WorldWideScience

Sample records for in-pile thermocouple performance

  1. Enhancements to High Temperature In-Pile Thermocouple Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. C. Crepeau; J. L. Rempe; J. E. Daw; D. L. Knudson; K. G. Condie; S. C. Wilkins

    2008-03-01

    A joint University of Idaho (UI) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) University Nuclear Research Initiative (UNERI) was to initiated to extend initial INL efforts to develop doped lybdenum/niobium alloy High Temperature Irradiation Resistant Thermocouples (HTIR-TCs). The overall objective of this UNERI was to develop recommendations for an optimized thermocouple design for high temperature, long duration, in-pile testing by expanding upon results from initial INL efforts. Tasks to quantify the impact of candidate enhancements, such as alternate alloys, alternate geometries, and alternate thermocouple fabrication techniques, on thermocouple performance were completed at INL's High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL), a state of the art facility equipped with specialized equipment and trained staff in the area of high temperature instrumentation development and evaluation. Key results of these evaluations, which are documented in this report, are as follows. The doped molybdenum and Nb-1%Zr, which were proposed in the initial INL HTIR-TC design, were found to retain ductility better than the developmental molybdenum-low niobium alloys and the niobium-low molybdenum alloys evaluated. Hence, the performance and lower cost of the commercially available KW-Mo makes a thermocouple containing KW-Mo and Nb-1%Zr the best option at this time. HTIR-TCs containing larger diameter wires offer the potential to increase HTIR-TC stability and reliability at higher temperatures. HTIR-TC heat treatment temperatures and times should be limited to not more than 100 °C above the proposed operating temperatures and to durations of at least 4 to 5 hours. Preliminary investigations suggest that the performance of swaged and loose assembly HTIR-TC designs is similar. However, the swaged designs are less expensive and easier to construct. In addition to optimizing HTIR-TC performance, This UNERI project provided unique opportunities to several University of Idaho students, allowing them

  2. Enhancements to High Temperature In-Pile Thermocouple Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.C. Crepeau; J.L. Rempe; J.E. Daw; D.L. Knudson: K.G. Condie; S.C. Wilkins

    2008-03-31

    A joint University of Idaho (UI) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) University Nuclear Research Initiative (UNERI) was to initiated to extend initial INL efforts to develop doped molybdenum/niobium alloy High Temperature Irradiation Resistant Thermocouples (HTIR-TCs). The overall objective of this UNERI was to develop recommendations for an optimized thermocouple design for high temperature, long duration, in-pile testing by expanding upon results from initial INL efforts. Tasks to quantify the impact of candidate enhancements, such as alternate alloys, alternate geometries, and alternate thermocouple fabrication techniques, on thermocouple performance were completed at INL's High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL), a state of the art facility equipped with specialized equipment and trained staff in the area of high temperature instrumentation development and evaluation. Key results of these evaluations, which are documented in this report, are as follows. The doped molybdenum and Nb-1%Zr, which were proposed in the initial INL HTIR-TC design, were found to retain ductility better than the developmental molybdenum-low niobium alloys and the niobium-low molybdenum alloys evaluated. Hence, the performance and lower cost of the commercially available KW-Mo makes a thermocouple containing KW-Mo and Nb-1%Zr the best option at this time. HTIR-TCs containing larger diameter wires offer the potential to increase HTIR-TC stability and reliability at higher temperatures. HTIR-TC heat treatment temperatures and times should be limited to not more than 100 C above the proposed operating temperatures and to durations of at least 4 to 5 hours. Preliminary investigations suggest that the performance of swaged and loose assembly HTIR-TC designs is similar. However, the swaged designs are less expensive and easier to construct. In addition to optimizing HTIR-TC performance, This UNERI project provided unique opportunities to several University of Idaho students, allowing them

  3. Performance Evaluation of an Infrared Thermocouple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Ching Shen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of the leaf temperature of forests or agricultural plants is an important technique for the monitoring of the physiological state of crops. The infrared thermometer is a convenient device due to its fast response and nondestructive measurement technique. Nowadays, a novel infrared thermocouple, developed with the same measurement principle of the infrared thermometer but using a different detector, has been commercialized for non-contact temperature measurement. The performances of two-kinds of infrared thermocouples were evaluated in this study. The standard temperature was maintained by a temperature calibrator and a special black cavity device. The results indicated that both types of infrared thermocouples had good precision. The error distribution ranged from −1.8 °C to 18 °C as the reading values served as the true values. Within the range from 13 °C to 37 °C, the adequate calibration equations were the high-order polynomial equations. Within the narrower range from 20 °C to 35 °C, the adequate equation was a linear equation for one sensor and a two-order polynomial equation for the other sensor. The accuracy of the two kinds of infrared thermocouple was improved by nearly 0.4 °C with the calibration equations. These devices could serve as mobile monitoring tools for in situ and real time routine estimation of leaf temperatures.

  4. Summary of thermocouple performance during advanced gas reactor fuel irradiation experiments in the advanced test reactor and out-of-pile thermocouple testing in support of such experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A. J.; Haggard, DC; Herter, J. W.; Swank, W. D.; Knudson, D. L.; Cherry, R. S. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, MS 4112, Idaho Falls, ID, (United States); Scervini, M. [University of Cambridge, Department of Material Science and Metallurgy, 27 Charles Babbage Road, CB3 0FS, Cambridge, (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    High temperature gas reactor experiments create unique challenges for thermocouple-based temperature measurements. As a result of the interaction with neutrons, the thermoelements of the thermocouples undergo transmutation, which produces a time-dependent change in composition and, as a consequence, a time-dependent drift of the thermocouple signal. This drift is particularly severe for high temperature platinum-rhodium thermocouples (Types S, R, and B) and tungsten-rhenium thermocouples (Type C). For lower temperature applications, previous experiences with Type K thermocouples in nuclear reactors have shown that they are affected by neutron irradiation only to a limited extent. Similarly, Type N thermocouples are expected to be only slightly affected by neutron fluence. Currently, the use of these nickel-based thermocouples is limited when the temperature exceeds 1000 deg. C due to drift related to phenomena other than nuclear irradiation. High rates of open-circuit failure are also typical. Over the past 10 years, three long-term Advanced Gas Reactor experiments have been conducted with measured temperatures ranging from 700 deg. C - 1200 deg. C. A variety of standard Type N and specialty thermocouple designs have been used in these experiments with mixed results. A brief summary of thermocouple performance in these experiments is provided. Most recently, out-of-pile testing has been conducted on a variety of Type N thermocouple designs at the following (nominal) temperatures and durations: 1150 deg. C and 1200 deg. C for 2,000 hours at each temperature, followed by 200 hours at 1250 deg. C and 200 hours at 1300 deg. C. The standard Type N design utilizes high purity, crushed MgO insulation and an Inconel 600 sheath. Several variations on the standard Type N design were tested, including a Haynes 214 alloy sheath, spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) insulation instead of MgO, a customized sheath developed at the University of Cambridge, and finally a loose assembly

  5. Summary of Thermocouple Performance During Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Irradiation Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor and Out-of-Pile Thermocouple Testing in Support of Such Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. J. Palmer; DC Haggard; J. W. Herter; M. Scervini; W. D. Swank; D. L. Knudson; R. S. Cherry

    2011-07-01

    High temperature gas reactor experiments create unique challenges for thermocouple based temperature measurements. As a result of the interaction with neutrons, the thermoelements of the thermocouples undergo transmutation, which produces a time dependent change in composition and, as a consequence, a time dependent drift of the thermocouple signal. This drift is particularly severe for high temperature platinum-rhodium thermocouples (Types S, R, and B); and tungsten-rhenium thermocouples (Types C and W). For lower temperature applications, previous experiences with type K thermocouples in nuclear reactors have shown that they are affected by neutron irradiation only to a limited extent. Similarly type N thermocouples are expected to be only slightly affected by neutron fluxes. Currently the use of these Nickel based thermocouples is limited when the temperature exceeds 1000°C due to drift related to phenomena other than nuclear irradiation. High rates of open-circuit failure are also typical. Over the past ten years, three long-term Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) experiments have been conducted with measured temperatures ranging from 700oC – 1200oC. A variety of standard Type N and specialty thermocouple designs have been used in these experiments with mixed results. A brief summary of thermocouple performance in these experiments is provided. Most recently, out of pile testing has been conducted on a variety of Type N thermocouple designs at the following (nominal) temperatures and durations: 1150oC and 1200oC for 2000 hours at each temperature, followed by 200 hours at 1250oC, and 200 hours at 1300oC. The standard Type N design utilizes high purity crushed MgO insulation and an Inconel 600 sheath. Several variations on the standard Type N design were tested, including Haynes 214 alloy sheath, spinel (MgAl2O4) insulation instead of MgO, a customized sheath developed at the University of Cambridge, and finally a loose assembly thermocouple with hard fired alumina

  6. Performance and Durability of Thin Film Thermocouple Array on a Porous Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guk, Erdogan; Ranaweera, Manoj; Venkatesan, Vijay; Kim, Jung-Sik

    2016-08-23

    Management of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) thermal gradients is vital to limit thermal expansion mismatch and thermal stress. However, owing to harsh operation conditions of SOFCs and limited available space in stack configuration, the number of techniques available to obtain temperature distribution from the cell surface is limited. The authors previously developed and studied a thermocouple array pattern to detect surface temperature distribution on an SOFC in open circuit conditions. In this study, the performance in terms of mechanical durability and oxidation state of the thin film thermoelements of the thermocouple array on the porous SOFC cathode is investigated. A thin-film multi-junction thermocouple array was sputter deposited using a magnetron sputter coater. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterisation techniques were carried out to understand characteristics of the thin film before and after temperature (20 °C-800 °C) measurement. Temperature readings from the sensor agreed well with the closely placed commercial thermocouple during heating segments. However, a sensor failure occurred at around 350 °C during the cooling segment. The SEM and XPS tests revealed cracks on the thin film thermoelements and oxidation to the film thickness direction.

  7. Performance and Durability of Thin Film Thermocouple Array on a Porous Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guk, Erdogan; Ranaweera, Manoj; Venkatesan, Vijay; Kim, Jung-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Management of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) thermal gradients is vital to limit thermal expansion mismatch and thermal stress. However, owing to harsh operation conditions of SOFCs and limited available space in stack configuration, the number of techniques available to obtain temperature distribution from the cell surface is limited. The authors previously developed and studied a thermocouple array pattern to detect surface temperature distribution on an SOFC in open circuit conditions. In this study, the performance in terms of mechanical durability and oxidation state of the thin film thermoelements of the thermocouple array on the porous SOFC cathode is investigated. A thin-film multi-junction thermocouple array was sputter deposited using a magnetron sputter coater. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterisation techniques were carried out to understand characteristics of the thin film before and after temperature (20 °C–800 °C) measurement. Temperature readings from the sensor agreed well with the closely placed commercial thermocouple during heating segments. However, a sensor failure occurred at around 350 °C during the cooling segment. The SEM and XPS tests revealed cracks on the thin film thermoelements and oxidation to the film thickness direction. PMID:27563893

  8. In-Pile Thermal Conductivity Measurement Method for Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joy L. Rempe; Brandon Fox; Heng Ban; Joshua E. Daw; Darrell L. Knudson; Keith G. Condie

    2009-08-01

    Thermophysical properties of advanced nuclear fuels and materials during irradiation must be known prior to their use in existing, advanced, or next generation reactors. Thermal conductivity is one of the most important properties for predicting fuel and material performance. A joint Utah State University (USU) / Idaho National Laboratory (INL) project, which is being conducted with assistance from the Institute for Energy Technology at the Norway Halden Reactor Project, is investigating in-pile fuel thermal conductivity measurement methods. This paper focuses on one of these methods – a multiple thermocouple method. This two-thermocouple method uses a surrogate fuel rod with Joule heating to simulate volumetric heat generation to gain insights about in-pile detection of thermal conductivity. Preliminary results indicated that this method can measure thermal conductivity over a specific temperature range. This paper reports the thermal conductivity values obtained by this technique and compares these values with thermal property data obtained from standard thermal property measurement techniques available at INL’s High Test Temperature Laboratory. Experimental results and material properties data are also compared to finite element analysis results.

  9. Self-Validating Thermocouple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose M. (Inventor); Mata, Carlos T. (Inventor); Santiago, Josephine B. (Inventor); Vokrot, Peter (Inventor); Zavala, Carlos E. (Inventor); Burns, Bradley M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Self-Validating Thermocouple (SVT) Systems capable of detecting sensor probe open circuits, short circuits, and unnoticeable faults such as a probe debonding and probe degradation are useful in the measurement of temperatures. SVT Systems provide such capabilities by incorporating a heating or excitation element into the measuring junction of the thermocouple. By heating the measuring junction and observing the decay time for the detected DC voltage signal, it is possible to indicate whether the thermocouple is bonded or debonded. A change in the thermal transfer function of the thermocouple system causes a change in the rise and decay times of the thermocouple output. Incorporation of the excitation element does not interfere with normal thermocouple operation, thus further allowing traditional validation procedures as well.

  10. Thin film ceramic thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

  11. In-pile critical heat flux and post-dryout heat transfer measurements – A historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeneveld, D.C., E-mail: degroeneveld@gmail.com

    2017-06-15

    In the 1960s’ and 1970s’ Canada was a world leader in performing in-reactor heat transfer experiments on fuel bundles instrumented with miniature sheath thermocouples. Several Critical Heat Flux (CHF) and Post-CHF experiments were performed in Chalk River’s NRU and NRX reactors on water-cooled 3-, 18-, 19-, 21-, and 36-element fuel bundles. Most experiments were obtained at steady-state conditions, where the power was raised gradually from single-phase conditions up to the CHF and beyond. Occasionally, post-dryout temperatures up to 600 °C were maintained for several hours. In some tests, the fuel behaviour during loss-of-flow and blowdown transients was investigated – during these transients sheath temperatures could exceed 2000 °C. Because of the increasingly more stringent licensing requirements for in-pile heat transfer tests on instrumented fuel bundles, no in-pile CHF and post-dryout tests on fuel bundles have been performed anywhere in the world for the past 40 years. This paper provides details of these unique in-pile experiments and describes some of their heat transfer results.

  12. Research on Hardware Performance for Thermocouple Temperature Measurement Modules%热电偶温度测量模块硬件性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈名宝

    2012-01-01

    Thermocouple is an important measurement tool in thermal detection measurement. Researching the antijamming ability of the Thermocouple temperature sensor module has the great significance. This paper,begin with the performance index of thermocouple temperature sensor module,and combining the theory analysis and experimental cases,design a kind of high precision,strong anti-jamming performance of hardware. Developed the products with the cold junction compensation and thread break detector function,can through a series of electromagnetic compatibility test,can satisfy most of the industrial application.%热电偶是热工检测中重要的计量工具,研究热电偶测温模块的抗干扰性能具有重大意义.该文从热电偶测温模块性能指标出发,结合理论分析和实验案例,设计出精度高,抗干扰性能强的硬件.开发出来的产品具有冷端补偿和断线检测功能,能通过一系列电磁兼容性测试,可以满足绝大部分工业场景应用要求.

  13. Research on Measuring Technology for In-pile Fuel Element Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The tested fuel assembly for In-pile test for PWR fuel element with instrumentation consisted of 4instrumented fuel elements and total 12 sets of transducers. Double claddings are adopted to raise fueltemperature. Two fuel elements each have 2 thermocouples for measuring separately the fuel centerlinetemperature and the cladding surface temperature. The other two elements have membrane type oressure

  14. ITS-90 Thermocouple Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 60 NIST ITS-90 Thermocouple Database (Web, free access)   Web version of Standard Reference Database 60 and NIST Monograph 175. The database gives temperature -- electromotive force (emf) reference functions and tables for the letter-designated thermocouple types B, E, J, K, N, R, S and T. These reference functions have been adopted as standards by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).

  15. Side-welded fast response sheathed thermocouple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, K.R.

    A method of fabricating the measuring junction of a grounded-junction sheathed thermocouple to obtain fast time response and good thermal cycling performance is provided. Slots are tooled or machined into the sheath wall at the measuring junction, the thermocouple wires are laser-welded into the slots. A thin metal closure cap is then laser-welded over the end of the sheath. Compared to a conventional grounded-junction thermocouple, the response time is 4 to 5 times faster and the thermal shock and cycling capabilities are substantially improved.

  16. Nuclear heating measurements by in-pile calorimetry: prospective works for a microsensor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynard-Carette, C.; Carette, M.; Aguir, K.; Bendahan, M.; Fiorido, T. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, Universite de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397, Marseille (France); Lyoussi, A.; Fourmentel, D.; Villard, J.F. [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 (France); Barthes, M.; Lanzetta, F.; Layes, G.; Vives, S. [FEMTO-ST, UMR 6174, Departement ENERGIE, Universite de Franche-Comte, 90000, Belfort (France)

    2015-07-01

    Since 2009 works have been performed in the framework of joint research programs between CEA and Aix-Marseille University. The main aim of these programs is to design and develop in-pile instrumentations, advanced calibration procedure and accurate measurement methods in particular for the new Material Testing Reactor (MTR) under construction in the South of France: Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR). One major sensor is a specific radiometric calorimeter, which was studied out-of-pile from a thermal point of view and in-pile during irradiation campaigns. This sensor type is dedicated to measurements of nuclear heating (energy deposition rate per mass unit induced by interactions between nuclear rays and matter) inside experimental channels of MTRs. This kind of in-pile calorimeter corresponds to heat flux calorimeter exchanging with the external cooling fluid. This thermal running mode allows the establishment of steady thermal conditions inside the sensor to carry out online continuous measurements inside the reactor (core or reflector). Two main types of calorimeters exist. The first type consists of a single cell calorimeter. It is divided into a sample of material to be tested and a jacket instrumented with two thermocouples or a single thermocouple (Gamma Thermometer). The second, called a differential calorimeter, is composed of two superposed twin cells (a measurement cell containing a sample of material, and a reference cell to remove the heating of the cell body) instrumented with four thermocouples and two electrical heaters. Contrary to a single-cell calorimeter, a differential calorimeter allows the compensation of the parasite nuclear heating of the sensor body or jacket. Moreover, it possesses interesting advantages: thanks to the heaters embedded in the cells, three different measurement methods can be applied during irradiations to quantify nuclear heating. The first one is based on the use of out-of-pile calibration curves obtained by generating a heat

  17. Segmented metal nanowires as nanoscale thermocouples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, E; Marchak, D; Tsukernik, A; Selzer, Y

    2008-03-26

    Segmented Au-Ni nanowires are demonstrated to be highly effective thermocouples with a spatial resolution of a few nanometers and a temporal resolution in the microsecond range. The performance of the devices is characterized by a self-heating procedure in which an ac heating current with frequency ω is applied on the wires while monitoring the resulting thermoelectric voltage V(TH) at 2ω using a lock-in technique. An analytical model is developed that enables one to determine the time response of the thermocouples from plots of V(TH) as a function of ω.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF AN IN-PILE TECHNIQUE FOR THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon Fox; Heng Ban; Joy L. Rempe; Joshua E. Daw; Keith G. Condie; Darrell L. Knudson

    2009-04-01

    Thermophysical properties of advanced fuels and materials during irradiation must be known prior to their use in existing, advanced, or next generation reactors. Fuel thermal conductivity is one of the most important properties for predicting fuel performance and reactor safety. This paper discusses a joint Utah State University (USU)/Idaho National Laboratory (INL) project to investigate an in-pile fuel thermal conductivity measurement technique using a surrogate fuel rod. The method used a surrogate fuel rod with Joule heating to simulate volumetric heat generation as a proof-of-concept test in-pile application. Carbon structural foam, CFOAM®, a product of Touchtone Research Laboratory was chosen as the surrogate material because of the variable electrical and thermal properties upon fabrication. To stay within the surrogate fuel rod requirements, electrical and thermal properties were tailored by Touchtone Research Laboratory to match required values. This paper describes are the techniques used for quantifying thermal conductivity. A description of the test setup and preliminary results are presented. Two thermocouples are inserted into a 1-inch diameter, 6-inch long rod of CFOAM® at known locations. Knowing the applied volumetric heat to the rod by electrical resistance heating, the thermal conductivity can be calculated. Sensitivities of this measurement can also found by analysis and testing of different configurations of the sample setup. Verification of thermal conductivity is found by measuring the thermal properties of the CFOAM® using different methods. Thermal properties including thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, and expansion coefficient of two types of CFOAM®, CFOAM20 and CFOAM25, were characterized using standard measurement techniques, such as laser flash, differential scanning calorimetry, and pushrod dilatometry.

  19. Instrumentation System Diagnoses a Thermocouple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose; Santiago, Josephine; Mata, Carlos; Vokrot, Peter; Zavala, Carlos; Burns, Bradley

    2008-01-01

    An improved self-validating thermocouple (SVT) instrumentation system not only acquires readings from a thermocouple but is also capable of detecting deterioration and a variety of discrete faults in the thermocouple and its lead wires. Prime examples of detectable discrete faults and deterioration include open- and short-circuit conditions and debonding of the thermocouple junction from the object, the temperature of which one seeks to measure. Debonding is the most common cause of errors in thermocouple measurements, but most prior SVT instrumentation systems have not been capable of detecting debonding. The improved SVT instrumentation system includes power circuitry, a cold-junction compensator, signal-conditioning circuitry, pulse-width-modulation (PWM) thermocouple-excitation circuitry, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a digital data processor, and a universal serial bus (USB) interface. The system can operate in any of the following three modes: temperature measurement, thermocouple validation, and bonding/debonding detection. The software running in the processor includes components that implement statistical algorithms to evaluate the state of the thermocouple and the instrumentation system. When the power is first turned on, the user can elect to start a diagnosis/ monitoring sequence, in which the PWM is used to estimate the characteristic times corresponding to the correct configuration. The user also has the option of using previous diagnostic values, which are stored in an electrically erasable, programmable read-only memory so that they are available every time the power is turned on.

  20. Cobra Probes Containing Replaceable Thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John; Redding, Adam

    2007-01-01

    A modification of the basic design of cobra probes provides for relatively easy replacement of broken thermocouples. Cobra probes are standard tube-type pressure probes that may also contain thermocouples and that are routinely used in wind tunnels and aeronautical hardware. They are so named because in side views, they resemble a cobra poised to attack. Heretofore, there has been no easy way to replace a broken thermocouple in a cobra probe: instead, it has been necessary to break the probe apart and then rebuild it, typically at a cost between $2,000 and $4,000 (2004 prices). The modified design makes it possible to replace the thermocouple, in minimal time and at relatively low cost, by inserting new thermocouple wire in a tube.

  1. High-temperature thermocouples and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempe, Joy L.; Knudson, Darrell L.; Condie, Keith G.; Wilkins, S. Curt

    2011-01-18

    A high-temperature thermocouple and methods for fabricating a thermocouple capable of long-term operation in high-temperature, hostile environments without significant signal degradation or shortened thermocouple lifetime due to heat induced brittleness.

  2. Use of manganin-constantan thermocouples in thermometry units designed for copper-constantan thermocouples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoh, L L; Waterman, F M

    1995-01-01

    Commercial ultrasound hyperthermia systems typically include thermometry units designed for copper-constantan thermocouples. Replacing these copper-constantan thermocouples with manganin-constantan thermocouples is advantageous in reducing the measurement error caused by the conduction of heat along the copper wire, but their performance in these thermometry units is uncertain. The accuracy of manganin-constantan thermocouples in the Labthermics LT-100, Clini-Therm TS1200/TM100, and Physitemp TM-12 thermometry units was investigated using a temperature controlled circulating water bath monitored by a mercury thermometer having a calibration traceable to NIST. The results demonstrate that an accuracy of +/- 0.2 degrees C can be achieved with manganin-constantan thermocouples over the range 35-55 degrees C without hardware modification provided specific calibration procedures are followed. With the Labthermics LT-100, a double point calibration should be carried out at 35 and 55 degrees C. With the Clini-Therm TS1200/TM100, a self-calibration of the unit using its internal calibration well plus a single point calibration using an external temperature standard provides sufficient accuracy. The Physitemp TM-12 requires an external computer for read out and the user must provide additional software to correct for the error by either a single or multiple point calibration.

  3. Simulation of a Shielded Thermocouple

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    temperature in chemically, or mechanically, hostile environments. The sensitive ... the thermocouple is obtained by derivation of the heat propagation equation in cylindrical ..... equation (1.4) can be written as a system of of ordinary differential.

  4. Miniature sheathed thermocouples for turbine blade temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, R.; Glawe, G. E.; Krause, L. N.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was made of sheathed thermocouples for turbine blade temperature measurements. Tests were performed on the Chromel-Alumel sheathed thermocouples with both two-wire and single-wire configurations. Sheath diameters ranged from 0.25 to 0.76 mm, and temperatures ranged from 1080 to 1250 K. Both steady-state and thermal cycling tests were performed for times up to 450 hr. Special-order and commercial-grade thermocouples were tested. The tests showed that special-order single-wire sheathed thermocouples can be obtained that are reliable and accurate with diameters as small as 0.25 mm. However, all samples of 0.25-mm-diameter sheathed commercial-grade two-wire and single-wire thermocouples that were tested showed unacceptable drift rates for long-duration engine testing programs. The drift rates were about 1 percent in 10 hr. A thermocouple drift test is recommended in addition to the normal acceptance tests in order to select reliable miniature sheathed thermocouples for turbine blade applications.

  5. The practical use of thermocouples for temperature measurement in clinical hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnochan, P; Dickinson, R J; Joiner, M C

    1986-01-01

    The use of thermocouples as invasive thermometers in clinical hyperthermia is comprehensively and critically reviewed. The ability to construct thermocouple probes as small-bore, multiple junction assemblies is a major reason for their popularity and full constructional details are given. The potential sources of measurement error when using thermocouples both in temperature gradients and in electromagnetic or ultrasonic heating fields are discussed. Emphasis is placed upon simple practical solutions to these problems and a combination of good measurement practice and electrical filtering can reduce errors to an insignificant level. Techniques are suggested for the assessment of thermocouple performance during clinical measurement. With careful use, thermocouples can be reliable and convenient thermometers.

  6. AGR-1 Thermocouple Data Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff Einerson

    2012-05-01

    simulation results (Chapter 3). The statistics-based simulation-aided experimental control procedure described for the future AGR tests is developed and demonstrated in Chapter 4. The procedure for controlling the target fuel temperature (capsule peak or average) is based on regression functions of thermocouple readings and other relevant parameters and accounting for possible changes in both physical and thermal conditions and in instrument performance.

  7. Joint tests at INL and CEA of a transient hot wire needle probe for in-pile thermal conductivity measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, J.E.; Knudson, D.L. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415, (United States); Villard, J.F.; Liothin, J.; Destouches, C. [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance, (France); Rempe, J.L. [Rempe and Associates, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID, 83404 (United States); Matheron, P. [CEA, DEN, DEC, Uranium Fuels Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance, (France); Lambert, T. [CEA, DEN, DEC, Innovative Fuel Design and Irradiation Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance, (France)

    2015-07-01

    Thermal conductivity is a key property that must be known for proper design, testing, and deployment of new fuels and structural materials in nuclear reactors. Thermal conductivity is highly dependent on the physical structure, chemical composition, and the state of the material. Typically, thermal conductivity changes that occur during irradiation are currently measured out-of-pile using a 'cook and look' approach. But repeatedly removing samples from a test reactor to make measurements is expensive, has the potential to disturb phenomena of interest, and only provides understanding of the sample's end state when each measurement is made. There are also limited thermo-physical property data available for advanced fuels; and such data are needed for simulation codes, the development of next generation reactors, and advanced fuels for existing nuclear plants. Being able to quickly characterize fuel thermal conductivity during irradiation can improve the fidelity of data, reduce costs of post-irradiation examinations, increase understanding of how fuels behave under irradiation, and confirm or improve existing thermal conductivity measurement techniques. This paper discusses efforts to develop and evaluate an innovative in-pile thermal conductivity sensor based on the transient hot wire thermal conductivity method (THWM), using a single needle probe (NP) containing a line heat source and thermocouple embedded in the fuel. The sensor that has been designed and manufactured by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) includes a unique combination of materials, geometry, and fabrication techniques that make the hot wire method suitable for in-pile applications. In particular, efforts were made to minimize the influence of the sensor and maximize fuel hot-wire heating. The probe has a thermocouple-like construction with high temperature resistant materials that remain ductile while resisting transmutation and materials interactions. THWM-NP prototypes were

  8. Hysteresis Effects and Strain-Induced Homogeneity Effects in Base Metal Thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlasek, P.; Elliott, C. J.; Pearce, J. V.; Duris, S.; Palencar, R.; Koval, M.; Machin, G.

    2015-03-01

    Thermocouples are used in a wide variety of industrial applications in which they play an important role for temperature control and monitoring. Wire inhomogeneity and hysteresis effects are major sources of uncertainty in thermocouple measurements. To efficiently mitigate these effects, it is first necessary to explore the impact of strain-induced inhomogeneities and hysteresis, and their contribution to the uncertainty. This article investigates homogeneity and hysteresis effects in Types N and K mineral-insulated metal-sheathed (MIMS) thermocouples. Homogeneity of thermocouple wires is known to change when mechanical strain is experienced by the thermoelements. To test this influence, bends of increasingly small radii, typical in industrial applications, were made to a number of thermocouples with different sheath diameters. The change in homogeneity was determined through controlled immersion of the thermocouple into an isothermal liquid oil bath at and was found to be very small at for Type K thermocouples, with no measureable change in Type N thermocouples found. An experiment to determine the hysteresis effect in thermocouples was performed on swaged, MIMS Type N and Type K thermocouples, in the temperature range from to . The hysteresis measurements presented simulate the conditions that thermocouples may be exposed to in industrial applications through continuous cycling over 136 h. During this exposure, a characteristic drift from the reference function has been observed but no considerable difference between the heating and cooling measurements was measureable. The measured differences were within the measurement uncertainties; therefore, no hysteresis was observed.

  9. Pressured Grouting Method (PGM) in Pile Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兴序; 于志强; 王旭

    2002-01-01

    Application of pressured grouting method (PGM) in pile engineering can tackle problems encountered during construction of bored piles. Bearing capacity of piles can be increased through compaction of subsoils around piles. This paper reports research efforts of this technique by the pile research team in Southwest Jiaotong University in last decade with respect to the construction process, test findings, and primary research conclusions. The social-economical benefits of this method and application market in pile engineering are also analyzed.

  10. Characterization of a Method for Inverse Heat Conduction Using Real and Simulated Thermocouple Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Michelle E.; Glass, David E.

    2017-01-01

    It is often impractical to instrument the external surface of high-speed vehicles due to the aerothermodynamic heating. Temperatures can instead be measured internal to the structure using embedded thermocouples, and direct and inverse methods can then be used to estimate temperature and heat flux on the external surface. Two thermocouples embedded at different depths are required to solve direct and inverse problems, and filtering schemes are used to reduce noise in the measured data. Accuracy in the estimated surface temperature and heat flux is dependent on several factors. Factors include the thermocouple location through the thickness of a material, the sensitivity of the surface solution to the error in the specified location of the embedded thermocouples, and the sensitivity to the error in thermocouple data. The effect of these factors on solution accuracy is studied using the methodology discussed in the work of Pizzo, et. al.1 A numerical study is performed to determine if there is an optimal depth at which to embed one thermocouple through the thickness of a material assuming that a second thermocouple is installed on the back face. Solution accuracy will be discussed for a range of embedded thermocouple depths. Moreover, the sensitivity of the surface solution to (a) the error in the specified location of the embedded thermocouple and to (b) the error in the thermocouple data are quantified using numerical simulation, and the results are discussed.

  11. NEET In-Pile Ultrasonic Sensor Enablement-Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Daw; J. Rempe; J. Palmer; P. Ramuhalli; R. Montgomery; H.T. Chien; B. Tittmann; B. Reinhardt; P. Keller

    2014-09-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential to measure a range of parameters during irradiation of fuels and materials, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes under harsh irradiation test conditions. There are two primary issues that currently limit in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors. The first is transducer survivability. The ability of ultrasonic transducer materials to maintain their useful properties during an irradiation must be demonstrated. The second issue is signal processing. Ultrasonic testing is typically performed in a lab or field environment, where the sensor and sample are accessible. The harsh nature of in-pile testing and the variety of desired measurements demand that an enhanced signal processing capability be developed to make in-pile ultrasonic sensors viable. To address these issues, the NEET ASI program funded a three year Ultrasonic Transducer Irradiation and Signal Processing Enhancements project, which is a collaborative effort between the Idaho National Laboratory, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Argonne National Laboratory, and the Pennsylvania State University. The objective of this report is to document the objectives and accomplishments from this three year project. As summarized within this document, significant work has been accomplished during this three year project.

  12. Temporary Thermocouple Attachment for Thermal/Vacuum Testing at Non-Extreme Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Wright, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Post-test examination and data analysis that followed a two week long vacuum test showed that numerous self-stick thermocouples became detached from the test article. The thermocouples were reattached with thermally conductive epoxy and the test was repeated to obtain the required data. Because the thermocouple detachment resulted in significant expense and rework, it was decided to investigate the temporary attachment methods used around NASA and to perform a test to assess their efficacy. The present work describes the original test and the analysis that showed that the thermocouples had become detached, temporary thermocouple attachment methods assessed in the retest and in the thermocouple attachment test, and makes a recommendation for attachment methods for future tests.

  13. The reliability of thermocouples in microwave ceramics processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Juan; Valdez, Zarel; Ortiz, Ubaldo

    2004-01-01

    It is not rare to hear arguments against the use of thermocouples for taking temperatures in processes that are taking place under microwave fields. However, the simplicity of this device makes it attractive to consider its use. One question that arises when thermocouples are employed is whether the electric field perturbs the measurement, and if the thermocouple affects the processing. The process that was chosen for conducting this test was the synthesis of spinel (MgAl2O4) using microwaves as a power supply and hematite (Fe2O3) as an additive for both spinel formation promotion and susceptor. The alumina-based systems are very important to study because this is one of the most common ingredients in refractory materials. There are many discussions about the improvement of the process when microwaves are used, but a kinetic comparison cannot be performed if the temperature is unknown, and that is the reason for emphasizing the measurement techniques. The analysis of the obtained samples was carried out by X-ray diffraction of powders. The results of this work show that there is no difference between the products obtained when the thermocouple was inserted in the system, compared to processing without it; hence the thermocouple is appropriate for this application.

  14. Measurements of fluctuating gas temperatures using compensated fine wire thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nina, M. N. R.; Pita, G. P.

    1985-09-01

    Thermocouples with three different wire diameters (15, 40 and 50 microns) were used in association with an analog compensation circuit connected to a data acquisition system. Measurements of the time constant were performed using two different heating techniques; Joule effect and external heating by laser beam. The thermocouples were used to quantify the fluctuating temperature field in a hot air jet and in a premixed propane flame. In the reacting case the catalytic effect was evaluated by comparing coated and uncoated wires. Conclusions were also obtained regarding frequency spectra, temperature probability distribution function and time constant.

  15. Thermocouple Structure in Thermoelectric Conversion Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Wei-ming; TANG; Xian; LUO; Zhi-fu

    2013-01-01

    The core of thermoelectric conversion device is the thermocouples which are constituted with P-type and N-type thermoelectric material.Thermocouple structure is very important for efficiency of thermoelectric power generation.Common thermocouple is the segmented structure,as shown in Fig.1.Each material works in its best temperature range.This structure ensures that the device get a high figure

  16. Development of a Sheathed Miniature Aerothermal Reentry Thermocouple for Thermal Protection System Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Edward R.; Weber, Carissa Tudryn; Oishi, Tomo; Santos, Jose; Mach, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The Sheathed Miniature Aerothermal Reentry Thermocouple is a micro-miniature thermocouple for high temperature measurement in extreme environments. It is available for use in Thermal Protection System materials for ground testing and flight. This paper discusses the heritage, and design of the instrument. Experimental and analytical methods used to verify its performance and limitations are described.

  17. OPAL Cold Neutron Guide In-Pile Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rownes, T.; Eltobaji, A.; Bell, M.; Klose, F. [Nuclear Operations, Baitain (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    The 20 MW{sub th} OPAL research reactor has five neutron beam assemblies. These provide cold and thermal neutrons to various neutron guides and associated neutron beam instruments. In 2010 a project was initiated to install a new cold neutron guide, CG2, in one of the assemblies. This installation would allow up to four new neutron beam instruments to be built, significantly expanding the reactor's capabilities. The project concluded in December 2012 with the successful installation of CG2. Each neutron beam assembly has an in-pile plug, a primary shutter and a front cover. Together these constitute the neutron guide's in-pile components, with a total mass of over 12 tonnes. The CG2 installation required the complete replacement of the existing components. This replacement was scheduled to coincide with OPAL's first major shutdown. With a budget of $2.3 million and an expected dose of 50 man.mSv, the CG2 installation was a large and complex task. Work during the shutdown involved over 40 ANSTO personnel and radiation fields approached 1 Sv/h in some areas. Despite this, the installation team received a collective dose of only 10 man.mSv, and the project was completed to budget and within schedule. This paper will outline the details of the project, focusing on lessons learned and recommended practices. Each OPAL in-pile plug has a design life of 10 years at full power operation, and similar replacements will be performed regularly as the reactor ages. It is hoped that this information will be useful for other research reactors planning large capital engineering projects.

  18. Attaching Thermocouples by Peening or Crimping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtland, Kevin; Cox, Robert; Immer, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Two simple, effective techniques for attaching thermocouples to metal substrates have been devised for high-temperature applications in which attachment by such conventional means as welding, screws, epoxy, or tape would not be effective. The techniques have been used successfully to attach 0.005- in. (0.127-mm)-diameter type-S thermocouples to substrates of niobium alloy C-103 and stainless steel 416 for measuring temperatures up to 2,600 F (1,427 C). The techniques are equally applicable to other thermocouple and substrate materials. In the first technique, illustrated in the upper part of the figure, a hole slightly wider than twice the diameter of one thermocouple wire is drilled in the substrate. The thermocouple is placed in the hole, then the edge of the hole is peened in one or more places by use of a punch (see figure). The deformed material at the edge secures the thermocouple in the hole. In the second technique a hole is drilled as in the first technique, then an annular relief area is machined around the hole, resulting in structure reminiscent of a volcano in a crater. The thermocouple is placed in the hole as in the first technique, then the "volcano" material is either peened by use of a punch or crimped by use of sidecutters to secure the thermocouple in place. This second technique is preferable for very thin thermocouples [wire diameter .0.005 in. (.0.127 mm)] because standard peening poses a greater risk of clipping one or both of the thermocouple wires. These techniques offer the following advantages over prior thermocouple-attachment techniques: . Because these techniques involve drilling of very small holes, they are minimally invasive . an important advantage in that, to a first approximation, the thermal properties of surrounding areas are not appreciably affected. . These techniques do not involve introduction of any material, other than the substrate and thermocouple materials, that could cause contamination, could decompose, or oxidize

  19. Long Term Out-of-pile Thermocouple Tests in Conditions Representative for Nuclear Gas-cooled High Temperature Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    LAURIE Mathias; FOURREZ Stephane; FUETTERER Michael; LAPETITE Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    During irradiation tests at high temperature, failure of commercial Inconel 600 sheathed thermocouples is commonly encountered. To understand and remediate this problem, out-ofpile tests were performed with thermocouples in carburizing atmospheres which can be assumed to be at least locally representative for High Temperature Reactors. The objective was to screen those thermocouples which would consecutively be used under irradiation. Two such screening tests have been performed with a set of...

  20. Contact Thermocouple Methodology and Evaluation for Temperature Measurement in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Ethan J.; Pawlik, Ralph J.; Krause, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory testing of advanced aerospace components very often requires highly accurate temperature measurement and control devices, as well as methods to precisely analyze and predict the performance of such components. Analysis of test articles depends on accurate measurements of temperature across the specimen. Where possible, this task is accomplished using many thermocouples welded directly to the test specimen, which can produce results with great precision. However, it is known that thermocouple spot welds can initiate deleterious cracks in some materials, prohibiting the use of welded thermocouples. Such is the case for the nickel-based superalloy MarM-247, which is used in the high temperature, high pressure heater heads for the Advanced Stirling Converter component of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator space power system. To overcome this limitation, a method was developed that uses small diameter contact thermocouples to measure the temperature of heater head test articles with the same level of accuracy as welded thermocouples. This paper includes a brief introduction and a background describing the circumstances that compelled the development of the contact thermocouple measurement method. Next, the paper describes studies performed on contact thermocouple readings to determine the accuracy of results. It continues on to describe in detail the developed measurement method and the evaluation of results produced. A further study that evaluates the performance of different measurement output devices is also described. Finally, a brief conclusion and summary of results is provided.

  1. Temporary Thermocouple Attachment for Thermal/Vacuum Testing at Non-Extreme Temperatures - Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sarah E.; Ungar, Eugene K.

    2017-01-01

    Post-test examination and data analysis that followed a two week long vacuum test showed that numerous self-stick thermocouples became detached from the test article. The thermocouples were reattached with thermally conductive epoxy and the test was repeated to obtain the required data. Because the thermocouple detachment resulted in significant expense and rework, it was decided to investigate the temporary attachment methods used around NASA and to perform a test to assess their efficacy. The present work describes the testing that was performed in early and mid-2017. The test article and the temporary thermocouple attachment methods tested are described. During the first test, fully half of the thermocouples detached - although the detachment showed subtly in the data for some. The second test was performed to confirm the data from the first test and to investigate the effect of test article and thermocouple grounding. The results of the testing over temperatures ranging from -150 to 200degF are detailed and preliminary recommendations are made for temporary thermocouple attachment methods.

  2. Long term out-of-pile thermocouple tests in conditions representative for nuclear gas-cooled high temperature reactors

    OpenAIRE

    LAURIE Mathias; FOURREZ Stéphane; FUETTERER Michael; LAPETITE Jean-Marc; SADLI M.; MORICE Ronan; FAILLEAU G

    2013-01-01

    During irradiation tests at high temperature failure of commercial Inconel 600 sheathed thermocouples is commonly encountered. As instrumentation, in particular thermocouples are considered safety-relevant both for irradiation tests and for commercial reactors, JRC and THERMOCOAX joined forces to solve this issue by performing out-of-pile tests with thermocouples mimicking the environment encountered by high temperature reactor (HTR) in-core instrumentation. The objective was to screen innova...

  3. Hot Wire Needle Probe for In-Pile Thermal Conductivity Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshua Daw; Joy Rempe; Keith Condie; Darrell Knudson; S. Curtis Wilkins; Brandon S. Fox; Heng Ban

    2001-11-01

    Thermal conductivity is a key property of interest for both nuclear fuel and structural materials, and must be known for proper design, test, and application of new fuels and structural materials in nuclear reactors. Thermal conductivity is highly dependent on the physical structure, chemical composition, and the state of the material. Typically, thermal conductivity changes that occur during irradiation are measured out-of-pile by Post Irradiated Examination (PIE) using a “cook and look” approach in hot-cells. Repeatedly removing samples from a test reactor to make out-of-pile measurements is expensive, has the potential to disturb phenomena of interest, and only provides understanding of the sample's end state at the time each measurement is made. There are also limited thermophysical property data for advanced fuels. Such data are needed for simulation design codes, the development of next generation reactors, and advanced fuels for existing nuclear plants. Being able to quickly characterize fuel thermal conductivity during irradiation can improve the fidelity of data, reduce costs of post-irradiation examinations, increase understanding of how fuels behave under irradiation, and confirm or improve existing thermal conductivity measurement techniques. This paper discusses advancements from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) / Utah State University (USU) examinations, including background information, governing equations, experimental setup, detailed results, and conclusions for both a steady state and a transient method. Experimental findings of the INL/USU steady state method examinations help to better understand limitations and benefits of two-thermocouple methods, where laboratory results can be extrapolated to in-pile applications. Additionally, results from the transient method offer the immediate potential for in-pile application, as the method reduces the impact on the sample from only a small centerline sensor, measurement times (e.g., only

  4. Field guide to quick deployment thermocouples

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Instructions for quick deployment of thermocouples to measure fire intensity at Kulm Wetland Management District as part of the Fire Intensity Monitoring survey....

  5. Connecting to Thermocouples with Fewer Lead Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsby, Jon C.

    2003-01-01

    A simple technique has been devised to reduce the number of lead wires needed to connect an array of thermocouples to the instruments (e.g., voltmeters) used to read their output voltages. Because thermocouple wires are usually made of expensive metal alloys, reducing the number of lead wires can effect a considerable reduction in the cost of such an array. Reducing the number of wires also reduces the number of terminals and the amount of space needed to accommodate the wires.

  6. Effects of thermocouple electrical insulation on the measurement of surface temperature

    OpenAIRE

    AlWaaly, Ahmed A.Y.; Paul, Manosh C; Dobson, Phillip S.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical, numerical and experimental analyses have been performed to investigate the effects of thermocouple wire electrical insulation on the temperature measurement of a reference surface. Two diameters of type K thermocouple, 80 μm and 200 μm, with different exposed wire lengths (0 mm, 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm and 20 mm) were used to measure various surface temperatures (4 °C, 8 °C, 15 °C, 25 °C and 35 °C). Measurements were made with the thermocouple in direct contact with the surface, with w...

  7. Thermoelectric properties of currently available Au/Pt thermocouples related to the valid reference function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edler F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Au/Pt thermocouples are considered to be an alternative to High Temperature Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers (HTSPRTs for realizing temperatures according to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90 in the temperature range between aluminium (660.323 °C and silver (961.78 °C. The original aim of this work was to develop and to validate a new reference function for Au/Pt thermocouples which reflects the properties of presently commercially available Au and Pt wires. The thermoelectric properties of 16 Au/Pt thermocouples constructed at different National Metrological Institutes by using wires from different suppliers and 4 commercially available Au/Pt thermocouples were investigated. Most of them exhibit significant deviations from the current reference function of Au/Pt thermocouples caused by the poor performance of the Au-wires available. Thermoelectric homogeneity was investigated by measuring immersion profiles during freezes at the freezing point of silver and in liquid baths. The thermoelectric inhomogeneities were found to be one order of magnitude larger than those of Au/Pt thermocouples of the Standard Reference Material® (SRM® 1749. The improvement of the annealing procedure of the gold wires is a key process to achieve thermoelectric homogeneities in the order of only about (2–3 mK, sufficient to replace the impracticable HTSPRTs as interpolation instruments of the ITS-90. Comparison measurements of some of the Au/Pt thermocouples against a HTSPRT and an absolutely calibrated radiation thermometer were performed and exhibit agreements within the expanded measurement uncertainties. It has been found that the current reference function of Au/Pt thermocouples reflects adequately the thermoelectric properties of currently available Au/Pt thermocouples.

  8. Use of thermocouples in the intense fields of ferromagnetic implant hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K W; Chou, C K

    1993-01-01

    Thermocouples have been used in the intense fields of ferromagnetic implant hyperthermia for extensive temperature measurements. Electromagnetic interference at 100 kHz is minimized with feed-through filters mounted on a copper plate in a shielded assembly. The thermocouples are temperature compensated in the software by monitoring the temperature of the copper plate. D-shell connectors are used for multiple sensor thermocouple connections and to provide proper shield termination of external cables. The technical approaches of grounding, shielding and filtering are examined, and experiments have been conducted to determine the proper usage of thermocouple during ferromagnetic implant treatments. The dependence of filter performance on thermocouple impedance and the effect of D-shell connections on temperature accuracy have been studied. The results indicate that self-heating due to electromagnetic energy coupled into 51 microns thermocouple leads and unbalanced current along 76 microns leads are insignificant at 100 kHz. But severe heating has been observed in 511 and 813 microns leads, especially in high-conductivity copper wires. By using 25-50 microns thermocouple leads, better than 0.1 degree C accuracy and 0.05 degree C resolution have been achieved during ferromagnetic hyperthermia. At field strength of 1500 A/m, artifacts of 0.03-0.05 degree C are observed.

  9. NEET In-Pile Ultrasonic Sensor Enablement-FY 2012 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JE Daw; JL Rempe; BR Tittmann; B Reinhardt; P Ramuhalli; R Montgomery; HT Chien

    2012-09-01

    Several Department Of Energy-Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs, such as the Fuel Cycle Research and Development, Advanced Reactor Concepts, Light Water Reactor Sustainability, and Next Generation Nuclear Plant programs, are investigating new fuels and materials for advanced and existing reactors. A key objective of such programs is to understand the performance of these fuels and materials when irradiated. The Nuclear Energy Enabling Technology (NEET) Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation (ASI) in-pile instrumentation development activities are focused upon addressing cross-cutting needs for DOE-NE irradiation testing by providing higher fidelity, real-time data, with increased accuracy and resolution from smaller, compact sensors that are less intrusive. Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential to measure a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes, under harsh irradiation test conditions. There are two primary issues associated with in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors. The first is transducer survivability. The ability of ultrasonic transducer materials to maintain their useful properties during an irradiation must be demonstrated. The second issue is signal processing. Ultrasonic testing is typically performed in a lab or field environment, where the sensor and sample are accessible. Due to the harsh nature of in-pile testing, and the range of measurements that are desired, an enhanced signal processing capability is needed to make in-pile ultrasonic sensors viable. This project addresses these technology deployment issues.

  10. Evaluation of miniature single-wire sheathed thermocouples for turbine blade temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollanda, R.

    1979-01-01

    Chromel Alumel thermocouples were used, with sheath diameters of 0.15 and 0.25 mm. Tests were conducted at temperatures ranging from 750 to 1250 K. Both steady state and thermal cycling tests were performed for times up to 200 hours. Initial testing was performed in a low velocity gas stream for long time periods using a Meker-type burner. Additional testing was done in a high velocity gas stream for short time periods using a hot gas tunnel and also in a J75 jet engine. A total of eleven 0.15 mm diameter thermocouples and six 0.25 mm diameter thermocouples were tested. Drift rates up to 2.5% in 10 hours were observed. Photomicrographs show that this design is near the limit of miniaturization based on present manufacturing capabilities. Results indicate that the effects of miniaturization on reliability and accuracy must be considered when choosing thermocouples for a particular application.

  11. Long term out-of-pile thermocouple tests in conditions representative for nuclear gas-cooled high temperature reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurie, M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Inst. for Energy, P.O. Box 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Fourrez, S. [THERMOCOAX SAS, BP 26, Planquivon, F-61438 Flers Cedex (France); Fuetterer, M. A.; Lapetite, J. M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Inst. for Energy, P.O. Box 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-07-01

    During irradiation tests at high temperature, failure of commercial Inconel 600 sheathed thermocouples is commonly encountered. To understand and remedy this problem, out-of-pile tests were performed with thermocouples in carburizing atmospheres which can be assumed to be at least locally representative for High Temperature Reactors. The objective was to screen those thermocouples which would consecutively be used under irradiation. Two such screening tests have been performed with a set of thermocouples embedded in graphite (mainly conventional Type N thermocouples and thermocouples with innovative sheaths) in a dedicated furnace with helium flushing. Performance indicators such as thermal drift, insulation and loop resistance were monitored and compared to those from conventional Type N thermocouples. Several parameters were investigated: niobium sleeves, bending, thickness, sheath composition, temperature as well as the chemical environment. After the tests, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) examinations were performed to analyze possible local damage in wires and in the sheath. The present paper describes the two experiments, summarizes results and outlines further work, in particular to further analyze the findings and to select suitable thermocouples for qualification under irradiation. (authors)

  12. Process Simulating of Heat Transfer in High-temperature Thermocouples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atroshenko Yuliana K.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical research of integral characteristics of process of heattransfer in sensitive elements of R, A and B types thermocouples in case of measurement of high temperatures (more than 900 K is executed. Theoretical dependences of minimum necessary duration of heating up of the thermocouple on value of temperature on boundary of a sensitive element are received. It is shown the thermocouple of R type requires bigger time of heating for obtaining satisfactory accuracy of measurements. Temperature fields in sensitive elements of the specified thermocouples are received. It is shown that distribution of temperature on the thermocouple not linearly and has similar character for the researched thermocouples.

  13. Welding Wires To Thin Thermocouple Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, Raymond; Kim, Walter S.; Danzey, Gerald A.; Pencil, Eric; Wadel, Mary

    1993-01-01

    Parallel-gap resistance welding yields joints surviving temperatures of about 1,000 degrees C. Much faster than thermocompression bonding. Also exceeds conductive-paste bonding and sputtering thin films through porous flame-sprayed insulation on prewelded lead wires. Introduces no foreign material into thermocouple circuit and does not require careful control of thickness of flame-sprayed material.

  14. The Welding Process of the Small In-pile Testing Fuel Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The small in-pile testing fuel assembly is designed for high performance fuel assembly study. It has two parts of which are four fuel element with double layer cladding and a detect system for measurement of testing pressure and temperature. The fuel element is composed of UO2 pellets, the stainless steel cladding and end caps. The detect system is direct contact with the fuel element by electron beam welding. In the fabrication of the assembly, some special welding technologies are

  15. Recent improvements on micro-thermocouple based SThM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, TP; Thiery, L.; Teyssieux, D.; Briand, D.; Vairac, P.

    2017-01-01

    The scanning thermal microscope (SThM) has become a versatile tool for local surface temperature mapping or measuring thermal properties of solid materials. In this article, we present recent improvements in a SThM system, based on a micro-wire thermocouple probe associated with a quartz tuning fork for contact strength detection. Some results obtained on an electrothermal micro-hotplate device, operated in active and passive modes, allow demonstrating its performance as a coupled force detection and thermal measurement system.

  16. Computer program for pulsed thermocouples with corrections for radiation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A pulsed thermocouple was used for measuring gas temperatures above the melting point of common thermocouples. This was done by allowing the thermocouple to heat until it approaches its melting point and then turning on the protective cooling gas. This method required a computer to extrapolate the thermocouple data to the higher gas temperatures. A method that includes the effect of radiation in the extrapolation is described. Computations of gas temperature are provided, along with the estimate of the final thermocouple wire temperature. Results from tests on high temperature combustor research rigs are presented.

  17. Cell integrated multi-junction thermocouple array for solid oxide fuel cell temperature sensing: N+1 architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranaweera, Manoj; Kim, Jung-Sik

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the cell temperature distribution of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks during normal operation has multifaceted advantages in performance and degradation studies. Present efforts on measuring temperature from operating SOFCs measure only the gas channel temperature and do not reveal the cell level temperature distribution, which is more important for understanding a cell's performance and its temperature-related degradation. The authors propose a cell-integrated, multi-junction thermocouple array for in-situ cell surface temperature monitoring of an operational SOFC. The proposed thermocouple array requires far fewer numbers of thermoelements than that required by sets of thermocouples for the same number of temperature sensing points. Hence, the proposed array causes lower disturbance to cell performance than thermocouples. The thermoelement array was sputter deposited on the cathode of a commercial SOFC using alumel (Ni:Al:Mn:Si - 95:2:2:1 by wt.) and chromel (Ni:Cr - 90:10 by wt.). The thermocouple array was tested in a furnace over the entire operating temperature range of a typical SOFC. The individual sensing points of the array were shown to measure temperature independently from each other with equivalent accuracy to a thermocouple. Thus, the concept of multi-junction thermocouples is experimentally validated and its stability on a porous SOFC cathode is confirmed.

  18. The Linearized Design Of Thermocouple Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>There are large errors of linear measurement when the thermocouple measure temperature as temperature sensor.In order to improve the measurement precision,the sensor cold junction compensation and nonlinear compensation are usually needed.For the circumstances that the cold junction’s temperature is determinate,there is biggish nonlinear between thermoelectric power and temperature signals of the thermocouple sensor’s output.In order to solve the problem,this paper proposed a practical method of linear compensation,introduced the principle of linear compensation and gave the corresponding compensation circuit and circuit analysis.This circuit has the characteristic of simpleness,high reliability,small linear error and so on.

  19. Long term out-of-pile thermocouple tests in conditions representative for nuclear gas-cooled high temperature reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurie, M., E-mail: mathias.laurie@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institut für Transurane, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Fourrez, S. [THERMOCOAX SAS, Rue du Pré Neuf, 61100 Saint Georges des Groseillers (France); Fütterer, M.A.; Lapetite, J.M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institut für Transurane, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Sadli, M.; Morice, R.; Failleau, G. [Laboratoire commun de métrologie LNE-Cnam, 61 rue du Landy, F-92310 Saint-Denis (France)

    2014-05-01

    During irradiation tests at high temperature failure of commercial Inconel 600 sheathed thermocouples is commonly encountered. As instrumentation, in particular thermocouples are considered safety-relevant both for irradiation tests and for commercial reactors, JRC and THERMOCOAX joined forces to solve this issue by performing out-of-pile tests with thermocouples mimicking the environment encountered by high temperature reactor (HTR) in-core instrumentation. The objective was to screen innovative sheathed thermocouples which would consecutively be tested under irradiation. Two such screening tests have been performed in high temperature environment (i.e. temperature in the range 1100–1150 °C) with purposely contaminated helium atmosphere (mainly CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2} impurities) representative for high temperature reactor carburizing atmospheres. The first set of thermocouples embedded in graphite (mainly conventional N type thermocouples and thermocouples with innovative sheaths) was tested in a dedicated furnace at THERMOCOAX lab with helium flushing. The second out-of-pile test at JRC with a partly different set of thermocouples replicated the original test for comparison. Performance indicators such as thermal drift, insulation resistance and loop resistance were monitored. Through these long-term screening tests the effect of several parameters were investigated: niobium sleeves, bending, diameter, sheath composition as well as the chemical environment. SEM examinations were performed to analyze local damage (bending zone, sheath). The present paper describes the two tests, sums up data collected during these tests in terms of thermocouple behavior and describes further instrumentation testing work with fixed point mini cells for qualification under irradiation.

  20. Thermocouples--the Arizona experience with in-house manufactured probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anhalt, D; Hynynen, K

    1992-01-01

    The performance of several different types of multisensor thermocouple probes have been tested to determine the feasibility of each type for use in the hyperthermia clinic. All of the probes tested were manufactured in-house, and a detailed description of the construction process will be presented. The overall performance of the probes in terms of robustness, calibration, conduction errors, and response time will be described. In particular, this study describes our experience with in-house manufactured thermocouples over the past several years. The results indicate that when strict quality assurance guidelines are followed, in-house manufactured thermocouples perform satisfactorily--thereby providing an alternative to purchasing probes and measurement systems from commercial vendors if the proper resources are available.

  1. Beam localization in HIFU temperature measurements using thermocouples, with application to cooling by large blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Subhashish; Banerjee, Rupak K; Hariharan, Prasanna; Myers, Matthew R

    2011-02-01

    Experimental studies of thermal effects in high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) procedures are often performed with the aid of fine wire thermocouples positioned within tissue phantoms. Thermocouple measurements are subject to several types of error which must be accounted for before reliable inferences can be made on the basis of the measurements. Thermocouple artifact due to viscous heating is one source of error. A second is the uncertainty regarding the position of the beam relative to the target location or the thermocouple junction, due to the error in positioning the beam at the junction. This paper presents a method for determining the location of the beam relative to a fixed pair of thermocouples. The localization technique reduces the uncertainty introduced by positioning errors associated with very narrow HIFU beams. The technique is presented in the context of an investigation into the effect of blood flow through large vessels on the efficacy of HIFU procedures targeted near the vessel. Application of the beam localization method allowed conclusions regarding the effects of blood flow to be drawn from previously inconclusive (because of localization uncertainties) data. Comparison of the position-adjusted transient temperature profiles for flow rates of 0 and 400ml/min showed that blood flow can reduce temperature elevations by more than 10%, when the HIFU focus is within a 2mm distance from the vessel wall. At acoustic power levels of 17.3 and 24.8W there is a 20- to 70-fold decrease in thermal dose due to the convective cooling effect of blood flow, implying a shrinkage in lesion size. The beam-localization technique also revealed the level of thermocouple artifact as a function of sonication time, providing investigators with an indication of the quality of thermocouple data for a given exposure time. The maximum artifact was found to be double the measured temperature rise, during initial few seconds of sonication.

  2. Nanoscale thermometry using point contact thermocouples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat, Seid; Tan, Aaron; Chua, Yi Jie; Reddy, Pramod

    2010-07-14

    Probing temperature fields with nanometer resolution is critical to understanding nanoscale thermal transport as well as dissipation in nanoscale devices. Here, we demonstrate an atomic force microscope (AFM)-based technique capable of mapping temperature fields in metallic films with approximately 10 mK temperature resolution and thermocouples on a grid. The local temperature at each point contact is obtained by measuring the thermoelectric voltage of the platinum-gold point contact and relating it to the local temperature. These results demonstrate a direct measurement of the temperature field of a metallic surface without using specially fabricated scanning temperature-probes.

  3. Thermocouple design for measuring temperatures of small insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, A A; Venette, R C

    2013-01-01

    Contact thermocouples often are used to measure surface body temperature changes of insects during cold exposure. However, small temperature changes of minute insects can be difficult to detect, particularly during the measurement of supercooling points. We developed two thermocouple designs, which use 0.51 mm diameter or 0.127 mm diameter copper-constantan wires, to improve our ability to resolve insect exotherms. We tested the designs with adults from three parasitoid species: Tetrastichus planipennisi, Spathius agrili, and S. floridanus. These species are thermocouples than thick-gauge thermocouples for the smallest species tested, T. planipennisi. This difference was not apparent for larger species S. agrili and S. floridanus. Thermocouple design did not affect the mean supercooling point for any of the species. The cradle thermocouple design developed with the fine gauge wire was reusable and allowed for easy insect recovery after cold exposure.

  4. Process Simulating of Heat Transfer in High-temperature Thermocouples

    OpenAIRE

    Atroshenko Yuliana K.; Bychkova Alena A.

    2015-01-01

    Numerical research of integral characteristics of process of heattransfer in sensitive elements of R, A and B types thermocouples in case of measurement of high temperatures (more than 900 K) is executed. Theoretical dependences of minimum necessary duration of heating up of the thermocouple on value of temperature on boundary of a sensitive element are received. It is shown the thermocouple of R type requires bigger time of heating for obtaining satisfactory accuracy of measurements. Tempera...

  5. Thermocouple time constant measurement by cross power spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahle, W. C.; Muthukrishnan, M.

    1976-01-01

    A method of measuring thermocouple time constants is outlined which requires Fourier signal processing. In this method, two thermocouples of differing time constants are placed in a gas flow as closely as possible to one another, and the time constant of the first thermocouple is determined directly from the extremum of the imaginary part of the ratio of the ensemble averaged cross-power spectrum to the ensemble averaged auto-power spectrum of that thermocouple. A coherence function is given for assuring the quality of the data, and results are presented for an experimental test of the method. Some problems with the method are briefly noted.

  6. A Study of the Behavior Characteristics for K-type Thermocouple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Songhae; Kim, Yongsik; Lee, Sooill [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sungjin [Woojin inc., Osan (Korea, Republic of); Lyou, Jooon [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    K-type thermocouple is widely used in nuclear power plants (NPP) and they provide reliable service. Generally, the thermocouple assembly is the finished product and usually only nondestructive tests are performed on the assembly, whereas destructive tests are confined to selected bulk cable specimens. This K-type thermocouple has been used representatively in the In-Core Instrument Assembly (ICI) in the nuclear power plants. The ICI consists of five rhodium emitter detectors that provide information on the thermal power for the core and one K-type thermocouple made with two cables (Chromel-Alumel) that provides the temperature of core exit (CET). Generally, the quantity of the ICI is absolutely different according to the number of fuel assemblies in the NPP. In the case of SKN 3 and 4, they were designed to the 61 ICI to provide information on the core cooling to the inadequate core cooling monitoring system (ICCMS). This measured temperature could be also used to check the entry condition of severe accidents. The technology of the TFDR is a generic skill to detect the fault position of the cable. In-core Instruments (ICIs) were used to detect the Core Exit Temperature (CET) in a reactor. This measured temperature was also used to check the entry condition of severe accidents. However, if a serious accident occurs, the upper portion of the core is damaged. This instrument has not been available. This paper illustrates the estimation possibility for the status of molten core through the high-temperature characteristics test of k-type thermocouple. It turns out that it is possible to measure the k-type thermocouple up to 1350 .deg. C degrees before melting during insertion into the melting furnace. Additionally, in order to measure a high temperature of 2000 .deg. C or more, the replacement possibility of k-type thermocouple was evaluated. However the tungsten-rhenium thermocouple is impossible to use in the detection of temperature at the in-core because of the

  7. Thermocouple Extension-Wire-Connections and Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Mitchell, Mark; Richardson, Gregory

    2000-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to determine the casue of erroneous readings from thermocouples of type K when measuring temperatures of liquid hydrogen. It was believed to be linked to te temperature of the connector used to extend the thermocouple wires to the voltage meter.

  8. Heat production in microwave-irradiated thermocouples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunscombe, P B; McLellan, J; Malaker, K

    1986-01-01

    It has been known for some time that the irradiation of metallic thermometers by microwaves during clinical hyperthermia can lead to artifactual readings. We describe here a series of measurements in which this effect has been quantitatively studied. In particular, the data yield values for the conversion coefficient describing the rate of heat production per unit length of a thermocouple array per watt applied power which can be compared with the rate of heat production in the same volume of tissue. The degree of artifact in the temperature recording depends on the thermal resistance of the protective materials surrounding the array, and this thermal resistance has also been determined. It has been shown that measures taken to reduce the temperature artifact do not compromise the response time of the probe.

  9. Electrodeposited submicron thermocouples with microsecond response times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourg, M E; van der Veer, W E; Güell, A G; Grüell, A G; Penner, R M

    2007-10-01

    We describe a procedure for preparing submicron scale silver-nickel thermocouples (TCs) using electrochemical step edge decoration on graphite surfaces. Each fabrication operation produced ensembles of 2-20 TCs with diameters in the 1.0 microm to 500 nm range. These "sub-mum TCs" (SMTCs) produced linear voltage versus temperature output over the range from 20 to 100 degrees C characterized by a Seebeck coefficient of 20 +/- 1 microV/degrees C, equal to the 21 microV/degrees C that is theoretically expected for a junction between these two metals. The time response of SMTCs was evaluated using two different laser-heating methods and compared with the smallest mechanically robust commercially available type J TCs. Electrochemical etching of the silver wire introduced constrictions at grain boundaries that reduced the thermal mass of the junction without altering its integrity or its overall diameter, producing a decrease of the measured rise time for SMTCs up to 96%.

  10. Enhanced in-pile instrumentation at the advanced test reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempe, J. L.; Knudson, D. L.; Daw, J. E.; Unruh, T.; Chase, B. M.; Palmer, J.; Condie, K. G.; Davis, K. L. [Idaho National Laboratory, MS 3840, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Many of the sensors deployed at materials and test reactors cannot withstand the high flux/high temperature test conditions often requested by users at U.S. test reactors, such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory. To address this issue, an instrumentation development effort was initiated as part of the ATR National Scientific User Facility in 2007 to support the development and deployment of enhanced in-pile sensors. This paper reports results from this effort. Specifically, this paper identifies the types of sensors currently available to support in-pile irradiations and those sensors currently available to ATR users. Accomplishments from new sensor technology deployment efforts are highlighted by describing new temperature and thermal conductivity sensors now available to ATR users. Efforts to deploy enhanced in-pile sensors for detecting elongation and realtime flux detectors are also reported, and recently-initiated research to evaluate the viability of advanced technologies to provide enhanced accuracy for measuring key parameters during irradiation testing are noted. (authors)

  11. Metallic and ceramic thin film thermocouples for gas turbine engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougas, Ian M; Amani, Matin; Gregory, Otto J

    2013-11-08

    Temperatures of hot section components in today's gas turbine engines reach as high as 1,500 °C, making in situ monitoring of the severe temperature gradients within the engine rather difficult. Therefore, there is a need to develop instrumentation (i.e., thermocouples and strain gauges) for these turbine engines that can survive these harsh environments. Refractory metal and ceramic thin film thermocouples are well suited for this task since they have excellent chemical and electrical stability at high temperatures in oxidizing atmospheres, they are compatible with thermal barrier coatings commonly employed in today's engines, they have greater sensitivity than conventional wire thermocouples, and they are non-invasive to combustion aerodynamics in the engine. Thin film thermocouples based on platinum:palladium and indium oxynitride:indium tin oxynitride as well as their oxide counterparts have been developed for this purpose and have proven to be more stable than conventional type-S and type-K thin film thermocouples. The metallic and ceramic thin film thermocouples described within this paper exhibited remarkable stability and drift rates similar to bulk (wire) thermocouples.

  12. Metallic and Ceramic Thin Film Thermocouples for Gas Turbine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto J. Gregory

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Temperatures of hot section components in today’s gas turbine engines reach as high as 1,500 °C, making in situ monitoring of the severe temperature gradients within the engine rather difficult. Therefore, there is a need to develop instrumentation (i.e., thermocouples and strain gauges for these turbine engines that can survive these harsh environments. Refractory metal and ceramic thin film thermocouples are well suited for this task since they have excellent chemical and electrical stability at high temperatures in oxidizing atmospheres, they are compatible with thermal barrier coatings commonly employed in today’s engines, they have greater sensitivity than conventional wire thermocouples, and they are non-invasive to combustion aerodynamics in the engine. Thin film thermocouples based on platinum:palladium and indium oxynitride:indium tin oxynitride as well as their oxide counterparts have been developed for this purpose and have proven to be more stable than conventional type-S and type-K thin film thermocouples. The metallic and ceramic thin film thermocouples described within this paper exhibited remarkable stability and drift rates similar to bulk (wire thermocouples.

  13. Development of Thin Film Ceramic Thermocouples for High Temperature Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Farmer, Serene C.; Sayir, Ali; Blaha, Charles A.; Gonzalez, Jose M.

    2004-01-01

    The maximum use temperature of noble metal thin film thermocouples of 1100 C (2000 F) may not be adequate for use on components in the increasingly harsh conditions of advanced aircraft and next generation launch technology. Ceramic-based thermocouples are known for their high stability and robustness at temperatures exceeding 1500 C, but are typically found in the form of rods or probes. NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating the feasibility of ceramics as thin film thermocouples for extremely high temperature applications to take advantage of the stability and robustness of ceramics and the non-intrusiveness of thin films. This paper will discuss the current state of development in this effort.

  14. Use of miniature, single-wire, sheathed thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glawe, G. E.; Holanda, R.; Krause, L. N.

    1977-01-01

    Temperature measurement with small thermocouples is improved by device. Each wire is sheathed separately which increases the interelement insulation by factor of 2 1/2. Each wire in its separate sheath can be brought to junction by independent paths.

  15. Processing Techniques for Correlation of LDA and Thermocouple Signals,

    Science.gov (United States)

    particular when few seeding particles are present in the flow. The thermocouple signal was analog compensated in frequency and the effect of the value of time constant on the velocity temperature correlation was studied.

  16. Thin-Film Ceramic Thermocouples Fabricated and Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Farmer, Serene C.; Sayir, Ali; Gregory, Otto J.; Blaha, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    The Sensors and Electronics Technology Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center is developing thin-film-based sensors for surface measurement in propulsion system research. Thin-film sensors do not require special machining of the components on which they are mounted, and they are considerably thinner than wire- or foil-based sensors. One type of sensor being advanced is the thin-film thermocouple, specifically for applications in high-temperature combustion environments. Ceramics are being demonstrated as having the potential to meet the demands of thin-film thermocouples in advanced aerospace environments. The maximum-use temperature of noble metal thin-film thermocouples, 1500 C (2700 F), may not be adequate for components used in the increasingly harsh conditions of advanced aircraft and next-generation launch vehicles. Ceramic-based thermocouples are known for their high stability and robustness at temperatures exceeding 1500 C, but are typically in the form of bulky rods or probes. As part of ASTP, Glenn's Sensors and Electronics Technology Branch is leading an in-house effort to apply ceramics as thin-film thermocouples for extremely high-temperature applications as part of ASTP. Since the purity of the ceramics is crucial for the stability of the thermocouples, Glenn's Ceramics Branch and Case Western Reserve University are developing high-purity ceramic sputtering targets for fabricating high-temperature sensors. Glenn's Microsystems Fabrication Laboratory, supported by the Akima Corporation, is using these targets to fabricate thermocouple samples for testing. The first of the materials used were chromium silicide (CrSi) and tantalum carbide (TaC). These refractory materials are expected to survive temperatures in excess of 1500 C. Preliminary results indicate that the thermoelectric voltage output of a thin-film CrSi versus TaC thermocouple is 15 times that of the standard type R (platinum-rhodium versus platinum) thermocouple, producing 20 mV with a 200

  17. Metallic and Ceramic Thin Film Thermocouples for Gas Turbine Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, Otto J.; Matin Amani; Ian M. Tougas

    2013-01-01

    Temperatures of hot section components in today’s gas turbine engines reach as high as 1,500 °C, making in situ monitoring of the severe temperature gradients within the engine rather difficult. Therefore, there is a need to develop instrumentation (i.e., thermocouples and strain gauges) for these turbine engines that can survive these harsh environments. Refractory metal and ceramic thin film thermocouples are well suited for this task since they have excellent chemical and electrical stabil...

  18. Thermocouple Positioning For The Application Of The Non-Integer System Identification Approach To HIFIRE-5 Fins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohle, Stefan; Bohrk, Hannah; Fuchs, Ulf

    2011-05-01

    The German Aerospace Center developed a ceramic fin experiment (FinEx) for HIFiRE-5 flight in order to test the performance of new structure designs during hyper- sonic flight. Aero-thermal analysis is provided by 8 thermocouple data channels for all four symmetrically arranged fins. In this paper the analysis of the geometry and thermophysical characteristics of the fins to optimize thermocouple positioning is discussed. The main goal is to gather as much information as possible from these few temperature sensors in these three dimensional structures. Not only is the absolute temperature value of interest but also the reason of the temperature rise. A thorough calculation of the temperature gradients in the fin structure is used to define an optimal positioning layout, where particular focus lies on the localization of the heat fluxes at the surface from the in-depth thermocouple measurement. In conclusion, two fins are equipped with 3 thermocouples each and two are equipped with only 1 thermocouple. The paper closes with some first results based on the calibration data of the fins and the nominal trajectory values.

  19. Low-Temperature Drift in MIMS Base-Metal Thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, E. S.

    2014-04-01

    Inhomogeneities are known to develop within thermoelements exposed to elevated temperatures, resulting in temperature measurement errors. While the Seebeck coefficient drift in base-metal thermocouples due to aging at temperatures over has been extensively investigated, there have been very few investigations into possible Seebeck changes at lower temperatures. Despite warnings about possible effects, most practitioners assume changes in homogeneity are either not significant or not able to develop at temperatures less than . This study reports on measurements of inhomogeneities in base-metal thermocouples arising from heat treatment at temperatures in the region of . Thermoelectric scans of thermocouples were carried out following exposure of a range of mineral-insulated metal-sheathed base-metal thermocouples, from two large manufacturers, of Types E, J, K, N, and T, to either a linear-gradient furnace within the range of to or uniform temperature zones of , , and . The experiments reveal noticeable drift in all base-metal types for temperatures as low as and exposure times as short as 1 h. The most sensitive thermoelement alloys appear to be Constantan, Alumel, and Nicrosil. It is concluded that the common working assumption that base-metal thermocouples suffer no thermally induced changes in the Seebeck coefficient below is false. This observation has significant implications for many high-stability monitoring and control systems reliant on base-metal thermocouples that operate in the range of to . Additionally, thermoelectric scanning of base-metal thermocouples should be carried out at temperatures well below to avoid erasure of strain effects or imprinting of new thermal signatures.

  20. A Comparison of Contemporary Gold Versus Platinum Thermocouples with NIST SRM 1749-Based Thermocouples and Reference Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, M. J.; Wiandt, T. J.; Harper, T.

    2015-12-01

    Fluke Calibration (formerly Hart Scientific) in American Fork, Utah, USA is a manufacturer of temperature calibration instruments. The company manufactured reference standard gold versus platinum (Au-Pt) thermocouples from 1992 to about 2002. Manufacturing was halted in 2002 because a trend of poor curve-fit results was observed in new batches of wire. After reviewing the possible sources of the problem, it was decided to sample wire from multiple manufacturers and investigate ways to make the curve-fit work better. This paper presents the results from the study of the wire and a characterization technique to help improve characterization of thermocouples made with lower purity wire. Calibration results from NIST SRM material and older Fluke thermocouples are included as well to provide a means of comparison of contemporary wire to NIST SRM era wire.

  1. Thermal Preconditioning of MIMS Type K Thermocouples to Reduce Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, E. S.

    2017-01-01

    Type K thermocouples are the most widely used temperature sensors in industry and are often used in the convenient mineral-insulated metal-sheathed (MIMS) format. The MIMS format provides almost total immunity to oxide-related drift in the 800°C-1000°C range. However, crystalline ordering of the atomic structure causes drift in the range 200°C-600°C. Troublesomely, the effects of this ordering are reversible, leading to hysteresis in some applications. Typically, MIMS cable is subjected to a post-manufacturing high-temperature recrystallization anneal to remove cold-work and place the thermocouple in a `known state.' However, variations in the temperatures and times of these exposures can lead to variations in the `as-received state.' This study gives guidelines on the best thermal preconditioning of 3 mm MIMS Type K thermocouples in order to minimize drift and achieve the most reproducible temperature measurements. Experimental results demonstrate the consequences of using Type K MIMS thermocouples in different states, including the as-received state, after a high-temperature recrystallization anneal and after preconditioning anneals at 200°C, 300°, 400°C and and 500°C. It is also shown that meaningful calibration is possible with the use of regular preconditioning anneals.

  2. Thermocouples--The Most Widely Used Temperature Sensor in Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers predict that future developments in nanotechnology will bring incredible, almost inconceivable, change to the manufacturing industry. For now, though, one of technology's most trusted tools remains very relevant: In the field of thermometry, thermocouples are a tried and true technology. As a consequence, material on thermocouples…

  3. Heat penetration and thermocouple location in home canning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzel, Mark R; Willmore, Paola; Ingham, Barbara H

    2015-01-01

    We processed applesauce, tomato juice, and cranberries in pint jars in a boiling water canner to test thermal processing theories against home canning of high-acid foods. For each product, thermocouples were placed at various heights in the jar. Values for f h (heating), f cl (cooling), and F 82.2°C (lethality) were determined for each thermocouple location, and did not depend substantially on thermocouple location in accordance with heat transfer theory. There was a cold spot in the jar, but the cold spot during heating became the hot spot during cooling. During heating, the geometric center was the last to heat, and remained coldest the longest, but during coooling, it was also the last to cool, and remained hottest the longest. The net effect was that calculated lethality in home canning was not affected by thermocouple location. Most of the lethality during home canning occurred during air cooling, making cooling of home canned foods of great importance. Calculated lethality was far greater than the required 5-log reduction of spores in tomato juice and vegetative cells in cranberries, suggesting a wide margin of safety for approved home-canning processes for high-acid foods.

  4. Numerical Research of the Measurement Error of Temperature Thermocouples with the Isolated Seal

    OpenAIRE

    Atroshenko Yuliana K.; Bychkova Alena A.; Strizhak Pavel A.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical models of heattransfer are developed for an assessment of measurement errors of temperature by thermocouples with an isolated and uninsulated seal. Dependences of necessary time of heating (for authentic measurement) for the thermocouples with an isolated seal manufactured of different materials are set. It is shown that for thermocouples with isolated seal minimum necessary duration of heating up slightly exceeds this index for thermocouples with an uninsulated seal.

  5. In-pile and out-of-pile testing of a molybdenum-uranium dioxide cermet fueled themionic diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diianni, D. C.

    1972-01-01

    The behavior of Mo-UO2 cermet fuel in a diode for thermionic reactor application was studied. The diode had a Mo-0.5 Ti emitter and niobium collector. Output power ranged from 1.4 to 2.8 W/cm squared at emitter and collector temperatures of 1500 deg and 540 C. Thermionic performance was stable within the limits of the instrumentation sensitivity. Through 1000 hours of in-pile operation the emitter was dimensionally stable. However, some fission gases (15 percent) leaked through an inner clad imperfection that occurred during fuel fabrication.

  6. Development of In-pile Plug Assembly and Primary Shutter for Cold Neutron Guide System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jin Won; Cho, Yeong Garp; Ryu, Jeong Soo; Lee, Jung Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    The HANARO, a 30 MW multi-purpose research reactor in Korea, will be equipped with a neutron guide system, in order to transport cold neutrons from the neutron source to the neutron scattering instruments in the neutron guide hall near the reactor building. The neutron guide system of HANARO consists of the in-pile plug assembly with in-pile guides, the primary shutter with in-shutter guides, the neutron guides in the guide shielding room with dedicated secondary shutters, and the neutron guides connected to the instruments in the neutron guide hall. The functions of the in-pile plug assembly are to shield the reactor environment from a nuclear radiation and to support the neutron guides and maintain them precisely oriented. The primary shutter is a mechanical device to be installed just after the in-pile plug assembly, which stops neutron flux on demand. This report describes the mechanical design, fabrication, and installation procedure of the in-pile plug assembly and the primary shutter for the neutron guide system at HANARO. A special tool and procedure for a replacement of in-pile plug and guide cassette is also presented with the interface condition in the reactor hall.

  7. Tungsten-rhenium thin film thermocouples for SiC-based ceramic matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bian; Zhang, Zhongkai; Shi, Peng; Zheng, Chen; Yu, Qiuyue; Jing, Weixuan; Jiang, Zhuangde

    2017-01-01

    A tungsten-rhenium thin film thermocouple is designed and fabricated, depending on the principle of thermal-electric effect caused by the high temperature. The characteristics of thin film thermocouples in different temperatures are investigated via numerical analysis and analog simulation. The working mechanism and thermo-electric features of the thermocouples are analyzed depending on the simulation results. Then the thin film thermocouples are fabricated and calibrated. The calibration results show that the thin film thermocouples based on the tungsten-rhenium material achieve ideal static characteristics and work well in the practical applications.

  8. Material Problems in Using High-Temperature Thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edler, F.

    2011-08-01

    The material compatibility and thermal stability of ceramic-composite coatings of different oxide ceramics deposited on alumina tubes to prevent the reduction of the alumina were investigated in the high-temperature range between 1750 °C and 1850 °C. It turned out that the coatings were thermally unstable and did not provide adequate protection against the reduction of the alumina tubes. The oxide ceramics formed eutectic compositions with low melting temperatures and were also prone to reduction to elementary metals by carbon. A new type of high-temperature thermocouple on the basis of refractory and noble metals was tested in the temperature range between 1325 °C and 1800 °C. Two metal-sheathed prototypes were constructed. The thermoelectric behavior of the tungsten5%rhenium/iridium thermocouples (W5%Re/Ir) was investigated by different high-temperature exposures, and the thermoelectric stability was checked by repeated measurements at the ice point.

  9. Feasibility Study of Thin Film Thermocouple Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, thermopile detectors, generators, and refrigerators based on bulk materials have been used to measure temperature, generate power for spacecraft, and cool sensors for scientific investigations. New potential uses of small, low-power, thin film thermopiles are in the area of microelectromechanical systems since power requirements decrease as electrical and mechanical machines shrink in size. In this research activity, thin film thermopile devices are fabricated utilizing radio frequency sputter coating and photoresist lift-off techniques. Electrical characterizations are performed on two designs in order to investigate the feasibility of generating small amounts of power, utilizing any available waste heat as the energy source.

  10. Evaluation of Thermocouple Temperature Sensors in a Simulated Mars Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykulska-Lawrence, Hanna; Mansell, J.; Bowles, N.; Calcutt, S.; Temple, J.

    2010-10-01

    The Martian environment is meteorologically extremely dry, dusty, cold (with a large diurnal temperature change), is irradiated by UV and is probably highly chemically oxidising. Detailed measurements of the near-surface atmospheric temperature profile coupled with other meteorological data allow the dynamics of the Martian atmospheric boundary layer to be investigated. This is of particular importance given the atmosphere's tendency to turbulent mixing observed by previous experiments, on e.g. Mars Pathfinder within a few metres of the surface. We examine thermocouple sensors for the Mars environment by evaluating the sensor designed for the AEP instrument, a meteorology package previously selected for the ExoMars geophysics lander. The design of the sensor contains three thin wire thermocouples for redundancy in a configuration based on those flown on the Viking, Mar Pathfinder and Phoenix landers. Thin-wire thermocouples offer the best type of temperature sensor for in-situ atmospheric temperature measurements as they have a fast response time, are less sensitive to radiative heat coupling and do not have problems with self-heating. The sensor described in this presentation is accurate to < 0.25K. The work presented will describe the sensor itself and provide results of detailed calibration tests in an isothermal Mars environmental chamber (simulating the temperatures, pressure and atmospheric composition expected near the surface) testing the instruments accuracy, and response in relation to the thermal capacity of the wire. Further to this, numerical models used to investigate the difficulties in correctly measuring the temperature of the atmosphere will be described. These models consider effects such as radiative heating from direct sunlight or radiation reflected from the surface, shielding from flowing air. Having studied the behaviour of this sensor and different types of design of thermocouple weld, including re-examining the Viking sensors, if

  11. Evaluation of piecewise polynomial equations for two types of thermocouples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew; Chen, Chiachung

    2013-12-12

    Thermocouples are the most frequently used sensors for temperature measurement because of their wide applicability, long-term stability and high reliability. However, one of the major utilization problems is the linearization of the transfer relation between temperature and output voltage of thermocouples. The linear calibration equation and its modules could be improved by using regression analysis to help solve this problem. In this study, two types of thermocouple and five temperature ranges were selected to evaluate the fitting agreement of different-order polynomial equations. Two quantitative criteria, the average of the absolute error values |e|(ave) and the standard deviation of calibration equation e(std), were used to evaluate the accuracy and precision of these calibrations equations. The optimal order of polynomial equations differed with the temperature range. The accuracy and precision of the calibration equation could be improved significantly with an adequate higher degree polynomial equation. The technique could be applied with hardware modules to serve as an intelligent sensor for temperature measurement.

  12. Evaluation of Piecewise Polynomial Equations for Two Types of Thermocouples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermocouples are the most frequently used sensors for temperature measurement because of their wide applicability, long-term stability and high reliability. However, one of the major utilization problems is the linearization of the transfer relation between temperature and output voltage of thermocouples. The linear calibration equation and its modules could be improved by using regression analysis to help solve this problem. In this study, two types of thermocouple and five temperature ranges were selected to evaluate the fitting agreement of different-order polynomial equations. Two quantitative criteria, the average of the absolute error values |e|ave and the standard deviation of calibration equation estd, were used to evaluate the accuracy and precision of these calibrations equations. The optimal order of polynomial equations differed with the temperature range. The accuracy and precision of the calibration equation could be improved significantly with an adequate higher degree polynomial equation. The technique could be applied with hardware modules to serve as an intelligent sensor for temperature measurement.

  13. Method for bonding thin film thermocouples to ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, Kenneth G.

    1993-01-01

    A method is provided for adhering a thin film metal thermocouple to a ceramic substrate used in an environment up to 700 degrees Centigrade, such as at a cylinder of an internal combustion engine. The method includes the steps of: depositing a thin layer of a reactive metal on a clean ceramic substrate; and depositing thin layers of platinum and a platinum-10% rhodium alloy forming the respective legs of the thermocouple on the reactive metal layer. The reactive metal layer serves as a bond coat between the thin noble metal thermocouple layers and the ceramic substrate. The thin layers of noble metal are in the range of 1-4 micrometers thick. Preferably, the ceramic substrate is selected from the group consisting of alumina and partially stabilized zirconia. Preferably, the thin layer of reactive metal is in the range of 0.015-0.030 micrometers (15-30 nanometers) thick. The preferred reactive metal is chromium. Other reactive metals may be titanium or zirconium. The thin layer of reactive metal may be deposited by sputtering in ultra high purity argon in a vacuum of approximately 2 milliTorr (0.3 Pascals).

  14. Heat Flux estimation in WEST divertor with embedded thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, J.; Corre, Y.; Firdaouss, M.; Gardarein, J.-L.; Guilhem, D.; Houry, M.; Le Niliot, C.; Missirlian, M.; Pocheau, C.; Rigollet, F.

    2016-09-01

    The present paper deals with the surface heat flux estimation with embedded thermocouples (TC) in a Plasma Facing Component (PFC) of the WEST Tokamak. A 2D nonlinear unsteady calculation combined with the Conjugate Gradient Method (CGM) and the adjoint state is achieved in order to estimate the time evolution of the heat flux amplitude and decay length λq . The method is applied on different synthetic measurements in order to evaluate the accuracy of the method. The synthetic measurements are generated with realistic values of λq and magnitudes as those expected for ITER.

  15. Acoustic emission signal processing technique to characterize reactor in-pile phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek, E-mail: vivek.agarwal@inl.gov [Department of Human Factors, Controls, and Statistics, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Tawfik, Magdy S., E-mail: magdy.tawfik@inl.gov [Nuclear Science and Technology Directorate, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Smith, James A., E-mail: james.smith@inl.gov [Department of Fuel Performance and Design, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Existing and developing advanced sensor technologies and instrumentation will allow non-intrusive in-pile measurement of temperature, extension, and fission gases when coupled with advanced signal processing algorithms. The transmitted measured sensor signals from inside to the outside of containment structure are corrupted by noise and are attenuated, thereby reducing the signal strength and the signal-to-noise ratio. Identification and extraction of actual signal (representative of an in-pile phenomenon) is a challenging and complicated process. In the paper, empirical mode decomposition technique is utilized to reconstruct actual sensor signal by partially combining intrinsic mode functions. Reconstructed signal will correspond to phenomena and/or failure modes occurring inside the reactor. In addition, it allows accurate non-intrusive monitoring and trending of in-pile phenomena.

  16. Acoustic Emission Signal Processing Technique to Characterize Reactor In-Pile Phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivek Agarwal; Magdy Samy Tawfik; James A Smith

    2014-07-01

    Existing and developing advanced sensor technologies and instrumentation will allow non-intrusive in-pile measurement of temperature, extension, and fission gases when coupled with advanced signal processing algorithms. The transmitted measured sensor signals from inside to the outside of containment structure are corrupted by noise and are attenuated, thereby reducing the signal strength and signal-to-noise ratio. Identification and extraction of actual signal (representative of an in-pile phenomenon) is a challenging and complicated process. In this paper, empirical mode decomposition technique is proposed to reconstruct actual sensor signal by partially combining intrinsic mode functions. Reconstructed signal corresponds to phenomena and/or failure modes occurring inside the reactor. In addition, it allows accurate non-intrusive monitoring and trending of in-pile phenomena.

  17. Progress In Developing An In-Pile Acoustically Telemetered Sensor Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, James A.; Garrett, Steven L.; Heibel, Michael D.; Agarwal, Vivek; Heidrich, Brenden J.

    2016-09-01

    A salient grand challenge for a number of Department of Energy programs such as Fuels Cycle Research and Development ( includes Accident Tolerant Fuel research and the Transient Reactor Test Facility Restart experiments), Light Water Sustainability, and Advanced Reactor Technologies is to enhance our fundamental understanding of fuel and materials behavior under irradiation. Robust and accurate in-pile measurements will be instrumental to develop and validate a computationally predictive multi-scale understanding of nuclear fuel and materials. This sensing technology will enable the linking of fundamental micro-structural evolution mechanisms to the macroscopic degradation of fuels and materials. The in situ sensors and measurement systems will monitor local environmental parameters as well as characterize microstructure evolution during irradiation. One of the major road blocks in developing practical robust, and cost effective in-pile sensor systems, are instrument leads. If a wireless telemetry infrastructure can be developed for in-pile use, in-core measurements would become more attractive and effective. Thus to be successful in accomplishing effective in-pile sensing and microstructure characterization an interdisciplinary measurement infrastructure needs to be developed in parallel with key sensing technology. For the discussion in this research, infrastructure is defined as systems, technology, techniques, and algorithms that may be necessary in the delivery of beneficial and robust data from in-pile devices. The architecture of a system’s infrastructure determines how well it operates and how flexible it is to meet future requirements. The limiting path for the effective deployment of the salient sensing technology will not be the sensors themselves but the infrastructure that is necessary to communicate data from in-pile to the outside world in a non-intrusive and reliable manner. This article gives a high level overview of a promising telemetry

  18. External Attachment of Titanium Sheathed Thermocouples to Zirconium Nuclear Fuel Rods For The Loss-Of-Fluid-Test (LOFT) Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Richard K.

    1980-10-01

    The Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. acting as a Subcontractor to EG&G Idaho Inc.3 Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, has developed a welding process to attach titanium sheathed thermocouples to the outside of the zircaloy clad fuel rods. The fuel rods and thermocouples are used to test simulated loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) conditions in a pressurized water reactor (LOFT Reactor, Idaho National Laboratory). The design goals were to (1) reliably attach thermocouples to the zircaloy fuel rods, (2) achieve or exceed a life expectancy of 6,000 hours of reactor operation in a borated water environment of 316°C at 2260 psi, (3) provide and sustain repeatable physical and metallurgical properties in the instrumented rods subjected to transient temperatures up to 1538°C with blowdown, shock, loading, and fast quench. A laser beam was selected as the optimum welding process because of the extremely high energy input per unit volume that can be achieved allowing local fusion of a small area irrespective of the difference in material thickness to be joined. A commercial pulsed laser and energy control system was installed along with specialized welding fixtures. Laser room facility requirements and tolerances were established. Performance qualifications and detailed welding procedures were also developed. Product performance tests were conducted to assure that engineering design requirements could be met on a production basis. Irradiation tests showed no degradation of thermocouples or weld structure. Fast thermal cycle and heater rod blowdown reflood tests were made to subject the weldments to high temperatures, high pressure steam, and fast water quench cycles. From the behavior of these tests, it was concluded that the attachment welds would survive a series of reactor safety tests.

  19. An adjustable in-pile fan collimator for focusing at a neutron diffractometer

    CERN Document Server

    Stüsser, N

    2002-01-01

    An adjustable in-pile fan collimator was built and tested in a neutron diffraction set-up with a large horizontally curved monochromator for focusing in real and reciprocal space. For small samples, enhancements of intensity up to a factor of five without losing 2 theta-resolution are possible in comparison to a conventional diffractometer equipped with Soller-type collimators. Our geometry will be discussed and compared to both the conventional diffractometer and a focusing arrangement using an in-pile diaphragm.

  20. Heat flux measurements on ceramics with thin film thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, Raymond; Anderson, Robert C.; Liebert, Curt H.

    1993-01-01

    Two methods were devised to measure heat flux through a thick ceramic using thin film thermocouples. The thermocouples were deposited on the front and back face of a flat ceramic substrate. The heat flux was applied to the front surface of the ceramic using an arc lamp Heat Flux Calibration Facility. Silicon nitride and mullite ceramics were used; two thicknesses of each material was tested, with ceramic temperatures to 1500 C. Heat flux ranged from 0.05-2.5 MW/m2(sup 2). One method for heat flux determination used an approximation technique to calculate instantaneous values of heat flux vs time; the other method used an extrapolation technique to determine the steady state heat flux from a record of transient data. Neither method measures heat flux in real time but the techniques may easily be adapted for quasi-real time measurement. In cases where a significant portion of the transient heat flux data is available, the calculated transient heat flux is seen to approach the extrapolated steady state heat flux value as expected.

  1. Viability of Pushrod Dilatometry Techniques for High Temperature In-Pile Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. E. Daw; J. L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson; K. G. Condie; J. C. Crepeau

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate the performance of new fuel, cladding, and structural materials for use in advanced and existing nuclear reactors, robust instrumentation is needed. Changes in material deformation are typically evaluated out-of-pile, where properties of materials are measured after samples were irradiated for a specified length of time. To address this problem, a series of tests were performed to examine the viability of using pushrod dilatometer techniques for in-pile instrumentation to measure deformation. The tests were performed in three phases. First, familiarity was gained in the use and accuracy of this system by testing samples with well defined thermal elongation characteristics. Second, high temperature data for steels, specifically SA533 Grade B, Class 1 (SA533B1) Low Alloy Steel and Stainless Steel 304 (SS304), found in Light Water Reactor (LWR) vessels, were aquired. Finally, data were obtained from a short pushrod in a horizontal geometry to data obtained from a longer pushrod in a vertical geometry, the configuration likely to be used for in-situ measurements. Results of testing show that previously accepted data for the structural steels tested, SA533B1 and SS304, are inaccurate at high temperatures (above 500 oC) due to extrpolation of high temperature data. This is especially true for SA533B1, as previous data do not account for the phase transformation of the material between 730 oC and 830 oC. Also, comparison of results for horizontal and vertical configurations show a maximum percent difference of 2.02% for high temperature data.

  2. 热电偶测温系统设计%Design of thermocouple system for temperature measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦芳

    2013-01-01

    用热电偶测量温度是航空温度测量中应用最广泛的一种方式,常用来测量高温气流及高速气流.提出了一种可以应用于管道内流体测量的热电偶测温系统的设计方法:以热电偶作为感温元件,配合变换器实现准确可靠的温度测量,输出的电压信号与对应温度成线性关系.通过设计实例及试验,验证了系统的精度性能,实现了预期的设计目标.%Thermocouple is widely used in aviation field for temperature measurement,often used to measure air flow of high temperature or high speed.Proposed a thermocouple system for piping fluid:thermocouple as temperature sensing element,with the transducer to achieve accurate and reliable measurement result,the output voltage signal is linear with the corresponding temperature.By design examples and test results,to verify the accuracy of the system performance,to achieve the expected goals of design.

  3. ACTIV: Sandwich Detector Activity from In-Pile Slowing-Down Spectra Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-08-01

    ACTIV calculates the activities of a sandwich detector, to be used for in-pile measurements in slowing-down spectra below a few keV. The effect of scattering with energy degradation in the filter and in the detectors has been included to a first approximation.

  4. Localization of focused-ultrasound beams in a tissue phantom, using remote thermocouple arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Prasanna; Dibaji, Seyed Ahmad Reza; Banerjee, Rupak K; Nagaraja, Srinidhi; Myers, Matthew R

    2014-12-01

    In focused-ultrasound procedures such as vessel cauterization or clot lysis, targeting accuracy is critical. To investigate the targeting accuracy of the focused-ultrasound systems, tissue phantoms embedded with thermocouples can be employed. This paper describes a method that utilizes an array of thermocouples to localize the focused ultrasound beam. All of the thermocouples are located away from the beam, so that thermocouple artifacts and sensor interference are minimized. Beam propagation and temperature rise in the phantom are simulated numerically, and an optimization routine calculates the beam location that produces the best agreement between the numerical temperature values and those measured with thermocouples. The accuracy of the method was examined as a function of the array characteristics, including the number of thermocouples in the array and their orientation. For exposures with a 3.3-MHz source, the remote-thermocouple technique was able to predict the focal position to within 0.06 mm. Once the focal location is determined using the localization method, temperatures at desired locations (including the focus) can be estimated from remote thermocouple measurements by curve fitting an analytical solution to the heat equation. Temperature increases in the focal plane were predicted to within 5% agreement with measured values using this method.

  5. New Technology for Remote Testing of Response Time of Installed Thermocouples. Volume 2 - Research Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    specific need for a thermocouple with known rapid response time. Glawe and Holanda ~ have reported an extensive study to determine thermocouple time...Continuous Flow Crvo.qenic Tunnel," NASA Technical Memorandum 81825, May 1980. Glawe, G. E., Holanda , R., Krause, L. N., "Recovery and Radiation Corrections

  6. Theoretical and Experimental Research of Error of Method of Thermocouple with Controlled Profile of Temperature Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Su; Kochan, O.; Chunzhi, Wang; Kochan, R.

    2015-12-01

    The method of study and experimental researches of the error of method of the thermocouple with controlled profile of temperature field along the main thermocouple are considered in this paper. Experimentally determined values of error of method are compared to the theoretical estimations done using Newton's law of cooling. They converge well.

  7. Theoretical and Experimental Research of Error of Method of Thermocouple with Controlled Profile of Temperature Field

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Su; Kochan O.; Chunzhi Wang; Kochan R.

    2015-01-01

    The method of study and experimental researches of the error of method of the thermocouple with controlled profile of temperature field along the main thermocouple are considered in this paper. Experimentally determined values of error of method are compared to the theoretical estimations done using Newton’s law of cooling. They converge well.

  8. 77 FR 30435 - In-core Thermocouples at Different Elevations and Radial Positions in Reactor Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 50 In-core Thermocouples at Different Elevations and Radial Positions in Reactor Core... ``require all holders of operating licenses for nuclear power plants (``NPP'') to operate NPPs with in-core thermocouples at different elevations and radial positions throughout the reactor core.'' DATES: Submit...

  9. High-Temperature, Thin-Film Ceramic Thermocouples Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayir, Ali; Blaha, Charles A.; Gonzalez, Jose M.

    2005-01-01

    To enable long-duration, more distant human and robotic missions for the Vision for Space Exploration, as well as safer, lighter, quieter, and more fuel efficient vehicles for aeronautics and space transportation, NASA is developing instrumentation and material technologies. The high-temperature capabilities of thin-film ceramic thermocouples are being explored at the NASA Glenn Research Center by the Sensors and Electronics Branch and the Ceramics Branch in partnership with Case Western Reserve University (CWRU). Glenn s Sensors and Electronics Branch is developing thin-film sensors for surface measurement of strain, temperature, heat flux, and surface flow in propulsion system research. Glenn s Ceramics Branch, in conjunction with CWRU, is developing structural and functional ceramic technology for aeropropulsion and space propulsion.

  10. Tile Surface Thermocouple Measurement Challenges from the Orbiter Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Charles H.; Berger, Karen; Anderson, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Hypersonic entry flight testing motivated by efforts seeking to characterize boundary layer transition on the Space Shuttle Orbiters have identified challenges in our ability to acquire high quality quantitative surface temperature measurements versus time. Five missions near the end of the Space Shuttle Program implemented a tile surface protuberance as a boundary layer trip together with tile surface thermocouples to capture temperature measurements during entry. Similar engineering implementations of these measurements on Discovery and Endeavor demonstrated unexpected measurement voltage response during the high heating portion of the entry trajectory. An assessment has been performed to characterize possible causes of the issues experienced during STS-119, STS-128, STS-131, STS-133 and STS-134 as well as similar issues encountered during other orbiter entries.

  11. Simple method for measuring vibration amplitude of high power airborne ultrasonic transducer: using thermo-couple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffar, Saber; Abdullah, Amir

    2014-03-01

    Vibration amplitude of transducer's elements is the influential parameters in the performance of high power airborne ultrasonic transducers to control the optimum vibration without material yielding. The vibration amplitude of elements of provided high power airborne transducer was determined by measuring temperature of the provided high power airborne transducer transducer's elements. The results showed that simple thermocouples can be used both to measure the vibration amplitude of transducer's element and an indicator to power transmission to the air. To verify our approach, the power transmission to the air has been investigated by other common method experimentally. The experimental results displayed good agreement with presented approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Lifetime improvement of sheathed thermocouples for use in high-temperature and thermal operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, R. W.; Clift, J. H.

    Premature failure of small-diameter, magnesium-oxide-insulated sheathed thermocouples occurred when they were placed within nuclear fuel rod simulators to measure high temperatures and to follow severe thermal transients encountered during simulation of nuclear accidents in Oak Ridge National Laboratory thermal-hydraulic test facilities. Investigation of thermally cycled thermocouples yielded three criteria for improvement of thermocouple lifetime: (1) reduction of oxygen impurities prior to and during their fabrication; (2) refinement of thermoelement grain size during their fabrication; and (3) elimination of prestrain prior to use above their recrystallization temperature. The first and third criteria were satisfied by improved techniques of thermocouple assembly and by a recovery anneal prior to thermocouple use.

  13. The transient response for different types of erodable surface thermocouples using finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hussein

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient response of erodable surface thermocouples has been numerically assessed by using a two dimensional finite element analysis. Four types of base metal erodable surface thermocouples have been examined in this study, included type-K (alumel-chromel, type-E (chromel-constantan, type-T (copper-constantan, and type-J (iron-constantan with 50 mm thick- ness for each. The practical importance of these types of thermocouples is to be used in internal combustion engine studies and aerodynamics experiments. The step heat flux was applied at the surface of the thermocouple model. The heat flux from the measurements of the surface temperature can be commonly identified by assuming that the heat transfer within these devices is one-dimensional. The surface temperature histories at different positions along the thermocouple are presented. The normalized surface temperature histories at the center of the thermocouple for different types at different response time are also depicted. The thermocouple response to different heat flux variations were considered by using a square heat flux with 2 ms width, a sinusoidal surface heat flux variation width 10 ms period and repeated heat flux variation with 2 ms width. The present results demonstrate that the two dimensional transient heat conduction effects have a significant influence on the surface temperature history measurements made with these devices. It was observed that the surface temperature history and the transient response for thermocouple type-E are higher than that for other types due to the thermal properties of this thermocouple. It was concluded that the thermal properties of the surrounding material do have an impact, but the properties of the thermocouple and the insulation materials also make an important contribution to the net response.

  14. Study of Thermocurrents in ILC cavities via measurements of the Seebeck Effect in niobium, titanium, and stainless steel thermocouples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooley, Victoria [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The goals of Fermilab’s Superconductivity and Radio Frequency Development Department are to engineer, fabricate, and improve superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavities in the interest of advancing accelerator technology. Improvement includes exploring possible limitations on cavity performance and mitigating such impediments. This report focuses on investigating and measuring the Seebeck Effect observed in cavity constituents titanium, niobium, and stainless steel arranged in thermocouples. These junctions exist between cavities, helium jackets, and bellows, and their connection can produce a loop of electrical current and magnetic flux spontaneously during cooling. The experimental procedure and results are described and analyzed. Implications relating the results to cavity performance are discussed.

  15. Temperature artifacts produced by thermocouples used in conjunction with 1 and 3 MHz ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, F M; Leeper, J B

    1990-01-01

    The relative temperature artifacts produced by a selection of commercially available thermocouples and catheters were evaluated in radiation bolus and beef phantoms heated by 1 and 3 MHz continuous ultrasound. The thermocouples included a 23 gauge needle microprobe inserted directly into the phantoms, polyurethane-sheathed, Teflon-sheathed, and exposed-tip thermocouples, each inserted into a 19 gauge polyurethane closed-end catheter, a multisensor Teflon-sheathed probe inserted into a 16 gauge polyurethane catheter and a Teflon-sheathed single-sensor probe without a catheter. The needle microprobe and the polyurethane-sheathed thermocouple produce equivalent artifacts. The artifacts produced by the Teflon and exposed-tip thermocouples are 1.4 +/- 0.3 times greater, that produced by the multisensor Teflon-sheathed probe is 2.1 +/- 0.3 times greater, and that produced by the Teflon-sheathed thermocouple without a catheter is 2.3 +/- 0.4 times greater. The results in the beef phantom indicate that the needle microprobe and polyurethane-sheathed thermocouple both produce artifacts of 0.7 +/- 0.1 degree in tissue at an SAR of 100 W/kg.

  16. Input Correlations for Irradiation Creep of FeCrAl and SiC Based on In-Pile Halden Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrani, K. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Karlsen, T. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Swelling and creep behavior of wrought FeCrAl alloys and CVD-SiC, two candidate accident tolerant fuel cladding materials, are being examined using in-pile tests at the Halden reactor. The outcome of these tests are material property correlations that are inputs into fuel performance analysis tools. The results are discussed and compared with what is available in literature from irradiation experiments in other reactors or out-of-pile tests. Specific recommendation on what correlations should be used for swelling, thermal, and irradiation creep for each material are provided in this document.

  17. Studies of Behavior Melting Temperature Characteristics for Multi Thermocouple In-Core Instrument Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Donghyup; Chae, Myoungeun; Kim, Sungjin; Lee, Kyulim [Woojin inc, Hwasung (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Bottom-up type in-core instruments (ICIs) are used for the pressurized water reactors of OPR-1000, APR- 1400 in order to measure neutron flux and temperature in the reactor. It is a well-known technique and a proven design using years in the nuclear field. ICI consists of one pair of K-type thermocouple, five self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) and one back ground detector. K-type thermocouple's purpose is to measure the core exit temperature (CET) in the reactor. The CET is a very important factor for operating nuclear power plants and it is 327 .deg. C when generally operating the reactor in the nuclear power plant(NPP) in case of OPR- 1000. If the CET will exceed 650 .deg. C, Operators in the main control room should be considered to be an accident situation in accordance with a severe accident management guidance(SAMG). The Multi Thermocouple ICI is a new designed ICI assuming severe accident conditions. It consists of four more thermocouples than the existing design, so it has five Ktype thermocouples besides the thermocouple measuring CET is located in the same elevation as the ICI. Each thermocouple is able to be located in the desired location as required. The Multi Thermocouple ICI helps to measure the temperature distribution of the entire reactor. In addition, it will measure certain point of melted core because of the in-vessel debris of nuclear fuel when an accident occurs more seriously. In this paper, to simulate a circumstance such as a nuclear reactor severe accident was examined. In this study, the K-type thermocouples of Multi Thermocouple ICI was confirmed experimentally to be able to measure up to 1370 .deg. C before the thermocouples have been melted. And after the thermocouples were melted by debris, it was able to be monitored that the signal of EMF directed the infinite value of voltage. Therefore through the results of the test, it can be assumed that if any EMF data among the Multi Thermocouple ICI will direct the infinite value

  18. Calibration of thermocouple psychrometers and moisture measurements in porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guz, Łukasz; Sobczuk, Henryk; Połednik, Bernard; Guz, Ewa

    2016-07-01

    The paper presents in situ method of peltier psychrometric sensors calibration which allow to determine water potential. Water potential can be easily recalculated into moisture content of the porous material. In order to obtain correct results of water potential, each probe should be calibrated. NaCl salt solutions with molar concentration of 0.4M, 0.7M, 1.0M and 1.4M, were used for calibration which enabled to obtain osmotic potential in range: -1791 kPa to -6487 kPa. Traditionally, the value of voltage generated on thermocouples during wet-bulb temperature depression is calculated in order to determine the calibration function for psychrometric in situ sensors. In the new method of calibration, the field under psychrometric curve along with peltier cooling current and duration was taken into consideration. During calibration, different cooling currents were applied for each salt solution, i.e. 3, 5, 8 mA respectively, as well as different cooling duration for each current (from 2 to 100 sec with 2 sec step). Afterwards, the shape of each psychrometric curve was thoroughly examined and a value of field under psychrometric curve was computed. Results of experiment indicate that there is a robust correlation between field under psychrometric curve and water potential. Calibrations formulas were designated on the basis of these features.

  19. New In-pile Instrumentation to Support Fuel Cycle Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Rempe; H. MacLean; R. Schley; D. Hurley; J. Daw; S. Taylor; J. Smith; J. Svoboda; D. Kotter; D. Knudson; M. Guers; S. C. Wilkins

    2011-01-01

    New and enhanced nuclear fuels are a key enabler for new and improved reactor technologies. For example, the goals of the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) will not be met without irradiations successfully demonstrating the safety and reliability of new fuels. Likewise, fuel reliability has become paramount in ensuring the competitiveness of nuclear power plants. Recently, the Office of Nuclear Energy in the Department of Energy (DOE-NE) launched a new direction in fuel research and development that emphasizes an approach relying on first principle models to develop optimized fuel designs that offer significant improvements over current fuels. To facilitate this approach, high fidelity, real-time, data are essential for characterizing the performance of new fuels during irradiation testing. A three-year strategic research program is proposed for developing the required test vehicles with sensors of unprecedented accuracy and resolution for obtaining the data needed to characterize three-dimensional changes in fuel microstructure during irradiation testing. When implemented, this strategy will yield test capsule designs that are instrumented with new sensor technologies for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and other irradiation locations for the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FC R&D) program. Prior laboratory testing, and as needed, irradiation testing, of these sensors will have been completed to give sufficient confidence that the irradiation tests will yield the required data. Obtaining these sensors must draw upon the expertise of a wide-range of organizations not currently supporting nuclear fuels research. This document defines this strategic program and provides the necessary background information related to fuel irradiation testing, desired parameters for detection, and an overview of currently available in-pile instrumentation. In addition, candidate sensor technologies are identified in this document, and a list of proposed criteria for ranking

  20. Safety analyses for a SCWR in-pile fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raque, M., E-mail: raque@iket.fzk.de [EnBW Kernkraft GmbH (Germany); Vasari, I., E-mail: ivan.vasari@tuev-sued.de [TUV Sud Energietechnik GmbH (Germany); Schulenberg, T., E-mail: schulenberg@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Inst. of Tech. (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    A Supercritical-Water Cooled Reactor (SCWR) test fuel element is intended to be inserted into a research reactor. The test section will be operated at temperatures and pressures above the thermodynamic critical point of water. It contains four fuel rods with a total heating power of 53 kW and it is connected with a 300 °C closed coolant loop, which is equipped with two active safety systems and a depressurization system to cool the fuel rods in case of an accident. The paper explains the physical models for numerical simulations of the safety system. Some accident sequences are analyzed exemplarily to illustrate the system performance. (author)

  1. Development of a Novel Split Type Energy Saving Thermocouple%一种分体式节能热电偶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁锡端; 丁刚; 袁振东

    2012-01-01

    Based on the problem of abrasion, corrosion and brittleness rupture of flange at the wield bottom part occurred for thermocouple protection jacket in petrochemical field at home and abroad, a fissional thermocouple is developed. The developed disassembly thermocouple, which adopts the novel alloy material, the integration forging modeling and deep blind drill technology, can replace the traditional wielding technique. It solves the protection jacket and flange material problem rationally. It not only sharply increases the thermocouple jacket abrasion and corrosion resistance performance, but also save the flange material efficiently, and is a novel energy saving thermocouple.%针对国内外石油化工领域存在的热电偶保护套管的磨损、腐蚀和法兰根部焊接区域脆性断裂等问题,采用自主研发的新型合金材料、整体锻压成型及深盲钻孔技术研制了一种分体式可拆卸热电偶,替代了传统的焊接工艺,合理解决了保护套管与法兰材质的问题。不仅提高了热电偶保护套管的耐磨损和耐腐蚀性能,而且有效节省了法兰材料,是一种新型的节能热电偶。

  2. Resolution of Identity Crisis of Events in Pile-up

    CERN Document Server

    Deshpande, Avinash A

    2012-01-01

    Mutually uncorrelated random discrete events, manifesting a common basic process, are examined often in terms of their occurrence rate as a function of one or more of their distinguishing attributes, such as measurements of photon spectrum as a function of energy. Such rate distributions obtained from the observed attribute values for an ensemble of events will correspond to the "true" distribution only if the event occurrence were {\\it mutually exclusive}. However, due to finite resolution in such measurements, the problem of event {\\it pile-up} is not only unavoidable, but also increases with event rate. Although extensive simulations to estimate the distortion due to pile-up in the observed rate distribution are available, no restoration procedure has yet been suggested. Here we present an elegant analytical solution to recover the underlying {\\it true} distribution. Our method, based on Poisson statistics and Fourier transforms, is shown to perform as desired even when applied to distributions that are si...

  3. Comparisons of Co-C and Pd-C Eutectic-Point Cells for Thermocouple Calibration Between NMIA and NMIJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, H.; Jahan, F.; Yamazawa, K.

    2017-02-01

    Comparisons between NMIA and NMIJ on the melting temperatures of the Co-C eutectic point and the Pd-C eutectic point were performed using an NMIJ high-temperature furnace. The eutectic-point cells were constructed by NMIA and NMIJ following two different specifications. NMIA designed two miniature crucibles, one for Co-C and one for Pd-C eutectic-point cells. NMIJ designed larger eutectic-point cells, one for Co-C and one for Pd-C eutectic-point cells. Prior to performing the comparisons, the effect of conductive heat flow through the thermocouple stem was evaluated during the melting. The comparisons of the Co-C eutectic-point cells and of the Pd-C eutectic-point cells were performed using types R, B and Pt/Pd thermocouples. Despite the different cell designs and different material sources, the melting temperatures of the Co-C and Pd-C eutectic-point cells under investigation agreed within 0.1°C.

  4. Attachment of Free Filament Thermocouples for Temperature Measurements on CMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jih-Fen; Cuy, Michael D.; Wnuk, Stephen P.

    1997-01-01

    Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) are being developed for use as enabling materials for advanced aeropropulsion engine and high speed civil transport applications. The characterization and testing of these advanced materials in hostile, high-temperature environments require accurate measurement of the material temperatures. Commonly used wire Thermo-Couples (TC) can not be attached to this ceramic based material via conventional spot-welding techniques. Attachment of wire TC's with commercially available ceramic cements fail to provide sufficient adhesion at high temperatures. While advanced thin film TC technology provides minimally intrusive surface temperature measurement and has good adhesion on the CMC, its fabrication requires sophisticated and expensive facilities and is very time consuming. In addition, the durability of lead wire attachments to both thin film TC's and the substrate materials requires further improvement. This paper presents a newly developed attachment technique for installation of free filament wire TC's with a unique convoluted design on ceramic based materials such as CMC's. Three CMC's (SiC/SiC CMC and alumina/alumina CMC) instrumented with type IC, R or S wire TC's were tested in a Mach 0.3 burner rig. The CMC temperatures measured from these wire TC's were compared to that from the facility pyrometer and thin film TC's. There was no sign of TC delamination even after several hours exposure to 1200 C. The test results proved that this new technique can successfully attach wire TC's on CMC's and provide temperature data in hostile environments. The sensor fabrication process is less expensive and requires very little time compared to that of the thin film TC's. The same installation technique/process can also be applied to attach lead wires for thin film sensor systems.

  5. Thermocouples in an alternating magnetic field (AMF) for studying magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, S.; Boekelheide, Z.

    Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia, a method of cancer therapy, is currently a subject of active research. A critical parameter during therapy or laboratory research is the temperature of the system (tissue or nanoparticle suspension). Thermocouples are affordable and ubiquitous temperature sensors which could be used in this capacity; however, their metallic nature results in self-heating due to eddy currents when placed in an AMF. This presentation will quantitatively discuss calculations and measurements of the self-heating of three common types of thermocouples. Type T, K, and E thermocouples of both thin (40 gauge) and thick (20 gauge) wires were tested in a range of applied magnetic field magnitudes (235 kHz, 0-0.4 T rms). Among the thermocouples, all three types demonstrated large self-heating in 20 gauge wires. For the 40 gauge wires, type K showed large self-heating, while type T showed small but significant self-heating and type E showed no significant self-heating in comparison to the background. Our results indicate that thin type E thermocouples can be accurately used as temperature sensors in an AMF environment similar to the one used here, and type T thermocouples may be appropriate under conditions with lower magnetic field strength or frequency.

  6. Effect of the Thermocouple on Measuring the Temperature Discontinuity at a Liquid-Vapor Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Mohammad Amin; Nobes, David S; Elliott, Janet A W

    2017-07-18

    The coupled heat and mass transfer that occurs in evaporation is of interest in a large number of fields such as evaporative cooling, distillation, drying, coating, printing, crystallization, welding, atmospheric processes, and pool fires. The temperature jump that occurs at an evaporating interface is of central importance to understanding this complex process. Over the past three decades, thermocouples have been widely used to measure the interfacial temperature jumps at a liquid-vapor interface during evaporation. However, the reliability of these measurements has not been investigated so far. In this study, a numerical simulation of a thermocouple when it measures the interfacial temperatures at a liquid-vapor interface is conducted to understand the possible effects of the thermocouple on the measured temperature and features in the temperature profile. The differential equations of heat transfer in the solid and fluids as well as the momentum transfer in the fluids are coupled together and solved numerically subject to appropriate boundary conditions between the solid and fluids. The results of the numerical simulation showed that while thermocouples can measure the interfacial temperatures in the liquid correctly, they fail to read the actual interfacial temperatures in the vapor. As the results of our numerical study suggest, the temperature jumps at a liquid-vapor interface measured experimentally by using a thermocouple are larger than what really exists at the interface. For a typical experimental study of evaporation of water at low pressure, it was found that the temperature jumps measured by a thermocouple are overestimated by almost 50%. However, the revised temperature jumps are still in agreement with the statistical rate theory of interfacial transport. As well as addressing the specific application of the liquid-vapor temperature jump, this paper provides significant insight into the role that heat transfer plays in the operation of thermocouples

  7. Safety analysis report for packaging: the ORNL in-pile capsule shipping cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.H.; Chipley, K.K.; Haynie, C.B.; Crowley, W.K.; Just, R.A.

    1977-11-01

    The ORNL in-pile capsule shipping cask is used to transport irradiated experimental capsules and spent fuel elements. The cask was analytically evaluated to determine its compliance with the applicable regulations governing containers in which radioactive materials are transported. Computational procedures were used to determine the structural integrity and thermal behavior of the cask relative to the general standards for normal conditions of transport and the standards for the hypothetical accident conditions. The results of the evaluation show that the cask is in compliance with the applicable regulations.

  8. Science and Technology of Reactor——Brief Introduction to the Research Program of In-pile Irradiation Test for Advanced Process UO2 Pellets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGPei-sheng; WANGHua-rong

    2003-01-01

    In order to develop advanced PWR fuel assembly it is of great importance to carry out in-pile irradiation test UO2 PWR pellets manufactured with advanced process.A research program of the in-pile irradiation test has been planned.The main contents of the program are;1)to develop in-pile testing facility cooled directly by primary coolant in research reactor;2)to design thin fuel element.

  9. 基于脉冲宽度调制电流控制的热电偶碰焊机设计%A Design of Thermocouple Welding Machine Based on PWM Current Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜华; 司念朋; 刘建瓴; 李炳峰

    2013-01-01

    介绍了检测实验室对热电偶焊接的要求,并根据CTL程序文件CTL-OP 108、109设计了一种基于脉冲宽度调制电流控制的热电偶焊接机。本设计成本低廉、实用方便、标准符合性高,为检测类实验室提供了一种较好的热电偶焊接手段。%The thermocouple welding requirements for testing laboratory were introduced. A thermocouple welding machine based on PWM current control was designed by CTL proceeding documents of CTL-OP 108 and CTL-OP 109. The design was low-cost, practical, convenient, and high-performance in standard conformance. It provides a new way in thermocouple welding for testing laboratory.

  10. Comparison of two surface temperature measurement using thermocouples and infrared camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares two methods applied to measure surface temperatures at an experimental setup designed to analyse flow boiling heat transfer. The temperature measurements were performed in two parallel rectangular minichannels, both 1.7 mm deep, 16 mm wide and 180 mm long. The heating element for the fluid flowing in each minichannel was a thin foil made of Haynes-230. The two measurement methods employed to determine the surface temperature of the foil were: the contact method, which involved mounting thermocouples at several points in one minichannel, and the contactless method to study the other minichannel, where the results were provided with an infrared camera. Calculations were necessary to compare the temperature results. Two sets of measurement data obtained for different values of the heat flux were analysed using the basic statistical methods, the method error and the method accuracy. The experimental error and the method accuracy were taken into account. The comparative analysis showed that although the values and distributions of the surface temperatures obtained with the two methods were similar but both methods had certain limitations.

  11. Measurement of Thermocouple Time Constant%热电偶时间常数的测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅元; 董宇哲; 李德健; 董健

    2012-01-01

    为准确测量出热电偶的时间常数,根据热电偶对阶跃温度的响应,用单指数曲线描述过渡过程的数学模型,对记录的过渡过程曲线进行拟合,拟合后单指数曲线的时间常数就是被测热电偶的时间常数。对多种热电偶和同一热电偶的反复测试表明这种方法准确,相对于其它方法适应性更强。%In order to accurately measure the time constant of the thermocouple, according to the temperature of the thermocouple to a step response, single exponential curve with a mathematical model of the transition process described, record of the transition pro- cess of fitting curves, after fitting a single exponential curve is the measured time constant time constant thermocouples. A variety of thermocouples and thermocouple repeated the same test shows that this method is accurate, compared to other methods more adaptive.

  12. Establishment of the Co-C Eutectic Fixed-Point Cell for Thermocouple Calibrations at NIMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongrai, O.; Elliott, C. J.

    2017-08-01

    In 2015, NIMT first established a Co-C eutectic temperature reference (fixed-point) cell measurement capability for thermocouple calibration to support the requirements of Thailand's heavy industries and secondary laboratories. The Co-C eutectic fixed-point cell is a facility transferred from NPL, where the design was developed through European and UK national measurement system projects. In this paper, we describe the establishment of a Co-C eutectic fixed-point cell for thermocouple calibration at NIMT. This paper demonstrates achievement of the required furnace uniformity, the Co-C plateau realization and the comparison data between NIMT and NPL Co-C cells by using the same standard Pt/Pd thermocouple, demonstrating traceability. The NIMT measurement capability for noble metal type thermocouples at the new Co-C eutectic fixed point (1324.06°C) is estimated to be within ± 0.60 K (k=2). This meets the needs of Thailand's high-temperature thermocouple users—for which previously there has been no traceable calibration facility.

  13. Thermocouple Errors when Mounted on Cylindrical Surfaces in Abnormal Thermal Environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakos, James T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Suo-Anttila, Jill M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zepper, Ethan T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koenig, Jerry J [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Valdez, Vincent A. [ECI Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Mineral-insulated, metal-sheathed, Type-K thermocouples are used to measure the temperature of various items in high-temperature environments, often exceeding 1000degC (1273 K). The thermocouple wires (chromel and alumel) are protected from the harsh environments by an Inconel sheath and magnesium oxide (MgO) insulation. The sheath and insulation are required for reliable measurements. Due to the sheath and MgO insulation, the temperature registered by the thermocouple is not the temperature of the surface of interest. In some cases, the error incurred is large enough to be of concern because these data are used for model validation, and thus the uncertainties of the data need to be well documented. This report documents the error using 0.062" and 0.040" diameter Inconel sheathed, Type-K thermocouples mounted on cylindrical surfaces (inside of a shroud, outside and inside of a mock test unit). After an initial transient, the thermocouple bias errors typically range only about +-1-2% of the reading in K. After all of the uncertainty sources have been included, the total uncertainty to 95% confidence, for shroud or test unit TCs in abnormal thermal environments, is about +-2% of the reading in K, lower than the +-3% typically used for flat shrouds. Recommendations are provided in Section 6 to facilitate interpretation and use of the results. .

  14. Measurement of Inhomogeneities in MIMS Thermocouples Using a Linear-Gradient Furnace and Dual Heat-Pipe Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, E. S.; White, D. R.; Edgar, H.

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes a linear-gradient furnace and a thermocouple homogeneity scanner that, together, measure changes in the Seebeck coefficient as a function of time and temperature. The furnace first exposes the test thermocouple to all temperatures in the range spanned by the furnace gradient. The homogeneity scanner then measures the Seebeck coefficient along the length of the thermocouple. By correlating the position on the thermocouple with the temperature in the furnace, changes in the Seebeck coefficient can be correlated with the temperature to which that part of the thermocouple was exposed. Repeat exposures for different durations allow the rapid accumulation of data describing drift versus temperature and time. The known profile of the furnace combined with the high resolution of the dual heat-pipe scanner enable the detection of Seebeck coefficient changes of less than 0.02 % over sub-millimeter distances. The high resolution of the scanner also minimizes the underestimation of short-range changes in the Seebeck coefficient. With the addition of other treatment processes, such as annealing, quenching, and cold work, the system can assess the full variety of reversible and irreversible effects in thermocouples. Preliminary experiments on base-metal thermocouples confirm much of the known long-term behavior. However, the system has also exposed the rapid onset of some of these effects at low temperatures, the large amount and variability of cold work in new thermocouples, and large variations between different thermocouples of the same type.

  15. Direct measurements of electrocaloric effect in ferroelectrics using thin-film thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Yuji; Nochida, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Fujimura, Norifumi

    2016-10-01

    A direct measurement method for investigating the electrocaloric (EC) effect was developed using a thin-film thermocouple deposited on samples. A T-type thin-film thermocouple was fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Two types of measurement were carried out using rectangular pulses and sine waves with a DC offset. The EC coefficients (ΔT/ΔE) of BaTiO3 ceramics were determined as 0.35 × 10-6 and 0.48 × 10-6 K·m/V in the measurements at Curie temperature. The EC temperature change of a (Ba0.9,Ca0.1)TiO3 thin film was measured using sine waves with the DC offset. The EC coefficient was 0.0018 × 10-6 K·m/V at room temperature. These results suggest that thin-film thermocouples are useful for the direct measurement of the EC effect.

  16. Printed organic conductive polymers thermocouples in textile and smart clothing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeberg, Trine M; Røyset, Arne; Jahren, Susannah; Strisland, Frode

    2011-01-01

    This work reports on an experimental investigation of the potential of using selected commercially available organic conductive polymers as active ingredients in thermocouples printed on textiles. Poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(4 styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and polyaniline (PANI) were screen printed onto woven cotton textile. The influence of multiple thermocycles between 235 K (-38 °C) and 350 K (+77 °C) on resistivity and thermoelectric properties was examined. The Seebeck coefficients of PEDOT:PSS and PANI were found to be about +18 μV/K and +15 uV/K, respectively, when "metal-polymer" thermocouples were realized by combining the polymer with copper. When "polymer-polymer" thermocouples were formed by combining PEDOT:PSS and PANI, a thermoelectric voltage of about +10 μV/K was observed. A challenge recognized in the experiments is that the generated voltage exhibited drift and fluctuations.

  17. Thermocouple error correction for measuring the flame temperature with determination of emissivity and heat transfer coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindasageri, V; Vedula, R P; Prabhu, S V

    2013-02-01

    Temperature measurement by thermocouples is prone to errors due to conduction and radiation losses and therefore has to be corrected for precise measurement. The temperature dependent emissivity of the thermocouple wires is measured by the use of thermal infrared camera. The measured emissivities are found to be 20%-40% lower than the theoretical values predicted from theory of electromagnetism. A transient technique is employed for finding the heat transfer coefficients for the lead wire and the bead of the thermocouple. This method does not require the data of thermal properties and velocity of the burnt gases. The heat transfer coefficients obtained from the present method have an average deviation of 20% from the available heat transfer correlations in literature for non-reacting convective flow over cylinders and spheres. The parametric study of thermocouple error using the numerical code confirmed the existence of a minimum wire length beyond which the conduction loss is a constant minimal. Temperature of premixed methane-air flames stabilised on 16 mm diameter tube burner is measured by three B-type thermocouples of wire diameters: 0.15 mm, 0.30 mm, and 0.60 mm. The measurements are made at three distances from the burner tip (thermocouple tip to burner tip/burner diameter = 2, 4, and 6) at an equivalence ratio of 1 for the tube Reynolds number varying from 1000 to 2200. These measured flame temperatures are corrected by the present numerical procedure, the multi-element method, and the extrapolation method. The flame temperatures estimated by the two-element method and extrapolation method deviate from numerical results within 2.5% and 4%, respectively.

  18. Thermocouple Rakes for Measuring Boundary Layer Flows Extremely Close to Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Danny P.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Martin, Lisa C.; Blaha, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    Of vital interest to aerodynamic researchers is precise knowledge of the flow velocity profile next to the surface. This information is needed for turbulence model development and the calculation of viscous shear force. Though many instruments can determine the flow velocity profile near the surface, none of them can make measurements closer than approximately 0.01 in. from the surface. The thermocouple boundary-layer rake can measure much closer to the surface than conventional instruments can, such as a total pressure boundary layer rake, hot wire, or hot film. By embedding the sensors (thermocouples) in the region where the velocity is equivalent to the velocity ahead of a constant thickness strut, the boundary-layer flow profile can be obtained. The present device fabricated at the NASA Glenn Research Center microsystem clean room has a heater made of platinum and thermocouples made of platinum and gold. Equal numbers of thermocouples are placed both upstream and downstream of the heater, so that the voltage generated by each pair at the same distance from the surface is indicative of the difference in temperature between the upstream and downstream thermocouple locations. This voltage differential is a function of the flow velocity, and like the conventional total pressure rake, it can provide the velocity profile. In order to measure flow extremely close to the surface, the strut is made of fused quartz with extremely low heat conductivity. A large size thermocouple boundary layer rake is shown in the following photo. The latest medium size sensors already provide smooth velocity profiles well into the boundary layer, as close as 0.0025 in. from the surface. This is about 4 times closer to the surface than the previously used total pressure rakes. This device also has the advantage of providing the flow profile of separated flow and also it is possible to measure simultaneous turbulence levels within the boundary layer.

  19. Thermocouple error correction for measuring the flame temperature with determination of emissivity and heat transfer coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindasageri, V.; Vedula, R. P.; Prabhu, S. V.

    2013-02-01

    Temperature measurement by thermocouples is prone to errors due to conduction and radiation losses and therefore has to be corrected for precise measurement. The temperature dependent emissivity of the thermocouple wires is measured by the use of thermal infrared camera. The measured emissivities are found to be 20%-40% lower than the theoretical values predicted from theory of electromagnetism. A transient technique is employed for finding the heat transfer coefficients for the lead wire and the bead of the thermocouple. This method does not require the data of thermal properties and velocity of the burnt gases. The heat transfer coefficients obtained from the present method have an average deviation of 20% from the available heat transfer correlations in literature for non-reacting convective flow over cylinders and spheres. The parametric study of thermocouple error using the numerical code confirmed the existence of a minimum wire length beyond which the conduction loss is a constant minimal. Temperature of premixed methane-air flames stabilised on 16 mm diameter tube burner is measured by three B-type thermocouples of wire diameters: 0.15 mm, 0.30 mm, and 0.60 mm. The measurements are made at three distances from the burner tip (thermocouple tip to burner tip/burner diameter = 2, 4, and 6) at an equivalence ratio of 1 for the tube Reynolds number varying from 1000 to 2200. These measured flame temperatures are corrected by the present numerical procedure, the multi-element method, and the extrapolation method. The flame temperatures estimated by the two-element method and extrapolation method deviate from numerical results within 2.5% and 4%, respectively.

  20. 铠装热电偶校准用精密热电偶校验炉%Precise Calibration Furnace for Sheathed Thermocouples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王震森; 乔辉; 曹福宾

    2012-01-01

    To satisfy the lately published calibration regulation for sheathed thermocouples, the precise thermocouple calibration furnace has been developed. By adopting the interior and exterior two-stage temperature control and installation mode of the thermometer wells, the calibration furnace offers excellent technical performance. The practice indicates that the furnace can be used in calibration of Grade I industrial thermocouples.%为满足最新颁布的铠装热电偶校准规范对校准用校验炉的要求,研发了精密热电偶校验炉.运用内外二级温度控制及插孔安装方式,使校验炉在进行热电偶校准时具备极佳的技术性能.实际应用表明,精密热电偶校验炉完全可以应用于Ⅰ级工业热电偶的校准.

  1. Technical note. Use of CT in the placement of heat monitoring thermocouples for hyperthermia therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, F; Bernardino, M E; Headley, D L; Corry, P M

    1981-12-01

    In 12 cancer patients undergoing hyperthermia therapy, computed tomography (CT) was used for placement of thermocouples within the tumoral tissue. Tumors were located in the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. Computed tomography provided accurate angulation of the introduction angiocatheter as well as the ability to choose the shortest and safest path. The cross-sectional display was especially helpful in placing the heat monitoring thermocouple within the active part of the tumor rather than a necrotic portion. It is our opinion that CT is superior to fluoroscopy in this regard.

  2. Modeling of the polymerization process of the insulating layer of cable thermocouples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Iashutina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model describing the main physical processes occurring during thermal processing of cable thermocouples (CT during their production is presented. The polymerization of the insulating layer is taken into account in the conditions of its intense heating. The developed mathematical model allows to carry out calculations of heat transfer processes under the conditions of substantial heterogeneity of cable thermocouple structure. The computational experiments carried out have established significant differences in the characteristics of heat transfer in CT in the presence of thermoelectrodes with differing thermophysical characteristics.

  3. One-dimensional linear calculation of the heat flux from infrared and thermocouple measurements at Jet tokamak; Calcul 1D lineaire du flux de chaleur par inversion des mesures de temperatures infrarouges et des thermocouples du Tokamak Jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyet, M

    2005-07-01

    Our work is dedicated to the assessment of the heat released in the Jet tokamak divertor tiles. We have performed the computation of the heat flux from temperature data collected by thermo-couples through a 1 dimensional linear model. This method has implied solving an inverse problem whose matrix is singular, we have succeeded in using Tikhonov's regularization technique. Then we have compared these values of the heat flux with those deduced from infra-red measurements. Infra-red measurements are impaired by the deposition of particles on the surface. Both methods give unrealistic negative values at the end of the plasma discharge. The use of a non-linear 1-dimensional model that would allow the diffusion coefficient to vary is expected to improve the calculation. (A.C.)

  4. State-of-the-art review of some artificial intelligence applications in pile foundations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed A. Shahin

    2016-01-01

    Geotechnical engineering deals with materials (e.g. soil and rock) that, by their very nature, exhibit varied and uncertain behavior due to the imprecise physical processes associated with the formation of these materials. Modeling the behavior of such materials in geotechnical engineering applications is complex and sometimes beyond the ability of most traditional forms of physically-based engineering methods. Artificial intelligence (AI) is becoming more popular and particularly amenable to modeling the complex behavior of most geotechnical engineering applications because it has demonstrated superior predictive ability compared to traditional methods. This paper provides state-of-the-art review of some selected AI techniques and their applications in pile foundations, and presents the salient features associated with the modeling development of these AI techniques. The paper also discusses the strength and limitations of the selected AI techniques compared to other available modeling approaches.

  5. Report On Design And Preliminary Data Of Halden In-Pile Creep Rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrani, Kurt A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Karlsen, T. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A set of in-pile creep tests is ongoing in the Halden reactor on ORNL’s candidate accident tolerant fuel cladding materials. These tests are meant to provide essential material property information that is needed for an informed analysis of these fuel concepts under normal operating conditions. These tests provide detailed information regarding swelling, thermal creep, and irradiation creep rates of these materials. The results to date have been compared with the limited set of information available in literature that is form irradiation tests in other reactors or out-of-pile tests. Most of the results are in good agreement with prior literature, except for irradiation creep rate of SiC. To elucidate the difference between the HFIR and Halden test results continued testing is necessary. The tests describe in this progress report are ongoing and will continue for at least another year.

  6. Monitoring and Analysis of In-Pile Phenomena in Advanced Test Reactor using Acoustic Telemetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Dept. of Human Factors, Controls, and Statistics; Smith, James A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Dept. of Fuel Performance and Design; Jewell, James Keith [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Dept. of Fuel Performance and Design

    2015-02-01

    The interior of a nuclear reactor presents a particularly harsh and challenging environment for both sensors and telemetry due to high temperatures and high fluxes of energetic and ionizing particles among the radioactive decay products. A number of research programs are developing acoustic-based sensing approach to take advantage of the acoustic transmission properties of reactor cores. Idaho National Laboratory has installed vibroacoustic receivers on and around the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) containment vessel to take advantage of acoustically telemetered sensors such as thermoacoustic (TAC) transducers. The installation represents the first step in developing an acoustic telemetry infrastructure. This paper presents the theory of TAC, application of installed vibroacoustic receivers in monitoring the in-pile phenomena inside the ATR, and preliminary data processing results.

  7. Recovery and radiation corrections and time constants of several sizes of shielded and unshielded thermocouple probes for measuring gas temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glawe, G. E.; Holanda, R.; Krause, L. N.

    1978-01-01

    Performance characteristics were experimentally determined for several sizes of a shielded and unshielded thermocouple probe design. The probes are of swaged construction and were made of type K wire with a stainless steel sheath and shield and MgO insulation. The wire sizes ranged from 0.03- to 1.02-mm diameter for the unshielded design and from 0.16- to 0.81-mm diameter for the shielded design. The probes were tested through a Mach number range of 0.2 to 0.9, through a temperature range of room ambient to 1420 K, and through a total-pressure range of 0.03 to 0.2.2 MPa (0.3 to 22 atm). Tables and graphs are presented to aid in selecting a particular type and size. Recovery corrections, radiation corrections, and time constants were determined.

  8. Measuring skin temperature before, during and after exercise: a comparison of thermocouples and infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Alex de Andrade; Amorim, Paulo Roberto dos Santos; Brito, Ciro José; de Moura, Anselmo Gomes; Moreira, Danilo Gomes; Costa, Carlos Magno Amaral; Sillero-Quintana, Manuel; Marins, João Carlos Bouzas

    2014-02-01

    Measuring skin temperature (TSK) provides important information about the complex thermal control system and could be interesting when carrying out studies about thermoregulation. The most common method to record TSK involves thermocouples at specific locations; however, the use of infrared thermal imaging (IRT) has increased. The two methods use different physical processes to measure TSK, and each has advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the mean skin temperature (MTSK) measurements using thermocouples and IRT in three different situations: pre-exercise, exercise and post-exercise. Analysis of the residual scores in Bland-Altman plots showed poor agreement between the MTSK obtained using thermocouples and those using IRT. The averaged error was -0.75 °C during pre-exercise, 1.22 °C during exercise and -1.16 °C during post-exercise, and the reliability between the methods was low in the pre- (ICC = 0.75 [0.12 to 0.93]), during (ICC = 0.49 [-0.80 to 0.85]) and post-exercise (ICC = 0.35 [-1.22 to 0.81] conditions. Thus, there is poor correlation between the values of MTSK measured by thermocouples and IRT pre-exercise, exercise and post-exercise, and low reliability between the two forms of measurement.

  9. Temperature measurement artefacts of thermocouples and fluoroptic probes during laser irradiation at 810 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, A D; Gertner, M R; Sherar, M D

    2001-06-01

    This study examined the artefact induced in temperature measurements made with thermocouples and Luxtron fluoroptic probes in the presence of infrared radiation. Localized heating was created using a continuous-wave, 810 nm diode laser system emitting 2.0 W from a cylindrical diffusing optical fibre, in air, water and an agar-albumin phantom. The temperature was measured every 1.0 s for 10 to 150 s, with both a thermocouple and a Luxtron fluoroptic probe at distances of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 mm from the cylindrical diffusing tip. In all cases, the fluoroptic probe recorded a higher temperature than the thermocouple during laser irradiation. The difference in measured temperatures between the Luxtron probe and the thermocouple ranged from 1.6 degrees C to 18.8 degrees C in air, from 0.3 degrees C to 10.2 degrees C in water, and from 1.4 degrees C to 10.1 degrees C in phantom, depending on the distance of the probe from the laser source. The results suggest that in the presence of laser irradiation, self-heating of the Luxtron probe induces a significant artefact in temperature measurements at distances less than 4 mm from the source fibre. As a result, fluoroptic probes may not be suitable for monitoring tissue temperature for treatments when laser irradiation is present if sensors are located close to the fibre tip (<4 mm).

  10. Minimizing the self-heating artefacts due to the microwave irradiation of thermocouples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunscombe, P B; Constable, R T; McLellan, J

    1988-01-01

    The self-heating of metallic thermocouples in therapeutic microwave fields has long been recognized as a source of temperature artefacts in clinical hyperthermia dosimetry. We examine several techniques by which the probe and tissue heating artefacts resulting from self-heating may be quantitatively assessed, and discuss these in the context of their applicability to clinical hyperthermia.

  11. Ceramic thin film thermocouples for SiC-based ceramic matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrbanek, John D., E-mail: John.D.Wrbanek@nasa.gov; Fralick, Gustave C.; Zhu Dongming

    2012-06-30

    Conductive ceramic thin film thermocouples were investigated for application to silicon carbide fiber reinforced silicon carbide ceramic matrix composite (SiC/SiC CMC) components. High temperature conductive oxides based on indium and zinc oxides were selected for testing to high temperatures in air. Sample oxide films were first sputtered-deposited on alumina substrates then on SiC/SiC CMC sample disks. Operational issues such as cold junction compensation to a 0 Degree-Sign C reference, resistivity and thermopower variations are discussed. Results show that zinc oxides have an extremely high resistance and thus increased complexity for use as a thermocouple, but thermocouples using indium oxides can achieve a strong, nearly linear response to high temperatures. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxide thin film thermocouples tested for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, N:In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZnO, AlZnO sputtered and tested on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CMC substrates Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO, AlZnO have high resistance, complex temperature response. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, N:In{sub 2}O{sub 3} conductive at room temperature, more linear temperature response.

  12. Exploring Soot Particle Concentration and Emissivity by Transient Thermocouples Measurements in Laminar Partially Premixed Coflow Flames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi De Falco

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Soot formation in combustion represents a complex phenomenon that strongly depends on several factors such as pressure, temperature, fuel chemical composition, and the extent of premixing. The effect of partial premixing on soot formation is of relevance also for real combustion devices and still needs to be fully understood. An improved version of the thermophoretic particle densitometry (TPD method has been used in this work with the aim to obtain both quantitative and qualitative information of soot particles generated in a set of laminar partially-premixed coflow flames characterized by different equivalence ratios. To this aim, the transient thermocouple temperature response has been analyzed to infer particle concentration and emissivity. A variety of thermal emissivity values have been measured for flame-formed carbonaceous particles, ranging from 0.4 to 0.5 for the early nucleated soot particles up to the value of 0.95, representing the typical value commonly attributed to mature soot particles, indicating that the correct determination of the thermal emissivity is necessary to accurately evaluate the particle volume fraction. This is particularly true at the early stage of the soot formation, when particle concentration measurement is indeed particularly challenging as in the central region of the diffusion flames. With increasing premixing, an initial increase of particles is detected both in the maximum radial soot volume fraction region and in the central region of the flame, while the further addition of primary air determines the particle volume fraction drop. Finally, a modeling analysis based on a sectional approach has been performed to corroborate the experimental findings.

  13. Simulation of Thin Film Thermocouple for High Temperature Measurement Applicable to Missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Sonker

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermocouples have been extensively used for the measurement of temperature since the advent of seebeck effect. Numerous sensors have been developed for temperature measurement, yet measurement of high temperature flowing fluid has been a challenging task. For the measurement of static temperature the measuring device should travel with the fluid at the same speed without disturbing the flow, which is quite unrealistic. So indirect determination of static temperature of flowing fluid is done by using thermocouple exposed into the flowing fluid. Other sensors available for high temperature measurement may lead to problems like resistance in the flow path of fluid which changes the structural dynamics. Thin film thermocouple (TFTC based on W-W26Re for super high temperature measurement has been investigated which can be used in missiles for surface temperature measurement of nozzle and rocket interior surface. TFTC does not cause disruption in the flow path with maintaining structural integrity. The W-W26Re thermocouple offers advantage of higher seebeck coefficient at high temperature i.e. above 750 K, and usability in vacuum, inert and hydrogen atmosphere. Zirconia Fiber has been proposed as insulation protection material over thermocouple. Modelling and simulation of the TFTC for the temperature range 300 K - 2900 K has been presented. FEA model using PDE has been presented to implement heat equation, current balance  quation, Gauss theorem and Neumann boundary condition. The expected voltage production on exposed temperature gradient has been studied.

  14. Risk analysis of the delayed ettringite formation in pile caps foundation in the metropolitan region of Recife - PE - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. F. Torres

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, there is an awareness that is critical to assess the durability characteristics of concrete with as much attention as the mechanical properties. The durability of concrete structures can often be affected by chemical attacks, jeopardizing its performance and security. When concrete is subjected to high temperature at early ages, many physical and chemical changes in hardened concrete may occur. It iswidely accepted that concrete subjected to these conditions of temperature and exposed to moisture is prone to cracking due to Delayed Ettringite Formation (DEF. This work aims at providing a DEF risk analysis on foundation pile caps at the Metropolitan Region of Recife - PE. Temperature rise measurement was performed in situ at 5 different caps through datalogger and thermocouples equipments. Furthermore, the Duggan test was performed in order to assess the level of expansion of 3 cements studied: X (CP II E 40, Y (CP II F 32 and Z (CP V ARI RS. Simultaneously, the chemical compositions of these cements and their respective clinkers were quantified by analysis of X-ray fluorescence (XRF. The cement X (CP II E 40 showed the chemical characteristics favoring with more intensity DEF and, as a result, higher level of expansion in the test Duggan. It is noteworthy that incorporation of metakaolin (8% and 16% and silica fume (5% and 10% showed mitigating potential of expansions. It is important to point out that all factors related to thermal properties and chemical composition of the concrete used in the region converge to a condition of ideal susceptibility for triggering DEF. Therefore, it is essential at least minimum and basic requirements in the design specification in order to avoid high temperatures in the massive concrete elements, preventing them from delayed ettringite formation.

  15. 双通道热电偶测温系统及其在切削温度测试中的应用%Two-channel Thermocouple Acquisition System and Application in the Measurement of Cutting Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘迎春; 王大振; 姜芙林; 刘战强

    2012-01-01

    To solute the problems of continuous and real - time data processing for temperature measurement, a two - channel thermocouple acquisition system is developed in this paper. The developed system utilizes thermocouple as temperature transmitter, which can measure temperature continuously via two channels. It is applied in actual high speed milling temperature measurement. It is proven that the system is easy to operate and has a stable performance. The two - channel thermocouple acquisition system could realize multi - channel temperature acquisition by adding more thermocouples.%针对切削温度连续测试数据实时保存等问题,设计开发一种双通道热电偶连续采集系统,系统采用热电偶作为温度传感器,可进行双通道热电偶温度连续采集.应用到实际高速铣削工件切削温度测试中,测试结果表明:系统操作简单,性能稳定,为高速切削工件切削温度的理论分析提供了数据依据.增加热电偶数量该系统可实现多通道温度的实时连续采集.

  16. Development of the thermocouple spot welder%热电偶点焊机的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立冬; 周旭东

    2011-01-01

    热电偶是一种常用的测温元件,而传统的热电偶在焊接时由于本身裸露在空气中,试样与热电偶之间的焊点及临近区域难免被氧化,这样不仅降低了焊点的牢固性而且对测温的准确性也有一定的影响.为解决上述问题,设计和研制了焊接热电偶的专用设备--热电偶点焊机,该设备除了采用传统的储能式点焊机的基本原理外,在焊接时还采用了氩气保护,有效的解决了上述问题.并且对直径为0.2 mm镍铬-镍铝热电偶(K型热电偶)进行了焊接实验测试,通过在显微镜下观察焊点及附近区域的焊接效果结果表明,用本设备焊接的热电偶焊接效果良好而且有效地降低了焊点及附近区域的氧化现象.%Thermocouple is a kind of common temperature-measuring elements. However,While the traditional thermocouple being weld,due to bating the thermocouple itself in the air,there is no way to avoid the oxidation between sample and the thermocouple and the surrounding area. Thereby it not only reduce the soundness of welding spot,but also affects the accaracy of temperature measurement.In order to solve the mentioned problem,we have designed and manufactured a spot welding machine-Thermocouple Spot Welding,which specialize in weldimg the thermocouple.In addition to using the basic principle of traditional energy storage type spot welding machine,the protection of Ar is apphed,and it solve the mentioned problem effectively. By doing the welding test on the 0.2 mm in diameter nickel-based thermocouple(K-type), viewing welding spot under a microscope, the results show that oxidation phenomenon has been reduced effectively and the the effect of welding is so good with using this machine.

  17. Uncertainty analysis of thermocouple measurements used in normal and abnormal thermal environment experiments at Sandia's Radiant Heat Facility and Lurance Canyon Burn Site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2004-04-01

    It would not be possible to confidently qualify weapon systems performance or validate computer codes without knowing the uncertainty of the experimental data used. This report provides uncertainty estimates associated with thermocouple data for temperature measurements from two of Sandia's large-scale thermal facilities. These two facilities (the Radiant Heat Facility (RHF) and the Lurance Canyon Burn Site (LCBS)) routinely gather data from normal and abnormal thermal environment experiments. They are managed by Fire Science & Technology Department 09132. Uncertainty analyses were performed for several thermocouple (TC) data acquisition systems (DASs) used at the RHF and LCBS. These analyses apply to Type K, chromel-alumel thermocouples of various types: fiberglass sheathed TC wire, mineral-insulated, metal-sheathed (MIMS) TC assemblies, and are easily extended to other TC materials (e.g., copper-constantan). Several DASs were analyzed: (1) A Hewlett-Packard (HP) 3852A system, and (2) several National Instrument (NI) systems. The uncertainty analyses were performed on the entire system from the TC to the DAS output file. Uncertainty sources include TC mounting errors, ANSI standard calibration uncertainty for Type K TC wire, potential errors due to temperature gradients inside connectors, extension wire uncertainty, DAS hardware uncertainties including noise, common mode rejection ratio, digital voltmeter accuracy, mV to temperature conversion, analog to digital conversion, and other possible sources. Typical results for 'normal' environments (e.g., maximum of 300-400 K) showed the total uncertainty to be about {+-}1% of the reading in absolute temperature. In high temperature or high heat flux ('abnormal') thermal environments, total uncertainties range up to {+-}2-3% of the reading (maximum of 1300 K). The higher uncertainties in abnormal thermal environments are caused by increased errors due to the effects of imperfect TC attachment to

  18. Method for collecting thermocouple data via secured shell over a wireless local area network in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, F; DeMallie, I; Florence, L; Kashinski, D O

    2015-03-01

    This manuscript addresses the design, hardware details, construction, and programming of an apparatus allowing an experimenter to monitor and record high-temperature thermocouple measurements of dynamic systems in real time. The apparatus uses wireless network technology to bridge the gap between a dynamic (moving) sample frame and the static laboratory frame. Our design is a custom solution applied to samples that rotate through large angular displacements where hard-wired and typical slip-ring solutions are not practical because of noise considerations. The apparatus consists of a Raspberry PI mini-Linux computer, an Arduino micro-controller, an Ocean Controls thermocouple multiplexer shield, and k-type thermocouples.

  19. Method for collecting thermocouple data via secured shell over a wireless local area network in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, F.; DeMallie, I.; Florence, L.; Kashinski, D. O.

    2015-03-01

    This manuscript addresses the design, hardware details, construction, and programming of an apparatus allowing an experimenter to monitor and record high-temperature thermocouple measurements of dynamic systems in real time. The apparatus uses wireless network technology to bridge the gap between a dynamic (moving) sample frame and the static laboratory frame. Our design is a custom solution applied to samples that rotate through large angular displacements where hard-wired and typical slip-ring solutions are not practical because of noise considerations. The apparatus consists of a Raspberry PI mini-Linux computer, an Arduino micro-controller, an Ocean Controls thermocouple multiplexer shield, and k-type thermocouples.

  20. Attachment of Free Filament Thermocouples for Temperature Measurements on Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jih-Fen; Cuy, Michael D.; Wnuk, Stephen P.

    1998-01-01

    At the NASA Lewis Research Center, a new installation technique utilizing convoluted wire thermocouples (TC's) was developed and proven to produce very good adhesion on CMC's, even in a burner rig environment. Because of their unique convoluted design, such TC's of various types and sizes adhere to flat or curved CMC specimens with no sign of delamination, open circuits, or interactions-even after testing in a Mach 0.3 burner rig to 1200 C (2200 F) for several thermal cycles and at several hours at high temperatures. Large differences in thermal expansion between metal thermocouples and low-expansion materials, such as CMC's, normally generate large stresses in the wires. These stresses cause straight wires to detach, but convoluted wires that are bonded with strips of coating allow bending in the unbonded portion to relieve these expansion stresses.

  1. Improving the Quality of Thermocouple Wire Made of Platinum-rhodium Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HORIKOV P.A.; MAMONOV S.N.; EFIMOV V.N.; RADKIN A.N.; DROZDOV D.E.

    2012-01-01

    For the manufacture of S-type thermocouple the so-called thermocouple wire of platinum and platinum-rhodium alloy is used.One of the main technical requirements for the quality of the wire,according to State Standard of Russia (GOST 10821),is the uniformity of its largest thermoelectric force (Thermo-emf) in the length different sections.It was found that a determining impact on the uniformity of the wire thermo-emf is the distribution of rhodium along the length of the wire.The impact of platinum- rhodium melt crystallization conditions on the inhomogeneity of wire manufactured from it.It was suggested that the chemical inhomogeneity of the wire is related to the liquation phase of platinum-rhodium alloy.

  2. In-Pile Instrumentation Multi- Parameter System Utilizing Photonic Fibers and Nanovision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgett, Eric [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

    2015-10-13

    An advanced in-pile multi-parameter reactor monitoring system is being proposed in this funding opportunity. The proposed effort brings cutting edge, high fidelity optical measurement systems into the reactor environment in an unprecedented fashion, including in-core, in-cladding and in-fuel pellet itself. Unlike instrumented leads, the proposed system provides a unique solution to a multi-parameter monitoring need in core while being minimally intrusive in the reactor core. Detector designs proposed herein can monitor fuel compression and expansion in both the radial and axial dimensions as well as monitor linear power profiles and fission rates during the operation of the reactor. In addition to pressure, stress, strain, compression, neutron flux, neutron spectra, and temperature can be observed inside the fuel bundle and fuel rod using the proposed system. The proposed research aims at developing radiation-hard, harsh-environment multi-parameter systems for insertion into the reactor environment. The proposed research holds the potential to drastically increase the fidelity and precision of in-core instrumentation with little or no impact in the neutron economy in the reactor environment while providing a measurement system capable of operation for entire operating cycles.

  3. In-Pile Instrumentation Multi- Parameter System Utilizing Photonic Fibers and Nanovision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgett, Eric [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

    2015-10-13

    An advanced in-pile multi-parameter reactor monitoring system is being proposed in this funding opportunity. The proposed effort brings cutting edge, high fidelity optical measurement systems into the reactor environment in an unprecedented fashion, including in-core, in-cladding and in-fuel pellet itself. Unlike instrumented leads, the proposed system provides a unique solution to a multi-parameter monitoring need in core while being minimally intrusive in the reactor core. Detector designs proposed herein can monitor fuel compression and expansion in both the radial and axial dimensions as well as monitor linear power profiles and fission rates during the operation of the reactor. In addition to pressure, stress, strain, compression, neutron flux, neutron spectra, and temperature can be observed inside the fuel bundle and fuel rod using the proposed system. The proposed research aims at developing radiation hard, harsh environment multi-parameter systems for insertion into the reactor environment. The proposed research holds the potential to drastically increase the fidelity and precision of in-core instrumentation with little or no impact in the neutron economy in the reactor environment while providing a measurement system capable of operation for entire operating cycles.

  4. Measurement of the Inhomogeneity in Type B and Land-Jewell Noble-Metal Thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, E. S.; Greenen, A.; Pearce, J.

    2016-07-01

    Inhomogeneity is the largest contributor to uncertainty in temperature measurements made with thermocouples, and the knowledge of inhomogeneity is essential if low-uncertainty measurements are required. Inhomogeneity is a particular problem for long-term applications at temperatures near or above 1500 ^{circ }hbox {C}, where pairs of alloyed noble-metal thermocouples must be used and the alloy components and potential contaminants become very mobile and cause large deviations in the Seebeck coefficient. While changes in inhomogeneity are a known and well-studied problem in noble-metal alloys at temperatures below 1100 ^{circ }hbox {C}, the effects are not well quantified at higher temperatures. This paper reports the first detailed measurements of inhomogeneity in a number of Type B and Land-Jewell thermocouples exposed to either short-term calibration up to 1600 ^{circ }hbox {C} or long-term in situ measurements for a period of approximately 3000 h at 1600 ^{circ }hbox {C}. The inhomogeneity is measured in a high-resolution scanner operating over the range from 600 ^{circ }hbox {C} to 900 ^{circ }hbox {C}. The results show that drifts of between 0.2 % and 0.6 % can be expected for reversible crystallographic and oxidation effects, whereas drift caused by irreversible contamination effects can be expected to be between 0.6 % and 1.1 %. It is also shown that the deviations in emfs caused by irreversible homogeneities in these thermocouples scale approximately linearly with temperature. This scalability allows uncertainties assessed at one temperature, to be extrapolated to other temperatures. Additionally it is shown that a preconditioning anneal at 1100 ^{circ }hbox {C} should be applied both before and after calibration to remove undesirable crystallographic and rhodium-oxidation effects.

  5. Temperature Measurements Using Type K Thermocouples and the Fluke Helios Plus 2287A Datalogger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai; Vonbank, R.; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    In 1821, the German–Estonian physicist Thomas Johann Seebeck discovered that when any conductor (such as a metal) is subjected to a thermal gradient, it will generate a voltage. This is now known as the thermoelectric effect or Seebeck effect. Any attempt to measure this voltage necessarily invol...... metal combinations. Certain combinations have become popular as industry standards, driven by cost, availability, convenience, melting point, chemical properties, stability, and output. This coupling of two metals gives the thermocouple its name....

  6. Measurement System of Reducing Temperature Fluctuation of Thermostat Bath for Calibrating Thermocouple

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Min; Liang, Feixia; Xie, Yue; Huang, Ruguo; Yuan, Haitao; Lu, Jiahua

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Based on the periodic unsteady state heat conduction theory, a new measurement system of reducing temperature fluctuation of thermostat bath was developed in order to obtain a liquid environment with uniform and constant temperature controlled for the measurement requirements of calibrating thermocouple. The experimental results show that the temperature stability in this measurement system is superior to that in traditional system. The measurement system had the advan...

  7. In-pile tests at Karlsruhe of LWR fuel-rod behavior during the heatup phase of a LOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karb, E.H.

    1980-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of a nuclar environment on the mechanisms of fuel-rod failure, in-pile tests simulating the heatup phase of a loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized-water reactor are being conducted with irradiated and unirradiated short-length single rods in the FR2 reactor at Kernforschungszentrum karlsruhe (Karlsruhe Nuclear Reasearch Center), Federal Republic of Germany, within the Project Nuclear Safety. With nearly 70% of the scheduled tests completed, no such influences have been found. The in-pile burst and deformation data are in good agreement with results from nonnuclear tests with electrically heated fuel-rod simulators. The phenomenon of pellet disintegration, which has been observed in all tests with previously irradiated rods, needs further investigation.

  8. Thermal power output determination of 2 MW heat source by using of thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubcik, Michal; Vician, Peter; Palacka, Matej

    2016-06-01

    Experiment is an operation or procedure carried out under controlled conditions in order to discover an unknown effect or law, to test or establish a hypothesis, or to illustrate a known law. The most important part of the experiment is to evaluate the measured values. Measurement accuracy depends on a number of factors. Deviations of instruments cannot eliminate or influence if it is neglect the possibility of using more precise measuring equipment. Another way for the most accurate results can be calibration. Calibration allows achieve measurement values with relatively high accuracy using less precision instruments. The paper deals about the problematic of thermal power measurement accuracy. Thermal power was measured on heat source with nominal thermal power 2 MW by using direct calorimetric method. There were used ultrasonic flow meter and type K thermocouples. Type K thermocouples are not very suitable for these applications because of their low precision. The paper presents the possibility of using calibrated thermocouples for the thermal power measurement with acceptable accuracy.

  9. A Quantitative Model for the Thermocouple Effect Using Statistical and Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramley, Paul; Clark, Stewart

    2003-09-01

    This paper employs statistical and quantum mechanics to develop a model for the mechanism underlying the Seebeck effect. The conventional view of the equilibrium criterion for valence electrons in a material is that the Fermi Energy should be constant throughout the system. However, this criterion is an approximation and it is shown to be inadequate for thermocouple systems. An improved equilibrium criterion is developed by applying statistical and quantum mechanics to determine the total flow of electrons across an arbitrary boundary within a system. Dynamic equilibrium is then considered to be the situation where the Fermi Energy either side of the boundary is such that the flow of electrons in each direction is the same. This equilibrium criterion is then applied to the conditions along the thermocouple wires and at the junctions in order to generate a model for the Seebeck effect. The equations involved for calculating the electronic structure of a material cannot be solved analytically, so a solution is achieved using numeric models employing CASTEP code running on a Sun Beowulf cluster and iterative algorithms written in the Excel™ VBA language on a PC. The model is used to calculate the EMF versus temperature function for the gold versus platinum thermocouple, which is then compared with established experimental data.

  10. Relating Composition and Thermoelectric Stability of Pt-Rh Alloy Thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J. V.; Greenen, A. D.; Smith, A.; Elliott, C. J.

    2017-02-01

    A simple model is presented which relates the electromotive force drift rate of Pt-Rh thermoelements to dS/dc, the sensitivity of the Seebeck coefficient, S, to rhodium mass fraction, c. The model has been tested by repeated measurements of a Pt-Rh thermocouple assembly consisting of five thermoelements, using a Co-C high-temperature fixed point (1324°C) for a total duration of 500 h. By considering various thermocouples from the assembly, it is demonstrated that in this case, remarkably, there is a linear relationship between the measured drift rate and the combined dS/dc, where the combination is determined by addition of the individual values for each wire. Particular emphasis is placed on evaluation of the uncertainties associated with the calculations. This result supports previous findings that the thermoelectric stability of Pt-Rh thermoelements improves as the rhodium mass fraction increases. Within this paradigm, it is shown that for a selected Pt-Rh thermoelement of any given composition, there exists a second thermoelement having a composition that yields a minimum drift when combined with the first to form a thermocouple.

  11. Application of Thin-Film Thermocouples to Localized Heat Transfer Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepicovsky, J.; Bruckner, R. J.; Smith, F. A.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes a proof-of-concept experiment on thin-film thermocouples used for localized heat transfer measurements applicable to experiments on hot parts of turbine engines. The paper has three main parts. The first part describes the thin-film sensors and manufacturing procedures. Attention is paid to connections between thin-film thermocouples and lead wires, which has been a source of problems in the past. The second part addresses the test arrangement and facility used for the heat transfer measurements modeling the conditions for upcoming warm turbine tests at NASA LeRC. The paper stresses the advantages of a modular approach to the test rig design. Finally, we present the results of bulk and local heat flow rate measurements, as well as overall heat transfer coefficients obtained from measurements in a narrow passage with an aspect ratio of 11.8. The comparison of bulk and local heat flow rates confirms applicability of thin-film thermocouples to upcoming warm turbine tests.

  12. Development of gas cooled reactors and experimental setup of high temperature helium loop for in-pile operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miletić, Marija, E-mail: marija_miletic@live.com [Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Fukač, Rostislav, E-mail: fuk@cvrez.cz [Research Centre Rez Ltd., Rez (Czech Republic); Pioro, Igor, E-mail: Igor.Pioro@uoit.ca [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa (Canada); Dragunov, Alexey, E-mail: Alexey.Dragunov@uoit.ca [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Gas as a coolant in Gen-IV reactors, history and development. • Main physical parameters comparison of gas coolants: carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen with water. • Forced convection in turbulent pipe flow. • Gas cooled fast reactor concept comparisons to very high temperature reactor concept. • High temperature helium loop: concept, development, mechanism, design and constraints. - Abstract: Rapidly increasing energy and electricity demands, global concerns over the climate changes and strong dependence on foreign fossil fuel supplies are powerfully influencing greater use of nuclear power. In order to establish the viability of next-generation reactor concepts to meet tomorrow's needs for clean and reliable energy production the fundamental research and development issues need to be addressed for the Generation-IV nuclear-energy systems. Generation-IV reactor concepts are being developed to use more advanced materials, coolants and higher burn-ups fuels, while keeping a nuclear reactor safe and reliable. One of the six Generation-IV concepts is a very high temperature reactor (VHTR). The VHTR concept uses a graphite-moderated core with a once-through uranium fuel cycle, using high temperature helium as the coolant. Because helium is naturally inert and single-phase, the helium-cooled reactor can operate at much higher temperatures, leading to higher efficiency. Current VHTR concepts will use fuels such as uranium dioxide, uranium carbide, or uranium oxycarbide. Since some of these fuels are new in nuclear industry and due to their unknown properties and behavior within VHTR conditions it is very important to address these issues by investigate their characteristics within conditions close to those in VHTRs. This research can be performed in a research reactor with in-pile helium loop designed and constructed in Research Center Rez Ltd. One of the topics analyzed in this article are also physical characteristic and benefits of gas

  13. Accuracy of thermistors and thermocouples as flow-measuring devices for detecting hypopnoeas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, R; Montserrat, J M; Rotger, M; Ballester, E; Navajas, D

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the accuracy of thermistors/thermocouples as devices for detecting hypopnoeas in sleep studies. Conventional thermistor/thermocouples were studied with a respiratory model allowing the simulation of inspiratory (22 degrees C) and expiratory (37 degrees C) flows. The thermistor signal (V'th) was compared with a pneumotachograph (V'th): 1) for sinusoidal and square-wave airflows (+/-0.05 to +/-0.8 L.s(-1), 10-20 breaths.min(-1) (bpm)); 2) when changing the distance from the thermistor to the nose (0-20 mm); and 3) when doubling the section of the nostrils. The thermistor was strongly nonlinear and flow reductions (hypopnoeas) were underestimated: a 50% reduction in V' (+/-0.5 L.s(-1), 15 bpm, sinusoidal) resulted in only an 18% reduction in V'th. V'th depended considerably on the airflow pattern: for V'=+/-0.5 L.s(-1), V'th increased by 100% from sinusoidal (20 bpm) to square-wave (10 bpm). For V'=+/-0.5 L.s(-1), 15 bpm, sinusoidal flow, V'th increased by 79% when the distance thermistor-nose varied from 20-0 mm, and V'th decreased by 37% when doubling the nose section. We concluded that thermistor/thermocouples are inaccurate flow-measuring devices when used at the airflow conditions typical of sleep studies. Their use for quantifying hypopnoeas may lead to considerable underdetection of these respiratory events.

  14. Development of Mechanical Sealing and Laser Welding Technology to Instrument Thermocouple for Nuclear Fuel Test Rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, Chang-Young; Ahn, Sung-Ho; Hong, Jin-Tae; Kim, Ka-Hye; Huh, Sung-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Zircaloy-4 of the nuclear fuel test rod, AISI 316L of the mechanical sealing parts, and the MI (mineral insulated) cable at a thermocouple instrumentation are hetero-metals, and are difficult to weld to dissimilar materials. Therefore, a mechanical sealing method to instrument the thermocouple should be conducted using two kinds of sealing process as follows: One is a mechanical sealing process using Swagelok, which is composed of sealing components that consists of an end-cap, a seal tube, a compression ring and a Swagelok nut. The other is a laser welding process used to join a seal tube, and an MI cable, which are made of the same material. The mechanical sealing process should be sealed up with the mechanical contact compressed by the strength forced between a seal tube and an end-cap, and the laser welding process should be conducted to have no defects on the sealing area between a seal tube and an MI cable. Therefore, the mechanical sealing and laser welding techniques need to be developed to accurately measure the centerline temperature of the nuclear fuel test rod in an experimental reactor. The mechanical sealing and laser welding tests were conducted to develop the thermocouple instrumentation techniques for the nuclear fuel test rod. The optimum torque value of a Swagelok nut to seal the mechanical sealing part between the end-cap and seal tube was established through various torque tests using a torque wrench. The optimum laser welding conditions to seal the welding part between a seal tube and an MI cable were obtained through various welding tests using a laser welding system.

  15. A Multi-channel Pre-processing Circuit for Signals from Thermocouple/Thermister

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,a new developed multi-channel pre-processing circuit for signals from temperature sensor was introduced in brief.This circuit was developed to collect and amplify the signals from temperature sensor.This is a universal circuit.It can be used to process the signals from thermocouples and also used to process signals from thermistors.This circuit was mounted in a standard box(440W×405D×125H mm)as an instrument.The

  16. An Explicit Approach Toward Modeling Thermo-Coupled Deformation Behaviors of SMPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A new elastoplastic J 2 -flow models with thermal effects is proposed toward simulating thermo-coupled finite deformation behaviors of shape memory polymers. In this new model, an elastic potential evolving with development of plastic flow is incorporated to characterize the stress-softening effect at unloading and, moreover, thermo-induced plastic flow is introduced to represent the strain recovery effect at heating. It is shown that any given test data for both effects may be accurately simulated by means of direct and explicit procedures. Numerical examples for model predictions compare well with test data in literature.

  17. The contributions to drift of positive and negative thermoelements in type K MIMS thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scervini, M.; Rae, C.

    2013-09-01

    As part of the European project HEATTOP a study on drift of MIMS type K thermocouples above 1000°C has been undertaken: in particular the investigation focused on type K thermoelements of Rescal composition. The approach of this study is based on separating the contributions of each thermoelement to the drift which allows a deeper level of understanding of the contributions of different metallurgical modifications for each thermoelement. At temperature above 1000°C contamination of the thermoelements from the sheath becomes an important factor. The negative thermoelement is particularly prone to drift in MIMS configurations.

  18. On exact solutions and numerics for cold, shallow, and thermocoupled ice sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Bueler, E; Brown, Jed; Bueler, Ed

    2006-01-01

    This three section report can be regarded as an extended appendix to (Bueler, Brown, and Lingle 2006). First we give the detailed construction of an exact solution to a standard continuum model of a cold, shallow, and thermocoupled ice sheet. The construction is by calculation of compensatory accumulation and heat source functions which make a chosen pair of functions for thickness and temperature into exact solutions of the coupled system. The solution we construct here is ``TestG'' in (Bueler and others, 2006) and the steady state solution ``Test F'' is a special case. In the second section we give a reference C implementation of these exact solutions. In the last section we give an error analysis of a finite difference scheme for the temperature equation in the thermocoupled model. The error analysis gives three results, first the correct form of the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition for stability of the advection scheme, second an equation for error growth which contributes to understanding the famo...

  19. 热电偶的选型及误差分析%Thermocouple type selection and error analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽

    2012-01-01

      热电偶是工业上常用的温度检测元件,它构造简单、测量范围广、精度高。在实际使用中,若热电偶选型错误,或者测量时操作不当,均会导致测量数据失真。主要介绍了热电偶的正确选择、使用及解决误差的办法。%  thermocouple is common industrial temperature detection device, it has the advantages of simple structure, wide measuring range, high precision. In actual use, if the thermocouple type errors, or when measuring the improper operation, will lead to the distortion of measurement data. Mainly introduces the correct selection of the use of thermocouple, and the solution error approach.

  20. EMF CHANGES MADE BY COLD DRAWING AND HEATING TREATMENT IN TYPE K HEAVY-GAUGE SHEATHED THERMOCOUPLE CABLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵容斌; 李冠军

    2002-01-01

    The electromotive force (EMF) changes in type K heavy-gauge sheathed thermocouple cables was investigated. To cope with this discrepancy owing to EMF steep reduction and understand the difference between type K heavy-gauge sheathed thermocouple cables and small ones, the affects of EMF from sheath pipe, drawing times, annealing temperature, annealing time and annealing way were mainly studied and appropriately analyzed. The results show the change in the thermal EMF is related with the residual stress and crystal defects, which are imparted by cold work during manufacture. The affects of cold work can be removed by annealing. Finally, a feasible way of fabricating heavy-gauge sheathed thermocouples was suggested according to practical situation.

  1. Development and Testing of Tungsten-rhenium Thermocouples%钨铼热电偶开发与测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦明; 郝彦军

    2012-01-01

    近年来随着钨铼丝测温精度的不断提高,并因其廉价性,钨铼型快速热电偶将逐渐替代铂铑型快速热电偶。介绍钨铼热电偶开发与测试过程中的一些要点。%In recent years, with the continuous improvement of the tungsten-rhenium wire temperature measurement accuracy, and its cheap, fast tungsten-rhenium thermocouples will gradually replace the platinum and rhodium fast thermocouple. This article describes some of the key points in the tungsten-rhenium thermocouples development and testing process.

  2. A fine-wire thermocouple probe for measurement of stagnation temperatures in real gas hypersonic flows of nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Griffith, Wayland C.; Yanta, William J.

    1991-01-01

    A fine-wire thermocouple probe was used to determine freestream stagnation temperatures in hypersonic flows. Data were gathered in a N2 blowdown wind tunnel with runtimes of 1-5 s. Tests were made at supply pressures between 30 and 1400 atm and supply temperatures between 700 and 1900 K, with Mach numbers of 14 to 16. An iterative procedure requiring thermocouple data, pilot pressure measurements, and supply conditions was used to determine test cell stagnation temperatures. Probe conduction and radiation losses, as well as real gas behavior of N2, were accounted for during analysis. Temperature measurement error was found to be 5 to 10 percent. A correlation was drawn between thermocouple diameter Reynolds number and temperature recovery ratio. Transient probe behavior was studied and was found to be adequate in temperature gradients up to 1000 K/s.

  3. Development on Thin-film Thermocouples Technology for Foreign Aeroengine%国外航空发动机薄膜热电偶技术发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄春峰; 蒋明夫; 毛茂华

    2011-01-01

    The performance and technical characteristics for thin-film thermocouple were analysed.The method of sensitive film making,technologic method,quality control for thin-film thermocouple,and application and development of new technology were expatiated.The investigation results at home and abroad demonstrate that the advanced thin-film thermocouple technology can endure a hostile environment for aeroengine testing.It is a perfect method to successfully solve the surface temperature measurement for aeroengine blade and vane.%分析了薄膜热电偶的性能和技术特点,阐述了敏感膜的制作方法、薄膜热电偶工艺方法和质量控制,以及有关新技术的应用与发展。国内外研究结果表明:先进的薄膜热电偶能够承受恶劣的试验环境,是成功解决航空发动机涡轮叶片表面温度测量的理想方法。

  4. Study of improving working life of thermocouple%提高热电偶使用寿命的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the Thermocouples used in blast furnace hot blast stove to mix the wind temperature detection damage failure analysis,and How to improve the service life of the mixed wind temperature detection with thermocouple.%本文着重介绍了高炉热风炉混风温度检测用热电偶损坏故障分析以及如何提高混风温度检测用热电偶的使用寿命.

  5. Status of the EXOTIC-8 programme and first in-pile results for Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Laan, J.G.; Stijkel, M.P. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Conrad, R.

    1998-03-01

    After renewal of the Tritium Measuring Station the HFR is again fully operational for in-pile breeder irradiations. The EXOTIC-8 series has started with first three experiments on June 12, 1997. First in-pile results have been obtained for Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}-pebbles supplied by CEA: preliminary analyses indicate satisfactory in-pile behaviour with fast recovery from transient conditions. Five further experiments have been defined which implies that in the present planning EXOTIC-8 is filled completely up to Fall`98 and 2 of 4 positions are occupied up to Spring`99. P.I.E. results will be obtained from Spring`98 onwards. (J.P.N.)

  6. Chronic measurement of cardiac output in unanesthetized rats using miniature thermocouples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, J W; Barber, B J; Quillen, E W; Abram, R J; Cowley, A W

    1986-12-01

    A thermodilution technique is described for measuring steady-state cardiac output (CO) in conscious rats for periods of 2-3 wk. The method utilizes small implantable aortic thermocouples inserted via the femoral artery at the time of placement of other chronic indwelling catheters. Data are presented to validate the accuracy and reproducibility of the technique by acute in situ comparison with electromagnetic flowmeter measurements. Responses in chronically instrumented rats were tested with hemorrhage and infusions of vasodilator and vasoconstrictor agents administered repeatedly over a period of 9 days. The results show that the system is capable of measuring CO chronically and provides reproducible responses for periods of at least several weeks. We conclude that these methods provide a single, inexpensive, and accurate way to measure steady-state CO in conscious, unrestrained rats.

  7. High temperature thermocouple and heat flux gauge using a unique thin film-hardware hot juncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, C. H.; Holanda, R.; Hippensteele, S. A.; Andracchio, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    A special thin film-hardware material thermocouple (TC) and heat flux gauge concept for a reasonably high temperature and high flux flat plate heat transfer experiment was fabricated and tested to gauge temperatures of 911 K. This concept was developed for minimal disturbance of boundary layer temperature and flow over the plates and minimal disturbance of heat flux through the plates. Comparison of special heat flux gauge Stanton number output at steady-state conditions with benchmark literature data was good and agreement was within a calculated uncertainty of the measurement system. Also, good agreement of special TC and standard TC outputs was obtained and the results are encouraging. Oxidation of thin film thermoelements was a primary failure mode after about 5 of operation.

  8. Peltier effect exchanges in contact thermocouples - Application to the characterization of new thermoelectric circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrached, N.-E.

    Results from an investigation of coupling in thermoelectric circuits manufactured by electrodeposition of a metallic conductor on a conducting foil made of a different material are presented. The study was undertaken to define the significant factors in the design and manufacture of thermal fluxmeters. Theoretical considerations indicate that the voltage appearing between output connections is proportional to the average spatial thermal gradient on the sensitive surface of the thermoelement. A figure of merit is defined for the coupling of the contact thermocouples. Localized thermal exchanges of opposite sign are shown to occur due to the passage of current, and are concentrated at the boundaries of each thermoelement. Nonisothermal tangential thermal gradients appear on the surface of the circuit. Experimental studies confirm the appearance of the gradients by their IR signatures. Finally, the gradients are determined to be affected by the thickness and conductivity of the medium placed between the emitter and detector circuits.

  9. Investigation of the viscous heating artefact arising from the use of thermocouples in a focused ultrasound field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Hugh; Rivens, Ian; Shaw, Adam; Haar, Gail Ter

    2008-09-07

    Accurate temperature measurements in therapeutic ultrasound fields are necessary for understanding damage mechanisms, verification of thermal modelling and calibration of non-invasive clinical thermometry. However, artefactual heating, primarily due to viscous forces which result from motion relative to the surrounding tissue, occurs when metal thermocouples are used in an ultrasound field. The magnitude and time dependence of this artefact has been characterized by comparison with novel thin-film thermocouples (TFTs) at 1-2 cm focal depths in fresh degassed ex vivo bovine liver. High-intensity focused ultrasound exposures (1.7 MHz; free-field spatial-peak temporal-average intensities 40-600 W cm(-2)) were used. Subtraction of the TFT data from that obtained for other thermocouples yielded the time dependence of the viscous heating artefact. This was found to be intensity independent up to 600 W cm(-2) (below the threshold for cavitation and lesion formation) and remained significant at radial distances out to the first side lobe in the focal plane. The contribution of viscous heating to cooling was also found to be significant for at least 5 s after the end of insonation. The ratio of viscous artefact to absorptive heating after 5 s was: 1.76 +/- 0.07 for a fine-wire, 0.45 +/- 0.07 and 1.93 +/- 0.07 for two different sheathed-wires and 0.24 +/- 0.07 for a needle thermocouple.

  10. Thermometry of the surface of human skin. A study on a model using thermocouples, thermistors, thermovision and thermodyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, U; Wegener, O H; Scheffler, A; Ernst, H

    1976-05-01

    The temperature of the surface of a model of human skin is measured using a recently developed probe to house a thermocouple or thermistor. The results are compared with thermovision and thermodye measurements. The effect on skin temperature of hot and cold vessels at various depths is investigated.

  11. Distortion of millimeter-wave absorption in biological media due to presence of thermocouples and other objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, S I; Ziskin, M C

    2001-09-01

    Specific absorption rate (SAR) distributions in the vicinity of a thermocouple or air bubble in water and in the presence of hair or sweat duct in skin were calculated using analytical and two-dimensional impedance methods. The objects were exposed to uniform 42.25 GHz plane electromagnetic fields. Insertion of a 0.1-mm thermocouple or similarly sized air bubble into water produced a strong localized disturbance of the otherwise uniform SAR distribution. However, the average of SAR values immediately surrounding the thermocouple was close to the undisturbed uniform average SAR. This allows measuring the average SAR during exposure of both unbounded and bounded media using calibrated small thermocouples (up to 0.1 mm). The SAR distribution in the vicinity of a hair was qualitatively similar to that produced by an air bubble. The maximal value of SAR was more than three times higher than the overall average SAR value in the skin. Sweat ducts produced a smaller disturbance of the millimeter-wave (mm-wave) field.

  12. Seebeck Changes Due to Residual Cold-Work and Reversible Effects in Type K Bare-Wire Thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, E. S.

    2017-09-01

    Type K thermocouples are the most commonly used thermocouple for industrial measurements because of their low cost, wide temperature range, and durability. As with all base-metal thermocouples, Type K is made to match a mathematical temperature-to-emf relationship and not a prescribed alloy formulation. Because different manufacturers use varying alloy formulations and manufacturing techniques, different Type K thermocouples exhibit a range of drift and hysteresis characteristics, largely due to ordering effects in the positive (K+) thermoelement. In this study, these effects are assessed in detail for temperatures below 700°C in the Type K wires from nine manufacturers. A linear gradient furnace and a high-resolution homogeneity scanner combined with the judicious use of annealing processes allow measurements that separately identify the effects of cold-work, ordering, and oxidation to be made. The results show most K+ alloys develop significant errors, but the magnitudes of the contributions of each process vary substantially between the different K+ wires. In practical applications, the measurement uncertainties achievable with Type K therefore depend not only on the wire formulation but also on the temperature, period of exposure, and, most importantly, the thermal treatments prior to use.

  13. Annealing tests of in-pile irradiated oxide coated U-Mo/Al-Si dispersed nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweifel, T.; Valot, Ch.; Pontillon, Y.; Lamontagne, J.; Vermersch, A.; Barrallier, L.; Blay, T.; Petry, W.; Palancher, H.

    2014-09-01

    U-Mo/Al based nuclear fuels have been worldwide considered as a promising high density fuel for the conversion of high flux research reactors from highly enriched uranium to lower enrichment. In this paper, we present the annealing test up to 1800 °C of in-pile irradiated U-Mo/Al-Si fuel plate samples. More than 70% of the fission gases (FGs) are released during two major FG release peaks around 500 °C and 670 °C. Additional characterisations of the samples by XRD, EPMA and SEM suggest that up to 500 °C FGs are released from IDL/matrix interfaces. The second peak at 670 °C representing the main release of FGs originates from the interaction between U-Mo and matrix in the vicinity of the cladding.

  14. Analysis of performance and optimum configuration of two-stage semiconductor thermoelectric module

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Kai-Zhen; Liang Rui-Sheng; Wei Zheng-Jun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the theoretical analysis and simulating calculation were conducted for a basic two-stage semiconductor thermoelectric module, which contains one thermocouple in the second stage and several thermocouples in the first stage. The study focused on the configuration of the two-stage semiconductor thermoelectric cooler, especially investigating the influences of some parameters, such as the current I1 of the first stage, the area A1 of every thermocouple and the number n of thermocouples in the first stage, on the cooling performance of the module. The obtained results of analysis indicate that changing the current I1 of the first stage, the area A1 of thcrmocouples and the number n of thermocouples in the first stage can improve the cooling performance of the module. These results can be used to optimize the configuration of the two-stage semiconductor thermoelectric module and provide guides for the design and application of thermoelectric cooler.

  15. Measurement of the in-pile core temperature of an EL-4 pencil element, first charge (can of type-347 stainless steel, 0.4 mm thick, UO{sub 2} fuel, 11 mm diameter). Determination of the apparent thermal conductivity integral of in-pile UO{sub 2}; Mesure de la temperature a coeur en pile d'un crayon EL-4 1er jeu (gaine acier inoxydable, nuance 347 - epaisseur 0,4 mm - combustible UO{sub 2} - diametre 11 mm). Determination de l'integrale de conductibilite thermique apparente de l'UO{sub 2} en pile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavaud, B.; Ringot, C.; Vignesoult, N. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-11-01

    The core temperature of a pencil fuel element depends on the thermal conductivity of the UO{sub 2}, and on the UO{sub 2}-can contact. This temperature may be known accurately only if in-pile tests using the actual geometry are carried out. The test described concerns the measurement of the core- temperature of an EL-4 fuel element, first charge, having a stainless steel can. This temperature is measured at the center of the in-pile pencil element using a high-temperature thermocouple (W-Re with Ta sheath). The element is subjected to operating conditions similar to those of EL-4, both for the specific power and the can temperature and for the pressure acting on the can. The specific power is obtained in the EL-3 reactor using a slightly higher enrichment for the UO{sub 2} than that planned for EL-4. The required can temperature and pressure are obtained using a Zircaloy-2 irradiation container filled with NaK, adapted for use in the EL-3 reactor. The core temperatures of the UO{sub 2}, and that of the can surface are measured. The power is calculated from the heat exchanges in the container calibrated in the laboratory. The temperature drop at the UO{sub 2}-can interface is deduced from laboratory measurements carried out under comparable heat flux conditions, and in a gas atmosphere corresponding to the beginning of the life-time of the fuel element. It is possible to draw an integral conductivity curve. It is also possible to check the temperature distribution in the oxide, as deduced from the thermal conductivity integral, by micro-graphic examination of the oxide structure. (authors) [French] La temperature a coeur d'un crayon combustible est fonction de la conductibilite thermique de l'UO{sub 2}, mais aussi du contact UO{sub 2}-gaine. Les essais de mesure en geometrie reelle en pile sont les seuls qui permettent d'avoir une connaissance exacte de cette valeur. L'essai dont il est question dans ce rapport a trait a la mesure de la

  16. Fabrication and Characteristics of Thermocouple Temperature Measuring Cutter for Cutting Zone%切削区热电偶测温刀具的制备及其性能测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志军; 林新贵; 全燕鸣

    2015-01-01

    由于切削测温温感器无法直接接触切削区,故在铂铑丝表面喷涂耐热绝缘层制作耐热热电偶,把表面覆盖耐热绝缘层的热电偶埋入硬质合金粉末,压制、烧结成热电偶测温刀片。通过恒温箱测温实验判定热电偶的测温性能,用性能正常的热电偶测温刀具进行切削测温实验,测温实验结果及切削刀具镜测结果表明,热电偶测温刀具能直接、可靠地进行切削区温度的测量,但是用此工艺制作的刀具切削寿命较短;实验结果还表明直径越大的铂铑丝制作的热电偶测温刀具的成品率越高,但是铂铑丝直径越大,刀具寿命越短;实验进一步揭示切削区内各点的温差较大,但是一次切削切削区温度场处于稳态时切削测温点的温度是稳定的,温度场处于稳态时切削温度的变化能迅速反映刀具的磨损状态的变化。%Cutting temperature measurement sensor could not directly contact the cutting zone,for resolving this problem,a heat-resistant insulation layer was sprayed on the surface of platinum rhodi-um wire so as to form the heat-resistant thermocouple initially,and then,the thermocouple covered by a heat insulation layer was embedded into the cemented carbide powder,and pressed and sintered to form a thermocouple temperature measuring blade.Temperature measuring performance of thermo-couple was judged by the temperature measurement experiments in thermostat,and the normal ther-mocouple temperature measuring cutter was used in the experiments of cutting temperature measure-ment.The experiments show that the thermocouple temperature measuring cutter can take the tem-perature measurement of the cutting zone directly and reliably,but the life of cutter is short.Experi-ments also show that the larger the diameter of platinum rhodium wire,the higher yield of the ther-mocouple temperature measuring cutter,but accordingly,the life of cutter is shorter.Experiments fur

  17. Practical system for the direct measurement of magneto-caloric effect by micro-thermocouples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarád, J; Kaštil, J; Arnold, Z

    2012-08-01

    A system for direct measurements of the magneto-caloric effect (MCE) exploits a rapid transport of a sample into or from magnetic field in permanent Halbach-type (1 T) or superconducting (4.7 T) magnets. Time dependence of induced changes of the sample temperature, ΔT(t), is detected directly by the differential Cu-Constantan-Cu micro-thermocouples with time steps of 300 ms. A sample placed inside an evacuated simple LN(2) cryostat is either totally isolated (adiabatic conditions) or partly connected with the copper sample holder (non-adiabatic conditions). The last arrangement (a model of the Brayton cycle) is used to simulate an application of MCE in refrigeration techniques. The relations describing ΔT(t) that allow an analysis of MCE of the studied materials are based on the general cooling law. The effect of the first-order magnetic transition on MCE of selected sample is also demonstrated by non-standard ΔT(t) curves measured in the last mentioned experimental arrangements.

  18. Thermocouple and Infrared Sensor-Based Measurement of Temperature Distribution in Metal Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdil Kus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In metal cutting, the magnitude of the temperature at the tool-chip interface is a function of the cutting parameters. This temperature directly affects production; therefore, increased research on the role of cutting temperatures can lead to improved machining operations. In this study, tool temperature was estimated by simultaneous temperature measurement employing both a K-type thermocouple and an infrared radiation (IR pyrometer to measure the tool-chip interface temperature. Due to the complexity of the machining processes, the integration of different measuring techniques was necessary in order to obtain consistent temperature data. The thermal analysis results were compared via the ANSYS finite element method. Experiments were carried out in dry machining using workpiece material of AISI 4140 alloy steel that was heat treated by an induction process to a hardness of 50 HRC. A PVD TiAlN-TiN-coated WNVG 080404-IC907 carbide insert was used during the turning process. The results showed that with increasing cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, the tool temperature increased; the cutting speed was found to be the most effective parameter in assessing the temperature rise. The heat distribution of the cutting tool, tool-chip interface and workpiece provided effective and useful data for the optimization of selected cutting parameters during orthogonal machining.

  19. Thermocouple and infrared sensor-based measurement of temperature distribution in metal cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Abdil; Isik, Yahya; Cakir, M Cemal; Coşkun, Salih; Özdemir, Kadir

    2015-01-12

    In metal cutting, the magnitude of the temperature at the tool-chip interface is a function of the cutting parameters. This temperature directly affects production; therefore, increased research on the role of cutting temperatures can lead to improved machining operations. In this study, tool temperature was estimated by simultaneous temperature measurement employing both a K-type thermocouple and an infrared radiation (IR) pyrometer to measure the tool-chip interface temperature. Due to the complexity of the machining processes, the integration of different measuring techniques was necessary in order to obtain consistent temperature data. The thermal analysis results were compared via the ANSYS finite element method. Experiments were carried out in dry machining using workpiece material of AISI 4140 alloy steel that was heat treated by an induction process to a hardness of 50 HRC. A PVD TiAlN-TiN-coated WNVG 080404-IC907 carbide insert was used during the turning process. The results showed that with increasing cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, the tool temperature increased; the cutting speed was found to be the most effective parameter in assessing the temperature rise. The heat distribution of the cutting tool, tool-chip interface and workpiece provided effective and useful data for the optimization of selected cutting parameters during orthogonal machining.

  20. Correct utilization of thermocouple compensation conductor%热电偶补偿导线的正确使用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽

    2012-01-01

    The thesis introduces the utilization principles of compensation conductor, analyzes the impact of operation errors upon thermocouple temperature measuring results, and puts forward correct compensation conduction utilization methods, with a view to thermocouple temperature measuring error influencing other thermal controlling aspects.%对补偿导线的使用原理进行了介绍,阐述了操作错误对热电偶温度测量结果的影响,并提出补偿导线的正确使用方法,以避免热电偶的测温结果出现较大误差影响热控工作其他环节。

  1. Comparisons of Gas-phase Temperature Measurements in a Flame Using Thin-Filament Pyrometry and Thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, Peter; Dietrich, Daniel; Valentine, Russell; Feier, Ioan

    2003-01-01

    Less-intrusive, fast-responding, and full-field temperature measurements have long been a desired tool for the research community. Recently, the emission of a silicon-carbide (SiC) fiber placed in a flowing hot (or reacting) gas has been used to measure the temperature profile along the length of the fiber. The relationship between the gas and fiber temperature comes from an energy balance on the fiber. In the present work, we compared single point flame temperature measurements using thin-filament pyrometry (TFP) and thermocouples. The data was from vertically traversing a thermocouple and a SiC fiber through a methanol/air diffusion flame of a porous-metal wick burner. The results showed that the gas temperature using the TFP technique agreed with the thermocouple measurements (25.4 m diameter wire) within 3.5% for temperatures above 1200 K. Additionally, we imaged the entire SiC fiber (with a spatial resolution of 0.14 mm) while it was in the flame using a high resolution CCD camera. The intensity level along the fiber length is a function of the temperature. This results in a one-dimensional temperature profiles at various heights above the burner wick. This temperature measurement technique, while having a precision of less than 1 K, showed data scatter as high as 38 K. Finally, we discuss the major sources of uncertainty in gas temperature measurement using TFP.

  2. New fixed-point mini-cell to investigate thermocouple drift in a high-temperature environment under neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurie, M.; Vlahovic, L.; Rondinella, V.V. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe, (Germany); Sadli, M.; Failleau, G. [Laboratoire Commun de Metrologie, LNE-Cnam, Saint-Denis, (France); Fuetterer, M.; Lapetite, J.M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten, (Netherlands); Fourrez, S. [Thermocoax, 8 rue du pre neuf, F-61100 St Georges des Groseillers, (France)

    2015-07-01

    Temperature measurements in the nuclear field require a high degree of reliability and accuracy. Despite their sheathed form, thermocouples subjected to nuclear radiations undergo changes due to radiation damage and transmutation that lead to significant EMF drift during long-term fuel irradiation experiment. For the purpose of a High Temperature Reactor fuel irradiation to take place in the High Flux Reactor Petten, a dedicated fixed-point cell was jointly developed by LNE-Cnam and JRC-IET. The developed cell to be housed in the irradiation rig was tailor made to quantify the thermocouple drift during the irradiation (about two year duration) and withstand high temperature (in the range 950 deg. C - 1100 deg. C) in the presence of contaminated helium in a graphite environment. Considering the different levels of temperature achieved in the irradiation facility and the large palette of thermocouple types aimed at surveying the HTR fuel pebble during the qualification test both copper (1084.62 deg. C) and gold (1064.18 deg. C) fixed-point materials were considered. The aim of this paper is to first describe the fixed-point mini-cell designed to be embedded in the reactor rig and to discuss the preliminary results achieved during some out of pile tests as much as some robustness tests representative of the reactor scram scenarios. (authors)

  3. 贵金属铠装热电偶的发展及应用%The Development and Application of Armored Thermocouple of Precious Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健康; 刘毅; 李伟; 虞坤; 许昆; 罗锡明

    2016-01-01

    贵金属铠装热电偶具有特殊的结构和特性,对套管、偶丝、绝缘材料进行了介绍,列出了贵金属铠装热电偶相关标准,并介绍了其应用领域。对贵金属铠装热电偶的发展方向进行了展望。%The armored thermocouple of precious metals have special structures and properties. The thermowell, thermocouple wires, insulation material were introduced, the standards were listed and the applications of armored thermocouple of precious metals were described. Lastly, the development trends of armored thermocouple of precious metals were proposed.

  4. Long Hole Film Cooling Dataset for CFD Development . Part 1; Infrared Thermography and Thermocouple Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Vikram; Thurman, Douglas; Poinsatte, Phillip; Ameri, Ali; Eichele, Peter; Knight, James

    2013-01-01

    An experiment investigating flow and heat transfer of long (length to diameter ratio of 18) cylindrical film cooling holes has been completed. In this paper, the thermal field in the flow and on the surface of the film cooled flat plate is presented for nominal freestream turbulence intensities of 1.5 and 8 percent. The holes are inclined at 30deg above the downstream direction, injecting chilled air of density ratio 1.0 onto the surface of a flat plate. The diameter of the hole is 0.75 in. (0.01905 m) with center to center spacing (pitch) of 3 hole diameters. Coolant was injected into the mainstream flow at nominal blowing ratios of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0. The Reynolds number of the freestream was approximately 11,000 based on hole diameter. Thermocouple surveys were used to characterize the thermal field. Infrared thermography was used to determine the adiabatic film effectiveness on the plate. Hotwire anemometry was used to provide flowfield physics and turbulence measurements. The results are compared to existing data in the literature. The aim of this work is to produce a benchmark dataset for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) development to eliminate the effects of hole length to diameter ratio and to improve resolution in the near-hole region. In this report, a Time-Filtered Navier Stokes (TFNS), also known as Partially Resolved Navier Stokes (PRNS), method that was implemented in the Glenn-HT code is used to model coolant-mainstream interaction. This method is a high fidelity unsteady method that aims to represent large scale flow features and mixing more accurately.

  5. Prediction of the initial normal stress in piles and anchors constructed using expansive cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberfield, C. M.

    2000-03-01

    Uses for expansive cements and additives have extended well beyond off-setting the shrinkage characteristics of grout and concrete to include enhancement of rock anchor and pile performance, providing an alternative form of connection for tubular members in off-shore structures and as an excavation tool in open-pit mines. In each case, the design rules governing the quantity of expansive additive to be used are based on guesswork or empiricism. This paper presents analytical solutions for estimating the degree of expansion and the level of normal stress developed for a range of different boundary conditions and expansive additive contents. The expansion process is modelled as a thermal expansion and is governed by one parameter that depends on the type of expansive additive and its dosage. Simple laboratory procedures for determining this property are outlined. Predictions from the analytical solutions are compared with laboratory experiments.

  6. IN-PILE INSTRUMENTATION TO SUPPORT FUEL CYCLE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT - FY12 STATUS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. . Rempe; J. Daw; D. Knudson; R. Schley

    2012-09-01

    As part of the FCRD program objective to emphasize science-based, goal-oriented research, a strategic research program is underway to develop new sensors that can be used to obtain the high fidelity, real-time, data required for characterizing the performance of new fuels during irradiation testing. The overarching goal of this initiative is to develop new test vehicles with new sensors of unprecedented accuracy and resolution that can obtain the required data. Prior laboratory testing and, as needed, irradiation testing of sensors in these capsules will be completed as part of this initiative to give sufficient confidence that the irradiation tests will yield the required data. This report documents FY12 progress in this initiative.

  7. In-pile thermocycling testing and post-test analysis of beryllium divertor mockups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giniatulin, R.; Mazul, I. [Efremov Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Melder, R.; Pokrovsky, A.; Sandakov, V.; Shiuchkin, A.

    1998-01-01

    The main damaging factors which impact the ITER divertor components are neutron irradiation, cyclic surface heat loads and hydrogen environment. One of the important questions in divertor mockups development is the reliability of beryllium/copper joints and the beryllium resistance under neutron irradiation and thermal cycling. This work presents the experiment, where neutron irradiation and thermocyclic heat loads were applied simultaneously for two beryllium/copper divertor mockups in a nuclear reactor channel to simulate divertor operational conditions. Two mockups with different beryllium grades were mounted facing each other with the tantalum heater placed between them. This device was installed in the active zone of the nuclear reactor SM-2 (Dimitrovgrad, Russia) and the tantalum block was heated by neutron irradiation up to a high temperature. The main part of the heat flux from the tantalum surface was transported to the beryllium surface through hydrogen, as a result the heat flux loaded two mockups simultaneously. The mockups were cooled by reactor water. The device was lowered to the active zone so as to obtain the heating regime and to provide cooling lifted. This experiment was performed under the following conditions: tantalum heater temperature - 1950degC; hydrogen environment -1000 Pa; surface heat flux density -3.2 MW/m{sup 2}; number of thermal cycles (lowering and lifting) -101; load time in each cycle - 200-5000 s; dwell time (no heat flux, no neutrons) - 300-2000 s; cooling water parameters: v - 1 m/s, Tin - 50degC, Pin - 5 MPa; neutron fluence -2.5 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2} ({approx}8 years of ITER divertor operation from the start up). The metallographic analysis was performed after experiment to investigate the beryllium and beryllium/copper joint structures, the results are presented in the paper. (author)

  8. Temperature measurement errors with thermocouples inside 27 MHz current source interstitial hyperthermia applicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatee, R S; Crezee, H; Visser, A G

    1999-06-01

    The multielectrode current source (MECS) interstitial hyperthermia (IHT) system uses thermocouple thermometry. To obtain a homogeneous temperature distribution and to limit the number of traumas due to the implanted catheters, most catheters are used for both heating and thermometry. Implications of temperature measurement inside applicators are discussed. In particular, the impact of self-heating of both the applicator and the afterloading catheter were investigated. A one-dimensional cylindrical model was used to compute the difference between the temperature rise inside the applicators (deltaTin) and in the tissue just outside the afterloading catheter (deltaTout) as a function of power absorption in the afterloading catheter, self-heating of the applicator and the effective thermal conductivity of the surrounding tissue. Furthermore, the relative artefact (ERR), i.e. (deltaTin - deltaTout)/deltaTin, was measured in a muscle equivalent agar phantom at different positions in a dual-electrode applicator and for different catheter materials. A method to estimate the tissue temperature by power-off temperature decay measurement inside the applicator was investigated. Using clinical dual-electrode applicators in standard brachytherapy catheters in a muscle-equivalent phantom, deltaTin is typically twice as high as deltaTout. The main reason for this difference is self-heating of the thin feeder wires in the centre of the applicator. The measurement error caused by energy absorption in the afterloading catheter is small, i.e. even for materials with a high dielectric loss factor it is less than 5%. About 5 s after power has been switched off, Tin in the electrodes represents the maximum tissue temperature just before power-off. This delay time (t(delay)) and ERR are independent of Tin. However, they do depend on the thermal properties of the tissue. Therefore, ERR and t(delay) and their stability in perfused tissues have to be investigated to enable a reliable

  9. 热电偶冷端补偿改进研究%Improvement of Cold-conjunction Compensation of Thermocouple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海涛; 罗珊; 郭涛

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of discussing cold-conjunction compensation of thermocouple measurement circuit,an improving solution was provided which was based on the A/D converter ADS1224 with internal high accuracy temperature sensor. The absolute cold-conjunction temperature was measured separately. At last the temperature of heating-conjunction of thermocouple was calculated through software. The circuit, suiting to any types of thermocouple, is more optimized and the temperature is measured more accurately. The solution has the advantage such as simple hardware, low cost, high accuracy and stability.%在对现有热电偶测温冷端补偿电路进行分析的基础上,提出基于内置高精度温度传感器的模数转换芯片ADS1224的解决方案.为了提高精度和简化电路,将冷端测温电路与热电偶回路分离,冷端温度和热电偶电动势被独立进行测量,然后利用软件计算获得精确的热电偶工作端温度.同时文章也讨论了提高冷端温度测量精度的设计.实际应用说明该方案使得电路结构得到进一步优化,具有结构简单、成本低、精度高、稳定性高和抗干扰能力强等优点,具有推广价值.

  10. Scanning thermal microscopy based on a quartz tuning fork and a micro-thermocouple in active mode (2ω method)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bontempi, Alexia; Nguyen, Tran Phong; Salut, Roland; Thiery, Laurent; Teyssieux, Damien; Vairac, Pascal [FEMTO-ST Institute UMR 6174, Université de Franche-Comté, CNRS, ENSMM, UTBM, 15B Avenue des Montboucons, F-25030 Besançon (France)

    2016-06-15

    A novel probe for scanning thermal microscope using a micro-thermocouple probe placed on a Quartz Tuning Fork (QTF) is presented. Instead of using an external deflection with a cantilever beam for contact detection, an original combination of piezoelectric resonator and thermal probe is employed. Due to a non-contact photothermal excitation principle, the high quality factor of the QTF allows the probe-to-surface contact detection. Topographic and thermal scanning images obtained on a specific sample points out the interest of our system as an alternative to cantilevered resistive probe systems which are the most spread.

  11. Attachment of lead wires to thin film thermocouples mounted on high temperature materials using the parallel gap welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, Raymond; Kim, Walter S.; Pencil, Eric; Groth, Mary; Danzey, Gerald A.

    1990-01-01

    Parallel gap resistance welding was used to attach lead wires to sputtered thin film sensors. Ranges of optimum welding parameters to produce an acceptable weld were determined. The thin film sensors were Pt13Rh/Pt thermocouples; they were mounted on substrates of MCrAlY-coated superalloys, aluminum oxide, silicon carbide and silicon nitride. The entire sensor system is designed to be used on aircraft engine parts. These sensor systems, including the thin-film-to-lead-wire connectors, were tested to 1000 C.

  12. Scanning thermal microscopy based on a quartz tuning fork and a micro-thermocouple in active mode (2ω method).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempi, Alexia; Nguyen, Tran Phong; Salut, Roland; Thiery, Laurent; Teyssieux, Damien; Vairac, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    A novel probe for scanning thermal microscope using a micro-thermocouple probe placed on a Quartz Tuning Fork (QTF) is presented. Instead of using an external deflection with a cantilever beam for contact detection, an original combination of piezoelectric resonator and thermal probe is employed. Due to a non-contact photothermal excitation principle, the high quality factor of the QTF allows the probe-to-surface contact detection. Topographic and thermal scanning images obtained on a specific sample points out the interest of our system as an alternative to cantilevered resistive probe systems which are the most spread.

  13. Calculation of the Uncertainty of Cheap Metal Thermocouple%廉金属热电偶的不确定度计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晔

    2016-01-01

    目前用量最大的廉金属热电偶是镍铬-镍硅热电偶(K型热电偶),为保证计量性能的准确可靠,采用双极法对其进行检定,用一等标准铂铑10-铂热电偶检定一支K型II级热电偶,检定点选取1000℃。文章重点介绍了该检定方法和示值误差的不确定度评定。%The current most widely used cheap metal thermocouple is chromel-silicel thermocouple (K type thermocouple). In order to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the calculation, we use bipolar method for its verification. The first standard Pt-Rh 10-platinum thermocouple is used to verify a K type Class II thermocouple, and the verification point is 1000℃. This paper mainly introduces the uncertainty evaluation of this verification method and the indication error.

  14. Advanced instrumentation and analysis methods for in-pile thermal and nuclear measurements: from out-of-pile studies to irradiation campaigns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynard-Carette, C. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, Universite de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397, Marseille (France); Lyoussi, A. [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 (France)

    2015-07-01

    Research and development on nuclear fuel behavior under irradiations and accelerated ageing of structure materials is a key issue for sustainable nuclear energy in order to meet specific needs by keeping the best level of safety. A new Material Testing Reactor (MTR), the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) currently under construction in the South of France in the CEA Cadarache research centre will offer a real opportunity to perform R and D programs and hence will crucially contribute to the selection, optimization and qualification of innovative materials and fuels. To perform such programs advanced accurate and innovative experiments, irradiation devices that contain material and fuel samples are required to be set up inside or beside the reactor core. These experiments needs beforehand in situ and on line sophisticated measurements to accurately reach specific and determining parameters such as thermal and fast neutron fluxes, nuclear heating and temperature conditions to precisely monitor and control the conducted assays. Consequently, since 2009 CEA and Aix-Marseille University collaborate in order to design and develop a new multi-sensor device which will be dedicated to measuring profiles of such conditions inside the experimental channels of the JHR. These works are performed in the framework of two complementary joint research programs called MAHRI-BETHY and INCORE. These programs couple experimental studies carried out both out-of nuclear fluxes (in laboratory) and under irradiation conditions (in OSIRIS MTR reactor in France and MARIA MTR reactor in Poland) with numerical works realized by thermal simulations (CAST3M code) and Monte Carlo simulations (MCNP code). These programs deal with three main aims. The first one corresponds to the design and/or the test of new in-pile instrumentation. The second one concerns the development of advanced calibration procedures in particular in the case of one specific sensor: a differential calorimeter used to quantify

  15. Several Sources of Thermocouples Instability%热电偶不稳定性的几个来源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻杰; 刘强

    2014-01-01

    Thermocouple is a common used sensor in industrial temperature measurement, which has characteristics of high accuracy, wide economy and temperature. However, during the measurement, the measurement results of thermocouple will have instability that caused by measurement conditions and environmental restrictions. For example: pollution, oxidation, reduction, physical condition, embrittlement, irradiation are the major sources.%热电偶是工业温度测量常用的传感器,它具有精度高、经济和温度宽的特点。然而在测量过程中热电偶也会因为测量条件和环境限制而导致出现测量结果的不稳定性。例如:污染、氧化、还原、物理条件、脆裂、照射就是影响热电偶测量结果不稳定性的主要来源。

  16. Surface thermocouples for measurement of pulsed heat flux in the divertor of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, D; LaBombard, B

    2012-03-01

    A novel set of thermocouple sensors has been developed to measure heat fluxes arriving at divertor surfaces in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, a magnetic confinement fusion experiment. These sensors operate in direct contact with the divertor plasma, which deposits heat fluxes in excess of ~10 MW/m(2) over an ~1 s pulse. Thermoelectric EMF signals are produced across a non-standard bimetallic junction: a 50 μm thick 74% tungsten-26% rhenium ribbon embedded in a 6.35 mm diameter molybdenum cylinder. The unique coaxial geometry of the sensor combined with its single-point electrical ground contact minimizes interference from the plasma/magnetic environment. Incident heat fluxes are inferred from surface temperature evolution via a 1D thermal heat transport model. For an incident heat flux of 10 MW/m(2), surface temperatures rise ~1000 °C/s, corresponding to a heat flux flowing along the local magnetic field of ~200 MW/m(2). Separate calorimeter sensors are used to independently confirm the derived heat fluxes by comparing total energies deposited during a plasma pulse. Langmuir probes in close proximity to the surface thermocouples are used to test plasma-sheath heat transmission theory and to identify potential sources of discrepancies among physical models.

  17. 工业炉上热电偶的不当使用%Improper Use of Thermocouple in Industrial Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍大勇; 胡应占

    2012-01-01

    通过6个生产现场故障实例,说明了工业炉上应用的热电偶不当使用引发的设备运行故障和生产事故.分析了事故产生的原因.指出了为了避免同类生产和设备事故应该采取的关于工业炉上热电偶的配置、运行、操作方式的12个要点以及相关的技术措施.%Through six failure examples at the production site, the equipment operation fault and production accidents caused by the improper use of thermocouple in the industrial furnace are illustrated. The formation causes of the accident are analyzed. Moreover, in order to avoid similar accident occurred, the 12 points and related technical measures of the configuration, operation, and operation method of thermocouple should take about industrial furnace are pointed out.

  18. Investigation of pool boiling dynamics on a rectangular heater using nano-thermocouples: is it chaotic or stochastic?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathyamurthi, Vijaykumar; Banerjee, Debjyoti [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], e-mail: dbanerjee@tamu.edu

    2009-07-01

    The non-linear dynamical model of pool boiling on a horizontal rectangular heater is assessed from experimental results in this study. Pool boiling experiments are conducted over a horizontal rectangular silicon substrate measuring 63 mm x 35 mm with PF-5060 as the test fluid. Novel nano-thermocouples, micro-machined in-situ on the silicon substrate are used to measure the surface temperature fluctuations for steady state pool boiling. The acquisition frequency for temperature data from the nano-thermocouples is 1 k Hz. The surface temperature fluctuations are analyzed using the TISEAN{sup c} package. A time-delay embedding is employed to generate higher dimensional phase-space vectors from the temperature time series record. The optimal delay is determined from the first minimum of the mutual information function. Techniques such as recurrence plots, and false nearest neighbors tests are employed to assess the presence of deterministic chaotic dynamics. Chaos quantifiers such as correlation dimensions are found for various pool boiling regimes using the raw data as well as noise-reduced data. Additionally, pseudo-phase spaces are used to reconstruct the 'attractors'. The results after non-linear noise reduction shows definitive presence of low-dimensional (d {<=} 7) chaos in fully developed nucleate boiling, at critical heat flux and in film boiling. (author)

  19. 热电偶测温原理及在石灰窑中的应用%Temperature measuring principle of thermocouple and its application in lime kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向创; 宾鸿伟; 马金华

    2012-01-01

    The working principle of thermocouple and its varieties and features are described. The error factors generated in the application of thermocouple in lime kiln and matters needing attention are narrated. It is emphasized that the application of thermocouple in the process of the production of high quality lime has an important effect.%介绍了热电偶工作原理及其种类特点;阐述了热电偶在石灰窑中使用时所产生的误差因素和注意事项;强调了热电偶在生产优质石灰的过程中具有重要作用。

  20. In-Pile Experiment of a New Hafnium Aluminide Composite Material to Enable Fast Neutron Testing in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donna Post Guillen; Douglas L. Porter; James R. Parry; Heng Ban

    2010-06-01

    A new hafnium aluminide composite material is being developed as a key component in a Boosted Fast Flux Loop (BFFL) system designed to provide fast neutron flux test capability in the Advanced Test Reactor. An absorber block comprised of hafnium aluminide (Al3Hf) particles (~23% by volume) dispersed in an aluminum matrix can absorb thermal neutrons and transfer heat from the experiment to pressurized water cooling channels. However, the thermophysical properties, such as thermal conductivity, of this material and the effect of irradiation are not known. This paper describes the design of an in-pile experiment to obtain such data to enable design and optimization of the BFFL neutron filter.

  1. High-temperature thermocouple and heat flux gauge using a unique thin film-hardware hot junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, C. H.; Holanda, R.; Hippensteele, S. A.; Andracchio, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A special thin film-hardware material thermocouple (TC) and heat flux gauge concept for a reasonably high temperature and high flux flat plate heat transfer experiment was fabricated and tested to gauge temperatures of 911 K. This concept was developed for minimal disturbance of boundary layer temperature and flow over the plates and minimal disturbance of heat flux through the plates. Comparison of special heat flux gauge Stanton number output at steady-state conditions with benchmark literature data was good and agreement was within a calculated uncertainty of the measurement system. Also, good agreement of special TC and standard TC outputs was obtained and the results are encouraging. Oxidation of thin film thermoelements was a primary failure mode after about 5 of operation.

  2. Development of a fuel-rod simulator and small-diameter thermocouples for high-temperature, high-heat-flux tests in the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor Core Flow Test Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloch, R.W.; MacPherson, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    The Core Flow Test Loop was constructed to perform many of the safety, core design, and mechanical interaction tests in support of the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) using electrically heated fuel rod simulators (FRSs). Operation includes many off-normal or postulated accident sequences including transient, high-power, and high-temperature operation. The FRS was developed to survive: (1) hundreds of hours of operation at 200 W/cm/sup 2/, 1000/sup 0/C cladding temperature, and (2) 40 h at 40 W/cm/sup 2/, 1200/sup 0/C cladding temperature. Six 0.5-mm type K sheathed thermocouples were placed inside the FRS cladding to measure steady-state and transient temperatures through clad melting at 1370/sup 0/C.

  3. AMS2750D《高温测量》规范对热电偶的规定%Requirements of thermocouple in AMS2750D《Pyrometry》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周淑梅; 国林芳

    2012-01-01

      It describes related requirements of thermocouple composition, calibration and usage in AMS2750D《Pyrometry》.%  介绍了AMS2750D《高温测量》规范对热电偶的组成、校验及使用的相关要求

  4. 铠装热电偶绝缘电阻的分析与改进%The analysis and improvement of the insulation resistance of the armorded thermocouple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦彩霞; 翟小英; 牛晓利

    2014-01-01

    The insulation resistance is one of the technical data of the temperature instrument armorded thermocouple, it has two units MΩ.m and MΩ. The measure element of the armorded thermocouple is the armorded cable, the insulation resistance of the armorded thermocouple is related to the insulation resistance of the armorded cable. The capability index of the armorded cable decide directly the technique index of the armorded thermocouple.%绝缘电阻是温度仪表铠装热电偶的技术参数之一,单位有MΩ.m 和MΩ两种。铠装热电偶产品因为使用铠装热电偶电缆,产品绝缘电阻的检测值与测温元件铠装电缆的绝缘电阻值密切相关,铠装热电偶电缆的性能指标直接决定铠装热电偶产品绝缘电阻技术指标。

  5. Thermocouple mathematical model research based on PID neural network%基于PID神经网络的热电偶数学模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宏宇; 朱永丽

    2011-01-01

    为提高热电偶的测温精度,首先介绍了热电偶测温数据处理的一般情况,在总结对比现有方法的优缺点基础上,对如何选取热电偶标定点的问题进行研究。设计了实际多路电偶数据采集电路,并对采集的数据进行了分析处理,运用PID神经网络建立热电偶的数学模型。通过实验验证,这种方法的测温精度较高,能满足实际对宽范围高精度的温度测量需要。%In order to improve the measurement precision of thermocouple,at first the general temperature data processing procedure which stems from the thermocouple is introduced.On the base of summing up exsiting methods,the problem is studied on how to select the special points of thermocouple.And a system is designed to collecting multichannel temperature data.By means of analysing the data,the mathematical model of thermocouple is founded.Proved by experiments,this method increases the temperature measurement precision and fits to actual request,which is wide rang with high pricise.

  6. A Review of the Investigation of the Thermoelectric Inhomogeneity of Thermocouple Wires%热电偶不均匀性研究现状与进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨斌; 王惠龄

    2015-01-01

    热电偶不均匀性是影响热电偶测温精度的主要因素之一。本文总结了热电偶不均匀性的研究现状,和目前高温、中温及低温范围内不均匀性测量设备的工作原理、结构及其优缺点。对热电偶不均匀性还应进行更加深入系统地研究,以如实反映热电偶制造、使用全过程中对测温准确性产生影响的因素,以建立热电偶的质量控制系统。%Thermocouple inhomogeneity is one of the major factors that influence the accuracy of temperature measurement. This paper made a brief summary of the research status on thermocouple inhomogeneity and the working principle, structure and the merits and demerits of the different kinds of test equippments used in different temperature range.A set of test trig used in the cryogenic conditions was also designed and manufactured. There should have more detailed and thorough research on the thermocouple inhomogeneity,to enlight all the factors that influence the improvement of the thermometry accurarcy through the whole life cycle of thermocouples,and to establish the quality control system for the thermocouples.

  7. Analysis on the thermocouple calibration should pay attention question%浅析热电偶在检定时应注意的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗海军; 何志斌

    2014-01-01

    Thermocouple temperature sensor is commonly used in a variety of temperature measure-ment sites, for the thermocouple temperature measurement process can accurately measure the tempera-ture of the thermocouple to test. There are many factors that affect the accuracy of test results in the certi-fication process, such as the length of the thermocouple itself, appearance, bending, insulation resist-ance and insertion depth test operation on the heating rate, citing compensation wire, etc. Of the above factors were collation and analysis of the test results of the thermocouple to avoid inaccuracies in the test.%热电偶是目前各种测温场所普遍使用的温度传感器,为使热电偶在测温过程中能够准确测量温度,要对热电偶进行检定。在检定过程中有很多因素影响检定结果的准确性,如热电偶本身的长度、外观、弯曲度、绝缘电阻以及检定操作上的插入深度、升温速率、补偿导线的引用等,对以上因素进行了整理和分析,使热电偶在检定中避免了检定结果的不准确性。

  8. 基于 NANM AC 热电偶的时间常数测试技术研究%Research on measuring time constant of NANMAC thermocouple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯浩; 张志杰; 黄晓敏; 张晋文

    2014-01-01

    The theory for measuring the time constant of thermocouple was introduced ,and the method for measuring the time constant of NANMAC thermocouple by using dynamic calibration system of transient surface temperature sensor was proposed .In this system ,static and dynamic calibrations were conducted for infrared detectors and thermocouples ,and then both temperature-time curves were obtained .Since the frequency response of infrared detector is superior to that of calibrat -ed thermocouple ,the values measured by infrared detectors are taken as true values .Through dividing the values measured with thermocouples by those with infrared detectors ,a normalized curve was obtained ,based on which the time constant of thermocouple was measured .With this method ,the experiments were carried out with NANMAC thermocouple to obtain its time constant .The results show that the method for measuring the time constant is feasible and the dynamic calibration of thermocouples can be achieved at microsecond and millisecond level .This research has a certain reference value for research and application of NANMAC thermocouple temperature sensor .%本文介绍了热电偶时间常数的测试理论,提出了运用瞬态表面温度传感器动态校准系统实现对NANMAC 热电偶时间常数的测试方法。该系统对红外探测器和热电偶进行了静态校准和动态校准,得到两者的温度-时间曲线。由于红外探测器的频率响应优于被校准热电偶的频率响应,因此,以红外探测器测得的值作为真值,用热电偶测得的值与红外探测器测得的值相比得到一条归一化的曲线,并由归一化曲线求得热电偶的时间常数。利用该方法对 NANMAC 热电偶进行时间常数的测试实验,得到了该热电偶的时间常数。实验结果表明:该时间常数测试方法是可行的,可以实现对微秒、毫秒量级热电偶的动态校准,这对于 NANMAC 热电偶温度传感器的研究

  9. LWR fuel rod behavior during reactor tests under loss-of-coolant conditions: Results of the FR2 in-pile tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karb, E.H.; Sepold, L.; Hofmann, P.; Petersen, C.; Schanz, G.; Zimmermann, H. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.))

    1982-05-01

    Results of the FR2 in-pile tests on fuel rod behavior under loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions are presented. To investigate the possible influence of a nuclear environment on fuel rod failure mechanisms, unirradiated as well as irradiated (2500 to 35,000 MWd/tsub(U)) PWR-type test fuel rods were exposed to temperature transients simulating the second heatup phase of a LOCA. Loaded by internal overpressure, the cladding ballooned and ruptured. The burst data do not indicate major differences from results obtained out-of-pile with electrically heated fuel rod simulators, and do not show an influence of burnup. The fuel pellets in previously irradiated rods, already cracked during normal operation, crumbled completely in the regions with large cladding deformation. Post-test examinations revealed cladding mechanical behavior and oxidation to be comparable to out-of-pile results, with relatively little fission gas release during the transient.

  10. Application of ANSYS in pile-soil contact non-linearity%ANSYS在桩土接触非线性中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞轩; 郭小刚

    2012-01-01

    Taking the finite element ANSYS as the platform, the paper discusses the modeling concept of ANSYS used in pile-soil interaction, the pile-soil constitutive model and pile-soil contact surface analysis, and finally analyzes the impact of elastic pile modulus and elastic soil modulus upon pile foundation subsidence, points out that elastic soil modulus has greater impact upon pile foundation subsidence than elastic pile modulus.%以有限元ANSYS为平台,论述了ANSYS用于桩土相互作用的建模思路,以及桩土本构模型,桩土界面的接触分析,最后分析了桩弹性模量与土的弹性模量对桩基沉降的影响,指出土的弹性模量对桩基沉降影响很大。

  11. 多通道热偶规真空计的设计%Design of multi-channel thermocouple vacuum gauge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董长盛; 周乔君; 陈泽熹; 戴华通

    2014-01-01

    真空计是测量真空度的仪器,目前市场上大多数热偶规真空计都是一个热偶规对应一个真空计,虽然有数值显示,但只有开关量的输出,没有实时数据的输出,不方便二次开发和利用。多通道热偶规真空计可以同时对8路热偶规的信号做出处理,并且通过 RS232将数据输出,可以更加直观的观察到真空度的变化。同时具有过载保护功能,当被测压力超出热偶规的量程时会自动切断恒流源对热偶规管进行保护。在使用的过程中不仅节省了空间,降低了测试成本,而且减少了复杂的布线。%Vacuum gauge is a measuring instrument for vacuum degree , on the market at present most of the thermocouple vacuum gauge is a thermocouple gauge corresponds to a vacuum gauge. Although there are numerical display, but only the switch quantity output, without output of real-time data, not making convenience for secondary development and utilization. Multi-chan-nel thermocouple vacuum gauge can simultaneously process 8-way thermocouple gauge signals , and output data through the RS232, which can more intuitively observe the change of vacuum degree. At the same time it have overload protection function, when the measured pressure beyond the range of thermocouple gauge , the constant current source is automatically cut off to pro-tect the thermocouple gauge. In the process of using it not only saves space, reduces the test cost, but also reduces the compli-cated wiring.

  12. Research on the thermocouple instrument calibration method%一种热电偶测量仪表的校准方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔繁军; 戴晶; 潘婧

    2012-01-01

    Introduced a method of the thermocouple instrument calibration. Using of Labview and high precision analog output card, the computer can translate the temperature difference into the 0 ~5V DC voltage output, and form the function relation from a variety of types of thermocouple degree, which is used to modify non-strict linear function of thermocouple EMF and temperature difference. Then the outside analog circuit translate the 0 ~ 5V voltage into the EMF. This method can achieve the thermocouple instrument calibration for a variety of types of thermocouple and range of temperature. According to data test and analysis, all errors of output EMF are acceptable, the method is easy operated and can be used for thermocouple instrument calibration.%提出了一种热电偶测量仪表的校准方法.采用Labview软件和高精度模拟输出板卡相结合的方法,将温差转化为0~5V的直流电压输出,将不同类型的热电偶分度表拟合出函数关系,用于纠正热电偶产生的热电动势和温差之间非严格线性关系,然后通过外部模拟运算电路将板卡输出电压转化为标准热电偶的温差电动势输出,可以实现多种类型热电偶测量仪表在不同使用温度范围的校准.经过数据测试及分析,输出的温差电动势均在允许的误差范围内,且操作简便,能很方便地用于热电偶测量仪表的校准.

  13. Determining Evapotranspiration with the Eddy Covariance Method: Fast-Response Dry- and Wet-Bulb Thermocouples for Humidity Measurements Can Provide a Cheap Alternative to Infrared Hygrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holwerda, F.; Alvarado-Barrientos, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Field data on evapotranspiration are of crucial importance for ecohydrological and hydrometeorological studies in the tropics. Probably the most direct way to measure evapotranspiration is with the eddy covariance method, in which the latent heat flux (λE) is calculated from turbulent fluctuations of vertical wind velocity and humidity. The humidity fluctuations are typically measured with some type of fast-response infrared hygrometer. However, these sensors are expensive, which can be problematic if research budgets are limited. Turbulent fluctuations of humidity can also be measured with fast-response dry- and wet-bulb thermocouples, which can be constructed easily and at a fraction of the price of infrared sensors. The idea of using dry- and wet-bulb thermocouples for measuring λE with the eddy covariance method is not new, but hasn't been tested recently, possibly because experiments in the late seventies showed that this approach is not without problems due to the slow response of the wet-bulb thermocouple. In the present study, values of λE derived from dry- and wet-bulb thermocouple measurements were compared with those obtained using a fast-response KH20 hygrometer. Measurements were made above a shaded coffee plantation and a sugarcane crop in central Veracruz, Mexico. The agreement between λE obtained with the thermocouples (y) and the hygrometer (x) was very good for both vegetation covers: y = 0.98x + 5.0 (W m-2), r2 = 0.93 (coffee plantation); y = 0.99x - 13.3 (W m-2), r2 = 0.88 (sugarcane). However, the correction factor (CF) for high frequency loss in the wet-bulb temperature signal was considerably higher for the low-statured sugarcane crop (CF = 1.33) as compared to the taller shaded coffee plantation (CF = 1.09). Nevertheless, as long as care is taken in the derivation of this correction factor, reliable λE data can be obtained using the dry- and wet-bulb thermocouples, offering a cheap alternative to infrared hygrometers.

  14. An experimental investigation into the use of implanted thermocouples and differential thermometry as monitors for microvascular anastomoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J O; Jones, B M; Greenhalgh, R M

    1985-10-01

    It has been suggested that direct monitoring of arterial temperature using implanted thermocouples, may have value as a clinical postoperative monitor for vascularized free tissue transfers, including those with no visible surfaces. This study evaluated the technique in experimental animals, using simple, inexpensive equipment. Mean arterial differential temperature changes, with ipsilateral (n = 20) and contralateral (n = 21) references, of 0.6 degrees C and 0.5 degrees C respectively, reliably indicated occlusion of the superficial femoral artery in situ. In epigastric island flaps, arterial occlusion (n = 24) produced mean arterial temperature changes of 0.5 degrees C, but changes after venous occlusion were not significantly greater than unoccluded base line fluctuation. Venous differential temperature did not change significantly after either arterial or venous occlusion. In six epigastric free flaps, success or failure could not be distinguished, as the wide variation in measurements in the four successful flaps overlapped the recordings in the two which failed. It was shown that the nearer to the body core, the less the temperature difference between arterial wall and periarterial tissue. Occlusion of deeply sited arteries produced little or no change in arterial temperature. In view of these findings and because of the invasive nature of the technique, the authors did not pursue it clinically.

  15. Analysis of Crystallization Behavior of Mold Fluxes Containing TiO2 Using Single Hot Thermocouple Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun LEI; Bing XIE; Wen-hui MA

    2016-01-01

    The crystallization behavior of mold fluxes containing 0-8 mass% TiO 2 was investigated using the single hot thermocouple technique (SHTT)and X-ray diffraction (XRD)to study the possible effects on the coordination of heat transfer control and strand lubrication for casting crack-sensitive peritectic steels.Time-temperature-transforma-tion (TTT)and continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT)curves were plotted using the data obtained from SHTT to characterize the crystallization of the mold fluxes.The results showed that crystallization of the mold fluxes during isothermal and non-isothermal processes was suppressed with TiO 2 addition.From the TTT curves,it could be seen that the incubation and growth time of crystallization increased significantly with TiO 2 addition.The CCT curves showed that the crystallization temperature initially decreased,and then suddenly increased with increasing the TiO 2 content.XRD analysis suggested the presence of cuspidine in the mold fluxes with lower TiO 2 content (< 4 mass%),while both perovskite and cuspidine were detected in the mold fluxes when the TiO 2 content was increased to 8 mass%.In addition,the growth mechanisms of the crystals changed during the isothermal crystallization process from interface-controlled growth to diffusion-controlled growth with increasing the TiO 2 content.

  16. Standard guide for use of thermocouples in creep and stress-rupture testing to 1800°F (1000°C) in air

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers the use of ANSI thermocouple Types K, N, R, and S for creep and stress-rupture testing at temperatures up to 1800°F (1000°C) in air at one atmosphere of pressure. It does not cover the use of sheathed thermocouples. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  17. Application of Thermocouple of Float Glass Hot End%浮法玻璃热端热电偶的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏; 张云光; 田万春

    2014-01-01

    该文根据热电偶的实际工作环境及其相关元件特点,对热电偶进行了合理选择及补偿导线操作,确保了安装及接线正确,从而进一步降低了热电偶的测量误差,提高了玻璃的质量。%According to the actual environment and component characteristics,this paper choose thermocouple and compensation wire,install equipment and wire reasonably,avoid external factors,reduce the thermocouple feedback the measurement error and improve the quality of glass.

  18. Errors Analysis of Fluid Medium Temperature Measurement by Thermocouple%用热电偶测量流体介质温度的误差分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹君驰; 薛风

    2014-01-01

    在工业应用中,普遍采用热电偶传感器来进行温度测量。讨论了热电偶在测量温度过程中,由于热传导和热辐射的作用,使其测量误差存在的影响因素,并就提高测量精度介绍了一些措施和几种有针对性的改进热电偶装置。%The thermocouple sensor has been widely used to determine temperature in the industry. In this paper, the factors causing errors in measuring temperature due to heat transmission and radiation were discussed, and some methods to promote measurement accuracy were introduced as well as several improved thermocouple equipments.

  19. Application of high temperature thermocouple in tar gasifier%高温热电偶在焦油气化炉上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸿飞; 王义生

    2016-01-01

    合成气装置气化炉高温热电偶在实际使用过程中寿命较短。文中从工艺、设备、操作参数等方面分析了热电偶易损坏的原因,提出了延长热电偶使用寿命的具体方案,为气化炉的安全平稳长周期运行提供了保障。%Because the service life of the gasifier temperature thermocouple is short,this paper analyzed the cause of the damage of thermocouple from the process,equipment,operating parameters and so on,and put forward the specific solutions to extending of service life,which provided guarantee for the safe and smooth operation of the gasifier.

  20. Intellectual compensating and testing of the thermocouple's cold spot temperature%热电偶冷端温度智能补偿与检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永枫

    2001-01-01

    介绍了具有热电偶冷端温度智能补偿的温度检测系统的组成和功能,重点阐述了以单片机为核心构成热电偶冷端温度智能补偿的原理和特点,说明了软件功能。最后给出了实践结果及主要性能指标。%The form and function of temperature testing system with intellectual compensating of the thermocouple's cold spot temperature is introduces.It emphasis tells about the principle and characteristic with single chip processor at the core which form the intellectual compensating of thermocouple's cold spot temperature.It pointed the software function.At the end,the testing results and main property targets are given.

  1. 铠装热电偶两种校准方法的比较%The comparison of two calibration methods of Sheathed thermocouple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱欣贇; 郑伟; 龚宝妹; 张雪峰

    2014-01-01

    通过JJG 351-1996与JJF 1262-2010两种方法对8支铠装K型热电偶进行测试,分析得出后者方法的复现性更佳,不确定度更小,更符合铠装廉金属热电偶的固有特性。%In this article, we calibrate 8 K type Sheathed thermocouples according to JJG 351-1996“Verification Regulation of Working Base Metal Thermocouple”and JJF 1262-2010“Calibration Spectification for Sheathed Thermocouples”. The research results indicate that the latter method gets better Reproducibility and smaller Uncertainty. So the latter method is better for the calibration of sheathed thermocouple.

  2. 镍铬-镍硅热电偶老化失效机理初探%Primary study of nickel chromium-nickel silicon thermocouple aging failure mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌立新; 郭卫芳; 陈东

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,the oxidation of nickel chromium-nickel silicon thermocouple after 605h aging failure test in the atmosphere in 1200℃ was carried out and the oxidation process was analysed,and that the priority oxidation of the Si and Ni in the nickel-silicon alloy is main cause of the tolerance of nickel chromium-nickel silicon thermocouple thermo-electromotive force.%就镍铬-镍硅热电偶在大气中1200℃、605h老化失效试验后的氧化情况进行了分析,对氧化过程进行了探讨,结果表明镍硅合金中的硅和镍的优先氧化是引起镍铬-镍硅热电偶热电动势超差的主要原因。

  3. Design and Implementation of Millivolt Signal Generator for Thermocouples%热电偶毫伏信号发生器的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈盼辉; 陆古兵; 金传喜; 杨洪立

    2012-01-01

    A millivolt signal generator for thermocouples is designed. Using calculation advantage of LabVIEW, the computer can translate the required temperature into the thermocouples EMF and send it to MCU via USB or serial port. Controlled with the MCU, a 12-bit DAC could generate the voltage accordingly. The testing shows that this design can easily achieve millivolt signal generator for a variety of types of thermocouple, and improve the efficiency of the thermocouple instrument calibration, with the accuracy of ± 0. 1 ℃ for general occasions. It can adjust the range of temperature and supporting multiple independent output.%设计了一种热电偶毫伏信号发生器,利用上位机软件LabVIEW的计算优势,将所需的温差转化为相应的热电动势大小,并通过USB或串口发送到单片机,由单片机控制12位DAC转换电路输出相应的电压.测试表明,采用此种方法可以方便地实现多种类型的热电偶信号产生,精度可达±0.1℃,适用于一般的热电偶测量仪表的校准,并且可以根据需要对温度范围进行调节,同时支持多路独立输出,提高了校准效率.

  4. A new manufacture process of Cu-CuNi fine thermocouple%铜-康铜微细热电偶制作新工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周艳; 孙兴华; 钱北行

    2012-01-01

    热电偶是航天器真空热试验中应用最广泛的温度传感器,它的制作工艺决定了其产品的质量和可靠性.文章以铜-康铜微细热电偶的制作工艺为例,提出并实现了一种在惰性气体保护条件下利用高压放电技术进行热电偶焊接制作的工艺方法.这种方法具有操作简单、成品率高的特点,极大提高了热电偶的制作效率,并且解决了热电偶制作过程中因氧化而引入第三种材质的问题.%The thermocouple is the most widely used temperature sensor in the vacuum thermal tests of spacecraft. Its manufacturing process directly affects the product quality and reliability. Taking the manufacturing process of Cu-CuNi fine thermocouple as an example, this paper proposes and has realized a new method to complete the welding of thermocouple by the high-pressure discharge technique under the protection of inert gas. This method is characterized by easier operation and higher rate of acceptability, which greatly improves the efficiency of thermocouple's manufacturing. Besides, the problem of introducing another material during the manufacturing process is avoided.

  5. A Brief Analysis of Technical Requirement Thermocouple in NADCAP Accreditation%浅析 NADCAP 认证中热电偶的技术要求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马青松

    2016-01-01

    AMS2750标准规定了热处理过程热加工设备的高温测量要求,它包括温度传感器(一般指热电偶)、仪器、热加工设备、系统精度测试和温度均匀型测试五个部分。而热电偶技术要求是高温测量的最重要的内容,本文就热电偶的技术要求对 NADCAP 认证过程中以及日常使用维护中容易存在和忽视的问题进行了剖析。%AMS2750 covers pyrometry requirements for thermal processing equipment used for heat treatment. It covers temperature sensor (commonly thermocouple), instrumentation, thermal processing equipment, system accuracy tests and temperature uniformity surveys. Thermo-couple application plays most important role in pyrometry. analyses the problems familiar and neglected thermocouple in NADCAP accreditaton and in daily use and maintenance.

  6. The application of wolfram thermocouple in spacecraft thermal test%钨铼热电偶在航天器真空热试验中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安万庆; 柳晓宁; 赵翔宇; 朱熙

    2016-01-01

    目前国内在航天器热试验温度测量方面还没有开展超过1400℃的超高温测量技术研究。文章基于航天器热试验常用热电偶测温原理,分析了钨铼热电偶的结构及制造工艺,并搭建一套热试验测量系统以验证其在航天器真空热试验温度测量系统中的应用。试验结果及数据分析表明,在真空低温环境下钨铼热电偶能够实现1600℃温度测量。%The temperature has not exceeded 1400℃ in the spacecraft thermal test in our country. Based on the principles of the commonly used thermocouple, the structure and the manufactural techniques of the wolfram thermocouple are analyzed, and a measurement system is developed. The application results of the wolfram thermocouple in a spacecraft vacuum thermal test show that it can meet the temperature measurement requirement of 1600℃ in the vacuum thermal environment.

  7. 锅炉集汽集箱热电偶套管断裂原因分析%Analysis About the Reason of Thermocouple Casing on Boiler Stream Header Cracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军; 王晓东; 谭伟

    2012-01-01

    Introduced the thermocouple casing on boiler stream header measuring main steam tenperature cannula suddenly breaking;Analyzed the reasons of thermocouple on boiler stream header cracked.%对锅炉集汽集箱测量主蒸汽温度的热电偶套管突然断裂情况进行了说明,并对断裂的原因进行了分析和讨论。

  8. Influence of cold work on the in-pile stress rupture strength of 16 chromium--16 nickel--niobium austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Closs, K.D.; Schaefer, L.

    1977-05-01

    The in-pile stress rupture strength of 16Cr--16Ni--Nb stainless steel was investigated. Different pretreatments were used, namely solution annealing plus various cold-working levels up to 20 percent. Thermal stability under irradiation and the high-temperature embrittlement of the different material conditions were studied. The specimens were irradiated in the form of electrically heated pressurized tubes at irradiation temperatures ranging from 615 to 720/sup 0/C. Irradiation time was up to 4800 h, correspondng to a maximum fast neutron fluence (E > 0.1 MeV) of 8.2 x 10/sup 25/ n/m/sup 2/. Neutron irradiation caused a marked reduction in stress rupture strength for the solution-annealed and the cold-worked specimens. For the solution-annealed tubes, this reduction was mainly attributed to high-temperature embrittlement; the decrease in rupture strain was less pronounced for the cold-worked tubes. The reduction in stress rupture strength came mainly from an increase in creep rate. As far as stress rupture strength and creep strength at high irradiation temperatures were concerned, the 15% cold-worked 16Cr--16Ni--Nb steel was superior to the other cold-work levels.

  9. Thermocouple Boundary Layer Rake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Danny P. (Inventor); Will, Herbert A. (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave C. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Apparatus and method for providing a velocity flow profile near a reference surface. A measuring device utilizes a plurality of thermojunction pairs to provide the velocity flow profile in accordance with behavior of a gas relative to a constant thickness strut which stands vertically from the reference surface such that the span is normal to the surface, and the chord is parallel to the surface along the initial flow direction. Each thermojunction is carried on either side of a heater formed on a measuring surface in a constant thickness portion of a strut. Additionally, each thermojunction of a given pair is located at a predetermined height from the reference surface. Gas velocity data obtained from temperature differentials from one side of the heater to the other at each successive height is utilized to generate the velocity and turbulence level profiles.

  10. THERMOCOUPLE VACUUM GAUGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, G.W.

    1954-08-01

    A protector device is described for use in controlling the pressure within a cyclotron. In particular, an electrical circuit functions to actuate a vacuum pump when a predetermined low pressure is reached and disconnect the pump when the pressure increases abcve a certain value. The principal feature of the control circuit lies in the use of a voltage divider network at the input to a relay control tube comprising two parallel, adjustable resistances wherein one resistor is switched into the circuit when the relay connects the pump to a power source. With this arrangement the relay is energized at one input level received from a sensing element within the cyclotron chamber and is de-energized when a second input level, representing the higher pressure limit, is reached.

  11. One-wire thermocouple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, W. D.; Staimach, C. J.

    1977-01-01

    Nickel alloy/constantan device accurately measures surface temperature at precise locations. Device is moderate in cost and simplifies fabrication of highly-instrumented seamless-surface heat-transfer models. Device also applies to metal surfaces if constantan wire has insulative coat.

  12. 铠装贵金属热电偶测量端位置的确定方法%Method for Determining Sheathed Noble Metal Thermocouple Measuring End Position

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯运安; 赵雪茹; 王兵利; 苏剑

    2015-01-01

    Accurate positioning of measuring ends of thermocouples has an important influence on the calibration and use of thermocouples, especially for armored noble metal thermocouples. It is impossible to accurately identify the position of thermocouple measuring ends inside protec-tion tubes by visual inspection, and therefore the top of protection tubes is chosen as the position for measuring ends in the calibration and use processes of thermocouples. However, through field test, the measuring ends of armored noble metal thermocouples are not located at the top of protection tubes. This paper provides a method for accurate positioning of armored noble metal thermocouple measuring ends.%热电偶测量端位置的准确定位对于热电偶的校准和使用有着重要影响,特别对于铠装贵金属热电偶来说,由于无法通过肉眼准确识别保护管内部热电偶测量端的位置,因此在热电偶检定和使用过程中一般将其外保护管顶部作为测量端所在位置。然而通过现场试验发现,铠装贵金属热电偶测量端一般并不位于保护管顶部,本文提供了一种准确定位铠装贵金属热电偶测量端的方法。

  13. Design of Digital Thermocouple Sensors Based on Single Chip Processors%基于单片机的数字式热电偶传感器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于剑超; 董恩生; 李清亮

    2014-01-01

    A conventional thermocouple has some disadvantages: its output signal is weak, making it difficult for a long distance signal transmission;it needs temperature compensation at cold junctions, making the application inconvenient;and its output signal is an analog signal, making it complex for doing a digital measurement. As to these problems, this paper introduced a measuring circuit based on a computer, which can directly measure the output signals of thermocouples and automatically make the cold-junction temperature compensation. The measuring re-sults from the circuit are turned into RS232 serial signals to output. The thermocouple equipped with the circuit will be able to output digital sig-nals corresponding to the measured temperature. So the design is of high practical value.%针对热电偶传感器存在的输出热电势信号小、不便于远距离传输,需要进行冷端温度补偿、不便于使用,输出的是模拟信号、不便于实现数字式测量等问题,提出一种基于单片机的测量电路,该电路可对热电偶输出的信号进行测量,并能够自动进行冷端温度补偿,测量结果转换为RS232串行信号向外输出。热电偶传感器配备上该测量电路,便可实现所测温度的数字输出,具有较高的实用性。

  14. Design and Realization of Component Software For Thermocouple Calibration%组件式热电偶检定软件的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧英; 江豪; 李斌; 张丽红

    2011-01-01

    According to the fact that traditional programming ideas is generally used in the thermocouple calibration software, the modification and upgrade make quantities of troubles. A calibration software solution is presented based on component design idea and a set of new modularized thermocouple calibration software is designed. Using the measurement and control tool of Labwindows/CVI and the support to DLL( dynamic link library), it realized the development of calibration software. The testing result shows that it can accomplish the calibration of thermocouple automatically. The component design and developing ideas bring about a big convenience on programming, modifying and upgrading software.%针对目前热电偶检定软件皆采用传统编程思想,修改和升级比较麻烦的问题,提出了一种基于组件式设计思路的检定软件方案,设计了一套新型的模块化热电偶检定软件.利用LabWindows/CVI丰富的测控工具及对动态链接库的支持,实现了检定软件的开发.经现场测试,检定软件可自动完成热电偶的检定工作;组件式的设计及开发思路给软件的编制、修改和升级带来了很大的方便.

  15. Simulating the Gradually Deteriorating Performance of an RTG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric G.; Ewell, Richard C.; Patel, Jagdish; Hanks, David R.; Lozano, Juan A.; Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Noon, Larry

    2008-01-01

    Degra (now in version 3) is a computer program that simulates the performance of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) over its lifetime. Degra is provided with a graphical user interface that is used to edit input parameters that describe the initial state of the RTG and the time-varying loads and environment to which it will be exposed. Performance is computed by modeling the flows of heat from the radioactive source and through the thermocouples, also allowing for losses, to determine the temperature drop across the thermocouples. This temperature drop is used to determine the open-circuit voltage, electrical resistance, and thermal conductance of the thermocouples. Output power can then be computed by relating the open-circuit voltage and the electrical resistance of the thermocouples to a specified time-varying load voltage. Degra accounts for the gradual deterioration of performance attributable primarily to decay of the radioactive source and secondarily to gradual deterioration of the thermoelectric material. To provide guidance to an RTG designer, given a minimum of input, Degra computes the dimensions, masses, and thermal conductances of important internal structures as well as the overall external dimensions and total mass.

  16. Program for in-pile qualification of high density silicide dispersion fuel at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose E.R. da; Silva, Antonio T. e; Terremoto, Luis A.A.; Durazzo, Michelangelo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: jersilva@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    The development of high density nuclear fuel (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al) with 4,8 gU/cm{sup 3} is on going at IPEN, at this time. This fuel has been considered to be utilized at the new Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB), planned to be constructed up to 2014. As Brazil does not have hot-cell facilities available for post-irradiation analysis, an alternative qualifying program for this fuel is proposed based on the same procedures used at IPEN since 1988 for qualifying its own U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al (1,9 and 2,3 gU/cm{sup 3}) and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al (3,0 gU/cm{sup 3}) dispersion fuels. The fuel miniplates and full-size fuel elements irradiations should be tested at IEA-R1 core. The fuel characterization along the irradiation time should be made by means of non-destructive methods, including periodical visual inspections with an underwater video camera system, sipping tests for fuel elements suspected of leakage, and underwater dimensional measurements for swelling evaluation, performed inside the reactor pool. This work presents the program description for the qualification of the high density nuclear fuel (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al) with 4,8 gU/cm{sup 3}, and describes the IPEN fuel fabrication infrastructure and some basic features of the available systems for non-destructive tests at IEA-R1 research reactor. (author)

  17. Fabrication of Pt/ITO Thin-Film Thermocouple on Metal Substrates%金属基Pt/ITO薄膜热电偶的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文雅; 蒋洪川; 陈寅之; 张万里; 刘兴钊; 彭少龙; 唐磊

    2013-01-01

    采用多层膜结构制备了金属基Pt/ITO薄膜热电偶,薄膜热电偶由Ni基合金基片、NiCrAlY过渡层、热生长Al2O3层、Al2O3绝缘层、Pt/ITO功能层和Al2O3保护层构成.静态标定结果表明:样品的平均塞贝克系数为107.45 μV/℃.测试温度可达到1000℃.时效处理可以有效提高薄膜热电偶的输出热电势.%The Pt/ITO thin-film thermocouples with multilayer structure are fabricated on metal substrates. The thin-film thermocouple is composed of Ni-base alloy substrate, NiCrAlY buffer layer, thermal growth A12O3 layer, A12O3 insulating layer, Pt/ITO function layer and A12O3 protective layer. The results of the static calibration of the sample show that the average Seebeck coefficient is about 107.45 μV /℃. The test temperature can be up to 1000℃. The thermoelectric power of the sample can be effectively improved by aging treatment.

  18. 高性能钨铼热电偶材料及补偿技术研究%Study on the high-quality WRe thermocouple material and its compensation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奇; 陈德茂; 刘庆宾; 马少仿; 辛雪军; 阳浩; 杨晓亮

    2011-01-01

    介绍了高性能钨铼热电偶材料制备方法,分析了钨铼热电偶材料热电特性影响因素及其补偿方式,通过EDS、SEM等分析手段,对微量元素分布、材料微观组织等进行表征,探讨了微量元素分布及微观组织与热电特性的关系,同时分析了钨铼热电偶补偿温度对测温精度的影响,该热电偶材料制成的快速偶头现场测试结果显示其稳定性可控制在±3℃以内,具有良好的测温可靠性.%In this paper, a high-quality WRe thermocouple material is prepared and it's thermo-electric property and compensation method are analyzed, the distribution of trace elements and microstructure of WRe thermocouple material were characterized by energy dispersive spectrometer scanning electron microscope (EDS-SEM),X-ray diffraction (XRD),the effect of the distribution of trace elements and microstructure on the thermo-electric property were investigated, and relation of the compensation temperature of WRe thermocouple and the measures temperatures accuracy were analysed. This type of thermocouple material is made into the quick response WRe thermocouple and it is used to measures temperatures in liquid steel, the result showed that temperature stability of the quick response WRe thermocouple is ±3℃.

  19. Assessment of High-Temperature Measurements for Use in the Gas Test Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Curt Wilkins; Robert P. Evans

    2005-05-01

    Temperature transducers capable of control and test measurements in the 1400-1800¢ªC range in the fast neutron irradiation environment of the Gas Test Loop are evaluated. Among the instruments discussed are high-temperature thermocouples, resistance temperature detectors, ultrasonic thermometers, noise thermometers, and optical temperature sensors. High-temperature capability, behavior under irradiation, technical maturity, cost, and availability are among the key factors considered in assessing the relative merits of each measurement method. In the near term, the doped molybdenum versus niobium-zirconium alloy thermocouple is deemed to be best suited to the in-pile test and control requirements. Additional characterization of this thermocouple combination is needed to ensure confidence in its performance. Use of tungsten-rhenium alloy thermocouples, with specific disadvantages noted, constitutes the recommended back-up position.

  20. 一种简便易行的实验室间热电偶校准能力的评定方法%Simple Method of Assessment of Thermocouple Calibration Capability between Laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵楠; 吴方; 刘丹英

    2015-01-01

    本文依据在二等标准铂铑10-铂热电偶能力验证中多个实验室提供的数据,给出了一种简便易行的实验室间热电偶校准能力评定的方法。%Based on multiple lab data which is from the capability validation of second-class standard Platinum-10%Rhodium/Platinum Thermocouple, a simple method of the assessment of thermocouple calibration capability between laboratory was provided.

  1. Gamma thermometer longevity test: Laguna Verde 2 instruments recent performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas V, G. [Global Nuclear Fuel, Americas, 3901 Castle Hayne Road, Wilmington, North Carolina (United States); Avila N, A.; Calleros M, G., E-mail: Gabriel.Cuevas-Vivas@gnf.com [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verda, Carretera Veracruz-Nautla Km 42.5, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    This paper is informative of the General Electric Hitachi and Global Nuclear Fuel - Americas are collaboration with Comision Federal de Electricidad in a longevity test of thermocouples as power monitoring devices. The test conclusions will serve for final engineering design in detailing the Automated Fixed In-core Probes for calibration of the Local Power Range Monitors (LPRMs) of the Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor. This paper introduces the collaboration description and some recent performance evaluation of the thermocouples that are sensitive to gamma radiation and are known generically as Gamma Thermometers (G T). The G Ts in Laguna Verde 2 are radially located inside six instrumentation tubes in the core and consist of seven thermocouples, four are aligned with the LPRM heights and three are axially located between LPRM heights. The Laguna Verde 2 G T test has become the longest test of thermocouples as power monitoring devices in a BWR industry history and confirms their reliability in terms of time-dependent small noise under steady state reactor conditions and good agreement against Traversing In-core Probes power measurements. (Author)

  2. Study for on-line system to identify inadvertent control rod drops in PWR reactors using ex-core detector and thermocouple measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Thiago J.; Medeiros, Jose A.C.C.; Goncalves, Alessandro C., E-mail: tsouza@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: canedo@lmp.ufrj.br, E-mail: alessandro@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Accidental control rod drops event in PWR reactors leads to an unsafe operating condition. It is important to quickly identify the rod to minimize undesirable effects in such a scenario. In this event, there is a distortion in the power distribution and temperature in the reactor core. The goal of this study is to develop an on-line model to identify the inadvertent control rod dropped in PWR reactor. The proposed model is based on physical correlations and pattern recognition of ex-core detector responses and thermocouples measures. The results of the study demonstrated the feasibility of an on-line system, contributing to safer operation conditions and preventing undesirable effects, as its shutdown. (author)

  3. Construção e avaliação de psicrômetro aspirado de termopar Construction and evaluation of an aspirated thermocouple psychrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Ricardo Marin

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Construiu-se um psicrômetro de termopar aspirado, de baixo custo e fácil utilização em sistemas automáticos de aquisição de dados, utilizando-se tubos de PVC. A aspiração foi feita por ventiladores utilizados em microcomputadores e as temperaturas foram determinadas com junções de termopar de cobre-constantan. Para umidecimento do bulbo, utilizou-se um cordão de algodão. Os resultados da comparação com higrômetro capacitivo Vaisala Inc. e com psicrômetro aspirado tipo Assman mostraram que tanto em ambientes naturais como em controlados, a precisão e a exatidão das medidas foi muito boa, de maneira que o psicrômetro aqui descrito pode ser empregado para determinação da pressão atual de vapor e da umidade relativa sem perda de qualidade dos dados, e também em estudos que levem em conta gradientes de temperatura e umidade específica.The construction of a low cost aspirated thermocouple psychrometer made of PVC tubes is described. The instrument can easily be connected to dataloggers. The aspiration is made by fans used in microcomputers and temperatures measured with cooper-constantan thermocouples. A cotton string was used to make the wet junction. Its perfomance was evaluated in comparison to an Assman aspirated psychrometer and a Vaisala Inc. capacitive higrometer, in natural and controlled environments. The results show a good agreement between measures, allowing air vapour, relative humidity, temperature and specific humidity gradients to be determined using the proposed psychrometer.

  4. A method of nonlinear correction of thermocouple based on function%一种基于函数型的热电偶非线性校正方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓文; 周雪纯

    2016-01-01

    由于热电偶的输出信号只有几十毫伏,并且存在较大的非线性,因此测温时需要进行非线性校正.热电偶的非线性校正方法多种多样,以K型热电偶为例,介绍一种基于函数型的热电偶非线性校正方法,可将热电偶1%左右的非线性误差降至0.2%以内,具有校准精度高、实时性好等特点,该方法可广泛应用于各种类型热电偶的非线性校正电路中.%The output signal of the thermocouple was only a few tens of millivolts, due to its large nonlinear, so the result must be corrected. There are various corrected methods of thermocouple, K type as an example, the method based on the function is introduced, the nonlinearity error from 1% down to 0.2% or less, it has high precision, good real-time, and it is also applicable to correction method of other types of thermocouples nonlinear. The method can be widely used in various types of the thermocouple non-linear correction circuit.

  5. Analysis and Reflection to the Problem of Thermocouple Quantity Transfer System above 300℃%300℃以上热电偶量传体系问题分析及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹英; 吕国义; 张贺

    2015-01-01

    At present, the thermocouple quantity transfer system above 300℃ has the problems that measurement uncertainties are too large and measurement capability does not satisfy the need. The new quantity transfer system based on fixed point temperature measurement was put for-ward on the basis of the latest development of high temperature eutectic point and practical fixed point temperature measurement, pure metal ther-mocouple temperature measurement, and thermocouple calibration technology above 1500℃. The new transfer system can greatly reduce the thermo-couple measuring value uncertainty, guarantee the quantity value transfer of each grade normally, and meet thermocouple traceable requirements.%针对目前300℃以上热电偶量传体系存在不确定度过大、 计量能力不满足要求等问题, 分析了高温共晶点和实用型固定点温度复现、 纯金属热电偶温度测量和1500℃以上高温热电偶校准等技术的最新进展, 提出基于固定点温度复现方法的新的量值传递体系设想, 可大大减小热电偶量值传递的不确定度, 使各级计量标准装置不确定度分布更为合理, 能保证热电偶量值的逐级量传, 满足科研生产对热电偶的溯源要求.

  6. PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cilli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the kinematic and kinetic changes when resistance is applied in horizontal and vertical directions, produced by using different percentages of body weight, caused by jumping movements during a dynamic warm-up. The group of subjects consisted of 35 voluntary male athletes (19 basketball and 16 volleyball players; age: 23.4 ± 1.4 years, training experience: 9.6 ± 2.7 years; height: 177.2 ± 5.7 cm, body weight: 69.9 ± 6.9 kg studying Physical Education, who had a jump training background and who were training for 2 hours, on 4 days in a week. A dynamic warm-up protocol containing seven specific resistance movements with specific resistance corresponding to different percentages of body weight (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% was applied randomly on non consecutive days. Effects of different warm-up protocols were assessed by pre-/post- exercise changes in jump height in the countermovement jump (CMJ and the squat jump (SJ measured using a force platform and changes in hip and knee joint angles at the end of the eccentric phase measured using a video camera. A significant increase in jump height was observed in the dynamic resistance warm-up conducted with different percentages of body weight (p 0.05. In jump movements before and after the warm-up, while no significant difference between the vertical ground reaction forces applied by athletes was observed (p>0.05, in some cases of resistance, a significant reduction was observed in hip and knee joint angles (p<0.05. The dynamic resistance warm-up method was found to cause changes in the kinematics of jumping movements, as well as an increase in jump height values. As a result, dynamic warm-up exercises could be applicable in cases of resistance corresponding to 6-10% of body weight applied in horizontal and vertical directions in order to increase the jump performance acutely.

  7. 基于尺寸效应的Cu/CuNi薄膜热电偶灵敏度研究%Study on the sensitivity of Cu/CuNi thin-film thermocouple based on size effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽红; 赵源深

    2011-01-01

    采用磁控溅射法在镀有SiO2阻挡层的基底上制备了一系列的Cu/CuNi薄膜热电偶,其厚度分别为0.5,1.0,1.5和2.0 μm,测得四种Cu/CuNi薄膜热电偶的灵敏度,分别为46.47,45.23,44.32和43.98 μV/℃,通过实验和理论研究了薄膜热电偶灵敏度S与厚度δ之间的关系.结果表明:Cu/CuNi薄膜热电偶的灵敏度高于普通Cu/CuNi热电偶;在薄膜厚度大于临界厚度的情况下,薄膜热电偶的灵敏度S随着厚度的倒数l/δ增大而升高.%A series of Cu/CuNi thin film thermocouples with different thicknesses of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 μm were prepared on the substrates with SiO2 linings by means of magnetron sputtering. After static calibration by experiments, the sensitivities of the prepared thermocouples were obtained respectively of 46.67, 45.23, 44.32 and 43.98 μV/°C. The relationship between sensitivity and thickness of Cu/CuNi thin-film thermocouple was studied by experiments and theory. The results show that the sensitivities of Cu/CuNi thin-film thermocouples are higher than that of ordinary thermocouples; when the thickness of the thin-film is greater than the critical value, the sensitivity (S) of thin-film thermocouple will increase with the increasing of the reciprocal of thickness (1/δ).

  8. Experimental research of a temperature prediction method based on the dynamic response characteristics of thermocouple%基于热电偶动态特性的温度预估方法实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成红刚; 陈雄; 鞠玉涛; 周长省; 朱国强

    2012-01-01

    针对高温高频和非均匀热流密度条件下温度测量问题,采用激光连续加热热电偶的方法,研究了不同热流密度条件下、不同直径热电偶的动态响应特性,分析了热流密度对热电偶动态响应时间和电压变化率的影响,得到热电偶动态响应时间、电压变化率与热流密度的函数关系,并提出了一种基于热电偶动态响应特性温度预估方法.结果表明:热电偶动态特性受热流密度影响较大,在相同热流密度条件下,动态响应时间与电压变化率的指数函数呈线性关系;文中提出的温度预估方法在超出热电偶测温量程27.3%的范围内具有较小误差,能满足工程温度测量的需要.%Aimed at temperature measurement under high-temperature, high-frequency and non-uniform heat fluxes, the method of continuously heating the thermocouples by laser was adopted to study the dynamic response characteristics of thermocouples with different diameters under different heat fluxes. The effects of heat flux on thermocouple response time and voltage regulation factor were analyzed and the functions of the response time and voltage regulation factor with heat flux were obtained, and then a temperature prediction method based on dynamic response characteristics of thermocouples was presented. The results show that the dynamic response characteristics of thermocouples is greatly affected by heat flux, under the same heat flux, the response time exhibits linear relation with the exponent function of the voltage regulation factor;the temperature prediction method shows a small error when temperature exceeds 27. 3% of the measuring range of the thermocouple and is able to meet the needs of engineering temperature measurements.

  9. 基于实时时间常数的热电偶动态误差校正%Study the correction method for dynamic error of thermocouple base on real-time time-constant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂一新; 万泓; 余新春

    2001-01-01

    根据热电偶的响应特性,利用采样点的温度数据,采用在线式实时处理算法,能较准确地求解出热电偶使用时刻的时间常数。而且利用相关的算法,可较大幅度的减小测量的动态误差,并且缩短测量时间。%Base on response characteristic of the thermocouple, with the temperature data of sampling point and algorithm of real-time-on-line data processing,can evaluation time-constant of thermocouple's usage-time.It not only reducing dynamic-error of measurement with related algorithm,but contraction time of measurement.

  10. K型热电偶检定过程中的测量不确定度评定%Measurement Uncertainty Evaluation of K-type Thermocouple in Verification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪俊; 陈红

    2012-01-01

    依据JJG351-1996《工作用廉金属热电偶检定规程》对某K型(镍铬-镍硅)热电偶进行了检定,在测量热电动势的基础上,系统分析了该法测量及换算温度误差的不确定度来源,并对热电偶温度误差的测量不确定度进行了评定和总结。%A K type (Cr-Ni and Ni) thermocouple was verified according to JJG 351 1996 “Verification Regulalion of Working Base Metal Thermocouple”. On the basis of measuring themal electromotive force, the sources of the uncertainty in measurement were analyzed systematically, and uncertainty in thermocouple' s verification of temperature error was assessed and summarized.

  11. Thermocouples Connection Problem Checking Method Analysis Based on PXIe Series Data Acquisition Card%基于PXIe系列数据采集卡的热电偶接线检查方法分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春意; 颜阳; 包志为

    2016-01-01

    介绍了热工水力实验热电偶使用方式及原理,PXIe系列数据采集卡冷端补偿原理。着重对不同接线方式产生的测量结果进行了理论分析,并通过实验验证了理论分析结果。进而提出如何对安装完成的热电偶进行系统全面的接线检查。%The principle of thermocouples used and thermal-hydraulic experiment, cold junction compensation principle PXIe serial data acquisition card. Focuses on the different ways of measuring results of theoretical analysis and experimental verification of results of the analysis. Presented how to check the comprehensive wiring system of thermocouple installation is complete.

  12. Analysis on Applicable Temperature Scope and Characteristics of Standardized Thermocouples%对标准化热电偶适用温度范围及特性的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建军

    2014-01-01

    通过对十几种常用热电偶温度传感器主要性能和特性的介绍,结合国家标准技术规范,分析了热电偶适用的不同环境条件、测量范围等,同时对国际上常用的部分热电偶材质、化学及物理性质进行分析简述。%Through elaboration on major properties and characteristics, over a dozen thermocouples were analyzed regarding their suitable atmosphere conditions and measuring scope on the basis of national technical standards. Be-sides, materials, chemical and physical properties of common thermocouples in the world were discussed.

  13. An analysis of the costs and benefit in improving the T56-A-427 interconnector harness end and mating thermocouple end connector under the aircraft engine Component Improvement Program (CIP)

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Thomas Joseph

    1994-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis is a study validating the cost effectiveness of the Component Improvement Program for aircraft engines. It determines the costs and benefits derived from the Navy incorporating Power Plant Change 111 which improved the interconnector harness end and mating thermocouple end connector of the T56-A-427 engine. Useful maintenance data pertaining to this component was extracted from the Naval Logistics Data Analysis (NALDA) sys...

  14. Study and modelling of the in-pile densification of the UO{sub 2} and MO{sub x} nuclear oxides; Etude et modelisation de la densification en pile des oxydes nucleaires UO{sub 2} et MO{sub x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulore, A

    2001-03-01

    Amongst the many phenomena which take place in the course of the irradiation of UO{sub 2} or (U, Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels, one of them involves the elimination of a fraction of the as-fabricated porosity. In-pile densification or sintering can reach 2.5%, i.e. approximately half the initial volume of pores is likely to disappear. Our literature survey indicates that the amplitude and kinetics of the phenomenon are both heavily dependent on the initial fuel microstructure. Micro-structural characterisation techniques of oxide fuels have therefore been developed in conjunction with quantitative image analysis methods. The ensuing methodology enables a quantitative comparison of micro-structural features in different fuels and has been applied to ascertaining the influence of the local fission rate and temperature on in-pile densification. It is thus revealed that in-pile operation eliminates a significant fraction of pores smaller than 3 microns in diameter. The experimental data generated has been used to set up a semi-empirical and a mechanistic model. The former is based on experimental results and is not essentially predictive. The inability of this model to predict the in-pile densification of oxide fuels is illustrated by the fact that the maximum fraction of pores that disappears is proportional to an empirical function of fission rate, and temperature. The proportionality factor appears to be difficult to correlate quantitatively to any given micro-structural feature. The model has however been applied to the interpretation of an in-pile densification experiment carried out in the Halden reactor (Norway). The latter model is mechanistic, i.e. it is based on the solution to a set of equations that describe the coupled temperature and radiation induced phenomena which occur in-pile. These can broadly be broken down into three categories: the fission fragment-pore interaction, the creation of point defects as the fission fragments slow down, and the diffusion

  15. Thermoelectric Properties and Application Research of IrRh40-IrRh10 Thermocouples%IrRh40-IrRh10高温热电偶热电性能及应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹英; 张贺; 吕国义

    2015-01-01

    A high temperature measurement method of bi-alloy of iridium and rhodium was put forward to solve the fracture problem of nega-tive pole of conventional iridium-rhodium thermocouples. The experimental results on a high temperature calibration device show that the IrRh40-IrRh10 thermocouples have good linearity, and the sensitivity is about 3 uV/C. An air temperature probe made by this type of thermocouples is suitable for measurement of high-temperature air flow in the engine development.%针对常规铱铑-铱热电偶负极铱在测试过程容易断裂的问题,提出了采用双铱铑合金热电偶改善其机械性能的方法,并用高温热电偶校准装置对IrRh40-IrRh10热电偶的热电特性进行了研究和验证,表明其热电特性线有良好的线性,灵敏度约为3μV/℃。利用该类型热电偶制作的气流温度传感器,适用于发动机及导弹等武器装备研制试验中高温气流温度的测量。

  16. 基于K型热电偶的高精度测温放大电路设计%High Precision Temperature Measurement Based on K Type Thermocouple Ampliifer Circuit Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐友明; 刘丹; 何巨龙

    2016-01-01

    针对K型热电偶输出电压为微伏级别,本文设计了一种基于K型热电偶测温的放大电路。该设计通过LM35温度传感器对冷端进行了温度补偿,放大电路采用集成放大芯片AD7523,具有最高放大256倍的增益,采用高精度16位ADC转换芯片ADS1148,使用STC90C58AD单片机作为主控芯片,对K型热电偶进行了线性拟合,通过驱动LCD1602液晶对温度进行显示。%In view of the small output signal of K type thermocouple in microvolt level, In this paper design a kind of amplifier circuit based on K type thermocouple temperature measurement. The design of the cold junction compensation through the LM35 temperature sensor temperature compensation, amplifying circuit adopts integrated amplifier chip AD7523, it has the highest gain magnified 256 times, with high precision ADC conversion chip ADS1148, use STC90C58AD single-chip microcomputer as the master control chip, has carried on the linear fitting to K type thermocouple, through LCD1602 LCD display of temperature.

  17. 基于USB-4716的工业热电偶自动检定系统设计%Auto-verification System Design for Industrial Thermocouples Based on USB-4716

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠虎; 王红艳

    2012-01-01

    针对工业中常用的温度采集、处理系统的分析,利用USB- 4716数据采集模块对热电偶检定过程中加热炉温度进行采集和处理,通过对热电偶锌、铜和铝3个检定点热电动势的采集和误差分析,判定被检热电偶是否合格,进而给出检定报表.整个过程结合计算机控制技术,实现了热电偶自动检定、数据存储、报表打印以及历史记录查询等功能.%Considering temperature collection and processing system analysis, making use of USB- 4716 data acquisition module to acquire and process furnace' s temperature data in thermocouple calibration was proposed ; based on collecting thermo-electromotive force at three zinc, copper and aluminum-checking points and error analysis,the thermocouple eligibility was judged together with presenting a verification report. The whole process assisted by computer control technology can have thermocouple' s automatic calibration, data storage, report printing, historical records of inquiries and other functions realized.

  18. Technical note: unsafe rectal temperature measurements due to delayed warming of the thermocouple by using a condom. An issue concerning the estimation of the postmortem interval by using Henßge's nomogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krap, Tristan; Meurs, Joris; Boertjes, Janine; Duijst, Wilma

    2016-03-01

    In some cases, in the Netherlands, an additional layer is being added to the thermocouple, used to measure the rectal temperature in medicolegal death investigations. Because of this deviation from the standard method, questions arose regarding the accuracy and precision of the measured temperature. Therefore, a cooling experiment was carried out on a round body made of agar with an average thermal conductivity of 0.454 W/(m °C) while measuring the temperature with and without an additional layer around the thermocouple for three different starting temperatures: 36, 30, and 27 °C. The results show a significant difference between the measured values for the first 5 min when comparing with and without the additional layer. Further, a decrease in precision is present within the first minutes when using an additional layer. Therefore, it is concluded that it is best to measure the rectal temperature without an additional layer around the thermocouple and caution should be taken when measuring with an additional layer.

  19. 堆内辐照在线产氚氦冷陶瓷氚增殖剂包层球床组件热工流体力学计算分析%Thermal-hydraulic Calculation and Analysis on Helium Cooled Ceramic Breeder Pebble Bed Assembly for In-pile Irradiation & In-situ Tritium Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭春秋; 解家春; 刘兴民

    2013-01-01

    在研究堆内进行辐照在线产氚试验是ITER计划专项国内配套研究项目之一.本工作主要针对研究堆内辐照氦冷陶瓷氚增殖剂包层(简称陶瓷)球床组件的试验技术要求,评估辐照陶瓷球床组件设计方案的可行性.通过对不同的陶瓷球床组件结构参数和组件在堆内的不同辐照位置,进行热工流体力学设计计算,得到满足要求的入堆辐照陶瓷球床组件设计方案.%In-pile irradiation & in-situ tritium extraction experiment is one of associated domestic research projects in ITER special program.According to the technical requirements of in-pile irradiation experiment of helium cooled ceramic breeder (ceramic) pebble bed assembly in a research reactor,the feasibility of the design for the in-pile irradiation & in-situ tritium extraction experiment of ceramic pebble bed assembly was evaluated.By conducting thermal-hydraulic design calculation with different in-pile irradiation channels,locations and structure parameters for ceramic pebble bed assembly,a reasonable design scheme of ceramic pebble bed assembly satisfying the design requirements for in-pile irradiation was obtained.

  20. 10MW高温气冷实验堆反应堆压力容器热电偶贯穿件%Thermocouple Penetration Assemblies for Pressure Vessel of 10MW High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查美生; 仲朔平; 陈仁

    2001-01-01

    介绍了 10 MW高温气冷实验堆反应堆压力容器热电偶贯穿件。热电偶贯穿件用于堆芯部件温度的测量,由贯穿筒体、铠装热电偶组件和焊接保护管组成。采用过渡管结构、激光焊和钨极氩弧焊方法,实现两种壁厚相差甚大的铠装热电偶套管和贯穿筒体的焊接,有效地解决了高温高压下氦气密封的困难。铠装热电偶组件直接贯穿反应堆容器,在容器外采用卡套密封,避免了高温容器内信号的转接。经 ANSYS程序分析计算,热电偶贯穿件的结构设计满足应力强度和抗震要求。经氦检漏试验,热电偶贯穿件泄漏率小于 1× 10- 7 Pa· m3/s。该热电偶贯穿件现已在反应堆上安装完毕。%The paper presents the thermocouple penetration assemblies of 10MW high temperature gas cooled reactor(HTR-10).The thermocouple penetration assemblies,which consist of penetration pipe,assemblies of sheath thermocouple and protective pipe for welding,are used to measure the temperature of components in the reactor.The laser welding technology is used to weld the transition pipe that is designed specially to the sheath thermocouple,and the argon arc weld(TIG) is used for welding the transitional pipe to the penetration pipe.So the difficult problem of sealing under high pressure and high temperature in helium gas environment is solved.By using the long sheath thermocouples,which pass through the containment and are sealed by the swage lock,the traditional commutator for temperature measure signal is avoided.By analysing and calculating with ANSYS program,our structure designs are proved to meet the case for the requiements of stress and earthquake-resistant.For our thermocouple penetration assemblies,the leakage of helium gas is less than 1× 10- 7Pa· m3/s.Passing serial strict test,the thermocouple penetration assemblies have already been fixed in the reactor by now.

  1. 用于连铸结晶器的热电偶非标设计、安装和检测%Non-Standard Design,Installation and Testing of Thermocouple for Continuous Casting Mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李同彬; 康新

    2014-01-01

    为了准确、可靠、持久、经济地获得连铸结晶器铜板的温度分布,把热传导理论计算和实际经验值相结合,优化设计热电偶在连铸结晶器铜板上的位置;针对连铸结晶器的现场恶劣环境,提出热电偶的各个部件及其制作必须达到的指标要求及相应的非标设计;依据结晶器热电偶阵列安装调试的经验,总结出结晶器铜板上热电偶阵列的安装调试和维护检测等工艺技术方法。较好地解决了连铸结晶器温度检测系统现场热电偶容易损坏、维护难、成本高、实用性差等工程技术问题。研究不仅对连铸设备的改进和维护具有很好的参考价值,而且在宝钢、河北钢铁和土耳其等国内外企业取代铠装热电偶中获得成功应用。%In order to obtain accurately,reliably,durably and economically the temperature distribution in a continuous casting mold,the location of thermocouples in a continuous casting mold was optimized based on heat conduction theory and practical experience data. Aiming at the harsh environment under which a continuous casting mold usually works,the technical indexes for every part of the thermocouple and its fabrication is proposed,together with the non-standard design of thermocouple. Based on the experiences of installation and debugging of thermocouple array in mold,the corresponding technology methods of installation, debugging, maintenance and detection for thermocouple array in copper mold were proposed. The engineering technology problems of easy to damage,difficult to maintain,high cost,and poor practicability of thermocouple array in temperature measuring system of continuous casting mold were solved efficiently in this paper. The present results were not only good references for the improvement and maintain of continuous casting devices but also had gained success application in domestic and international enterprises such as Baosteel,Hebei steel and Turkey steel

  2. CFCC-SiC基底NiCr/NiSi薄膜热电偶制备及性能研究%Fabrication and Characteration of NiCr-NiSi Thin Film Thermocouples on CFCC-SiC Substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马旭轮; 苑伟政; 马炳和; 邓进军

    2014-01-01

    在碳纤维增韧补强碳化硅陶瓷复合材料( CFCC-SiC)表面制备了NiCr/NiSi薄膜热电偶。传感器结构自下而上依次为CFCC-SiC陶瓷基底、SiO2过渡层,Al2 O3绝缘层及NiCr/NiSi热电偶层。对所制备传感器进行了静态标定,其在300℃~700℃范围内具有稳定的热电动势输出,平均Seebeck系数为41.71μV/℃,传感器极限使用温度约为750℃。%NiCr/NiSi thin film thermocouples were fabricated on the surface of carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide ceramic composites(CFCC-SiC). Structure of the sensor from bottom to top is sequentially CFCC-SiC ceramic substrate, SiO2 buffer layer,Al2 O3 insulated layer and NiCr/NiSi thin film thermocouple layer. The static calibration result of the thin film thermocouples shows that the sensor has a stable thermal electromotive force output from 300℃ to 700℃. The average Seebeck coefficient of the sensor is about 41. 71μV/℃,and its ultimate-use temperature is about 750℃.

  3. Technical note: unsafe rectal temperature measurements due to delayed warming of the thermocouple by using a condom. An issue concerning the estimation of the postmortem interval by using Henßge’s nomogram

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In some cases, in the Netherlands, an additional layer is being added to the thermocouple, used to measure the rectal temperature in medicolegal death investigations. Because of this deviation from the standard method, questions arose regarding the accuracy and precision of the measured temperature. Therefore, a cooling experiment was carried out on a round body made of agar with an average thermal conductivity of 0.454 W/(m °C) while measuring the temperature with and without an additional l...

  4. Risk analysis for a radiolysis gas detonation in an in-pile loop with supercritical water; Risiko einer Radiolysegasdetonation in einem aktiven Versuchskreislauf mit ueberkritischem Wasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiger, T.; Raque, M.; Kuznetsov, M.; Redlinger, R.; Schulenberg, T. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. fuer Kern- und Energietechnik (IKET)

    2012-11-01

    The SCWR (supercritical water reactor) -FQT project is a cooperation between European and Chinese partners aimed to test the fuel SCWR elements under reactor conditions. In the frame of this work the risk of radiolysis gas production in the active range of the test track was assessed. The radiolysis gas could accumulate in an emergency cooling system with stagnating coolant. The ignition of this radiolysis gas could cause pressure peaks that are able to damage the primary coolant circuit. Pressure increase and deformations in case of ignition of accumulated gas were investigated. As piping material the Ti stabilized austenitic steel 08Ch18N10T was assumed, the simulation was performed using the ANSYS code. The results show that pipes without significant wall thickness enhancement cannot withstand the radiolysis gas detonation.

  5. Effects of fuel particle size and fission-fragment-enhanced irradiation creep on the in-pile behavior in CERCER composite pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunmei; Ding, Shurong; Zhang, Xunchao; Wang, Canglong; Yang, Lei

    2016-12-01

    The micro-scale finite element models for CERCER pellets with different-sized fuel particles are developed. With consideration of a grain-scale mechanistic irradiation swelling model in the fuel particles and the irradiation creep in the matrix, numerical simulations are performed to explore the effects of the particle size and the fission-fragment-enhanced irradiation creep on the thermo-mechanical behavior of CERCER pellets. The enhanced irradiation creep effect is applied in the 10 μm-thick fission fragment damage matrix layer surrounding the fuel particles. The obtained results indicate that (1) lower maximum temperature occurs in the cases with smaller-sized particles, and the effects of particle size on the mechanical behavior in pellets are intricate; (2) the first principal stress and radial axial stress remain compressive in the fission fragment damage layer at higher burnup, thus the mechanism of radial cracking found in the experiment can be better explained.

  6. 大力神130型焦炉煤气燃气轮机 T5热电偶故障原因分析%Causation Analyses for Titan130 COG Turbine Generator T5 Thermocouple Fault

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱大伟

    2013-01-01

    The Titan130 COG gas turbine appeared “AL_T5_TC_Fail”( T5 thermocouple fail alarm ) and“CL_T5_TC_Fail”( more T5 thermocouple fail shutdown ) during the period of ignition .The correlative systems were checked and trouble shootings were put for-ward.Results show that fault cause is part of the nozzle clogging ,which can be referenced for any similar unit .%大力神130型焦炉煤气燃气轮机点火升速期间出现AL_T5_TC_Fail ( T5热电偶故障)报警、 CL_T5_TC_Fail(多个T5热电偶故障)并且导致停机。对各个相关系统进行检查分析,提出解决办法。最终发现该故障原因为部分喷嘴堵塞,故障检查可为同类机组提供参考。

  7. Performance of stem flow gauges in greenhouse and desert environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitt, D.G. [Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Co., Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Simpson, J.R. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Horticulture; Tipton, J.L. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Plant Sciences

    1995-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy and general performance of a heat balance method for estimating transpirational sap flow through plant stems on two tree species in greenhouse and field experiments in Tucson, Arizona. Sap flow through 20-mm diameter stems of oak (Quercus virginiana `Heritage`) and mesquite (Prosopis alba `Colorado`.) trees in containers was measured using stem flow gauges and a precision balance, from January to October, 1991. Overall gauge accuracy, and the effects of gauge location on the tree stem, gauge ventilation, gauge insulation, sheath conductance factor (Ksh) selection method, and increased numbers of vertical thermocouple pairs on gauge performance were evaluated.

  8. 最小二乘法在热电偶热电势—温度特性线性化中的应用%The application of least square method in the linear treatment of thermal potential-temperature character of the thermocouple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马松龄

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces the application of least square method in the linear treatment for thermal potential-temperature character of thermocouple, and deduces formula for thermocouple temperature measurement. Based on these formula, the linear treatment of K thermocouple in temperature of 0~1400 ℃was given. The nonlinear error can be controlled under 1%with this method.%文中介绍了最小二乘法在热电偶热电势—温度特性线性化处理中的应用.推导出热电偶测温的拟合公式.利用这种方法,对K型热电偶在0~1 400 ℃进行了线性化处理后,所得的非线性误差可以控制到1 %以内.

  9. Experimental Evaluation of the Thermal Performance of a Water Shield for a Surface Power Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, J. Boise; Stewart, Eric T.; Reid, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    A water based shielding system is being investigated for use on initial lunar surface power systems. The use of water may lower overall cost (as compared to development cost for other materials) and simplify operations in the setup and handling. The thermal hydraulic performance of the shield is of significant interest. The mechanism for transferring heat through the shield is natural convection. Natural convection in a representative lunar surface reactor shield design is evaluated at various power levels in the Water Shield Testbed (WST) at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The experimental data from the WST is used to anchor a CFD model. Performance of a water shield on the lunar surface is then predicted by CFD models anchored to test data. The accompanying viewgraph presentation includes the following topics: 1) Testbed Configuration; 2) Core Heater Placement and Instrumentation; 3) Thermocouple Placement; 4) Core Thermocouple Placement; 5) Outer Tank Thermocouple Placement; 6) Integrated Testbed; 7) Methodology; 8) Experimental Results: Core Temperatures; 9) Experimental Results; Outer Tank Temperatures; 10) CFD Modeling; 11) CFD Model: Anchored to Experimental Results (1-g); 12) CFD MOdel: Prediction for 1/6-g; and 13) CFD Model: Comparison of 1-g to 1/6-g.

  10. Study on the Curing Time of 195/60R15 88H PCR Tire by Thermocouple%热电偶法研究195/60R1588H轿车子午线轮胎的硫化时间

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世军; 邬素华

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the curing time of compounds of 195/60R15 88H PCR tire was investigated using thermocouple method. Based on the temperature measurement results and data analysis, the steam temperature in the external heat plate was set at 173℃, the internal superheated water temperature was selected at 193℃, and the preferred total curing time was16 minutes. The experimental test results showed that the effect of vulcanization at all measurement points met the requirements of enterprise standard, which was no less than 1.1. The physical properties, endurance performance and high speed performance of the finished tire met the requirements of enterprise standard and application requirements.%采用热电偶法研究195/60R1588H轿车子午线轮胎的硫化时间。根据测温和计算分析,确定在外部热板蒸汽温度173℃、内部过热水温度193℃下,轮胎硫化总时间为16 min,各测试点在测试结束时硫化效果全部达到不小于1.1的企业标准。用该硫化工艺生产的成品轮胎物理性能、耐久性能和高速性能均达到企业标准要求,能满足使用需要。

  11. 抽气热电偶遮热罩结构对测温的影响研究%Theoretical Study on the Effect of the Heat Shield Structure for Gas Pump Thermocouple on Its Temperature Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振刚; 冯青

    2013-01-01

    Gas pump thermocouples have contributed significantly to precise kiln temperature measurement, temperature measurement error reduction, and fired product quality improvement. One of the important issues to be addressed in the research and development of new measuring devices for thermal equipment is how to optimize the heat shield structure to improve the precision of temperature measurement. With the help of FLUENT6.0, the operation of a gas pump thermocouple is simulated, and the effects of the changes to its heat shield's structure, such as the reduction of its nozzle length, the increase of the heat shield length and the decrease of the heat shield diameter, are observed through the simulation. Results show the optimization of the heat shield structure can reduce the temperature measurement error. This study provides theoretical and numerical reference for further scientific study and industrial production of this device.%抽气热电偶对于精确测量窑炉温度、减少测温误差、提高制品烧成质量等都有着突出的作用和意义.设计优化遮热罩结构,提高测温精度已成为当前研究和开发新型热工测量设备的重要课题.通过FLUENT6.0软件模拟抽气热电偶工作,针对热电偶遮热罩结构,在遮热罩制作成减缩喷管、加长遮热罩长度和缩小遮热罩直径等三种方式的结构优化并模拟,从而验证了通过优化遮热罩结构,可以减小测温误差.

  12. The statistical analysis techniques to support the NGNP fuel performance experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Binh T.; Einerson, Jeffrey J.

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes the development and application of statistical analysis techniques to support the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) experimental program on Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) fuel performance. The experiments conducted in the Idaho National Laboratory's Advanced Test Reactor employ fuel compacts placed in a graphite cylinder shrouded by a steel capsule. The tests are instrumented with thermocouples embedded in graphite blocks and the target quantity (fuel temperature) is regulated by the He-Ne gas mixture that fills the gap volume. Three techniques for statistical analysis, namely control charting, correlation analysis, and regression analysis, are implemented in the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System for automated processing and qualification of the AGR measured data. The neutronic and thermal code simulation results are used for comparative scrutiny. The ultimate objective of this work includes (a) a multi-faceted system for data monitoring and data accuracy testing, (b) identification of possible modes of diagnostics deterioration and changes in experimental conditions, (c) qualification of data for use in code validation, and (d) identification and use of data trends to support effective control of test conditions with respect to the test target. Analysis results and examples given in the paper show the three statistical analysis techniques providing a complementary capability to warn of thermocouple failures. It also suggests that the regression analysis models relating calculated fuel temperatures and thermocouple readings can enable online regulation of experimental parameters (i.e. gas mixture content), to effectively maintain the fuel temperature within a given range.

  13. 桩土性质对桩板结构无缝道岔的影响分析%Study on the Influences of Pile Soil Properties to Welded Turnout in Pile slab Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖宏; 郭丽娜; 刘玮玮

    2011-01-01

    桩板结构是一种新型的轨下基础结构型式,由于其能有效控制路基沉降的优点,在高速铁路建设中得到了广泛的推广应用.随着桩板结构在高速铁路中越来越多的使用,将不可避免地出现无缝道岔设置在桩板结构上的情形,为考察桩板结构与无缝道岔相互作用力学特性,本文主要应用有限元软件建立了桩板结构无缝道岔模型,进行了不同桩间距、不同板下土体性质以及不同位置桩基沉降的影响因素分析.研究结论:研究结果表明:(1)过大的桩间距对上部无缝道岔的受力非常不利;(2)在不考虑板下土体的支承作用时,下部桩板结构也能为上部无缝道岔结构提供足够的竖向支承刚度;(3)桩的沉降会影响相邻两跨桩板结构上无缝道岔的基本轨挠曲力,但对隔跨上的基本轨挠曲力影响不大.%Research purposes: Pile - slab structure as a new - type railway foundation of track undersurface can control its subgrade settlement effectively and has been widely applied in high speed railway construction. It is very likely that welded turnout is lie upon the Pile - slab structure that is increaseing used in high speed railway. To research the interaction between welded turnout and Pile - slab structure, this paper, with building the mode of welded turnout in pile - slab structure, mainly analyze the influence factors to subgrade settlement for different pile spacing, plates with different soil properties and different position.Research conclusions: The results show that: ( 1 ) the excessive pile spacing will be unfavorable to the mechanical behavior of the upper welded turnout. (2) without considering elastic supporting action of the soil under the plates, The underpants of pile - slab structure can also offer enough vertical stiffness to Welded turnout structure . ( 3 ) Subgrade settlement will affect the basic Rail buckling force, especially between two adjacent pile - slab structure, but

  14. 射水插桩水上作业平台入水组装与移动技术%Assembling and Moving Technology of On-Water Work Platform in Pile Sinking by Water Jetting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余孝志; 蔡长治; 张健

    2014-01-01

    对射水沉桩水上作业平台的技术指标、操作任务进行了介绍,平台的组装位置宜位于沉桩施工位置上游侧200 m范围内,组装时近岸浮体首先入水锚固,其他5块浮体依次入水锚固,组装方向线与滩岸线成10°~15°夹角;作业平台的水面移动是在平台下游驳船顶推缓慢下滑、上游逐步松放岸锚及河锚钢丝绳的共同配合下实现的,最终工作侧船舷与工程位置中心线距离应控制在0.6~0.7 m;作业期需在工作侧下游增加“八”字形锚固措施,确保各种复杂工况下平台锚固的安全稳定,平台顺工程位置线移动的动力主要是水流的冲击力和卷扬机的拉力,下滑速度控制及姿态调整主要依靠调整作业平台角部的缆绳实现。%It introduced the technical index and operation task of on-water work platform in pile sinkinf by water Jettinf. The assemblinf site of the platform was situated in the scope of 200 m of the upper reaches of pile sinkinf construction site. Near-shore floatinf body should be the first to be moved in water and anchored,then other 5 floatinf bodies were moved into water in turn and anchored. Assemblinf directional line and water front form an anfle of 10°~15°;on-water movinf of work platform was throufh pushinf by barfe lyinf in the lower reaches,looseninf the anchor on the shore in the upper reaches and the wire rope fasteninf on the anchor in the river. The distance between the work ship board and enfineerinf location center should be 0. 6~0. 7 m;anchorinf measure with splayed-shape pattern should be taken in operatinf period in workinf site to ensure the safety and stability of platform under complicated workinf conditions. The power of the platform movinf alonf enfineerinf position line was mainly the im-pact force of water stream and tension of windinf enfine. Slidinf speed control and position adJustment mainly relied on adJustinf the moorinf rope in the corner of work

  15. 桩承式加筋路堤三维土拱效应试验研究%Experimental study of 3D soil arching in piled reinforced embankments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹卫平; 胡伟伟

    2014-01-01

    differential settlement. The installation of horizontal reinforcement within the embankment will effectively increase the stress concentration ratio and decrease the surface settlement;a low embankment as well as high tension strength of the reinforcement will enhance the function of the horizontal reinforcement. The equal settlement plane height is about 3.5 times the pile-cap clear spacing for 3D soil arch in piled reinforced embankments.

  16. Comparison of Four Cold Junction Compensation Methods Used for Measurement of S Type Thermocouple with Short Length%检定S型短型热电偶的4种不同冷端补偿方法之比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴霏; 金韵漪

    2011-01-01

    When we test the testing - length during 200 ~ 700 mm S type thermocouple, the TR is based on the room temperature or fluctuant temperature. It should take to revise or to compensate to keep the TR in 0℃. We use the widely used four cold junction compensation methods to test the same S type thermocouple, and analyze results. The results proved that the method about "the reference end is to extend the like polarity thermocouple which can reach the first standard thermocouple class of accuracy to reference end thermostat" is the better compensation method.%检定长度在200 ~ 700 mm范围内的S型热电偶时,由于参考端温度大都处于室温或者波动的温场之中,需要将参考端温度恒定在0℃或采取修正、补偿等措施进行修正.现采取检定中最常用的4种不同的冷端补偿方法检定同一支S型短型热电偶,对结果进行比较分析,得到这4种不同的冷端补偿方法的优劣性及其准确度排序.结果表明,“将参考端应用达到一等标准热电偶准确度水平的同极性热电偶丝延伸至参考端恒温器”方法能获得较为理想的补偿效果.

  17. 基于量子粒子群算法的热电偶动态校准及动态补偿技术研究%Study on Dynamic Calibration and Dynamic Compensation Technique of the Thermocouple Based on Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘保青; 李岩峰; 张志杰

    2015-01-01

    为了实现热电偶传感器的动态校准及动态补偿,有效改善热电偶的动态特性,利用半导体激光加热高、加热快的优点,构建了可溯源温度动态校准系统,实现了热电偶的可溯源动态校准,测得了C型热电偶的时间常数。应用量子粒子群优化算法建立了热电偶传感器的动态补偿滤波器模型,有效改善了热电偶的动态特性,减小了热电偶传感器的动态误差。%In order to improve the dynamic characteristics of the thermocouple sensor effectively by the dynamic cal⁃ibration and dynamic compensation technique,the temperature sensor’s traceable dynamic calibration system was constructed by taking advantage of the characteristics of high and quick heating of the semiconductor laser,which made the traceable dynamic calibration of the thermocouple to come true. Then,the time constant of the C-type ther⁃mocouple was measured by this system. At the same time,a model of the dynamic compensation filter was designed for the thermocouple sensor based on the quantum particle swarm optimization(QPSO)algorithm,which was terri⁃fied its great efficiency in reduction of the dynamic errors and could be used to improve the dynamic characteristics of the thermocouple.

  18. 高温热电偶材料PtRh40/PtRh20合金性能研究%Prorerties of PtRh40/PtRh20 High-temperature Thermocouple Wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴保安; 刘庆宾; 陈德茂; 汪建胜; 唐会毅; 陈小军

    2013-01-01

    The long-term using temperature of PtRh40/PtRh20 high-temperature thermocouple wire is 1750℃. PtRh40/PtRh20 is belong to non-standard thermocouple, and mainly applies to measure the aircraft efflux plasma temperature. The influences of annealing temperature on the tensile strength and resistivity of PtRh40 and PtRh20 alloy wires, and the influences of the cold working on tensile strength and vickers hardness of the wires were studied. The results indicated that the tensile strengths increased with the increase of annealing temperature at first, then decreased sharply, finally it is stable forming a platform. The resistivities were increased with the annealing temperature, and the tensile strength and hardness were increased with the cold working. The errors of matching thermoelectric potential of PtRh40- PtRh20 relative to ASTM E1751-2000 standard thermoelectric power is 1℃ at 1200℃, 2℃ at 1500℃, and 1℃ at 1700℃.%  PtRh40/PtRh20高温热电偶长期使用温度为1750℃,主要用于飞机尾焰高温测量,属于非标热电偶,目前国内主要依靠进口。研究了 PtRh40、PtRh20退火温度与合金电阻率、抗拉强度及加工率与抗拉强度、硬度的关系,并测试了PtRh40/PtRh20热电偶热电性能。结果表明:抗拉强度随退火温度的升高先升高再急剧下降,最后稳定在一个平台,两者大约在900℃时抗拉强度降至最低;电阻率均随退火温度升高而升高;抗拉强度与硬度均随加工率的增加而提高;PtRh40/PtRh20配对热电势相对ASTM E1751-2000标准热电势测试结果为在1200℃时误差为1℃,在1500℃时误差2℃,在1700℃时误差1℃。

  19. The Statistical Analysis Techniques to Support the NGNP Fuel Performance Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bihn T. Pham; Jeffrey J. Einerson

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes the development and application of statistical analysis techniques to support the AGR experimental program on NGNP fuel performance. The experiments conducted in the Idaho National Laboratory’s Advanced Test Reactor employ fuel compacts placed in a graphite cylinder shrouded by a steel capsule. The tests are instrumented with thermocouples embedded in graphite blocks and the target quantity (fuel/graphite temperature) is regulated by the He-Ne gas mixture that fills the gap volume. Three techniques for statistical analysis, namely control charting, correlation analysis, and regression analysis, are implemented in the SAS-based NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) for automated processing and qualification of the AGR measured data. The NDMAS also stores daily neutronic (power) and thermal (heat transfer) code simulation results along with the measurement data, allowing for their combined use and comparative scrutiny. The ultimate objective of this work includes (a) a multi-faceted system for data monitoring and data accuracy testing, (b) identification of possible modes of diagnostics deterioration and changes in experimental conditions, (c) qualification of data for use in code validation, and (d) identification and use of data trends to support effective control of test conditions with respect to the test target. Analysis results and examples given in the paper show the three statistical analysis techniques providing a complementary capability to warn of thermocouple failures. It also suggests that the regression analysis models relating calculated fuel temperatures and thermocouple readings can enable online regulation of experimental parameters (i.e. gas mixture content), to effectively maintain the target quantity (fuel temperature) within a given range.

  20. Test Analysis of Rise Time of Semiconductor Laser Based on Thermocouple Dynamic Calibration System%基于热电偶动态校准系统的半导体激光器上升时间测试分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宇

    2014-01-01

    A high power semiconductor laser as the temperature-generating device is introduced. The laser pulse is sent out from the laser to generate a quasi-step temperature change signal on the calibrated thermocouple surface. The signal is detected simultaneously by a fast response infrared detector and a slow response calibrated thermocouple. The former value is used as the true value to calibrate the new dynamic calibration system of the lat-ter. For test the fast response thermocouple, the response time of the temperature-generating device is needed to be calibrated. Thus a fast response photodiode is chosen as a photoelectric detector. A test method of the rise time of the laser is obtained through building a test circuit. And a high power semiconductor laser with 980 nm is tested and the results are given. Experiments show that the rise time of the high power semiconductor laser is at nanosec-ond level and the dynamic calibration of the thermocouple with time constant at microsecond level can be realized.%介绍利用大功率半导体激光器作为温度发生装置,发出脉冲激光使被校准热电偶表面产生准阶跃温度变化的信号,用响应速度快的红外探测器和响应慢的被校准热电偶同时对此温度变化信号进行探测,最终以前者测得的值作为真值来校准后者的新的动态校准系统。为了能够测试响应速度快的热电偶,需要测试温度发生装置的响应时间,因此提出了选用响应速度快的光敏二极管作为光电探测器件,通过搭建测试电路,获得激光器上升时间的测试方法。并针对波长为980 nm的大功率半导体激光器进行测试,给出测试结果。试验表明,该半导体激光器的上升时间为纳秒级别,可以实现对时间常数为微秒级别热电偶的动态校准。

  1. 浅谈应用“教、学、做”一体化教室的课堂教学--以热电偶温度传感器教学实施为例%Discussion on the Application of“Teaching,Learning and Doing”for the Integrated of Classroom for Teaching:The Thermocouple Temperature Sensor Teaching as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王前洪

    2014-01-01

    It introduces the application of“mechatronics teaching and learning”, integrated classroom implementation of the thermocouple temperature sensor,an integration of theory and practice of classroom teaching process,teaching thought,teaching method and teaching.%介绍了机电一体化技术专业应用“教、学、做”一体化教室实施的热电偶温度传感器课堂一次理实一体化教学的过程、教学思路、教学方法及相应实训教学。

  2. Mechanical performance of irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Dalle-Donne, M.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik

    1998-01-01

    For the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) Blanket, which is one of the two reference concepts studied within the European Fusion Technology Programme, the neutron multiplier consists of a mixed bed of about 2 and 0.1-0.2 mm diameter beryllium pebbles. Beryllium has no structural function in the blanket, however microstructural and mechanical properties are important, as they might influence the material behavior under neutron irradiation. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating it. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from these irradiation experiments, emphasizing the effects of irradiation of essential material properties and trying to elucidate the processes controlling the property changes. The microstructure, the porosity distribution, the impurity content, the behavior under compression loads and the compatibility of the beryllium pebbles with lithium orthosilicate (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) during the in-pile irradiation are presented and critically discussed. Qualitative information on ductility and creep obtained by hardness-type measurements are also supplied. (author)

  3. Improved performance of U-Mo dispersion fuel by Si addition in Al matrix.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y S; Hofman, G L [Nuclear Engineering Division

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to collect in one publication and fit together work fragments presented in many conferences in the multi-year time span starting 2002 to the present dealing with the problem of large pore formation in U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel plates first observed in 2002. Hence, this report summarizes the excerpts from papers and reports on how we interpreted the relevant results from out-of-pile and in-pile tests and how this problem was dealt with. This report also provides a refined view to explain in detail and in a quantitative manner the underlying mechanism of the role of silicon in improving the irradiation performance of U-Mo/Al.

  4. Performing Performance Design Anglonationally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Video recording of pecha kucha style bricolage aural enactment of an international version of performance design......Video recording of pecha kucha style bricolage aural enactment of an international version of performance design...

  5. Performing Performance Design Anglonationally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Video recording of pecha kucha style bricolage aural enactment of an international version of performance design......Video recording of pecha kucha style bricolage aural enactment of an international version of performance design...

  6. Comparison of thermal performance between test cells with different coverage systems for experimental typical day of heat in Brazilian Southeastern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Tiberio Cardoso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article shows experimentally the thermal performance of two test cells with different coverage systems, Light Green Roof (LGR and ceramic roof by analyzing internal surface temperatures (IST in the ceiling and dry bulb temperatures (DBT. The objective was to evaluate the spatial distribution of temperatures in buildings according to spatial and temporal Dynamic Climatology approaches. An experimental, typical day for heat conditions was determined. The data of the main climatic variables provided by an automatic weather station and temperatures inside the test cells were collected using thermocouples installed such that the entire space is included. The results led to the conclusion that the LGR has a balanced IST and DBT spatial distribution compared with ceramic roofs. Nevertheless, the analysis of the thermal performance is only one of the variables that must be considered when developing a construction proposal that is adapted to the context. The manner in which the thermocouples were placed inside the test cells also showed the importance of specifying the location of the sensors in experimental studies on the behavior and thermal performance of buildings.

  7. Uncertainty Estimation of Measurement Result of Grade ⅡInexpensive Metal Thermocouple for an Industrial Use Below 300℃%300℃以下Ⅱ级工业用廉金属热电偶示值误差测量结果的不确定度评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨保成; 杨立; 谢志辉

    2016-01-01

    为了评定300℃以下Ⅱ级工业用廉金属热电偶示值误差测量结果的不确定度,依据GJB3756—99《测量不确定度的表示及评定》、JJF1059.1—2012《测量不确定度评定与表示》和JJG351—96《工作用廉金属热电偶检定规程》等标准和规范,设计了校准方案,分析了测量不确定度的来源,建立了测量模型;分别采用A类和B类方法对各标准不确定度分量进行评定,在确定合成标准不确定度和扩展不确定度之后,得到测量不确定度。%In order to estimate the uncertainty of measurements error of gradeⅡinexpensive metal thermocouple for industrial use below 300℃, based on standards and specifications GJB3756—99 Calibration Procedure ofInexpensive Metal Thermocouple for Working,JJF1059.1—2012 Representation and Evaluation of Uncertainty Measurement and JJG35 1—96 Representation and Evaluation of Uncertainty Measurement,a calibration method was designed,and the sources of the uncertainty of measurement was analyzed,and the measuring model was established,and the uncertainty components were assessed using class A and class B method respectively.The uncertainty of measurements was obtained after the synthetic standard uncertainty and the expanded uncertainty were determined.

  8. Performance of Polycrystalline Photovoltaic and Thermal Collector (PVT on Serpentine-Parallel Absorbers Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustofa Mustofa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance of an unglazed polycrystalline photovoltaic-thermal PVT on 0.045 kg/s mass flow rate. PVT combine photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors, forming a single device that receive solar radiation and produces heat and electricity simultaneously. The collector figures out serpentine-parallel tubes that can prolong fluid heat conductivity from morning till afternoon. During testing, cell PV, inlet and outlet fluid temperaturs were recorded by thermocouple digital LM35 Arduino Mega 2560. Panel voltage and electric current were also noted in which they were connected to computer and presented each second data recorded. But, in this performance only shows in the certain significant time data. This because the electric current was only noted by multimeter device not the digital one. Based on these testing data, average cell efficieny was about 19%, while thermal efficiency of above 50% and correspondeng cell efficiency of 11%, respectively

  9. Evaluation of Candidate In-Pile Thermal Conductivity Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Fox; H. Ban; J. Daw; K. Condie; D. Knudson; J. Rempe

    2009-05-01

    Thermophysical properties of materials must be known for proper design, test, and application of new fuels and structural properties in nuclear reactors. In the case of nuclear fuels during irradiation, the physical structure and chemical composition change as a function of time and position within the rod. Typically, thermal conductivity changes, as well as other thermophysical properties being evaluated during irradiation in a materials and test reactor, are measured out-of-pile in “hot-cells.” Repeatedly removing samples from a test reactor to make out-of-pile measurements is expensive, has the potential to disturb phenomena of interest, and only provide understanding of the sample's end state at the time each measurement is made. There are also limited thermophysical property data for advanced fuels. Such data are needed for the development of next generation reactors and advanced fuels for existing nuclear plants. Having the capacity to effectively and quickly characterize fuels and material properties during irradiation has the potential to improve the fidelity of nuclear fuel data and reduce irradiation testing costs.

  10. Synergistic Smart Fuel For In-pile Nuclear Reactor Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Smith; Dale K. Kotter; Randall A. Ali; Steven L . Garrett

    2013-10-01

    In March 2011, an earthquake of magnitude 9.0 on the Richter scale struck Japan with its epicenter on the northeast coast, near the Tohoku region. In addition to the immense physical destruction and casualties across the country, several nuclear power plants (NPP) were affected. It was the Fukushima Daiichi NPP that experienced the most severe and irreversible damage. The earthquake brought the reactors at Fukushima to an automatic shutdown and because the power transmission lines were damaged, emergency diesel generators (EDGs) were activated to ensure that there was continued cooling of the reactors and spent fuel pools. The situation was being successfully managed until the tsunami hit about forty-five minutes later with a maximum wave height of approximately 15 m. The influx of water submerged the EDGs, the electrical switchgear, and dc batteries, resulting in the total loss of power to the reactors.2 At this point, the situation became critical. There was a loss of the sensors and instrumentation within the reactor that could have provided valuable information to guide the operators to make informed decisions and avoid the unfortunate events that followed. In the light of these events, we have developed and tested a potential self-powered thermoacoustic system, which will have the ability to serve as a temperature sensor and can transmit data independently of electronic networks. Such a device is synergistic with the harsh environment of the nuclear reactor as it utilizes the heat from the nuclear fuel to provide the input power.

  11. Aluminum cladding oxidation of prefilmed in-pile fueled experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, W. R.; Wachs, D. M.; Robinson, A. B.; Lillo, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    A series of fueled irradiation experiments were recently completed within the Advanced Test Reactor Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) and Gas Test Loop (GTL) campaigns. The conduct of the AFIP experiments supports ongoing efforts within the global threat reduction initiative (GTRI) to qualify a new ultra-high loading density low enriched uranium-molybdenum fuel. This study details the characterization of oxide growth on the fueled AFIP experiments and cross-correlates the empirically measured oxide thickness values to existing oxide growth correlations and convective heat transfer correlations that have traditionally been utilized for such an application. This study adds new and valuable empirical data to the scientific community with respect to oxide growth measurements of highly irradiated experiments, of which there is presently very limited data. Additionally, the predicted oxide thickness values are reconstructed to produce an oxide thickness distribution across the length of each fueled experiment (a new application and presentation of information that has not previously been obtainable in open literature); the predicted distributions are compared against experimental data and in general agree well with the exception of select outliers.

  12. Synergistic smart fuel for in-pile nuclear reactor measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.A.; Kotter, D.K. [Idaho National Laboratories, Idaho Falls (United States); Ali, R.A.; Garrett, S.L. [Penn State University, University Park, State College, PA 16801 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The thermo-acoustic fuel rod sensor developed in this research has demonstrated a novel technique for monitoring the temperature within the core of a nuclear reactor or the temperature of the surrounding heat-transfer fluid. It uses the heat from the nuclear fuel to generate sustained acoustic oscillations whose frequency will be indicative of the temperature. Converting a nuclear fuel rod into this type of thermo-acoustic sensor simply requires the insertion of a porous material (stack). This sensor has demonstrated a synergy with the elevated temperatures that exist within the nuclear reactor using materials that have only minimal susceptibility to high-energy particle fluxes. When the sensor is in operation, the sound waves radiated from the fuel rod resonator will propagate through the surrounding cooling fluid. The frequency of these oscillations is directly correlated with an effective temperature within the fuel rod resonator. This device is self-powered and is operational even in case of total loss of power of the reactor.

  13. Performance, Performance System, and High Performance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hwan Young

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes needed transitions in the field of human performance technology. The following three transitions are discussed: transitioning from training to performance, transitioning from performance to performance system, and transitioning from learning organization to high performance system. A proposed framework that comprises…

  14. Peach Bottom test element program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saurwein, J.J.; Holzgraf, J.F.; MIller, C.M.; Myers, B.F.; Wallroth, C.F.

    1982-11-01

    Thirty-three test elements were irradiated in the Peach Bottom high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as part of the testing program for advanced HTGRs. Extensive postirradiation examinations and evaluations of 21 of these irradiation experiments were performed. The test element irradiations were simulated using HTGR design codes and data. Calculated fuel burnups, power profiles, fast neutron fluences, and temperatures were verified via destructive burnup measurements, gamma scanning, and in-pile thermocouple readings corrected for decalibration effects. Analytical techniques were developed to improve the quality of temperature predictions through feedback of nuclear measurements into thermal calculations. Dimensional measurements, pressure burst tests, diametral compression tests, ring-cutting tests, strip-cutting tests, and four-point bend tests were performed to measure residual stress, strain, and strength distributions in H-327 graphite structures irradiated in the test elements.

  15. The Scaling of Performance and Losses in Miniature Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    is usually some kind of bimetallic material and brass coated with chrome or nickel is common. The transfer ports are machined into the cylinder...using a stainless steel sheathed K type thermocouple held in contact with the cylinder head. A similar thermocouple inserted into the muffler exit

  16. Performing Nation, Performing Difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    , or nation building, on the one side and the stark historical realism of the stolen generations + the backdrop of the second world war bombing of Darwin by the Japanese collectively creates a number of interwoven narratives in the tapestry that forms Australian cultural history.......Baz Luhrmann's Australia is simultaneously a film made for an Australian and an international audience. One of the interesting question this raises is how Luhrmann performs the nation for the national and the international audience. The film's juxtaposition of the national epic of pioneering...

  17. Investigation of Battery Heat Generation and Key Performance Indicator Efficiency Using Isothermal Calorimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    , and the heat flux of the battery cell at the same time. Temperatures on the surface of the cell are measured using contact thermocouples, whereas, the heat flux is measured simultaneously by the isothermal calorimeter. This heat flux measurement is used for determining the heat generation inside the cell....... Consequently, using the heat generation result the important performance constituent of the battery cell efficiency is calculated. Those are accomplished at different temperature levels (-5°C, 10°C, 25°C and 40°C) of continuous charge and discharge constant current rate (1C,2C,4......C,8C,10C (maximum)). There is a significant change in heat generation in both charge and discharge events on different temperature and C-rate. The heat flux change level is non-linear. This nonlinear heat flux is responsible for the nonlinear change of efficiency in different C-rate in a particular...

  18. Performance Poolsheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Performance Poolsheet is an MS Access database that captures performance appraisal data for employees eligible for performance awards. Microsoft Access database...

  19. Network performance analysis and management for cyber-physical systems and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emfinger, William A.

    With increased public interest in protecting the environment, scientists and engineers aim to improve energy conversion efficiency. Thermoelectrics offer many advantages as thermal management technology. When compared to vapor compression refrigeration, above approximately 200 to 600 watts, cost in dollars per watt as well as COP are not advantageous for thermoelectrics. The goal of this work was to determine if optimized pulse supercooling operation could improve cooling capacity or efficiency of a thermoelectric device. The basis of this research is a thermal-electrical analogy based modeling study using SPICE. Two models were developed. The first model, a standalone thermocouple with no attached mass to be cooled. The second, a system that includes a module attached to a heat generating mass. With the thermocouple study, a new approach of generating response surfaces with characteristic parameters was applied. The current pulse height and pulse on-time was identified for maximizing Net Transient Advantage, a newly defined metric. The corresponding pulse height and pulse on-time was utilized for the system model. Along with the traditional steady state starting current of Imax, Iopt was employed. The pulse shape was an isosceles triangle. For the system model, metrics new to pulse cooling were Qc, power consumption and COP. The effects of optimized current pulses were studied by changing system variables. Further studies explored time spacing between pulses and temperature distribution in the thermoelement. It was found net Q c over an entire pulse event can be improved over Imax steady operation but not over steady I opt operation. Qc can be improved over Iopt operation but only during the early part of the pulse event. COP is reduced in transient pulse operation due to the different time constants of Qc and Pin. In some cases lower performance interface materials allow more Qc and better COP during transient operation than higher performance interface materials

  20. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Lindelof, Anja Mølle

    from the perspective of time and liveness as experienced in art on environmental performance discussing how environmental performances frame the temporality of the world. The paper engages with contemporary examples of environmental performances from various disciplines (sound, video, television...

  1. Performance Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Mary Louise

    1988-01-01

    Reviews general facets of performance appraisal pointing out the similarities and differences in methods and instruments used to assess the performance of administrative, academic, and nonacademic personnel. Relates the concepts of merit pay and tenure to performance appraisal. (DMM)

  2. Performance assessment of thermal sensors during short-duration convective surface heating measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Niranjan; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-09-01

    The determination of convective surface heating is a very crucial parameter in high speed flow environment. Most of the ground based facilities in this domain have short duration experimental time scale (~milliseconds) of measurements. In these facilities, the calorimetric heat transfer sensors such as thin film gauges (TFGs) and coaxial surface junction thermocouple (CSJT) are quite effective temperature detectors. They have thickness in the range of few microns and have capability of responding in microsecond time scale. The temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and the sensitivity are calibration parameter indicators that show the linear change in the resistance of the gauge as a function of temperature. In the present investigation, three of types of heat transfer gauges are fabricated in the laboratory namely, TFG made out of platinum, TFG made out of platinum mixed with CNT and chromel-alumel surface junction coaxial thermocouple (K-type). The calibration parameters of the gauges are determined though oil-bath experiments. The average value TCR and sensitivity of platinum TFG is found to be 0.0024 K-1 and 465 μV/K, while similar values of CSJT are obtained as, 0.064 K-1 and 40.5 μV/K, respectively. The TFG made out of platinum mixed with CNT (5 % by mass) shows the enhancement of TCR as well as sensitivity and the corresponding values are 0.0034 K-1 and 735 μV/K, respectively. The relative performances of heat transfer gauges are compared in a simple laboratory scale experiment in which the gauges are exposed to a sudden step heat load in convection mode for the time duration of 200 ms. The surface heat fluxes are predicted from the temperature history through one dimensional heat conduction modeling. While comparing the experimental results, it is seen that prediction of surface heat flux from all the heat transfer gauges are within the range of ±4 %.

  3. The influence of Thomson effect in the performance optimization of a two stage thermoelectric cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, S. C.; Manikandan, S.

    2015-12-01

    The exoreversible and irreversible thermodynamic models of a two stage thermoelectric cooler (TTEC) considering Thomson effect in conjunction with Peltier, Joule and Fourier heat conduction effects have been investigated using exergy analysis. New expressions for the interstage temperature, optimum current for the maximum cooling power, energy and exergy efficiency conditions, energy efficiency and exergy efficiency of a TTEC are derived as well. The number of thermocouples in the first and second stages of a TTEC for the maximum cooling power, energy and exergy efficiency conditions are optimized. The results show that the exergy efficiency is lower than the energy efficiency e.g., in an irreversible TTEC with total 30 thermocouples, heat sink temperature (TH) of 300 K and heat source temperature (TC) of 280 K, the obtained maximum cooling power, maximum energy and exergy efficiency are 20.37 W, 0.7147 and 5.10% respectively. It has been found that the Thomson effect increases the cooling power and energy efficiency of the TTEC system e.g., in the exoreversible TTEC the cooling power and energy efficiency increased from 14.87 W to 16.36 W and from 0.4079 to 0.4998 respectively for ΔTC of 40 K when Thomson effect is considered. It has also been found that the heat transfer area at the hot side of an irreversible TTEC should be higher than the cold side for maximum performance operation. This study will help in the designing of the actual multistage thermoelectric cooling systems.

  4. Real-time measurements of temperature, pressure and moisture profiles in High-Performance Concrete exposed to high temperatures during neutron radiography imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropovs, N., E-mail: nikolajs.toropovs@rtu.lv [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Riga Technical University, Institute of Materials and Structures, Riga (Latvia); Lo Monte, F. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Milan (Italy); Wyrzykowski, M. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Lodz University of Technology, Department of Building Physics and Building Materials, Lodz (Poland); Weber, B. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Sahmenko, G. [Riga Technical University, Institute of Materials and Structures, Riga (Latvia); Vontobel, P. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Villigen (Switzerland); Felicetti, R. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Milan (Italy); Lura, P. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Institute for Building Materials (IfB), Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-02-15

    High-Performance Concrete (HPC) is particularly prone to explosive spalling when exposed to high temperature. Although the exact causes that lead to spalling are still being debated, moisture transport during heating plays an important role in all proposed mechanisms. In this study, slabs made of high-performance, low water-to-binder ratio mortars with addition of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) and polypropylene fibers (PP) were heated from one side on a temperature-controlled plate up to 550 °C. A combination of measurements was performed simultaneously on the same sample: moisture profiles via neutron radiography, temperature profiles with embedded thermocouples and pore pressure evolution with embedded pressure sensors. Spalling occurred in the sample with SAP, where sharp profiles of moisture and temperature were observed. No spalling occurred when PP-fibers were introduced in addition to SAP. The experimental procedure described here is essential for developing and verifying numerical models and studying measures against fire spalling risk in HPC.

  5. Flaps-Up Takoff Performance of the OV-1D Aircraft with YT53-L-704 Engine Installed

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    Measured Gas Propeller Ambient Calibrated Thermocouple Po sltlon Speed Temperature Speed Temperataure Airspeed 0 1 2 3 4 5 (% rpm) (deg C) (rpm...Measured Gas Propeller Ambient Calibrated Thermocouple Position k 1 i Torque Speed Temperature Speed Temperataure Airspeed 0 12 3 4 5 i r 1

  6. Experimental study on the performance of a prism-shaped integrated collector-storage solar water heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Hamood, Abdul Jabbar N. Khalifa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation on the thermal performance of a 500-liter integrated collector storage system in the shape of a prism with a right angle. A grid of 45 thermocouples was assembled inside the storage tank to monitor the temperature distribution, which was utilized to estimate the mass-weighted average temperature inside the tank and the heat gain. The total stored energy for a day in August was found to be 105.92 MJ/m3 with a temperature increase of 25.2˚C. In November, the total stored energy was 65.86 MJ/m3 with a temperature increase of 15.5˚C while it was 56.92 MJ/m3 for January with a temperature increase of 13.6˚C. A comparison between the present experimental results and published theoretical results for a similar shape showed good agreement.

  7. Atomistic modeling of intrinsic and radiation-enhanced fission gas (Xe) diffusion in UO2 +/- x: Implications for nuclear fuel performance modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovanni Pastore; Michael R. Tonks; Derek R. Gaston; Richard L. Williamson; David Andrs; Richard Martineau

    2014-03-01

    Based on density functional theory (DFT) and empirical potential calculations, the diffusivity of fission gas atoms (Xe) in UO2 nuclear fuel has been calculated for a range of non-stoichiometry (i.e. UO2x), under both out-of-pile (no irradiation) and in-pile (irradiation) conditions. This was achieved by first deriving expressions for the activation energy that account for the type of trap site that the fission gas atoms occupy, which includes the corresponding type of mobile cluster, the charge state of these defects and the chemistry acting as boundary condition. In the next step DFT calculations were used to estimate migration barriers and internal energy contributions to the thermodynamic properties and calculations based on empirical potentials were used to estimate defect formation and migration entropies (i.e. pre-exponentials). The diffusivities calculated for out-of-pile conditions as function of the UO2x nonstoichiometrywere used to validate the accuracy of the diffusion models and the DFT calculations against available experimental data. The Xe diffusivity is predicted to depend strongly on the UO2x non-stoichiometry due to a combination of changes in the preferred Xe trap site and in the concentration of uranium vacancies enabling Xe diffusion, which is consistent with experiments. After establishing the validity of the modeling approach, it was used for studying Xe diffusion under in-pile conditions, for which experimental data is very scarce. The radiation-enhanced Xe diffusivity is compared to existing empirical models. Finally, the predicted fission gas diffusion rates were implemented in the BISON fuel performance code and fission gas release from a Risø fuel rod irradiation experiment was simulated. 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  8. Combustion performance evaluation of air staging of palm oil blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Jaafar, Mohammad Nazri; Eldrainy, Yehia A; Mat Ali, Muhammad Faiser; Wan Omar, W Z; Mohd Hizam, Mohd Faizi Arif

    2012-02-21

    The problems of global warming and the unstable price of petroleum oils have led to a race to develop environmentally friendly biofuels, such as palm oil or ethanol derived from corn and sugar cane. Biofuels are a potential replacement for fossil fuel, since they are renewable and environmentally friendly. This paper evaluates the combustion performance and emission characteristics of Refined, Bleached, and Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO)/diesel blends B5, B10, B15, B20, and B25 by volume, using an industrial oil burner with and without secondary air. Wall temperature profiles along the combustion chamber axis were measured using a series of thermocouples fitted axially on the combustion chamber wall, and emissions released were measured using a gas analyzer. The results show that RBDPO blend B25 produced the maximum emission reduction of 56.9% of CO, 74.7% of NOx, 68.5% of SO(2), and 77.5% of UHC compared to petroleum diesel, while air staging (secondary air) in most cases reduces the emissions further. However, increasing concentrations of RBDPO in the blends also reduced the energy released from the combustion. The maximum wall temperature reduction was 62.7% for B25 at the exit of the combustion chamber.

  9. Dj Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dj Performance at a late concert at The Hub, Plymouth, in support of Sileni, Superconductor and others.......Dj Performance at a late concert at The Hub, Plymouth, in support of Sileni, Superconductor and others....

  10. Performing Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wallpach, Sylvia; Hemetsberger, Andrea; Espersen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    performative approaches to branding, this study applies a performativity theory perspective. Brand performances—encompassing playing and liking, basement building and showcasing, creating and innovating, community building and facilitating, storytelling, missionizing, and marketplace developing—exhibit generic...

  11. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    as its starting point to investigate liveness within a specific kind of contemporary performance: ‘environmental performances’. Environmental performances are arts practices that take environmental processes as their focus by framing activities of non-human performers such as clouds, wind and weeds - key...

  12. Assessment of SFR fuel pin performance codes under advanced fuel for minor actinide transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouineau, V.; Lainet, M.; Chauvin, N.; Pelletier, M. [French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission - CEA, CEA Cadarache, DEN/DEC/SESC, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Di Marcello, V.; Van Uffelen, P.; Walker, C. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D- 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors of long-lived nuclides like {sup 241}Am is, therefore, an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity and residual power packages as well as the repository area. In the SUPERFACT Experiment four different oxide fuels containing high and low concentrations of {sup 237}Np and {sup 241}Am, representing the homogeneous and heterogeneous in-pile recycling concepts, were irradiated in the PHENIX reactor. The behavior of advanced fuel materials with minor actinide needs to be fully characterized, understood and modeled in order to optimize the design of this kind of fuel elements and to evaluate its performances. This paper assesses the current predictability of fuel performance codes TRANSURANUS and GERMINAL V2 on the basis of post irradiation examinations of the SUPERFACT experiment for pins with low minor actinide content. Their predictions have been compared to measured data in terms of geometrical changes of fuel and cladding, fission gases behavior and actinide and fission product distributions. The results are in good agreement with the experimental results, although improvements are also pointed out for further studies, especially if larger content of minor actinide will be taken into account in the codes. (authors)

  13. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Lindelof, Anja Mølle

    2017-01-01

    Presence, attention and awareness are challenged in a cultural landscape with an overflow of media and information (big data, mediatization processes), an overflow of time scheduling (rationalization, effectuation), and an overflow of marketing for example of ‘live performance’ as a promotional...... from the perspective of time and liveness as experienced in art on environmental performance discussing how environmental performances frame the temporality of the world. The paper engages with contemporary examples of environmental performances from various disciplines (sound, video, television......, performance art), and seeks to contribute to the ongoing debate on the quality and status of live performance (Reason & Lindelof 2016). As a critical response to the above mentioned overflows these performances make their own overflow through their characteristically non-representational, unpredictable...

  14. Music performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, C

    1997-01-01

    Music performance provides a rich domain for study of both cognitive and motor skills. Empirical research in music performance is summarized, with particular emphasis on factors that contribute to the formation of conceptual interpretations, retrieval from memory of musical structures, and transformation into appropriate motor actions. For example, structural and emotional factors that contribute to performers' conceptual interpretations are considered. Research on the planning of musical sequences for production is reviewed, including hierarchical and associative retrieval influences, style-specific syntactic influences, and constraints on the range of planning. The fine motor control evidenced in music performance is discussed in terms of internal timekeeper models, motor programs, and kinematic models. The perceptual consequences of music performance are highlighted, including the successful communication of interpretations, resolution of structural ambiguities, and concordance with listeners' expectations. Parallels with other domains support the conclusion that music performance is not unique in its underlying cognitive mechanisms.

  15. PERFORMANCE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Chaoyang Theater Chaoyang Theater specializes in acrobatic performances. Built in 1984, the theater was designated a special one for tourists by Beijing Municipal Government in 1986. In 2001, it won the title of one of the excellent cultural units in China. From the early 1980s, the theater has been concentrating on acrobatic performances. After 10 years, the theater became famous for its acrobatic performances. In Beijing, it is acknowledged that Chaoyang Theater is the best place to

  16. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelof, Anja Mølle; Schmidt, Ulrik; Svabo, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Do ants and grasshoppers perform? Do clouds, plants and melting ice? Do skyscrapers, traffic jams and computer vira? And what happens to our understanding of liveness if that is the case? This chapter takes ongoing theoretical disputes about the nature of live performance in performance studies a...... examples being Francisco López’ La Selva (1998), James Turrell’s Skyspaces (1974-), James Benning’s Ten Skies (2004), Pierre Huyghes Untilled (2012) and Pierre Sauvageots Harmonic Fields (2010)....

  17. Performance Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interview with experts on performance documentation. Suggests that educators should strive to represent performance appraisal writing to students in a way that reflects the way it is perceived and evaluated in the workplace. Concludes that educators can enrich their pedagogy with practice by helping students understand the importance…

  18. Urban performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    on the High Line, New York during Performa 2011. With the dance performance I want to illustrate how the bio political shaping of the body becomes intensified and transformed during the performance. Ashley does not only choreograph the individual body and the body of the - formerly - passive spectator, he...

  19. Weekly Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    There are many retired people living in Beijing. In order to amuse themselves and improve their health, some have formed yangko (folk dance) teams on a voluntary basis. Ordinarily they do the yangko individually and gather to perform on Sundays. Wearing traditional costumes and forming a circle, yangko teams’ members are enthusiastic about their activity, known as a "weekly performance."

  20. Performative Tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Malene Kirstine; Mullins, Michael; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies two digital generative tools in terms of Performative Tectonics. Performative Tectonics is a term developed in the paper, which links the contemporary development of digital tools to the tectonic tradition of architecture. Within the theoretical framework of this definition...

  1. Aesthetic Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landgrebe, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with how an aesthetic performance is enacted and coordinated by a performance group attracting attention and engaging commuters in a public space. Multimodal interactional resources and the way they are coordinated by interactants are investigated, and include verbal and non......-verbal actions, gaze orientation, active and static interactional strategies and props. From the data investigated, it seems that the performance act is divided into different stages which each calls for different strategies: the group's initiation of the entire performance act reveals that the group stand out...... as uncoordinated and it may have a significance for whether the 'street' performers manage to stay in character or not. Once attention from commuters is obtained, a continued gaze from these commuters opens up for subsequent interaction, which then ultimately may result in the successful handing over of a card...

  2. Organizational Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Peregrino de Brito

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of the relationship between human resource management (HRM and organizational performance. Theoretically, we discuss the importance of HRM for the development of resources and its impact on business performance. Empirically, we evaluated articles published on Brazilian academic journals that addressed such relationships. The results showed a lack of studies conducted at this intersection. From the universe of 2,469 articles, only 16 (0.6% sought to relate HRM and organizational performance. We observed a dominance of isolated HR practices, which does not consider HRM as a system, and of operational performance measures, relative to financial and efficiency variables. Most studies show a positive relationship between HRM practices and performance, in line with the literature. However, we point out some methodological issues, such as the difficulty of isolating the HR practices from its context, the failure to consider the temporality of this relationship, and the comparison between companies from different industries.

  3. The NICROSIL versus NISIL Type N Thermocouple: A Commercial Reality,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    2. foda where Ae, the component of the total thermal emf e, due to inhomogeneity, Ae = e - eO , where e0 is the ’ideal’ emf, S a is the ’ideal’ Seebeck...are moderately stable and not greatly elevated. Appendix VI presents an analysis of the estimated errors that are to be expected when nicrosil versus...section 5.4.1, page 23, para. 1. Title: ANALYSIS OF ERRORS INTRODUCED BY THE USE OF CONVENTIONAL (ANSI TYPES J, K, R, S, or T) LEADWIRES WITH

  4. High Speed Surface Thermocouples Interface to Wireless Transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Transmitters David Patti 1 Item 6: Eric Gingrich, MS-12 1 RD ECOM-TARDEC-RTI-GVPM Russell Robinson, ACO 1 Item 14, Recipient Destinations: Include completed DD...David Patti: david.m.patti4.civ@mail.mil - Russell Robinson, ACO: russell.robinson@dcma.mil - OTIC (mai l 2 hardcopies) : Defense Technical Information

  5. Performance managenemt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobi, Claus Brygger

    This paper attempts to identify barriers that prevent performance management from being genuinely result-based. By observing what happened when a Danish workfare reform was implemented by applying performance management, it becomes apparent that there exists internal decouplings on and between two...... levels; a decoupling between the monitoring/evaluation of established performance indicators and the revising of these for policy-making on future interventions, and a decoupling between the strategic political/administrative level and operational street-level, inhibiting its adaption to local...

  6. Authenticating Performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Adherents of performance theory emphasize the constitutive and transformative potential of rituals with respect to patterns of social organization and authority. For them, rituals “not only mean something, but also do something, particularly the way they construct and inscribe power relationships......” (Bell 1997). This contribution focuses on the role of ritual in postcolonial identity constitution and the performative authentication of political power and social authority in Taiwan. Since the middle of the 1990s, traditionalist performances have been on the rise on the island. Generously subsidized...... at the contemporary rituals of the Taroko and Ami, which are characterized by the above mentioned dynamics, I argue that rituals publicly performed by aborigines today amalgamate different levels of meaning. While they articulate and negotiate the identity needs and social exigencies of the respective social group...

  7. Performance Hero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Derksen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Guitar Hero series of video games and their spin-offs have provided millions with a new way to interact with music. These games are not only culturally significant but also philosophically significant. Based on the way that these games allow people to interact with music we must decide that either playing a song in one of these games can be a legitimate performance of that song or that our current accounts of performance are inadequate.

  8. Performing compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Camilla Lawaetz

    2017-01-01

    the local policy workers front-staged some practices in the implementation process and back-staged others. The local policy workers deliberately performed ‘guideline compliance’ by using information control and impression management techniques. The findings suggest that local guideline compliance should......Guidelines are increasingly used to regulate how local authorities engage in practices. Focusing on the Danish national health promotion guidelines, this article reveals that the local policy workers did not implement the guidelines as proposed. Using a dramaturgical framework, it illustrates how...... be regarded as a staged performance in which deliberate techniques are used to produce and manage certain impressions of compliance....

  9. Urban performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    creates an intensive space for the empowerment and liberation of the body. Occupy Wall street and its action in the autumn 2001 is the ultimate example of how urban political performances intensifies and transform every day spaces. Through examples of how OWS tactically appropriates and transforms urban....... Whereas urban planners and architects worldwide call for user participation governed by the authorities, these urban performances act. On the backdrop of their acting of ideas in public, I propose a potential for urban transformation taking urban social diversity as its point of departure....

  10. Investigation of Battery Heat Generation and Key Performance Indicator Efficiency Using Isothermal Calorimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    In this experiment-based research, the performance and behaviour of a pouch type Li-ion battery cell are reported. The commercial test cell has a Lithium Titanate Oxide (LTO) based anode with 13Ah capacity. It is accomplished by measuring the evolution of surface temperature distribution, and the......In this experiment-based research, the performance and behaviour of a pouch type Li-ion battery cell are reported. The commercial test cell has a Lithium Titanate Oxide (LTO) based anode with 13Ah capacity. It is accomplished by measuring the evolution of surface temperature distribution......, and the heat flux of the battery cell at the same time. Temperatures on the surface of the cell are measured using contact thermocouples, whereas, the heat flux is measured simultaneously by the isothermal calorimeter. This heat flux measurement is used for determining the heat generation inside the cell....... Consequently, using the heat generation result the important performance constituent of the battery cell efficiency is calculated. Those are accomplished at different temperature levels (-5°C, 10°C, 25°C and 40°C) of continuous charge and discharge constant current rate (1C,2C,4...

  11. Key Differences in the Fabrication, Irradiation, and Safety Testing of U.S. and German TRISO-coated Particle Fuel and Their Implications on Fuel Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David Andrew; Maki, John Thomas; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hobbins, Richard Redfield

    2002-06-01

    High temperature gas reactor technology is achieving a renaissance around the world. This technology relies on high quality production and performance of coated particle fuel. Historically, the irradiation performance of TRISO-coated gas reactor particle fuel in Germany has been superior to that in the United States. German fuel generally displayed in-pile gas release values that were three orders of magnitude lower than U.S. fuel. Thus, we have critically examined the TRISO-coated fuel fabrication processes in the U.S. and Germany and the associated irradiation database with a goal of understanding why the German fuel behaves acceptably, why the U.S. fuel has not faired as well, and what process/ production parameters impart the reliable performance to this fuel form. The postirradiation examination results are also reviewed to identify failure mechanisms that may be the cause of the poorer U.S. irradiation performance. This comparison will help determine the roles that particle fuel process/product attributes and irradiation conditions (burnup, fast neutron fluence, temperature, and degree of acceleration) have on the behavior of the fuel during irradiation and provide a more quantitative linkage between acceptable processing parameters, as-fabricated fuel properties and subsequent in-reactor performance.

  12. Key Differences in the Fabrication, Irradiation, and Safety Testing of U.S. and German TRISO-coated Particle Fuel and Their Implications on Fuel Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David Andrew; Maki, John Thomas; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hobbins, Richard Redfield

    2002-06-01

    High temperature gas reactor technology is achieving a renaissance around the world. This technology relies on high quality production and performance of coated particle fuel. Historically, the irradiation performance of TRISO-coated gas reactor particle fuel in Germany has been superior to that in the United States. German fuel generally displayed in-pile gas release values that were three orders of magnitude lower than U.S. fuel. Thus, we have critically examined the TRISO-coated fuel fabrication processes in the U.S. and Germany and the associated irradiation database with a goal of understanding why the German fuel behaves acceptably, why the U.S. fuel has not faired as well, and what process/ production parameters impart the reliable performance to this fuel form. The postirradiation examination results are also reviewed to identify failure mechanisms that may be the cause of the poorer U.S. irradiation performance. This comparison will help determine the roles that particle fuel process/product attributes and irradiation conditions (burnup, fast neutron fluence, temperature, and degree of acceleration) have on the behavior of the fuel during irradiation and provide a more quantitative linkage between acceptable processing parameters, as-fabricated fuel properties and subsequent in-reactor performance.

  13. Performance Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Jason; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The field of music performance offers as many opportunities as there are individuals willing to attempt a breakthrough. Yet, this is one of the most difficult careers to succeed in. Here are eight varied articles on being a pop/rock/jazz instrumentalist or vocalist, a classical music instrumentalist or vocalist, a studio musician, a conductor, a…

  14. Performative Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svaneklink, Annette

    2009-01-01

    that can be related to traditional architectural concepts in terms of dealing with space, body, time and movement. The paper considers this performativity and dual spatiality as being a processual architecture, constantly reconfiguring new hybrids between space, image and user. This dual spatiality raises...

  15. Authenticating Performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Michael

    2015-01-01

    at the contemporary rituals of the Taroko and Ami, which are characterized by the above mentioned dynamics, I argue that rituals publicly performed by aborigines today amalgamate different levels of meaning. While they articulate and negotiate the identity needs and social exigencies of the respective social group...

  16. Performative Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bo Stjerne

    2008-01-01

    on the means by which architecture can enact places through socio-technical relationships. The architecture stands out as dynamic and open and carries emergent affects that facilitate interaction in a new configuration between objects and subjects. By crossing social and technological networks between flows...... of local interactions and network behaviour, building becomes social infrastructure and prompts an understanding of architectural structures as quasiobjects, which can retain both variation and recognisability in changing social constellations.......The paper explores how performative architecture can act as a collective environment localizing urban flows and establishing public domains through the integration of pervasive computing and animation techniques. The NoRA project introduces the concept of ‘performative environments,' focusing...

  17. Warfighter Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    Synthetic and Systems Biology, Microbial Fuel Cells Sentinel Cells,  Biomaterials Dr. Linda Chrisey, Dr. Laura Kienker Warfighter Performance  CASEVAC...Personnel Command • Deputy Chief, Navy Dental Corps • CO, Navy Expeditionary Medical Unit • COO, Rutgers / Cleveland Clinic Regen Med research consortium...Commander, Carrier Air Wing 9 • CO, Electronic Attack Squadrons VAQ-139, VAQ-129 Education • DDS, Doctor of Dental Surgery • PhD, Cell

  18. Design and experimental performance verification of a thermal property test-bed for lunar drilling exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Tao; Zhao Zeng; Liu Shuting; Li Jinglin; Ding Xilun; Yin Shen; Wang Guoxin; Lai Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Chinese Chang’e lunar exploration project aims to collect and return subsurface lunar soil samples at a minimum penetration depth of 2 m in 2017. However, in contrast to those on the Earth, automated drilling and sampling missions on the Moon raise the risk of burning bits. Test-beds are required for testing the thermal properties of drill tools in a lunar environment. In this paper, a novel temperature measuring method based on thermocouples and a slip ring was proposed. Furthermore, a data acquisition system for a drilling process was designed. A vacuous, cryogenic, and anhydrous soil environment simulating the lunar surface was established. A drilling test-bed that can reach a depth of 2.2 m was developed. A control strategy based on online monitoring signals was proposed to improve the drilling performance. Vacuum and non-vacuum experiments were performed to test the temperature rising effect on drill tools. When compared with the non-vacuum experiment, the vacuum temperature rise resulted in a 12 ?C increase. These experimental results provide significant support for Chinese lunar exploration missions.

  19. Experimental study on the performance limitation of micro heat pipes of non circular cross-sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Lutful Sakib

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of three different cross-sections (circular, semicircular and rectangular of micro heat pipes having same hydraulic diameter (D= 3mm is carried out at three different inclination angles (0°, 45°, 90° using water as the working fluid. Evaporator section of the pipe is heated by an electric heater and the condenser section is cooled by water circulation in an annular space between the condenser section and the water jacket. Temperatures at different locations of the pipe are measured using five calibrated K type thermocouples. Heat supply is varied using a voltage regulator which is measured by a precision ammeter and a voltmeter. It is found that thermal performance tends to deteriorate as the micro heat pipe is flattened. Thus among all cross-sections of the pipes circular cross-section exhibits the best thermal performance followed by semicircular and rectangular cross-sections. Moreover maximum heat transfer capability of the pipes also decreases with decreasing of its inclination angle. A correlation is developed using all the gathered data of the present study to predict the heat transfer coefficient of micro heat pipes of different cross-sections placed at different inclination angles.

  20. Performance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naema A. Ali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil collapse occurs when increased moisture causes chemical or physical bonds between the soil particles to weaken, which allows the structure of the soil to collapse. Collapsible soils are generally low-density, fine-grained combinations of clay and sand left by mudflows that have dried, leaving tiny air pockets. When the soil is dry, the cemented materials are strong enough to bond the sand particles together. When natural soil becomes wet, moisture alters the cementation structure and the soil’s strength is compromised, causing collapse or subsidence. Based on soil type and density, the potential for encountering collapsible soils throughout most of the project alignment is low. Conditions in arid and semi-arid climates like Borg El Arab, near Alexandria Egypt favor the formation of the most problematic collapsible soils. The behavior and performance of compacted sand replacement over treated collapsible soil by pre-wetting and compaction are investigated in the current study. Field investigation was performed in the form of plate loading tests conducted on compacted sand replacement over improved collapsible soil. Field plate load tests program was developed to explore the effect of compacted sand replacement thickness on collapsibility potential. Treated collapsible soil was replaced with imported cohesionless soil with variable thickness up to footing width. Results proved that the improvement of collapsible soils by sand/crushed stone replacement is possible to control/mitigate their risk potentials against sudden settlement when exposed to water. Replacement soil increases the rate and reduces the amount of footing settlement. For compacted collapsible soils, partial replacement by compacted sand/crushed stone layers decreases collapsibility potential risk. Results also, introduce the development of practical, economical and environmentally safe geochemical methods for collapsible soil stabilization and collapsible risk mitigation.

  1. Cooling performance and evaluation of automotive refrigeration system for a passenger car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajitno, Deendarlianto, Majid, Akmal Irfan; Mardani, Mahardeka Dhias; Wicaksono, Wendi; Kamal, Samsul; Purwanto, Teguh Pudji; Fauzun

    2016-06-01

    A new design of automotive refrigeration system for a passenger car was proposed. To ensure less energy consumption and optimal thermal comfort, the performance of the system were evaluated. This current research was aimed to evaluate the refrigeration characteristics of the system for several types of cooling load. In this present study, a four-passenger wagon car with 1500 cc gasoline engine that equipped by a belt driven compressor (BDC) was used as the tested vehicle. To represent the tropical condition, a set of lamps and wind sources are installed around the vehicle. The blower capacity inside a car is varied from 0.015 m/s to 0.027 m/s and the compressor speed is varied at variable 820, 1400, and 2100 rpm at a set temperature of 22°C. A set of thermocouples that combined by data logger were used to measure the temperature distribution. The system uses R-134a as the refrigerant. In order to determine the cooling capacity of the vehicle, two conditions were presented: without passengers and full load conditions. As the results, cooling capacity from any possible heating sources and transient characteristics of temperature in both systems for the cabin, engine, compressor, and condenser are presented in this work. As the load increases, the outlet temperature of evaporator also increases due to the increase of condensed air. This phenomenon also causes the increase of compressor work and compression ratio which associated to the addition of specific volume in compressor inlet.

  2. Experimental and numerical investigation of thermosyphone performance in HVAC system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidan, Adel A.; Najim, Saleh E.; Jalil, Jalal M.

    2016-12-01

    An experimental and numerical investigations are conducted on a Two Phase Closed Thermosyphon (TPCT) charged with six working fluids; namely (water, methanol, ethanol, acetone, butanol and R134a) with filling ratios (40, 50, 60, 70 and 100 %). The TPCT is made from a 0.016 m diameter copper tube, which consists of a 0.15 m evaporator, 0.1 m adiabatic and 0.15 m condenser sections, respectively. Thermocouples are located in the core and on the wall of the TPCT. The main objectives of the experimental investigation are to analyze the effect of the working fluid and filling ratio (liquid inventory) under heat inputs (20-120 W) with a fixed condenser cooling temperature of (25 °C) on the thermal performance of the TPCT. The results are compared with a simulation model using finite difference method in three dimensional cylindrical coordinates by using FORTRAN. The correlations of the phase change for the TPCT based on the theory of thermal resistance are used in the evaporator and condenser sections. The agreement between theoretical and experimental results is shown to be accurate within 10 %. The results showed that the maximum heat transport ability is associated with using of water and acetone where it is compared with other fluids under the same range of operating temperatures of 35-50 °C. This is the range between lowest and highest temperatures for the sub-tropical climates.

  3. Extraction of Thermal Performance Values from Samples in the Lunar Dust Adhesion Bell Jar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, James R.; Siamidis, John; Larkin, Elizabeth M. G.

    2010-01-01

    A simulation chamber has been developed to test the performance of thermal control surfaces under dusty lunar conditions. The lunar dust adhesion bell jar (LDAB) is a diffusion pumped vacuum chamber (10(exp -8) Torr) built to test material samples less than about 7 cm in diameter. The LDAB has the following lunar dust simulant processing capabilities: heating and cooling while stirring in order to degas and remove adsorbed water; RF air-plasma for activating the dust and for organic contaminant removal; RF H/He-plasma to simulate solar wind; dust sieving system for controlling particle sizes; and a controlled means of introducing the activated dust to the samples under study. The LDAB is also fitted with an in situ Xe arc lamp solar simulator, and a cold box that can reach 30 K. Samples of thermal control surfaces (2.5 cm diameter) are introduced into the chamber for calorimetric evaluation using thermocouple instrumentation. The object of this paper is to present a thermal model of the samples under test conditions and to outline the procedure to extract the absorptance, emittance, and thermal efficiency from the pristine and sub-monolayer dust covered samples.

  4. Parametric Characterization on the Thermal Performance of a Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sreenivasa Rao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently closed loop pulsating heat pipes have been receiving much attention because of their potential applications in high heat flux micro-electronic systems. They work by self thermal driven oscillation without any mechanical parts. Though they are simple in structure, understanding of the heat transfer mechanism is highly complex having a strong thermo- hydro dynamic coupling governing their performance. In this paper, an experimental study on a closed loop PHP with a single turn has been conducted there by providing vital information regarding parameter dependence on its performance. The PHP is made of brass tube having an internal diameter of 2 mm and outer diameter of 3 mm. The parametric characterization has been done for the variation in internal diameter, fill ratio, working fluid and orientation of the device. The working fluids Acetone, Methanol, Ethanol and Propanol are considered for experimentation with volumetric filling ratios of 50%, 60%, 70% and 80%. Input heat power of 7 to 12 W is varied at the evaporator section. The CLPHP is also verified for its thermal performance at 00, 300 and 600 orientations. The transient and steady state experiments are conducted and operating temperatures are measured using K- type thermocouples. The results highlighted that the thermal performance of a PHPis strongly influenced by change in fill ratios, orientation and heat input. 80% fill ratio yields an effective heat transfer rate for a horizontal mode of operation. Appreciable fluid movement and better heat transfer rate are observed for the 300 orientation of PHP operation. Acetone exhibits better heat transport capability compared to other working fluids in all orientations.

  5. Study on the requirement for the fuel test loop performance in the HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Hark Rho

    2000-06-01

    The requirement of the FTL (Fuel Test Loop) performance were investigated to reaffirm the technical feasibility of the FTL facility which is in consideration to install at the HANARO. LH hole in the reflector region and OR3 in the outer core region are considered as candidate sites for the IPS (In-Pile Section) for the analysis purpose. The achievable linear power at test fuel pin(s) and neutron flux levels at the cladding are analyzed in the IPS, which accommodates CANDU or PWR test fuel. The enrichment of test fuels is assumed as natural uranium for CANDU and 3.5% or 5% for PWR. The test fuel configuration is bundle or 7-pin in LH hole but 1-pin in OR site. For the CANDU test fuel, the target linear power of 60kW/m can not be achieved for all cases. For the PWR test fuel, the target linear power of 40kW/m is obtained at fuels located in the direction of the core for only the case of 5% bundle irradiation. From a sensitivity study, the linear power at test fuel is expected to increase at least 30% of the present results if the core bumup effect, optimization of the ratio of fuel-to-moderator number density, etc., are considered in the detail design. Thus, the linear power for PWR fuel is expected to reach the target value, and that for CANDU fuel will reach the target value if enriched fuel is used. The fast neutron flux at the test fuel cladding is estimated for most cases to be lower than one-third of the target value of 10{sup 1}4 n/cm{sup 2}-sec and expected not to reach the target value.

  6. Performance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack with thermally conductive pyrolytic graphite sheets for thermal management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Chih-Yung; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Lu, Chien-Heng [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101 (China)

    2009-04-15

    This work experimentally investigates the effects of the pyrolytic graphite sheets (PGS) on the performance and thermal management of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack. These PGS with the features of light weight and high thermal conductivity serve as heat spreaders in the fuel cell stack for the first time to reduce the volume and weight of cooling systems, and homogenizes the temperature in the reaction areas. A PEMFC stack with an active area of 100 cm{sup 2} and 10 cells in series is constructed and used in this research. Five PGS of thickness 0.1 mm are cut into the shape of flow channels and bound to the central five cathode gas channel plates. Four thermocouples are embedded on the cathode gas channel plates to estimate the temperature variation in the stack. It is shown that the maximum power of the stack increase more than 15% with PGS attached. PGS improve the stack performance and alleviate the flooding problem at low cathode flow rates significantly. Results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of application of PGS to the thermal management of a small-to-medium-sized fuel cell stack. (author)

  7. Heat dissipation performance of a high-brightness LED package assembly using high-thermal conductivity filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, K C; Liem, H; Choy, H S

    2013-12-10

    This paper presents a thermal analysis and experimental validation of natural convective heat transfer of a high-brightness light-emitting diode (LED) package assembly. The substrate materials used in the LED package assembly were filled and doped using boron nitride (BN) filler. The thermal conductivity of the BN-filled substrate was measured. The temperature distribution and heat flow of the LED package were assessed by thermal profile measurement using an infrared (IR) camera and thermocouples. In addition, the heat transfer process of the LED package assembly in natural convection was also simulated using the computational fluid dynamics method. The optical performance of the LED package was monitored and investigated with various filler contents. The heat conduction mechanism in the substrate was analyzed. IR thermogram showed that the BN-doped substrate could effectively lower the surface temperature of the LED package by 21.5°C compared with the traditional FR4 substrate. According to the IESNA LM 80 lifetime testing method, reduction in LED temperature can prolong the LED's lifetime by 19,000 h. The optical performance of the LED package assembly was also found to be improved significantly in lighting power by 10%. As a result, the overall heat dissipation capability of the LED package to the surrounding is enhanced, which improves the LED's efficacy.

  8. Thermal performance of a commercial alkaline water electrolyzer: Experimental study and mathematical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieguez, P.M.; Ursua, A.; Sanchis, P.; Sopena, C.; Gandia, L.M. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales y de Telecomunicacion, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia, E-31006 Pamplona (Spain); Guelbenzu, E. [Acciona Biocombustibles S.A. Avenida Ciudad de la Innovacion no. 5, E-31621 Sarriguren, Navarra (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    In this paper a study of the thermal performance of a commercial alkaline water electrolyzer (HySTAT from Hydrogenics) designed for a rated hydrogen production of 1 N m{sup 3} H{sub 2}/h at an overall power consumption of 4.90 kW h/N m{sup 3} H{sub 2} is presented. The thermal behaviour of the electrolyzer has been analyzed under different operating conditions with an IR camera and several thermocouples placed on the external surface of the main electrolyzer components. It has been found that the power dissipated as heat can be reduced by 50-67% replacing the commercial electric power supply unit provided together with the electrolyzer by an electronic converter capable of supplying the electrolyzer with a truly constant DC current. A lumped capacitance method has been adopted to mathematically describe the thermal performance of the electrolyzer, resulting in a thermal capacitance of 174 kJ C{sup -1}. The effect of the AC/DC converter characteristics on the power dissipated as heat has been considered. Heat losses to the ambient were governed by natural convection and have been modeled through an overall heat transfer coefficient that has been found to be 4.3 W m{sup -2} C{sup -1}. The model has been implemented using ANSYS {sup registered} V10.0 software code, reasonably describing the performance of the electrolyzer. A significant portion of the energy dissipated as heat allows the electrolyzer operating at temperatures suitable to reduce the cell overvoltages. (author)

  9. Performance of Pain, Performance of Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, James

    2006-01-01

    "Performance of pain, performance of beauty" explores performance projects in war zones using Elaine Scarry's definitions of "pain" and "beauty" as a starting point. The way in which pain constricts the body and the experience that beauty can take a person beyond the body become a contested framework for considering two examples of performance.…

  10. About performance and evaluation of employee performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irinel MARIN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is the importance of the performance and the performance evaluation in any company. Performance can be viewed as being in close relationship with the effort made by the employee, his ability, charging station or place and role within the organization. Performance refers to the contribution that employees make to the goals of the organization. While the performance evaluation is an activity which determine an organization in which employees perform their duties or their responsibilities. Performance evaluation is required in a company because it represents a process of employee motivation and development.

  11. Asserting Performance Expectations (Formerly Performance Assertions: A Performance Diagnosis Tool)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, J S; Worley, P

    2002-07-24

    Traditional techniques for performance analysis provide a means for extracting and analyzing raw performance information from applications. Users then reason about and compare this raw performance data to their performance expectations for important application constructs. This comparison can be tedious, difficult, and error-prone for the scale and complexity of today's architectures and software systems. To address this situation, we present a methodology and prototype that allows users to assert performance expectations explicitly in their source code using performance assertions. As the application executes, each performance assertion in the application collects data implicitly to verify the assertion. By allowing the user to specify a performance expectation with individual code segments, the runtime system can jettison raw data for measurements that pass their expectation, while reacting to failures with a variety of responses. We present several compelling uses of performance assertions with our operational prototype including raising a performance exception, validating a performance model, and adapting an algorithm to an architecture empirically at runtime.

  12. Multiple dimensions of performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torenvlied, René

    2013-01-01

    This presentation considers the multiple dimensions of performance in performance studies, and potentially contradicting effects of different management strategies on separate indicators of performance

  13. Textiles Performance Testing Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Textiles Performance Testing Facilities has the capabilities to perform all physical wet and dry performance testing, and visual and instrumental color analysis...

  14. Sipping machine control system new design to perform integrity of nuclear fuel test in Cofrentes power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, M., E-mail: mpalomo@iqn.upv.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear. Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain); Urrea, M., E-mail: Matias.urrea@iberdrola.es [C.N.Cofrentes - Iberdrola Generacion S.A., Cofrentes, Valencia (Spain); Curiel, M., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.com [LAINSA Grupo Dominguis, Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos, A., E-mail: a.arnaldos@titaniast.com [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Grupo Dominguis, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    This paper we present is related to SIPPING machine control system new design to perform integrity of nuclear fuel test. This test is a non destructive technique used for evaluating the radiated nuclear fuel coating structural integrity. It is based on the radioactive emission detection of fission elements in the reactor cooling system, using the fuel inspection equipment (SIPPING). SIPPING equipment consists of one simultaneous test bell-shaped vessel of eight fuel elements, and another one for individual element test, a control workstation and some accessories (cables, thermocouples, hoses). SIPPING inspection is carried out by means of fuel element vessel. Through air injection, water flows around the element and heat evacuation is reduced, so fuel elements temperature increases. Those elements with faults shall expelled fission components dissolved in water and/or as a gas component. The project aim is the SIPPING system control design and software based on LabVIEW, for control, monitoring and documentation of the SIPPING Test. This project shall give a major functionality to the system and, at the same time, shall facilitate the user a friendlier and interactive environment allowing: to substitute the present work platform with a real-time electronic system based on cRIO and a control software ad-hoc designed for SIPPING system; to equip new system of a major redundancy for data storage, minimising loss probability of the same. (author)

  15. Sipping machine control system new design to perform integrity of nuclear fuel test in Cofrentes power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curiel, M. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Palomo, M. J. [ISIRYM, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia (Spain); Urrea, M. [Iberdrola Generacion S. A., Central Nuclear Cofrentes, Carretera Almansa Requena s/n, 04662 Cofrentes, Valencia (Spain); Vaquer, J., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.co [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This paper related to Sipping machine control system new design to perform integrity of nuclear fuel test. This test is a non destructive technique used for evaluating the radiated nuclear fuel coating structural integrity. It is based on the radioactive emission detection of fission elements in the reactor cooling system, using the fuel inspection equipment Sipping. The equipment consists of one simultaneous test bell-shaped vessel of eight fuel elements, and another one for individual element test, a control workstation and some accessories (cables, thermocouples, hoses). Sipping inspection is carried out by means of fuel element vessel. Through air injection, water flows around the element and heat evacuation is reduced, so fuel elements temperature increases. Those elements with faults shall expelled fission components dissolved in water and/or as a gas component. The project aim is the Sipping system control design and software based on LabVIEWTM, for control, monitoring and documentation of the Sipping test. This project shall give a major functionality to the system and, at the same time, shall facilitate the user a friendlier and interactive environment allowing: 1) To substitute the present work platform with a real-time electronic system based on cRIO and a control software ad-hoc designed for Sipping system. 2) To equip new system of a major redundancy for data storage, minimising loss probability of the same. (Author)

  16. Recent performance of the SNS H{sup −} ion source and low-energy beam transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockli, Martin P., E-mail: stockli@ornl.gov; Ewald, K. D.; Han, B. X.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Tang, J.; Welton, R. [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Recent measurements of the H{sup −} beam current show that SNS is injecting about 55 mA into the RFQ compared to ∼45 mA in 2010. Since 2010, the H{sup −} beam exiting the RFQ dropped from ∼40 mA to ∼34 mA, which is sufficient for 1 MW of beam power. To minimize the impact of the RFQ degradation, the service cycle of the best performing source was extended to 6 weeks. The only degradation is fluctuations in the electron dump voltage towards the end of some service cycles, a problem that is being investigated. Very recently, the RFQ was retuned, which partly restored its transmission. In addition, the electrostatic low-energy beam transport system was reengineered to double its heat sinking and equipped with a thermocouple that monitors the temperature of the ground electrode between the two Einzel lenses. The recorded data show that emissions from the source at high voltage dominate the heat load. Emissions from the partly Cs-covered first lens cause the temperature to peak several hours after starting up. On rare occasions, the temperature can also peak due to corona discharges between the center ground electrode and one of the lenses.

  17. Variable Gravity Effects on the Cooling Performance of a Single Phase Confined Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Travis; Yerkes, Kirk; Baysinger, Karri; McQuillen, John

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the testing of a spray cooling experiment designed to be flown on NASA's KC-135 Reduced Gravity Testing Platform. Spray cooling is an example of a thermal management technique that may be utilized in high flux heat acquisition and high thermal energy transport concepts. Many researchers have investigated the utility of spray cooling for the thermal management of devices generating high heat fluxes. However, there has been little research addressing the physics and ultimate performance of spray cooling in a variable gravity environment. An experimental package, consisting of a spray chamber coupled to a fluid delivery loop system, was fabricated for variable gravity flight tests. The spray chamber contains two opposing nozzles spraying on target Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) heaters. These heaters are mounted on glass pedestals, which are part of a sump system to remove unconstrained liquid from the test chamber. Liquid is collected in the sumps and returned to the fluid delivery loop. Thermocouples mounted in and around the pedestals are used to determine both the heat loss through the underside of the IT0 heater and the heat extracted by the spray. A series of flight tests were carried out aboard the KC-135, utilizing the ability of the aircraft to produce various gravity conditions. During the flight tests, for a fixed flow rate, heat input was varied at 20, 30, 50, and 80W with variable gravities of 0.01, 0.16, 0.36, and 1.8g. Flight test data was compared to terrestrial baseline data in addition to analytical and numerical solutions to evaluate the heat transfer in the heater and support structure . There were significant differences observed in the spray cooling performance as a result of variable gravity conditions and heat inputs. In general, the Nussult number at the heater surface was found to increase with decreasing gravity conditions for heat loads greater than 30W.

  18. High performance work practices, innovation and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Newton, Cameron; Johnston, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Research spanning nearly 20 years has provided considerable empirical evidence for relationships between High Performance Work Practices (HPWPs) and various measures of performance including increased productivity, improved customer service, and reduced turnover. What stands out from...

  19. Performing Archives/Archives of Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Performing Archives/Archives of Performance contributes to the ongoing critical discussions of performance and its disappearance, of the ephemeral and its reproduction, of archives and mediatized recordings of liveness. The many contributions by excellent scholars and artists from a broad range o...... as discussions of specific art works, performances, and archives......Performing Archives/Archives of Performance contributes to the ongoing critical discussions of performance and its disappearance, of the ephemeral and its reproduction, of archives and mediatized recordings of liveness. The many contributions by excellent scholars and artists from a broad range...... of interdisciplinary fields as well as from various locations in research geographies demonstrate that despite the extensive discourse on the relationship between performance and the archive, inquiry into the productive tensions between ephemerality and permanence is by no means outdated or exhausted. New ways...

  20. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolyzation process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Al. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. Preliminary process design was started with respect to the integrated test program at the PSDF. All of the construction tasks at Foster Wheeler's Combustion and Environmental

  1. Analytical model of vertical vibrations in piles for different tip boundary conditions: parametric study and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning WANG; Kui-hua WANG; Wen-bing WU

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,a model named fictitious soil pile was introduced to solve the boundary coupled problem at the pile tip.In the model,the soil column between pile tip and bedrock was treated as a fictitious pile,which has the same properties as the local soil.The tip of the fictitious soil pile was assumed to rest on a rigid rock and no tip movement was allowed.In combination with the plane strain theory,the analytical solutions of vertical vibration response of piles in a frequency domain and the corresponding semi-analytical solutions in a time domain were obtained using the Laplace transforms and inverse Fourier transforms.A parametric study of pile response at the pile tip and head showed that the thickness and layering of the stratum between pile tip and bedrock have a significant influence on the complex impedances.Finally,two applications of the analytical model were presented.One is to identify the defects of the pile shaft,in which the proposed model was proved to be accurate to identify the location as well as the length of pile defects.Another application of the model is to identify the sediment thickness under the pile tip.The results showed that the sediment can lead to the decrease of the pile stiffness and increase of the damping,especially when the pile is under a low frequency load.

  2. Sensors Synergistic With Nature For In-pile Nuclear Reactor Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Smith; Dale K. Kotter; Steven L. Garrett; Randall A. Ali

    2012-10-01

    To be able to evolve fuel and structural microstructure within a nuclear power reactor in an engineered manner, an effective extreme environment sensor must exist. The development of sensor technology for nondestructive and nonintrusive measurements in harsh environments is a very active field. However most of the effort has been in adapting existing sensing technology to meet the harsh environmental requirements. A different approach is being presented. The fundamental question that we are trying to answer is how do we take advantage of the harsh environment and maintain synergy between the sensor and the environment. This paper will discuss the synergistic senor being developed that takes advantage of the harsh environments.

  3. Quality changes in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. roots during storage period in piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entessar Al-Jbawi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Root transportation or remaining in fields or trucks for many days before manufacturing is considered one of the main problems that leads to the deterioration of root quality, and caused a great loss for the farmer and government. Because of the importance of this issue, a study was conducted during 2007 and 2008 seasons at winter time (15th of Jan at Al Ghab Agriculture Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR, Syria, to determine the effect of some agricultural treatments (varieties, and environment conditions on the quality traits, water content of sugar beet during 1-10 days after harvest. Also to estimate correlation coefficient between post harvest period and the quality traits and water content. Four recommended sugar beet varieties were used, tow monogerm i.e. Rizor and Sherif, and tow multigerm i.e. Hospoly and Kronos. Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD was used with four replicates. The results showed that prolonging storage period of the harvested roots leads to high and gradual increment in the total soluble solids (brix %, from the first day to the last day of the studied storage period. The percent of increment for all varieties in brix% was 42.98%. Also the results clarified low sugar percent, and water content, which were 46 and 21.25 %, respectively. The reduction in juice purity % ranged from 76.08% in the first day to 67.23% in the last day for all varieties. The coefficient of correlation (r exhibited a positive correlation between brix % and sucrose % , and a negative correlation between brix % and purity %, and also a negative correlation between water content and both brix and sucrose percentages.International Journal of Environment Vol.4(4 2015: 77-85

  4. Preliminary Design of In-Pile Supercritical Pressurized Water Test Loop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Based on two proven technologies, current light water reactors (LWRs) and the supercritical coal-fired power plants, the supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is one of the six Generation-Ⅳ

  5. In-Pile 4He Source for UCN Production at the ESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Batkov, Konstantin; Mezei, Ferenc

    2014-01-01

    ESS will be a premier neutron source facility. Unprecedented neutron beam intensities are ensured by spallation reactions of a 5 MW, 2.0 GeV proton beam impinging on a tungsten target equipped with advanced moderators. The work presented here aims at investigating possibilities for installing an ....../s. A production in this range potentially allows for a number of UCN experiments to be carried out at unprecedented precision, including, for example, quantum gravitational spectroscopy with UCNs which rely on high phase-space density....... a large 4He UCN source in a through-going tube which penetrates the shielding below the target. First calculations of neutron flux available for UCN production are given, along with heat-load estimates. It is estimated that the flux can give rise to a UCN production at a rate of up to 1.5 ⋅ 108 UCN...

  6. A simplified method for analysis of geosynthetic reinforcement used in pile supported embankments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Kang

    2014-01-01

    The inclusion of geosynthetic reinforcement in the piled embankment can help transfer loads to the piles and reduce total and differential settlements. In order to select the appropriate reinforcement material, the reasonable calculation of the deflection and tension is very important. Current design methods usually do not represent the true three-dimensional (3D) nature of the displacements, strains, and stresses of the geosynthetics, and the resulting error may be large and cannot be neglected in some cases. In this study, two- and three-dimensional finite element analyses were conducted to identify the behavior of geosynthetic reinforcement and investigate the accuracy of the assumptions made in the current design methods. Based on the numerical results, a new 3D deflected shape of the geosynthetic reinforcement was suggested, and then the corresponding governing equation was derived and solved based on the membrane theory. To investigate the validity of the proposed method, the predicted maximum deflection, deflection shape, and the developed tensile force of the geosynthetics have been compared with the experimental data collected from the literatures and finite element analysis results.

  7. A Simplified Method for Analysis of Geosynthetic Reinforcement Used in Pile Supported Embankments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Fei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of geosynthetic reinforcement in the piled embankment can help transfer loads to the piles and reduce total and differential settlements. In order to select the appropriate reinforcement material, the reasonable calculation of the deflection and tension is very important. Current design methods usually do not represent the true three-dimensional (3D nature of the displacements, strains, and stresses of the geosynthetics, and the resulting error may be large and cannot be neglected in some cases. In this study, two- and three-dimensional finite element analyses were conducted to identify the behavior of geosynthetic reinforcement and investigate the accuracy of the assumptions made in the current design methods. Based on the numerical results, a new 3D deflected shape of the geosynthetic reinforcement was suggested, and then the corresponding governing equation was derived and solved based on the membrane theory. To investigate the validity of the proposed method, the predicted maximum deflection, deflection shape, and the developed tensile force of the geosynthetics have been compared with the experimental data collected from the literatures and finite element analysis results.

  8. In-Pile 4He Source for UCN Production at the ESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esben Klinkby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ESS will be a premier neutron source facility. Unprecedented neutron beam intensities are ensured by spallation reactions of a 5 MW, 2.0 GeV proton beam impinging on a tungsten target equipped with advanced moderators. The work presented here aims at investigating possibilities for installing an ultra cold neutron (UCN source at the ESS. One consequence of using the recently proposed flat moderators is that they take up less space than the moderators originally foreseen and thus leave more freedom to design a UCN source, close to the spallation hotspot. One of the options studied is to place a large 4He UCN source in a through-going tube which penetrates the shielding below the target. First calculations of neutron flux available for UCN production are given, along with heat-load estimates. It is estimated that the flux can give rise to a UCN production at a rate of up to 1.5·108 UCN/s. A production in this range potentially allows for a number of UCN experiments to be carried out at unprecedented precision, including, for example, quantum gravitational spectroscopy with UCNs which rely on high phase-space density.

  9. LMFBR transducer performance in SLSF tests P1 and P2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, J.J.; Anderson, T.T.; Kuzay, T.M.; Wilson, R.E.; Pedersen, D.R.; Kaiser, W.C.; Klingler, W.B.

    1977-01-01

    The reliability and problem areas of sodium-immersed thermocouples, pressure transducers and flowmeters are presented for experiments P1 and P2 of the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF). The SLSF is a doubly-contained sodium loop situated in a core position of the Engineering Test Reactor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory.

  10. Performing surgery: commonalities with performers outside medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Lister Kneebone

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues for the inclusion of surgery within the canon of performance science. The world of medicine presents rich, complex but relatively under-researched sites of performance. Performative aspects of clinical practice are overshadowed by a focus on the processes and outcomes of medical care, such as diagnostic accuracy and the results of treatment. The primacy of this ‘clinical’ viewpoint - framed by clinical professionals as the application of medical knowledge - hides resonances with performance in other domains. Yet the language of performance is embedded in the culture of surgery - surgeons ‘perform’ operations, work in an operating ‘theatre’ and use ‘instruments’. This paper asks what might come into view if we take this performative language at face value and interrogate surgery from the perspective of performance science. It addresses the following questions: 1.To what extent and in what ways can surgical practice (both consultation and operation be considered as performance?2.How does comparison with two domains domains of non-surgical performance (close-up magic and puppetry illuminate understanding of surgical practice as performance?3.In what ways might including surgery within the canon of performance studies enrich the field of performance science?Two detailed case studies over 5 years with magicians (71.5 hours contact time and puppeteers (50.5 hours contact time identified performative aspects of surgical practice from the perspectives of professionals (as individuals or in groups and audiences. Physical simulation provided a means for non-clinicians to access and experience elements of the surgical world, acting as a prompt for discussion. Thematic analysis was used to establish themes and sub-themes.Key themes were: 1 clinical consultation can be viewed as ‘close-up live performance with a very small audience’ and 2 operative surgery can be viewed as ‘reading bodies within a dextrous team

  11. Distributed performance counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kristan D; Evans, Kahn C; Gara, Alan; Satterfield, David L

    2013-11-26

    A plurality of first performance counter modules is coupled to a plurality of processing cores. The plurality of first performance counter modules is operable to collect performance data associated with the plurality of processing cores respectively. A plurality of second performance counter modules are coupled to a plurality of L2 cache units, and the plurality of second performance counter modules are operable to collect performance data associated with the plurality of L2 cache units respectively. A central performance counter module may be operable to coordinate counter data from the plurality of first performance counter modules and the plurality of second performance modules, the a central performance counter module, the plurality of first performance counter modules, and the plurality of second performance counter modules connected by a daisy chain connection.

  12. Biblical Performance Criticism: Performance as Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rhoads

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the New Testament as performance literature. Recent scholarship has brought to the fore the importance of interpreting the New Testament in the context of the oral cultures of the first century. This leads us to ask about the oral/performance dynamics of the “writings” now in the New Testament canon. The paper is comprised of three parts. Part 1 offers some reasons why the New Testament writings, if they are to be appropriately interpreted in their original oral context, must be treated as performance literature. Part 2 outlines performance criticism as a methodology for this task—constructing first-century scenarios of performance as a context for interpretation, reorienting and expanding methodological approaches to the New Testament as oral literature, and employing contemporary performance as a research tool. Part 3 represents the bulk of the paper, laying out in detail the idea of performance as research, arguing that what we can learn from contemporary performances may help us interpret the New Testament writings in the context of the oral cultures of the first century.

  13. High Performance Work Systems and Firm Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Jeffrey

    1995-01-01

    A review of 17 studies of high-performance work systems concludes that benefits of employee involvement, skill training, and other high-performance work practices tend to be greater when new methods are adopted as part of a consistent whole. (Author)

  14. Prognostic Performance Metrics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This chapter presents several performance metrics for offline evaluation of prognostics algorithms. A brief overview of different methods employed for performance...

  15. Initial Cognitive Performance Predicts Longitudinal Aviator Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Booil; Adamson, Maheen M.; Kennedy, Quinn; Noda, Art; Hernandez, Beatriz; Zeitzer, Jamie M.; Friedman, Leah F.; Fairchild, Kaci; Scanlon, Blake K.; Murphy, Greer M.; Taylor, Joy L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The goal of the study was to improve prediction of longitudinal flight simulator performance by studying cognitive factors that may moderate the influence of chronological age. Method. We examined age-related change in aviation performance in aircraft pilots in relation to baseline cognitive ability measures and aviation expertise. Participants were aircraft pilots (N = 276) aged 40–77.9. Flight simulator performance and cognition were tested yearly; there were an average of 4.3 (± 2.7; range 1–13) data points per participant. Each participant was classified into one of the three levels of aviation expertise based on Federal Aviation Administration pilot proficiency ratings: least, moderate, or high expertise. Results. Addition of measures of cognitive processing speed and executive function to a model of age-related change in aviation performance significantly improved the model. Processing speed and executive function performance interacted such that the slowest rate of decline in flight simulator performance was found in aviators with the highest scores on tests of these abilities. Expertise was beneficial to pilots across the age range studied; however, expertise did not show evidence of reducing the effect of age. Discussion. These data suggest that longitudinal performance on an important real-world activity can be predicted by initial assessment of relevant cognitive abilities. PMID:21586627

  16. Performance marketing online

    OpenAIRE

    Hamaďáková, Markéta

    2012-01-01

    This thesis discusses the online performance marketing business practices. The theoretical part contains the definition of performance marketing and presents its main components, which include the key performance indicators, the targeting of users, the pricing models of online advertising and affiliate marketing. The second part of the thesis analyzes the performance of online marketing operations for the website FFFFLASH.com.

  17. The Augmented Performer and the Performative Augmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria; Gasselseder, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Composers, performers, and listeners usually regard musical compositions as unchangeable entities, which limits the composition techniques and decreases the originality of performers ́ interpretations, thus leading to a stagnation of classical music culture. The significance and possibilities of ...... help to widen the horizons of classical music. Developing new innovative tools and methodologies would also benefit game designers and music educators.......Composers, performers, and listeners usually regard musical compositions as unchangeable entities, which limits the composition techniques and decreases the originality of performers ́ interpretations, thus leading to a stagnation of classical music culture. The significance and possibilities...... of interactive music systems have been widely recognised in the context of modern computer games. The concept of procedural music challenges the idea of a composition as a fixed formula. Similar to a computer game, a music score based on such techniques can take a plethora of unpredictable turns depending...

  18. Dynamic performance management system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An integrated, efficient and effective performance management system, "dynamic performance management system", is presented, which covers the entire performance management process including measures design, analysis, and dynamic update. The analysis of performance measures using causal loop diagrams, qualitative inference and analytic network process is mainly discussed. A real world case study is carried out throughout the paper to explain how the framework works. A software tool for DPMS, Performance Analyzer, is also introduced.

  19. Thermal Imaging Performance of TIR Onboard the Hayabusa2 Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takehiko; Nakamura, Tomoki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Demura, Hirohide; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Sakatani, Naoya; Horikawa, Yamato; Senshu, Hiroki; Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Okada, Tatsuaki

    2017-07-01

    The thermal infrared imager (TIR) is a thermal infrared camera onboard the Hayabusa2 spacecraft. TIR will perform thermography of a C-type asteroid, 162173 Ryugu (1999 JU3), and estimate its surface physical properties, such as surface thermal emissivity ɛ , surface roughness, and thermal inertia Γ, through remote in-situ observations in 2018 and 2019. In prelaunch tests of TIR, detector calibrations and evaluations, along with imaging demonstrations, were performed. The present paper introduces the experimental results of a prelaunch test conducted using a large-aperture collimator in conjunction with TIR under atmospheric conditions. A blackbody source, controlled at constant temperature, was measured using TIR in order to construct a calibration curve for obtaining temperatures from observed digital data. As a known thermal emissivity target, a sandblasted black almite plate warmed from the back using a flexible heater was measured by TIR in order to evaluate the accuracy of the calibration curve. As an analog target of a C-type asteroid, carbonaceous chondrites (50 mm × 2 mm in thickness) were also warmed from the back and measured using TIR in order to clarify the imaging performance of TIR. The calibration curve, which was fitted by a specific model of the Planck function, allowed for conversion to the target temperature within an error of 1°C (3σ standard deviation) for the temperature range of 30 to 100°C. The observed temperature of the black almite plate was consistent with the temperature measured using K-type thermocouples, within the accuracy of temperature conversion using the calibration curve when the temperature variation exhibited a random error of 0.3 °C (1σ ) for each pixel at a target temperature of 50°C. TIR can resolve the fine surface structure of meteorites, including cracks and pits with the specified field of view of 0.051°C (328 × 248 pixels). There were spatial distributions with a temperature variation of 3°C at the setting

  20. Thermal Imaging Performance of TIR Onboard the Hayabusa2 Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takehiko; Nakamura, Tomoki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Demura, Hirohide; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Sakatani, Naoya; Horikawa, Yamato; Senshu, Hiroki; Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Okada, Tatsuaki

    2017-03-01

    The thermal infrared imager (TIR) is a thermal infrared camera onboard the Hayabusa2 spacecraft. TIR will perform thermography of a C-type asteroid, 162173 Ryugu (1999 JU3), and estimate its surface physical properties, such as surface thermal emissivity ɛ , surface roughness, and thermal inertia Γ, through remote in-situ observations in 2018 and 2019. In prelaunch tests of TIR, detector calibrations and evaluations, along with imaging demonstrations, were performed. The present paper introduces the experimental results of a prelaunch test conducted using a large-aperture collimator in conjunction with TIR under atmospheric conditions. A blackbody source, controlled at constant temperature, was measured using TIR in order to construct a calibration curve for obtaining temperatures from observed digital data. As a known thermal emissivity target, a sandblasted black almite plate warmed from the back using a flexible heater was measured by TIR in order to evaluate the accuracy of the calibration curve. As an analog target of a C-type asteroid, carbonaceous chondrites ( 50 mm × 2 mm in thickness) were also warmed from the back and measured using TIR in order to clarify the imaging performance of TIR. The calibration curve, which was fitted by a specific model of the Planck function, allowed for conversion to the target temperature within an error of 1 ∘C ( 3σ standard deviation) for the temperature range of 30 to 100 ∘C. The observed temperature of the black almite plate was consistent with the temperature measured using K-type thermocouples, within the accuracy of temperature conversion using the calibration curve when the temperature variation exhibited a random error of 0.3 ∘C ( 1σ ) for each pixel at a target temperature of 50 ∘C. TIR can resolve the fine surface structure of meteorites, including cracks and pits with the specified field of view of 0.051∘ ( 328 × 248 pixels). There were spatial distributions with a temperature variation of 3

  1. In-core materials testing under LWR conditions in the Halden reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, P.J.; Hauso, E.; Hoegberg, N.W.; Karlsen, T.M.; McGrath, M.A. [OECD Halden Reactor Project (Norway)

    2002-07-01

    The Halden boiling water reactor (HBWR) has been in operation since 1958. It is a test reactor with a maximum power of 18 MW and is cooled and moderated by boiling heavy water, with a normal operating temperature of 230 C and a pressure of 34 bar. In the past 15 years increasing emphasis has been placed on materials testing, both of in-core structural materials and fuel claddings. These tests require representative light water reactor (LWR) conditions, which are achieved by housing the test rigs in pressure flasks that are positioned in fuel channels in the reactor and connected to dedicated water loops, in which boiling water reactor (BWR) or pressurised water reactor (PWR) conditions are simulated. Understanding of the in-core behaviour of fuel or reactor materials can be greatly improved by on-line measurements during power operation. The Halden Project has performed in-pile measurements for a period of over 35 years, beginning with fuel temperature measurements using thermocouples and use of differential transformers for measurement of fuel pellet or cladding dimensional changes and internal rod pressure. Experience gained over this period has been applied to on-line instrumentation for use in materials tests. This paper gives details of the systems used at Halden for materials testing under LWR conditions. The techniques used to provide on-line data are described and illustrative results are presented. (authors)

  2. Industrial Research Performance Management

    CERN Document Server

    Samsonowa, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Managers are increasingly concerned with the typical methods available for organizational performance measurement and control. Research into performance measurement, within the field of innovation management, has been variously approached through frameworks for performance measurement in general (for example, the Balanced Scorecard by Norton and Kaplan), R&D performance management, and surveys on in-use Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). It is striking, however, that almost no research has focused explicitly on the performance measurement of research activities, or indeed tried to develop a sy

  3. Numericalanlysis of Single-stage Thermoelectric Cooler Performance by Changing Structure and Performance Parameters%结构与性能参数对单级半导体制冷器性能影响的数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爱博; 陈焕新; 申利梅; 梅佩佩

    2011-01-01

    According to the basic equations used in thermoelectire refrigeration and convective heat transfer,the expressions of Qc, COP including varuious parameters are established.Influenee on the cooling capacity and performance by changing the parameters is simulated.These parameters are the hot-side thermal resistance Rha ,the temperature difference between refrigeration cabinet and external environment ΔT,G factor and the number of thermocouples per one thermoelectric module N.The result shows that the proper selection of these paremeters will help improving the system performance and reducing energy consumption.%根据半导体制冷中常用制冷量和散热量表达式和对流换热基本公式,建立起包含系统各个参数的制冷量Qc和效率COP的表达式,根据Qc和COP表达式模拟各参数变化对制冷量和COP的影响,讨论的参数包含散热端热阻Rha,制冷空间与环境的温差△T,尺寸因子G(单个热电臂横截面积与长度的比值S/L)和热电模块的对数N,结论指出在半导体制冷器设计过程中对各参数的合理选用有助于提高系统运行效率,降低能耗.

  4. Pavement Subgrade Performance Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wei; Ullidtz, Per; Macdonald, Robin

    1998-01-01

    The report describes the second test in the Danish Road Testing Machine (RTM) under the International Pavement Subgrade Performance Study. Pavement response was measured in different layers, and compared to different theroretical values. Performance in terms of plastic strains, rutting...

  5. Dan Performer Mei Lanfang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Janne

    2010-01-01

    The convention of performing female characters (dan characters) in Beijing opera, as practised by its most prominent male performer of female characters Mei Lanfang, and its and his cultural context and aesthetic aim...

  6. HOPWA Performance Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOPWA Performance Profiles are generated quarterly for all agencies receiving HOPWA formula or competitive grants. Performance Profiles are available at the national...

  7. Developing Effective Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-14

    University When Performance Measurement Goes Bad Laziness Vanity Narcissism Too Many Pettiness Inanity 52 Developing Effective...Kasunic, October 14, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Narcissism Measuring performance from the organization’s point of view, rather than from

  8. R high performance programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Aloysius

    2015-01-01

    This book is for programmers and developers who want to improve the performance of their R programs by making them run faster with large data sets or who are trying to solve a pesky performance problem.

  9. Performance SNAPSHOT Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The HOME Program Performance SNAPSHOTs are quarterly cumulative performance reports, which can be useful in tracking the HOME program progress of participating...

  10. Nutrition and athletic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002458.htm Nutrition and athletic performance To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nutrition can help enhance athletic performance. An active lifestyle ...

  11. Intellectual Performance Under Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    Processing: Tutorials in Performance and Cognition. B. H. Kantowitz (Ed.), Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Washington, D. C., 1974. Wickens, C. D. The effects...motor performance. In B. Kantowitz (Ed.), Human information processing: Tutorials in performance and cognition. Hillsdale, N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum

  12. Performative Work in Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærenholdt, Jørgen Ole; Jensen, Hanne Louise

    2009-01-01

    performative work. For many workers, the performative aspect has contributed to their personal development, especially where self-control at work contributes to enhancing self-esteem. Second, performative work is also often vulnerable, involving various emotional strategies to cope with its challenges. While...

  13. Seven Performance Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Recent work with automotive e-commerce clients led to the development of a performance analysis methodology called the Seven Performance Drivers, including: standards, incentives, capacity, knowledge and skill, measurement, feedback, and analysis. This methodology has been highly effective in introducing and implementing performance improvement.…

  14. Managing the star performer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Our culture seems to be endlessly fascinated with its stars in entertainment, athletics, politics, and business, and holds fast to the idea that extraordinary talent accounts for an individual's extraordinary performance. At first glance, managing a star performer in your medical practice may seem like it would be an easy task. However, there's much more to managing a star performer than many practice managers realize. The concern is how to keep the star performer happy and functioning at a high level without detriment to the rest of the medical practice team. This article offers tips for practice managers who manage star performers. It explores ways to keep the star performer motivated, while at the same time helping the star performer to meld into the existing medical practice team. This article suggests strategies for redefining the star performer's role, for holding the star performer accountable for his or her behavior, and for coaching the star performer. Finally, this article offers practical tips for keeping the star performer during trying times, for identifying and cultivating new star performers, and for managing medical practice prima donnas.

  15. NU Performance/NO Performance? / Keiu Virro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Virro, Keiu, 1987-

    2009-01-01

    3. "NU Performance'i" festivalist "Recycle Pop" Kanuti gildis 11.-14. novembrini 2009. Kuraatorid Anders Härm ja Priit Raud. Erkki Luugi, Lotte Jürjendali ja Katrin Ratte, Kiwa, Andres Lõo ning ExTRAfINE ehk Marko Laimre, Kati Ilvese, Killu Sukmiti ja Raul Kelleri esinemisest

  16. NU Performance/NO Performance? / Keiu Virro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Virro, Keiu, 1987-

    2009-01-01

    3. "NU Performance'i" festivalist "Recycle Pop" Kanuti gildis 11.-14. novembrini 2009. Kuraatorid Anders Härm ja Priit Raud. Erkki Luugi, Lotte Jürjendali ja Katrin Ratte, Kiwa, Andres Lõo ning ExTRAfINE ehk Marko Laimre, Kati Ilvese, Killu Sukmiti ja Raul Kelleri esinemisest

  17. Danish mutual fund performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article provides the first independent performance analysis of Danish mutual funds. We analyse selectivity and market timing abilities for 71 mutual funds that have been in operation from 2001 to 2010. The results show great fund performance diversity. Half the funds have performed neutrally......, whereas 42% of the funds have shown significantly negative performance and only 7% of the funds have over-performed their benchmark. Furthermore, 14% of the funds analysed possess market timing abilities, but for 8 out of 10 funds, their market timing ability has been unsuccessful....

  18. Algorithm performance evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard N.; Greci, Anthony M.; Bradley, Philip A.

    1995-03-01

    Traditionally, the performance of adaptive antenna systems is measured using automated antenna array pattern measuring equipment. This measurement equipment produces a plot of the receive gain of the antenna array as a function of angle. However, communications system users more readily accept and understand bit error rate (BER) as a performance measure. The work reported on here was conducted to characterize adaptive antenna receiver performance in terms of overall communications system performance using BER as a performance measure. The adaptive antenna system selected for this work featured a linear array, least mean square (LMS) adaptive algorithm and a high speed phase shift keyed (PSK) communications modem.

  19. Performer rights and responsibilities in historical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irving John

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In April 2014, fortepianist and Mozart specialist John Irving recorded a CD of solo keyboard sonatas by Joseph Haydn, using a modern copy of a Viennese fortepiano of Haydn’s era. This is an account of the project written from the performer’s perspective, examining some relevant issues of historical performance practice, organology, and detailed reflections upon the performer’s preparations (of various musical and technical kinds for the recording.

  20. Untangling Performance from Success

    CERN Document Server

    Yucesoy, Burcu

    2015-01-01

    Fame, popularity and celebrity status, frequently used tokens of success, are often loosely related to, or even divorced from professional performance. This dichotomy is partly rooted in the difficulty to distinguish performance, an individual measure that captures the actions of a performer, from success, a collective measure that captures a community's reactions to these actions. Yet, finding the relationship between the two measures is essential for all areas that aim to objectively reward excellence, from science to business. Here we quantify the relationship between performance and success by focusing on tennis, an individual sport where the two quantities can be independently measured. We show that a predictive model, relying only on a tennis player's performance in tournaments, can accurately predict an athlete's popularity, both during a player's active years and after retirement. Hence the model establishes a direct link between performance and momentary popularity. The agreement between the performa...

  1. Performing hyper-masculinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt

    2016-01-01

    In this article, young people’s hypermasculine performances of gender in a Danish institution for young offenders are analyzed. Through the ethnographic method of detailed observations of two situations of young people, one male and one female, entering an institution for young offenders, it is d......In this article, young people’s hypermasculine performances of gender in a Danish institution for young offenders are analyzed. Through the ethnographic method of detailed observations of two situations of young people, one male and one female, entering an institution for young offenders...... of male offender’s identity formation. In this article, the relational analysis shows that hypermasculinity is not alone to be understood as the expression of the individual young person’s performances but rather as the dominating institutional frame guiding all gender performances. The observed...... hypermasculine frame comprises notions of a real man based on performances of overt sexuality, the willingness to commit violence, and the limitation of subversive performances....

  2. Sound perception, performance

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Musical Performance covers many aspects like Musical Acoustics, Music Psychology, or motor and prosodic actions. It deals with basic concepts of the origin or music and its evolution, ranges over neurocognitive foundations, and covers computational, technological, or simulation solutions. This volume gives an overview about current research in the foundation of musical performance studies on all these levels. Recent concepts of synchronized systems, evolutionary concepts, basic understanding of performance as Gestalt patterns, theories of chill as performance goals or historical aspects are covered. The neurocognitive basis of motor action in terms of music, musical syntax, as well as therapeutic aspects are discussed. State-of-the-art applications in performance realizations, like virtual room acoustics, virtual musicians, new concepts of real-time physical modeling using complex performance data as input or sensor and gesture studies with soft- and hardware solutions are presented. So although the field is ...

  3. LIKWID: Lightweight Performance Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Treibig, Jan; Hager, Georg; Wellein, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Exploiting the performance of today's microprocessors requires intimate knowledge of the microarchitecture as well as an awareness of the ever-growing complexity in thread and cache topology. LIKWID is a set of command line utilities that addresses four key problems: Probing the thread and cache topology of a shared-memory node, enforcing thread-core affinity on a program, measuring performance counter metrics, and microbenchmarking for reliable upper performance bounds. Moreover, it includes...

  4. High performance homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Can prefabrication contribute to the development of high performance homes? To answer this question, this chapter defines high performance in more broadly inclusive terms, acknowledging the technical, architectural, social and economic conditions under which energy consumption and production occur....... Consideration of all these factors is a precondition for a truly integrated practice and as this chapter demonstrates, innovative project delivery methods founded on the manufacturing of prefabricated buildings contribute to the production of high performance homes that are cost effective to construct, energy...

  5. Employee motivation and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Obiekwe, Nduka

    2010-01-01

    The subject matter of this research; employee motivation and performance seeks to look at how best employees can be motivated in order to achieve high performance within a company or organization. Managers and entrepreneurs must ensure that companies or organizations have a competent personnel that is capable to handle this task. This takes us to the problem question of this research “why is not a sufficient motivation for high performance?” This therefore establishes the fact that money is f...

  6. Performance effect of Lean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Borup; Israelsen, Poul

    2016-01-01

    relevant to Denmark, but the approach is empirically more generalizable. We show that the effect of Lean standardized flow production practices on performance is mediated by analytical continuous improvement empowerment practices and by delegation of decision rights practices. Thus, standardized flow...... practices do not have direct effects on performance. Instead, standardized flow provided that foundation for companies to implement continuous improvement, which, in turn, directly affect performance positively. Another cause, in addition to flow practices, of continuous improvement was the delegation...

  7. Employee Motivation and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Obiekwe, Nduka

    2010-01-01

    The subject matter of this research; employee motivation and performance seeks to look at how best employees can be motivated in order to achieve high performance within a company or organization. Managers and entrepreneurs must ensure that companies or organizations have a competent personnel that is capable to handle this task. This takes us to the problem question of this research “why is not a sufficient motivation for high performance?” This therefore establishes the fact that money is f...

  8. Performance Analysis of MYSEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Services FSD Federated Services Daemon I&A Identification and Authentication IKE Internet Key Exchange KPI Key Performance Indicator LAN Local Area...spection takes place in different processes in the server architecture. Key Performance Indica- tor ( KPI )s associated with the system need to be...application and risk analysis of security controls. Thus, measurement of the KPIs is needed before an informed tradeoff between the performance penalties

  9. High performance homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Can prefabrication contribute to the development of high performance homes? To answer this question, this chapter defines high performance in more broadly inclusive terms, acknowledging the technical, architectural, social and economic conditions under which energy consumption and production occur....... Consideration of all these factors is a precondition for a truly integrated practice and as this chapter demonstrates, innovative project delivery methods founded on the manufacturing of prefabricated buildings contribute to the production of high performance homes that are cost effective to construct, energy...

  10. First elevated-temperature performance testing of coated particle fuel compacts from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles A. Baldwin; John D. Hunn; Robert N. Morris; Fred C. Montgomery; Chinthaka M. Silva; Paul A. Demkowicz

    2014-05-01

    In the AGR-1 irradiation experiment, 72 coated-particle fuel compacts were taken to a peak burnup of 19.5% fissions per initial metal atom with no in-pile failures. This paper discusses the first post-irradiation test of these mixed uranium oxide/uranium carbide fuel compacts at elevated temperature to examine the fuel performance under a simulated depressurized conduction cooldown event. A compact was heated for 400 h at 1600 degrees C. Release of 85Kr was monitored throughout the furnace test as an indicator of coating failure, while other fission product releases from the compact were periodically measured by capturing them on exchangeable, water-cooled deposition cups. No coating failure was detected during the furnace test, and this result was verified by subsequent electrolytic deconsolidation and acid leaching of the compact, which showed that all SiC layers were still intact. However, the deposition cups recovered significant quantities of silver, europium, and strontium. Based on comparison of calculated compact inventories at the end of irradiation versus analysis of these fission products released to the deposition cups and furnace internals, the minimum estimated fractional losses from the compact during the furnace test were 1.9 x 10-2 for silver, 1.4 x 10-3 for europium, and 1.1 x 10-5 for strontium. Other post-irradiation examination of AGR-1 compacts indicates that similar fractions of europium and silver may have already been released by the intact coated particles during irradiation, and it is therefore likely that the detected fission products released from the compact in this 1600 degrees C furnace test were from residual fission products in the matrix. Gamma analysis of coated particles deconsolidated from the compact after the heating test revealed that silver content within each particle varied considerably; a result that is probably not related to the furnace test, because it has also been observed in other as-irradiated AGR-1 compacts. X

  11. First elevated-temperature performance testing of coated particle fuel compacts from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, Charles A., E-mail: baldwinca@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6295 (United States); Hunn, John D.; Morris, Robert N.; Montgomery, Fred C.; Silva, Chinthaka M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6295 (United States); Demkowicz, Paul A. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83414 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    In the AGR-1 irradiation experiment, 72 coated-particle fuel compacts were taken to a peak burnup of 19.5% fissions per initial metal atom with no in-pile failures. This paper discusses the first post-irradiation test of these mixed uranium oxide/uranium carbide fuel compacts at elevated temperature to examine the fuel performance under a simulated depressurized conduction cooldown event. A compact was heated for 400 h at 1600 °C. Release of {sup 85}Kr was monitored throughout the furnace test as an indicator of coating failure, while other fission product releases from the compact were periodically measured by capturing them on exchangeable, water-cooled deposition cups. No coating failure was detected during the furnace test, and this result was verified by subsequent electrolytic deconsolidation and acid leaching of the compact, which showed that all SiC layers were still intact. However, the deposition cups recovered significant quantities of silver, europium, and strontium. Based on comparison of calculated compact inventories at the end of irradiation versus analysis of these fission products released to the deposition cups and furnace internals, the minimum estimated fractional losses from the compact during the furnace test were 1.9 × 10{sup −2} for silver, 1.4 × 10{sup −3} for europium, and 1.1 × 10{sup −5} for strontium. Other post-irradiation examination of AGR-1 compacts indicates that similar fractions of europium and silver may have already been released by the intact coated particles during irradiation, and it is therefore likely that the detected fission products released from the compact in this 1600 °C furnace test were from residual fission products in the matrix. Gamma analysis of coated particles deconsolidated from the compact after the heating test revealed that silver content within each particle varied considerably; a result that is probably not related to the furnace test, because it has also been observed in other as

  12. Performance Analysis in Bigdata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Deep Kaur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Big data technologies like Hadoop, NoSQL, Messaging Queues etc. helps in BigData analytics, drive business growth and to take right decisions in time. These Big Data environments are very dynamic and complex; they require performance validation, root cause analysis, and tuning to ensure success. In this paper we talk about how we can analyse and test the performance of these systems. We present the important factors in a big data that are primary candidates for performance testing like data ingestion capacity and throughput, data processing capacity, simulation of expected usage, map reduce jobs and so on and suggest measures to improve performance of bigdata

  13. Malawi - Threshold Performance Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This ex post performance evaluation was carried out to provide an independent, objective investigation into the effectiveness and efficacy of MTP activities, using...

  14. Boosting Your Own Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Neal

    1995-01-01

    Tips for working more effectively to improve performance and realize goals include time management, enlightened empowerment, good commitments, selective problem solving, and escalation of critical problems. (JOW)

  15. Extending Critical Performativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spicer, André; Alvesson, Mats; Kärreman, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In this article we extend the debate about critical performativity. We begin by outlining the basic tenets of critical performativity and how this has been applied in the study of management and organization. We then address recent critiques of critical performance. We note these arguments suffer...... from an undue focus on intra-academic debates; engage in author-itarian theoretical policing; feign relevance through symbolic radicalism; and repackage common sense. We take these critiques as an opportunity to offer an extended model of critical performativity that involves focusing on issues...

  16. Photovoltaic array performance model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratochvil, Jay A.; Boyson, William Earl; King, David L.

    2004-08-01

    This document summarizes the equations and applications associated with the photovoltaic array performance model developed at Sandia National Laboratories over the last twelve years. Electrical, thermal, and optical characteristics for photovoltaic modules are included in the model, and the model is designed to use hourly solar resource and meteorological data. The versatility and accuracy of the model has been validated for flat-plate modules (all technologies) and for concentrator modules, as well as for large arrays of modules. Applications include system design and sizing, 'translation' of field performance measurements to standard reporting conditions, system performance optimization, and real-time comparison of measured versus expected system performance.

  17. Performance of Patenting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar; Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    2000-01-01

    -patenting firms within the manufacturing sector in Denmark. Performance is measured both by growth in employment as well as in the return on equity and profit share in turnover. The results suggest that differences in performance of patenting and non-patenting firms are very small, which questions the political......Most countries focus on industries with high technology and the governments grant subsidies to innovating firms. However, there has been remarkable few studies of the performance of innovative firms or industries. This study examines the performance of patent active firms compared to the non...

  18. Phospholipids and sports performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jäger, Ralf; Purpura, Martin; Kingsley, Michael

    2007-01-01

    .... The participation in physical activity often challenges a variety of physiological systems; consequently, the ability to maintain normal cellular function during activity can determine sporting performance...

  19. Performing "the Other"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Helle Bach

    2013-01-01

    A group of youngsters perform their self-composed rap lyrics on stage in the Betty Nansen Theater in Copenhagen. The theater claims, that the performance portraits the youngsters as they truly are – as opposed to the medias portrayal. The play is part of an integration project, co-financed by the......-financed by the Danish Ministry of Integration. This essay presents a critical analysis of the representation of the youngsters on stage. The analysis is especially based on the concepts of performance and performativity and on hip-hop as a genre framework for the representation....

  20. Benchmarking and Performance Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TANTAU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the chosen topic is explained by the meaning of the firm efficiency concept - the firm efficiency means the revealed performance (how well the firm performs in the actual market environment given the basic characteristics of the firms and their markets that are expected to drive their profitability (firm size, market power etc.. This complex and relative performance could be due to such things as product innovation, management quality, work organization, some other factors can be a cause even if they are not directly observed by the researcher. The critical need for the management individuals/group to continuously improve their firm/company’s efficiency and effectiveness, the need for the managers to know which are the success factors and the competitiveness determinants determine consequently, what performance measures are most critical in determining their firm’s overall success. Benchmarking, when done properly, can accurately identify both successful companies and the underlying reasons for their success. Innovation and benchmarking firm level performance are critical interdependent activities. Firm level variables, used to infer performance, are often interdependent due to operational reasons. Hence, the managers need to take the dependencies among these variables into account when forecasting and benchmarking performance. This paper studies firm level performance using financial ratio and other type of profitability measures. It uses econometric models to describe and then propose a method to forecast and benchmark performance.

  1. COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory conducts basic and applied human research studies to characterize cognitive performance as influenced by militarily-relevant contextual and physical...

  2. Tourism, performance, and place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærenholdt, Jørgen Ole

    2016-01-01

    'Tourism, performance, and place: a geographic perspective' by Jillian M. Rickly- Boyd, Daniel C. Knudsen, Lisa C. Braverman and Michelle M. Metro-Roland, Farnham, England/Burlington, VT, Ashgate, 2014......'Tourism, performance, and place: a geographic perspective' by Jillian M. Rickly- Boyd, Daniel C. Knudsen, Lisa C. Braverman and Michelle M. Metro-Roland, Farnham, England/Burlington, VT, Ashgate, 2014...

  3. Marketization and Economic Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle

    2010-01-01

    . A reform enforcing compulsory competitive tendering in homecare for elderly people in Denmark is analysed and its relation to measures of economic performance is explored. Two competing models of marketization are contrasted in the analysis: a problem solving model inspired by public choice ideology...... little impact on economic performance is found, which lends support to an institutional interpretation of the findings....

  4. Managing employee performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Charles R

    2004-01-01

    Performance management consists of significantly more than periodic evaluation of performance. It is the art and science of dealing with employees in a manner intended to positively influence their thinking and behavior to achieve a desired level of performance. It is essential for the manager to always model positive behavior concerning performance; what one does or says as a manager always has an influence on others. The kinds of employee behavior most likely encountered relative to performance management efforts stem from resistance to change and lack of complete understanding of what is expected. Employee participation must be elicited whenever possible for performance improvement; as far as the inner working details of a specific job are concerned, there is no one who knows the job better than the person who does it everyday. For each task to be done, an employee needs to know what output is expected, how this output will be measured, and what standards are applied in assessing the output. Managing employee performance requires ongoing contact with each employee, regular feedback, and whatever coaching, counseling, and training are necessary to bring an employee back on track when a problem appears. Sustaining efficient and effective employee performance requires the manager's ongoing attention and involvement.

  5. Complexity, Robustness, and Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Visser (Bauke)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyses the relationship between organizational complexity ( the degree of detail of information necessary to correctly assign agents to positions), robustness (the relative loss of performance due to mis-allocated agents), and performance. More complex structures are not

  6. Modeling typical performance measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weekers, Anke Martine

    2009-01-01

    In the educational, employment, and clinical context, attitude and personality inventories are used to measure typical performance traits. Statistical models are applied to obtain latent trait estimates. Often the same statistical models as the models used in maximum performance measurement are appl

  7. Performance Teaching in ELT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Christopher

    1989-01-01

    Reports the effects on student classroom behavior of a performance teaching strategy in which teacher trainees of English as a second language "perform" to better engage students. Students paid attention more immediately and sustained attention longer, engaged more willingly in subsequent tasks, and appeared to enjoy the lesson more.…

  8. Den performative by

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Den performative by omhandler den æstetiske og affektive drejning, der finder sted inden for kulturel byudvikling i øjeblikket......Den performative by omhandler den æstetiske og affektive drejning, der finder sted inden for kulturel byudvikling i øjeblikket...

  9. Test and Performance Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberty, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Test and performance anxiety is not recognized easily in schools, in large part because adolescents rarely refer themselves for emotional concerns. Not wanting to risk teasing or public attention, anxious adolescents suffer in silence and under perform on school-related tasks. In school, anxiety is experienced often by students when being…

  10. Whither Performance Contracting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Norman S.

    This report describes briefly performance contracts; discusses their shortcomings, pitfalls, and advantages; and gives some insight into the future development of this new concept. Two shortcomings of performance contracting include (1) teaching to the test and (2) board abdication of its responsibility for making final decisions about educational…

  11. Key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses how organisations can use OSH performance indicators. This is an important way to mainstream OSH into business management. Key performance indicators (KPIs) should provide objective data on the OSH situation. It is often said that ‘what gets measured gets managed’. Without

  12. Complexity, Robustness, and Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Visser (Bauke)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyses the relationship between organizational complexity ( the degree of detail of information necessary to correctly assign agents to positions), robustness (the relative loss of performance due to mis-allocated agents), and performance. More complex structures are not nec

  13. Key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses how organisations can use OSH performance indicators. This is an important way to mainstream OSH into business management. Key performance indicators (KPIs) should provide objective data on the OSH situation. It is often said that ‘what gets measured gets managed’. Without infor

  14. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  15. Music and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud Cabanac; Perlovsky, Leonid; Bonniot-Cabanac, Marie-Claude; Cabanac, Michel

    2013-11-01

    In a previous study we demonstrated that listening to a pleasant music while performing an academic test helped students to overcome stress, to devote more time to more stressful and more complicated task and the grades were higher. Yet, there remained ambiguities as for the causes of the higher test performance of these students: do they perform better because they hear music during their examinations, or would they perform better anyway because they are more gifted/motivated? This motivated the current study as a preliminary step toward that general question: Do students who like/perform music have better grades than the others? Our results confirmed this hypothesis: students studying music have better grades in all subjects.

  16. Professional performance in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Professional performance in education is now calling the attention of researcher due to its role in the professionalizing process intended to increase international education standards. In this article the term professional performance is examined from the two socio-historic traditional roles involved in training the individuals as a bio-psychic and social entity: teachers and executive. By means of scientific methods, the author gives the theoretical grounds connecting professional performance, learning and individual capacity of using them in solving problem at his labor position. The professional performance is regarded as a human value that stimulates the activity. By predicting educational alternatives, the paper portraits a model of professional performance in education, referring the necessary actions needed for achieving the goals of education. Searching and discussing such alternatives leads to reinterpret professional problems and to find out ways of improving educational standards.

  17. Listening to Musical Performers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aron Edidin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the philosophy of music and in musicology, apart from ethnomusicology, there is a long tradition of focus on musical compositions as objects of inquiry. But in both disciplines, a body of recent work focuses on the place of performance in the making of music. Most of this work, however, still takes for granted that compositions, at least in Western art music, are the primary objects of aesthetic attention. In this paper I focus on aesthetic attention to the performing activity itself. I begin by roughly characterizing what is involved in attending to the performing activity of musical performers. I then argue that such attention is essential to the full appreciation of the central compositions of the Western art music canon. Finally, I argue that, often enough, recordings provide a suitable vehicle for this sort of attention; listeners to recordings can use them to listen to musical performance.

  18. Irradiation effects on thermal properties of LWR hydride fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrani, Kurt; Balooch, Mehdi; Carpenter, David; Kohse, Gordon; Keiser, Dennis; Meyer, Mitchell; Olander, Donald

    2017-04-01

    Three hydride mini-fuel rods were fabricated and irradiated at the MIT nuclear reactor with a maximum burnup of 0.31% FIMA or ∼5 MWd/kgU equivalent oxide fuel burnup. Fuel rods consisted of uranium-zirconium hydride (U (30 wt%)ZrH1.6) pellets clad inside a LWR Zircaloy-2 tubing. The gap between the fuel and the cladding was filled with lead-bismuth eutectic alloy to eliminate the gas gap and the large temperature drop across it. Each mini-fuel rod was instrumented with two thermocouples with tips that are axially located halfway through the fuel centerline and cladding surface. In-pile temperature measurements enabled calculation of thermal conductivity in this fuel as a function of temperature and burnup. In-pile thermal conductivity at the beginning of test agreed well with out-of-pile measurements on unirradiated fuel and decreased rapidly with burnup.

  19. Caffeine and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Angela M; Deuster, Patricia A

    The role of caffeine in enhancing performance has been studied for years, and there is no doubt that caffeine can be performance enhancing. Also, a wealth of information allows for an interesting distinction between physical and cognitive performance. Most adults in America consume moderate doses of caffeine in various forms on a daily basis as caffeine is typically found in coffee, tea, soft drinks, dietary supplements, energy drinks, energy shots, and chocolate, as well as over-the-counter pills and gums. Although caffeine is readily available and widely consumed, when using it to enhance performance, a few factors should be considered. The authors discuss caffeine use among Servicemembers, its properties and effects on physical and cognitive performance, how to use it to optimize performance, and, finally, some of safety and regulatory considerations. The bottom line is that all individuals do not respond the same way to caffeine and their response depends on how the body uses and breaks down caffeine. Thus, as a user, you should monitor your own responses and performance changes when using caffeine based on the general recommendations provided. 2016.

  20. Precision performance lamp technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Dean A.; Kiesa, James E.; Dean, Raymond A.

    1997-09-01

    A principal function of a lamp is to produce light output with designated spectra, intensity, and/or geometric radiation patterns. The function of a precision performance lamp is to go beyond these parameters and into the precision repeatability of performance. All lamps are not equal. There are a variety of incandescent lamps, from the vacuum incandescent indictor lamp to the precision lamp of a blood analyzer. In the past the definition of a precision lamp was described in terms of wattage, light center length (LCL), filament position, and/or spot alignment. This paper presents a new view of precision lamps through the discussion of a new segment of lamp design, which we term precision performance lamps. The definition of precision performance lamps will include (must include) the factors of a precision lamp. But what makes a precision lamp a precision performance lamp is the manner in which the design factors of amperage, mscp (mean spherical candlepower), efficacy (lumens/watt), life, not considered individually but rather considered collectively. There is a statistical bias in a precision performance lamp for each of these factors; taken individually and as a whole. When properly considered the results can be dramatic to the system design engineer, system production manage and the system end-user. It can be shown that for the lamp user, the use of precision performance lamps can translate to: (1) ease of system design, (2) simplification of electronics, (3) superior signal to noise ratios, (4) higher manufacturing yields, (5) lower system costs, (6) better product performance. The factors mentioned above are described along with their interdependent relationships. It is statistically shown how the benefits listed above are achievable. Examples are provided to illustrate how proper attention to precision performance lamp characteristics actually aid in system product design and manufacturing to build and market more, market acceptable product products in the

  1. Java performance tuning

    CERN Document Server

    Shirazi, Jack

    2003-01-01

    Performance has been an important issue for Java developers ever since the first version hit the streets. Over the years, Java performance has improved dramatically, but tuning is essential to get the best results, especially for J2EE applications. You can never have code that runs too fast. Java Peformance Tuning, 2nd edition provides a comprehensive and indispensable guide to eliminating all types of performance problems. Using many real-life examples to work through the tuning process in detail, JPT shows how tricks such as minimizing object creation and replacing strings with arrays can

  2. Hadoop Performance Models

    OpenAIRE

    Herodotou, Herodotos

    2011-01-01

    Hadoop MapReduce is now a popular choice for performing large-scale data analytics. This technical report describes a detailed set of mathematical performance models for describing the execution of a MapReduce job on Hadoop. The models describe dataflow and cost information at the fine granularity of phases within the map and reduce tasks of a job execution. The models can be used to estimate the performance of MapReduce jobs as well as to find the optimal configuration settings to use when r...

  3. Enhancing LAN performance

    CERN Document Server

    Held, Gilbert

    2004-01-01

    Enhancing LAN Performance, Fourth Edition explains how to connect geographically separated LANs with appropriate bandwidth, the issues to consider when weighing the use of multiport or dualport devices, how to estimate traffic for new networks, the effects of configuration changes on the performance of Ethernet and Token Ring networks, the design of switch-based networks that prevent traffic bottlenecks, and other critical topics. It provides the tools to address these issues in relation to specific network requirements. This volume develops mathematical models of various LAN performance issue

  4. Hadoop Performance Models

    CERN Document Server

    Herodotou, Herodotos

    2011-01-01

    Hadoop MapReduce is now a popular choice for performing large-scale data analytics. This technical report describes a detailed set of mathematical performance models for describing the execution of a MapReduce job on Hadoop. The models describe dataflow and cost information at the fine granularity of phases within the map and reduce tasks of a job execution. The models can be used to estimate the performance of MapReduce jobs as well as to find the optimal configuration settings to use when running the jobs.

  5. Marketization and Economic Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle

    2010-01-01

    . A reform enforcing compulsory competitive tendering in homecare for elderly people in Denmark is analysed and its relation to measures of economic performance is explored. Two competing models of marketization are contrasted in the analysis: a problem solving model inspired by public choice ideology......, in which marketization processes are seen as driven by work-related concerns for efficiency and performance, and a macro phenomenological institutional model, in which innovation processes are seen as driven by factors related to hegemonic ideologies, legitimacy concerns and coercive enforcement. Very...... little impact on economic performance is found, which lends support to an institutional interpretation of the findings....

  6. Clojure high performance programming

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Shantanu

    2013-01-01

    This is a short, practical guide that will teach you everything you need to know to start writing high performance Clojure code.This book is ideal for intermediate Clojure developers who are looking to get a good grip on how to achieve optimum performance. You should already have some experience with Clojure and it would help if you already know a little bit of Java. Knowledge of performance analysis and engineering is not required. For hands-on practice, you should have access to Clojure REPL with Leiningen.

  7. Breakfast and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, S

    2001-12-01

    Evidence suggests that the effect of fasting on performance is not uniform, but it is dependent on the basal nutritional status of the subject. Breakfast consumption has a short-term effect in improving selected learning skills, especially work memory. School breakfast programmes have a positive effect on the nutritional status of children, on school attendance and probably on dropout rates. The effect of breakfast consumption on school performance depends on the interaction between the programme, student characteristics (malnutrition) and school organisation. Unless the school setting guarantees a minimum quality standard, the benefits of breakfast consumption will not be evident in performance in complex areas like language or maths.

  8. Performance expectation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, P.E.

    1998-09-04

    This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.

  9. Neoliberalism, Performativity and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2007-07-01

    This paper provides a critical analysis of New Zealand's Performance Based Research Fund (PBRF). The first section sketches the development and implementation of the PBRF. The second section evaluates the scheme, concentrating on three themes: the relationship between privatization, competition and research performance; the standardization of research; and motivations for research. The paper acknowledges the thorough work completed by the Tertiary Education Advisory Commission and other policy groups in laying the foundation for the adoption of performance-based research funding in New Zealand. It is argued, however, that when viewed in its larger context, the PBRF constitutes a continuation of neoliberal trends already well established in New Zealand's tertiary education system.

  10. Performative Urban Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Performative Urban Design seeks to identify emerging trends in urban design as they are reflected in the city's architecture and spatial design. A “cultural grafting” of the inner city is taking place; architecture and art are playing a crucial, catalytic role in urban development. On the one hand......, this development has been rooted in massive investments in “corporate architecture.” On the other, cities themselves have invested heavily in new cultural centers and performative urban spaces that can fulfil the growing desire for entertainment and culture. The anthology Performative Urban Design addresses...

  11. OLEM Performance Assessment Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes a variety of data sets that measure the performance of Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) programs in support of the Office of the...

  12. Rewards and Performance Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigon, Jack

    1994-01-01

    Discusses rewards and performance incentives for employees, including types of rewards; how rewards help in managing; dysfunctional awards; selecting the right reward; how to find rewards that fit; and delivering rewards effectively. Examples are included. (three references) (LRW)

  13. Performative Schizoid Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2016-01-01

    A performative schizoid method is developed as a method contribution to performance as research. The method is inspired by contemporary research in the human and social sciences urging experimentation and researcher engagement with creative and artistic practice. In the article, the method...... is presented and an example is provided of a first exploratory engagement with it. The method is used in a specific project Becoming Iris, making inquiry into arts-based knowledge creation during a three month visiting scholarship at a small, independent visual art academy. Using the performative schizoid...... method in Becoming Iris results in four audio-visual and performance-based productions, centered on an emergent theme of the scholartist as a bird in borrowed feathers. Interestingly, the moral lesson of the fable about the vain jackdaw, who dresses in borrowed peacock feathers and becomes a castout...

  14. Prognostics Performance Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the first version of the performance evaluation tool. Evaluation is based on point estimates of the RUL predictions. a more detailed documentation will be...

  15. Drum Performance Tnvolues Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    DRUM teams from along the Yellow River are known not only in China but by many foreign friends. Recently women have formed their own teams and their performances have further increased the popularity of this ancient Chinese folk art.

  16. Performance effect of Lean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Borup; Israelsen, Poul

    2016-01-01

    relevant to Denmark, but the approach is empirically more generalizable. We show that the effect of Lean standardized flow production practices on performance is mediated by analytical continuous improvement empowerment practices and by delegation of decision rights practices. Thus, standardized flow......To understand how the practices of Lean affect performance, we tested and validated a system-wide approach using mediating relationships in a structural equation model. We used a cross-sectional survey of 200 Danish companies that indicated that they used Lean. Thus, this study is especially...... of decision rights. The paper provides evidence that supports the view that middle managers’ actions further enhance performance in Lean companies. The right Lean behavior by middle managers increases the level of analytical continuous improvement empowerment. In total, high-performing Lean companies...

  17. Benchmarking Pthreads performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, J M; de Supinski, B R

    1999-04-27

    The importance of the performance of threads libraries is growing as clusters of shared memory machines become more popular POSIX threads, or Pthreads, is an industry threads library standard. We have implemented the first Pthreads benchmark suite. In addition to measuring basic thread functions, such as thread creation, we apply the L.ogP model to standard Pthreads communication mechanisms. We present the results of our tests for several hardware platforms. These results demonstrate that the performance of existing Pthreads implementations varies widely; parts of nearly all of these implementations could be further optimized. Since hardware differences do not fully explain these performance variations, optimizations could improve the implementations. 2. Incorporating Threads Benchmarks into SKaMPI is an MPI benchmark suite that provides a general framework for performance analysis [7]. SKaMPI does not exhaustively test the MPI standard. Instead, it

  18. Measures of rowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T Brett; Hopkins, Will G

    2012-04-01

    Accurate measures of performance are important for assessing competitive athletes in practi~al and research settings. We present here a review of rowing performance measures, focusing on the errors in these measures and the implications for testing rowers. The yardstick for assessing error in a performance measure is the random variation (typical or standard error of measurement) in an elite athlete's competitive performance from race to race: ∼1.0% for time in 2000 m rowing events. There has been little research interest in on-water time trials for assessing rowing performance, owing to logistic difficulties and environmental perturbations in performance time with such tests. Mobile ergometry via instrumented oars or rowlocks should reduce these problems, but the associated errors have not yet been reported. Measurement of boat speed to monitor on-water training performance is common; one device based on global positioning system (GPS) technology contributes negligible extra random error (0.2%) in speed measured over 2000 m, but extra error is substantial (1-10%) with other GPS devices or with an impeller, especially over shorter distances. The problems with on-water testing have led to widespread use of the Concept II rowing ergometer. The standard error of the estimate of on-water 2000 m time predicted by 2000 m ergometer performance was 2.6% and 7.2% in two studies, reflecting different effects of skill, body mass and environment in on-water versus ergometer performance. However, well trained rowers have a typical error in performance time of only ∼0.5% between repeated 2000 m time trials on this ergometer, so such trials are suitable for tracking changes in physiological performance and factors affecting it. Many researchers have used the 2000 m ergometer performance time as a criterion to identify other predictors of rowing performance. Standard errors of the estimate vary widely between studies even for the same predictor, but the lowest

  19. Poor school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karande, Sunil; Kulkarni, Madhuri

    2005-11-01

    Education is one of the most important aspects of human resource development. Poor school performance not only results in the child having a low self-esteem, but also causes significant stress to the parents. There are many reasons for children to under perform at school, such as, medical problems, below average intelligence, specific learning disability, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, emotional problems, poor socio-cultural home environment, psychiatric disorders and even environmental causes. The information provided by the parents, classroom teacher and school counselor about the child's academic difficulties guides the pediatrician to form an initial diagnosis. However, a multidisciplinary evaluation by an ophthalmologist, otolaryngologist, counselor, clinical psychologist, special educator, and child psychiatrist is usually necessary before making the final diagnosis. It is important to find the reason(s) for a child's poor school performance and come up with a treatment plan early so that the child can perform up to full potential.

  20. Athena Mission Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Herder, Jan-Willem; Piro, Luigi; Rau, Arne

    2015-09-01

    The optimization of the Athena mission, the ESA's large X-ray observatory for 2028, is a key challenge. Critical elements for achieving the scientific performances are obviously the two instruments and the optics. However, additional aspects related to the overall mission performances are crucial as well, including the particle background environment (separate presentation), the calibration, the response time to Target of Opportunity requests, the functionality of the science ground segment, and the available high-quality data analysis tools. In addition, the full performance of the satellite will be modeled by an end-to-end simulator. In this presentation we will give an overview of the various systems and also present the Mock Observing Plan that is used to optimize the mission. The work presented in this contribution is based on a collective effort of the Athena science community and is coordinated by the Athena Mission Performance Working Group.

  1. Tracking Performance at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Wandernoth, S

    2010-01-01

    We present the tracking performance at LHCb by showing the mass resolution, impact parameter resolution and proper time resolution of the first data taken at LHCb. Furthermore several methods to estimate the tagging efficiency on data are presented.

  2. CHIPRA Performance Bonuses

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Childrens Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009 (CHIPRA) established performance bonuses, giving states an incentive to support enrollment and...

  3. Fishery Performance Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Performance indicators for landings, effort, revenue and distribution of revenue are collected for various fisheries nation-wide. The fisheries include catch and...

  4. Teachers Performing Professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terri Bourke

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Faced with the perceived need to redefine education for more economic utilitarian purposes, as well as to encourage compliance with government policies, Australia, like many other Anglophone nations, has engaged in numerous policy shifts resulting in performativity practices becoming commonplace in the educational landscape. A series of interviews with teachers from Queensland, Australia, in which they revealed their experiences of professionalism are examined archaeologically to reveal how they enact their roles in response to this performative agenda. Findings suggest that while there is some acceptance among teachers of the performative discourse, there is increasing resistance, which permits the construction of alternative or counter-discourses to the currently internationally pervasive performative climate.

  5. Fostering oral presentation performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van Stan; Gulikers, Judith; Biemans, Harm; Mulder, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research revealed significant differences in the effectiveness of various feedback sources for encouraging students’ oral presentation performance. While former studies emphasised the superiority of teacher feedback, it remains unclear whether the quality of feedback actually differs bet

  6. Responsive design high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Els, Dewald

    2015-01-01

    This book is ideal for developers who have experience in developing websites or possess minor knowledge of how responsive websites work. No experience of high-level website development or performance tweaking is required.

  7. Complex performance in construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bougrain, Frédéric; Forman, Marianne; Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer

    To fulfil the expectations of demanding clients, new project-delivery mechanisms have been developed. Approaches focusing on performance-based building or new procurement processers such as new forms of private-public partnerships are considered as solutions improving the overall performance of t...... (Centre Scientifique et Technique du Bâtiment) and SBi/AAU (the Danish Building Research Institute/Aalborg University)....

  8. Internationalization and Hotel Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, Albert G.; Josiassen, Alexander; Oh, Haemon

    2016-01-01

    Few industries are as inherently international as the hotel industry. This article sets out to investigate the impact of internationalization on performance in the hotel industry. Building on the theory of organizational learning the authors test several hypotheses regarding the shape...... on hotel performance, moderated by cultural distance, regulations and restrictions and the level of development congruence. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for practice and provide directions for future research....

  9. Embarking on performance improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bobbi; Falk, Leslie Hough

    2014-06-01

    Healthcare organizations should approach performance improvement as a program, not a project. The program should be led by a guidance team that identifies goals, prioritizes work, and removes barriers to enable clinical improvement teams and work groups to realize performance improvements. A healthcare enterprise data warehouse can provide the initial foundation for the program analytics. Evidence-based best practices can help achieve improved outcomes and reduced costs.

  10. Info@performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    2003-01-01

    The design of interactive methods for collecting can benefit from the Web-technology. Info@performance.NPD illustrate the combination of experimental design, role-playing and a scenario build on Web-based technology. Having created a simulation of a new product development process, Info@performance.......NPD is an example of how data collection can be done through the Internet. The opportunities of combining several methodological designs with aid of Web-technology are unlimited....

  11. Dynamic Capabilities and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilden, Ralf; Gudergan, Siegfried P.; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic capabilities are widely considered to incorporate those processes that enable organizations to sustain superior performance over time. In this paper, we argue theoretically and demonstrate empirically that these effects are contingent on organizational structure and the competitive...... are contingent on the competitive intensity faced by firms. Our findings demonstrate the performance effects of internal alignment between organizational structure and dynamic capabilities, as well as the external fit of dynamic capabilities with competitive intensity. We outline the advantages of PLS...

  12. Politicisation of performance appraisals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Swanepoel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Employees are a source of competitive advantage for organisations and human resource management seek to promote employee efficiency. One of the tools organisations utilise to achieve this goal is performance appraisals.Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the weaknesses in performance appraisal and to determine whether it is politicised in the North West Department of Health and Social Development in South Africa.Motivation for study: Many organisations either ignore the existence of politics in the appraisal process or assume that its impact can be minimised if they refine their appraisal instruments. Executives admit that, in appraising others, they often intentionally avoid meeting the goal of accuracy in favour of achieving goals that have more to do with exercising discretion and maintaining departmental effectiveness. Ironically, these same executives lament that the appraisals they receive often do not accurately represent their abilities and performance (Gioia & Longenecker, 1994.Research approach, design and method: Self-administered questionnaires were used as a means of collecting data and analysis was done through the use of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS.Main findings: The results of the study showed that respondents believe that performance appraisals are highly politicised.Practical/managerial implications: If used effectively, performance appraisals may improve employee productivity and efficiency as well as motivation and performance. However, if performance appraisal is perceived as unfair and political, it can diminish rather than enhance employee attitudes and performance.Contribution: Amongst others, it is recommended that managers should consider separating assessment for development and assessment for rewards.

  13. RAJA Performance Suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-09-01

    The RAJA Performance Suite is designed to evaluate performance of the RAJA performance portability library on a wide variety of important high performance computing (HPC) algorithmic lulmels. These kernels assess compiler optimizations and various parallel programming model backends accessible through RAJA, such as OpenMP, CUDA, etc. The Initial version of the suite contains 25 computational kernels, each of which appears in 6 variants: Baseline SequcntiaJ, RAJA SequentiaJ, Baseline OpenMP, RAJA OpenMP, Baseline CUDA, RAJA CUDA. All variants of each kernel perform essentially the same mathematical operations and the loop body code for each kernel is identical across all variants. There are a few kernels, such as those that contain reduction operations, that require CUDA-specific coding for their CUDA variants. ActuaJ computer instructions executed and how they run in parallel differs depending on the parallel programming model backend used and which optimizations are perfonned by the compiler used to build the Perfonnance Suite executable. The Suite will be used primarily by RAJA developers to perform regular assessments of RAJA performance across a range of hardware platforms and compilers as RAJA features are being developed. It will also be used by LLNL hardware and software vendor panners for new defining requirements for future computing platform procurements and acceptance testing. In particular, the RAJA Performance Suite will be used for compiler acceptance testing of the upcoming CORAUSierra machine {initial LLNL delivery expected in late-2017/early 2018) and the CORAL-2 procurement. The Suite will aJso be used to generate concise source code reproducers of compiler and runtime issues we uncover so that we may provide them to relevant vendors to be fixed.

  14. Examples Performance Testing Templates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siple, Bud H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this Performance Testing Program Plan is to identify the process and phased approach that will be implemented at Site XYZ . The purpose of the testing program at Site XYZ is specifically designed to evaluate the effectiveness of systems that are employed at this site. This plan defines tasks to be accomplished to ensure that performance testing is conducted as effectively and efficiently as possible.

  15. TOTAL PERFORMANCE SCORECARD

    OpenAIRE

    Anca ȘERBAN; Oana DUMITRAȘCU

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of the Balanced Scorecard from a measurement instrument to a strategic performance management tool and to highlight the advantages of implementing the Total Performance Scorecard, especially for Human Resource Management. The study has been accomplished using the methodology of bibliographic study and various secondary sources. Implementing the classical Balanced Scorecard indicated over the years, repeatedly failure. It can be indicated t...

  16. Performance Monitoring of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Vinther

    in the models have been identified. The models used in this work are based on empirical relations or based on regression analyses of model tests and full-scale trials. In order to achieve valid results the conditions where performance is estimated have to be inside the boundaries of the model. Filters have been...... and the ability of identifying the events that improves performance e.g. propeller and hull clean....

  17. Chinese Economy: Performance 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ On December 11th,2009,the National Bureau of Statistics of China released its latest Economic Indicators in November in 2009,analyzing the economic performance from the aspects of industrial production,industrial profit,investment in fixed assets,retail sales,and so on.In the following part,the article would give a brief introduction on how the economic indicators performed during the first eleven months.

  18. Project Management Performance Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Ra’ad, Mohammed A.; Najdawi, Mohammad K.

    2010-01-01

    The practice of project management has gained enormous importance over the past several years in various business industries. “In industries as diverse as pharmaceuticals, software, and aerospace, projects drive business” (Wheatley). This gain of importance can be attributed to the magnitude of the impact project performance results in terms of time, cost, and scope have over the project performing entity. “On the basis of data released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis, part of the US De...

  19. Performing the sharing economy.

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, L

    2015-01-01

    The sharing economy converges around activities facilitated through digital platforms that enable peer-to-peer access to goods and services. It constitutes an apparent paradox, framed as both part of the capitalist economy and as an alternative. This duplicity necessitates focusing on the performances of the sharing economy: how it simultaneously constructs diverse economic activities whilst also inviting the deconstruction of ongoing practices of dominance. Such performances hold open the qu...

  20. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...... provides the performer extensive virtuoso capabilities in terms of instrumental range, harmony, timbre, or spatial, textural, acoustic, technical, or technological qualities. The discussion will be illustrated by a composition case study involving augmented musical instrument electromagnetic resonator...