conditions for allowing the effect to be described by the diffusion equation is discussed. We apply the results to derive fields and induced signals in Resistive Plate Chambers, MICROMEGAS detectors including resistive layers for charge spreading and discharge protection as well as detectors using resistive charge division readout like the MicroCAT detector. We also discuss in detail how resistive layers affect signal shapes and increase crosstalk between readout electrodes.

  1. Electric fields, weighting fields, signals and charge diffusion in detectors including resistive materials

    CERN Document Server

    Riegler, Werner

    2016-11-07

    In this report we discuss static and time dependent electric fields in detector geometries with an arbitrary number of parallel layers of a given permittivity and weak conductivity. We derive the Green's functions i.e. the field of a point charge, as well as the weighting fields for readout pads and readout strips in these geometries. The effect of 'bulk' resistivity on electric fields and signals is investigated. The spreading of charge on thin resistive layers is also discussed in detail, and the conditions for allowing the effect to be described by the diffusion equation is discussed. We apply the results to derive fields and induced signals in Resistive Plate Chambers, Micromega detectors including resistive layers for charge spreading and discharge protection as well as detectors using resistive charge division readout like the MicroCAT detector. We also discuss in detail how resistive layers affect signal shapes and increase crosstalk between readout electrodes.

  2. Phenomenon of the time-reversal violating magnetic field generation by a static electric field in a medium and vacuum

    OpenAIRE

    Baryshevsky, Vladimir G.

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that the T- and P-odd weak interactions yield to the existence of both electric field and magnetic (directed along the electric field) field around an electric charge. Similarly the assotiated magnetic field is directed along the vector of strength of stationary gravitational field.

  3. Passing particle toroidal precession induced by electric field in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, V. V.; Ilgisonis, V. I.; Sorokina, E. A.

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics of a rotation of passing particles in a tokamak with radial electric field are calculated. The expression for time-averaged toroidal velocity of the passing particle induced by the electric field is derived. The electric-field-induced additive to the toroidal velocity of the passing particle appears to be much smaller than the velocity of the electric drift calculated for the poloidal magnetic field typical for the trapped particle. This quantity can even have the different sign depending on the azimuthal position of the particle starting point. The unified approach for the calculation of the bounce period and of the time-averaged toroidal velocity of both trapped and passing particles in the whole volume of plasma column is presented. The results are obtained analytically and are confirmed by 3D numerical calculations of the trajectories of charged particles

  4. Passing particle toroidal precession induced by electric field in a tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, V. V. [Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Ordzhonikidze St. 3, Moscow 117198 (Russian Federation); Ilgisonis, V. I.; Sorokina, E. A. [Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Ordzhonikidze St. 3, Moscow 117198 (Russian Federation); NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Kurchatov Sq. 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15

    Characteristics of a rotation of passing particles in a tokamak with radial electric field are calculated. The expression for time-averaged toroidal velocity of the passing particle induced by the electric field is derived. The electric-field-induced additive to the toroidal velocity of the passing particle appears to be much smaller than the velocity of the electric drift calculated for the poloidal magnetic field typical for the trapped particle. This quantity can even have the different sign depending on the azimuthal position of the particle starting point. The unified approach for the calculation of the bounce period and of the time-averaged toroidal velocity of both trapped and passing particles in the whole volume of plasma column is presented. The results are obtained analytically and are confirmed by 3D numerical calculations of the trajectories of charged particles.

  5. The transient electric field measurement system for EAST device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y., E-mail: wayong@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Ji, Z.S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Zhu, C.M. [The Experiment & Verification Center of State Grid Electric Power Research Institute (The Automation Equipment EMC Lab. of State Grid Co.), Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Z.C.; Ma, T.F.; Xu, Z.H. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2016-11-15

    The electromagnetic environment around the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) device is very complex during plasma discharge experiment. In order to fully monitor the changes of electric field around the EAST device during plasma discharge, a transient electric field measurement system based on PCI eXtensions for Instrumentation (PXI) platform has been designed. A digitizer is used for high-speed data acquisition of raw signals from electric field sensors, and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) module is used for realizing an on-the-fly fast Fourier transform (FFT) and inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) algorithm including a beforehand identified antenna factor (AF) to achieve finally a calibrated and filtered electric field measurement, then these signals can be displayed and easily analyzed. The raw signals from electric field sensors are transferred through optical fiber by optical isolation to reduce electromagnetic interference (EMI). The high speed data streaming technology is used for data storage. A prototype of this system has been realized to measure the transient electric field strength, with the real-time processing and continuous acquisition ability of one channel of 14-bit resolution and up to 50 MHz sampling rate, and 6 KHz FFT frequency resolution.

  6. A possible mechanism of the enhancement and maintenance of the shear magnetic field component in the current sheet of the Earth’s magnetotail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorenko, E. E.; Malova, H. V.; Malykhin, A. Yu.; Zelenyi, L. M.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the shear magnetic field component, which is directed along the electric current in the current sheet (CS) of the Earth’s magnetotail and enhanced near the neutral plane of the CS, on the nonadiabatic dynamics of ions interacting with the CS is studied. The results of simulation of the nonadiabatic ion motion in the prescribed magnetic configuration similar to that observed in the magnetotail CS by the CLUSTER spacecraft demonstrated that, in the presence of some initial shear magnetic field, the north-south asymmetry in the ion reflection/refraction in the CS is observed. This asymmetry leads to the formation of an additional current system formed by the oppositely directed electric currents flowing in the northern and southern parts of the plasma sheet in the planes tangential to the CS plane and in the direction perpendicular to the direction of the electric current in the CS. The formation of this current system perhaps is responsible for the enhancement and further maintenance of the shear magnetic field near the neutral plane of the CS. The CS structure and ion dynamics observed in 17 intervals of the CS crossings by the CLUSTER spacecraft is analyzed. In these intervals, the shear magnetic field was increased near the neutral plane of the CS, so that the bell-shaped spatial distribution of this field across the CS plane was observed. The results of the present analysis confirm the suggested scenario of the enhancement of the shear magnetic field near the neutral plane of the CS due to the peculiarities of the nonadiabatic ion dynamics

  7. A possible mechanism of the enhancement and maintenance of the shear magnetic field component in the current sheet of the Earth’s magnetotail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigorenko, E. E., E-mail: elenagrigorenko2003@yahoo.com; Malova, H. V., E-mail: hmalova@yandex.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation); Malykhin, A. Yu., E-mail: anmaurdreg@gmail.com [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Zelenyi, L. M., E-mail: lzelenyi@iki.rssi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    The influence of the shear magnetic field component, which is directed along the electric current in the current sheet (CS) of the Earth’s magnetotail and enhanced near the neutral plane of the CS, on the nonadiabatic dynamics of ions interacting with the CS is studied. The results of simulation of the nonadiabatic ion motion in the prescribed magnetic configuration similar to that observed in the magnetotail CS by the CLUSTER spacecraft demonstrated that, in the presence of some initial shear magnetic field, the north-south asymmetry in the ion reflection/refraction in the CS is observed. This asymmetry leads to the formation of an additional current system formed by the oppositely directed electric currents flowing in the northern and southern parts of the plasma sheet in the planes tangential to the CS plane and in the direction perpendicular to the direction of the electric current in the CS. The formation of this current system perhaps is responsible for the enhancement and further maintenance of the shear magnetic field near the neutral plane of the CS. The CS structure and ion dynamics observed in 17 intervals of the CS crossings by the CLUSTER spacecraft is analyzed. In these intervals, the shear magnetic field was increased near the neutral plane of the CS, so that the bell-shaped spatial distribution of this field across the CS plane was observed. The results of the present analysis confirm the suggested scenario of the enhancement of the shear magnetic field near the neutral plane of the CS due to the peculiarities of the nonadiabatic ion dynamics.

  8. Field control of anisotropic spin transport and spin helix dynamics in a modulation-doped GaAs quantum well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghel, S.; Passmann, F.; Singh, A.; Ruppert, C.; Poshakinskiy, A. V.; Tarasenko, S. A.; Moore, J. N.; Yusa, G.; Mano, T.; Noda, T.; Li, X.; Bristow, A. D.; Betz, M.

    2018-03-01

    Electron spin transport and dynamics are investigated in a single, high-mobility, modulation-doped, GaAs quantum well using ultrafast two-color Kerr-rotation microspectroscopy, supported by qualitative kinetic theory simulations of spin diffusion and transport. Evolution of the spins is governed by the Dresselhaus bulk and Rashba structural inversion asymmetries, which manifest as an effective magnetic field that can be extracted directly from the experimental coherent spin precession. A spin-precession length λSOI is defined as one complete precession in the effective magnetic field. It is observed that application of (i) an out-of-plane electric field changes the spin decay time and λSOI through the Rashba component of the spin-orbit coupling, (ii) an in-plane magnetic field allows for extraction of the Dresselhaus and Rashba parameters, and (iii) an in-plane electric field markedly modifies both the λSOI and diffusion coefficient.

  9. X-ray diffraction study of A- plane non-polar InN epilayer grown by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Matthieu; Briot, Olivier; Gil, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    Strong polarisation-induced electric fields in C-plane oriented nitrides semiconductor layers reduce the performance of devices. Eliminating the polarization fields can be achieved by growing nitrides along non polar direction. We have grown non polar A-plane oriented InN on R-plane (1‾102) nitridated sapphire substrate by MOCVD. We have studied the structural anisotropy observed in these layers by analyzing High Resolution XRay Diffraction rocking curve (RC) experiments as a function of the in-plane beam orientation. A-plane InN epilayer have a unique epitaxial relationship on R-Plane sapphire and show a strong structural anisotropy. Full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the InN(11‾20) XRD RC values are contained between 44 and 81 Arcmin. FWHM is smaller when the diffraction occurs along the [0001] and the largest FWHM values, of the (11‾20) RC, are obtained when the diffraction occurs along the [1‾100] in-plane direction. Atomic Force Microscopy imaging revealed morphologies with well organized crystallites. The grains are structured along a unique crystallographic orientation of InN, leading to larger domains in this direction. This structural anisotropy can be, in first approximation, attributed to the difference in the domain sizes observed. XRD reciprocal space mappings (RSM) were performed in asymmetrical configuration on (13‾40) and (2‾202) diffraction plane. RSM are measured with a beam orientation corresponding to a maximal and a minimal width of the (11‾20) Rocking curves, respectively. A simple theoretical model is exposed to interpret the RSM. We concluded that the dominant contribution to the anisotropy is due to the scattering coherence length anisotropy present in our samples.

  10. Effects of an electric field on interaction of aromatic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Il Seung; Cho, Woo Jong; Kim, Kwang S

    2016-04-30

    The effect of uniform external electric field on the interactions between small aromatic compounds and an argon atom is investigated using post-HF (MP2, SCS-MP2, and CCSD(T)) and density functional (PBE0-D3, PBE0-TS, and vdW-DF2) methods. The electric field effect is quantified by the difference of interaction energy calculated in the presence and absence of the electric field. All the post-HF methods describe electric field effects accurately although the interaction energy itself is overestimated by MP2. The electric field effect is explained by classical electrostatic models, where the permanent dipole moment from mutual polarization mainly determines its sign. The size of π-conjugated system does not have significant effect on the electric field dependence. We found out that PBE0-based methods give reasonable interaction energies and electric field response in every case, while vdW-DF2 sometimes shows spurious artifact owing to its sensitivity toward the real space electron density. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Electric field measurement in the dielectric tube of helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sretenović, G.B.; Guaitella, O.; Sobota, A.; Krstić, I.B.; Kovačević, V.V.; Obradović, B.M.; Kuraica, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    The results of the electric field measurements in the capillary of the helium plasma jet are presented in this article. Distributions of the electric field for the streamers are determined for different gas flow rates. It is found that electric field strength in front of the ionization wave

  12. Manipulation of red blood cells with electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboonchi, Hossain; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2009-11-01

    Manipulation of bioparticles and macromolecules is the central task in many biological and biotechnological processes. The current methods for physical manipulation takes advantage of different forces such as acoustic, centrifugal, magnetic, electromagnetic, and electric forces, as well as using optical tweezers or filtration. Among all these methods, however, the electrical forces are particularly attractive because of their favorable scale up with the system size which makes them well-suited for miniaturization. Currently the electric field is used for transportation, poration, fusion, rotation, and separation of biological cells. The aim of the current research is to gain fundamental understanding of the effect of electric field on the human red blood cells (RBCs) using direct numerical simulation. A front tracking/finite difference technique is used to solve the fluid flow and electric field equations, where the fluid in the cell and the blood (plasma) is modeled as Newtonian and incompressible, and the interface separating the two is treated as an elastic membrane. The behavior of RBCs is investigated as a function of the controlling parameters of the problem such as the strength of the electric field.

  13. Vector optical fields with polarization distributions similar to electric and magnetic field lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue; Li, Si-Min; Mao, Lei; Kong, Ling-Jun; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Pei; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2013-07-01

    We present, design and generate a new kind of vector optical fields with linear polarization distributions modeling to electric and magnetic field lines. The geometric configurations of "electric charges" and "magnetic charges" can engineer the spatial structure and symmetry of polarizations of vector optical field, providing additional degrees of freedom assisting in controlling the field symmetry at the focus and allowing engineering of the field distribution at the focus to the specific applications.

  14. Premixed combustion under electric field in a constant volume chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2012-12-01

    The effects of electric fields on outwardly propagating premixed flames in a constant volume chamber were experimentally investigated. An electric plug, subjected to high electrical voltages, was used to generate electric fields inside the chamber. To minimize directional ionic wind effects, alternating current with frequency of 1 kHz was employed. Lean and rich fuel/air mixtures for both methane and propane were tested to investigate various preferential diffusion conditions. As a result, electrically induced instability showing cracked structure on the flame surface could be observed. This cracked structure enhanced flame propagation speed for the initial period of combustion and led to reduction in flame initiation and overall combustion duration times. However, by analyzing pressure data, it was found that overall burning rates are not much affected from the electric field for the pressurized combustion period. The reduction of overall combustion time is less sensitive to equivalence ratio for methane/air mixtures, whereas the results demonstrate pronounced effects on a lean mixture for propane. The improvement of combustion characteristics in lean mixtures will be beneficial to the design of lean burn engines. Two hypothetical mechanisms to explain the electrically induced instability were proposed: 1) ionic wind initiated hydrodynamic instability and 2) thermodiffusive instability through the modification of transport property such as mass diffusivity. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. Premixed combustion under electric field in a constant volume chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min; Lee, Yonggyu

    2012-01-01

    The effects of electric fields on outwardly propagating premixed flames in a constant volume chamber were experimentally investigated. An electric plug, subjected to high electrical voltages, was used to generate electric fields inside the chamber. To minimize directional ionic wind effects, alternating current with frequency of 1 kHz was employed. Lean and rich fuel/air mixtures for both methane and propane were tested to investigate various preferential diffusion conditions. As a result, electrically induced instability showing cracked structure on the flame surface could be observed. This cracked structure enhanced flame propagation speed for the initial period of combustion and led to reduction in flame initiation and overall combustion duration times. However, by analyzing pressure data, it was found that overall burning rates are not much affected from the electric field for the pressurized combustion period. The reduction of overall combustion time is less sensitive to equivalence ratio for methane/air mixtures, whereas the results demonstrate pronounced effects on a lean mixture for propane. The improvement of combustion characteristics in lean mixtures will be beneficial to the design of lean burn engines. Two hypothetical mechanisms to explain the electrically induced instability were proposed: 1) ionic wind initiated hydrodynamic instability and 2) thermodiffusive instability through the modification of transport property such as mass diffusivity. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. Surface electric fields for North America during historical geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lisa H.; Homeier, Nichole; Gannon, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the impact of geomagnetic disturbances on the electric grid, we recreate surface electric fields from two historical geomagnetic storms—the 1989 “Quebec” storm and the 2003 “Halloween” storms. Using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems method, we interpolate sparsely distributed magnetometer data across North America. We find good agreement between the measured and interpolated data, with larger RMS deviations at higher latitudes corresponding to larger magnetic field variations. The interpolated magnetic field data are combined with surface impedances for 25 unique physiographic regions from the United States Geological Survey and literature to estimate the horizontal, orthogonal surface electric fields in 1 min time steps. The induced horizontal electric field strongly depends on the local surface impedance, resulting in surprisingly strong electric field amplitudes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast. The relative peak electric field amplitude of each physiographic region, normalized to the value in the Interior Plains region, varies by a factor of 2 for different input magnetic field time series. The order of peak electric field amplitudes (largest to smallest), however, does not depend much on the input. These results suggest that regions at lower magnetic latitudes with high ground resistivities are also at risk from the effect of geomagnetically induced currents. The historical electric field time series are useful for estimating the flow of the induced currents through long transmission lines to study power flow and grid stability during geomagnetic disturbances.

  17. Electric-field gradient characterization at {sup 181}Ta impurities in sapphire single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renteria, M.; Darriba, G.N.; Errico, L.A.; Munoz, E.L. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Eversheim, P.D. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen-und Kernphysik (ISKP), Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 14-16, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    We report Perturbed-Angular-Correlation (PAC) experiments on corundum Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystals implanted with {sup 181}Hf/{sup 181}Ta ions at the ISKP at Bonn and measured at La Plata with high efficiency and time-resolution. The magnitude, asymmetry, and orientation (with respect to the crystalline axes) of the electric-field gradient (EFG) tensor were determined measuring the spin-rotation curves as a function of different orientations of the single crystals relative to the detector system. These results are analyzed in the framework of point-charge model and ab initio Full-Potential Linearized-Augmented Plane Wave calculations, and compared with EFG results coming from PAC experiments with {sup 111}In/{sup 111}Cd impurities. This combined study enables the determination of lattice relaxations induced by the presence of the impurity and the state of charge of a deep impurity donor level in the band gap of the semiconductor. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. The Present Situation and Trend of Wearable Equipment in Electric Field Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwei Shao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the innovation of mobile internet technology and intelligent terminal technology, the wearable equipment has been gradually applied in various industries. Through the typical application of wearable equipment, the characteristics of wearable equipment technology and application are summarized. Based on the analysis of power field business application and technology, combined with the demand of electric field management, the design situation of the wearable equipment in electric field service is designed, and the future development direction of electric field wear can be forecasted.

  19. Encaged molecules in external electric fields: A molecular "tug-of-war"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurav, Nalini D.; Gejji, Shridhar P.; Bartolotti, Libero J.; Pathak, Rajeev K.

    2016-08-01

    Response of polar molecules CH3OH and H2O2 and a non-polar molecule, CO2, as "guests" encapsulated in the dodecahedral water cage (H2O)20 "host," to an external, perturbative electric field is investigated theoretically. We employ the hybrid density-functionals M06-2X and ωB97X-D incorporating the effects of damped dispersion, in conjunction with the maug-cc-pVTZ basis set, amenable for a hydrogen bonding description. While the host cluster (cage) tends to confine the embedded guest molecule through cooperative hydrogen bonding, the applied electric field tends to rupture the cluster-composite by stretching it; these two competitive effects leading to a molecular "tug-of-war." The composite remains stable up to a maximal sustainable threshold electric field, beyond which, concomitant with the vanishing of the HOMO-LUMO gap, the field wins over and the cluster breaks down. The electric-field effects are gauged in terms of the changes in the molecular geometry of the confined species, interaction energy, molecular electrostatic potential surfaces, and frequency shifts of characteristic normal vibrations in the IR regime. Interestingly, beyond the characteristic threshold electric field, the labile, distorted host cluster fragmentizes, and the guest molecule still tethered to a remnant fragment, an effect attributed to the underlying hydrogen-bonded networks.

  20. Limiting electric fields of HVDC overhead power lines.

    <