Mapping Pn amplitude spreading and attenuation in Asia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Xiaoning [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, William S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard J [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-12-06
Pn travels most of its path in the mantle lid. Mapping the lateral variation of Pn amplitude attenuation sheds light on material properties and dynamics of the uppermost region of the mantle. Pn amplitude variation depends on the wavefront geometric spreading as well as material attenuation. We investigated Pn geometric spreading, which is much more complex than a traditionally assumed power-law spreading model, using both synthetic and observed amplitude data collected in Asia. We derived a new Pn spreading model based on the formulation that was proposed previously to account for the spherical shape of the Earth (Yang et. al., BSSA, 2007). New parameters derived for the spreading model provide much better correction for Pn amplitudes in terms of residual behavior. Because we used observed Pn amplitudes to construct the model, the model incorporates not only the effect of the Earth's spherical shape, but also the effect of potential upper-mantle velocity gradients in the region. Using the new spreading model, we corrected Pn amplitudes measured at 1, 2, 4 and 6 Hz and conducted attenuation tomography. The resulting Pn attenuation model correlates well with the regional geology. We see high attenuation in regions such as northern Tibetan Plateau and the western Pacific subduction zone, and low attenuation for stable blocks such as Sichuan and Tarim basins.
Proton-Nucleus Elastic Cross Sections Using Two-Body In-Medium Scattering Amplitudes
Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.
2001-01-01
Recently, a method was developed of extracting nucleon-nucleon (NN) cross sections in the medium directly from experiment. The in-medium NN cross sections form the basic ingredients of several heavy-ion scattering approaches including the coupled-channel approach developed at the Langley Research Center. The ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the two-body scattering amplitude in the medium was investigated. These ratios are used in combination with the in-medium NN cross sections to calculate elastic proton-nucleus cross sections. The agreement is excellent with the available experimental data. These cross sections are needed for the radiation risk assessment of space missions.
Personal network (PN) applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Prasad, R.; Skouby, Knud Erik
2005-01-01
The applications of PN will be realised under many scenarios where users can have access to their personal network all the time. This network will enable the user to share critical information, play games, control their home remotely, etc. All this will be achieved with seamless interworking...... and handover between networks and user devices. This paper presents an array of use case scenarios that validates the ubiquitous usage of PN....
Vector grammars and PN machines
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蒋昌俊
1996-01-01
The concept of vector grammars under the string semantic is introduced.The dass of vector grammars is given,which is similar to the dass of Chomsky grammars.The regular vector grammar is divided further.The strong and weak relation between the vector grammar and scalar grammar is discussed,so the spectrum system graph of scalar and vector grammars is made.The equivalent relation between the regular vector grammar and Petri nets (also called PN machine) is pointed.The hybrid PN machine is introduced,and its language is proved equivalent to the language of the context-free vector grammar.So the perfect relation structure between vector grammars and PN machines is formed.
Scattering amplitude and shift in self-energy in medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mallik, S.
2002-01-01
Two simple proofs are presented for the first order virial expansion of the self-energy of a particle moving through a medium, characterised by temperature and/or chemical potential(s). One is based on the virial expansion of the self-energy operator itself, while the other is based on the analysis of its Feynman diagrams in configuration space. (orig.)
On the Adjacent Strong Equitable Edge Coloring of Pn ∨ Pn, Pn ∨ Cn and Cn ∨ Cn
Liu Jun; Zhao Chuan Cheng; Yao Shu Xia; Guo Ren Zhi; Yue Qiu Ju
2016-01-01
A proper edge coloring of graph G is called equitable adjacent strong edge coloring if colored sets from every two adjacent vertices incident edge are different,and the number of edges in any two color classes differ by at most one,which the required minimum number of colors is called the adjacent strong equitable edge chromatic number. In this paper, we discuss the adjacent strong equitable edge coloring of join-graphs about Pn ∨ Pn, Pn ∨ Cn and Cn ∨ Cn.
Pn seismic wave travel time at the Semipalatinsk Test Site - Borovoe seismic station trace
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An, V.A.; Kaazik, P.B.; Ovchinnikov, V.M.
2001-01-01
This paper preparation involved 160 explosions at the Degelen Site conducted in 1961-1989 and 89 explosions at the Balapan Site conducted in 1968-1989. Pn wave travel time was tied to the sea level in accordance with velocity characteristics of the explosion hypocenter medium; and to average epicentral distance for every site basing on their local travel time curves of Pn wave relative to Borovoe station. Maximum amplitude of mean-year travel times variations is 0.3-0.5 s as at the Nevada Test Site - Borovoe trace and Mirniy (Antarctica). However, the linear trend in contrast to previous traces has negative sign (0.08 s for Degelen and 0.1 s for Balapan). Thus, Pn wave velocity increases with calendar time. (author)
Silicon fiber with p-n junction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Homa, D.; Cito, A.; Pickrell, G.; Hill, C.; Scott, B.
2014-01-01
In this study, we fabricated a p-n junction in a fiber with a phosphorous doped silicon core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a hybrid process of the core-suction and melt-draw techniques and maintained overall diameters ranging from 200 to 900 μm and core diameters of 20–800 μm. The p-n junction was formed by doping the fiber with boron and confirmed via the current-voltage characteristic. The demonstration of a p-n junction in a melt-drawn silicon core fiber paves the way for the seamless integration of optical and electronic devices in fibers.
Electroplated Ni on the PN Junction Semiconductor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Jin Joo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Sang Moo; Park, Jong Han; Hong, Jintae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-05-15
Nickel (Ni) electroplating was implemented by using a metal Ni powder in order to establish a Ni-63 plating condition on the PN junction semiconductor needed for production of betavoltaic battery. PN junction semiconductors with a Ni seed layer of 500 and 1000 A were coated with Ni at current density from 10 to 50 mA cm{sup 2}. The surface roughness and average grain size of Ni deposits were investigated by XRD and SEM techniques. The roughness of Ni deposit was increased as the current density was increased, and decreased as the thickness of Ni seed layer was increased.
Electroplated Ni on the PN Junction Semiconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jin Joo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Sang Moo; Park, Jong Han; Hong, Jintae
2015-01-01
Nickel (Ni) electroplating was implemented by using a metal Ni powder in order to establish a Ni-63 plating condition on the PN junction semiconductor needed for production of betavoltaic battery. PN junction semiconductors with a Ni seed layer of 500 and 1000 A were coated with Ni at current density from 10 to 50 mA cm 2 . The surface roughness and average grain size of Ni deposits were investigated by XRD and SEM techniques. The roughness of Ni deposit was increased as the current density was increased, and decreased as the thickness of Ni seed layer was increased
Semiconductor device comprising a pn-heterojunction
2007-01-01
An electric device is disclosed comprising a pn-heterojunction ( 4 ) formed by a nanowire ( 3 ) of 111 -V semiconductor material and a semiconductor body ( 1 ) comprising a group IV semiconductor material. The nanowire ( 3 ) is positioned in direct contact with the surface ( 2 ) of the semiconductor
Agent-based Personal Network (PN) service architecture
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jiang, Bo; Olesen, Henning
2004-01-01
In this paper we proposte a new concept for a centralized agent system as the solution for the PN service architecture, which aims to efficiently control and manage the PN resources and enable the PN based services to run seamlessly over different networks and devices. The working principle...
(p,n) reaction at intermediate energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goodman, C.D.
1979-01-01
The use of the (p,n) reaction in exploring effective interactions is reviewed. Some recent data on self-conjugate nuclei taken at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) are presented, and the differences between low- and high-energy data are emphasized. Experimental problems and techniques used are briefly described. It is concluded that forward-angle (p,n) spectra at energies greater than 100 MeV are dominated by Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions, while Fermi transitions (IAS transitions) dominate near 45 MeV. Prominent GT transitions are expected from a pion-exchange interaction, and it is expected that OPEP is the dominant component of the interaction in the energy range of 100 to 200 MeV. 27 figures, 2 tables
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wienberg, M; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jensen, K S
2009-01-01
processing. The present study was designed to replicate and further extent the results of our initial study on the effects of a low dose of escitalopram (10 mg) on MMN, PN and P300 amplitude. In a randomised, double-blind, cross-over experiment, 20 healthy male volunteers received either a single, orally...... administered dose of 15 mg escitalopram (a highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)) or placebo, after which their PN, MMN and P300 amplitude were assessed. Similar to our initial study with 10 mg escitalopram, 15 mg escitalopram significantly increased MMN, while it did not affect P300 amplitude....... In contrast to our initial study, however, the currently higher dose of escitalopram did not increase PN. Results support the view that a broad range of increased serotonergic activity enhances MMN, while the relationship between serotonin and PN seems more complex. The current study does not support...
Superconductivity and Competing Ordered Phase in RuPn (Pn = As, P)
Hirai, Daigorou; Takayama, Tomohiro; Hashizume, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Ayako; Takagi, Hidenori
2011-03-01
Unconventional superconductivity likely manifests itself when some competing electronic phases are suppressed down to zero temperature such as cuprates and iron-pnictide superconductors. Therefore, the correlated metallic state neighboring a competing electronic ordering can be a promising playground for unconventional superconductivity. Here we report superconductivity emerging adjacent to electronically ordered phases of RuPn (Pn = As, P). We found that RuAs(P) exhibits phase transitions at 240 (265) K, which is discerned as a drop of magnetic susceptibility or a resistivity upturn. Such anomalies can be suppressed by substituting Rh to the Ru site. Accompanied by the disappearance of the electronic order, superconductivity was found to emerge below 1.8 K and 3.8 K for RuAs and RuP, respectively. The superconductivity in Rh substituted RuPn, which neighbors a competing electronic order, might exhibit an exotic pairing state as seen in the unconventional superconductors known to date.
K- nuclear potentials from in-medium chirally motivated models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cieply, A.; Gazda, D.; Mares, J.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.
2011-01-01
A self-consistent scheme for constructing K - nuclear optical potentials from subthreshold in-medium KN s-wave scattering amplitudes is presented and applied to analysis of kaonic atoms data and to calculations of K - quasibound nuclear states. The amplitudes are taken from a chirally motivated meson-baryon coupled-channel model, both at the Tomozawa-Weinberg leading order and at the next to leading order. Typical kaonic atoms potentials are characterized by a real part -Re V K - chiral =85±5 MeV at nuclear matter density, in contrast to half this depth obtained in some derivations based on in-medium KN threshold amplitudes. The moderate agreement with data is much improved by adding complex ρ- and ρ 2 -dependent phenomenological terms, found to be dominated by ρ 2 contributions that could represent KNN→YN absorption and dispersion, outside the scope of meson-baryon chiral models. Depths of the real potentials are then near 180 MeV. The effects of p-wave interactions are studied and found secondary to those of the dominant s-wave contributions. The in-medium dynamics of the coupled-channel model is discussed and systematic studies of K - quasibound nuclear states are presented.
Diphoton generalized distribution amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Beiyad, M.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.
2008-01-01
We calculate the leading order diphoton generalized distribution amplitudes by calculating the amplitude of the process γ*γ→γγ in the low energy and high photon virtuality region at the Born order and in the leading logarithmic approximation. As in the case of the anomalous photon structure functions, the γγ generalized distribution amplitudes exhibit a characteristic lnQ 2 behavior and obey inhomogeneous QCD evolution equations.
Two Photon Distribution Amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Beiyad, M.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.
2008-01-01
The factorization of the amplitude of the process γ*γ→γγ in the low energy and high photon virtuality region is demonstrated at the Born order and in the leading logarithmic approximation. The leading order two photon (generalized) distribution amplitudes exhibit a characteristic ln Q 2 behaviour and obey new inhomogeneous evolution equations
Amplitudes, acquisition and imaging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bloor, Robert
1998-12-31
Accurate seismic amplitude information is important for the successful evaluation of many prospects and the importance of such amplitude information is increasing with the advent of time lapse seismic techniques. It is now widely accepted that the proper treatment of amplitudes requires seismic imaging in the form of either time or depth migration. A key factor in seismic imaging is the spatial sampling of the data and its relationship to the imaging algorithms. This presentation demonstrates that acquisition caused spatial sampling irregularity can affect the seismic imaging and perturb amplitudes. Equalization helps to balance the amplitudes, and the dealing strategy improves the imaging further when there are azimuth variations. Equalization and dealiasing can also help with the acquisition irregularities caused by shot and receiver dislocation or missing traces. 2 refs., 2 figs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Broedel, Johannes [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Dixon, Lance J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)
2012-07-01
Amplitudes in gauge thoeries obtain contributions from color and kinematics. While these two parts of the amplitude seem to exhibit different symmetry structures, it turns out that they can be reorganized in a way to behave equally, which leads to the so-called color-kinematic dual representations of amplitudes. Astonishingly, the existence of those representations allows squaring to related gravitational theories right away. Contrary to the Kawaii-Levellen-Tye relations, which have been used to relate gauge theories and gravity previously, this method is applicable not only to tree amplitudes but also at loop level. In this talk, the basic technique is introduced followed by a discussion of the existence of color-kinematic dual representations for amplitudes derived from gauge theory actions which are deformed by higher-operator insertions. In addition, it is commented on the implications for deformed gravitational theories.
Novel pneumoviruses (PnVs): Evolution and inflammatory pathology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glineur, Stephanie F.; Renshaw, Randall W.; Percopo, Caroline M.; Dyer, Kimberly D.; Dubovi, Edward J.; Domachowske, Joseph B.; Rosenberg, Helene F.
2013-01-01
A previous report of a novel pneumovirus (PnV) isolated from the respiratory tract of a dog described its significant homology to the rodent pathogen, pneumonia virus of mice (PVM). The original PnV–Ane4 pathogen replicated in and could be re-isolated in infectious state from mouse lung but elicited minimal mortality compared to PVM strain J3666. Here we assess phylogeny and physiologic responses to 10 new PnV isolates. The G/glycoprotein sequences of all PnVs include elongated amino-termini when compared to the characterized PVMs, and suggest division into groups A and B. While we observed significant differences in cytokine production and neutrophil recruitment to the lungs of BALB/c mice in response to survival doses (50 TCID 50 units) of representative group A (114378-10-29-KY-F) and group B (7968-11-OK) PnVs, we observed no evidence for positive selection (dN>dS) among the PnV/PnV, PVM/PnV or PVM/PVM G/glycoprotein or F/fusion protein sequence pairs. - Highlights: • We consider ten novel isolates of the pneumovirus (PnV) first described by Renshaw and colleagues. • The G/glycoprotein sequences of all PnVs include elongated amino-termini when compared to PVM. • We detect cytokine production and neutrophil recruitment to the lungs of mice in response to PnV. • We observed no evidence for positive selection (dN>dS) among the gene sequence pairs
Novel pneumoviruses (PnVs): Evolution and inflammatory pathology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glineur, Stephanie F. [Inflammation Immunobiology Section, Laboratory of Allergic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1883 (United States); Renshaw, Randall W. [Animal Health Diagnostic Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, PO Box 5786, Ithaca, New York, NY 14851-5786 (United States); Percopo, Caroline M.; Dyer, Kimberly D. [Inflammation Immunobiology Section, Laboratory of Allergic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1883 (United States); Dubovi, Edward J. [Animal Health Diagnostic Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, PO Box 5786, Ithaca, New York, NY 14851-5786 (United States); Domachowske, Joseph B. [Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States); Rosenberg, Helene F., E-mail: hrosenberg@niaid.nih.gov [Inflammation Immunobiology Section, Laboratory of Allergic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1883 (United States)
2013-09-01
A previous report of a novel pneumovirus (PnV) isolated from the respiratory tract of a dog described its significant homology to the rodent pathogen, pneumonia virus of mice (PVM). The original PnV–Ane4 pathogen replicated in and could be re-isolated in infectious state from mouse lung but elicited minimal mortality compared to PVM strain J3666. Here we assess phylogeny and physiologic responses to 10 new PnV isolates. The G/glycoprotein sequences of all PnVs include elongated amino-termini when compared to the characterized PVMs, and suggest division into groups A and B. While we observed significant differences in cytokine production and neutrophil recruitment to the lungs of BALB/c mice in response to survival doses (50 TCID{sub 50} units) of representative group A (114378-10-29-KY-F) and group B (7968-11-OK) PnVs, we observed no evidence for positive selection (dN>dS) among the PnV/PnV, PVM/PnV or PVM/PVM G/glycoprotein or F/fusion protein sequence pairs. - Highlights: • We consider ten novel isolates of the pneumovirus (PnV) first described by Renshaw and colleagues. • The G/glycoprotein sequences of all PnVs include elongated amino-termini when compared to PVM. • We detect cytokine production and neutrophil recruitment to the lungs of mice in response to PnV. • We observed no evidence for positive selection (dN>dS) among the gene sequence pairs.
Regan, William; Zettl, Alexander
2015-05-05
This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to field-effect p-n junctions. In one aspect, a device includes an ohmic contact, a semiconductor layer disposed on the ohmic contact, at least one rectifying contact disposed on the semiconductor layer, a gate including a layer disposed on the at least one rectifying contact and the semiconductor layer and a gate contact disposed on the layer. A lateral width of the rectifying contact is less than a semiconductor depletion width of the semiconductor layer. The gate contact is electrically connected to the ohmic contact to create a self-gating feedback loop that is configured to maintain a gate electric field of the gate.
Array analysis of regional Pn and Pg wavefields from the Nevada Test Site
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leonard, M.A.
1991-06-01
Small-aperture high-frequency seismic arrays with dimensions of a few kilometers or less, can improve our ability to seismically monitor compliance with a low-yield Threshold Test Ban Treaty. This work studies the characteristics and effectiveness of array processing of the regional Pn and Pg wavefields generated by underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site. Waveform data from the explosion HARDIN (m b = 5.5) is recorded at a temporary 12-element, 3-component, 1.5 km-aperture array sited in an area of northern Nevada. The explosions VILLE (m b = 4.4) and SALUT (m b = 5.5) are recorded at two arrays sited in the Mojave desert, one a 96-element vertical-component 7 km-aperture array and the other a 155-element vertical-component 4 km-aperture array. Among the mean spectra for the m b = 5.5 events there are significant differences in low-frequency spectral amplitudes between array sites. The spectra become nearly identical beyond about 6 Hz. Spectral ratios are used to examine seismic source properties and the partitioning of energy between Pn and Pg. Frequency-wavenumber analysis at the 12-element array is used to obtain estimates of signal gain, phase velocity, and source azimuth. This analysis reveals frequency-dependent biases in velocity and azimuth of the coherent Pn and Pg arrivals. Signal correlation, the principal factor governing array performance, is examined in terms of spatial coherence estimates. The coherence is found to vary between the three sites. In all cases the coherence of Pn is greater than that for Pg. 81 refs., 92 figs., 5 tabs
Array analysis of regional Pn and Pg wavefields from the Nevada Test Site
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leonard, M.A. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))
1991-06-01
Small-aperture high-frequency seismic arrays with dimensions of a few kilometers or less, can improve our ability to seismically monitor compliance with a low-yield Threshold Test Ban Treaty. This work studies the characteristics and effectiveness of array processing of the regional Pn and Pg wavefields generated by underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site. Waveform data from the explosion HARDIN (m{sub b} = 5.5) is recorded at a temporary 12-element, 3-component, 1.5 km-aperture array sited in an area of northern Nevada. The explosions VILLE (m{sub b} = 4.4) and SALUT (m{sub b} = 5.5) are recorded at two arrays sited in the Mojave desert, one a 96-element vertical-component 7 km-aperture array and the other a 155-element vertical-component 4 km-aperture array. Among the mean spectra for the m{sub b} = 5.5 events there are significant differences in low-frequency spectral amplitudes between array sites. The spectra become nearly identical beyond about 6 Hz. Spectral ratios are used to examine seismic source properties and the partitioning of energy between Pn and Pg. Frequency-wavenumber analysis at the 12-element array is used to obtain estimates of signal gain, phase velocity, and source azimuth. This analysis reveals frequency-dependent biases in velocity and azimuth of the coherent Pn and Pg arrivals. Signal correlation, the principal factor governing array performance, is examined in terms of spatial coherence estimates. The coherence is found to vary between the three sites. In all cases the coherence of Pn is greater than that for Pg. 81 refs., 92 figs., 5 tabs.
Single P-N junction tandem photovoltaic device
Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw [Kensington, CA; Ager, III, Joel W.; Yu, Kin Man [Lafayette, CA
2011-10-18
A single P-N junction solar cell is provided having two depletion regions for charge separation while allowing the electrons and holes to recombine such that the voltages associated with both depletion regions of the solar cell will add together. The single p-n junction solar cell includes an alloy of either InGaN or InAlN formed on one side of the P-N junction with Si formed on the other side in order to produce characteristics of a two junction (2J) tandem solar cell through only a single P-N junction. A single P-N junction solar cell having tandem solar cell characteristics will achieve power conversion efficiencies exceeding 30%.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
wavelength, they are called shallow water waves. In the ... Deep and intermediate water waves are dispersive as the velocity of these depends on wavelength. This is not the ..... generation processes, the finite amplitude wave theories are very ...
Real topological string amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Narain, K.S. [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP),Strada Costiera 11, Trieste, 34151 (Italy); Piazzalunga, N. [Simons Center for Geometry and Physics, State University of New York,Stony Brook, NY, 11794-3636 (United States); International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) and INFN, Sez. di Trieste,via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 (Italy); Tanzini, A. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) and INFN, Sez. di Trieste,via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 (Italy)
2017-03-15
We discuss the physical superstring correlation functions in type I theory (or equivalently type II with orientifold) that compute real topological string amplitudes. We consider the correlator corresponding to holomorphic derivative of the real topological amplitude G{sub χ}, at fixed worldsheet Euler characteristic χ. This corresponds in the low-energy effective action to N=2 Weyl multiplet, appropriately reduced to the orientifold invariant part, and raised to the power g{sup ′}=−χ+1. We show that the physical string correlator gives precisely the holomorphic derivative of topological amplitude. Finally, we apply this method to the standard closed oriented case as well, and prove a similar statement for the topological amplitude F{sub g}.
The delicate electronic and magnetic structure of the LaFePnO system (Pn = pnicogen)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lebegue, S [Laboratoire de Cristallographie et de Modelisation des Materiaux Mineraux et Biologiques, UMR 7036, CNRS-Universite Henri Poincare, BP 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Yin, Z P; Pickett, W E [Department of Physics, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)], E-mail: sebastien.lebegue@lcm3b.uhp-nancy.fr
2009-02-15
The occurrence of high-temperature superconductivity, and the competition with magnetism, in stoichiometric and doped LaFeAsO and isostructural iron oxypnictides is raising many fundamental questions about the electronic structure and magnetic interactions in this class of materials. There are now sufficient experimental data that it may be possible to identify the important issues whose resolution will lead to the understanding of this system. In this paper, we address a number of the important issues. One important characteristic is the Fe-As distance (or more abstractly the pnicogen (Pn) height z(Pn)); we present results for the effect of z(Pn) on the electronic structure, energetics and Fe magnetic moment. We also study LaFeAsO under pressure, and investigate the effects of both electron and hole doping within the virtual crystal approximation. The electric field gradients for all atoms in the LaFeAsO compound are presented (undoped and doped) and compared with available data. The observed ({pi}, {pi}, {pi}) magnetic order is studied and compared with the computationally simpler ({pi}, {pi}, 0) order which is probably a very good model in most respects. We investigate the crucial role of the pnicogen atom in this class, and predict the structures and properties of the N and Sb counterparts that have not yet been reported experimentally. At a certain volume a gap opens at the Fermi level in LaFeNO, separating bonding from antibonding bands. This is the first evidence that this class of materials indeed has an underlying semimetallic character, and this separation suggests directions for a better simple understanding of the seemingly intricate electronic structure of this system. Finally, we address briefly differences resulting from substitution of post-lanthanum rare earth atoms, which have been observed to enhance the superconducting critical temperature substantially.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hansen, J.D.
1976-01-01
This article discusses the partial wave analysis of two, three and four meson systems. The difference between the two approaches, referred to as amplitude and Ascoli analysis is discussed. Some of the results obtained with these methods are shown. (B.R.H.)
Reinforcing Saccadic Amplitude Variability
Paeye, Celine; Madelain, Laurent
2011-01-01
Saccadic endpoint variability is often viewed as the outcome of neural noise occurring during sensorimotor processing. However, part of this variability might result from operant learning. We tested this hypothesis by reinforcing dispersions of saccadic amplitude distributions, while maintaining constant their medians. In a first experiment we…
19th Scientific Readings Devoted to P.N. Chirvinskiy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Ya. Ilaltdinov
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Scientific conference devoted to P.N. Chirvinskiy was held in the Perm State University (January 2017. The problems of mineralogy, petrology, lithology, metallogeny and geochemistry were discussed.
Light Meson Distribution Amplitudes
Arthur, R.; Brommel, D.; Donnellan, M.A.; Flynn, J.M.; Juttner, A.; de Lima, H.Pedroso; Rae, T.D.; Sachrajda, C.T.; Samways, B.
2010-01-01
We calculated the first two moments of the light-cone distribution amplitudes for the pseudoscalar mesons ($\\pi$ and $K$) and the longitudinally polarised vector mesons ($\\rho$, $K^*$ and $\\phi$) as part of the UKQCD and RBC collaborations' $N_f=2+1$ domain-wall fermion phenomenology programme. These quantities were obtained with a good precision and, in particular, the expected effects of $SU(3)$-flavour symmetry breaking were observed. Operators were renormalised non-perturbatively and extrapolations to the physical point were made, guided by leading order chiral perturbation theory. The main results presented are for two volumes, $16^3\\times 32$ and $24^3\\times 64$, with a common lattice spacing. Preliminary results for a lattice with a finer lattice spacing, $32^3\\times64$, are discussed and a first look is taken at the use of twisted boundary conditions to extract distribution amplitudes.
Role of pn-pairs in nuclear structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nie, G.K.
2003-01-01
An α-cluster model of nuclear structure based on power of proton + neutron (pn)-pairs to bind themselves to α-clusters is proposed. The α-cluster is taken as the perfect condition of coupling of 2 pn- pairs, reminding complete electron shell in atomic physics. Pn-pairs create 2 other types of coupling of considerably less power between pn-pairs of nearby α-clusters ε α c and between pn-pair not bound into α-cluster with pn-pairs of nearby cluster ε pn c . Last two types of coupling are called covalent because of reminding similar electron coupling in chemistry. According the model nucleus is a liquid drop consisting of molecules, which are α-clusters, tied by covalent coupling with those ones which are in close vicinity. Then in case of even-even nuclei spin of the nucleus has to be zero I=0 + as sum of spinless particles. In case of nucleus has some nucleons (i) in intermolecular space, I=Σj i ; with taking into account that there is coupling of p and n in pn-pair. Therefore for 6 Li (1=0)I=2·1/2=1 + . The values ε α c , ε pn c and binding energy of the pn-pair itself ε pn have been estimated from analysis of binding energy of nuclei 6 Li, 10 B and 12 C. With the values the binding energy of the other nuclei with N=Z up to 58 Cu have been described with difference between experimental values and model ones in average less than 0.4 MeV. The structure reveals some regular forms, in which every cluster has reduced amount of covalent coupling, 3 or 4, and free pn-pair has 6 covalent coupling with 3 nearby clusters pn-pairs. Then the magic numbers are supposed to be the matter of geometry, when total amount of covalent couplings is optimal (minimal for the amount of clusters), α- clusters are placed in the same fixed distant from center of mass. It means that protons of the clusters can be considered as belonging to one shell. In the cluster model single particle effects have to be considered as single particle binding in one of the surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Talantsev, A.D.; Kollak, O.V.; Kirman, M.V.; Morgunov, R.B.
2015-01-01
The [ [Mn left brace (R/S)-pn right brace] 2 [Mn left brace(R/S)-pn right brace 2 (H 2 O)][Cr(CN) 6 ] 2 molecular ferrimagnet exhibits an inverse sequence of changes in the domain wall motion regimes with increasing temperature in alternative magnetic field of 0.04-1400 Hz frequency. Initiation of the relaxation regime on the background of creep indicates that there are two different systems of the domain walls damping. The threshold amplitude of the alternative magnetic field corresponds to the Peierls relief contribution to the domain wall dynamics as well as the defect contribution usually considered.
Messina, Francesco; Maldarella, Alberto; Nagar, Alessandro
2018-04-01
The factorization and resummation approach of Nagar and Shah [Phys. Rev. D 94, 104017 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevD.94.104017], designed to improve the strong-field behavior of the post-Newtonian (PN) residual waveform amplitudes fℓm's entering the effective-one-body, circularized, gravitational waveform for spinning coalescing binaries, is improved and generalized here to all multipoles up to ℓ=6 . For a test particle orbiting a Kerr black hole, each multipolar amplitude is truncated at relative 6 PN order, both for the orbital (nonspinning) and spin factors. By taking a certain Padé approximant (typically the P24 one) of the orbital factor in conjunction with the inverse Taylor (iResum) representation of the spin factor, it is possible to push the analytical/numerical agreement of the energy flux at the level of 5% at the last-stable orbit for a quasimaximally spinning black hole with dimensionless spin parameter +0.99 . When the procedure is generalized to comparable-mass binaries, each orbital factor is kept at relative 3+3 PN order; i.e., the globally 3 PN-accurate comparable-mass terms are hybridized with higher-PN test-particle terms up to 6 PN relative order in each mode. The same Padé resummation is used for continuity. By contrast, the spin factor is only kept at the highest comparable-mass PN order currently available. We illustrate that the consistency between different truncations in the spin content of the waveform amplitudes is more marked in the resummed case than when using the standard Taylor-expanded form of Pan et al. [Phys. Rev. D 83, 064003 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevD.83.064003]. We finally introduce a method to consistently hybridize comparable-mass and test-particle information also in the presence of spin (including the spin of the particle), discussing it explicitly for the ℓ=m =2 spin-orbit and spin-square terms. The improved, factorized and resummed, multipolar waveform amplitudes presented here are expected to set a new standard for
Novel Fractional Order Calculus Extended PN for Maneuvering Targets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jikun Ye
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Based on the theory of fractional order calculus (FOC, a novel extended proportional guidance (EPN law for intercepting the maneuvering target is proposed. In the first part, considering the memory function and filter characteristic of FOC, the novel extended PN guidance algorithm is developed based on the conventional PN after introducing the properties and operation rules of FOC. Further, with the help of FOC theory, the average load and ballistics characteristics of proposed guidance law are analyzed. Then, using the small offset kinematic model, the robustness of the new guidance law against autopilot parameters is studied theoretically by analyzing the sensitivity of the closed loop guidance system. At last, representative numerical results show that the designed guidance law obtains a better performance than the traditional PN for maneuvering target.
2006-06-30
ratios (Lg/Pn, Lg/Pg, Lg/Sn, and Lg/ Pcod ,), a constant window length was used to measure the phase amplitudes. The phases were identified by correlating...log(ýo-) = (Yp + yp,,o-dLg)(log( 2) -log ))+Q( + p.o-71Lg)(x 2 - (2.9) ’ 4 pcod ,2 APCoda Therefore, the difference of log(ALg/Apcoda) between
New PN Even Balanced Sequences for Spread-Spectrum Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Inácio JAL
2005-01-01
Full Text Available A new class of pseudonoise even balanced (PN-EB binary spreading sequences is derived from existing classical odd-length families of maximum-length sequences, such as those proposed by Gold, by appending or inserting one extra-zero element (chip to the original sequences. The incentive to generate large families of PN-EB spreading sequences is motivated by analyzing the spreading effect of these sequences from a natural sampling point of view. From this analysis a new definition for PG is established, from which it becomes clear that very high processing gains (PGs can be achieved in band-limited direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS applications by using spreading sequences with zero mean, given that certain conditions regarding spectral aliasing are met. To obtain large families of even balanced (i.e., equal number of ones and zeros sequences, two design criteria are proposed, namely the ranging criterion (RC and the generating ranging criterion (GRC. PN-EB sequences in the polynomial range are derived using these criteria, and it is shown that they exhibit secondary autocorrelation and cross-correlation peaks comparable to the sequences they are derived from. The methods proposed not only facilitate the generation of large numbers of new PN-EB spreading sequences required for CDMA applications, but simultaneously offer high processing gains and good despreading characteristics in multiuser SS scenarios with band-limited noise and interference spectra. Simulation results are presented to confirm the respective claims made.
The Oklahoma PN/ADN Articulation Project Report.
Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.
In response to a critical nursing shortage in the state of Oklahoma, the Oklahoma Practical Nursing (PN)/Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) Articulation Project Coordinating Committee was formed in spring 1990 to develop a proposal for program articulation. A curriculum matrix was designed and adopted for use by five regional subcommittees which…
Manufacturing P-N junctions in germanium bodies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hall, R.N.
1980-01-01
A method of producing p-n junctions in Ge so as to facilitate their use as radiation detectors involves forming a body of high purity p-type germanium, diffusing lithium deep into the body, in the absence of electrolytic processes, to form a junction between n-type and p-type germanium greater than 1 mm depth. (UK)
Systematics in p-n interaction vs deformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, M.; Singh, Yuvraj; Kumar, Rajesh; Vrshney, A.K.; Gupta, K.K.
2017-01-01
The correlation of integrated valance p-n interaction in the onset of collectivity and deformation has been described phenomenologically in terms of N p N n scheme. L. Esser et al. presented the graphs between N p N n and deformation β and γ for some heavy nuclei
Unifying relations for scattering amplitudes
Cheung, Clifford; Shen, Chia-Hsien; Wen, Congkao
2018-02-01
We derive new amplitudes relations revealing a hidden unity among a wideranging variety of theories in arbitrary spacetime dimensions. Our results rely on a set of Lorentz invariant differential operators which transmute physical tree-level scattering amplitudes into new ones. By transmuting the amplitudes of gravity coupled to a dilaton and two-form, we generate all the amplitudes of Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, Dirac-Born-Infield theory, special Galileon, nonlinear sigma model, and biadjoint scalar theory. Transmutation also relates amplitudes in string theory and its variants. As a corollary, celebrated aspects of gluon and graviton scattering like color-kinematics duality, the KLT relations, and the CHY construction are inherited traits of the transmuted amplitudes. Transmutation recasts the Adler zero as a trivial consequence of the Weinberg soft theorem and implies new subleading soft theorems for certain scalar theories.
Hidden beauty in multiloop amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cachazo, Freddy; Spradlin, Marcus; Volovich, Anastasia
2006-01-01
Planar L-loop maximally helicity violating amplitudes in N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory are believed to possess the remarkable property of satisfying iteration relations in L. We propose a simple new method for studying iteration relations for four-particle amplitudes which involves the use of certain linear differential operators and eliminates the need to fully evaluate any loop integrals. We carry out this procedure in explicit detail for the two-loop amplitude and prove that this method can be applied to any multiloop integral, allowing a conjectured iteration relation for any given amplitude to be tested up to polynomials in logarithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bern, Z.
2004-01-01
Splitting amplitudes govern the behavior of scattering amplitudes at the momenta of external legs become collinear. In this talk we outline the calculation of two-loop splitting amplitudes via the unitarity sewing method. This method retains the simple factorization properties of light-cone gauge, but avoids the need for prescriptions such as the principal value or Mandelstam-Leibbrandt ones. The encountered loop momentum integrals are then evaluated using integration-by-parts and Lorentz invariance identities. We outline a variety of applications for these splitting amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bern, Z.; Dixon, L.J.; Kosower, D.A.
2004-01-01
Splitting amplitudes govern the behavior of scattering amplitudes at the momenta of external legs become collinear. In this talk we outline the calculation of two-loop splitting amplitudes via the unitarity sewing method. This method retains the simple factorization properties of light-cone gauge, but avoids the need for prescriptions such as the principal value or Mandelstam-Leibbrandt ones. The encountered loop momentum integrals are then evaluated using integration-by-parts and Lorentz invariance identities. We outline a variety of applications for these splitting amplitudes
Charge exchange probes of nuclear structure and interactions with emphasis on (p,n)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goodman, C.D.
1980-01-01
New results from (p,n) studies at IUCF show that it is possible to observe Gamow-Teller (GT) strength and extract GT matrix elements from (p,n) measurements. The charge exchange reactions ( 6 Li, 6 He) and (π + ,π 0 ) involve different projectile quantum numbers, and the relationships of these reactions to (p,n) is discussed
Borromean structures in medium-heavy nuclei
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hove, Dennis; Fedorov, Dmitri Vladimir; Fynbo, Hans Otto Uldall
2014-01-01
Borromean nuclear cluster structures are expected at the corresponding driplines. We locate the regions in the nuclear chart with the most promising constituents, it being protons and alpha-particles and investigate in details the properties of the possible borromean two-alpha systems in medium h...... 134Te−α−α structure in its ground state and low-lying spectrum....
Atomic-scaled characterization of graphene PN junctions
Zhou, Xiaodong; Wang, Dennis; Dadgar, Ali; Agnihotri, Pratik; Lee, Ji Ung; Reuter, Mark C.; Ross, Frances M.; Pasupathy, Abhay N.
Graphene p-n junctions are essential devices for studying relativistic Klein tunneling and the Veselago lensing effect in graphene. We have successfully fabricated graphene p-n junctions using both lithographically pre-patterned substrates and the stacking of vertical heterostructures. We then use our 4-probe STM system to characterize the junctions. The ability to carry out scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in our STM instrument is essential for us to locate and measure the junction interface. We obtain both the topography and dI/dV spectra at the junction area, from which we track the shift of the graphene chemical potential with position across the junction interface. This allows us to directly measure the spatial width and roughness of the junction and its potential barrier height. We will compare the junction properties of devices fabricated by the aforementioned two methods and discuss their effects on the performance as a Veselago lens.
Structural and thermoelectric properties of zintl-phase CaLiPn (Pn=As, Sb, Bi)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chandran, Anoop K.; Gudelli, Vijay Kumar; Sreeparvathy, P.C.; Kanchana, V., E-mail: kanchana@iith.ac.in
2016-11-15
First-principles calculations were carried out to study the structural, mechanical, dynamical and transport properties of zintl phase materials CaLiPn (Pn=As, Sb and Bi). We have used two different approaches to solve the system based on density functional theory. The plane wave pseudopotential approach has been used to study the structural and dynamical properties whereas, full potential linear augment plane wave method is used to examine the electronic structure, mechanical and thermoelectric properties. The calculated ground-state properties agree quite well with experimental values. The computed electronic structure shows the investigated compounds to be direct band gap semiconductors. Further, we have calculated the thermoelectric properties of all the investigated compounds for both the carriers at various temperatures. We found a high thermopower for both the carriers, especially n-type doping to be more favourable, which enabled us to predict that CaLiPn might have promising applications as a good thermoelectric material. Further, the phonon dispersion curves of the investigated compounds showed flat phonon modes and we also find lower optical and acoustic modes to cut each other at the lower frequency range, which further indicate the investigated compounds to possess reasonably low thermal conductivity. We have also analysed the low value of the thermal conductivity through the empirical relations and discussions are presented here. - Highlights: • Electronic band structure and chemical bonding. • Single crystalline elastic constants and poly crystalline elastic moduli. • Thermoelectric properties of zintl phase. • Lattice dynamics and phonon density of states.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lam, C.S., E-mail: Lam@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Q.C., H3A 2T8 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Yao, York-Peng, E-mail: yyao@umich.edu [Department of Physics, The University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)
2016-06-15
The Cachazo–He–Yuan (CHY) formula for on-shell scattering amplitudes is extended off-shell. The off-shell amplitudes (amputated Green's functions) are Möbius invariant, and have the same momentum poles as the on-shell amplitudes. The working principles which drive the modifications to the scattering equations are mainly Möbius covariance and energy momentum conservation in off-shell kinematics. The same technique is also used to obtain off-shell massive scalars. A simple off-shell extension of the CHY gauge formula which is Möbius invariant is proposed, but its true nature awaits further study.
Multiscalar production amplitudes beyond threshold
Argyres, E N; Kleiss, R H
1993-01-01
We present exact tree-order amplitudes for $H^* \\to n~H$, for final states containing one or two particles with non-zero three-momentum, for various interaction potentials. We show that there are potentials leading to tree amplitudes that satisfy unitarity, not only at threshold but also in the above kinematical configurations and probably beyond. As a by-product, we also calculate $2\\to n$ tree amplitudes at threshold and show that for the unbroken $\\phi^4$ theory they vanish for $n>4~$, for the Standard Model Higgs they vanish for $n\\ge 3~$ and for a model potential, respecting tree-order unitarity, for $n$ even and $n>4~$. Finally, we calculate the imaginary part of the one-loop $1\\to n$ amplitude in both symmetric and spontaneously broken $\\phi^4$ theory.
Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories
Henn, Johannes M
2014-01-01
At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge. These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum ...
Amplitude damping of vortex modes
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Dudley, Angela L
2010-09-01
Full Text Available An interferometer, mimicking an amplitude damping channel for vortex modes, is presented. Experimentally the action of the channel is in good agreement with that predicted theoretically. Since we can characterize the action of the channel on orbital...
Motivic amplitudes and cluster coordinates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golden, J.K.; Goncharov, A.B.; Spradlin, M.; Vergu, C.; Volovich, A.
2014-01-01
In this paper we study motivic amplitudes — objects which contain all of the essential mathematical content of scattering amplitudes in planar SYM theory in a completely canonical way, free from the ambiguities inherent in any attempt to choose particular functional representatives. We find that the cluster structure on the kinematic configuration space Conf n (ℙ 3 ) underlies the structure of motivic amplitudes. Specifically, we compute explicitly the coproduct of the two-loop seven-particle MHV motivic amplitude A 7,2 M and find that like the previously known six-particle amplitude, it depends only on certain preferred coordinates known in the mathematics literature as cluster X-coordinates on Conf n (ℙ 3 ). We also find intriguing relations between motivic amplitudes and the geometry of generalized associahedrons, to which cluster coordinates have a natural combinatoric connection. For example, the obstruction to A 7,2 M being expressible in terms of classical polylogarithms is most naturally represented by certain quadrilateral faces of the appropriate associahedron. We also find and prove the first known functional equation for the trilogarithm in which all 40 arguments are cluster X-coordinates of a single algebra. In this respect it is similar to Abel’s 5-term dilogarithm identity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouquet, A.; Diu, B.; Leader, E.; Nicolescu, B.
1976-01-01
It is shown that uncertainties in the exact value of the Glauber correction make it virtually impossible to deduce any significant conclusions about the asymptotic behaviour of the sigmasub(pp)-sigmasub(pn) and sigma sub(antiproton proton)-sigmasub(antiproton neutron) cross-section differences, if only data on pp, pd, antiproton proton and antiprotond collisions are used. Nevertheless it can be demonstrated that the imaginary part of the rho exchange amplitude is basically Regge behaved. If, on the other hand, neutron beam data on sigmasub(np) are used, it can be shown that the imaginary part of the A 2 exchange amplitude contains a non-Regge, growing, asymptotic component, reminiscent of that found in the I=) symmetric amplitude
Bio-inspired nanostructures for implementing vertical pn-junctions
Saffih, Faycal
2011-08-04
An apparatus, system, and method having a 3D pn-junction structure are presented. One embodiment of an apparatus includes a substrate, a first doped structure, and a second doped structure. In one embodiment, the first doped structure has a first doping type. The first doped structure may be formed above the substrate and extend outwardly from an upper surface of the substrate. In one embodiment, the second doped structure has a second doping type. The second doped structure may be formed above the substrate and in contact with the first doped structure. Additionally, the second doped structure may extend outwardly from the upper surface of the substrate.
Bio-inspired nanostructures for implementing vertical pn-junctions
Saffih, Faycal
2011-01-01
An apparatus, system, and method having a 3D pn-junction structure are presented. One embodiment of an apparatus includes a substrate, a first doped structure, and a second doped structure. In one embodiment, the first doped structure has a first doping type. The first doped structure may be formed above the substrate and extend outwardly from an upper surface of the substrate. In one embodiment, the second doped structure has a second doping type. The second doped structure may be formed above the substrate and in contact with the first doped structure. Additionally, the second doped structure may extend outwardly from the upper surface of the substrate.
In medium modification of nucleon electromagnetic properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khanna, F.; Rakhimov, A.; Yakhsiev, U.
1997-01-01
Since nucleons are composite objects, their internal structure is expected to be changed by nuclear environment. A Skyrme like Lagrangian is proposed to consider such effects, namely the modification of electromagnetic (EM) properties of the nucleon. The static properties and EM form factors were obtained. It was shown that the charge radius of the nucleon increased in medium and the mass and axial coupling constant are reduced. The enhancement of magnetic moment of proton is smaller than that obtained in non-topological soliton model.Obtained results may be useful in electron nucleus scattering analysis.(A.A.D.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arun, K. G.; Buonanno, Alessandra; Ochsner, Evan; Faye, Guillaume
2009-01-01
We provide ready-to-use time-domain gravitational waveforms for spinning compact binaries with precession effects through 1.5 post-Newtonian (PN) order in amplitude, and compute their mode decomposition using spin-weighted -2 spherical harmonics. In the presence of precession, the gravitational-wave modes (l,m) contain harmonics originating from combinations of the orbital frequency and precession frequencies. We find that the gravitational radiation from binary systems with large mass asymmetry and large inclination angle can be distributed among several modes. For example, during the last stages of inspiral, for some maximally spinning configurations, the amplitude of the (2, 0) and (2, 1) modes can be comparable to the amplitude of the (2, 2) mode. If the mass ratio is not too extreme, the l=3 and l=4 modes are generally 1 or 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the l=2 modes. Restricting ourselves to spinning, nonprecessing compact binaries, we apply the stationary-phase approximation and derive the frequency-domain gravitational waveforms including spin-orbit and spin(1)-spin(2) effects through 1.5PN and 2PN order, respectively, in amplitude, and 2.5PN order in phase. Since spin effects in the amplitude through 2PN order affect only the first and second harmonics of the orbital phase, they do not extend the mass reach of gravitational-wave detectors. However, they can interfere with other harmonics and lower or raise the signal-to-noise ratio depending on the spin orientation. These ready-to-use waveforms could be employed in the data analysis of the spinning, inspiraling binaries as well as in comparison studies at the interface between analytical and numerical relativity.
Wu, Hashen; Kawakami, Daisuke; Sasaki, Mari; Xie, Jimin; Takaishi, Shinya; Kajiwara, Takashi; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Masahiro; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Hiroshi
2007-09-03
The disordered patterns of R- and rac-1,2-diaminopropane (pn) in quasi-one-dimensional bromo-bridged Ni(III) complexes, [NiIII(pn)2Br]Br2, have been investigated by single-crystal X-ray structure determination and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). X-ray structure determination shows that the methyl moieties are disordered on the right- and left-hand sides with half occupancies in both compounds, while the carbon atoms of the ethylene moieties of pn ligands are disordered in [Ni(rac-pn)2Br]Br2 and not disordered in [Ni(R-pn)2Br]Br2. In the STM images of both compounds, the bright spots are not straight but fluctuated with the similar patterns. We have concluded that tunnel current from the STM tip to metal ions are detected via methyl groups of pn ligands.
n-p Short-Range Correlations from (p,2p+n) Measurements
Tang, A.; Watson, J. W.; Aclander, J.; Alster, J.; Asryan, G.; Averichev, Y.; Barton, D.; Baturin, V.; Bukhtoyarova, N.; Carroll, A.; Gushue, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Leksanov, A.; Makdisi, Y.; Malki, A.; Minina, E.; Navon, I.; Nicholson, H.; Ogawa, A.; Panebratsev, Yu.; Piasetzky, E.; Schetkovsky, A.; Shimanskiy, S.; Zhalov, D.
2003-01-01
We studied the 12C(p,2p+n) reaction at beam momenta of 5.9, 8.0, and 9.0 GeV/c. For quasielastic (p,2p) events pf, the momentum of the knocked-out proton before the reaction, was compared (event by event) with pn, the coincident neutron momentum. For |pn|>kF=0.220 GeV/c (the Fermi momentum) a strong back-to-back directional correlation between pf and pn was observed, indicative of short-range n-p correlations. From pn and pf we constructed the distributions of c.m. and relative motion in the longitudinal direction for correlated pairs. We also determined that 49±13% of events with |pf|>kF had directionally correlated neutrons with |pn|>kF.
Aivazian, Grant; Sun, Dong; Jones, Aaron; Ross, Jason; Yao, Wang; Cobden, David; Xu, Xiaodong
2012-02-01
The remarkable electrical and optical properties of graphene make it a promising material for new optoelectronic applications. However, one important, but so far unexplored, property is the role of hot carriers in charge and energy transport at graphene interfaces. Here we investigate the photocurrent (PC) dynamics at a tunable graphene pn junction using ultrafast scanning PC microscopy. Pump-probe measurements show a temperature dependent relaxation time of photogenerated carriers that increases from 1.5ps at 290K to 4ps at 20K; while the amplitude of the PC is independent of the lattice temperature. These observations imply that it is hot carriers, not phonons, which dominate ultrafast energy transport. Gate dependent measurements show many interesting features such as pump induced saturation, enhancement, and sign reversal of probe generated PC. These observations reveal that the underlying PC mechanism is a combination of the thermoelectric and built-in electric field effects. Our results enhance the understanding of non-equilibrium electron dynamics, electron-electron interactions, and electron-phonon interactions in graphene. They also determine fundamental limits on ultrafast device operation speeds (˜500 GHz) for graphene-based photodetectors.
Murtaza, G.; Yousaf, N.; Laref, A.; Yaseen, M.
2018-03-01
Pnictogen-based Zintl compounds have fascinating properties. Nowadays these compounds have gained exceptional interest in thermoelectric and optoelectronic fields. Therefore, in this work the structural, electronic and optical properties of SrZn2Pn2 (Pn=N, P, As, Sb, Bi) compounds were studied using state-of-the-art density functional theory. The optimised lattice parameters (ɑ, c, c/ɑ and bond lengths) are consistent with the experimental results. The bulk moduli and c/a showed a decrease when changing the Pnictogen (Pn) anion from N to Bi in SrZn2Pn2 (Pn=N, P, As, Sb, Bi). The modified Becke-Johnson potential is used for band structure calculations. All compounds show semiconducting behaviour except SrZn2Bi2, which is metallic. Pn-p, Zn-d and Sr-d play an important role in defining the electronic structure of the compounds. The optical conductivity and absorption coefficient strength are high in visible and ultraviolet regions. These band structures and optical properties clearly show that SrZn2Pn2 compounds are potential candidates in the fields of optoelectronic and photonic devices.
Nonsinglet pentagons and NMHV amplitudes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.V. Belitsky
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric gauge theory receive a dual description in terms of the expectation value of the super Wilson loop stretched on a null polygonal contour. This makes the analysis amenable to nonperturbative techniques. Presently, we elaborate on a refined form of the operator product expansion in terms of pentagon transitions to compute twist-two contributions to NMHV amplitudes. To start with, we provide a novel derivation of scattering matrices starting from Baxter equations for flux-tube excitations propagating on magnon background. We propose bootstrap equations obeyed by pentagon form factors with nonsinglet quantum numbers with respect to the R-symmetry group and provide solutions to them to all orders in 't Hooft coupling. These are then successfully confronted against available perturbative calculations for NMHV amplitudes to four-loop order.
Nonsinglet pentagons and NMHV amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belitsky, A.V., E-mail: andrei.belitsky@asu.edu
2015-07-15
Scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric gauge theory receive a dual description in terms of the expectation value of the super Wilson loop stretched on a null polygonal contour. This makes the analysis amenable to nonperturbative techniques. Presently, we elaborate on a refined form of the operator product expansion in terms of pentagon transitions to compute twist-two contributions to NMHV amplitudes. To start with, we provide a novel derivation of scattering matrices starting from Baxter equations for flux-tube excitations propagating on magnon background. We propose bootstrap equations obeyed by pentagon form factors with nonsinglet quantum numbers with respect to the R-symmetry group and provide solutions to them to all orders in 't Hooft coupling. These are then successfully confronted against available perturbative calculations for NMHV amplitudes to four-loop order.
Cluster polylogarithms for scattering amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golden, John; Paulos, Miguel F; Spradlin, Marcus; Volovich, Anastasia
2014-01-01
Motivated by the cluster structure of two-loop scattering amplitudes in N=4 Yang-Mills theory we define cluster polylogarithm functions. We find that all such functions of weight four are made up of a single simple building block associated with the A 2 cluster algebra. Adding the requirement of locality on generalized Stasheff polytopes, we find that these A 2 building blocks arrange themselves to form a unique function associated with the A 3 cluster algebra. This A 3 function manifests all of the cluster algebraic structure of the two-loop n-particle MHV amplitudes for all n, and we use it to provide an explicit representation for the most complicated part of the n = 7 amplitude as an example. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Cluster algebras in mathematical physics’. (paper)
Topological amplitudes in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antoniadis, I.; Taylor, T.R.
1993-07-01
We show that certain type II string amplitudes at genus g are given by the topological partition F g discussed recently by Bershadsky, Cecotti, Ooguri and Vafa. These amplitudes give rise to a term in the four-dimensional effective action of the form Σ g F g W 2g , where W is the chiral superfield of N = 2 supergravitational multiplet. The holomorphic anomaly of F g is related to non-localities of the effective action due to the propagation of massless states. This result generalizes the holomorphic anomaly of the one loop case which is known to lead to non-harmonic gravitational couplings. (author). 22 refs, 2 figs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jakobsen, Marianne Skytte; Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Husby, Steffen
2015-01-01
INTRODUCTION: Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) is a complication of long-term parenteral nutrition (PN). Removal of lipids may reverse PNAC but compromises the energy to ensure infant growth. The purpose of this study was to test whether a low-fat, high-carbohydrate PN regimen......, which prevents and reverses PNAC in adults, could do the same in infants. This regimen could potentially avoid the problem of diminished energy input after removing nutritional lipids. METHODS: Infants developing PNAC over a 2-year period were started on a low-fat PN regimen with calories primarily from...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yosuke Goto
2015-06-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate the electrical and thermal transport properties of polycrystalline CoPn2 (Pn = As and Sb between 300 and 900 K. CoAs2 shows semiconducting electrical transport up to 900 K, while CoSb2 exhibits degenerate conduction. Sign inversion of the Seebeck coefficient is observed at ∼310 and ∼400 K for CoAs2 and CoSb2, respectively. Thermal conductivity at 300 K is 11.7 Wm−1K−1 for CoAs2 and 9.4 Wm−1K−1 for CoSb2. The thermoelectric power factor of CoAs2 is ∼10 μWcm−1K−2, although the dimensionless figure of merit is limited to ∼0.1 due to relatively high thermal conductivity. Using electronic structure calculations, the band gap value is calculated to be 0.55 eV for CoAs2 and 0.26 eV for CoSb2.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mandelstam, S.
1986-06-01
Work on the derivation of an explicit perturbation series for string and superstring amplitudes is reviewed. The light-cone approach is emphasized, but some work on the Polyakov approach is also mentioned, and the two methods are compared. The calculation of the measure factor is outlined in the interacting-string picture
Scattering Amplitudes from Intersection Theory.
Mizera, Sebastian
2018-04-06
We use Picard-Lefschetz theory to prove a new formula for intersection numbers of twisted cocycles associated with a given arrangement of hyperplanes. In a special case when this arrangement produces the moduli space of punctured Riemann spheres, intersection numbers become tree-level scattering amplitudes of quantum field theories in the Cachazo-He-Yuan formulation.
Positivity of spin foam amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baez, John C; Christensen, J Daniel
2002-01-01
The amplitude for a spin foam in the Barrett-Crane model of Riemannian quantum gravity is given as a product over its vertices, edges and faces, with one factor of the Riemannian 10j symbols appearing for each vertex, and simpler factors for the edges and faces. We prove that these amplitudes are always nonnegative for closed spin foams. As a corollary, all open spin foams going between a fixed pair of spin networks have real amplitudes of the same sign. This means one can use the Metropolis algorithm to compute expectation values of observables in the Riemannian Barrett-Crane model, as in statistical mechanics, even though this theory is based on a real-time (e iS ) rather than imaginary-time e -S path integral. Our proof uses the fact that when the Riemannian 10j symbols are nonzero, their sign is positive or negative depending on whether the sum of the ten spins is an integer or half-integer. For the product of 10j symbols appearing in the amplitude for a closed spin foam, these signs cancel. We conclude with some numerical evidence suggesting that the Lorentzian 10j symbols are always nonnegative, which would imply similar results for the Lorentzian Barrett-Crane model
Employing Helicity Amplitudes for Resummation
Moult, I.; Stewart, I.W.; Tackmann, F.J.; Waalewijn, W.J.
2015-01-01
Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are
Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henn, Johannes M. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States). School of Natural Sciences; Plefka, Jan C. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik
2014-03-01
First monographical text on this fundamental topic. Course-tested, pedagogical and self-contained exposition. Includes exercises and solutions. At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge. These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum field theory. Bridging the gap between introductory courses on quantum field theory and state-of-the-art research, these concise yet self-contained and course-tested lecture notes are well-suited for a one-semester graduate level course or as a self-study guide for anyone interested in fundamental aspects of quantum field theory and its applications. The numerous exercises and solutions included will help readers to embrace and apply the material presented in the main text.
Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henn, Johannes M.; Plefka, Jan C.
2014-01-01
First monographical text on this fundamental topic. Course-tested, pedagogical and self-contained exposition. Includes exercises and solutions. At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge. These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum field theory. Bridging the gap between introductory courses on quantum field theory and state-of-the-art research, these concise yet self-contained and course-tested lecture notes are well-suited for a one-semester graduate level course or as a self-study guide for anyone interested in fundamental aspects of quantum field theory and its applications. The numerous exercises and solutions included will help readers to embrace and apply the material presented in the main text.
Employing helicity amplitudes for resummation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Amsterdam Univ.
2015-08-01
Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. Using this basis allows one to seamlessly combine fixed-order helicity amplitudes at any order they are known with a resummation of higher-order logarithmic corrections. In particular, the virtual loop amplitudes can be employed in factorization theorems to make predictions for exclusive jet cross sections without the use of numerical subtraction schemes to handle real-virtual infrared cancellations. We also discuss matching onto SCET in renormalization schemes with helicities in 4- and d-dimensions. To demonstrate that our helicity operator basis is easy to use, we provide an explicit construction of the operator basis, as well as results for the hard matching coefficients, for pp → H+0,1,2 jets, pp → W/Z/γ+0,1,2 jets, and pp → 2,3 jets. These operator bases are completely crossing symmetric, so the results can easily be applied to processes with e + e - and e - p collisions.
Discontinuity formulas for multiparticle amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stapp, H.P.
1976-03-01
It is shown how discontinuity formulas for multiparticle scattering amplitudes are derived from unitarity and analyticity. The assumed analyticity property is the normal analytic structure, which was shown to be equivalent to the space-time macrocausality condition. The discontinuity formulas to be derived are the basis of multi-particle fixed-t dispersion relations
Distribution amplitudes of vector mesons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braun, V.M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Broemmel, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany); Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik] (and others)
2007-11-15
Results are presented for the lowest moment of the distribution amplitude for the K{sup *} vector meson. Both longitudinal and transverse moments are investigated. We use two flavours of O(a) improved Wilson fermions, together with a non-perturbative renormalisation of the matrix element. (orig.)
First tests with fully depleted PN-CCD's
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strueder, L.; Lutz, G.; Sterzik, M.; Holl, P.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.; Rehak, P.
1987-01-01
We have fabricated 280 μm thick fully depletable pn CCD's on high resistivity silicon (/rho/ ∼ 2.5 kΩcm). Its operation is based on the semiconductor drift chamber principle proposed by Gatti and Rheak. They are designed as energy and position sensitive radiation detector for (minimum) ionizing particles and X-ray imaging. Two dimensional semiconductor device modeling demonstrates the basic charge transer mechanisms. Prototypes of the detectors have been tested in static and dynamic conditions. A preliminary charge transfer inefficiency was determined to 6 x 10/sup/minus/3/. The charge loss during the transfer is discussed and as a consequence we have developed an improved design for a second fabrication iteration which is now being produced. 4 refs., 15 figs
Nanofibrous p-n Junction and Its Rectifying Characteristics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian Fang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Randomly oriented tin oxide (SnO2 nanofibers and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-poly(styrenesulfonate/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PEDOT:PSS/PVP nanofibers were prepared by a two-step electrospinning technique to form a layered fibrous mat. The current-voltage measurement revealed that the fibrous mat had an obvious diode-rectifying characteristic. The thickness of the nanofiber layers was found to have a considerable influence on the device resistance and rectifying performance. Such an interesting rectifying property was attributed to the formation of a p-n junction between the fibrous SnO2 and PEDOT:PSS/PVP layers. This is the first report that a rectifying junction can be formed between two layers of electrospun nanofiber mats, and the resulting nanofibrous diode rectifier may find applications in sensors, energy harvest, and electronic textiles.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, Hua; Tyson, Chauntae; Saito, Maia; Bobev, Svilen
2012-01-01
Ten new ternary phosphides and arsenides with empirical formulae AE 3 Al 2 Pn 4 and AE 3 Ga 2 Pn 4 (AE=Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu; Pn=P, As) have been synthesized using molten Ga, Al, and Pb fluxes. They have been structurally characterized by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction to form with two different structures—Ca 3 Al 2 P 4 , Sr 3 Al 2 As 4 , Eu 3 Al 2 P 4 , Eu 3 Al 2 As 4 , Ca 3 Ga 2 P 4 , Sr 3 Ga 2 P 4 , Sr 3 Ga 2 As 4 , and Eu 3 Ga 2 As 4 crystallize with the Ca 3 Al 2 As 4 structure type (space group C2/c, Z=4); Ba 3 Al 2 P 4 and Ba 3 Al 2 As 4 adopt the Na 3 Fe 2 S 4 structure type (space group Pnma, Z=4). The polyanions in both structures are made up of TrPn 4 tetrahedra, which share common corners and edges to form 2 ∞ [TrPn 2 ] 3– layers in the phases with the Ca 3 Al 2 As 4 structure, and 1 ∞ [TrPn 2 ] 3– chains in Ba 3 Al 2 P 4 and Ba 3 Al 2 As 4 with the Na 3 Fe 2 S 4 structure type. The valence electron count for all of these compounds follows the Zintl–Klemm rules. Electronic band structure calculations confirm them to be semiconductors. - Graphical abstract: AE 3 Al 2 Pn 4 and AE 3 Ga 2 Pn 4 (AE=Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu; Pn=P, As) crystallize in two different structures—Ca 3 Al 2 P 4 , Sr 3 Al 2 As 4 , Eu 3 Al 2 P 4 , Eu 3 Al 2 As 4 , Ca 3 Ga 2 P 4 , Sr 3 Ga 2 P 4 , Sr 3 Ga 2 As 4 , and Eu 3 Ga 2 As 4 , are isotypic with the previously reported Ca 3 Al 2 As 4 (space group C2/c (No. 15)), while Ba 3 Al 2 P 4 and Ba 3 Al 2 As 4 adopt a different structure known for Na 3 Fe 2 S 4 (space group Pnma (No. 62). The polyanions in both structures are made up of TrPn 4 tetrahedra, which by sharing common corners and edges, form 2 ∞ [TrPn 2 ] 3– layers in the former and 1 ∞ [TrPn 2 ] 3– chains in Ba 3 Al 2 P 4 and Ba 3 Al 2 As 4 . Highlights: ► AE 3 Ga 2 Pn 4 (AE=Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu; Pn=P, As) are new ternary pnictides. ► Ba 3 Al 2 P 4 and Ba 3 Al 2 As 4 adopt the Na 3 Fe 2 S 4 structure type. ► The Sr- and Ca-compounds crystallize with the Ca 3
Relativistic pn-QRPA to the double beta decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conti, Claudio de; Krmpotic, F.; Carlson, Brett Vern
2010-01-01
Full text: In nature there are about 50 nuclear systems where the single beta-decay is energetically forbidden, and double- beta decay turns out to be only possible mode of disintegration. It is the nuclear pairing force which causes such an 'anomaly', by making the mass of the odd-odd isobar, (N - 1;Z + 1), to be greater than the masses of its even-even neighbors, (N;Z) and (N - 2;Z +2). The modes by which the double-beta decay can take place are connected with the neutrino and antineutrino distinction. In case the lepton number is strictly conserved the neutrino is a Dirac fermion and the two-neutrino mode is the only possible mode of disintegration. On the other hand, if this conservation is violated, the neutrino is a Majorana particle and neutrinoless double-beta decay also can occur. Both two-neutrino and neutrinoless double-beta decay processes have attracted much attention, because a comparison between experiment and theory for the first, provides a measure of confidence one may have in the nuclear wave function employed for extracting the unknown parameters from neutrinoless lifetime measurements. The proton-neutron (pn) quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA) has turned out be the most simple model for calculating the nuclear wave function involved in the double-beta decay transitions. In this work the transition matrix elements for 0 + -> 0 + double-beta decay are calculated for 48 Ca, 76 Ge, 82 Se, 100 Mo, 128 Te and 130 Te nuclei, using a relativistic pn-QRPA based on Hartree-Bogoliubov approximation to the single-particle motion. (author)
Relativistic pn-QRPA to the double beta decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conti, Claudio de; Krmpotic, Francisco; Carlson, Brett Vern
2011-01-01
Full text: In nature there are about 50 nuclear systems where the single beta-decay is energetically forbidden, and double-beta decay turns out to be only possible mode of disintegration. It is the nuclear pairing force which causes such an 'anomaly', by making the mass of the odd-odd isobar, (N - 1;Z + 1), to be greater than the masses of its even-even neighbors, (N;Z) and (N - 2;Z +2). The modes by which the double-beta decay can take place are connected with the neutrino and antineutrino distinction. In case the lepton number is strictly conserved the neutrino is a Dirac fermion and the two-neutrino mode is the only possible mode of disintegration. On the other hand, if this conservation is violated, the neutrino is a Majorana particle and neutrinoless double-beta decay also can occur. Both two-neutrino and neutrinoless double-beta decay processes have attracted much attention, because a comparison between experiment and theory for the first, provides a measure of confidence one may have in the nuclear wave function employed for extracting the unknown parameters from neutrinoless lifetime measurements. The proton-neutron (pn) quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA) has turned out be the most simple model for calculating the nuclear wave function involved in the double-beta decay transitions. In this work the transition matrix elements for 0 + → 0 + double-beta decay are calculated for 48 Ca, 76 Ge, 82 Se, 100 Mo, 128 Te and 130 Te nuclei, using a relativistic pn-QRPA based on Hartree-Bogoliubov approximation to the single-particle motion. (author)
Solak, Kamila A.; Santos, Regiane R.; van den Berg, Martin; Blaauboer, Bas J.; Roelen, Bernard A J; van Duursen, Majorie B M
2014-01-01
Flavanones such as naringenin (NAR) and 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) are increasingly used as dietary supplements despite scientific concern regarding adverse effects on female reproduction upon excessive intake. In the present study, NAR and 8-PN (0.3-1. μM) significantly affected porcine oocyte
The empirical connection between (p,n) cross sections and beta decay transition strengths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taddeucci, T.N.
1988-01-01
A proportionality is assumed to exist between 0/degree/ (p,n) cross sections and the corresponding beta decay transition strengths. The validity of this assumption is tested by comparison of measured (p,n) cross sections and analogous beta decay strengths. Distorted waves impulse approximation calculations also provide useful estimates of the accuracy of the proportionality relationship. 14 refs., 10 figs
Scruncher phase and amplitude control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeHaven, R.A.; Morris, C.L.; Johnson, R.; Davis, J.; O'Donnell, J.M.
1992-01-01
The analog controller for phase and amplitude control of a 402.5 MHz super conducting cavity is described in this paper. The cavity is a single cell with niobium explosively bonded to a copper cavity. It is used as an energy compressor for pions at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The controller maintains cavity frequency to within 4 degrees in phase of the LAMPF beam frequency. Field amplitude is maintained to within 2 percent. This control is accomplished at critical coupling (Q load of 1 x 10 9 ) with the use of only a 30 watt rf amplifier for accelerating fields of 6 MV/m. The design includes the use of piezoelectric crystals for fast resonance control. Three types of control, self excited, VCO, and a reference frequency driven, were tried on this cavity and we present a comparison of their performance. (Author) 4 figs., ref
SCRUNCHER phase and amplitude control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeHaven, R.A.; Morris, C.L.; Johnson, R.; Davis, J.; O'Donnell, J.M.
1992-01-01
The analog controller for phase and amplitude control of a 402.5 MHz super conducting cavity is described in this paper. The cavity is a single cell with niobium explosively bonded to a copper cavity. It is used as an energy compressor for pions at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The controller maintains cavity frequency to within 4 degrees in phase of the LAMPF beam frequency. Field amplitude is maintained to within 2 percent. This control is accomplished at critical coupling (Q loaded of 1 x 10 9 ) with the use of only a 30 watt rf amplifier for accelerating fields of 6 MV/m. The design includes the use of piezoelectric crystals for fast resonance control. Three types of control, self excited VCO, and a reference frequency driven, were tried on this cavity and we present a comparison of their performance
Periodic instantons and scattering amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khlebnikov, S.Yu.; Rubakov, V.A.; Tinyakov, P.G.
1991-04-01
We discuss the role of periodic euclidean solutions with two turning points and zero winding number (periodic instantons) in instanton induced processes below the sphaleron energy E sph . We find that the periodic instantons describe certain multiparticle scattering events leading to the transitions between topologically distinct vacua. Both the semiclassical amplitudes and inital and final states of these transitions are determined by the periodic instantons. Furthermore, the corresponding probabilities are maximal among all states of given energy. We show that at E ≤ E sph , the periodic instantons can be approximated by infinite chains of ordinary instantons and anti-instantons, and they naturally emerge as deformations of the zero energy instanton. In the framework of 2d abelian Higgs model and 4d electroweak theory we show, however, that there is not obvious relation between periodic instantons and two-particle scattering amplitudes. (orig.)
Determination of the scattering amplitude
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gangal, A.D.; Kupsch, J.
1984-01-01
The problem to determine the elastic scattering amplitude from the differential cross-section by the unitarity equation is reexamined. We prove that the solution is unique and can be determined by a convergent iteration if the parameter lambda=sin μ of Newton and Martin is bounded by lambda 2 approx.=0.86. The method is based on a fixed point theorem for holomorphic mappings in a complex Banach space. (orig.)
Pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorometer
Greenbaum, Elias; Wu, Jie
2015-12-29
Chlorophyll fluorometry may be used for detecting toxins in a sample because of changes in micro algae. A portable lab on a chip ("LOAC") based chlorophyll fluorometer may be used for toxin detection and environmental monitoring. In particular, the system may include a microfluidic pulse amplitude modulated ("PAM") chlorophyll fluorometer. The LOAC PAM chlorophyll fluorometer may analyze microalgae and cyanobacteria that grow naturally in source drinking water.
Semiclassical approach to fidelity amplitude
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
García-Mata, Ignacio; Vallejos, Raúl O; Wisniacki, Diego A
2011-01-01
The fidelity amplitude (FA) is a quantity of paramount importance in echo-type experiments. We use semiclassical theory to study the average FA for quantum chaotic systems under external perturbation. We explain analytically two extreme cases: the random dynamics limit - attained approximately by strongly chaotic systems - and the random perturbation limit, which shows a Lyapunov decay. Numerical simulations help us to bridge the gap between both the extreme cases. (paper)
A new class of PN3-pincer ligands for metal–ligand cooperative catalysis
Li, Huaifeng
2014-12-01
Work on a new class of PN3-pincer ligands for metal-ligand cooperative catalysis is reviewed. While the field of the pyridine-based PN3-transition metal pincer complexes is still relatively young, many important applications of these complexes have already emerged. In several cases, the PN3-pincer complexes for metal-ligand cooperative catalysis result in significantly improved or unprecedented activities. The synthesis and coordination chemistry of PN3-pincer ligands are briefly summarized first to cover the synthetic routes for their preparation, followed by a focus review on their applications in catalysis. A specific emphasis is placed on the later section about the role of PN3-pincer ligands\\' dearomatization-rearomatization steps during the catalytic cycles. The mechanistic insights from density functional theory (DFT) calculations are also discussed.
A numerical model of p-n junctions bordering on surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Altermatt, P.P.; Aberle, A.G.; Jianhua Zhao; Aihua Wang; Heiser, G. [University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia). Centre for Photovolatic Engineering
2002-10-01
Many solar cell structures contain regions where the emitter p-n junction borders on the surface. If the surface is not well passivated, a large amount of recombination occurs in such regions. This type of recombination is influenced by the electrostatics of both the p-n junction and the surface, and hence it is different from the commonly described recombination phenomena occurring in the p-n junction within the bulk. We developed a two-dimensional model for the recombination mechanisms occurring in emitter p-n junctions bordering on surfaces. The model is validated by reproducing the experimental I-V curves of specially designed silicon solar cells. It is shown under which circumstances a poor surface passivation, near where the p-n junction borders on the surface, reduces the fill factor and the open-circuit voltage. The model can be applied to many other types of solar cells. (author)
A new class of PN3-pincer ligands for metal–ligand cooperative catalysis
Li, Huaifeng; Zheng, Bin; Huang, Kuo-Wei
2014-01-01
Work on a new class of PN3-pincer ligands for metal-ligand cooperative catalysis is reviewed. While the field of the pyridine-based PN3-transition metal pincer complexes is still relatively young, many important applications of these complexes have already emerged. In several cases, the PN3-pincer complexes for metal-ligand cooperative catalysis result in significantly improved or unprecedented activities. The synthesis and coordination chemistry of PN3-pincer ligands are briefly summarized first to cover the synthetic routes for their preparation, followed by a focus review on their applications in catalysis. A specific emphasis is placed on the later section about the role of PN3-pincer ligands' dearomatization-rearomatization steps during the catalytic cycles. The mechanistic insights from density functional theory (DFT) calculations are also discussed.
Time-amplitude converter; Convertisseur temps-amplitude
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banner, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1961-07-01
It is normal in high energy physics to measure the time of flight of a particle in order to determine its mass. This can be done by the method which consists in transforming the time measurement into an analysis of amplitude, which is easier; a time-amplitude converter has therefore been built for this purpose. The apparatus here described uses a double grid control tube 6 BN 6 whose resolution time, as measured with a pulse generator, is 5 x 10{sup -11} s. The analysis of the response of a particle counter, made up of a scintillator and a photomultiplier, indicates that a time of resolution of 5 x 10{sup -10} s. can be obtained. A time of this order of magnitude is obtained experimentally with the converter. This converter has been used in the study of the time of flight of particles in a secondary beam of the accelerator Saturne. It has thus been possible to measure the energy spectrum of {pi}-mesons, of protons, and of deutons emitted from a polyethylene target bombarded by 1,4 and 2 GeV protons. (author) [French] Pour determiner la masse d'une particule, il est courant, en physique des hautes energies, de mesurer le temps de vol de cette particule. Cela peut etre fait par la methode qui consiste a transformer la mesure d'un temps en une analyse d'amplitude, plus aisee; aussi a-t-on, a cet effet, cree un convertisseur temps-amplitude. L'appareillage decrit dans cet article utilise un tube a double grille de commande 6 BN 6 dont le temps de resolution mesure avec un generateur d'impulsion est de 5.10{sup -11} s. L'analyse de la reponse d'un compteur de particules, constitue par un scintillateur et un photomultiplicateur, indique qu'un temps de resolution de 5.10{sup -10} s peut etre obtenu. Un temps de cet ordre est atteint experimentalement avec le convertisseur. Ce convertisseur a servi a l'etude du temps de vol des particules dans un faisceau secondaire de l'accelerateur Saturne. On a mesure ainsi le spectre d'energie des mesons {pi}, des protons, des deutons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rookes, Thomas M.; Wildman, Elizabeth P.; Gardner, Benedict M.; Wooles, Ashley J.; Gregson, Matthew; Tuna, Floriana; Liddle, Stephen T. [School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Balazs, Gabor; Scheer, Manfred [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Regensburg (Germany)
2018-01-26
The synthesis and characterisation is presented of the compounds [An(Tren{sup DMBS}){Pn(SiMe_3)_2}] and [An(Tren{sup TIPS}){Pn(SiMe_3)_2}] [Tren{sup DMBS}=N(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NSiMe{sub 2}Bu{sup t}){sub 3}, An=U, Pn=P, As, Sb, Bi; An=Th, Pn=P, As; Tren{sup TIPS}=N(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NSiPr{sup i}{sub 3}){sub 3}, An=U, Pn=P, As, Sb; An=Th, Pn=P, As, Sb]. The U-Sb and Th-Sb moieties are unprecedented examples of any kind of An-Sb molecular bond, and the U-Bi bond is the first two-centre-two-electron (2c-2e) one. The Th-Bi combination was too unstable to isolate, underscoring the fragility of these linkages. However, the U-Bi complex is the heaviest 2c-2e pairing of two elements involving an actinide on a macroscopic scale under ambient conditions, and this is exceeded only by An-An pairings prepared under cryogenic matrix isolation conditions. Thermolysis and photolysis experiments suggest that the U-Pn bonds degrade by homolytic bond cleavage, whereas the more redox-robust thorium compounds engage in an acid-base/dehydrocoupling route. (copyright 2018 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA.)
Amplitude modulation reflectometer for FTU
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zerbini, M.; Buratti, P.; Centioli, C.; Amadeo, P.
1995-06-01
Amplitude modulation (AM) reflectometry is a modification of the classical frequency sweep technique which allows to perform unambiguous phase delay measurements. An eight-channel AM reflectometer has been realized for the measurement of density profiles on the FTU tokamak in the range. The characteristics of the instrument have been determined in extensive laboratory tests; particular attention has been devoted to the effect of interference with parasitic reflections. The reflectometer is now operating on FTU. Some examples of the first experimental data are discussed
Superstring amplitudes and contact interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greensite, J.
1987-08-01
We show that scattering amplitudes computed from light-cone superstring field theory are divergent at tree level. The divergences can be eliminated, and supersymmetry restored, by the addition of certain counter terms to the light-cone Hamiltonian. These counter terms have the form of local contact interactions, whose existence we had previously deduced on grounds of vacuum stability, and closure of the super-Poincare algebra. The quartic contact interactions required in Type I and Type IIB superstring theories are constructed in detail. (orig.)
Forward amplitude in pion deuteron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, E.M.; Munguia, G.A.P.; Rosa, L.P.; Thome, Z.D.
1979-06-01
The data on total cross section for πd scattering is analysed in terms of a single scattering calculation with Fermi motion dependence, in order to obtain a criterion to fix the value of the energy entering the two body meson nucleon amplitude. It is found that the prescription derived from the non-relativistic three body kinematics gives reasonable results. The introduction of a shift in the energy value, possibly representing nuclear binding effects, leads to a very good fitting of the data. The results are compared with those obtained in direct calculations of Faddeev equations and with the Brueckner model of fixed scatterers. (Author) [pt
Yao, Changguang
2018-02-13
A 2nd generation PN3P-pincer azido nickel complex (PN3P)Ni(N3) reacts with isocyanides to afford monosubstituted carbodiimides under irradiation, presumably via a transient nitrido intermediate. The resulting species can further generate unsymmetrical carboddimides and the PN3P nickel halide complex, accomplishing a synthetic cycle for a complete nitrogen atom transfer reaction.
Yao, Changguang; Wang, Xiufang; Huang, Kuo-Wei
2018-01-01
A 2nd generation PN3P-pincer azido nickel complex (PN3P)Ni(N3) reacts with isocyanides to afford monosubstituted carbodiimides under irradiation, presumably via a transient nitrido intermediate. The resulting species can further generate unsymmetrical carboddimides and the PN3P nickel halide complex, accomplishing a synthetic cycle for a complete nitrogen atom transfer reaction.
Ternary CaCu4P2-type pnictides AAg4Pn2 (A=Sr, Eu; Pn=As, Sb)
Stoyko, Stanislav S.; Khatun, Mansura; Scott Mullen, C.; Mar, Arthur
2012-08-01
Four ternary pnictides AAg4Pn2 (A=Sr, Eu; Pn=As, Sb) were prepared by reactions of the elements at 850 °C and their crystal structures were determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. These silver-containing pnictides AAg4Pn2 adopt the trigonal CaCu4P2-type structure (Pearson symbol hR21, space group R3¯m, Z=3; a=4.5555(6) Å, c=24.041(3) Å for SrAg4As2; a=4.5352(2) Å, c=23.7221(11) Å for EuAg4As2; a=4.7404(4) Å, c=25.029(2) Å for SrAg4Sb2; a=4.7239(3) Å, c=24.689(2) Å for EuAg4Sb2), which can be derived from the trigonal CaAl2Si2-type structure of the isoelectronic zinc-containing pnictides AZn2Pn2 by insertion of additional Ag atoms into trigonal planar sites within [M2Pn2]2- slabs built up of edge-sharing tetrahedra. Band structure calculations on SrAg4As2 and SrAg4Sb2 revealed that these charge-balanced Zintl phases actually exhibit no gap at the Fermi level and are predicted to be semimetals.
Titanium-dioxide nanotube p-n homojunction diode
Alivov, Yahya; Ding, Yuchen; Singh, Vivek; Nagpal, Prashant
2014-12-01
Application of semiconductors in functional optoelectronic devices requires precise control over their doping and formation of junction between p- and n-doped semiconductors. While doped thin films have led to several semiconductor devices, need for high-surface area nanostructured devices for photovoltaic, photoelectrochemical, and photocatalytic applications has been hindered by lack of desired doping in nanostructures. Here, we show titanium-dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes doped with nitrogen (N) and niobium (Nb) as acceptors and donors, respectively, and formation of TiO2 nanotubes p-n homojunction. This TiO2:N/TiO2:Nb homojunction showed distinct diode-like behaviour with rectification ratio of 1115 at ±5 V and exhibited good photoresponse for ultraviolet light (λ = 365 nm) with sensitivity of 0.19 A/W at reverse bias of -5 V. These results can have important implications for development of nanostructured metal-oxide solar-cells, photodiodes, LED's, photocatalysts, and photoelectrochemical devices.
Titanium-dioxide nanotube p-n homojunction diode
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alivov, Yahya, E-mail: y.alivov@colorado.edu, E-mail: pnagpal@colorado.edu; Ding, Yuchen; Singh, Vivek [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Nagpal, Prashant, E-mail: y.alivov@colorado.edu, E-mail: pnagpal@colorado.edu [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Renewable and Sustainable Energy Institute, University of Colorado Boulder, 2445 Kittredge Loop, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)
2014-12-29
Application of semiconductors in functional optoelectronic devices requires precise control over their doping and formation of junction between p- and n-doped semiconductors. While doped thin films have led to several semiconductor devices, need for high-surface area nanostructured devices for photovoltaic, photoelectrochemical, and photocatalytic applications has been hindered by lack of desired doping in nanostructures. Here, we show titanium-dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanotubes doped with nitrogen (N) and niobium (Nb) as acceptors and donors, respectively, and formation of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes p-n homojunction. This TiO{sub 2}:N/TiO{sub 2}:Nb homojunction showed distinct diode-like behaviour with rectification ratio of 1115 at ±5 V and exhibited good photoresponse for ultraviolet light (λ = 365 nm) with sensitivity of 0.19 A/W at reverse bias of −5 V. These results can have important implications for development of nanostructured metal-oxide solar-cells, photodiodes, LED's, photocatalysts, and photoelectrochemical devices.
Almeida, Flavia De Marco; Silva, Carolina Nunes; de Araujo Lopes, Savia Caldeira; Santos, Daniel Moreira; Torres, Fernanda Silva; Cardoso, Felipe Lima; Martinelli, Patricia Massara; da Silva, Elizabeth Ribeiro; de Lima, Maria Elena; Miranda, Lucas Antonio Ferreira; Oliveira, Monica Cristina
2018-01-08
PnPP-19 is a 19-amino-acid synthetic peptide previously described as a novel drug for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. The aim of this work was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of cationic transfersomes containing PnPP-19 and the skin permeation of free PnPP-19 and PnPP-19-loaded transfersomes. Three different liposomal preparation methods were evaluated. Cationic transfersomes contained egg phosphatidyl choline: stearylamine (9:1 w/w) and Tween 20 (84.6:15.4 lipid:Tween, w/w). Lipid concentration varied from 20 to 40 mM. We evaluated the entrapment percentage, mean diameter, zeta potential and stability at 4 oC of the formulations. The skin permeation assays were performed with abdominal human skin using Franz diffusion cell with 3 cm2 diffusion area at 32 oC and a fluorescent derivative of the peptide, containing 5-TAMRA, bound to PnPP-19 C-terminal region, where an extra lysine was inserted. Our results showed variable entrapment efficiencies, from 6% to 30%, depending on the preparation method and the lipid concentration used. The reverse phase evaporation method using a total lipid concentration equal to 40 mM led to the best entrapment percentage (30.2 + 4.5%). Free PnPP-19 was able to permeate skin at a rate of 10.8 ng/cm2/h. However, PnPP-19 was specifically hydrolyzed by skin proteases, generating a fragment of 15 amino acid residues. Encapsulated PnPP-19 permeated the skin at a rate of 19.8 ng/cm2/h. The encapsulation of PnPP-19 in cationic transfersomes protected the peptide from degradation, favoring its topical administration. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.
Solution-grown organic single-crystalline p-n junctions with ambipolar charge transport.
Fan, Congcheng; Zoombelt, Arjan P; Jiang, Hao; Fu, Weifei; Wu, Jiake; Yuan, Wentao; Wang, Yong; Li, Hanying; Chen, Hongzheng; Bao, Zhenan
2013-10-25
Organic single-crystalline p-n junctions are grown from mixed solutions. First, C60 crystals (n-type) form and, subsequently, C8-BTBT crystals (p-type) nucleate heterogeneously on the C60 crystals. Both crystals continue to grow simultaneously into single-crystalline p-n junctions that exhibit ambipolar charge transport characteristics. This work provides a platform to study organic single-crystalline p-n junctions. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Magnetic electron focusing and tuning of the electron current with a pn-junction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Milovanović, S. P., E-mail: slavisa.milovanovic@uantwerpen.be; Ramezani Masir, M., E-mail: mrmphys@gmail.com; Peeters, F. M., E-mail: francois.peeters@uantwerpen.be [Departement Fysica, Universiteit Antwerpen, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)
2014-01-28
Transverse magnetic focusing properties of graphene using a ballistic four terminal structure are investigated. The electric response is obtained using the semiclassical billiard model. The transmission exhibits pronounced peaks as a consequence of skipping orbits at the edge of the structure. When we add a pn-junction between the two probes, snake states along the pn-interface appear. Injected electrons are guided by the pn-interface to one of the leads depending on the value of the applied magnetic field. Oscillations in the resistance are found depending on the amount of particles that end up in each lead.
Liu, He; Zhou, Bangyu; Yan, Wenjun; Lei, Zhengchang; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Ke; Guo, Aike
2014-09-01
Astrocyte-like glial cells are abundant in the central nervous system of adult Drosophila and exhibit morphology similar to astrocytes of mammals. Previous evidence has shown that astrocyte-like glial cells are strongly associated with synapses in the antennal lobe (AL), the first relay of the olfactory system, where olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) transmit information into projection neurons (PNs). However, the function of astrocyte-like glia in the AL remains obscure. In this study, using in vivo calcium imaging, we found that astrocyte-like glial cells exhibited spontaneous microdomain calcium elevations. Using simultaneous manipulation of glial activity and monitoring of neuronal function, we found that the astrocyte-like glial activation, but not ensheathing glial activation, could inhibit odor-evoked responses of PNs. Ensheathing glial cells are another subtype of glia, and are of functional importance in the AL. Electrophysiological experiments indicated that astrocyte-like glial activation decreased the amplitude and slope of excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked through electrical stimulation of the antennal nerve. These results suggest that astrocyte-like glial cells may regulate olfactory processing through negative regulation of ORN-PN synaptic strength. Beyond the antennal lobe we observed astrocyte-like glial spontaneous calcium activities in the ventromedial protocerebrum, indicating that astrocyte-like glial spontaneous calcium elevations might be general in the adult fly brain. Overall, our study demonstrates a new function for astrocyte-like glial cells in the physiological modulation of olfactory information transmission, possibly through regulating ORN-PN synapse strength. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
PN G068.1+11.0: A young pre-cataclysmic variable with an extremely hot primary
Mitrofanova, A. A.; Shimansky, V. V.; Borisov, N. V.; Spiridonova, O. I.; Gabdeev, M. M.
2016-02-01
An analysis of spectroscopic and photometric data for the young pre-cataclysmic variable (PCV) PN G068.1+11.0, which passed through its common-envelope stage relatively recently, is presented. The spectroscopic and photometric data were obtained with the 6-m telescope and Zeiss-1000 telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory. The light curves show sinusoidal brightness variations with the orbital-period time scale and brightness-variation amplitudes of Δ m = 1. m41, 1. m62, and 1. m57 in the B, V, and R bands, respectively. The system's spectrum exhibits weak HI (H β-H δ) andHeII λλ4541, 4686, 5411 Å absorption lines during the phases of minimum brightness, as well as HI, HeII, CIII, CIV, NIII, and OII emission lines whose intensity variations are synchronized with variations of the integrated brightness of the system. The emission-line formation in the spectra can be fully explained by the effects of fluorescence of the ultraviolet light from the primary at the surface of the cool star. All the characteristics of the optical light of PN G068.1+11.0 confirm that it is a young PCV containing sdO subdwarf. The radial velocities were measured from a blend of lines of moderately light elements, CIII+NIII λ4640 Å, which is formed at the surface of the secondary due to reflection effects. The ephemeris of the system has been improved through a joint analysis of the radial-velocity curves and light curves of pre-cataclysmic variable, using modelling of the reflection effects. The fundamental parameters of PN G068.1+11.0 have been determined using two evolutionary tracks for planetary-nebula nuclei of different masses (0.7 M ⊙and 0.78 M ⊙). The model spectra for the system and a comparison with the observations demonstrate the possibility of refining the components' effective temperatures if the quality of the spectra used is improved.
Covariant amplitudes in Polyakov string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aoyama, H.; Dhar, A.; Namazie, M.A.
1986-01-01
A manifestly Lorentz-covariant and reparametrization-invariant procedure for computing string amplitudes using Polyakov's formulation is described. Both bosonic and superstring theories are dealt with. The computation of string amplitudes is greatly facilitated by this formalism. (orig.)
Grassmannian geometry of scattering amplitudes
Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cachazo, Freddy; Goncharov, Alexander; Postnikov, Alexander; Trnka, Jaroslav
2016-01-01
Outlining a revolutionary reformulation of the foundations of perturbative quantum field theory, this book is a self-contained and authoritative analysis of the application of this new formulation to the case of planar, maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory. The book begins by deriving connections between scattering amplitudes and Grassmannian geometry from first principles before introducing novel physical and mathematical ideas in a systematic manner accessible to both physicists and mathematicians. The principle players in this process are on-shell functions which are closely related to certain sub-strata of Grassmannian manifolds called positroids - in terms of which the classification of on-shell functions and their relations becomes combinatorially manifest. This is an essential introduction to the geometry and combinatorics of the positroid stratification of the Grassmannian and an ideal text for advanced students and researchers working in the areas of field theory, high energy physics, and the...
Determination of backward pion nucleon scattering amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pietarinen, E.
1978-04-01
Backward C(sup(+-))πN amplitudes are determined from πN→Nπ and NantiN→2π differential cross sections in such a way that they are consistent with the analyticity properties and information of the unphysical ππ→NantiN amplitudes. Combining the result with forward C(sup(+-)) amplitudes positive and negative parity resonances are extracted. An error analysis of the amplitudes is performed. (author)
In-Medium K^+ Electromagnetic Form Factor with a Symmetric Vertex in a Light Front Approach
Yabusaki, George H. S.; de Melo, J. P. B. C.; de Paula, Wayne; Tsushima, K.; Frederico, T.
2018-05-01
Using the light-front K^ +-Meson wave function based on a Bethe-Salpeter amplitude model for the Quark-Antiquark bound state, we study the Electromagnetic Form Factor (EMFF) of the K^ +-Meson in nuclear medium within the framework of light-front field theory. The K^ +-Meson model we adopt is well constrained by previous and recent studies to explain its properties in vacuum. The in-medium K^ +-Meson EMFF is evaluated for the plus-component of the electromagnetic current, J^+, in the Breit frame. In order to consistently incorporate the constituent up and antistrange Quarks of the K^ +-Meson immersed in symmetric nuclear matter, we use the Quark-Meson coupling model, which has been widely applied to various hadronic and nuclear phenomena in a nuclear medium with success. We predict the in-medium modification of the K^ +-Meson EMFF in symmetric nuclear matter. It is found that, after a fine tuning of the regulator mass, i.e. m_R = 0.600 GeV, the model is suitable to fit the available experimental data in vacuum within the theoretical uncertainties, and based on this we predict the in-medium modification of the K^ +-Meson EMFF.
Role of pn-pairs interaction in nuclear structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nie, G.K.
2004-01-01
Full text: The nuclear structure approach is based on theory of interaction of pn-pairs with suggestion that proton and neutron of one pair have the same nuclear potential. In frame of this model nuclei with N=Z were analyzed in [1,2]. In [1] radii of position of last proton were estimated on difference of proton and neutron separation energies. In [2] a phenomenological formula for calculation of binding energy of alpha- cluster nuclei was found. Present work is devoted to developing the nuclear structure model. Coulomb energy of nuclei with N=Z has been found from sum of differences of separation energies of protons and neutrons belonging to one pairs. From analysis of nuclei 12 C and 16 O the value of energy of Coulomb repulsion between 2 α -clusters has been estimated equal to ε C α =1.925 MeV [3], which means that value of nuclear (meson) interaction between 2 α -clusters is expected to be ε m αα = ε cov αα + ε C α =4.350 MeV. From suggestion that energy of long range Coulomb repulsion is compensated by surface tension energy an equation has been found to calculate radius of position of last proton on value of Z. Charge radii of nuclei from 58 Ni to 208 Bi and further have been calculated with difference from experimental ones in several hundredths of fm. In the approach binding energy of excess neutrons stays beyond the consideration. Therefore, in calculation of binding energies of nuclei the experimental values of separation energies of excess neutrons are used. There is a good agreement between calculated values of binding energies of some isotopes of all known elements as well as separation energies of alpha particle and deuteron and experimental data. The difference from experimental binding energy in most of the cases is about 0.5% and less
Imaging the p-n junction in a gallium nitride nanowire with a scanning microwave microscope
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Imtiaz, Atif [Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Department of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Wallis, Thomas M.; Brubaker, Matt D.; Blanchard, Paul T.; Bertness, Kris A.; Sanford, Norman A.; Kabos, Pavel, E-mail: kabos@boulder.nist.gov [Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Weber, Joel C. [Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Coakley, Kevin J. [Information Technology Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)
2014-06-30
We used a broadband, atomic-force-microscope-based, scanning microwave microscope (SMM) to probe the axial dependence of the charge depletion in a p-n junction within a gallium nitride nanowire (NW). SMM enables the visualization of the p-n junction location without the need to make patterned electrical contacts to the NW. Spatially resolved measurements of S{sub 11}{sup ′}, which is the derivative of the RF reflection coefficient S{sub 11} with respect to voltage, varied strongly when probing axially along the NW and across the p-n junction. The axial variation in S{sub 11}{sup ′} effectively mapped the asymmetric depletion arising from the doping concentrations on either side of the junction. Furthermore, variation of the probe tip voltage altered the apparent extent of features associated with the p-n junction in S{sub 11}{sup ′} images.
Evidence of mesoniums in anti pn annihilations and γγ reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, K.F.; Li, B.A.
1987-01-01
A new resonance at 1480 MeV with a width of 110 MeV is found in anti pn annihilations in the channel anti pn → π - X 0 (1480) → π - ρ 0 ρ 0 . Its mass, width and spin-parity are shown to be consistent with the ρ 0 ρ 0 enhancement observed in γγ reactions. Together with the suppression in the γγ → ρ + ρ - data which requires the admixture of an isotensor structure, this ρ 0 ρ 0 resonance in anti pn annihilation and γγ reactions and their small ππ branching ratios represent the best evidence yet for the Q 2 Q-bar 2 nature of the mesoniums. A ρ - ρ - resonance in anti pn annihilations which would betray the exotic isotensor nature of the resonance is predicted. (author)
PnET-BGC: Modeling Biogeochemical Processes in a Northern Hardwood Forest Ecosystem
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This archived model product contains the directions, executables, and procedures for running PnET-BGC to recreate the results of: Gbondo-Tugbawa, S.S., C.T. Driscoll...
PnET-BGC: Modeling Biogeochemical Processes in a Northern Hardwood Forest Ecosystem
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This archived model product contains the directions, executables, and procedures for running PnET-BGC to recreate the results of: Gbondo-Tugbawa, S.S.,...
Positive Temperature Coefficient of Breakdown Voltage in 4H-SiC PN Junction Rectifiers
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Neudeck, Philip
1998-01-01
...-suited SiC polytype for power device implementation. This paper reports the first experimental measurements of stable positive temperature coefficient behavior observed in 4H-SiC pn junction rectifiers...
High-speed carrier-depletion silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulators with lateral PN junctions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Graham Trevor Reed
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents new experimental data from a lateral PN junction silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator. Efficiencies in the 1.4V.cm to 1.9V.cm range are demonstrated for drive voltages between 0V and 6V. High speed operation up to 52Gbit/s is also presented. The performance of the device which has its PN junction positioned in the centre of the waveguide is then compared to previously reported data from a lateral PN junction device with the junction self-aligned to the edge of the waveguide rib. An improvement in modulation efficiency is demonstrated when the junction is positioned in the centre of the waveguide. Finally we propose schemes for achieving high modulation efficiency whilst retaining self-aligned formation of the PN junction.
Homojunction p-n photodiodes based on As-doped single ZnO nanowire
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, H. D.; Zakirov, A. S.; Yuldashev, Sh. U.; Kang, T. W.; Ahn, C. W.; Yeo, Y. K.
2013-01-01
Photovoltaic device was successfully grown solely based on the single ZnO p-n homojunction nanowire. The ZnO nanowire p-n diode consists of an as-grown n-type segment and an in-situ arsenic doped p-type segment. This p-n homojunction acts as a good photovoltaic cell, producing a photocurrent almost 45 times larger than the dark current under reverse-biased condition. Our results demonstrate that present ZnO p-n homojunction nanowire can be used as a self-powered ultraviolet photodetector as well as a photovoltaic cell, which can also be used as an ultralow electrical power source for nano-scale electronic, optoelectronic, and medical devices
On P2 ⋄ Pn -supermagic labeling of edge corona product of cycle and path graph
Yulianto, R.; Martini, Titin S.
2018-04-01
A simple graph G = (V, E) admits a H-covering, where H is subgraph of G, if every edge in E belongs to a subgraph of G isomorphic to H. Graph G is H-magic if there is a total labeling f:V(G)\\cup E(G)\\to 1,2,\\ldots,|V(G)|+|E(G)|, such that each subgraph {H}{\\prime }=({V}{\\prime },{E}{\\prime }) of G isomorphic to H and satisfying f{({H}{\\prime })}=def{\\sum }\\upsilon \\in {V{\\prime }}f(\\upsilon )+{\\sum }e\\in {E{\\prime }}f(e)=m(f) where m(f) is a constant magic sum. Additionaly, G admits H-supermagic if f(V)=1,2,\\ldots,|V|. The edge corona {C}n \\diamond {P}n of Cn and Pn is defined as the graph obtained by taking one copy of Cn and n copies of Pn , and then joining two end-vertices of the i-th edge of Cn to every vertex in the i-th copy of Pn . This research aim is to find H-supermagic covering on an edge corona product of cycle and path graph {C}n \\diamond {P}n where H is {P}2 \\diamond {P}n. We use k-balanced multiset to solve our reserarch. Here, we find that an edge corona product of cycle and path graph {C}n \\diamond {P}n is {P}2 \\diamond {P}n supermagic for n > 3.
Murakoshi, Satoshi; Fukatsu, Kazuhiko; Omata, Jiro; Moriya, Tomoyuki; Noguchi, Midori; Saitoh, Daizoh; Koyama, Isamu
2011-07-01
Parenteral nutrition (PN) causes intestinal mucosal atrophy, gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) atrophy and dysfunction, leading to impaired mucosal immunity and increased susceptibility to infectious complications. Therefore, new PN formulations are needed to maintain mucosal immunity. Short-chain fatty acids have been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects on the intestinal mucosa. We examined the effects of adding butyric acid to PN on GALT lymphocyte numbers, phenotypes, mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels, and intestinal morphology in mice. Male Institute of Cancer Research mice (n = 103) were randomized to receive either standard PN (S-PN), butyric acid-supplemented PN (Bu-PN), or ad libitum chow (control) groups. The mice were fed these respective diets for 5 days. In experiment 1, cells were isolated from Peyer's patches (PPs) to determine lymphocyte numbers and phenotypes (αβTCR(+), γδTCR(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), B220(+) cells). IgA levels in small intestinal washings were also measured. In experiment 2, IgA levels in respiratory tract (bronchoalveolar and nasal) washings were measured. In experiment 3, small intestinal morphology was evaluated. Lymphocyte yields from PPs and small intestinal, bronchoalveolar, and nasal washing IgA levels were all significantly lower in the S-PN group than in the control group. Bu-PN moderately, but significantly, restored PP lymphocyte numbers, as well as intestinal and bronchoalveolar IgA levels, as compared with S-PN. Villous height and crypt depth in the small intestine were significantly decreased in the S-PN group vs the control group, however Bu-PN restored intestinal morphology. A new PN formula containing butyric acid is feasible and would ameliorate PN-induced impairment of mucosal immunity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skakun, E A; Klyucharev, A P; Rakivnenko, Yu N; Romanij, I A [AN Ukrainskoi SSR, Kiev. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskii Inst.
1975-01-01
Excitation functions of (pn)- and (p,2n)-reactions on /sup 110/-/sup 114/,/sup 116/Cd nuclei are measured in a range of incident proton energy up to 20 MeV. Experimental results are compared to calculated ones.
In-medium meson properties and screening correlators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bazavov, A; Karsch, F; Mukherjee, Swagato; Petreczky, P; Maezawa, Y
2014-01-01
We study spatial meson correlation functions consisting of strange quarks, strange and charm quarks and charm quarks in (2 + 1)-flavor QCD using the highly improved staggered quark action. We find that the in-medium modification of the meson correlators decreases with increasing charm quark content and decreasing size. In particular, we find strong in-medium modification of φ and D s meson correlators around the chiral transition temperature T c , while J/ψ and η c correlators show strong in-medium modification only at temperatures of 1.4T c .
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van Hemelryk, Annelies [Department of Urology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); De Meerleer, Gert; Ost, Piet [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Poelaert, Filip [Department of Urology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); De Gersem, Werner [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Decaestecker, Karel [Department of Urology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); De Visschere, Pieter [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Fonteyne, Valérie, E-mail: valerie.fonteyne@uzgent.be [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)
2016-10-01
Purpose: Improved outcome is reported after surgery or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) plus androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for patients with lymph node (LN) positive (N1) prostate cancer (PC). Surgical series have shown that pathologic (p)N1 PC does not behave the same in all patients. The aim of this study was to perform a matched-case analysis to compare the outcome of pN1 and pN0 PC after high-dose EBRT plus ADT. Methods and Materials: Radiation therapy up to 80 Gy was delivered to the prostate with a minimal dose of 45 Gy to the pelvis for pN1 patients. After matching, Kaplan-Meier statistics were used to compare the 5-year biochemical and clinical relapse-free survival (bRFS and cRFS), prostate cancer–specific survival (PCSS), and overall survival (OS). Acute and late rectal and urinary toxicity was evaluated. Results: Sixty-nine pN1 PC patients were matched 1:1 with pN0 PC patients. The median follow-up time was 60 months. The 5-year bRFS and cRFS for pN1 versus pN0 PC patients were 65% ± 7% versus 79% ± 5% (P=.08) and 70% ± 6% versus 83% ± 5% (P=.04) respectively. No significant difference was found in bRFS or cRFS rates between low volume pN1 (≤2 positive LNs) and pN0 patients. The 5-year PCSS and OS were comparable between pN1 and pN0 PC patients: PCSS: 92% ± 4% versus 93% ± 3% (P=.66); OS: 82% ± 5% versus 80% ± 5% (P=.58). Severe toxicity was rare for both groups, although pN1 patients experienced significantly more acute grade 2 rectal toxicity. Conclusion: Primary EBRT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT is a legitimate treatment option for pN1 PC patients, especially those with ≤2 positive LNs, and this with bRFS and cRFS rates comparable to those in pN0 PC patients. For pN1 PC patients with >2 positive LNs, bRFS and cRFS are worse than in pN0 patients, but even in this subgroup, long-term disease control is obtained.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Hemelryk, Annelies; De Meerleer, Gert; Ost, Piet; Poelaert, Filip; De Gersem, Werner; Decaestecker, Karel; De Visschere, Pieter; Fonteyne, Valérie
2016-01-01
Purpose: Improved outcome is reported after surgery or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) plus androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for patients with lymph node (LN) positive (N1) prostate cancer (PC). Surgical series have shown that pathologic (p)N1 PC does not behave the same in all patients. The aim of this study was to perform a matched-case analysis to compare the outcome of pN1 and pN0 PC after high-dose EBRT plus ADT. Methods and Materials: Radiation therapy up to 80 Gy was delivered to the prostate with a minimal dose of 45 Gy to the pelvis for pN1 patients. After matching, Kaplan-Meier statistics were used to compare the 5-year biochemical and clinical relapse-free survival (bRFS and cRFS), prostate cancer–specific survival (PCSS), and overall survival (OS). Acute and late rectal and urinary toxicity was evaluated. Results: Sixty-nine pN1 PC patients were matched 1:1 with pN0 PC patients. The median follow-up time was 60 months. The 5-year bRFS and cRFS for pN1 versus pN0 PC patients were 65% ± 7% versus 79% ± 5% (P=.08) and 70% ± 6% versus 83% ± 5% (P=.04) respectively. No significant difference was found in bRFS or cRFS rates between low volume pN1 (≤2 positive LNs) and pN0 patients. The 5-year PCSS and OS were comparable between pN1 and pN0 PC patients: PCSS: 92% ± 4% versus 93% ± 3% (P=.66); OS: 82% ± 5% versus 80% ± 5% (P=.58). Severe toxicity was rare for both groups, although pN1 patients experienced significantly more acute grade 2 rectal toxicity. Conclusion: Primary EBRT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT is a legitimate treatment option for pN1 PC patients, especially those with ≤2 positive LNs, and this with bRFS and cRFS rates comparable to those in pN0 PC patients. For pN1 PC patients with >2 positive LNs, bRFS and cRFS are worse than in pN0 patients, but even in this subgroup, long-term disease control is obtained.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yi [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Delaware, 304A Drake Hall, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Suen, Nian-Tzu [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Delaware, 304A Drake Hall, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Kunene, Thabiso; Stoyko, Stanislav [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Delaware, 304A Drake Hall, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Bobev, Svilen, E-mail: bobev@udel.edu [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Delaware, 304A Drake Hall, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)
2017-05-15
15 new quaternary Zintl phases have been synthesized by solid-state reactions from the respective elements, and their structures have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Na{sub 3}E{sub 3}TrPn{sub 4} (E=Ca, Sr, Eu; Tr=Al, Ga, In; Pn=P, As, Sb) crystallize in the hexagonal crystal system with the non-centrosymmetric space group P6{sub 3}mc (No. 186). The structure represents a variant of the K{sub 6}HgS{sub 4} structure type (Pearson index hP22) and features [TrPn{sub 4}]{sup 9–} tetrahedral units, surrounded by Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, Eu{sup 2+} cations. The nominal formula rationalization [Na{sup +}]{sub 3}[E{sup 2+}]{sub 3}[TrPn{sub 4}]{sup 9–} follows the octet rule, suggesting closed-shell configurations for all atoms and intrinsic semiconducting behavior. However, structure refinements for several members hint at disorder and mixing of cations that potentially counteract the optimal valence electron count. - Graphical abstract: The hexagonal, non-centrosymmetric structure of Na{sub 3}E{sub 3}TrPn{sub 4} (E=Ca, Sr, Eu; Tr=Al, Ga, In; Pn=P, As, Sb) features [TrPn{sub 4}]{sup 9–} tetrahedral units, surrounded by Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, Eu{sup 2+} cations. - Highlights: • 15 quaternary phosphides, arsenides, and antimonides are synthesized and structurally characterized. • The structure is a variant of the hexagonal K{sub 6}HgS{sub 4}-type, with distinctive pattern for the cations. • Occupational and/or positional disorder of yet unknown origin exists for some members of the series.
On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foda, O.
1987-01-01
Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are not terms in the perturbative expansion of physical S-matrix elements: These can be defined only with massless external states. Consistent massive amplitudes repuire an off-shell formalism. (orig.)
On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Foda, O.
1987-06-04
Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are not terms in the perturbative expansion of physical S-matrix elements: These can be defined only with massless external states. Consistent massive amplitudes repuire an off-shell formalism.
New relations for graviton-matter amplitudes
CERN. Geneva
2018-01-01
I report on recent progress in finding compact expressions for scattering amplitudes involving gravitons and gluons as well as massive scalar and fermionic matter particles. At tree level the single graviton emission amplitudes may be expressed as linear combination of purely non-gravitational ones. At the one-loop level recent results on all four point Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitudes with at most one opposite helicity state using unitarity methods are reported.
Analytical properties of multiple production amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Medvedev, B V; Pavlov, V P; Polivanov, M K; Sukhanov, A D [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental' noj Fiziki; AN SSSR, Moscow. Matematicheskij Inst.)
1984-05-01
Local analytical properties of amplitudes 2..-->..3 and 2..-->..4 are studied. The amplitudes are shown to be analytical functions of total and partial energies at fixed momentum transfers in the neighbourhood of any physical point on the energy shell 14 (for the 2..-->..3 case) and 242 (for the 2..-->..4 case) boundary values are expressed through the amplitudes of real processes.
DVCS amplitude with kinematical twist-3 terms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radyushkin, A.V.; Weiss, C.
2000-01-01
The authors compute the amplitude of deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) using the calculus of QCD string operators in coordinate representation. To restore the electromagnetic gauge invariance (transversality) of the twist-2 amplitude they include the operators of twist-3 which appear as total derivatives of twist-2 operators. The results are equivalent to a Wandzura-Wilczek approximation for twist-3 skewed parton distributions. They find that this approximation gives a finite result for the amplitude of a longitudinally polarized virtual photon, while the amplitude for transverse polarization is divergent, i.e., factorization breaks down in this term
Amplitude structure of off-shell processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fearing, H.W.; Goldstein, G.R.; Moravcsik, M.J.
1984-01-01
The structure of M matrices, or scattering amplitudes, and of potentials for off-shell processes is discussed with the objective of determining how one can obtain information on off-shell amplitudes of a process in terms of the physical observables of a larger process in which the first process is embedded. The procedure found is inevitably model dependent, but within a particular model for embedding, a determination of the physically measurable amplitudes of the larger process is able to yield a determination of the off-shell amplitudes of the embedded process
pnCCD for photon detection from near-infrared to X-rays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meidinger, Norbert; Andritschke, Robert; Hartmann, Robert; Herrmann, Sven; Holl, Peter; Lutz, Gerhard; Strueder, Lothar
2006-01-01
A pnCCD is a special type of charge-coupled device developed for spectroscopy and imaging of X-rays with high time resolution and quantum efficiency. Its most famous application is the operation on the XMM-Newton satellite, an X-ray astronomy mission that was launched by the European space agency in 1999. The excellent performance of the focal plane camera has been maintained for more than 6 years in orbit. The energy resolution in particular has shown hardly any degradation since launch. In order to satisfy the requirements of future X-ray astronomy missions as well as those of ground-based experiments, a new type of pnCCD has been developed. This 'frame-store pnCCD' shows an enhanced performance compared to the XMM-Newton type of pnCCD. Now, more options in device design and operation are available to tailor the detector to its respective application. Part of this concept is a programmable analog signal processor, which has been developed for the readout of the CCD signals. The electronic noise of the new detector has a value of only 2 electrons equivalent noise charge (ENC), which is less than half of the figure achieved for the XMM-Newton-type pnCCD. The energy resolution for the Mn-K α line at 5.9 keV is approximately 130 eV FWHM. We have close to 100% quantum efficiency for both low- and high-energy photon detection (e.g. the C-K line at 277 eV, and the Ge-K α line at 10 keV, respectively). Very high frame rates of 1000 images/s have been achieved due to the ultra-fast readout accomplished by the parallel architecture of the pnCCD and the analog signal processor. Excellent spectroscopic performance is shown even at the relatively high operating temperature of -25 deg. C that can be achieved by a Peltier cooler. The applications of the low-noise and fast pnCCD detector are not limited to the detection of X-rays. With an anti-reflective coating deposited on the photon entrance window, we achieve high quantum efficiency also for near-infrared and optical
Bootstrap inversion for Pn wave velocity in North-Western Italy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Eva
1997-06-01
Full Text Available An inversion of Pn arrival times from regional distance earthquakes (180-800 km, recorded by 94 seismic stations operating in North-Western Italy and surrounding areas, was carried out to image lateral variations of P-wave velocity at the crust-mantle boundary, and to estimate the static delay time at each station. The reliability of the obtained results was assessed using both synthetic tests and the bootstrap Monte Carlo resampling technique. Numerical simulations demonstrated the existence of a trade-off between cell velocities and estimated station delay times along the edge of the model. Bootstrap inversions were carried out to determine the standard deviation of velocities and time terms. Low Pn velocity anomalies are detected beneath the outer side of the Alps (-6% and the Western Po plain (-4% in correspondence with two regions of strong crustal thickening and negative Bouguer anomaly. In contrast, high Pn velocities are imaged beneath the inner side of the Alps (+4% indicating the presence of high velocity and density lower crust-upper mantle. The Ligurian sea shows high Pn velocities close to the Ligurian coastlines (+3% and low Pn velocities (-1.5% in the middle of the basin in agreement with the upper mantle velocity structure revealed by seismic refraction profiles.
Ternary CaCu4P2-type pnictides AAg4Pn2 (A=Sr, Eu; Pn=As, Sb)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoyko, Stanislav S.; Khatun, Mansura; Scott Mullen, C.; Mar, Arthur
2012-01-01
Four ternary pnictides AAg 4 Pn 2 (A=Sr, Eu; Pn=As, Sb) were prepared by reactions of the elements at 850 °C and their crystal structures were determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. These silver-containing pnictides AAg 4 Pn 2 adopt the trigonal CaCu 4 P 2 -type structure (Pearson symbol hR21, space group R3-bar m, Z=3; a=4.5555(6) Å, c=24.041(3) Å for SrAg 4 As 2 ; a=4.5352(2) Å, c=23.7221(11) Å for EuAg 4 As 2 ; a=4.7404(4) Å, c=25.029(2) Å for SrAg 4 Sb 2 ; a=4.7239(3) Å, c=24.689(2) Å for EuAg 4 Sb 2 ), which can be derived from the trigonal CaAl 2 Si 2 -type structure of the isoelectronic zinc-containing pnictides AZn 2 Pn 2 by insertion of additional Ag atoms into trigonal planar sites within [M 2 Pn 2 ] 2− slabs built up of edge-sharing tetrahedra. Band structure calculations on SrAg 4 As 2 and SrAg 4 Sb 2 revealed that these charge-balanced Zintl phases actually exhibit no gap at the Fermi level and are predicted to be semimetals. - Graphical abstract: SrAg 4 As 2 and related pnictides adopt a CaCu 4 P 2 -type structure in which additional Ag atoms enter trigonal planar sites within slabs built from edge-sharing tetrahedra. Highlights: ► AAg 4 Pn 2 are the first Ag-containing members of the CaCu 4 P 2 -type structure. ► Ag atoms are stuffed in trigonal planar sites within CaAl 2 Si 2 -type slabs. ► Ag–Ag bonding develops through attractive d 10 –d 10 interactions.
Ternary CaCu{sub 4}P{sub 2}-type pnictides AAg{sub 4}Pn{sub 2} (A=Sr, Eu; Pn=As, Sb)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stoyko, Stanislav S.; Khatun, Mansura; Scott Mullen, C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G2 (Canada); Mar, Arthur, E-mail: arthur.mar@ualberta.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G2 (Canada)
2012-08-15
Four ternary pnictides AAg{sub 4}Pn{sub 2} (A=Sr, Eu; Pn=As, Sb) were prepared by reactions of the elements at 850 Degree-Sign C and their crystal structures were determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. These silver-containing pnictides AAg{sub 4}Pn{sub 2} adopt the trigonal CaCu{sub 4}P{sub 2}-type structure (Pearson symbol hR21, space group R3-bar m, Z=3; a=4.5555(6) A, c=24.041(3) A for SrAg{sub 4}As{sub 2}; a=4.5352(2) A, c=23.7221(11) A for EuAg{sub 4}As{sub 2}; a=4.7404(4) A, c=25.029(2) A for SrAg{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}; a=4.7239(3) A, c=24.689(2) A for EuAg{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}), which can be derived from the trigonal CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type structure of the isoelectronic zinc-containing pnictides AZn{sub 2}Pn{sub 2} by insertion of additional Ag atoms into trigonal planar sites within [M{sub 2}Pn{sub 2}]{sup 2-} slabs built up of edge-sharing tetrahedra. Band structure calculations on SrAg{sub 4}As{sub 2} and SrAg{sub 4}Sb{sub 2} revealed that these charge-balanced Zintl phases actually exhibit no gap at the Fermi level and are predicted to be semimetals. - Graphical abstract: SrAg{sub 4}As{sub 2} and related pnictides adopt a CaCu{sub 4}P{sub 2}-type structure in which additional Ag atoms enter trigonal planar sites within slabs built from edge-sharing tetrahedra. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AAg{sub 4}Pn{sub 2} are the first Ag-containing members of the CaCu{sub 4}P{sub 2}-type structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag atoms are stuffed in trigonal planar sites within CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type slabs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag-Ag bonding develops through attractive d{sup 10}-d{sup 10} interactions.
Automation of loop amplitudes in numerical approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujimoto, J.; Ishikawa, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Kato, K.; Nakazawa, N.; Kaneko, T.
1997-01-01
An automatic calculating system GRACE-L1 of one-loop Feynman amplitude is reviewed. This system can be applied to 2 to 2-body one-loop processes. A sample calculation of 2 to 3-body one-loop amplitudes is also presented. (orig.)
On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes
Foda, O.
1987-01-01
Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are
Scattering Amplitudes via Algebraic Geometry Methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Søgaard, Mads
Feynman diagrams. The study of multiloop scattering amplitudes is crucial for the new era of precision phenomenology at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Loop-level scattering amplitudes can be reduced to a basis of linearly independent integrals whose coefficients are extracted from generalized...
Full amplitude models of 15 day Cepheids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cogan, B.C.; Cox, A.N.; King, D.S.
1980-01-01
Numerical models of Cepheids have been computed with a range of effective temperatures and compositions. The amplitudes increase if the helium abundance increases or if the effective temperature decreases. The latter effect is contrary to observational data. The models also exhibit velocity amplitudes which are much lower than those observed
Helicity amplitudes for matter-coupled gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aldrovandi, R.; Novaes, S.F.; Spehler, D.
1992-07-01
The Weyl-van der Waerden spinor formalism is applied to the evaluation of helicity invariant amplitudes in the framework of linearized gravitation. The graviton couplings to spin-0, 1 - 2 , 1, and 3 - 2 particles are given, and, to exhibit the reach of this method, the helicity amplitudes for the process electron + positron → photon + graviton are obtained. (author)
New relations for gauge-theory amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bern, Z.; Carrasco, J. J. M.; Johansson, H.
2008-01-01
We present an identity satisfied by the kinematic factors of diagrams describing the tree amplitudes of massless gauge theories. This identity is a kinematic analog of the Jacobi identity for color factors. Using this we find new relations between color-ordered partial amplitudes. We discuss applications to multiloop calculations via the unitarity method. In particular, we illustrate the relations between different contributions to a two-loop four-point QCD amplitude. We also use this identity to reorganize gravity tree amplitudes diagram by diagram, offering new insight into the structure of the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye (KLT) relations between gauge and gravity tree amplitudes. This insight leads to similar but novel relations. We expect this to be helpful in higher-loop studies of the ultraviolet properties of gravity theories.
The ZnO p-n homojunctions modulated by ZnMgO barriers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Jing-Jing; Fang, Qing-Qing; Wang, Dan-Dan; Du, Wen-Han
2015-01-01
In this paper, we fabricated the ultrathin ZnO p-n homojunctions, which modulated by ZnMgO asymmetrical double barriers (ADB). The ADB p-n homojunctions displays step-like curve in the absorption spectrums, this is the first time that quantum confinement effect has been observed in the absorption spectrums at room temperature (RT). The Hall-effect data confirm there is 2-dimensional electron gas in the interface of the ZnMgO ADB p-n junctions. The quantum confinement effect enhances the hall-mobility μ to 10 3 cm 2 V −1 s −1 based on the polarity of the films. There was no rectification property in the ZnO homojunctions with thickness of 250nm, however, when the ADB was added in the n-type layer of the homojunctions, it displays a typical Zener diode rectification property in the I-V curve
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nowak, Roland; Moraru, Daniel; Mizuno, Takeshi; Jablonski, Ryszard; Tabe, Michiharu
2014-01-01
Nanoscale pn junctions have been investigated by Kelvin probe force microscopy and several particular features were found. Within the depletion region, a localized noise area is observed, induced by temporal fluctuations of dopant states. Electronic potential landscape is significantly affected by dopants with ground-state energies deeper than in bulk. Finally, the effects of light illumination were studied and it was found that the depletion region shifts its position as a function of light intensity. This is ascribed to charge redistribution within the pn junction as a result of photovoltaic effect and due to the impact of deepened-level dopants. - Highlights: • In pn nano-junctions, temporal potential fluctuations are found in depletion layer. • Fluctuations are due to frequent capture and emission of free carriers by dopants. • Depletion layer position shifts as a function of the intensity of irradiated light. • The depletion layer shifts are due to changes of deep-level dopants' charge states
Dynamic SPECT of the brain using a lipophilic technetium-99m complex, PnAO
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holm, S; Andersen, A R; Vorstrup, S
1985-01-01
m PnAO was injected i.v. as a bolus of 15 to 25 mCi. The distribution was followed over 10-sec intervals using a highly sensitive, rapidly rotating SPECT (Tomomatic 64) and compared to 133Xe flow maps. Upon arrival of the PnAO bolus to the brain, a high uptake was found in brain tissue with high......The lipophilic 99mTc-labeled oxime propylene amine oxime (PnAO) should, according to recent reports behave like 133Xe in the human brain. This study compares SPECT images of the two tracers in six subjects: four stroke cases, one transitory ischemic attack case and one normal subject. Technetium-99......AO has a high yet incomplete brain extraction yielding a flow dominated initial distribution with limitations mentioned....
Two-dimensional dopant profiling of gallium nitride p-n junctions by scanning capacitance microscopy
Lamhamdi, M.; Cayrel, F.; Frayssinet, E.; Bazin, A. E.; Yvon, A.; Collard, E.; Cordier, Y.; Alquier, D.
2016-04-01
Two-dimensional imaging of dopant profiles for n and p-type regions are relevant for the development of new power semiconductors, especially for gallium nitride (GaN) for which classical profiling techniques are not adapted. This is a challenging task since it needs a technique with simultaneously good sensitivity, high spatial resolution and high dopant gradient resolution. To face these challenges, scanning capacitance microscopy combined with Atomic Force Microscopy is a good candidate, presenting reproducible results, as demonstrated in literature. In this work, we attempt to distinguish reliably and qualitatively the various doping concentrations and type at p-n and unipolar junctions. For both p-n and unipolar junctions three kinds of samples were prepared and measured separately. The space-charge region of the p-n metallurgical junction, giving rise to different contrasts under SCM imaging, is clearly observed, enlightening the interest of the SCM technique.
Epitaxial Growth of an Organic p-n Heterojunction: C60 on Single-Crystal Pentacene.
Nakayama, Yasuo; Mizuno, Yuta; Hosokai, Takuya; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Tsuruta, Ryohei; Hinderhofer, Alexander; Gerlach, Alexander; Broch, Katharina; Belova, Valentina; Frank, Heiko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Niederhausen, Jens; Glowatzki, Hendrik; Rabe, Jürgen P; Koch, Norbert; Ishii, Hisao; Schreiber, Frank; Ueno, Nobuo
2016-06-01
Designing molecular p-n heterojunction structures, i.e., electron donor-acceptor contacts, is one of the central challenges for further development of organic electronic devices. In the present study, a well-defined p-n heterojunction of two representative molecular semiconductors, pentacene and C60, formed on the single-crystal surface of pentacene is precisely investigated in terms of its growth behavior and crystallographic structure. C60 assembles into a (111)-oriented face-centered-cubic crystal structure with a specific epitaxial orientation on the (001) surface of the pentacene single crystal. The present experimental findings provide molecular scale insights into the formation mechanisms of the organic p-n heterojunction through an accurate structural analysis of the single-crystalline molecular contact.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reshak, A.H.
2016-01-01
The full potential method within the recently modified Becke-Johnson potential explore that the Ba 2 Cd 2 Pn 3 (Pn = As and Sb) compounds are narrow band gap semiconductors of about 0.49 and 0.32 eV, which confute the finding of the previous TB-LMTO-ASA calculation that Ba 2 Cd 2 Sb 3 is a poor metal. It has been found that there are subtle difference in band desperations of the two compounds, resulting in significant influence on the electronic and transport properties, taking into account the size and the electro-negativity differences between As and Sb atoms. Calculation show that there exists a strong hybridization between the orbitals which may lead to form covalent bonding which is more favorable for the transport of the carriers than ionic one. The electronic structure, the anisotropy and the inter-atomic interactions are further analyzed by calculating the valence electronic charge density distribution in two crystallographic planes. The semi-classical Boltzmann theory as incorporated in BoltzTraP code was used to calculate the transport properties of Ba 2 Cd 2 As 3 and Ba 2 Cd 2 Sb 3 at different temperatures and chemical potentials to ascertain the influence of temperatures and substituting As by Sb on the transport properties. The carries mobility decreases with increasing the temperature also with increasing the carriers concentration. We have observed that substituting As by Sb lead to increase the carries mobility of Ba 2 Cd 2 Sb 3 along the whole temperature interval and the carries concentration range. It has been found that Ba 2 Cd 2 As 3 exhibit higher carriers concentration, electronic electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient than that of Ba 2 Cd 2 Sb 3 along the investigated temperature range. The highest value of Seebeck coefficient occurs at 300 K, which show good agreement with the experimental data. The power factor increases linearly with increasing the temperature and Ba 2 Cd 2 As 3 exhibit a bit higher power factor than that of Ba
New Pn and Sn tomographic images of the uppermost mantle beneath the Mediterranean region
Gil, A.; Díaz, J.; Gallart, J.
2012-04-01
We present here new images of the seismic velocity and anisotropy variations in the uppermost mantle beneath the Mediterranean region, compiled from inversion of Pn and Sn phases. The method of Hearn (1996) has been applied to Pn and Sn lectures from the catalogs of the International Seismological Center and the Spanish Instituto Geografico Nacional. A total of 1,172,293 Pn arrivals coming from 16,527 earthquakes recorded at 1,657 stations with epicentral distances between 220 km and 1400 km have been retained (331,567 arrivals from 15,487events at 961 stations for Sn). Our results, grossly consistent with available 3D tomography images, show significant features well correlated with surface geology. The Pn velocities are high (>8.2 km/s) beneath major sedimentary basins (western Alboran Sea, Valencia Trough, Adriatic Sea, Aquitaine, Guadalquivir, Rharb, Aquitaine and Po basins), and low (Islands, probably related to a thermal anomaly associated to the westward displacement of the Alboran block along the Emile Baudot escarpment 16 Ma ago. The Pn anisotropic image shows consistent orientations sub-parallel to major orogenic structures, such as Betics, Apennines, Calabrian Arc and Alps. The station delays beneath Betic and Rif ranges are strongly negative, suggesting the presence of crustal thickening all along the Gibraltar Arc. However, only the Betics have a very strong low-velocity anomaly and a pronounced anisotropy pattern. The Sn tomographic image correlates well with the Pn image, even if some relevant differences can be observed beneath particular regions.
Characterization of a pnCCD for applications with synchrotron radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Send, S., E-mail: send@physik.uni-siegen.de [University of Siegen, Department of Physics, Walter-Flex-Straße 3, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Abboud, A. [University of Siegen, Department of Physics, Walter-Flex-Straße 3, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Hartmann, R.; Huth, M. [PNSensor GmbH, Römerstraße 28, 80803 München (Germany); Leitenberger, W. [University of Potsdam, Department of Physics, Karl-Liebknecht-Straße 24/25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Pashniak, N. [University of Siegen, Department of Physics, Walter-Flex-Straße 3, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Schmidt, J. [PNSensor GmbH, Römerstraße 28, 80803 München (Germany); Strüder, L. [University of Siegen, Department of Physics, Walter-Flex-Straße 3, 57068 Siegen (Germany); PNSensor GmbH, Römerstraße 28, 80803 München (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße, 85748 Garching (Germany); Pietsch, U. [University of Siegen, Department of Physics, Walter-Flex-Straße 3, 57068 Siegen (Germany)
2013-05-21
In this work we study the response of a pnCCD by means of X-ray spectroscopy in the energy range between 6 keV and 20 keV and by Laue diffraction techniques. The analyses include measurements of characteristic detector parameters like energy resolution, count rate capability and effects of different gain settings. The limit of a single photon counting operation in white beam X-ray diffraction experiments is discussed with regard to the occurrence of pile-up events, for which the energy information about individual photons is lost. In case of monochromatic illumination the pnCCD can be used as a fast conventional CCD with a charge handling capacity (CHC) of about 300,000 electrons per pixel. If the CHC is exceeded, any surplus charge will spill to neighboring pixels perpendicular to the transfer direction due to electrostatic repulsion. The possibilities of increasing the number of storable electrons are investigated for different voltage settings by exposing a single pixel with X-rays generated by a microfocus X-ray source. The pixel binning mode is tested as an alternative approach that enables a pnCCD operation with significantly shorter readout times. -- Highlights: ► The pnCCD acts as a four-dimensional detector for white X-rays. ► Its performance for applications with synchrotron radiation is investigated. ► The pnCCD can be used for single photon counting and photon integration. ► The operation mode depends on the local frequencies of pile-up events. ► The pnCCD can be optimized for X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray imaging.
Theoretical study on pp → pnπ+ reaction at medium energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ouyang, Zhen; Xie, Jujun; Zou, Bingsong; Xu, Hushan
2009-01-01
The pp → pnπ + reaction is a channel with the largest total cross section for pp collision in COSY/CSR energy region. In this work, we investigate individual contributions from various N* and Δ* resonances with mass up to about 2 GeV for the pp → pnπ + reaction. We extend a resonance model, which can reproduce the observed total cross section quite well, to give theoretical predictions of various differential cross sections for the present reaction at T p = 2.88 GeV. It could serve as a reference for identifying new physics in the future experiments at HIRFL-CSR. (author)
Polarization transfer in (p,n) reactions at 495 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taddeucci, T.N.
1991-01-01
Polarization transfer observables have been measured with the NTOF facility at LAMPF for (p,n) reactions at 495 MeV. Measurements of the longitudinal polarization transfer parameter D LL for transitions to discrete states at 0 degrees show convincing evidence for tensor interaction effects. Complete sets of polarization transfer observables have been measured for quasifree (p,n) reactions on 2 H, 12 C, 40 Ca at a scattering angle of 18 degrees. These measurements show no evidence for an enhancement in the isovector spin longitudinal response. 19 refs., 10 figs
Visualizing the photovoltaic behavior of a type-II p-n heterojunction superstructure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xing, Juanjuan, E-mail: xingjuanjuan@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Electron Microscopy Group, Surface Physics and Structure Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Takeguchi, Masaki [Electron Microscopy Group, Surface Physics and Structure Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Hashimoto, Ayako [Electron Microscopy Group, Surface Physics and Structure Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Global Research Center for Environment and Energy Based on Nanomaterials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Cao, Junyu; Ye, Jinhua [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)
2014-04-21
Photovoltaic behavior of a CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} p-n multi-junction was investigated with electron holography combined with an in situ light irradiation system. Potential profiles of the samples with and without light irradiation were extracted to measure the open circuit photovoltage generated either by the whole heterojunction superstructure or from each p-n junction. Investigation on the variation in the energy band configuration under light irradiation revealed the mechanism involved in the photoelectric effect, with respect to the properties of the heterojunction and its periodic quantum structure.
Effects of strength training on mechanomyographic amplitude
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeFreitas, Jason M; Beck, Travis W; Stock, Matt S
2012-01-01
The aim of the present study was to determine if the patterns of mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude across force would change with strength training. Twenty-two healthy men completed an 8-week strength training program. During three separate testing visits (pre-test, week 4, and week 8), the MMG signal was detected from the vastus lateralis as the subjects performed isometric step muscle actions of the leg extensors from 10–100% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). During pre-testing, the MMG amplitude increased linearly with force to 66% MVC and then plateaued. Conversely, weeks 4 and 8 demonstrated an increase in MMG amplitude up to ∼85% of the subject's original MVC before plateauing. Furthermore, seven of the ten force levels (30–60% and 80–100%) showed a significant decrease in mean MMG amplitude values after training, which consequently led to a decrease in the slope of the MMG amplitude/force relationship. The decreases in MMG amplitude at lower force levels are indicative of hypertrophy, since fewer motor units would be required to produce the same absolute force if the motor units increased in size. However, despite the clear changes in the mean values, analyses of individual subjects revealed that only 55% of the subjects demonstrated a significant decrease in the slope of the MMG amplitude/force relationship. (paper)
Holographic corrections to meson scattering amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Armoni, Adi; Ireson, Edwin, E-mail: 746616@swansea.ac.uk
2017-06-15
We compute meson scattering amplitudes using the holographic duality between confining gauge theories and string theory, in order to consider holographic corrections to the Veneziano amplitude and associated higher-point functions. The generic nature of such computations is explained, thanks to the well-understood nature of confining string backgrounds, and two different examples of the calculation in given backgrounds are used to illustrate the details. The effect we discover, whilst only qualitative, is re-obtainable in many such examples, in four-point but also higher point amplitudes.
Amplitude-Mode Dynamics of Polariton Condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brierley, R. T.; Littlewood, P. B.; Eastham, P. R.
2011-01-01
We study the stability of collective amplitude excitations in nonequilibrium polariton condensates. These excitations correspond to renormalized upper polaritons and to the collective amplitude modes of atomic gases and superconductors. They would be present following a quantum quench or could be created directly by resonant excitation. We show that uniform amplitude excitations are unstable to the production of excitations at finite wave vectors, leading to the formation of density-modulated phases. The physical processes causing the instabilities can be understood by analogy to optical parametric oscillators and the atomic Bose supernova.
Hidden simplicity of gauge theory amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drummond, J M, E-mail: drummond@lapp.in2p3.f [LAPTH, Universite de Savoie, CNRS, B.P. 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux, Cedex (France)
2010-11-07
These notes were given as lectures at the CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings and Gauge Theory 2010. We describe the structure of scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, focussing on the maximally supersymmetric theory to highlight the hidden symmetries which appear. Using the Britto, Cachzo, Feng and Witten (BCFW) recursion relations we solve the tree-level S-matrix in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory and describe how it produces a sum of invariants of a large symmetry algebra. We review amplitudes in the planar theory beyond tree level, describing the connection between amplitudes and Wilson loops, and discuss the implications of the hidden symmetries.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharov, V.I.; Morozov, A.A.; Shindin, R.A.; Chernykh, E.V.; Nomofilov, A.A.; Strunov, L.N.
2008-01-01
In our previous paper, the new experimental results on ratio R dp of the quasi-elastic charge-exchange yield at 0 Lab d eg for the nd → p + (nn) reaction to the elastic np → pn charge-exchange yield, were presented. The measurements were carried out at the Nuclotron of the Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energies of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at the neutron beam kinetic energies of 0.55, 0.8, 1.0,1.2, 1.4, 1.8 and 2.0 GeV. In this paper, the comparison of these R dp data with the R dp calculations obtained within the impulse approximation by using the invariant amplitude sets from the GW/VPI phase-shift analysis, is made. The calculated R dp values with the set of invariant amplitude data for the elastic np → pn charge exchange at θ p,CM = 0 deg are in a good agreement with the experimental data. It has been confirmed that at θ p,CM = 0 deg the nd → pnn process is caused by the elastic np → pn charge-exchange reaction. Thus, it has been shown that the obtained experimental R dp results can be used for the Delta-Sigma experimental programme to reduce the total ambiguity in the extraction of the amplitude parts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng Shuguang
2010-01-01
Recent experiments have confirmed that the electron-hole inhomogeneity in graphene is a new type of charge disorder. Motivated by such confirmation, we theoretically study the transport properties of a monolayer graphene (MLG) based p-n junction and a bilayer graphene (BLG) p-n junction in the quantum Hall regime where electron-hole puddles are considered. By using the non-equilibrium Green function method, both the current and conductance are obtained. We find that, in the presence of the electron-hole inhomogeneity, the lowest quantized conductance plateau at e 2 /h emerges in the MLG p-n junction under very small charge puddle disorder strength. For a BLG p-n junction, however, the conductance in the p-n region is enhanced with charge puddles, and the lowest quantized conductance plateau emerges at 2e 2 /h. Besides, when an ideal quantized conductance plateau is formed for a MLG p-n junction, the universal conductance fluctuation is found to be 2e 2 /3h. Furthermore, we also investigate the influence of Anderson disorder on such p-n junctions and the comparison and discussion are given accordingly. To compare the two models with different types of disorder, we investigate the conductance distribution specially. Finally the influence of disorder strength on the conductance of a MLG p-n junction is investigated.
Analytic continuation of dual Feynman amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bleher, P.M.
1981-01-01
A notion of dual Feynman amplitude is introduced and a theorem on the existence of analytic continuation of this amplitude from the convergence domain to the whole complex is proved. The case under consideration corresponds to massless power propagators and the analytic continuation is constructed on the propagators powers. Analytic continuation poles and singular set of external impulses are found explicitly. The proof of the theorem on the existence of analytic continuation is based on the introduction of α-representation for dual Feynman amplitudes. In proving, the so-called ''trees formula'' and ''trees-with-cycles formula'' are established that are dual by formulation to the trees and 2-trees formulae for usual Feynman amplitudes. (Auth.)
Amplitude-Integrated EEG in the Newborn
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J Gordon Millichap
2008-11-01
Full Text Available Th value of amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG in the newborn is explored by researchers at Washington University, St Louis; Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital, Utrecht, Netherlands; and Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden.
Effective string theory and QCD scattering amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makeenko, Yuri
2011-01-01
QCD string is formed at distances larger than the confinement scale and can be described by the Polchinski-Strominger effective string theory with a nonpolynomial action, which has nevertheless a well-defined semiclassical expansion around a long-string ground state. We utilize modern ideas about the Wilson-loop/scattering-amplitude duality to calculate scattering amplitudes and show that the expansion parameter in the effective string theory is small in the Regge kinematical regime. For the amplitudes we obtain the Regge behavior with a linear trajectory of the intercept (d-2)/24 in d dimensions, which is computed semiclassically as a momentum-space Luescher term, and discuss an application to meson scattering amplitudes in QCD.
Scattering Amplitudes via Algebraic Geometry Methods
Søgaard, Mads; Damgaard, Poul Henrik
This thesis describes recent progress in the understanding of the mathematical structure of scattering amplitudes in quantum field theory. The primary purpose is to develop an enhanced analytic framework for computing multiloop scattering amplitudes in generic gauge theories including QCD without Feynman diagrams. The study of multiloop scattering amplitudes is crucial for the new era of precision phenomenology at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Loop-level scattering amplitudes can be reduced to a basis of linearly independent integrals whose coefficients are extracted from generalized unitarity cuts. We take advantage of principles from algebraic geometry in order to extend the notion of maximal cuts to a large class of two- and three-loop integrals. This allows us to derive unique and surprisingly compact formulae for the coefficients of the basis integrals. Our results are expressed in terms of certain linear combinations of multivariate residues and elliptic integrals computed from products of ...
Effective gluon interactions from superstring disk amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oprisa, D.
2006-05-15
In this thesis an efficient method for the calculation of the N-point tree-level string amplitudes is presented. Furthermore it is shown that the six-gluon open-superstring disk amplitude can be expressed by a basis of six triple hypergeometric functions, which encode the full {alpha}' dependence. In this connection material for obtaining the {alpha}' expansion of these functions is derived. Hereby many Euler-Zagier sums are calculated including multiple harmonic series. (HSI)
Effective gluon interactions from superstring disk amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oprisa, D.
2006-05-01
In this thesis an efficient method for the calculation of the N-point tree-level string amplitudes is presented. Furthermore it is shown that the six-gluon open-superstring disk amplitude can be expressed by a basis of six triple hypergeometric functions, which encode the full α' dependence. In this connection material for obtaining the α' expansion of these functions is derived. Hereby many Euler-Zagier sums are calculated including multiple harmonic series. (HSI)
Employing helicity amplitudes for resummation in SCET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Nikhef, Amsterdam
2016-05-01
Helicity amplitudes are the fundamental ingredients of many QCD calculations for multi-leg processes. We describe how these can seamlessly be combined with resummation in Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET), by constructing a helicity operator basis for which the Wilson coefficients are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. This basis is crossing symmetric and has simple transformation properties under discrete symmetries.
The amplitude of quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Medvedev, B.V.; Pavlov, V.P.; Polivanov, M.K.; Sukhanov, A.D.
1989-01-01
General properties of the transition amplitude in axiomatic quantum field theory are discussed. Bogolyubov's axiomatic method is chosen as the variant of the theory. The axioms of this method are analyzed. In particular, the significance of the off-shell extension and of the various forms of the causality condition are examined. A complete proof is given of the existence of a single analytic function whose boundary values are the amplitudes of all channels of a process with given particle number
The Cepheid bump progression and amplitude equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovacs, G.; Buchler, J.R.
1989-01-01
It is shown that the characteristic and systematic behavior of the low-order Fourier amplitudes and phases of hydrodynamically generated radial velocity and light curves of Cepheid model sequences is very well captured not only qualitatively but also quantitatively by the amplitude equation formalism. The 2:1 resonance between the fundamental and the second overtone plays an essential role in the behavior of the models 8 refs
Fokker-Planck-Rosenbluth-type equations for self-gravitating systems in the 1PN approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramos-Caro, Javier; Gonzalez, Guillermo A
2008-01-01
We present two formulations of Fokker-Planck-Rosenbluth-type (FPR) equations for many-particle self-gravitating systems, with first-order relativistic corrections in the post-Newtonian approach (1PN). The first starts from a covariant Fokker-Planck equation for a simple gas, introduced recently by Chacon-Acosta and Kremer (2007 Phys. Rev. E 76 021201). The second derivation is based on the establishment of an 1PN-BBGKY hierarchy, developed systematically from the 1PN microscopic law of force and using the Klimontovich-Dupree (KD) method. We close the hierarchy by the introduction of a two-point correlation function that describes adequately the relaxation process. This picture reveals an aspect that is not considered in the first formulation: the contribution of ternary correlation patterns to the diffusion coefficients, as a consequence of the nature of 1PN interaction. Both formulations can be considered as a generalization of the equation derived by Rezania and Sobouti (2000 Astron. Astrophys. 354 1110), to stellar systems where the relativistic effects of gravitation play a significant role
Hydrogenation of esters catalyzed by ruthenium PN3-Pincer complexes containing an aminophosphine arm
Chen, Tao
2014-08-11
Hydrogenation of esters under mild conditions was achieved using air-stable ruthenium PN3-pincer complexes containing an aminophosphine arm. High efficiency was achieved even in the presence of water. DFT studies suggest a bimolecular proton shuttle mechanism which allows H2 to be activated by the relatively stable catalyst with a reasonably low transition state barrier. © 2014 American Chemical Society.
Gamow-Teller matrix elements from 00 ( p,n) cross section
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goodman, C.D.; Goulding, C.A.; Greenfield, M.B.; Rapaport, J.; Bainum, D.E.; Foster, C.C.; Love, W.G.; Petrovich, F.
1980-01-01
After simple corrections for distortion effects, 120-MeV, 0 0 (p,n) cross sections are found to be proportional to the squares of the corresponding Fermi and Gamow-Teller matrix elements extracted from β-decay measurements. It is suggested that this proportionality can be used to extract Gamow-Teller matrix elements for transitions inaccessible to β decay
P-N semiconductor junctions used as X-ray detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pela, C.A.; Bruco, J.L.; Navas, E.A.; Paula, E. de; Guilardi Neto, T.
1987-01-01
The current response of some comercial P-N semiconductor junctions in function of X-ray incidency, in 40 to 140 KVp band used in diagnosis was characterized. Some junctions were also exposed to radiation of 80 to 250 KVp used in therapy. (C.G.C.) [pt
Characteristic features of silicon multijunction solar cells with vertical p-n junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guk, E.G.; Nalet, T.A.; Shvarts, M.Z.; Shuman, V.B.
1997-01-01
A relatively simple technology (without photolithography) based on diffusion welding and ion-plasma deposition of an insulating coating has been developed for fabricating multijunction silicon solar cells with vertical p-n junctions. The effective collection factor for such structures is independent of the wavelength of the incident light in the wavelength range λ=340-1080 nm
Sequences of measures on atomic subalgebras of P(N) | Aizpuru ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Sequences of measures on atomic subalgebras of P(N). Antonio Aizpuru, Antonio Gutierrez-D´avila. Abstract. A vector form of Phillips' theorem, for atomic Boolean algebras with countably many atoms, is given. As a consequence we obtain a new characterization of weak compact sets of σ-additive measures. Quaestiones ...
Photocurrent generation in lateral graphene p-n junction created by electron-beam irradiation
Yu, Xuechao
2015-07-08
Graphene has been considered as an attractive material for optoelectronic applications such as photodetectors owing to its extraordinary properties, e.g. broadband absorption and ultrahigh mobility. However, challenges still remain in fundamental and practical aspects of the conventional graphene photodetectors which normally rely on the photoconductive mode of operation which has the drawback of e.g. high dark current. Here, we demonstrated the photovoltaic mode operation in graphene p-n junctions fabricated by a simple but effective electron irradiation method that induces n-type doping in intrinsic p-type graphene. The physical mechanism of the junction formation is owing to the substrate gating effect caused by electron irradiation. Photoresponse was obtained for this type of photodetector because the photoexcited electron-hole pairs can be separated in the graphene p-n junction by the built-in potential. The fabricated graphene p-n junction photodetectors exhibit a high detectivity up to ~3 × 1010 Jones (cm Hz1/2 W−1) at room temperature, which is on a par with that of the traditional III–V photodetectors. The demonstrated novel and simple scheme for obtaining graphene p-n junctions can be used for other optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and be applied to other two dimensional materials based devices.
Iodine (p,n) and (d,2n) excitation function measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
West, H.I. Jr.; Nuckolls, R.M.; Mustafa, M.G.; Lanier, R.G.
1991-01-01
We have measured the nuclear excitation functions for the reactions 127 I (p,n) 127 Xe and 127 I(d,2n) 127 Xe. These results are being used in the interpretation of data obtained from nuclear test diagnostics. 15 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs
The PR in PN for Education Associations. PR Bookshelf, No. 3.
National Education Association, Washington, DC.
This booklet presents suggestions and guidelines for the effective use of public relations (PR) techniques during professional negotiations (PN) among teachers, administrators, and boards of education. Introductory sections present the National Education Association (NEA) position regarding professional negotiation and grievance procedures and…
The electronic structure of radial p-n junction silicon nanowires
Chiou, Shan-Haw; Grossman, Jeffrey
2007-03-01
Silicon nanowires with radial p-n junctions have recently been suggested for photovoltaic applications because incident light can be absorbed along the entire length of the wire, while photogenerated carriers only need to diffuse a maximum of one radius to reach the p-n junction. If the differential of the potential is larger than the binding energy of the electron-hole pair and has a range larger than the Bohr radius of electron-hole pair, then the charge separation mechanism will be similar to traditional silicon solar cells. However, in the small-diameter limit, where quantum confinement effects are prominent, both the exciton binding energy and the potential drop will increase, and the p-n junction itself may have a dramatically different character. We present ab initio calculations based on the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) of silicon nanowires with 2-3 nm diameter in the [111] growth direction. A radial p-n junction was formed by symmetrically doping boron and phosphorous at the same vertical level along the axis of the nanowire. The competition between the slope and character of the radial electronic potential and the exciton binding energy will presented in the context of a charge separation mechanism.
Photocurrent generation in lateral graphene p-n junction created by electron-beam irradiation
Yu, Xuechao; Shen, Youde; Liu, Tao; Wu, Tao; Jie Wang, Qi
2015-01-01
Graphene has been considered as an attractive material for optoelectronic applications such as photodetectors owing to its extraordinary properties, e.g. broadband absorption and ultrahigh mobility. However, challenges still remain in fundamental and practical aspects of the conventional graphene photodetectors which normally rely on the photoconductive mode of operation which has the drawback of e.g. high dark current. Here, we demonstrated the photovoltaic mode operation in graphene p-n junctions fabricated by a simple but effective electron irradiation method that induces n-type doping in intrinsic p-type graphene. The physical mechanism of the junction formation is owing to the substrate gating effect caused by electron irradiation. Photoresponse was obtained for this type of photodetector because the photoexcited electron-hole pairs can be separated in the graphene p-n junction by the built-in potential. The fabricated graphene p-n junction photodetectors exhibit a high detectivity up to ~3 × 1010 Jones (cm Hz1/2 W−1) at room temperature, which is on a par with that of the traditional III–V photodetectors. The demonstrated novel and simple scheme for obtaining graphene p-n junctions can be used for other optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and be applied to other two dimensional materials based devices.
Gamma rays from the 31P(n, γ)32P reaction
Middelkoop, G. van
1967-01-01
The 31P(n, γ)32P reaction is studied with a 5 cm3 Ge(Li) counter. Altogether, 54 γ-rays are detected with experimental energy errors between 0.4 and 3.0 keV. The Q-value of the reaction is determined as Q = 7936.8±0.8 keV.
The 2H(e, e' p)n reaction at large energy transfers
Willering, Hendrik Willem
2003-01-01
At the ELSA accelerator facillity in Bonn, Germany, we have measured the deutron "breakup" reaction 2H(e,e' p)n at four-momentum transfers around Q2 = -0 .20(GeV/c)2 with an electron beam energy of E0 = 1.6 GeV. The cross section has been determined for energy transfers extending from the
Effects of multiple substitution upon the P...N noncovalent interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scheiner, Steve
2011-01-01
Graphical abstract: The presence of one halogen opposite the N results in strong attraction between P and N. This force is little affected by identity of Y atoms, whether H or halogen. Highlights: → Strong attractive force directly between trivalent P and N atoms. → P...N force is unlike H-bonds or halogen bonds, but stronger than both. → Multiple halogenation beyond a single atom on P slightly weakens the interaction. - Abstract: The attractive noncovalent interaction of a P atom with N is derived primarily from two sources. Charge transfer from the N lone pair into the σ * antibonding orbital of a P-X bond that is turned away from the N atom combines with attractive Coulombic forces. As in the case of H-bonding, which is parallel in some ways to P...N attraction, placement of an electron-withdrawing substituent on the P atom enhances both of these components, and strengthens the overall interaction. However, in stark contrast with H-bonding, halogenation beyond monosubstitution does not lead to any further strengthening of the P...N noncovalent bond. Indeed, di and tri-substitution lead to small reductions in the interaction energy. In all cases, the geometry which contains a P...N bond is more stable than other candidate structures, some of which contain hydrogen or halogen bonds.
Measurement of rvec at signggd→pnπ0 at large nucleon momenta
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adams, G.S.; Baghaei, H.; Caracappa, A.; Clayton, W.; D'Angelo, A.; Hoblit, S.; Khandaker, M.; Kistner, O.C.; Kobayashi, T.; Lindgren, R.; Miceli, L.; Ruth, C.; Sandorfi, A.M.; Schaerf, C.; Sealock, R.M.; Smith, L.C.; Stoler, P.; Tedeschi, D.J.; Thorn, C.E.; Thornton, S.T.; Vaziri, K.; Whisnant, C.S.; Winhold, E.J.
1995-01-01
Coincident protons and neutrons from the reaction rvec at signggd→pnπ 0 were measured at a photon energy of 290 MeV. Cross sections and beam asymmetries were extracted for nucleon momenta above the quasifree region for the first time. The measured cross sections are compared with the results of a cascade Monte Carlo calculation
Two-dimensional non-volatile programmable p-n junctions
Li, Dong; Chen, Mingyuan; Sun, Zhengzong; Yu, Peng; Liu, Zheng; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Zhang, Zengxing
2017-09-01
Semiconductor p-n junctions are the elementary building blocks of most electronic and optoelectronic devices. The need for their miniaturization has fuelled the rapid growth of interest in two-dimensional (2D) materials. However, the performance of a p-n junction considerably degrades as its thickness approaches a few nanometres and traditional technologies, such as doping and implantation, become invalid at the nanoscale. Here we report stable non-volatile programmable p-n junctions fabricated from the vertically stacked all-2D semiconductor/insulator/metal layers (WSe2/hexagonal boron nitride/graphene) in a semifloating gate field-effect transistor configuration. The junction exhibits a good rectifying behaviour with a rectification ratio of 104 and photovoltaic properties with a power conversion efficiency up to 4.1% under a 6.8 nW light. Based on the non-volatile programmable properties controlled by gate voltages, the 2D p-n junctions have been exploited for various electronic and optoelectronic applications, such as memories, photovoltaics, logic rectifiers and logic optoelectronic circuits.
Field equipotentials of a fast-moving charge in medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strel'tsov, V.N.
1994-01-01
The Lienard-Wiechert field equipotentials of an uniformly moving charge in medium are presented. It is stressed that the obtained curves describe in fact the angular dependence if formation ways of the radiation. In particular, the Cherenkov radiation corresponds to the infinite formation way. 7 refs.; 1 fig. (author)
Lin, Y. Y.; Huang, B. S.; Ma, K. F.; Hsieh, M. C.
2015-12-01
We investigated travel times of Pn waves, which are of great important for understanding the Moho structure in Taiwan region. Although several high quality tomographic studies had been carried out, observations of Pn waves are still the most comprehensive way to elucidate the Moho structure. Mapping the Moho structure of Taiwan had been a challenging due to the small spatial dimension of Taiwan island with two subduction systems. To decipher the tectonic structure and understanding of earthquake hazard, the island of Taiwan have been implemented by several high density seismic stations, including 71 short-period stations of Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network (CWBSN) and 42 broardband stations of Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology (BATS). High quality seismic records of these stations would be used to identify precise Pn-wave arrival times. After station-elevation correction, we measure the difference between the observed and theoretical Pn arrivals from the IASPI 91 model for each station. For correcting uncertainties of earthquake location and origin time, we estimate relative Pn anomaly, ΔtPn , between each station and a reference station. The pattern of ΔtPn reflects the depth anomaly of Moho beneath Taiwan. In general, Pn waves are commonly observed from shallow earthquake at epicentral distance larger than 120 km. We search the global catalog since 2005 and the criteria are M > 5.5, focal depth 150 km. The 12 medium earthquakes from north Luzon are considered for analysis. We choose a station, TWKB, in the most southern point of Taiwan as the reference station due to that all events are from the south. The results indicate obvious different patterns of ΔtPn from different back-azimuths. The ΔtPn pattern of the events in the first group from the south south-east indicates that the Pn arrivals delay suddenly when the Pn waves pass through the Central Range, suggesting the Moho becomes deep rapidly. However, we cannot recognize the same pattern when
Spin effects in medium-energy electron-3He scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
van den Brand, J.F.J.; Alarcon, R.; Bauer, T.
1998-01-01
New physics can be accessed by scattering polarized electrons from a polarized 3 He internal gas target. It is discussed how the asymmetries for the reactions 3 vector He(vector e,e'), 3 vector He(vector e,e'p), 3 vector He(vector e,e'n), 3 vector He(vector e,e'd), and 3 vector He(vector e,e'pn) may provide precise information on the S' and the D-wave parts of the 3 He ground-state wave function, the neutron form factors, and the role of spin-dependent reaction mechanism effects. The experiment uses up to 900 MeV (polarized) electrons from the AmPS storage ring in Amsterdam, Netherlands, in combination with large acceptance electron and hadron detectors. (orig.)
Axial p-n junction and space charge limited current in single GaN nanowire
Fang, Zhihua; Donatini, Fabrice; Daudin, Bruno; Pernot, Julien
2018-01-01
The electrical characterizations of individual basic GaN nanostructures, such as axial nanowire (NW) p-n junctions, are becoming indispensable and crucial for the fully controlled realization of GaN NW based devices. In this study, electron beam induced current (EBIC) measurements were performed on two single axial GaN p-n junction NWs grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. I-V characteristics revealed that both ohmic and space charge limited current (SCLC) regimes occur in GaN p-n junction NW. Thanks to an improved contact process, both the electric field induced by the p-n junction and the SCLC in the p-part of GaN NW were disclosed and delineated by EBIC signals under different biases. Analyzing the EBIC profiles in the vicinity of the p-n junction under 0 V and reverse bias, we deduced a depletion width in the range of 116-125 nm. Following our previous work, the acceptor N a doping level was estimated to be 2-3 × 1017 at cm-3 assuming a donor level N d of 2-3 × 1018 at cm-3. The hole diffusion length in n-GaN was determined to be 75 nm for NW #1 and 43 nm for NW #2, demonstrating a low surface recombination velocity at the m-plane facet of n-GaN NW. Under forward bias, EBIC imaging visualized the electric field induced by the SCLC close to p-side contact, in agreement with unusual SCLC previously reported in GaN NWs.
Axial p-n junction and space charge limited current in single GaN nanowire.
Fang, Zhihua; Donatini, Fabrice; Daudin, Bruno; Pernot, Julien
2018-01-05
The electrical characterizations of individual basic GaN nanostructures, such as axial nanowire (NW) p-n junctions, are becoming indispensable and crucial for the fully controlled realization of GaN NW based devices. In this study, electron beam induced current (EBIC) measurements were performed on two single axial GaN p-n junction NWs grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. I-V characteristics revealed that both ohmic and space charge limited current (SCLC) regimes occur in GaN p-n junction NW. Thanks to an improved contact process, both the electric field induced by the p-n junction and the SCLC in the p-part of GaN NW were disclosed and delineated by EBIC signals under different biases. Analyzing the EBIC profiles in the vicinity of the p-n junction under 0 V and reverse bias, we deduced a depletion width in the range of 116-125 nm. Following our previous work, the acceptor N a doping level was estimated to be 2-3 × 10 17 at cm -3 assuming a donor level N d of 2-3 × 10 18 at cm -3 . The hole diffusion length in n-GaN was determined to be 75 nm for NW #1 and 43 nm for NW #2, demonstrating a low surface recombination velocity at the m-plane facet of n-GaN NW. Under forward bias, EBIC imaging visualized the electric field induced by the SCLC close to p-side contact, in agreement with unusual SCLC previously reported in GaN NWs.
Scattering amplitudes in open superstring theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schlotterer, Oliver
2011-07-15
The present thesis deals with the theme field of the scattering amplitudes in theories of open superstrings. Especially two different formalisms for the handling of superstrings are introduced and applied for the calaculation of tree-level amplitudes - the Ramond- Neveu-Schwarz (RNS) and the Pure-Spinor (PS) formalism. The RNS approach is proved as flexible in order to describe compactification of the initially ten flat space-time dimensions to four dimensions. We solve the technical problems, which result from the interacting basing world-sheet theory with conformal symmetry. This is used to calculate phenomenologically relevant scattering amplitudes of gluons and quarks as well as production rates of massive harmonic vibrations, which were already identified as virtual exchange particles on the massless level. In the case of a low string mass scale in the range of some Tev the string-specific signatures in parton collisions can be observed in the near future in the LHC experiment at CERN and indicated as first experimental proof of the string theory. THose string effects occur universally for a wide class of string ground states respectively internal geometries and represent an elegant way to avoid the so-called landscape problem of the string theory. A further theme complex in this thesis is based on the PS formalism, which allows a manifestly supersymmetric treatment of scattering amplitudes in ten space-time dimension with sixteen supercharges. We introduce a family of superfields, which occur in massless amplitudes of the open string and can be naturally identified with diagrams of three-valued knots. Thereby we reach not only a compact superspace representation of the n-point field-theory amplitude but can also write the complete superstring n-point amplitude as minimal linear combination of partial amplitudes of the field theory as well as hypergeometric functions. The latter carry the string effects and are analyzed from different perspectives, above all
Scattering amplitudes in open superstring theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schlotterer, Oliver
2011-01-01
The present thesis deals with the theme field of the scattering amplitudes in theories of open superstrings. Especially two different formalisms for the handling of superstrings are introduced and applied for the calaculation of tree-level amplitudes - the Ramond- Neveu-Schwarz (RNS) and the Pure-Spinor (PS) formalism. The RNS approach is proved as flexible in order to describe compactification of the initially ten flat space-time dimensions to four dimensions. We solve the technical problems, which result from the interacting basing world-sheet theory with conformal symmetry. This is used to calculate phenomenologically relevant scattering amplitudes of gluons and quarks as well as production rates of massive harmonic vibrations, which were already identified as virtual exchange particles on the massless level. In the case of a low string mass scale in the range of some Tev the string-specific signatures in parton collisions can be observed in the near future in the LHC experiment at CERN and indicated as first experimental proof of the string theory. THose string effects occur universally for a wide class of string ground states respectively internal geometries and represent an elegant way to avoid the so-called landscape problem of the string theory. A further theme complex in this thesis is based on the PS formalism, which allows a manifestly supersymmetric treatment of scattering amplitudes in ten space-time dimension with sixteen supercharges. We introduce a family of superfields, which occur in massless amplitudes of the open string and can be naturally identified with diagrams of three-valued knots. Thereby we reach not only a compact superspace representation of the n-point field-theory amplitude but can also write the complete superstring n-point amplitude as minimal linear combination of partial amplitudes of the field theory as well as hypergeometric functions. The latter carry the string effects and are analyzed from different perspectives, above all
Direct amplitude detuning measurement with ac dipole
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. White
2013-07-01
Full Text Available In circular machines, nonlinear dynamics can impact parameters such as beam lifetime and could result in limitations on the performance reach of the accelerator. Assessing and understanding these effects in experiments is essential to confirm the accuracy of the magnetic model and improve the machine performance. A direct measurement of the machine nonlinearities can be obtained by characterizing the dependency of the tune as a function of the amplitude of oscillations (usually defined as amplitude detuning. The conventional technique is to excite the beam to large amplitudes with a single kick and derive the tune from turn-by-turn data acquired with beam position monitors. Although this provides a very precise tune measurement it has the significant disadvantage of being destructive. An alternative, nondestructive way of exciting large amplitude oscillations is to use an ac dipole. The perturbation Hamiltonian in the presence of an ac dipole excitation shows a distinct behavior compared to the free oscillations which should be correctly taken into account in the interpretation of experimental data. The use of an ac dipole for direct amplitude detuning measurement requires careful data processing allowing one to observe the natural tune of the machine; the feasibility of such a measurement is demonstrated using experimental data from the Large Hadron Collider. An experimental proof of the theoretical derivations based on measurements performed at injection energy is provided as well as an application of this technique at top energy using a large number of excitations on the same beam.
Color-Kinematics Duality for QCD Amplitudes
Johansson, Henrik
2016-01-01
We show that color-kinematics duality is present in tree-level amplitudes of quantum chromodynamics with massive flavored quarks. Starting with the color structure of QCD, we work out a new color decomposition for n-point tree amplitudes in a reduced basis of primitive amplitudes. These primitives, with k quark-antiquark pairs and (n-2k) gluons, are taken in the (n-2)!/k! Melia basis, and are independent under the color-algebra Kleiss-Kuijf relations. This generalizes the color decomposition of Del Duca, Dixon, and Maltoni to an arbitrary number of quarks. The color coefficients in the new decomposition are given by compact expressions valid for arbitrary gauge group and representation. Considering the kinematic structure, we show through explicit calculations that color-kinematics duality holds for amplitudes with general configurations of gluons and massive quarks. The new (massive) amplitude relations that follow from the duality can be mapped to a well-defined subset of the familiar BCJ relations for gluo...
Benchmark experiment for the cross section of the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc and 100Mo(p,pn)99Mo reactions
Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.; Aikawa, M.; Haba, H.; Otuka, N.
2016-05-01
As nuclear medicine community has shown an increasing interest in accelerator produced 99mTc radionuclide, the possible alternative direct production routes for producing 99mTc were investigated intensively. One of these accelerator production routes is based on the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction. The cross section of this nuclear reaction was studied by several laboratories earlier but the available data-sets are not in good agreement. For large scale accelerator production of 99mTc based on the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction, a well-defined excitation function is required to optimise the production process effectively. One of our recent publications pointed out that most of the available experimental excitation functions for the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction have the same general shape while their amplitudes are different. To confirm the proper amplitude of the excitation function, results of three independent experiments were presented (Takács et al., 2015). In this work we present results of a thick target count rate measurement of the Eγ = 140.5 keV gamma-line from molybdenum irradiated by Ep = 17.9 MeV proton beam, as an integral benchmark experiment, to prove the cross section data reported for the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc and 100Mo(p,pn)99Mo reactions in Takács et al. (2015).
High energy hadron spin-flip amplitude
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Selyugin, O.V.
2016-01-01
The high-energy part of the hadron spin-flip amplitude is examined in the framework of the new high-energy general structure (HEGS) model of the elastic hadron scattering at high energies. The different forms of the hadron spin-flip amplitude are compared in the impact parameter representation. It is shown that the existing experimental data of the proton-proton and proton-antiproton elastic scattering at high energy in the region of the diffraction minimum and at large momentum transfer give support in the presence of the energy-independent part of the hadron spin-flip amplitude with the momentum dependence proposed in the works by Galynskii-Kuraev. [ru
Scaling of saturation amplitudes in baroclinic instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shepherd, T.G.
1994-01-01
By using finite-amplitude conservation laws for pseudomomentum and pseudoenergy, rigorous upper bounds have been derived on the saturation amplitudes in baroclinic instability for layered and continuously-stratified quasi-geostrophic models. Bounds have been obtained for both the eddy energy and the eddy potential enstrophy. The bounds apply to conservative (inviscid, unforced) flow, as well as to forced-dissipative flow when the dissipation is proportional to the potential vorticity. This approach provides an efficient way of extracting an analytical estimate of the dynamical scalings of the saturation amplitudes in terms of crucial non-dimensional parameters. A possible use is in constructing eddy parameterization schemes for zonally-averaged climate models. The scaling dependences are summarized, and compared with those derived from weakly-nonlinear theory and from baroclinic-adjustment estimates
Analytic representations of Yang–Mills amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J. [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Bourjaily, Jacob L., E-mail: bourjaily@nbi.ku.dk [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Damgaard, Poul H. [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Feng, Bo [Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou City, 310027 (China)
2016-12-15
Scattering amplitudes in Yang–Mills theory can be represented in the formalism of Cachazo, He and Yuan (CHY) as integrals over an auxiliary projective space—fully localized on the support of the scattering equations. Because solving the scattering equations is difficult and summing over the solutions algebraically complex, a method of directly integrating the terms that appear in this representation has long been sought. We solve this important open problem by first rewriting the terms in a manifestly Möbius-invariant form and then using monodromy relations (inspired by analogy to string theory) to decompose terms into those for which combinatorial rules of integration are known. The result is the foundations of a systematic procedure to obtain analytic, covariant forms of Yang–Mills tree-amplitudes for any number of external legs and in any number of dimensions. As examples, we provide compact analytic expressions for amplitudes involving up to six gluons of arbitrary helicities.
Nonlinear (super)symmetries and amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kallosh, Renata [Physics Department, Stanford University,382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)
2017-03-07
There is an increasing interest in nonlinear supersymmetries in cosmological model building. Independently, elegant expressions for the all-tree amplitudes in models with nonlinear symmetries, like D3 brane Dirac-Born-Infeld-Volkov-Akulov theory, were recently discovered. Using the generalized background field method we show how, in general, nonlinear symmetries of the action, bosonic and fermionic, constrain amplitudes beyond soft limits. The same identities control, for example, bosonic E{sub 7(7)} scalar sector symmetries as well as the fermionic goldstino symmetries. We present a universal derivation of the vanishing amplitudes in the single (bosonic or fermionic) soft limit. We explain why, universally, the double-soft limit probes the coset space algebra. We also provide identities describing the multiple-soft limit. We discuss loop corrections to N≥5 supergravity, to the D3 brane, and the UV completion of constrained multiplets in string theory.
Scattering Amplitudes and Worldsheet Models of QFTs
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
I will describe recent progress on the study of scattering amplitudes via ambitwistor strings and the scattering equations. Ambitwistor strings are worldsheet models of quantum field theories, inspired by string theory. They naturally lead to a representation of amplitudes based on the scattering equations. While worldsheet models and related ideas have had a wide-ranging impact on the modern study of amplitudes, their direct application at loop level is a very recent success. I will show how a major difficulty in the loop-level story, the technicalities of higher-genus Riemann surfaces, can be avoided by turning the higher-genus surface into a nodal Riemann sphere, with the nodes representing the loop momenta. I will present new formulas for the one-loop integrands of gauge theory and gravity, with or without supersymmetry, and also some two-loop results.
Relativistic amplitudes in terms of wave functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karmanov, V.A.
1978-01-01
In the framework of the invariant diagram technique which arises at the formulation of the fueld theory on the light front the question about conditions at which the relativistic amplitudes may be expressed through the wave functions is investigated. The amplitudes obtained depend on four-vector ω, determining the light front surface. The way is shown to find such values of the four-vector ω, at which the contribution of diagrams not expressed through wave functions is minimal. The investigation carried out is equivalent to the study of the dependence of amplitudes of the old-fashioned perturbation theory in the in the infinite momentum frame on direction of the infinite momentum
Multiphoton amplitude in a constant background field
Ahmad, Aftab; Ahmadiniaz, Naser; Corradini, Olindo; Kim, Sang Pyo; Schubert, Christian
2018-01-01
In this contribution, we present our recent compact master formulas for the multiphoton amplitudes of a scalar propagator in a constant background field using the worldline fomulation of quantum field theory. The constant field has been included nonperturbatively, which is crucial for strong external fields. A possible application is the scattering of photons by electrons in a strong magnetic field, a process that has been a subject of great interest since the discovery of astrophysical objects like radio pulsars, which provide evidence that magnetic fields of the order of 1012G are present in nature. The presence of a strong external field leads to a strong deviation from the classical scattering amplitudes. We explicitly work out the Compton scattering amplitude in a magnetic field, which is a process of potential relevance for astrophysics. Our final result is compact and suitable for numerical integration.
Predictive cytogenetic biomarkers for colorectal neoplasia in medium risk patients.
Ionescu, E M; Nicolaie, T; Ionescu, M A; Becheanu, G; Andrei, F; Diculescu, M; Ciocirlan, M
2015-01-01
DNA damage and chromosomal alterations in peripheral lymphocytes parallels DNA mutations in tumor tissues. The aim of our study was to predict the presence of neoplastic colorectal lesions by specific biomarkers in "medium risk" individuals (age 50 to 75, with no personal or family of any colorectal neoplasia). We designed a prospective cohort observational study including patients undergoing diagnostic or opportunistic screening colonoscopy. Specific biomarkers were analyzed for each patient in peripheral lymphocytes - presence of micronuclei (MN), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB) and the Nuclear Division Index (NDI) by the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay (CBMN). Of 98 patients included, 57 were "medium risk" individuals. MN frequency and NPB presence were not significantly different in patients with neoplastic lesions compared to controls. In "medium risk" individuals, mean NDI was significantly lower for patients with any neoplastic lesions (adenomas and adenocarcinomas, AUROC 0.668, p 00.5), for patients with advanced neoplasia (advanced adenoma and adenocarcinoma, AUROC 0.636 p 0.029) as well as for patients with adenocarcinoma (AUROC 0.650, p 0.048), for each comparison with the rest of the population. For a cut-off of 1.8, in "medium risk" individuals, an NDI inferior to that value may predict any neoplastic lesion with a sensitivity of 97.7%, an advanced neoplastic lesion with a sensitivity of 97% and adenocarcinoma with a sensitivity of 94.4%. NDI score may have a role as a colorectal cancer-screening test in "medium risk" individuals. DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid; CRC = colorectal cancer; EU = European Union; WHO = World Health Organization; FOBT = fecal occult blood test; CBMN = cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay; MN = micronuclei; NPB = nucleoplasmic bridges; NDI = Nuclear Division Index; FAP = familial adenomatous polyposis; HNPCC = hereditary non-polypoid colorectal cancer; IBD = inflammatory bowel diseases; ROC = receiver operating
Amplitude-modulated fiber-ring laser
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Caputo, J. G.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Sørensen, Mads Peter
2000-01-01
Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self......-starting of stable solitonic pulses from small random noise, provided the modulation depth is small. The perturbative analysis leads to a nonlinear coupled return map for the amplitude, phase, and position of the soliton pulses circulating in the fiber-ring laser. We established the validity of this approach...
Amplitude Models for Discrimination and Yield Estimation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Phillips, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-09-01
This seminar presentation describes amplitude models and yield estimations that look at the data in order to inform legislation. The following points were brought forth in the summary: global models that will predict three-component amplitudes (R-T-Z) were produced; Q models match regional geology; corrected source spectra can be used for discrimination and yield estimation; three-component data increase coverage and reduce scatter in source spectral estimates; three-component efforts must include distance-dependent effects; a community effort on instrument calibration is needed.
Singularity Structure of Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Cachazo, Freddy
2014-01-01
We present evidence that loop amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric (N=4) Yang-Mills theory (SYM) beyond the planar limit share some of the remarkable structures of the planar theory. In particular, we show that through two loops, the four-particle amplitude in full N=4 SYM has only logarithmic ...... singularities and is free of any poles at infinity—properties closely related to uniform transcendentality and the UV finiteness of the theory. We also briefly comment on implications for maximal (N=8) supergravity theory (SUGRA)....
Amplitude modulation detection with concurrent frequency modulation.
Nagaraj, Naveen K
2016-09-01
Human speech consists of concomitant temporal modulations in amplitude and frequency that are crucial for speech perception. In this study, amplitude modulation (AM) detection thresholds were measured for 550 and 5000 Hz carriers with and without concurrent frequency modulation (FM), at AM rates crucial for speech perception. Results indicate that adding 40 Hz FM interferes with AM detection, more so for 5000 Hz carrier and for frequency deviations exceeding the critical bandwidth of the carrier frequency. These findings suggest that future cochlear implant processors, encoding speech fine-structures may consider limiting the FM to narrow bandwidth and to low frequencies.
Gluon amplitudes as 2 d conformal correlators
Pasterski, Sabrina; Shao, Shu-Heng; Strominger, Andrew
2017-10-01
Recently, spin-one wave functions in four dimensions that are conformal primaries of the Lorentz group S L (2 ,C ) were constructed. We compute low-point, tree-level gluon scattering amplitudes in the space of these conformal primary wave functions. The answers have the same conformal covariance as correlators of spin-one primaries in a 2 d CFT. The Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) recursion relation between three- and four-point gluon amplitudes is recast into this conformal basis.
Precise generator of stability amplitude pulses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhuk, N.A.; Zdesenko, Yu.G.; Kuts, V.N.
1989-01-01
A generator of stability amplitude pulses, designed for stabilization of a low-noise semiconducting spectrometer, used in investigations of 76 Ge2β-decay, is described. The generator contains a permanent-voltage source, a storage element and a switch based on a Hg relay. A thermostatic source provides a relative voltage instability less than ±5x10 -6 per 80h (standard deviation). The Hg relay is placed into a separate thermostat. The relative instability of output generator pulse amplitude does not exceed ±1.5x10 -5 per 24h
High energy multi-gluon exchange amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaroszewicz, T.
1980-11-01
We examine perturbative high energy n-gluon exchange amplitudes calculated in the Coulomb gauge. If n exceeds the minimum required by the t-channel quantum numbers, such amplitudes are non-leading in lns. We derive a closed system of coupled integral equations for the corresponding two-particle n-gluon vertices, obtained by summing the leading powers of ln(N μ psup(μ)), where psup(μ) is the incident momentum and Nsup(μ) the gauge-defining vector. Our equations are infra-red finite, provided the external particles are colour singlets. (author)
Ghidini, B; Cantore, A; Di Corato, M; Donald, R A; Eades, John; Edwards, D N; Edwards, M E; French, Bernard R; Fry, J R; Houlden, M A; Mandelli, L; Moebes, J P; Müller, K; Navach, F; Palano, A; Palazzi-Cerrina, C; Paul, E; Picciarelli, V; Renneberg, W; Rühmer, W; Smith, I; Zito, G
1978-01-01
The reaction pi /sup -/p to (pn)p/sub s/, where p/sub s/ is a slow proton, was measured at 12 GeV/c incident momentum with the CERN-OMEGA spectrometer. Both antiproton and proton were identified uniquely by electronics information. 1844 events with four-momentum transfer squared in the range 0.13
Amplitude ratios in ρ0 leptoproductions and GPDs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Goloskokov S.V.
2017-01-01
Using the model results we calculate the ratio of different helicity amplitudes for a transversely polarized proton target to the leading twist longitudinal amplitude. Our results are close to the amplitude ratios measured by HERMES.
Neutron fragmentation in the reaction pn to pX at 19 GeV/c
Bakken, V; Lundborg, P; Makela, J; Pimiä, M; Selldén, B; Sundell, E; Tuominiemi, J
1979-01-01
Data on the reaction pn to pX are extracted from a pd experiment in the CERN 2 m DBC at 10 GeV/c. The cross-section for neutron fragmentation events with mod t mod <1 (GeV/c)/sup 2/ determined and compared with data at high energies at fixed M/sub x//sup 2//s and t. The cross-section can be described with the triple-Regge formula taking into account only the pion exchange contributions, i.e. the pi pi P and pi pi R terms. A leading-particle effect consistent with the pion exchange model is observed in the longitudinal-momentum distribution of the negative pions in the final state of the reaction pn to pX, when transformed to the rest frame of the recoiling system X. (10 refs).
Preparation of TNAs/NiO p-n heterojunction and their applications in UV photosensor
Yusoff, M. M.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Abdullah, M. A. R.; Ismail, A. S.; Saidi, S. A.; Mohamed, R.; Suriani, A. B.; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.
2018-05-01
A nanocomposite consisted of n-type titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorod arrays (TNAs) and p-type nickel oxide (NiO) were deposited using a novel facile low-temperature aqueous chemical route (ACR) in a Schott bottle with cap clamps and sol-gel spin coating method, respectively on a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) glass substrate for the application of ultraviolet (UV) photosensor. The p-n heterojunction photosensor exhibited an increase in photocurrent under UV light (365 nm, 750 µW/cm2) at applied reverse bias. The measured UV response also revealed an increase in photocurrent, and dark current with increasing applied reverse bias on the p-n heterojunction. In this study, the fabricated TNAs/NiO composite nanostructures showed potential applications for photosensor based on the steady photocurrent results obtained under UV irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fletcher, J.K.
1987-12-01
The computer code MARC/PN provides a solution of the multigroup transport equation by expanding the flux in spherical harmonics. The coefficients of the series so obtained satisfy linked first order differential equations, and on eliminating terms associated with odd parity harmonics a second order system results which can be solved by established finite difference or finite element techniques. This report describes modifications incorporated in MARC/PN to allow for anisotropic scattering, and the modelling of irregular exterior boundaries in the finite element option. The latter development leads to substantial reductions in problem size, particularly for three dimensions. Also, links to an interactive graphics mesh generator (SUPERTAB) have been added. The final section of the report contains results from problems showing the effects of anisotropic scatter and the ability of the code to model irregular geometries. (author)
P-N defect in GaNP studied by optically detected magnetic resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, W.M.; Thinh, N.Q.; Vorona, I.P.; Buyanova, I.A.; Xin, H.P.; Tu, C.W.
2003-01-01
We provide experimental evidence for an intrinsic defect in GaNP from optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR). This defect is identified as a P-N complex, exhibiting hyperfine structure due to interactions with a nuclear spin I=((1)/(2)) of one P atom and also a nuclear spin I=1 due to one N atom. The introduction of the defect is assisted by the incorporation of N within the studied N composition range of up to 3.1%, under non-equilibrium growth conditions during gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The corresponding ODMR spectrum was found to be isotropic, suggesting an A 1 symmetry of the defect state. The localization of the electron wave function at the P-N defect in GaNP is found to be even stronger than that for the isolated P Ga antisite in its parent binary compound GaP
(p,n) and (n,p) reactions as probes of isovector giant monopole resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Auerbach, N.; Bowman, J.D.; Franey, M.A.; Love, W.G.
1983-01-01
Nucleon charge exchange reactions are explored as prospective probes of isovector giant monopole resonances. Using charge exchange transition densities based on random-phase approximation sum rules, distorted wave impulse approximation calculations are made for the (p,n) and (n,p) reactions exciting the isovector giant monopole resonances in several nuclei at bombarding energies of 120 and 800 MeV. Based on our calculations, the charge exchange reactions at 800 MeV appear more promising
Draft User Functionalities and Interfaces of PN Services (Low-Fi Prototyping)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Karamolegkos, P.; Larsen, J. E.; Larsen, Lars Bo
2006-01-01
Internal report of WP1 Task 4 activities from January 2006 to August 2006. This report describes the draft user functionalities and coming user interfaces for PN services. It is a working document to be handed over to WP1 Task1 and Task3 for guidelines on specification. State of the art usability...... and user experience, conceptual design work on the two pilot services, MAGNET.CARE and Nomadic@Work, is described....
Total number of planetary nebulae in different galaxies and the PN distance scale.
Peimbert, M.
1990-12-01
RESUMEN A partir de una muestra de quince galaxias se encuentra que la tasa de natalidad de nebulosas planetarias por unidad de luminosidad, , disminuye al aumentar la luminosidad y al aumentar (B - V)0. Se discuten posibles explicaciones para estos resultados. Se estima el valor de para la Galaxia y a partir de el se encuentra que el numero total de nebulosas planetarias en nuestra galaxia con R de 7200 j 1800. El valor galactico de implica que la mayorfa de las estrellas de masa intermedia pasa por la etapa de nebulosa planetaria. El valor galactico de , la tasa de mortalidad estelar por unidad de luminosidad y la tasa de natalidad de enanas blancas favorecen escalas de distancias largas para nebulosas planetarias, como la de Cudworth (1974) y la de Mallik y Peimbert (1988). ABSTRACT From a sample of fifteen galaxies it is found that the birth rate of PN per unit luminosity, , decreases with increasing luminosity and with increasing (B - V)0 possible reasons for these relationships are discussed. The value for the Galaxy is estimated and, from it, a total number of PN of 7200 # 1800 wid R < 0.64 pc is obtained. The galactic value implies that most of the intermediate mass stars go through the PN stage. The galactic value, the stellar death rate per unit luminosity and the white dwarf birth rate are in favor of long distance scales to PN like those of Cudworth (1974) and Mallik and (1988). Key wonis: NEBULAE.PLANETARY - STARS-EVOLUTION - STARS-SThLIAR STA. S
Oscillating Magnetoresistance in Graphene p-n Junctions at Intermediate Magnetic Fields.
Overweg, Hiske; Eggimann, Hannah; Liu, Ming-Hao; Varlet, Anastasia; Eich, Marius; Simonet, Pauline; Lee, Yongjin; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Richter, Klaus; Fal'ko, Vladimir I; Ensslin, Klaus; Ihn, Thomas
2017-05-10
We report on the observation of magnetoresistance oscillations in graphene p-n junctions. The oscillations have been observed for six samples, consisting of single-layer and bilayer graphene, and persist up to temperatures of 30 K, where standard Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations are no longer discernible. The oscillatory magnetoresistance can be reproduced by tight-binding simulations. We attribute this phenomenon to the modulated densities of states in the n- and p-regions.
Photovoltaic characteristics of diffused P/+N bulk GaAs solar cells
Borrego, J. M.; Keeney, R. P.; Bhat, I. B.; Bhat, K. N.; Sundaram, L. G.; Ghandhi, S. K.
1982-01-01
The photovoltaic characteristics of P(+)N junction solar cells fabricated on bulk GaAs by an open tube diffusion technique are described in this paper.Spectral response measurements were analyzed in detail and compared to a computer simulation in order to determine important material parameters. It is projected that proper optimization of the cell parameters can increase the efficiency of the cells from 12.2 percent to close to 20 percent.
Stüeken, E E; Kipp, M A; Koehler, M C; Schwieterman, E W; Johnson, B; Buick, R
2016-12-01
Nitrogen is a major nutrient for all life on Earth and could plausibly play a similar role in extraterrestrial biospheres. The major reservoir of nitrogen at Earth's surface is atmospheric N 2 , but recent studies have proposed that the size of this reservoir may have fluctuated significantly over the course of Earth's history with particularly low levels in the Neoarchean-presumably as a result of biological activity. We used a biogeochemical box model to test which conditions are necessary to cause large swings in atmospheric N 2 pressure. Parameters for our model are constrained by observations of modern Earth and reconstructions of biomass burial and oxidative weathering in deep time. A 1-D climate model was used to model potential effects on atmospheric climate. In a second set of tests, we perturbed our box model to investigate which parameters have the greatest impact on the evolution of atmospheric pN 2 and consider possible implications for nitrogen cycling on other planets. Our results suggest that (a) a high rate of biomass burial would have been needed in the Archean to draw down atmospheric pN 2 to less than half modern levels, (b) the resulting effect on temperature could probably have been compensated by increasing solar luminosity and a mild increase in pCO 2 , and (c) atmospheric oxygenation could have initiated a stepwise pN 2 rebound through oxidative weathering. In general, life appears to be necessary for significant atmospheric pN 2 swings on Earth-like planets. Our results further support the idea that an exoplanetary atmosphere rich in both N 2 and O 2 is a signature of an oxygen-producing biosphere. Key Words: Biosignatures-Early Earth-Planetary atmospheres. Astrobiology 16, 949-963.
Stora's fine notion of divergent amplitudes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joseph C. Várilly
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Stora and coworkers refined the notion of divergent quantum amplitude, somewhat upsetting the standard power-counting recipe. This unexpectedly clears the way to new prototypes for free and interacting field theories of bosons of any mass and spin.
Connected formulas for amplitudes in standard model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
He, Song [CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China); School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,No. 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Yong [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China)
2017-03-17
Witten’s twistor string theory has led to new representations of S-matrix in massless QFT as a single object, including Cachazo-He-Yuan formulas in general and connected formulas in four dimensions. As a first step towards more realistic processes of the standard model, we extend the construction to QCD tree amplitudes with massless quarks and those with a Higgs boson. For both cases, we find connected formulas in four dimensions for all multiplicities which are very similar to the one for Yang-Mills amplitudes. The formula for quark-gluon color-ordered amplitudes differs from the pure-gluon case only by a Jacobian factor that depends on flavors and orderings of the quarks. In the formula for Higgs plus multi-parton amplitudes, the massive Higgs boson is effectively described by two additional massless legs which do not appear in the Parke-Taylor factor. The latter also represents the first twistor-string/connected formula for form factors.
Fatigue Reliability under Multiple-Amplitude Loads
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Talreja, R.
1979-01-01
for the initial tensile strength and the fatigue life, the probability distributions for the residual tensile strength in both the crack initiation and the crack propagation stages of fatigue are determined. The method is illustrated for two-amplitude loads by means of experimental results obtained by testing...
Ward identities for amplitudes with reggeized gluons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bartles, J.; Vacca, G.P.
2012-05-01
Starting from the effective action of high energy QCD we derive Ward identities for Green's functions of reggeized gluons. They follow from the gauge invariance of the effective action, and allow to derive new representations of amplitudes containing physical particles as well as reggeized gluons. We explicitly demonstrate their validity for the BFKL kernel, and we present a new derivation of the kernel.
Scattering amplitudes in super-renormalizable gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donà, Pietro; Giaccari, Stefano; Modesto, Leonardo; Rachwał, Lesław; Zhu, Yiwei
2015-01-01
We explicitly compute the tree-level on-shell four-graviton amplitudes in four, five and six dimensions for local and weakly nonlocal gravitational theories that are quadratic in both, the Ricci and scalar curvature with form factors of the d’Alembertian operator inserted between. More specifically we are interested in renormalizable, super-renormalizable or finite theories. The scattering amplitudes for these theories turn out to be the same as the ones of Einstein gravity regardless of the explicit form of the form factors. As a special case the four-graviton scattering amplitudes in Weyl conformal gravity are identically zero. Using a field redefinition, we prove that the outcome is correct for any number of external gravitons (on-shell n−point functions) and in any dimension for a large class of theories. However, when an operator quadratic in the Riemann tensor is added in any dimension (with the exception of the Gauss-Bonnet term in four dimensions) the result is completely altered, and the scattering amplitudes depend on all the form factors introduced in the action.
Particle Distribution Modification by Low Amplitude Modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, R.B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Van Zeeland, M.A.
2009-01-01
Modification of a high energy particle distribution by a spectrum of low amplitude modes is investigated using a guiding center code. Only through resonance are modes effective in modifying the distribution. Diagnostics are used to illustrate the mode-particle interaction and to find which effects are relevant in producing significant resonance, including kinetic Poincare plots and plots showing those orbits with time averaged mode-particle energy transfer. Effects of pitch angle scattering and drag are studied, as well as plasma rotation and time dependence of the equilibrium and mode frequencies. A specific example of changes observed in a DIII-D deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude experimentally validated Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes is examined in detail. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam profile modification, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold.
Kaon decay amplitudes using staggered fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharpe, S.R.
1986-12-01
A status report is given of an attempt, using staggered fermions to calculate the real and imaginary parts of the amplitudes for K → ππ,. Semi-quantitative results are found for the imaginary parts, and these suggest that ε' might be smaller than previously expected in the standard model
Constraints on low energy Compton scattering amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raszillier, I.
1979-04-01
We derive the constraints and correlations of fairly general type for Compton scattering amplitudes at energies below photoproduction threshold and fixed momentum transfer, following from (an upper bound on) the corresponding differential cross section above photoproduction threshold. The derivation involves the solution of an extremal problem in a certain space of vector - valued analytic functions. (author)
Analytic properties of many-particle amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Medvedev, B V; Pavlov, V P; Polivanov, M K; Sukhanov, A D [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental' noj Fiziki; AN SSSR, Moscow. Matematicheskij Inst.)
1982-08-01
In the framework of N. N. Bogolyubov axiomatic approach the complete proof of the existence of an analytic function the boundary values of which are the amplitudes of any channel of n-particle process is given. The one-particle structure of this function is described.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Visentin, Roberta; Giron, Maria Cecilia; Bello, Michele; Mazzi, Ulderico
2004-01-01
N-[N-(3-diphenylphosphinopropionyl)glycyl]cysteine and its methyl ester derivative were labeled with 99m Tc at neutral pH, leading to a single species in high yield (>95%) in 30 min. RP-HPLC comparison with the analogue Re V -oxo complexes identified the labeled compounds as the anti isomers of pentacoordinated 99m TcO[PN 2 S]-OH and 99m TcO[PN 2 S]-OMe complexes. The compounds are stable from pH 7 to pH 9 when 99m TcO[PN 2 S]-OH interconverts to related syn isomer, while 99m TcO[PN 2 S]-OMe undergoes both saponification and interconversion. They exhibit high stability in human plasma and in vivo (mice), and a biodistribution characterized by hepatobiliary excretion
PN Sequence Preestimator Scheme for DS-SS Signal Acquisition Using Block Sequence Estimation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sang Kyu Park
2005-03-01
Full Text Available An m-sequence (PN sequence preestimator scheme for direct-sequence spread spectrum (DS-SS signal acquisition by using block sequence estimation (BSE is proposed and analyzed. The proposed scheme consists of an estimator and a verifier which work according to the PN sequence chip clock, and provides not only the enhanced chip estimates with a threshold decision logic and one-chip error correction among the first m received chips, but also the reliability check of the estimates with additional decision logic. The probabilities of the estimator and verifier operations are calculated. With these results, the detection, the false alarm, and the missing probabilities of the proposed scheme are derived. In addition, using a signal flow graph, the average acquisition time is calculated. The proposed scheme can be used as a preestimator and easily implemented by changing the internal signal path of a generally used digital matched filter (DMF correlator or any other correlator that has a lot of sampling data memories for sampled PN sequence. The numerical results show rapid acquisition performance in a relatively good CNR.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Jin Joo; Uhm, Young Rang; Park, Keun Young; Son, Kwang Jae [Radioisotope Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-12-15
Nickel (Ni) electroplating was implemented by using a metal Ni powder in order to establish a {sup 63}Ni plating condition on the PN junction semiconductor needed for production of betavoltaic battery. PN junction semiconductors with a Ni seed layer of 500 and 1000 Å were coated with Ni at current density from 10 to 50 mA cm{sup -2}. The surface roughness and average grain size of Ni deposits were investigated by XRD and SEM techniques. The roughness of Ni deposit was increased as the current density was increased, and decreased as the thickness of Ni seed layer was increased. The results showed that the optimum surface shape was obtained at a current density of 10 mA cm{sup -2} in seed layer with thickness of 500 Å, 20 mA cm{sup -2} of 1000 Å. Also, pure Ni deposit was well coated on a PN junction semiconductor without any oxide forms. Using the line width of (111) in XRD peak, the average grain size of the Ni thick firm was measured. The results showed that the average grain size was increased as the thickness of seed layer was increased.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jin Joo; Uhm, Young Rang; Park, Keun Young; Son, Kwang Jae
2014-01-01
Nickel (Ni) electroplating was implemented by using a metal Ni powder in order to establish a 63 Ni plating condition on the PN junction semiconductor needed for production of betavoltaic battery. PN junction semiconductors with a Ni seed layer of 500 and 1000 Å were coated with Ni at current density from 10 to 50 mA cm -2 . The surface roughness and average grain size of Ni deposits were investigated by XRD and SEM techniques. The roughness of Ni deposit was increased as the current density was increased, and decreased as the thickness of Ni seed layer was increased. The results showed that the optimum surface shape was obtained at a current density of 10 mA cm -2 in seed layer with thickness of 500 Å, 20 mA cm -2 of 1000 Å. Also, pure Ni deposit was well coated on a PN junction semiconductor without any oxide forms. Using the line width of (111) in XRD peak, the average grain size of the Ni thick firm was measured. The results showed that the average grain size was increased as the thickness of seed layer was increased
pn junctions based on a single transparent perovskite semiconductor BaSnO3
Kim, Hoon Min; Kim, Useong; Park, Chulkwon; Kwon, Hyukwoo; Lee, Woongjae; Kim, Tai Hoon; Kim, Kee Hoon; Char, Kookrin; Mdpl, Department Of Physics; Astronomy Team; Censcmr, Department Of Physics; Astronomy Team
2014-03-01
Successful p doping of transparent oxide semiconductor will further increase its potential, especially in the area of optoelectronic applications. We will report our efforts to dope the BaSnO3 (BSO) with K by pulsed laser deposition. Although the K doped BSO exhibits rather high resistivity at room temperature, its conductivity increases dramatically at higher temperatures. Furthermore, the conductivity decreases when a small amount of oxygen was removed from the film, consistent with the behavior of p type doped oxides. We have fabricated pn junctions by using K doped BSO as a p type and La doped BSO as an n type material. I_V characteristics of these devices show the typical rectifying behavior of pn junctions. We will present the analysis of the junction properties from the temperature dependent measurement of their electrical properties, which shows that the I_V characteristics are consistent with the material parameters such as the carrier concentration, the mobility, and the bandgap. Our demonstration of pn junctions based on a single transparent perovskite semiconductor further enhances the potential of BSO system with high mobility and stability.
Temperature-Dependent Asymmetry of Anisotropic Magnetoresistance in Silicon p-n Junctions.
Yang, D Z; Wang, T; Sui, W B; Si, M S; Guo, D W; Shi, Z; Wang, F C; Xue, D S
2015-09-01
We report a large but asymmetric magnetoresistance in silicon p-n junctions, which contrasts with the fact of magnetoresistance being symmetric in magnetic metals and semiconductors. With temperature decreasing from 293 K to 100 K, the magnetoresistance sharply increases from 50% to 150% under a magnetic field of 2 T. At the same time, an asymmetric magnetoresistance, which manifests itself as a magnetoresistance voltage offset with respect to the sign of magnetic field, occurs and linearly increases with magnetoresistance. More interestingly, in contrast with other materials, the lineshape of anisotropic magnetoresistance in silicon p-n junctions significantly depends on temperature. As temperature decreases from 293 K to 100 K, the width of peak shrinks from 90° to 70°. We ascribe these novel magnetoresistance to the asymmetric geometry of the space charge region in p-n junction induced by the magnetic field. In the vicinity of the space charge region the current paths are deflected, contributing the Hall field to the asymmetric magnetoresistance. Therefore, the observed temperature-dependent asymmetry of magnetoresistance is proved to be a direct consequence of the spatial configuration evolution of space charge region with temperature.
Effect of deep dislocation levels in silicon on the properties of p-n junctions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zakharov, A.G.; Dudko, V.G.; Nabokov, G.M.; Sechenov, D.A.
1988-07-01
We present the results of studies on the influence of deep levels, due to dislocations in electronic-grade silicon, on the lifetime of minority carriers and on the current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics of p-n junctions. The parameters of the deep levels were determined by means of dynamic spectroscopy. The carrier lifetime in the high-resistance region of the p-n junction correlates well with the dislocation density and varies from 10/sup /minus/7/ sec to 3 /centered dot/10/sup /minus/6/ sec when the dislocation density N/sub d/ varies from 10/sup 7/ cm/sup /minus/2/ to 5 /centered dot/10/sup 3/ cm/sup /minus/2/. The voltage across the p-n junction at a high level of injection varies 1.6 to 6.2 v as a function of N/sub d/. The ionization energy of deep levels associated with dislocation in silicon is 0.44 and 0.57 eV, measured from the bottom of the conduction band.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Forbes, Scott [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Yuan, Fang [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Kosuda, Kosuke; Kolodiazhnyi, Taras [Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Mozharivskyj, Yurij, E-mail: mozhar@mcmaster.ca [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada)
2016-10-15
The Ca{sub 2}RE{sub 7}Pn{sub 5}O{sub 5} phases (RE=Pr, Sm, Gd, Dy; Pn=Sb, Bi) were successfully prepared from high temperature reactions at 1225–1300 °C. These phases maintain the same structure types as the parent RE{sub 9}Pn{sub 5}O{sub 5} phases, except for a Ca/RE mixing. The study and preparation of these phases was motivated by the desire to shift the metallic type properties of the parent RE{sub 9}Pn{sub 5}O{sub 5} phases to a level more suitable for thermoelectric applications. Electrical resistivity measurements performed on pure, bulk samples indicated all phases to be narrow band gap semiconductors or semimetals, supporting the charge balanced electron count of the Ca{sub 2}RE{sub 7}Pn{sub 5}O{sub 5} composition. Unfortunately, all samples are too electrically resistive for any potential usage as thermoelectrics. Electronic band structure calculations performed on idealized RE{sub 9}Pn{sub 5}O{sub 5} structures revealed the presence of a pseudogap at the Fermi level, which is consistent with the observed electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient behavior. - Graphical abstract: Ca substitution in RE{sub 9}Pn{sub 5}O{sub 5} leads to charge-balanced Ca{sub 2}RE{sub 7}Pn{sub 5}O{sub 5} phases with semiconducting or semimetallic properties. - Highlights: • The RE{sub 9}Pn{sub 5}O{sub 5} structure may be stabilized with calcium substitution in the form of Ca{sub 2}RE{sub 7}Pn{sub 5}O{sub 5}. • The Ca{sub 2}RE{sub 7}Pn{sub 5}O{sub 5} phases maintain the parent P 4/n structure, albeit with Ca/RE mixing. • The Ca{sub 2}RE{sub 7}Sb{sub 5}O{sub 5} phases behave as semiconductors while Ca{sub 2}RE{sub 7}Bi{sub 5}O{sub 5} are semimetals with electron-electron correlations. • Electronic structure calculations yield a semimetal-like density of states for both Ca{sub 2}RE{sub 7}Sb{sub 5}O{sub 5} and Ca{sub 2}RE{sub 7}Bi{sub 5}O{sub 5}.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Jian; Greenfield, Joshua T.; Kovnir, Kirill
2016-10-15
Two new barium iron pnictide–selenides, Ba{sub 2}FeSbSe{sub 5} and Ba{sub 2}FeBiSe{sub 5}, were synthesized by a high-temperature solid-state route and their crystal structures were determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction. Both compounds are isomorphic to the high pressure phase Ba{sub 3}FeS{sub 5} and crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Pnma (No. 62) with cell parameters of a=12.603(2)/12.619(2) Å, b=9.106(1)/9.183(1) Å, c=9.145(1)/9.123(1) Å and Z=4 for Ba{sub 2}FeSbSe{sub 5} and Ba{sub 2}FeBiSe{sub 5}, respectively. According to differential scanning calorimetry, Ba{sub 2}FePnSe{sub 5} compounds exhibit high thermal stability and melt congruently at 1055(5) K (Pn=Sb) and 1105(5) K (Pn=Bi). Magnetic characterizations reveal strong antiferromagnetic nearest-neighbor interactions in both compounds resulting in an antiferromagnetic ordering at 58(1) K for Ba{sub 2}FeSbSe{sub 5} and 79(2) K for Ba{sub 2}FeBiSe{sub 5}. The magnetic interactions between Fe{sup 3+} centers, which are at least 6 Å apart from each other, are mediated by superexchange interactions. - Graphical abstract: In Ba{sub 2}FeSbSe{sub 5} and Ba{sub 2}FeBiSe{sub 5} the magnetic interactions between Fe{sup 3+} centers, which are at least 6 Å apart from each other, are mediated by superexchange interactions. - Highlights: • New compounds Ba{sub 2}FeSbSe{sub 5} and Ba{sub 2}FeBiSe{sub 5} have been synthesized. • The crystal structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. • Both compounds melt congruently at temperatures above 1000 K. • Ba{sub 2}FeSbSe{sub 5} and Ba{sub 2}FeBiSe{sub 5} exhibit AFM ordering at 58 K (Sb) and 70 K (Bi). • Magnetic exchange between Fe{sup 3+} is mediated by either Se–Sb(Bi)–Se or Se–Ba–Se bridges.
Tsai, Meng-Lin; Li, Ming-yang; Duran Retamal, Jose Ramon; Lam, Kai-Tak; Lin, Yung-Chang; Suenaga, Kazu; Chen, Lih-Juann; Liang, Gengchiau; Li, Lain-Jong; He, Jr-Hau
2017-01-01
The recent development of 2D monolayer lateral semiconductor has created new paradigm to develop p-n heterojunctions. Albeit, the growth methods of these heterostructures typically result in alloy structures at the interface, limiting
He, Lipeng
2012-03-01
A dearomatized complex [RuH(PN 3P)(CO)] (PN 3PN, N′-bis(di-tert-butylphosphino)-2,6-diaminopyridine) (3) was prepared by reaction of the aromatic complex [RuH(Cl)(PN 3P)(CO)] (2) with t-BuOK in THF. Further treatment of 3 with formic acid led to the formation of a rearomatized complex (4). These new complexes were fully characterized and the molecular structure of complex 4 was further confirmed by X-ray crystallography. In complex 4, a distorted square-pyramidal geometry around the ruthenium center was observed, with the CO ligand trans to the pyridinic nitrogen atom and the hydride located in the apical position. The dearomatized complex 3 displays efficient catalytic activity for hydrogen transfer of ketones in isopropanol. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahmani, Faezeh; Khosravinia, Hossein
2016-01-01
Theoretical studies on the optimization of Silicon (Si) parameters as the base of betavoltaic battery have been presented using Monte Carlo simulations and the state equations in semiconductor to obtain maximum power. Si with active area of 1 cm 2 has been considered in p-n junction and Schottky barrier structure to collect the radiation induced-charge from 10 mCi cm −2 of Nickle-63 ( 63 Ni) Source. The results show that the betavoltaic conversion efficiency in the Si p-n structure is about 2.7 times higher than that in the Ni/Si Schottky barrier structure. - Highlights: • Silicon parameters were studied in betavoltaic batteries. • Studied betavoltaic batteries include p-n and Schottky barrier structures. • The p-n structure has higher conversion efficiency.
Kim, Jae-Keun; Cho, Kyungjune; Kim, Tae-Young; Pak, Jinsu; Jang, Jingon; Song, Younggul; Kim, Youngrok; Choi, Barbara Yuri; Chung, Seungjun; Hong, Woong-Ki; Lee, Takhee
2016-11-10
We investigated the trap-mediated electronic transport properties of pentacene/molybdenum disulphide (MoS 2 ) p-n heterojunction devices. We observed that the hybrid p-n heterojunctions were gate-tunable and were strongly affected by trap-assisted tunnelling through the van der Waals gap at the heterojunction interfaces between MoS 2 and pentacene. The pentacene/MoS 2 p-n heterojunction diodes had gate-tunable high ideality factor, which resulted from trap-mediated conduction nature of devices. From the temperature-variable current-voltage measurement, a space-charge-limited conduction and a variable range hopping conduction at a low temperature were suggested as the gate-tunable charge transport characteristics of these hybrid p-n heterojunctions. Our study provides a better understanding of the trap-mediated electronic transport properties in organic/2-dimensional material hybrid heterojunction devices.
Photoeffect on the p-n silicon junction under conditions of interband heating of carriers by light
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrianov, A V; Valov, P M; Sukhanov, V L; Tuchkevich, V V; Shmidt, N M [AN SSSR, Leningrad. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst.
1980-05-01
Photoeffect on the p-n silicon junction conditioned by interband heating of carriers by the CO/sub 2/-laser light has been studied experimentally at room temperature and under nonstationary conditions. Photoelectromotive force (p.e.m.f.) with the sign opposite to the value p.e.m.f. appears in the case of direct displacement of p-n structures. The p.e.m.f. value increases with the increase of direct desplacement. Photoelectrons are shown to make the main contribution into the mechanism of p.e.m.f. formation. Lateral p.e.m.f. connected with spreading currents in the direction parallel to the surface of the p-n junction appears in the p-n structure base. It has been found out that structures with highly alloyed emitter at reverse displacement operates under standard photodiod conditions, that is due to the semiconductor lattice heating by CO/sub 2/-laser irradiation.
Photoeffect on the p-n silicon junction under conditions of interband heating of carriers by light
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrianov, A.V.; Valov, P.M.; Sukhanov, V.L.; Tuchkevich, V.V.; Shmidt, N.M.
1980-01-01
Photoeffect on the p-n silicon junction conditioned by interband heating of carriers by the CO 2 -laser light has been studied experimentally at room temperature and under nonstationary conditions. Photoelectromotive force (p.e.m.f.) with the sign opposite to the value p.e.m.f. appears in the case of direct displacement of p-n structures. The p.e.m.f. value increases with the increase of direct desplacement. Photoelectrons are shown to make the main contribution into the mechanism of p.e.m.f. formation. Lateral p.e.m.f. connected with spreading currents in the direction parallel to the surface of the p-n junction appears in the p-n structure base. It has been found out that structures with highly alloyed emitter at reverse displacement operates under standard photodiod conditions, that is due to the semiconductor lattice heating by CO 2 -laser irradiation
In-medium effects around the Fermi energy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lopez O.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We study nuclear stopping in central collisions for heavy-ion induced reactions in the Fermi energy domain (15-100 AMeV. Using the large dataset provided by the 4π array INDRA, we determine that stopping can be directly related to the transport properties in the nuclear medium. By looking specifically at protons, we present a comprehensive body of experimental results concerning the mean free path, the nucleon-nucleon cross-section and in-medium effects in nuclear matter.
Milam, S. N.; Halfen, D. T.; Tenenbaum, E. D.; Apponi, A. J.; Woolf, N. J.; Ziurys, L. M.
2008-09-01
Millimeter-wave observations of PN, CP, and HCP have been carried out toward circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars using the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). HCP and PN have been identified in the carbon-rich source CRL 2688 via observations at 1 mm using the Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) and 2-3 mm with the Kitt Peak 12 m. An identical set of measurements were carried out toward IRC +10216, as well as observations of CP at 1 mm. PN was also observed toward VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa), an oxygen-rich supergiant star. The PN and HCP line profiles in CRL 2688 and IRC +10216 are roughly flat topped, indicating unresolved, optically thin emission; CP, in contrast, has a distinct "U" shape in IRC +10216. Modeling of the line profiles suggests abundances, relative to H2, of f(PN) ~ (3-5) × 10-9 and f(HCP) ~ 2 × 10-7 in CRL 2688, about an order of magnitude higher than in IRC +10216. In VY CMa, f(PN) is ~4 × 10-8. The data in CRL 2688 and IRC +10216 are consistent with LTE formation of HCP and PN in the inner envelope, as predicted by theoretical calculations, with CP a photodissociation product at larger radii. The observed abundance of PN in VY CMa is a factor of 100 higher than LTE predictions. In IRC +10216, the chemistry of HCP/CP mimics that of HCN/CN and suggests an N2 abundance of f ~ 1 × 10-7. The chemistry of phosphorus appears active in both carbon- and oxygen-rich envelopes of evolved stars.
Varadwaj, Pradeep Risikrishna
2010-05-01
Spin-restricted DFT (X3LYP and B3LYP) and ab initio (MP2(fc) and CCSD(fc)) calculations in conjunction with the Aug-CC-pVDZ and Aug-CC-pVTZ basis sets were performed on a series of hydrogen bonded complexes PN...HX (X = F, Cl, Br) to examine the variations of their equilibrium gas phase structures, energetic stabilities, electronic properties, and vibrational characteristics in their electronic ground states. In all cases the complexes were predicted to be stable with respect to the constituent monomers. The interaction energy (Delta E) calculated using a super-molecular model is found to be in this order: PN...HF > PN...HCl > PN...HBr in the series examined. Analysis of various physically meaningful contributions arising from the Kitaura-Morokuma (KM) and reduced variational space self-consistent-field (RVS-SCF) energy decomposition procedures shows that the electrostatic energy has significant contribution to the over-all interaction energy. Dipole moment enhancement (Delta mu) was observed in these complexes expected of predominant dipole-dipole electrostatic interaction and was found to follow the trend PN...HF > PN...HCl > PN...HBr at the CCSD level. However, the DFT (X3LYP and B3LYP) and MP2 levels less accurately determined these values (in this order HF 0, nabla(2)rho(c) > 0 and H(c) > 0 at the BCP) whilst the bonds in PN (rho(c) > 0, nabla(2)rho(c) > 0 and H(c) 0, nabla(2)rho(c) BD*(HX) delocalization.
Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
McWalter, Richard Ian; Dau, Torsten
2017-01-01
. In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as "beating" in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture...... model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures-stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures....... In a texture identification task, our results indicated that second-order amplitude modulation sensitivity enhanced recognition. Next, we examined the contribution of the second-order modulation analysis in a preference task, where the proposed auditory texture model was preferred over a range of model...
Source amplitudes for active exterior cloaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Norris, Andrew N; Amirkulova, Feruza A; Parnell, William J
2012-01-01
The active cloak comprises a discrete set of multipole sources that destructively interfere with an incident time harmonic scalar wave to produce zero total field over a finite spatial region. For a given number of sources and their positions in two dimensions it is shown that the multipole amplitudes can be expressed as infinite sums of the coefficients of the incident wave decomposed into regular Bessel functions. The field generated by the active sources vanishes in the infinite region exterior to a set of circles defined by the relative positions of the sources. The results provide a direct solution to the inverse problem of determining the source amplitudes. They also define a broad class of non-radiating discrete sources. (paper)
Constructing QCD one-loop amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forde, D
2008-01-01
In the context of constructing one-loop amplitudes using a unitarity bootstrap approach we discuss a general systematic procedure for obtaining the coefficients of the scalar bubble and triangle integral functions of one-loop amplitudes. Coefficients are extracted after examining the behavior of the cut integrand as the unconstrained parameters of a specifically chosen parameterization of the cut loop momentum approach infinity. Measurements of new physics at the forthcoming experimental program at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will require a precise understanding of processes at next-to-leading order (NLO). This places increased demands for the computation of new one-loop amplitudes. This in turn has spurred recent developments towards improved calculational techniques. Direct calculations using Feynman diagrams are in general inefficient. Developments of more efficient techniques have usually centered around unitarity techniques [1], where tree amplitudes are effectively 'glued' together to form loops. The most straightforward application of this method, in which the cut loop momentum is in D = 4, allows for the computation of 'cut-constructible' terms only, i.e. (poly)logarithmic containing terms and any related constants. QCD amplitudes contain, in addition to such terms, rational pieces which cannot be derived using such cuts. These 'missing' rational parts can be extracted using cut loop momenta in D = 4-2 (var e psilon). The greater difficulty of such calculations has restricted the application of this approach, although recent developments [3, 4] have provided new promise for this technique. Recently the application of on-shell recursion relations [5] to obtaining the 'missing' rational parts of one-loop processes [6] has provided an alternative very promising solution to this problem. In combination with unitarity methods an 'on-shell bootstrap' approach provides an efficient technique for computing complete one-loop QCD amplitudes [7]. Additionally
Differential equations, associators, and recurrences for amplitudes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Georg Puhlfürst
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We provide new methods to straightforwardly obtain compact and analytic expressions for ϵ-expansions of functions appearing in both field and string theory amplitudes. An algebraic method is presented to explicitly solve for recurrence relations connecting different ϵ-orders of a power series solution in ϵ of a differential equation. This strategy generalizes the usual iteration by Picard's method. Our tools are demonstrated for generalized hypergeometric functions. Furthermore, we match the ϵ-expansion of specific generalized hypergeometric functions with the underlying Drinfeld associator with proper Lie algebra and monodromy representations. We also apply our tools for computing ϵ-expansions for solutions to generic first-order Fuchsian equations (Schlesinger system. Finally, we set up our methods to systematically get compact and explicit α′-expansions of tree-level superstring amplitudes to any order in α′.
Unitarity and amplitudes for high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Efimov, G.V.
1997-01-01
It is shown that in the quantum field theory of scalar particles with mass m the following inequalities for the upper bound for the amplitude of elastic scattering Μ(s,t) |Μ(s,t)| 0 )s, (|t|≥|t 0 |>0) and for the total cross section of scalar particles σ tot (s)≤C|d/dt ln Im Μ(s,t)| t=0 , (s → ∞) are valid. This result is based on the unitarity of the S-matrix on the mass shell and on a natural assumption that the imaginary part of the elastic scattering Im Μ(s,t) is a differentiable and convex down function in some vicinity of t=0. The locality of the theory and the analyticity of the elastic amplitude in the Martin-Lehmann ellipse are not used in proving these inequalities
Large amplitude waves and fields in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angelis, U. de; Naples Univ.
1990-02-01
In this review, based mostly on the results of the recent workshop on ''Large Amplitude Waves and Fields in Plasmas'' held at ICTP (Trieste, Italy) in May 1989 during the Spring College on Plasma Physics, I will mostly concentrate on underdense, cold, homogeneous plasmas, discussing some of the alternative (to fusion) uses of laser-plasma interaction. In Part I an outline of some basic non-linear processes is given, together with some recent experimental results. The processes are chosen because of their relevance to the applications or because new interesting developments have been reported at the ICTP workshop (or both). In Part II the excitation mechanisms and uses of large amplitude plasma waves are presented: these include phase-conjugation in plasmas, plasma based accelerators (beat-wave, plasma wake-field and laser wake-field), plasma lenses and plasma wigglers for Free Electron Lasers. (author)
Integrable spin chains and scattering amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bartels, J.; Prygarin, A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Lipatov, L.N. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Sankt-Peterburgskij Univ., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)
2011-04-15
In this review we show that the multi-particle scattering amplitudes in N=4 SYM at large N{sub c} and in the multi-Regge kinematics for some physical regions have the high energy behavior appearing from the contribution of the Mandelstam cuts in the complex angular momentum plane of the corresponding t-channel partial waves. These Mandelstam cuts or Regge cuts are resulting from gluon composite states in the adjoint representation of the gauge group SU(N{sub c}). In the leading logarithmic approximation (LLA) their contribution to the six point amplitude is in full agreement with the known two-loop result. The Hamiltonian for the Mandelstam states constructed from n gluons in LLA coincides with the local Hamiltonian of an integrable open spin chain. We construct the corresponding wave functions using the integrals of motion and the Baxter-Sklyanin approach. (orig.)
Understanding the amplitudes of noise correlation measurements
Tsai, Victor C.
2011-01-01
Cross correlation of ambient seismic noise is known to result in time series from which station-station travel-time measurements can be made. Part of the reason that these cross-correlation travel-time measurements are reliable is that there exists a theoretical framework that quantifies how these travel times depend on the features of the ambient noise. However, corresponding theoretical results do not currently exist to describe how the amplitudes of the cross correlation depend on such features. For example, currently it is not possible to take a given distribution of noise sources and calculate the cross correlation amplitudes one would expect from such a distribution. Here, we provide a ray-theoretical framework for calculating cross correlations. This framework differs from previous work in that it explicitly accounts for attenuation as well as the spatial distribution of sources and therefore can address the issue of quantifying amplitudes in noise correlation measurements. After introducing the general framework, we apply it to two specific problems. First, we show that we can quantify the amplitudes of coherency measurements, and find that the decay of coherency with station-station spacing depends crucially on the distribution of noise sources. We suggest that researchers interested in performing attenuation measurements from noise coherency should first determine how the dominant sources of noise are distributed. Second, we show that we can quantify the signal-to-noise ratio of noise correlations more precisely than previous work, and that these signal-to-noise ratios can be estimated for given situations prior to the deployment of seismometers. It is expected that there are applications of the theoretical framework beyond the two specific cases considered, but these applications await future work.
On the infinities of closed superstring amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Restuccia, A.; Taylor, J.G.
1988-01-01
The authors present an analysis of possible infinities that may be present in uncompactified multi-loop heterotic and type II superstring amplitudes constructed, without use of the short-string limit, in the light-cone gauge, and with use of a closed [10]-SUSY field theory algebra. Various types of degenerations of the integrand are discussed on the string worldsheet. No infinities are found, modulo (for type II) a particular identity for Green's functions
Deep Inelastic Scattering at the Amplitude Level
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, Stanley J.
2005-01-01
The deep inelastic lepton scattering and deeply virtual Compton scattering cross sections can be interpreted in terms of the fundamental wavefunctions defined by the light-front Fock expansion, thus allowing tests of QCD at the amplitude level. The AdS/CFT correspondence between gauge theory and string theory provides remarkable new insights into QCD, including a model for hadronic wavefunctions which display conformal scaling at short distances and color confinement at large distances
Multichannel conformal blocks for scattering amplitudes
Belitsky, A. V.
2018-05-01
By performing resummation of small fermion-antifermion pairs within the pentagon form factor program to scattering amplitudes in planar N = 4 superYang-Mills theory, we construct multichannel conformal blocks within the flux-tube picture for N-sided NMHV polygons. This procedure is equivalent to summation of descendants of conformal primaries in the OPE framework. The resulting conformal partial waves are determined by multivariable hypergeometric series of Lauricella-Saran type.
How to calculate the Coulomb scattering amplitude
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grosse, H.; Narnhofer, H.; Thirring, W.
1974-01-01
The derivation of scattering amplitudes for Coulomb scattering is discussed. A derivation of the S-matrix elements for a dense set of states in momentum space is given in the framework of time dependent scattering theory. The convergence of the S-matrix is studied. A purely algebraic derivation of the S-matrix elements and phase shifts is also presented. (HFdV)
Accommodative Amplitude in School-Age Children
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ikaunieks Gatis
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In children, intensive near-work affects the accommodation system of the eye. Younger children, due to anatomical parameters, read at smaller distance than older children and we can expect that the accommodation system of younger can be affected more than that of older children. We wanted to test this hypothesis. Some authors showed that the norms of amplitude of accommodation (AA developed by Hofstetter (1950 not always could be applied for children. We also wanted to verify these results. A total of 106 (age 7-15 children participated in the study. Distance visual acuity was measured for all children and only data of children with good visual acuity 1.0 or more (dec. units were analysed (73 children. Accommodative amplitude was measured before and after lessons using subjective push-up technique (with RAF Near Point Ruler. The results showed that the amplitude of accommodation reduced significantly (p < 0.05 during the day and decrease of AA was similar in different age groups (about ~0.70 D. Additional measurements are needed to verify that the observed changes in AA were associated with fatigue effect. The results showed lower accommodation values compared to average values calculated according to the Hofstetter equation (p < 0.05.
Scattering amplitudes from multivariate polynomial division
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mastrolia, Pierpaolo, E-mail: pierpaolo.mastrolia@cern.ch [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Mirabella, Edoardo, E-mail: mirabell@mppmu.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Ossola, Giovanni, E-mail: GOssola@citytech.cuny.edu [New York City College of Technology, City University of New York, 300 Jay Street, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Graduate School and University Center, City University of New York, 365 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Peraro, Tiziano, E-mail: peraro@mppmu.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany)
2012-11-15
We show that the evaluation of scattering amplitudes can be formulated as a problem of multivariate polynomial division, with the components of the integration-momenta as indeterminates. We present a recurrence relation which, independently of the number of loops, leads to the multi-particle pole decomposition of the integrands of the scattering amplitudes. The recursive algorithm is based on the weak Nullstellensatz theorem and on the division modulo the Groebner basis associated to all possible multi-particle cuts. We apply it to dimensionally regulated one-loop amplitudes, recovering the well-known integrand-decomposition formula. Finally, we focus on the maximum-cut, defined as a system of on-shell conditions constraining the components of all the integration-momenta. By means of the Finiteness Theorem and of the Shape Lemma, we prove that the residue at the maximum-cut is parametrized by a number of coefficients equal to the number of solutions of the cut itself.
Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard McWalter
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Sound textures, such as crackling fire or chirping crickets, represent a broad class of sounds defined by their homogeneous temporal structure. It has been suggested that the perception of texture is mediated by time-averaged summary statistics measured from early auditory representations. In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as “beating” in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures—stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures. In a texture identification task, our results indicated that second-order amplitude modulation sensitivity enhanced recognition. Next, we examined the contribution of the second-order modulation analysis in a preference task, where the proposed auditory texture model was preferred over a range of model deviants that lacked second-order modulation rate sensitivity. Lastly, the discriminability of textures that included second-order amplitude modulations appeared to be perceived using a time-averaging process. Overall, our results demonstrate that the inclusion of second-order modulation analysis generates improvements in the perceived quality of synthetic textures compared to the first-order modulation analysis considered in previous approaches.
Transversity Amplitudes in Hypercharge Exchange Processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aguilar Benitez de Lugo, M.
1979-01-01
' In this work we present several techniques developed for the extraction of the. Transversity amplitudes governing quasi two-body meson baryon reactions with hypercharge exchange. We review the methods used in processes having a pure spin configuration, as well as the more relevant results obtained with data from K p and Tp interactions at intermediate energies. The predictions of the additive quark model and the ones following from exchange degeneracy and etoxicity are discussed. We present a formalism for amplitude analysis developed for reactions with mixed spin configurations and discuss the methods of parametric estimation of the moduli and phases of the amplitudes, as well as the various tests employed to check the goodness of the fits. The calculation of the generalized joint density matrices is given and we propose a method based on the generalization of the idea of multipole moments, which allows to investigate the structure of the decay angular correlations and establishes the quality of the fits and the validity of the simplifying assumptions currently used in this type of studies. (Author) 43 refs
Investigating the amplitude of interactive footstep sounds and soundscape reproduction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Turchet, Luca; Serafin, Stefania
2013-01-01
In this paper, we study the perception of amplitude of soundscapes and interactively generated footstep sounds provided both through headphones and a surround sound system. In particular, we investigate whether there exists a value for the amplitude of soundscapes and footstep sounds which...... of soundscapes does not significantly affect the selected amplitude of footstep sounds. Similarly, the perception of the soundscapes amplitude is not significantly affected by the selected amplitude of footstep sounds....
One-loop triple collinear splitting amplitudes in QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Badger, Simon; Buciuni, Francesco; Peraro, Tiziano [Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh,Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Scotland (United Kingdom)
2015-09-28
We study the factorisation properties of one-loop scattering amplitudes in the triple collinear limit and extract the universal splitting amplitudes for processes initiated by a gluon. The splitting amplitudes are derived from the analytic Higgs plus four partons amplitudes. We present compact results for primitive helicity splitting amplitudes making use of super-symmetric decompositions. The universality of the collinear factorisation is checked numerically against the full colour six parton squared matrix elements.
Antiperovskite nitridophosphate oxide Ho{sub 3}[PN{sub 4}]O by high-pressure metathesis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kloss, Simon D.; Weidmann, Niels; Schnick, Wolfgang [Department of Chemistry, University of Munich (LMU), Butenandtstrasse 5-13, 81377, Munich (Germany)
2017-04-03
Rare-earth nitridophosphates are a recently discovered class of materials, which are accessible by high-pressure metathesis. Antiperovskite-type Ho{sub 3}[PN{sub 4}]O was synthesized from HoF{sub 3}, LiPN{sub 2}, Li{sub 3}N, and Li{sub 2}O at 5 GPa and ca. 1025 C by this method and the multianvil technique. Ho{sub 3}[PN{sub 4}]O contains rarely observed isolated PN{sub 4} tetrahedra and can be derived by the hierarchical substitution of the ABX{sub 3} perovskite, in which Ho occupies the X positions, O occupies the B position, and the PN{sub 4} tetrahedra occupy the A position. The structure was refined on the basis of powder diffraction data [I4/mcm, a = 6.36112(3), c = 10.5571(1) Aa, Z = 4, R{sub wp} = 0.04, R{sub Bragg} = 0.01, χ{sup 2} = 2.275] starting from the structural model of isotypic Gd{sub 3}[SiN{sub 3}O]O. To characterize Ho{sub 3}[PN{sub 4}]O, elemental analyses were performed through energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Ho{sub 3}[PN{sub 4}]O is paramagnetic down to low temperatures with μ{sub eff} = 10.43(1) μ{sub B} and a Curie temperature (Θ) of 0.11(4) K. It shows the optical characteristics of Ho{sup 3+} ions and vibrations corresponding to isolated PN{sub 4} tetrahedra. On the basis of DFT calculations [generalized gradient approximation (GGA)], Ho{sub 3}[PN{sub 4}]O has an indirect band gap of 1.87 eV. We demonstrate the versatility of high-pressure metathesis by attaining the low end of the P/N atomic ratio κ = 1/4. This confirms the previous assumption that rare-earth nitridophosphates with κ = 1/2 to 1/4 are feasible by this method. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Laser processing for bevel termination of high voltage pn junction in SiC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubiak, A; Ruta, Ł; Rosowski, A; French, P
2016-01-01
Proper edge termination of the p-n junction in silicon carbide is a key requirement in the fabrication of discrete devices able to withstand high voltages in reverse polarization. Due to the hardness of SiC the creation of the bevel termination remains difficult using mechanical machining. The use of laser beam sources with medium wavelength (532 nm) gives new possibilities in the machining of the silicon carbide. The paper presents the fabrication of the bevel termination structure in SiC using a green DPSS laser equipped with scanner and dedicated rotating sample holder. Characterization of the resulting structures proves the high potential of the proposed approach. (paper)
Inclusive production of. delta. /sup + +/(1232) in pn interactions at 19 GeV/c
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bakken, V.; Breivik, F.O.; Jacobsen, T.; Rudjord, A.L. (Oslo Univ. (Norway) Fysisk Inst.)
1982-12-21
We present a study of ..delta../sup + +/ production in pn interactions at 19 GeV/c, where the ..delta../sup + +/ is emitted in the protonlike (..delta..sub(F)/sup + +/) and neutron-like (..delta..sub(B)/sup + +/) c.m. hemispheres. The cross-section sigma(pn->..delta..sub(F)/sup + +/+X)=(3.09+-0.43) mb is about three times larger than sigma(pn->..delta..sub(B)/sup + +/+X)=(0.94+-0.34) mb. About 2/3 of ..delta..sub(F)/sup + +/ is peripherally produced with vertical stroketsub(p,..delta..)vertical stroke<1 (GeV/c)/sup 2/, while the cross-section for ..delta..sub(B)/sup + +/ production is nearly zero for vertical stroketsub(n,..delta..)vertical stroke<1 (GeV/c)/sup 2/. We have made a detailed study of the energy dependence of the reaction ap->..delta../sup + +/+X (a=p, anti p, n, ..pi..sup(+-), Ksup(+-)) for vertical stroketsub(p,..delta..)vertical stroke<1 (GeV/c)/sup 2/, by applying the same fitting procedure to extract the ..delta../sup + +/ cross-section to all available mass spectra. All the normalized cross-sections R=sigma(..delta../sup + +/)/sigmasub(inel) can be well described by R=R/sub 0/+R/sub 1/sup(a)psup(-..cap alpha..)sub(lab), where R/sub 0/ and ..cap alpha.. are the same for all reactions, while R/sub 1/sup(a) varies with the beam type a. The value of ..cap alpha.. is slightly below unity. The differential cross section of pn->..delta..sub(F)/sup + +/+X has been determined as a function of the variables t, t', x, y, psub(T)/sup 2/ and Msub(X)/sup 2/ both in the whole kinematical region and for vertical stroketsub(p,..delta..)vertical stroke<1 (GeV/c)/sup 2/. We show that the peripherally produced ..delta..sub(F)/sup + +/ is consistent with the dominance of the one-pion exchange mechanism. This follows from a study of the density matrix elements, the comparison of some properties of the system X with real ..pi../sup +/p data and from the results of a triple-Regge analysis.
Hybrid PN-SN Calculations with SAAF for the Multiscale Transport Capability in Rattlesnake
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yaqi; Schunert, Sebastian; DeHart, Mark; Martineau, Richard
2016-05-01
Two interface conditions, the Lagrange multiplier method and the upwinding method, for hybrid \\pn-\\sn calculations is proposed for the self-adjoint angular flux (SAAF) formulation of the transport equation using the continuous finite element method (FEM) for spatial discretization. These interface conditions are implemented in Rattlesnake, the radiation transport application built on MOOSE, for the on-going multiscale transport simulation effort at INL. For smoothing the solution at the interface for the Lagrange multiplier method, a method based on \\sn Lagrange interpolation on the sphere is proposed. Numerical results indicate that the interface conditions give the expected convergence.
Ethnic differences in electrocardiographic amplitude measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mansi, Ishak A.; Nash, Ira S.
2004-01-01
There is a controversy regarding ethnic differences in electrocardiographic (ECG) patterns because of the potentially confounding socioeconomic, nutritional, environmental and occupational factors. We reviewed the first 1000 medical files of a multiethnic community, where all individuals shared similar living conditions. Only healthy adults age 15 to 60 years were included. Wave amplitudes were measured manually from the standard 12lead ECG. Minnesota coding was used. ECG from 597 subjects were included in the study: 350 Saudi Arabians, 95 Indians, 17 Sri-Lankans, 39 Filipinos, and 57 Caucasians; 349 were men. the mean +-SD of Sokolow-Lyon voltage (SLV) in men was signifcantly different among ethnic groups (2.9+-0.86, 2.64+-0.79, 2.73+-0.72, 3.23+-0.61, 2.94+-0.6, 2.58+-0.79 mV, P=0.0006, for Saudi's, Indians, Jordanians, Filipinos, Sri-Lankans, and Caucasians, respectively). SLV was similar among ethnic groups in women. The prevalence of early transition pattern was also different among ethnic groups in men but not women (15.8%, 34.6%, 17.9%, 21.7%, 35.3%, 26.8% in Suadi, Indian, Jordanian, Filipino, Sri-Lankan, and Caucasian, respectively, P=0.037). T wave amplitude was significantly different among ethnic groups in selected lead. ECG wave amplitude differs with ethnic region even when other factors are similar. Using SLV of 3.5 mV as a criterion may overestimate the incidence of left ventricular hypertrophy in some ethnic groups. The pattern of high R wave in lead V1is common in healthy adults in certain ethnic groups. T wave height differs with ethnic origin and sex. (author)
Loop amplitudes in an extended gravity theory
Dunbar, David C.; Godwin, John H.; Jehu, Guy R.; Perkins, Warren B.
2018-05-01
We extend the S-matrix of gravity by the addition of the minimal three-point amplitude or equivalently adding R3 terms to the Lagrangian. We demonstrate how Unitarity can be used to simply examine the renormalisability of this theory and determine the R4 counter-terms that arise at one-loop. We find that the combination of R4 terms that arise in the extended theory is complementary to the R4 counter-term associated with supersymmetric Lagrangians.
Loop-quantum-gravity vertex amplitude.
Engle, Jonathan; Pereira, Roberto; Rovelli, Carlo
2007-10-19
Spin foam models are hoped to provide the dynamics of loop-quantum gravity. However, the most popular of these, the Barrett-Crane model, does not have the good boundary state space and there are indications that it fails to yield good low-energy n-point functions. We present an alternative dynamics that can be derived as a quantization of a Regge discretization of Euclidean general relativity, where second class constraints are imposed weakly. Its state space matches the SO(3) loop gravity one and it yields an SO(4)-covariant vertex amplitude for Euclidean loop gravity.
Speech production in amplitude-modulated noise
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Macdonald, Ewen N; Raufer, Stefan
2013-01-01
The Lombard effect refers to the phenomenon where talkers automatically increase their level of speech in a noisy environment. While many studies have characterized how the Lombard effect influences different measures of speech production (e.g., F0, spectral tilt, etc.), few have investigated...... the consequences of temporally fluctuating noise. In the present study, 20 talkers produced speech in a variety of noise conditions, including both steady-state and amplitude-modulated white noise. While listening to noise over headphones, talkers produced randomly generated five word sentences. Similar...... of noisy environments and will alter their speech accordingly....
Optical twists in phase and amplitude
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Daria, Vincent R.; Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper
2011-01-01
where both phase and amplitude express a helical profile as the beam propagates in free space. Such a beam can be accurately referred to as an optical twister. We characterize optical twisters and demonstrate their capacity to induce spiral motion on particles trapped along the twisters’ path. Unlike LG...... beams, the far field projection of the twisted optical beam maintains a high photon concentration even at higher values of topological charge. Optical twisters have therefore profound applications to fundamental studies of light and atoms such as in quantum entanglement of the OAM, toroidal traps...
First order correction to quasiclassical scattering amplitude
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuz'menko, A.V.
1978-01-01
First order (with respect to h) correction to quasiclassical with the aid of scattering amplitude in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics is considered. This correction is represented by two-loop diagrams and includes the double integrals. With the aid of classical equations of motion, the sum of the contributions of the two-loop diagrams is transformed into the expression which includes one-dimensional integrals only. The specific property of the expression obtained is that the integrand does not possess any singularities in the focal points of the classical trajectory. The general formula takes much simpler form in the case of one-dimensional systems
Tomography for amplitudes of hard exclusive processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polyakov, M.V.
2008-01-01
We discuss which part of information about hadron structure encoded in the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) [part of total GPD image] can be restored from the known amplitude of a hard exclusive process. The physics content of this partial image is analyzed. Among other things, we show that this partial image contains direct information about how the target hadron responses to the (string) quark-antiquark operator of arbitrary spin J. Explicit equations relating physics content of the partial image of GPDs directly to the data are derived. Also some new results concerning the dual parametrization of GPDs are presented
Inverse amplitude method and Adler zeros
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez Nicola, A.; Pelaez, J. R.; Rios, G.
2008-01-01
The inverse amplitude method is a powerful unitarization technique to enlarge the energy applicability region of effective Lagrangians. It has been widely used to describe resonances in hadronic physics, combined with chiral perturbation theory, as well as in the strongly interacting symmetry breaking sector. In this work we show how it can be slightly modified to also account for the subthreshold region, incorporating correctly the Adler zeros required by chiral symmetry and eliminating spurious poles. These improvements produce negligible effects on the physical region.
Survey of vibration amplitudes throughout the linac
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Werner, K.L.
1984-01-01
The magnitude of vibrations of the Linac structure due to on site disturbances, such as cooling towers, pumps, generators, Highway 280 overpass traffic, is of interest. CN-263, for example, discusses tolerances of random (i.e., uncorrelated) quad jitter and suggests that amplitudes should not exceed 0.7 microns rms. This note describes the results of a series of measurements carried out in the summer of 1983. In general, the tolerance is not exceeded, but there appears not to be a good safety factor at low frequencies
Multichannel amplitude analyser for nuclear spectrometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jankovic, S.; Milovanovic, B.
2003-01-01
A multichannel amplitude analyser with 4096 channels was designed. It is based on a fast 12-bit analog-to-digital converter. The intended purpose of the instrument is recording nuclear spectra by means of scintillation detectors. The computer link is established through an opto-isolated serial connection cable, thus reducing instrument sensitivity to disturbances originating from digital circuitry. Refreshing of the data displayed on the screen occurs on every 2.5 seconds. The impulse peak detection is implemented through the differentiation of the amplified input signal, while the synchronization with the data coming from the converter output is established by taking advantage of the internal 'pipeline' structure of the converter itself. The mode of operation of the built-in microcontroller provides that there are no missed impulses, and the simple logic network prevents the initiation of the amplitude reading sequence for the next impulse in case it appears shortly after its precedent. The solution proposed here demonstrated a good performance at a comparatively low manufacturing cost, and is thus suitable for educational purposes (author)
Getting superstring amplitudes by degenerating Riemann surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matone, Marco; Volpato, Roberto
2010-01-01
We explicitly show how the chiral superstring amplitudes can be obtained through factorisation of the higher genus chiral measure induced by suitable degenerations of Riemann surfaces. This powerful tool also allows to derive, at any genera, consistency relations involving the amplitudes and the measure. A key point concerns the choice of the local coordinate at the node on degenerate Riemann surfaces that greatly simplifies the computations. As a first application, starting from recent ansaetze for the chiral measure up to genus five, we compute the chiral two-point function for massless Neveu-Schwarz states at genus two, three and four. For genus higher than three, these computations include some new corrections to the conjectural formulae appeared so far in the literature. After GSO projection, the two-point function vanishes at genus two and three, as expected from space-time supersymmetry arguments, but not at genus four. This suggests that the ansatz for the superstring measure should be corrected for genus higher than four.
The Construction of Spin Foam Vertex Amplitudes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eugenio Bianchi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Spin foam vertex amplitudes are the key ingredient of spin foam models for quantum gravity. These fall into the realm of discretized path integral, and can be seen as generalized lattice gauge theories. They can be seen as an attempt at a 4-dimensional generalization of the Ponzano-Regge model for 3d quantum gravity. We motivate and review the construction of the vertex amplitudes of recent spin foam models, giving two different and complementary perspectives of this construction. The first proceeds by extracting geometric configurations from a topological theory of the BF type, and can be seen to be in the tradition of the work of Barrett, Crane, Freidel and Krasnov. The second keeps closer contact to the structure of Loop Quantum Gravity and tries to identify an appropriate set of constraints to define a Lorentz-invariant interaction of its quanta of space. This approach is in the tradition of the work of Smolin, Markopoulous, Engle, Pereira, Rovelli and Livine.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Westphal, T; Nijssen, R P L
2014-01-01
The effect of Constant Life Diagram (CLD) formulation on the fatigue life prediction under variable amplitude (VA) loading was investigated based on variable amplitude tests using three different load spectra representative for wind turbine loading. Next to the Wisper and WisperX spectra, the recently developed NewWisper2 spectrum was used. Based on these variable amplitude fatigue results the prediction accuracy of 4 CLD formulations is investigated. In the study a piecewise linear CLD based on the S-N curves for 9 load ratios compares favourably in terms of prediction accuracy and conservativeness. For the specific laminate used in this study Boerstra's Multislope model provides a good alternative at reduced test effort
Westphal, T.; Nijssen, R. P. L.
2014-12-01
The effect of Constant Life Diagram (CLD) formulation on the fatigue life prediction under variable amplitude (VA) loading was investigated based on variable amplitude tests using three different load spectra representative for wind turbine loading. Next to the Wisper and WisperX spectra, the recently developed NewWisper2 spectrum was used. Based on these variable amplitude fatigue results the prediction accuracy of 4 CLD formulations is investigated. In the study a piecewise linear CLD based on the S-N curves for 9 load ratios compares favourably in terms of prediction accuracy and conservativeness. For the specific laminate used in this study Boerstra's Multislope model provides a good alternative at reduced test effort.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Mou, E-mail: yang.mou@hotmail.com [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Rui-Qiang [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Bai, Yan-Kui [College of Physical Science and Information Engineering and Hebei Advance Thin Films Laboratory, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China)
2015-09-04
Graphene pn junction is the brick to build up variety of graphene nano-structures. The analytical formula of the conductance of graphene gradual pn junctions in the whole bipolar region has been absent up to now. In this paper, we analytically calculated that pn conductance with the spin–orbit coupling and stagger potential taken into account. Our analytical expression indicates that the energy gap causes the conductance to drop a constant value with respect to that without gap in a certain parameter region, and manifests that the curve of the conductance versus the stagger potential consists of two Gaussian peaks – one valley contributes one peak. The latter feature allows one to detect the valley polarization without using double-interface resonant devices. - Highlights: • Analytical conductance formula of the gradual graphene pn junction with spin–orbit coupling in the whole bipolar region. • Exploring the valley-dependent transport of gradual graphene pn junctions analytically. • Conductance peak without resonance.
A Psychometric Evaluation of a Swedish Version of the Positive–Negative Sex-Role Inventory (PN-SRI
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Therese Rydberg Sterner
2018-02-01
Full Text Available The Positive–Negative Sex-Role Inventory (PN-SRI assesses gender identity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of a Swedish version of the PN-SRI in a population of 70-year-olds within the Gothenburg H70-study in Sweden. The overarching objective of testing the PN-SRI within the H70-study was to evaluate its usability to further study gender identity in large population-based samples of older adults. A total of 1124 individuals participated in the psychometric testing. A sub-sample of these (n = 406 provided a comprehensive survey regarding societal norms on femininity and masculinity. Reliability and validity tests were performed using Cronbach’s Alpha and factor analyses. The Cronbach’s α coefficients (0.734–0.787 indicated a satisfactory level of internal consistency, and the four-factor model (Model 2 fitted the data at an acceptable level (root-mean-square error of approximation, RMSEA = 0.068, standardized root-mean-square residual, SRMR = 0.07. This cross-cultural adaptation of the PN-SRI indicates that it may be applicable in a Swedish research setting comprising older adults. Future research is needed to further test the psychometric properties of this scale. Adding the PN-SRI to population-based studies will contribute to providing a nuanced way of analyzing differences and similarities among men and women.
Strong Depletion in Hybrid Perovskite p-n Junctions Induced by Local Electronic Doping.
Ou, Qingdong; Zhang, Yupeng; Wang, Ziyu; Yuwono, Jodie A; Wang, Rongbin; Dai, Zhigao; Li, Wei; Zheng, Changxi; Xu, Zai-Quan; Qi, Xiang; Duhm, Steffen; Medhekar, Nikhil V; Zhang, Han; Bao, Qiaoliang
2018-04-01
A semiconductor p-n junction typically has a doping-induced carrier depletion region, where the doping level positively correlates with the built-in potential and negatively correlates with the depletion layer width. In conventional bulk and atomically thin junctions, this correlation challenges the synergy of the internal field and its spatial extent in carrier generation/transport. Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, a class of crystalline ionic semiconductors, are promising alternatives because of their direct badgap, long diffusion length, and large dielectric constant. Here, strong depletion in a lateral p-n junction induced by local electronic doping at the surface of individual CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 perovskite nanosheets is reported. Unlike conventional surface doping with a weak van der Waals adsorption, covalent bonding and hydrogen bonding between a MoO 3 dopant and the perovskite are theoretically predicted and experimentally verified. The strong hybridization-induced electronic coupling leads to an enhanced built-in electric field. The large electric permittivity arising from the ionic polarizability further contributes to the formation of an unusually broad depletion region up to 10 µm in the junction. Under visible optical excitation without electrical bias, the lateral diode demonstrates unprecedented photovoltaic conversion with an external quantum efficiency of 3.93% and a photodetection responsivity of 1.42 A W -1 . © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Enhanced Photoelectrocatalytic Activity of BiOI Nanoplate-Zinc Oxide Nanorod p-n Heterojunction.
Kuang, Pan-Yong; Ran, Jing-Run; Liu, Zhao-Qing; Wang, Hong-Juan; Li, Nan; Su, Yu-Zhi; Jin, Yong-Gang; Qiao, Shi-Zhang
2015-10-19
The development of highly efficient and robust photocatalysts has attracted great attention for solving the global energy crisis and environmental problems. Herein, we describe the synthesis of a p-n heterostructured photocatalyst, consisting of ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs) decorated with BiOI nanoplates (NPs), by a facile solvothermal method. The product thus obtained shows high photoelectrochemical water splitting performance and enhanced photoelectrocatalytic activity for pollutant degradation under visible light irradiation. The p-type BiOI NPs, with a narrow band gap, not only act as a sensitizer to absorb visible light and promote electron transfer to the n-type ZnO NRAs, but also increase the contact area with organic pollutants. Meanwhile, ZnO NRAs provide a fast electron-transfer channel, thus resulting in efficient separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs. Such a p-n heterojunction nanocomposite could serve as a novel and promising catalyst in energy and environmental applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
High-efficiency p-n junction oxide photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical water splitting.
Liu, Zhifeng; Yan, Lu
2016-11-16
Development of all oxide p-n junctions makes a significant advancement in photoelectrode catalysis functional materials. In this article, we report the preparation of TiO 2 nanorod (NR)/Cu 2 O photoanodes via a simple hydrothermal method followed by an electrochemical deposition process. This facile synthesis route can simultaneously achieve uniform TiO 2 NR/Cu 2 O composite nanostructures and obtain varied amounts of Cu 2 O by controlling the deposition time. The photocurrent density of TiO 2 NR/Cu 2 O heterojunction photoanodes enhanced the photocatalytic activity with a photocurrent density of 5.25 mA cm -2 at 1.23 V versus RHE compared to pristine TiO 2 NR photoanodes under the same conditions. It is demonstrated that the presence of Cu 2 O has played an important role in expanding the spectral response region and reducing the photogenerated charge recombination rate. More importantly, the results provide new insights into the performance of all oxide p-n junctions as photoanodes for PEC water splitting.
Electronic transmission through p-n and n-p-n junctions of graphene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Setare, M R [Department of Science of Bijar, University of Kurdistan, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jahani, D, E-mail: rezakord@ipm.co, E-mail: Dariush110@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2010-06-23
In this paper, we first evaluate the electronic transmission of Dirac fermions into a p-n junction of gapped graphene and show that the final result depends on the sign of the refractive index, n. We also, by considering the appropriate wavefunctions in the region of the electrostatic potential, show that both transmission and the reflection probability turn out to be positive and less than unity instead of the negative transmission and higher than unity reflection coefficient commonly referred to as the Klein paradox. We then obtain the transmission probability corresponding to a special p-n junction for which there exists a region in which the low energy excitations of graphene acquire a finite mass and, interestingly, find that in this case the transmission is independent of the index of refraction, in contrast with the corresponding result for gapped graphene. We then discuss the validity of the solutions reported in some of the papers cited in this work which, considering the Buettiker formula, turn out to lead to the wrong results for conductivity.
Chavez, Ruben; Angst, Sebastian; Hall, Joseph; Maculewicz, Franziska; Stoetzel, Julia; Wiggers, Hartmut; Thanh Hung, Le; Van Nong, Ngo; Pryds, Nini; Span, Gerhard; Wolf, Dietrich E.; Schmechel, Roland; Schierning, Gabi
2018-01-01
In many industrial processes, a large proportion of energy is lost in the form of heat. Thermoelectric generators can convert this waste heat into electricity by means of the Seebeck effect. However, the use of thermoelectric generators in practical applications on an industrial scale is limited in part because electrical, thermal, and mechanical bonding contacts between the semiconductor materials and the metal electrodes in current designs are not capable of withstanding thermal-mechanical stress and alloying of the metal-semiconductor interface when exposed to the high temperatures occurring in many real-world applications. Here we demonstrate a concept for thermoelectric generators that can address this issue by replacing the metallization and electrode bonding on the hot side of the device by a p-n junction between the two semiconductor materials, making the device robust against temperature induced failure. In our proof-of-principle demonstration, a p-n junction device made from nanocrystalline silicon is at least comparable in its efficiency and power output to conventional devices of the same material and fabrication process, but with the advantage of sustaining high hot side temperatures and oxidative atmosphere.
Narrow-band light emission from a single carbon nanotube p-n diode
Kinoshita, Megumi; Mueller, Thomas; Steiner, Mathias; Perebeinos, Vasili; Bol, Ageeth; Farmer, Damon; Avouris, Phaedon
2010-03-01
We present the first observation of electroluminescence from electrostatically-generated carbon nanotube (CNT) p-n junctions[1]. While CNT optoelectronics has made much progress in recent years, observations of emission from electrically excited CNT devices have been limited to the high-bias regime and with low efficiency. Furthermore, the resulting broad linewidths are broad, making it difficult to investigate electronic levels and carrier dynamics. We find that p-n junctions allow for better carrier control at lower power inputs, resulting in emission with near-zero threshold, low self-heating and efficiency two to three orders of magnitude greater compared to previous device configurations. This yields higher signal-to-noise ratio and narrower linewidths (down to ˜35 meV) that allows us to identify localized excitonic transitions that have previously been observed only in photoluminescent studies. [1] T. Mueller, M. Kinoshita, M. Steiner, V. Perebeinos, A. Bol, D. Farmer, and Ph. Avouris, Nature Nanotech., web publication, November 15 2009.
Doping of 6H-SiC pn structures by proton irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strel'chuk, Anatoly M.; Lebedev, Alexandre A.; Kozlovski, Vitali V.; Savkina, Natali S.; Davydov, Denis V.; Solov'ev, Viktor V.; Rastegaeva, Marina G.
1999-01-01
The influence of proton irradiation on current-voltage characteristics, N d - N a values and parameters of deep centres in 6H-SiC pn structures grown by sublimation epitaxy has been studied. The irradiation was carried out with 8 MeV protons in the range of doses from 10 14 to 10 16 cm -2 . Irradiation with a dose of 3.6x10 14 cm -2 leaves the voltage drop at high forward currents (10 A/cm 2 ) practically unchanged. For higher irradiation dose of 1.8x10 15 cm -2 , the forward voltage drop and the degree of compensation in the samples increased ; partial annealing of the radiation defects and partial recovery of the electrical parameters occurred after annealing at T∼400-800 K. Irradiation with a dose of 5.4x10 15 cm -2 resulted in very high resistance in forward biased pn structures which remained high even after heating to 500 deg. C. It is suggested that proton irradiation causes decreasing of the lifetime and formation of an i- or an additional p-layer
Study of the electroplated of Ni for betavoltaic battery using PN junction without seed layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Uhm, Young Rang; Kim, Jong Bum; Son, Kwang Jae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Byoung Gun [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
The mechanism of a nuclear battery is same as the P.N junction diode for solar cell application. The photovoltaic is operated by converting photons into electrical energy in the junction. In a betavoltaic battery, beta particles are collected and converted into electrical energy with a similar principle as a photovoltaic. If a radioisotope (RI) with a long half-life (over 100 years) is used, the lifetime of the power source is extended to as long as the half-life time of the RI. Hence, the power sources we describe could extend a system's operating life by several decades or even a century, during which time the system can gain learned behavior without worrying about the power turning off. The beta spectrum of {sup 63}Ni is below the radiation damage threshold (approximately 200 keV for Si) of semiconductors such as Si and SiC. Beta particles of 63Ni were deposited by electroplating on the Ni-foil substrate and attached on the trench P-N absorber with a spacing of 50 μm. The optimum total thickness of the 63Ni layer was determined to be about 2 μm, when regarding the minimum self-shielding effect of the beta-ray (β-ray). The optimum condition of the electroplating {sup 63}Ni was determined at current density of 20 mA/cm{sup 2}.
The problem of crowd crimes: the approach of P.N. Obninskiy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gorbatov D.S.
2014-09-01
Full Text Available We describe the specific approach to crowd crimes proposed by prominent Russian lawyer and public figure of the XIX century P.N. Obninskiy. We clarify its fundamental differences from other concepts of Russian and foreign psychologists and lawyers. Particular attention is paid to the P.N. Obninskiy treatment of possible sanity and responsibility of participants of mass cholera riots of the late XIX century in various regions of the Russian Empire. We reveal the moral potential of his views. Crowd as a social associations, the personality changes in the crowd, the crowd propensity to violate the law, the issue of punishment for crimes committed by it – these are some of the questions that interested the public opinion of the time. The article emphasizes that the lack of trust and lack of equal dialogue between representatives of different social groups have played a negative role in the development of «contagion morale», and later became reasons for the even more tragic events of Russian history.
The X-ray mirror telescope and the pn-CCD detector of CAST
Kuster, M; Englhauser, J; Franz, J; Friedrich, P; Hartmann, R; Kang, D; Kotthaus, R; Lutz, Gerhard; Moralez, J; Serber, W; Strüder, L
2004-01-01
The Cern Axion Solar Telescope - CAST - uses a prototype 9 Tesla LHC superconducting dipole magnet to search for a hypothetical pseudoscalar particle, the axion, which was proposed by theory in the 1980s to solve the strong CP problem and which could be a dark matter candidate. In CAST a strong magnetic field is used to convert the solar axions to detectable photons via inverse Primakoff effect. The resulting X-rays are thermally distributed in the energy range of 1-7 keV and can be observed with conventional X-ray detectors. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a pn-CCD detector originally developed for XMM-Newton combined with a Wolter I type X-ray mirror system. The combination of a focusing X-ray optics and a state of the art pn-CCD detector which combines high quantum efficiency, good spacial and energy resolution, and low background improves the sensitivity of the CAST experiment such that for the first time the axion photon coupling constant can be probed beyond the best astrophysical constrai...
Study of the electroplated of Ni for betavoltaic battery using PN junction without seed layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uhm, Young Rang; Kim, Jong Bum; Son, Kwang Jae; Cho, Byoung Gun
2015-01-01
The mechanism of a nuclear battery is same as the P.N junction diode for solar cell application. The photovoltaic is operated by converting photons into electrical energy in the junction. In a betavoltaic battery, beta particles are collected and converted into electrical energy with a similar principle as a photovoltaic. If a radioisotope (RI) with a long half-life (over 100 years) is used, the lifetime of the power source is extended to as long as the half-life time of the RI. Hence, the power sources we describe could extend a system's operating life by several decades or even a century, during which time the system can gain learned behavior without worrying about the power turning off. The beta spectrum of 63 Ni is below the radiation damage threshold (approximately 200 keV for Si) of semiconductors such as Si and SiC. Beta particles of 63Ni were deposited by electroplating on the Ni-foil substrate and attached on the trench P-N absorber with a spacing of 50 μm. The optimum total thickness of the 63Ni layer was determined to be about 2 μm, when regarding the minimum self-shielding effect of the beta-ray (β-ray). The optimum condition of the electroplating 63 Ni was determined at current density of 20 mA/cm 2
Atomistic nature in band-to-band tunneling in two-dimensional silicon pn tunnel diodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tabe, Michiharu; Tan, Hoang Nhat; Mizuno, Takeshi; Muruganathan, Manoharan; Anh, Le The; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Nuryadi, Ratno; Moraru, Daniel
2016-01-01
We study low-temperature transport properties of two-dimensional (2D) Si tunnel diodes, or Si Esaki diodes, with a lateral layout. In ordinary Si Esaki diodes, interband tunneling current is severely limited because of the law of momentum conservation, while nanoscale Esaki diodes may behave differently due to the dopants in the narrow depletion region, by atomistic effects which release such current limitation. In thin-Si lateral highly doped pn diodes, we find clear signatures of interband tunneling between 2D-subbands involving phonon assistance. More importantly, the tunneling current is sharply enhanced in a narrow voltage range by resonance via a pair of a donor- and an acceptor-atom in the pn junction region. Such atomistic behavior is recognized as a general feature showing up only in nanoscale tunnel diodes. In particular, a donor-acceptor pair with deeper ground-state energies is likely to be responsible for such a sharply enhanced current peak, tunable by external biases.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang Weizhou; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen
2007-01-01
The mean free paths and in-medium scattering cross sections of energetic nucleons in neutron-rich nucleonic matter are investigated using the nucleon optical potential obtained within the relativistic impulse approximation with the empirical nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitudes and the nuclear densities obtained in the relativistic mean-field model. It is found that the isospin-splitting of nucleon mean free paths, sensitive to the imaginary part of the symmetry potential, changes its sign at certain high kinetic energy. The in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections are analytically and numerically demonstrated to be essentially independent of the isospin asymmetry of the medium and increase linearly with density in the high-energy region where the relativistic impulse approximation is applicable
Thrombelastography Early Amplitudes in bleeding and coagulopathic trauma patients
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laursen, Thomas Holst; Meyer, Martin A S; Meyer, Anna Sina P
2018-01-01
BACKGROUND: Early amplitudes in the viscoelastic hemostatic assays Thrombelastography (TEG) and Rotation Thromboelastometry (ROTEM) provide fast results, which is critical in resuscitation of bleeding patients. This study investigated associations between TEG early amplitudes and standard TEG var...
Investigating power factor compensation capacity calculation in medium sized industry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chudhry, M.A.; Hanif, A.
2008-01-01
There are a variety of techniques developed in order to improve the efficiency of electrical systems and reduce cost of providing electricity to the consumer. This paper presents a new technique for power-factor capacity calculation in medium-sized industrial/ commercial setups. Various loads of similar nominal power-factor are categorized and demand-factor of loads is so selected that it has engineering justifications. The developed system works on the principle of low-voltage power-factor correction, which substantially reduces electricity bill and increases loading-capacity of the electrical system. It allows commercial and industrial consumers to save on their power cost appreciably. This work utilizes software, which takes few inputs and produces numerous useful results. Adoption of this system can help the user in computing compensation-capacity, system KVA (size of transformer) and cost of compensation. A feature of this system is prediction of low PF penalty. Moreover, it also suggests the tentative payback period. (author)
Variational principles for the projected breakup amplitude
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahn, Y.
1976-01-01
Two alternate forms of variational principles for the breakup amplitude describing the two- to three-cluster transition are derived such that all the integrals involved in the intermediate stages are well defined. The first form contains a trial Green's function with which both the initial and final state trial wave functions are constructed. The earlier form of the Kohn-type variational principle derived by Lieber, Rosenberg, and Spruch is recovered, however, when this connection between the trial functions is removed. The second form of the variational principle is derived by projecting out from the trial functions all the open channel components which correspond to the two-cluster structures including the rearrangement channels. The remaining part of the wave functions describes the channels with three-cluster structures, and the integrals involving this part are then mathematically well defined
Single isospin decay amplitude and CP violation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deshpande, N.G. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Theoretical Science; He, Xiaogang [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Pakvasa, S. [Hawaii Univ., Honolulu, HI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
1996-06-01
While for K meson or hyperon decays, the partial rate asymmetries are always zero if the final states are single isospin states, in B decays the situation is dramatically different and partial rate asymmetries can be non-zero if the final states are single isospin states. Partial rate asymmetries were calculated for several B decays with single isospin amplitude in the finale states using factorization approximation. It was found that more intermediate on-shell states with different Cabbibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa factors are allowed in B decay and CP violating partial rate asymmetries need not to be zero even if the final state contains only a single isospin state. 17 refs., 4 figs.
Large amplitude parallel propagating electromagnetic oscillitons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cattaert, Tom; Verheest, Frank
2005-01-01
Earlier systematic nonlinear treatments of parallel propagating electromagnetic waves have been given within a fluid dynamic approach, in a frame where the nonlinear structures are stationary and various constraining first integrals can be obtained. This has lead to the concept of oscillitons that has found application in various space plasmas. The present paper differs in three main aspects from the previous studies: first, the invariants are derived in the plasma frame, as customary in the Sagdeev method, thus retaining in Maxwell's equations all possible effects. Second, a single differential equation is obtained for the parallel fluid velocity, in a form reminiscent of the Sagdeev integrals, hence allowing a fully nonlinear discussion of the oscilliton properties, at such amplitudes as the underlying Mach number restrictions allow. Third, the transition to weakly nonlinear whistler oscillitons is done in an analytical rather than a numerical fashion
Amplitude and phase modulation with waveguide optics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burkhart, S.C.; Wilcox, R.B.; Browning, D.; Penko, F.A.
1996-01-01
We have developed amplitude and phase modulation systems for glass lasers using integrated electro-optic modulators and solid state high-speed electronics. The present and future generation of lasers for Inertial Confinement Fusion require laser beams with complex temporal and phase shaping to compensate for laser gain saturation, mitigate parametric processes such as transverse stimulated Brillouin scattering in optics, and to provide specialized drive to the fusion targets. These functions can be performed using bulk optoelectronic modulators, however using high-speed electronics to drive low voltage integrated optical modulators has many practical advantages. In particular, we utilize microwave GaAs transistors to perform precision, 250 ps resolution temporal shaping. Optical bandwidth is generated using a microwave oscillator at 3 GHz amplified by a solid state amplifier. This drives an integrated electrooptic modulator to achieve laser bandwidths exceeding 30 GHz
Topological amplitudes in heterotic superstring theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antoniadis, I.; Taylor, T.R.
1996-06-01
We show that certain heterotic string amplitudes are given in terms of correlators of the twisted topological (2,0) SCFT, corresponding to the internal sector of the N = 1 spacetime supersymmetric background. The genus g topological partition function F g corresponds to a term in the effective action of the form W 2g , where W is the gauge or gravitational superfield. We study also recursion relations related to holomorphic anomalies, showing that, contrary to the type II case, they involve correlators of anti-chiral superfields. The corresponding terms in the effective action are of the form W 2g II n , where II is a chiral superfield obtained by chiral projection of a general superfield. We observe that the structure of the recursion relations is that of N = 1 spacetime supersymmetry Ward identity. We give also a solution of the tree level recursion relations and discuss orbifold examples. (author). 23 refs, 2 figs
Polynomial structures in one-loop amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Britto, Ruth; Feng Bo; Yang Gang
2008-01-01
A general one-loop scattering amplitude may be expanded in terms of master integrals. The coefficients of the master integrals can be obtained from tree-level input in a two-step process. First, use known formulas to write the coefficients of (4-2ε)-dimensional master integrals; these formulas depend on an additional variable, u, which encodes the dimensional shift. Second, convert the u-dependent coefficients of (4-2ε)-dimensional master integrals to explicit coefficients of dimensionally shifted master integrals. This procedure requires the initial formulas for coefficients to have polynomial dependence on u. Here, we give a proof of this property in the case of massless propagators. The proof is constructive. Thus, as a byproduct, we produce different algebraic expressions for the scalar integral coefficients, in which the polynomial property is apparent. In these formulas, the box and pentagon contributions are separated explicitly.
Amplitude correlations for inelastic proton scattering from 48Ti
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chou, B.H.; Mitchell, G.E.; Bilpuch, E.G.; Westerfeldt, C.R.
1981-01-01
The magnitudes and relative signs of inelastic proton channel amplitudes were determined for three decay channels for 45 5/2 + resonances in 49 V. The reduced widths in each channel follow a Porter-Thomas distribution, but extremely large amplitude correlations are observed - for one pair of channel amplitudes the relative sign is positive for 43 of 45 resonances. These results provide the first direct test of the Krieger-Porter reduced width amplitude distribution. (orig.)
Tree-level gluon amplitudes on the celestial sphere
Schreiber, Anders Ø.; Volovich, Anastasia; Zlotnikov, Michael
2018-06-01
Pasterski, Shao and Strominger have recently proposed that massless scattering amplitudes can be mapped to correlators on the celestial sphere at infinity via a Mellin transform. We apply this prescription to arbitrary n-point tree-level gluon amplitudes. The Mellin transforms of MHV amplitudes are given by generalized hypergeometric functions on the Grassmannian Gr (4 , n), while generic non-MHV amplitudes are given by more complicated Gelfand A-hypergeometric functions.
Correlations for reduced-width amplitudes in 49V
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chou, B.H.; Mitchell, G.E.; Bilpuch, E.G.; Westerfeldt, C.R.
1980-01-01
Measurement of the relative sign of inelastic proton-channel amplitudes permits the determination of amplitude correlations. Data were obtained for 45 5/2 + resonances in 49 V. Although the reduced widths in each channel followed a Porter-Thomas distribution, large amplitude correlations were observed. The results are compared with the reduced-width--amplitude distribution of Krieger and Porter. This is the first direct test of the Krieger-Porter distribution
Ziurys, L. M.; Schmidt, D. R.; Bernal, J. J.
2018-04-01
PO and PN have been newly identified in several oxygen-rich circumstellar envelopes, using the Submillimeter Telescope of the Arizona Radio Observatory. The J = 5 → 4 and J = 6 → 5 transitions of PN near 235 and 282 GHz, and the lambda doublets originating in the J = 5.5 → 4.5 and J = 6.5 → 5.5 lines of PO at 240 and 284 GHz, have been detected toward the shells of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars TX Cam and R Cas. A similar set of lines has been observed toward the supergiant NML Cyg, and new transitions of these two molecules were also measured toward the AGB star IK Tau. Along with the previous data from VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa), these spectral lines were analyzed using the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) circumstellar modeling code, ESCAPADE. For the AGB stars, peak abundances found for PN and PO were f ∼ (1–2) × 10‑8 and (0.5–1) × 10‑7, respectively, while those for the supergiants were f(PN) ∼ (0.3–0.7) × 10‑8 and f(PO) ∼ (5–7) × 10‑8. PN was well modeled with a spherical radial distribution, suggesting formation near the stellar photosphere, perhaps enhanced by shocks. PO was best reproduced by a shell model, indicating a photochemical origin, except for VY CMa. Overall, the abundance of PO is a factor of 5–20 greater than that of PN. This study suggests that phosphorus-bearing molecules are common in O-rich envelopes, and that a significant amount of phosphorus (>20%) remains in the gas phase.
Corrections to the box diagram amplitude due to kaon mass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Datta, A.; Kumbhakar, D.
1985-08-01
The K 0 -anti-K 0 mixing amplitude is calculated without using the standard zero external momentum approximation. The resulting corrections are numerically significant for the real part of the amplitude. In the imaginary part of the amplitude the effects of similar corrections are less important. Implications for Δmsub(k) and epsilon are discussed. (author)
MHV Vertices And Tree Amplitudes In Gauge Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cachazo, Freddy; Svrcek, Peter; Witten, Edward
2004-01-01
As an alternative to the usual Feynman graphs, tree amplitudes in Yang-Mills theory can be constructed from tree graphs in which the vertices are tree level MHV scattering amplitudes, continued off shell in a particular fashion. The formalism leads to new and relatively simple formulas for many amplitudes, and can be heuristically derived from twistor space. (author)
Pharmacological characterisation of the highly NaV1.7 selective spider venom peptide Pn3a
Deuis, J. R.; Dekan, Z.; Wingerd, J. S.; Smith, J. J.; Munasinghe, N. R.; Bhola, R. F.; Imlach, W. L.; Herzig, V.; Armstrong, D. A.; Rosengren, K. J.; Bosmans, F.; Waxman, S. G.; Dib-Hajj, S. D.; Escoubas, P.; Minett, M. S.
2017-01-01
Human genetic studies have implicated the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7 as a therapeutic target for the treatment of pain. A novel peptide, μ-theraphotoxin-Pn3a, isolated from venom of the tarantula Pamphobeteus nigricolor, potently inhibits NaV1.7 (IC50 0.9 nM) with at least 40-1000-fold selectivity over all other NaV subtypes. Despite on-target activity in small-diameter dorsal root ganglia, spinal slices, and in a mouse model of pain induced by NaV1.7 activation, Pn3a alone displayed...
Pharmacological characterisation of the highly NaV1.7 selective spider venom peptide Pn3a
Jennifer R. Deuis; Zoltan Dekan; Joshua S. Wingerd; Jennifer J. Smith; Nehan R. Munasinghe; Rebecca F. Bhola; Wendy L. Imlach; Volker Herzig; David A. Armstrong; K. Johan Rosengren; Frank Bosmans; Stephen G. Waxman; Sulayman D. Dib-Hajj; Pierre Escoubas; Michael S. Minett
2017-01-01
Human genetic studies have implicated the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7 as a therapeutic target for the treatment of pain. A novel peptide, ?-theraphotoxin-Pn3a, isolated from venom of the tarantula Pamphobeteus nigricolor, potently inhibits NaV1.7 (IC50 0.9?nM) with at least 40?1000-fold selectivity over all other NaV subtypes. Despite on-target activity in small-diameter dorsal root ganglia, spinal slices, and in a mouse model of pain induced by NaV1.7 activation, Pn3a alone displayed...
Integrated CLOS and PN Guidance for Increased Effectiveness of Surface to Air Missiles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Binte Fatima Tuz ZAHRA
2017-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a novel approach has been presented to integrate command to line-of-sight (CLOS guidance and proportional navigation (PN guidance in order to reduce miss distance and to increase the effectiveness of surface to air missiles. Initially a comparison of command to line-of-sight guidance and proportional navigation has been presented. Miss distance, variation of angle-of-attack, normal and lateral accelerations and error of missile flight path from direct line-of-sight have been used as noteworthy criteria for comparison of the two guidance laws. Following this comparison a new approach has been proposed for determining the most suitable guidance gains in order to minimize miss distance and improve accuracy of the missile in delivering the warhead, while using CLOS guidance. This proposed technique is based on constrained nonlinear minimization to optimize the guidance gains. CLOS guidance has a further limitation of significant increase in normal and lateral acceleration demands during the terminal phase of missile flight. Furthermore, at large elevation angles, the required angle-of-attack during the terminal phase increases beyond design specifications. Subsequently, a missile with optical sensors only and following just the CLOS guidance has less likelihood to hit high speed targets beyond 45º in elevation plane. A novel approach has thus been proposed to overcome such limitations of CLOS-only guidance for surface to air missiles. In this approach, an integrated guidance algorithm has been proposed whereby the initial guidance law during rocket motor burnout phase remains CLOS, whereas immediately after this phase, the guidance law is automatically switched to PN guidance. This integrated approach has not only resulted in slight increase in range of the missile but also has significantly improved its likelihood to hit targets beyond 30 degrees in elevation plane, thus successfully overcoming various limitations of CLOS
Deformation and shape coexistence in medium mass nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyer, R.A.
1985-01-01
Emerging evidence for deformed structures in medium mass nuclei is reviewed. Included in this review are both nuclei that are ground state symmetric rotors and vibrational nuclei where there are deformed structures at excited energies (shape coexistence). For the first time, Nilsson configurations in odd-odd nuclei within the region of deformation are identified. Shape coexistence in nuclei that abut the medium mass region of deformation is also examined. Recent establishment of a four-particle, four-hole intruder band in the double subshell closure nucleus 96 Zr 56 is presented and its relation to the nuclear vibron model is discussed. Special attention is given to the N=59 nuclei where new data have led to the reanalysis of 97 Sr and 99 Zr and the presence of the [404 9/2] hole intruder state as isomers in these nuclei. The low energy levels of the N=59 nuclei from Z=38 to 50 are compared with recent quadrupole-phonon model calculations that can describe their transition from near-rotational to single closed shell nuclei. The odd-odd N=59 nuclei are discussed in the context of coexisting shape isomers based on the (p[303 5/2]n[404 9/2])2 - configuration. Ongoing in-beam (t,p conversion-electron) multiparameter measurements that have led to the determination of monopole matrix elements for even-even 42 Mo nuclei are presented, and these are compared with initial estimates using IBA-2 calculations that allow mixing of normal and cross subshell excitations. Lastly, evidence for the neutron-proton 3 S 1 force's influence on the level structure of these nuclei is discussed within the context of recent quadrupole-phonon model calculations. (Auth.)
Non-supersymmetric loop amplitudes and MHV vertices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bedford, James; Brandhuber, Andreas; Spence, Bill; Travaglini, Gabriele
2005-01-01
We show how the MHV diagram description of Yang-Mills theories can be used to study non-supersymmetric loop amplitudes. In particular, we derive a compact expression for the cut-constructible part of the general one-loop MHV multi-gluon scattering amplitude in pure Yang-Mills theory. We show that in special cases this expression reduces to known amplitudes-the amplitude with adjacent negative-helicity gluons, and the five gluon non-adjacent amplitude. Finally, we briefly discuss the twistor space interpretation of our result
Phase and amplitude detection system for the Stanford Linear Accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fox, J.D.; Schwarz, H.D.
1983-01-01
A computer controlled phase and amplitude detection system to measure and stabilize the rf power sources in the Stanford Linear Accelerator is described. This system measures the instantaneous phase and amplitude of a 1 microsecond 2856 MHz rf pulse and will be used for phase feedback control and for amplitude and phase jitter detection. This paper discusses the measurement system performance requirements for the operation of the Stanford Linear Collider, and the design and implementation of the phase and amplitude detection system. The fundamental software algorithms used in the measurement are described, as is the performance of the prototype phase and amplitude detector system
Leading Wave Amplitude of a Tsunami
Kanoglu, U.
2015-12-01
Okal and Synolakis (EGU General Assembly 2015, Geophysical Research Abstracts-Vol. 17-7622) recently discussed that why the maximum amplitude of a tsunami might not occur for the first wave. Okal and Synolakis list observations from 2011 Japan tsunami, which reached to Papeete, Tahiti with a fourth wave being largest and 72 min later after the first wave; 1960 Chilean tsunami reached Hilo, Hawaii with a maximum wave arriving 1 hour later with a height of 5m, first wave being only 1.2m. Largest later waves is a problem not only for local authorities both in terms of warning to the public and rescue efforts but also mislead the public thinking that it is safe to return shoreline or evacuated site after arrival of the first wave. Okal and Synolakis considered Hammack's (1972, Ph.D. Dissertation, Calif. Inst. Tech., 261 pp., Pasadena) linear dispersive analytical solution with a tsunami generation through an uplifting of a circular plug on the ocean floor. They performed parametric study for the radius of the plug and the depth of the ocean since these are the independent scaling lengths in the problem. They identified transition distance, as the second wave being larger, regarding the parameters of the problem. Here, we extend their analysis to an initial wave field with a finite crest length and, in addition, to a most common tsunami initial wave form of N-wave as presented by Tadepalli and Synolakis (1994, Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 445, 99-112). We compare our results with non-dispersive linear shallow water wave results as presented by Kanoglu et al. (2013, Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 469, 20130015), investigating focusing feature. We discuss the results both in terms of leading wave amplitude and tsunami focusing. Acknowledgment: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no 603839 (Project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy and Risk
Air-stable, solution-processed oxide p-n heterojunction ultraviolet photodetector.
Kim, Do Young; Ryu, Jiho; Manders, Jesse; Lee, Jaewoong; So, Franky
2014-02-12
Air-stable solution processed all-inorganic p-n heterojunction ultraviolet photodetector is fabricated with a high gain (EQE, 25 300%). Solution-processed NiO and ZnO films are used as p-type and n-type ultraviolet sensitizing materials, respectively. The high gain in the detector is due to the interfacial trap-induced charge injection that occurs at the ITO/NiO interface by photogenerated holes trapped in the NiO film. The gain of the detector is controlled by the post-annealing temperature of the solution-processed NiO films, which are studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).
Measurement of the Induced Proton Polarization Pn in the 12C(e, e', p) reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woo, R.J.; Barkhuff, David; Bertozzi, William; Jian-ping Chen; Dan Dale; G. Dodson; K.A. Dow; Marty Epstein; Manouchehr Farkhondeh; Mike Finn; Shalev Gilad; Mark K. Jones; Kyungseon Joo; James Kelly; Stanley Kowalski; Bob Lourie; Richard Madey; Dimitri Margaziotis; Pete Markowitz; Justin McIntyre; Christoph Mertz; Brian Milbrath; Joseph Mitchell; Charles F. Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi; Paul Rutt; Adam Sarty; D. Tieger; C. Tschalaer; William Turchinetz; Paul E. Ulmer; S.P. Van Verst; C. Vellidis; Glen Warren; Lawrence Weinstein
1998-01-01
The first measurements of the induced proton polarization Pn for the 12C(e,e',p) reaction are reported. The experiment was performed at quasifree kinematics for energy and momentum transfer (w,q) = (294 MeV, 765 MeV/c) and sampled a missing momentum range of 0-250 MeV/c. The induced polarization arises from final-state interactions and for these kinematics is dominated by the real part of the spin-orbit optical potential. The distorted-wave impulse approximation provides good agreement with data for the 1 p3/2 shell. The data for the continuum suggest that both the 1s1/2 shell and underlying l > 1 configurations contribute
1H(d,2p)n reaction at 2 GeV deuteron energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erohuml, J.; Fodor, Z.; Koncz, P.; Seres, Z.; Perdrisat, C.F.; Punjabi, V.; Boudard, A.; Bonin, B.; Garcon, M.; Lombard, R.; Mayer, B.; Terrien, Y.; Tomasi, E.; Boivin, M.; Yonnet, J.; Bhang, H.C.; Youn, M.; Belostotsky, S.L.; Grebenuk, O.G.; Nikulin, V.N.; Kudin, L.G.
1994-01-01
The 1 H(d,2p)n deuteron breakup reaction was measured at 2 GeV deuteron energy in a kinematically complete experiment. Fivefold differential cross sections are given in a wide range of kinematical variables and analyzed in terms of impulse approximation and NN rescattering. The deuteron momentum density was determined and deviations were found depending on the value of the four-momentum transfer |t| in the scattering process. At low |t| the momentum densities are in good agreement with the impulse approximation whereas large discrepancies were found above q∼200 MeV/c when the four-momentum transfer was large. Various possible origins of the anomalous behavior at high q values are discussed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chavez, Ruben; Angst, Sebastian; Hall, Joseph
2017-01-01
In many industrial processes a large proportion of energy is lost in the form of heat. Thermoelectric generators can convert this waste heat into electricity by means of the Seebeck effect. However, the use of thermoelectric generators in practical applications on an industrial scale is limited...... in part because electrical, thermal, and mechanical bonding contacts between the semiconductor materials and the metal electrodes in current designs are not capable of withstanding thermal-mechanical stress and alloying of the metal-semiconductor interface when exposed to the high temperatures occurring...... in many real-world applications. Here we demonstrate a concept for thermoelectric generators that can address this issue by replacing the metallization and electrode bonding on the hot side of the device by a p-n junction between the two semiconductor materials, making the device robust against...
Dual-gate operation and carrier transport in SiGe p-n junction nanowires
Delker, C. J.; Yoo, J. Y.; Bussmann, E.; Swartzentruber, B. S.; Harris, C. T.
2017-11-01
We investigate carrier transport in silicon-germanium nanowires with an axial p-n junction doping profile by fabricating these wires into transistors that feature separate top gates over each doping segment. By independently biasing each gate, carrier concentrations in the n- and p-side of the wire can be modulated. For these devices, which were fabricated with nickel source-drain electrical contacts, holes are the dominant charge carrier, with more favorable hole injection occurring on the p-side contact. Channel current exhibits greater sensitivity to the n-side gate, and in the reverse biased source-drain configuration, current is limited by the nickel/n-side Schottky contact.
Inductively Coupled Plasma-Induced Etch Damage of GaN p-n Junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
SHUL, RANDY J.; ZHANG, LEI; BACA, ALBERT G.; WILLISON, CHRISTI LEE; HAN, JUNG; PEARTON, S.J.; REN, F.
1999-01-01
Plasma-induced etch damage can degrade the electrical and optical performance of III-V nitride electronic and photonic devices. We have investigated the etch-induced damage of an Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) etch system on the electrical performance of mesa-isolated GaN pn-junction diodes. GaN p-i-n mesa diodes were formed by Cl 2 /BCl 3 /Ar ICP etching under different plasma conditions. The reverse leakage current in the mesa diodes showed a strong relationship to chamber pressure, ion energy, and plasma flux. Plasma induced damage was minimized at moderate flux conditions (≤ 500 W), pressures ≥2 mTorr, and at ion energies below approximately -275 V
Effects of amplitude modulation on perception of wind turbine noise
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoon, Ki Seop; Lee, Soo Gab; Gwak, Doo Young [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Yeol Wan [Ammunition Engineering Team, Defense Agency for Technology and Quality, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Hoon [Aerodynamics Research Team, Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Ji Young [Transportation Environmental Research Team, Green Transport and Logistics Institute, Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)
2016-10-15
Wind turbine noise is considered to be easily detectable and highly annoying at relatively lower sound levels than other noise sources. Many previous studies attributed this characteristic to amplitude modulation. However, it is unclear whether amplitude modulation is the main cause of these properties of wind turbine noise. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to identify the relationship between amplitude modulation and these two properties of wind turbine noise. For this investigation, two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, 12 participants determined the detection thresholds of six target sounds in the presence of background noise. In the second experiment, 12 participants matched the loudness of modified sounds without amplitude modulation to that of target sounds with amplitude modulation. The results showed that the detection threshold was lowered as the modulation depth increased; additionally, sounds with amplitude modulation had higher subjective loudness than those without amplitude modulation.
Effects of amplitude modulation on perception of wind turbine noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, Ki Seop; Lee, Soo Gab; Gwak, Doo Young; Seong, Yeol Wan; Lee, Seung Hoon; Hong, Ji Young
2016-01-01
Wind turbine noise is considered to be easily detectable and highly annoying at relatively lower sound levels than other noise sources. Many previous studies attributed this characteristic to amplitude modulation. However, it is unclear whether amplitude modulation is the main cause of these properties of wind turbine noise. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to identify the relationship between amplitude modulation and these two properties of wind turbine noise. For this investigation, two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, 12 participants determined the detection thresholds of six target sounds in the presence of background noise. In the second experiment, 12 participants matched the loudness of modified sounds without amplitude modulation to that of target sounds with amplitude modulation. The results showed that the detection threshold was lowered as the modulation depth increased; additionally, sounds with amplitude modulation had higher subjective loudness than those without amplitude modulation
Study of seed layer effect in nuclear battery with P-N diode junction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Lee, Jun Sig [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byoung Gun [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-10-15
A nuclear battery with diode junction is a device that converts nuclear radiation directly to electric power. The mechanism of a nuclear battery is same as the P-N junction diode for solar cell application. The photovoltaic is operated by converted photons to electrical energy in the junction. In betavoltaic battery, beta particles are collected and converted to electrical energy as similar principle as photovoltaic. A very low current, order of nano or micro amps, is generated in devices. If a radioisotope (RI) with a long halflife (over 50 years) is used, a lifetime of a power source is extended as long as halflife time of RI.. Some special applications require long-lived compact power sources. These include space equipment, sensors in remote locations (space, underground, etc.), and implantable medical devices. Conventionally, these sources rely on converting chemical energy to electricity. This means they require a large storage of chemical 'fuel' since the amount of energy released per reaction is small. The nuclear battery is a novel solution to solve the power needs of these applications. For the {sup 63}Ni beta-source we used, the half-life is 100.2 years. Hence, the power sources we describe could extend a system's operating life by several decades or even a century, during which time the system could gain learned behavior without worrying about the power turning off. Radioactive thin-film-based power sources also have energy density orders of magnitude higher than chemical-reaction-based energy sources. In this study, we fabricate nuclear battery using {sup 63}Ni source with diode junction, and studied seed layer effect for optimization of structure of p-n junction.
Sb2S3:C/CdS p-n junction by laser irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arato, A.; Cardenas, E.; Shaji, S.; O'Brien, J.J.; Liu, J.; Castillo, G. Alan; Das Roy, T.K.; Krishnan, B.
2009-01-01
In this paper, we report laser irradiated carbon doping of Sb 2 S 3 thin films and formation of a p-n junction photovoltaic structure using these films. A very thin carbon layer was evaporated on to chemical bath deposited Sb 2 S 3 thin films of approximately 0.5 μm in thickness. Sb 2 S 3 thin films were prepared from a solution containing SbCl 3 and Na 2 S 2 O 3 at 27 deg. C for 5 h and the films obtained were highly resistive. These C/Sb 2 S 3 thin films were irradiated by an expanded laser beam of diameter approximately 0.5 cm (5 W power, 532 nm Verdi laser), for 2 min at ambient atmosphere. Morphology and composition of these films were analyzed. These films showed p-type conductivity due to carbon diffusion (Sb 2 S 3 :C) by the thermal energy generated by the absorption of laser radiation. In addition, these thin films were incorporated in a photovoltaic structure Ag/Sb 2 S 3 :C/CdS/ITO/Glass. For this, CdS thin film of 50 nm in thickness was deposited on a commercially available ITO coated glass substrate from a chemical bath containing CdCl 2 , sodium citrate, NH 4 OH and thiourea at 70 deg. C . On the CdS film, Sb 2 S 3 /C layers were deposited. This multilayer structure was subjected to the laser irradiation, C/Sb 2 S 3 side facing the beam. The p-n junction formed by p-Sb 2 S 3 :C and n-type CdS showed V oc = 500 mV and J sc = 0.5 mA/cm 2 under illumination by a tungsten halogen lamp. This work opens up a new method to produce solar cell structures by laser assisted material processing
In-situ study of pn-heterojunction interface states in organic thin film transistors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ye, Rongbin; Ohta, Koji; Baba, Mamoru
2014-01-01
In this paper, we have investigated the density of pn-heterojunction interface states by evaluating the threshold voltage shift with in-situ measurement of electrical characteristics of a sandwich fluorinated copper phthalocyanine/pentacene thin film transistor with various thicknesses of pentacene thin films. A threshold voltage (V T ) undergoes a significant shift from + 20.6 to + 0.53 V with increasing the thickness of pentacene. When the thickness of pentacene is more than a critical thickness of 15 nm, V T undergoes hardly any shift. On the other hand, the value of mobility is lightly decreased with increasing the thickness of pentacene due to the effect of the bulk current. Thus the V T shift is attributed to the increase of drain current in the sandwich device. In order to explain the V T shift, a model was assumed in the linear region of thin film transistor operation and the V T shift agrees with a tan −1 function of film thickness. The total charge density (Q 0 ) of 1.53 × 10 −7 C/cm 2 (9.56 × 10 11 electrons or holes/cm 2 ) was obtained. Furthermore, the V T shift and Q 0 could be adjusted by selecting a p-type semiconductor. - Highlights: • A threshold voltage was in-situ measured in an organic sandwich thin film transistor. • Density of pn-heterojunction interface states by evaluating the threshold voltage shift. • The threshold voltage shift attributes to the increase of drain current. • In order to explain the threshold voltage shift, a model was assumed
LM1-64: a Newly Reported Lmc-Pn with WR Nucleus
Pena, M.; Olguin, L.; Ruiz, M. T.; Torres-Peimbert, S.
1993-05-01
The object LM1-64 was reported by Lindsay & Mullan (1963, Irish Astron. J., 5, 51) as a probable PN in the LMC. Optical and UV spectra taken by us confirm that suggestion. LM1-64 is a high excitation planetary nebulae which shows evidence of having a WC central star. Broad stellar emission at lambda 4650 is detected in the optical spectrum obtained with the CTIO 4m telescope, in 1989. A UV spectrum in the range from 1200 Angstroms to 2000 Angstroms was obtained with IUE in 1990. We have measured all the emission line fluxes available and determined values for the physical conditions and chemical abundances of the nebular ionized gas. The derived values are T(OIII) = 14000K, log He/H = 11.05, log C/H = 9.48, log O/H = 8.55 and log Ne/H = 7.94. LM1-64 shows a large C enhancement in the envelope as result of the central star activity, while He, O and Ne are comparable to the average values reported for the LMC-PNe (Monk, Barlow & Clegg, 1988, MNRAS, 234, 583). We have estimated the He II Zanstra temperature of the central star to be ~ 80,000 K. This temperature is much higher than the values reported for the known LMC-PNe with WR nucleus that Monk et al. have classified as W4 to W8. The only other high temperature WR nucleus in a LMC-PN is N66 which recently showed evidence of undergoing a WR episode (Torres-Peimbert, Ruiz, Peimbert & Pe\\ na, 1993, IAU Symp. 155, eds. A. Acker & R. Weinberger, in press).
In-situ study of pn-heterojunction interface states in organic thin film transistors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ye, Rongbin, E-mail: ye@iwate-u.ac.jp; Ohta, Koji; Baba, Mamoru
2014-03-03
In this paper, we have investigated the density of pn-heterojunction interface states by evaluating the threshold voltage shift with in-situ measurement of electrical characteristics of a sandwich fluorinated copper phthalocyanine/pentacene thin film transistor with various thicknesses of pentacene thin films. A threshold voltage (V{sub T}) undergoes a significant shift from + 20.6 to + 0.53 V with increasing the thickness of pentacene. When the thickness of pentacene is more than a critical thickness of 15 nm, V{sub T} undergoes hardly any shift. On the other hand, the value of mobility is lightly decreased with increasing the thickness of pentacene due to the effect of the bulk current. Thus the V{sub T} shift is attributed to the increase of drain current in the sandwich device. In order to explain the V{sub T} shift, a model was assumed in the linear region of thin film transistor operation and the V{sub T} shift agrees with a tan{sup −1} function of film thickness. The total charge density (Q{sub 0}) of 1.53 × 10{sup −7} C/cm{sup 2} (9.56 × 10{sup 11} electrons or holes/cm{sup 2}) was obtained. Furthermore, the V{sub T} shift and Q{sub 0} could be adjusted by selecting a p-type semiconductor. - Highlights: • A threshold voltage was in-situ measured in an organic sandwich thin film transistor. • Density of pn-heterojunction interface states by evaluating the threshold voltage shift. • The threshold voltage shift attributes to the increase of drain current. • In order to explain the threshold voltage shift, a model was assumed.
Quasielastic scattering using the (p,n) reaction at 795 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prout, D.L.
1992-08-01
A survey in nuclear mass and in momentum transfer of cross sections and analyzing powers in the quasielastic region has been made using the (p,n) reaction. The measurements were performed at an energy of 795 MeV at the Neutron Time of Flight Facility and the Weapons Neutron Research line at LAMPF. The (p,n) reaction isolates the isovector (rvec τ 1 · rvec τ 2 ) part of the nucleon nucleus interaction. Standard models of quasielastic scattering were able to describe the magnitude and shape of the double differential cross sections very well if account was taken of a significant background from double scattering. In contrast, the quasielastic response was shifted to much higher excitation energy than what was expected. This was true for all nuclei at moderate to large momenta transfers. Neither the Coulomb energy shift nor RPA calculations with the standard particle hole (p-h) interactions could account for this large shift. The data argue for a repulsive interaction in both the transverse and longitudinal channels of the p-h interaction. A suppression of the quasielastic analyzing power compared to the free nucleon nucleon analyzing power was found in nat C at all the angles measured. The same region in nat Pb showed little or no suppression. Part of the suppression in the nat C data may be accounted for by relativistic models of the nucleus employing large vector and scalar potentials with an effective mass of .85 times the free nucleon mass. The relatively larger contribution of double scattering nat Pb(rvec p, n) than to nat C(rvec p, n) may account for the difference in analyzing power for these two targets in the quasielastic region
The pulsed amplitude unit for the SLC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rolfe, J.; Browne, M.J.; Jobe, R.K.
1987-02-01
There is a recurring requirement in the SLC for the control of devices such as magnets, phase shifters, and attenuators on a beam-by-beam basis. The Pulsed Amplitude Unit (PAU) is a single width CAMAC module developed for this purpose. It provides digitally programmed analog output voltages on a beam-by-beam basis. Up to 32 preprogrammed values of output voltage are available from the single analog output of the module, and any of these values can be associated with any of the 256 possible SLC beam definitions. A 12-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) digitizes an analog input signal at the appropriate beam time and stores it in a buffer memory. This feature is normally used to monitor the response of the device being controlled by the PAU at each beam time. Initial application of the PAU is a part of the system that controls the output of Klystrons in the SLC. The PAU combines several different functions in a single module. In order to accommodate these functions in a single width CAMAC module, field programmed logic is used extensively. Field Programmable Logic Arrays, Programmed Array Logic, and a Field Programmable Logic Sequencer are employed
Gearbox Vibration Signal Amplitude and Frequency Modulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fakher Chaari
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Gearboxes usually run under fluctuating load conditions during service, however most of papers available in the literature describe models of gearboxes under stationary load conditions. Main task of published papers is fault modeling for their detection. Considering real situation from industry, the assumption of stationarity of load conditions cannot be longer kept. Vibration signals issued from monitoring in maintenance operations differ from mentioned models (due to load non-stationarity and may be difficult to analyze which lead to erroneous diagnosis of the system. The objective of this paper is to study the influence of time varying load conditions on a gearbox dynamic behavior. To investigate this, a simple spur gear system without defects is modeled. It is subjected to a time varying load. The speed-torque characteristic of the driving motor is considered. The load variation induces speed variation, which causes a variation in the gearmesh stiffness period. Computer simulation shows deep amplitude modulations with sidebands that don't differ from those obtained when there is a defective tooth. In order to put in evidence the time varying load effects, Short Time Fourier Transform and then Smoothed Wigner-Ville distribution are used. Results show that the last one is well suited for the studied case.
Electroweak amplitudes in chiral quark models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiolhais, Manuel
2004-01-01
After referring to some basic features of chiral models for baryons, with quarks and mesons, we describe how to construct model states representing physical baryons. We consider soliton models such as the Linear Sigma Model or the Chromodielectric Model, and bag models such as the Cloudy Bag Model. These models are solved approximately using variational approaches whose starting point is a mean-field description. We go beyond the mean-field description by introducing quantum fluctuations in the mesonic degrees of freedom. This is achieved, in a first step, by using a quantum state to represent meson clouds and, secondly, by performing an angular momentum and isospin projection from the mean-field state (actually a coherent state). Model states for baryons (nucleon, Delta, Roper) constructed in this way are used to determine several physical properties. I this seminar we paid a particular attention to the nucleon-delta electromagnetic and weak transition, presenting the model predictions for the electromagnetic and axial amplitudes
Nonlinear amplitude dynamics in flagellar beating.
Oriola, David; Gadêlha, Hermes; Casademunt, Jaume
2017-03-01
The physical basis of flagellar and ciliary beating is a major problem in biology which is still far from completely understood. The fundamental cytoskeleton structure of cilia and flagella is the axoneme, a cylindrical array of microtubule doublets connected by passive cross-linkers and dynein motor proteins. The complex interplay of these elements leads to the generation of self-organized bending waves. Although many mathematical models have been proposed to understand this process, few attempts have been made to assess the role of dyneins on the nonlinear nature of the axoneme. Here, we investigate the nonlinear dynamics of flagella by considering an axonemal sliding control mechanism for dynein activity. This approach unveils the nonlinear selection of the oscillation amplitudes, which are typically either missed or prescribed in mathematical models. The explicit set of nonlinear equations are derived and solved numerically. Our analysis reveals the spatio-temporal dynamics of dynein populations and flagellum shape for different regimes of motor activity, medium viscosity and flagellum elasticity. Unstable modes saturate via the coupling of dynein kinetics and flagellum shape without the need of invoking a nonlinear axonemal response. Hence, our work reveals a novel mechanism for the saturation of unstable modes in axonemal beating.
An amplitude modulated radio frequency plasma generator
Lei, Fan; Li, Xiaoping; Liu, Yanming; Liu, Donglin; Yang, Min; Xie, Kai; Yao, Bo
2017-04-01
A glow discharge plasma generator and diagnostic system has been developed to study the effects of rapidly variable plasmas on electromagnetic wave propagation, mimicking the plasma sheath conditions encountered in space vehicle reentry. The plasma chamber is 400 mm in diameter and 240 mm in length, with a 300-mm-diameter unobstructed clear aperture. Electron densities produced are in the mid 1010 electrons/cm3. An 800 W radio frequency (RF) generator is capacitively coupled through an RF matcher to an internally cooled stainless steel electrode to form the plasma. The RF power is amplitude modulated by a waveform generator that operates at different frequencies. The resulting plasma contains electron density modulations caused by the varying power levels. A 10 GHz microwave horn antenna pair situated on opposite sides of the chamber serves as the source and detector of probe radiation. The microwave power feed to the source horn is split and one portion is sent directly to a high-speed recording oscilloscope. On mixing this with the signal from the pickup horn antenna, the plasma-induced phase shift between the two signals gives the path-integrated electron density with its complete time dependent variation. Care is taken to avoid microwave reflections and extensive shielding is in place to minimize electronic pickup. Data clearly show the low frequency modulation of the electron density as well as higher harmonics and plasma fluctuations.
Open string topological amplitudes and gaugino masses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antoniadis, I.; Narain, K.S.; Taylor, T.R.
2005-09-01
We discuss the moduli-dependent couplings of the higher derivative F-terms (TrW 2 ) h-1 , where W is the gauge N =1 chiral superfield. They are determined by the genus zero topological partition function F (0,h) , on a world-sheet with h boundaries. By string duality, these terms are also related to heterotic topological amplitudes studied in the past, with the topological twist applied only in the left-moving supersymmetric sector of the internal N =(2,0) superconformal field theory. The holomorphic anomaly of these couplings relates them to terms of the form Π n (TrW 2 ) h-2 , where Π's represent chiral projections of non-holomorphic functions of chiral superfields. An important property of these couplings is that they violate R-symmetry for h ≥ 3. As a result, once supersymmetry is broken by D-term expectation values, (TrW 2 ) 2 generates gaugino masses that can be hierarchically smaller than the scalar masses, behaving as m 1/2 ∼ m 0 4 in string units. Similarly, ΠTrW 2 generates Dirac masses for non-chiral brane fermions, of the same order of magnitude. This mechanism can be used for instance to obtain fermion masses at the TeV scale for scalar masses as high as m 0 ∼ O (10 13 ) GeV. We present explicit examples in toroidal string compactifications with intersecting D-branes. (author)
Casimir amplitudes in topological quantum phase transitions.
Griffith, M A; Continentino, M A
2018-01-01
Topological phase transitions constitute a new class of quantum critical phenomena. They cannot be described within the usual framework of the Landau theory since, in general, the different phases cannot be distinguished by an order parameter, neither can they be related to different symmetries. In most cases, however, one can identify a diverging length at these topological transitions. This allows us to describe them using a scaling approach and to introduce a set of critical exponents that characterize their universality class. Here we consider some relevant models of quantum topological transitions associated with well-defined critical exponents that are related by a quantum hyperscaling relation. We extend to these models a finite-size scaling approach based on techniques for calculating the Casimir force in electromagnetism. This procedure allows us to obtain universal Casimir amplitudes at their quantum critical points. Our results verify the validity of finite-size scaling in these systems and confirm the values of the critical exponents obtained previously.
Effective anisotropy through traveltime and amplitude matching
Wang, Hui
2014-08-05
Introducing anisotropy to seismic wave propagation reveals more realistic physics of our Earth\\'s subsurface as compared to the isotropic assumption. However wavefield modeling, the engine of seismic inverse problems, in anisotropic media still suffers from computational burdens, in particular with complex anisotropy such as transversely isotropic (TI) and Orthorhombic anisotropy. We develop effective isotropic velocity and density models to package the effects of anisotropy such that the wave propagation behavior using these effective models approximate those of the original anisotropic model. We build these effective models through the high frequency asymptotic approximation based on the eikonal and transport equations. We match the geometrical behavior of the wave-fields, given by traveltimes, from the anisotropic and isotropic eikonal equations. This matching yields the effective isotropic velocity that approximates the kinematics of the anisotropic wavefield. Equivalently, we calculate the effective densities by equating the anisotropic and isotropic transport equations. The effective velocities and densities are then fed into the isotropic acoustic variable density wave equation to obtain cheaper anisotropic wavefields. We justify our approach by testing it on an elliptical anisotropic model. The numerical results demonstrate a good matching of both traveltime and amplitude between anisotropic and effective isotropic wavefields.
The pulsed amplitude unit for the SLC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rolfe, J.; Browne, M.J.; Jobe, R.K.
1987-01-01
There is a recurring requirement in the SLC for the control of devices such as magnets, phase shifters, and attenuators on a beam-by-beam basis. The Pulsed Amplitude Unit (PAU) is a single width CAMAC module developed for this purpose. It provides digitally programmed analog output voltages on a beam-by-beam basis. Up to 32 preprogrammed values of output voltage are available from the single analog output of the module, and any of these values can be associated with any of the 256 possible SLC beam definitions. A 12-bit Analog-to-Digital converter (ADC) digitizes an analog input signal at the appropriate beam time and stores it in a buffer memory. This feature is normally used to monitor the response of the device being controlled by the PAU at each beam time. Initial application of the PAU at is as part of the system that controls the output of Klystorns in the SLC. The PAU combines several different functions in a single module. In order to accommodate these functions in a single width CAMAC module, field programmed logic is used extensively. Field Programmable Logic Arrays, Programmed Array Logic, and a Field Programmable Logic Sequencer are employed
Complex amplitude reconstruction by iterative amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm with reference
Shen, Cheng; Guo, Cheng; Tan, Jiubin; Liu, Shutian; Liu, Zhengjun
2018-06-01
Multi-image iterative phase retrieval methods have been successfully applied in plenty of research fields due to their simple but efficient implementation. However, there is a mismatch between the measurement of the first long imaging distance and the sequential interval. In this paper, an amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm with reference is put forward without additional measurements or priori knowledge. It gets rid of measuring the first imaging distance. With a designed update formula, it significantly raises the convergence speed and the reconstruction fidelity, especially in phase retrieval. Its superiority over the original amplitude-phase retrieval (APR) method is validated by numerical analysis and experiments. Furthermore, it provides a conceptual design of a compact holographic image sensor, which can achieve numerical refocusing easily.
In-medium pion valence distributions in a light-front model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Melo, J.P.B.C. de, E-mail: joao.mello@cruzeirodosul.edu.br [Laboratório de Física Teórica e Computacional – LFTC, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, 01506-000 São Paulo (Brazil); Tsushima, K. [Laboratório de Física Teórica e Computacional – LFTC, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, 01506-000 São Paulo (Brazil); Ahmed, I. [Laboratório de Física Teórica e Computacional – LFTC, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, 01506-000 São Paulo (Brazil); National Center for Physics, Quaidi-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)
2017-03-10
Pion valence distributions in nuclear medium and vacuum are studied in a light-front constituent quark model. The in-medium input for studying the pion properties is calculated by the quark-meson coupling model. We find that the in-medium pion valence distribution, as well as the in-medium pion valence wave function, are substantially modified at normal nuclear matter density, due to the reduction in the pion decay constant.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhi-Gang Yao
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM is a complete medical system that has been practiced for more than 3000 years. Prescription number 1 (PN-1 consists of several Chinese medicines and is designed according to TCM theories to treat patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. The evidence of clinical practice suggests the benefit effects of PN-1 on cognitive deficits of dementia patients. We try to prove and explain this by using contemporary methodology and transgenic animal models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The behavioral studies were developed to evaluate the memory of transgenic animals after intragastric administration of PN-1 for 3 months. Amyloid beta-protein (Aβ neuropathology was quantified using immunohistochemistry and ELISA. The western blotting was used to detect the levels of plasticity associated proteins. The safety of PN-1 on mice was also assessed through multiple parameters. Results showed that PN-1 could effectively relieve learning and memory impairment of transgenic animals. Possible mechanisms showed that PN-1 could significantly reduce plaque burden and Aβ levels and boost synaptic plasticity. Our observations showed that PN-1 could improve learning and memory ability through multiple mechanisms without detectable side effects on mice. We propose that PN-1 is a promising alternative treatment for AD in the future.
C-H and H-H Bond Activation via Ligand Dearomatization/Rearomatization of a PN3P-Rhodium(I) Complex
Huang, Kuo-Wei; Wang, Yuan; Zheng, Bin; Pan, Yupeng; Pan, Chengling; He, Lipeng
2015-01-01
A neutral complex PN3P-Rh(I)Cl (2) was prepared from a reaction of the PN3P pincer ligand (1) with [Rh(COD)Cl]2 (COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene). Upon treatment with a suitable base, H–H and Csp2–H activation reactions can be achieved through
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aguilar Benitez de Lugo, M.
1979-07-01
In this work we present several techniques developed for the extraction of the. Transversity amplitudes governing quasi two-body meson baryon reactions with hypercharge exchange. We review the methods used In processes having a pure spin configuration, as well as the more relevant results obtained with data from K{sup p} and Tp interactions at intermediate energies. The predictions of the additive quark model and the ones following from exchange degeneracy and etoxicity are discussed. We present a formalism for amplitude analysis developed for reactions with mixed spin configurations and discuss the methods of parametric estimation of the moduli and phases of.the amplitudes, as well as the various tests employed to check the goodness of the fits. The calculation of the generalized joint density matrices is given and we propose a method based on the generalization of the idea of multipole moments, which allows to investigate the structure of the decay angular correlations and establishes the quality of the fits and the validity of the simplifying assumptions currently used in this type of studies. (Author) 43 refs.
Hybrid van der Waals p-n Heterojunctions based on SnO and 2D MoS2
Wang, Zhenwei; He, Xin; Zhang, Xixiang; Alshareef, Husam N.
2016-01-01
A p-type oxide/2D hybrid van der Waals p-n heterojunction is demonstrated for the first time between SnO (tin monoxide) (the p-type oxide) and 2D MoS2 (molybdenum disulfide), showing an ideality factor of 2 and rectification ratio up to 10
K0 production in pN collisions at Ep=70 GeV in the deep-fragmentation region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1996-01-01
The quasiexclusive production of neutral kaons in pN collisions is investigated with the SPHINX detector irradiated by a 70-GeV proton beam from the IHEP accelerator. The cross sections for K0 production and the parameters of the corresponding differential distributions are determined for the deep-fragmentation region (xF0.79-0.86) of this interaction
Buchs, G.; Barkelid, K.M.; Bagiante, S.; Steele, G.A.; Zwiller, V.
2011-01-01
We use scanning photocurrent microscopy (SPCM) to investigate individual suspended semiconducting carbon nanotube devices where the potential profile is engineered by means of local gates. In situ tunable p-n junctions can be generated at any position along the nanotube axis. Combining SPCM with
Lee, Daeyeong; Jang, Young Dae; Kweon, Jaehwan; Ryu, Jungjin; Hwang, Euyheon; Yoo, Won Jong; Samsung-SKKU Graphene/2D Center (SSGC) Collaboration
A vertical p+-n+ homojunction was fabricated by using black phosphorus (BP) as a van der Waals two-dimensional (2D) material. The top and bottom layers of the materials were doped by chemical dopants of gold chloride (AuCl3) for p-type doping and benzyl viologen (BV) for n-type doping. The negative differential resistance (NDR) effect was clearly observed from the output curves of the fabricated BP vertical devices. The thickness range of the 2D material showing NDR and the peak to valley current ratio of NDR are found to be strongly dependent on doping condition, gate voltage, and BP's degradation level. Furthermore, the carrier transport of the p+-n+ junction was simulated by using density functional theory (DFT) and non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF). Both the experimental and simulation results confirmed that the NDR is attributed to the band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) across the 2D BP p+-n+ junction, and further quantitative details on the carrier transport in the vertical p+-n+ junction devices were explored, according to the analyses of the measured transfer curves and the DFT simulation results. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (2013R1A2A2A01015516).
Gilpatrick, Eleanor
To secure information about the characteristics of the practical nurse population and their opinions about registered nurse preparation, questionnaires were distributed to 2,923 practical nurses employed by the New York City Municipal Hospitals. Usable questionnaires numbered 2,361 or 81 percent of the employed PN population. Approximately 9…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agababyan, K.Sh.; Adamyan, F.V.; Ajrapetyan, A.V.
1985-01-01
The experimental method for measuring the asymmetry of the γd → pn photodisintegration reaction on the linearly polarized photon beam of the Erevan synchrotron is described. The results of Monte Carlo calculations, the calibration of apparatus, the procedure of measurements and experimental data processing are repored
Horizontal Assembly of Single Nanowire Diode Fabricated by p-n Junction GaN NW Grown by MOCVD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ji-Hyeon Park
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Uniaxially p-n junction gallium nitride nanowires have been synthesized via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition method. Nanowires prepared on Si(111 substrates were found to grow perpendicular to the substrate, and the transmission electron microscopy studies demonstrated that the nanowires had singlecrystalline structures with a growth axis. The parallel assembly of the p-n junction nanowire was prepared on a Si substrate with a thermally grown SiO2 layer. The transport studies of horizontal gallium nitride nanowire structures assembled from p- and n-type materials show that these junctions correspond to well-defined p-n junction diodes. The p-n junction devices based on GaN nanowires suspended over the electrodes were fabricated and their electrical properties were investigated. The horizontally assembled gallium nitride nanowire diodes suspended over the electrodes exhibited a substantial increase in conductance under UV light exposure. Apart from the selectivity to different light wavelengths, high responsivity and extremely short response time have also been obtained.
Tropical calcific pancreatitis and its association with CTRC and SPINK1 (p.N34S) variants.
Derikx, M.H.; Szmola, R.; Morsche, R.H.M. te; Sunderasan, S.; Chacko, A.; Drenth, J.P.H.
2009-01-01
BACKGROUND: Tropical calcific pancreatitis (TCP) is a relatively common form of chronic pancreatitis in parts of Asia and Africa. The SPINK1 variant p.N34S is strongly associated with TCP, but other genetic factors remain to be defined. Chymotrypsinogen C (CTRC) degrades trypsinogen and
Scattering amplitudes in four- and six-dimensional gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schuster, Theodor
2014-01-01
We study scattering amplitudes in quantum chromodynamics (QCD), N=4 super Yang-Mills (SYM) theory and the six-dimensional N=(1,1) SYM theory, focusing on the symmetries of and relations between the tree-level scattering amplitudes in these three gauge theories. We derive the tree level and one-loop color decomposition of an arbitrary QCD amplitude into primitive amplitudes. Furthermore, we derive identities spanning the null space among the primitive amplitudes. We prove that every color ordered tree amplitude of massless QCD can be obtained from gluon-gluino amplitudes of N=4 SYM theory. Furthermore, we derive analytical formulae for all gluon-gluino amplitudes relevant for QCD. We compare the numerical efficiency and accuracy of evaluating these closed analytic formulae for color ordered QCD tree amplitudes to a numerically efficient implementation of the Berends-Giele recursion. We derive the symmetries of massive tree amplitudes on the coulomb branch of N=4 SYM theory, which in turn can be obtained from N=(1,1) SYM theory by dimensional reduction. Furthermore, we investigate the tree amplitudes of N=(1, 1) SYM theory and explain how analytical formulae can be obtained from a numerical implementation of the supersymmetric BCFW recursion relation and investigate a potential uplift of the massless tree amplitudes of N=4 SYM theory. Finally we study an alternative to dimensional regularization of N=4 SYM theory. The infrared divergences are regulated by masses obtained from a Higgs mechanism. The corresponding string theory set-up suggests that the amplitudes have an exact dual conformal symmetry. We confirm this expectation and illustrate the calculational advantages of the massive regulator by explicit calculations.
Medium modified two-body scattering amplitude from proton-nucleus total cross-sections
Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.
2001-01-01
Recently (R.K. Tripathi, J.W. Wilson, F.A. Cucinotta, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 145 (1998) 277; R.K. Tripathi, F.A. Cucinotta, J.W. Wilson, NASA-TP-1998-208438), we have extracted nucleon-nucleon (N-N) cross-sections in the medium directly from experiment. The in-medium N-N cross-sections form the basic ingredients of several heavy-ion scattering approaches including the coupled-channel approach developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. Here, we investigate the ratio of real to imaginary part of the two-body scattering amplitude in the medium. These ratios are used in combination with the in-medium N-N cross-sections to calculate total proton-nucleus cross-sections. The agreement is excellent with the available experimental data. These cross-sections are needed for the radiation risk assessment of space missions. c2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Amplitude growth due to random, correlated kicks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Michelotti, L.; Mills, F.
1989-03-01
Historically, stochastic processes, such as gas scattering or stochastic cooling, have been treated by the Fokker-Planck equation. In this approach, usually considered for one dimension only, the equation can be considered as a continuity equation for a variable which would be a constant of the motion in the absence of the stochastic process, for example, the action variable, I = ε/2π for betatron oscillations, where ε is the area of the Courant-Snyder ellipse, or energy in the case of unbunched beams, or the action variable for phase oscillations in case the beam is bunched. A flux, /Phi/, including diffusive terms can be defined, usually to second order. /Phi/ = M 1 F(I) + M 2 ∂F/∂I + /hor ellipsis/. M 1 and M 2 are the expectation values of δI and (δI) 2 due to the individual stochastic kicks over some period of time, long enough that the variance of these quantities is sufficiently small. Then the Fokker-Planck equation is just ∂F/∂I + ∂/Phi//∂I = 0. In many cases those where the beam distribution has already achieved its final shape, it is sufficient to find the rate of increase of by taking simple averages over the Fokker-Planck equation. At the time this work was begun, there was good knowledge of the second moment for general stochastic processes due to stochastic cooling theory, but the form of the first moment was known only for extremely wideband processes. The purposes of this note are to derive an expression relating the expected single particle amplitude growth to the noise autocorrelation function and to obtain, thereby, the form of M 1 for narrow band processes. 4 refs
Díaz, J.; Gil, A.; Gallart, J.
2013-01-01
In the last 10-15 years, the number of high quality seismic stations monitoring the Euro-Mediterranean region has increased significantly, allowing a corresponding improvement in structural constraints. We present here new images of the seismic velocity and anisotropy variations in the uppermost mantle beneath this complex area, compiled from inversion of Pn and Sn phases sampling the whole region. The method of Hearn has been applied to the traveltime arrivals of the International Seismological Center catalogue for the time period 1990-2010. A total of 579 753 Pn arrivals coming from 12 377 events recorded at 1 408 stations with epicentral distances between 220 km and 1 400 km have been retained after applying standard quality criteria (maximum depth, minimum number of recordings, maximum residual values …). Our results show significant features well correlated with surface geology and evidence the heterogeneous character of the Euro-Mediterranean lithosphere. The station terms reflect the existence of marked variations in crustal thickness, consistent with available Moho depths inferred from active seismic experiments. The highest Pn velocities are observed along a continuous band from the Po Basin to the northern Ionian Sea. Other high velocity zones include the Ligurian Basin, the Valencia Trough, the southern Alboran Sea and central part of the Algerian margin. Most significant low-velocity values are associated to orogenic belts (Betics, Pyrenees, Alps, Apennines and Calabrian Arc, Dinarides-Hellenides), and low-velocity zones are also identified beneath Sardinia and the Balearic Islands. The introduction of an anisotropic term enhances significantly the lateral continuity of the anomalies, in particular in the most active tectonic areas. Pn anisotropy shows consistent orientations subparallel to major orogenic structures, such as Betics, Apennines, Calabrian Arc and Alps. The Sn tomographic image has lower resolution but confirms independently most of the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Otsuka, Masaaki [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, AS/NTU. No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Parthasarathy, M. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, II B lock Koramangala, Bangalore 560034, Karnataka (India); Tajitsu, A. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 N Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Hubrig, S., E-mail: otsuka@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP) An der Sternwarte 12, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)
2017-03-20
We carried out a detailed analysis of the interesting and important very young planetary nebula (PN) Hen3-1357 (Stingray Nebula) based on a unique data set of optical to far-IR spectra and photometric images. We calculated the abundances of nine elements using collisionally excited lines (CELs) and recombination lines (RLs). The RL C/O ratio indicates that this PN is O-rich, which is also supported by the detection of the broad 9/18 μ m bands from amorphous silicate grains. The observed elemental abundances can be explained by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) nucleosynthesis models for initially 1–1.5 M {sub ⊙} stars with Z = 0.008. The Ne overabundance might be due to the enhancement of {sup 22}Ne isotope in the He-rich intershell. Using the spectrum of the central star synthesized by Tlusty as the ionization/heating source of the PN, we constructed the self-consistent photoionization model with Cloudy to the observed quantities and derived the gas and dust masses, dust-to-gas mass ratio, and core mass of the central star. About 80% of the total dust mass is from warm–cold dust component beyond ionization front. Comparison with other Galactic PNe indicates that Hen3-1357 is an ordinary amorphous silicate-rich and O-rich gas PN. Among other studied PNe, IC4846 shows many similarities in properties of the PN to Hen3-1357, although their post-AGB evolution is quite different from each other. Further monitoring of observations and comparisons with other PNe such as IC4846 are necessary to understand the evolution of Hen3-1357.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Afshan, A.; Jafri, S.R.A.; Maecke, H.
2004-01-01
Full text: A bifunctional ligand of PnAO-biotin has recently been synthesized, with a better percentage yield of 63% in the presence of newly developed coupling agent 0-(7-azabenzotriazol-1-yl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyluronium hexaflorophos phate (HATU). Then lyophilized kit with 150μg of PnAObiotin has been developed and labeled with high specific activity of technetium-99m (2500-3000MBq) to get maximum radiochemical purity of 99mTc-PnAO-biotin complex i.e. > 97%. The association of avidin and streptavidin is among the strongest known non-covalent protein ligand interaction Ka 1015 M-1 and 1013 M-1 respectively. We measured the dissociation rate constant of PnAO-biotin from avidin and streptavidin challenged with excess of cold biotin. For the separation of bound and free-labeled biotin we employed ultrafilteration technique. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the non-covalent binding between 99mTc-PnAO-biotin with avidin and 99mTc-PnAO-biotin with streptavidin is more than 99%. Both biotin-binding proteins exhibited a faster initial phase and the rate of dissociation of 99mTc-PnAO-biotin with avidin is found to be 8.2x10-8 at 250C and 2.6x10-7 at 370C while the rate of dissociation 99mTc-PnAO-biotin from streptavidin is found to be 6x10-7 at 250C and 1.06x10-6 at 370C. The in-vitro study of the kinetics of dissociation exhibits the strong interaction of 99mTc-PnAO-biotin complex with both proteins, which suggests that this bifunctional PnAO-biotin ligand can be used for tumor localization with monoclonal antibodies to achieve high tumor to non-tumor ratio. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saeki, T [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center
1997-10-22
Discussions were given on seismic exploration from the ground surface using the reflection method, for surface consistent amplitude correction from among effects imposed from the ground surface and a surface layer. Amplitude distribution on the reflection wave zone is complex. Therefore, items to be considered in making an analysis are multiple, such as estimation of spherical surface divergence effect and exponential attenuation effect, not only amplitude change through the surface layer. If all of these items are taken into consideration, burden of the work becomes excessive. As a method to solve this problem, utilization of amplitude in initial movement of a diffraction wave may be conceived. Distribution of the amplitude in initial movement of the diffraction wave shows a value relatively close to distribution of the vibration transmitting and receiving points. The reason for this is thought because characteristics of the vibration transmitting and receiving points related with waveline paths in the vicinity of the ground surface have no great difference both on the diffraction waves and on the reflection waves. The lecture described in this paper introduces an attempt of improving the efficiency of the surface consistent amplitude correction by utilizing the analysis of amplitude in initial movement of the diffraction wave. 4 refs., 2 figs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Navelet-Noualhier, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1967-06-15
Helicity amplitudes are expressed via the spinor amplitudes in terms of the Joos invariant which have been shown by Williams to be free from kinematical singularities. This procedure allows to analyze the kinematical singularities of helicity amplitudes and separate them out, which results into the definition of regularized helicity amplitudes. A crossing matrix for helicity amplitudes, is written down, corresponding to the continuation path used to cross spinor amplitudes. We verify explicitly that the corresponding crossing matrix for regularized helicity amplitudes is uniform as it should be. Kinematical constraints which generalize, to the case of arbitrary spins and masses, relations which must hold between helicity amplitudes at some values of the energy variable in {pi}N {yields} {pi}N, {pi}{pi} {yields} NN-bar and NN-bar {yields} NN-bar reactions, appear as a consequence of the existence of poles in the crossing matrix between regularized helicity amplitudes. An english version of this work has been written with G. Cohen-Tannoudji and A. Morel and submitted for publication to Annals of Physics. (author) [French] Les amplitudes d'helicite pour une reaction a deux corps sont exprimees, par l'intermediaire des amplitudes spinorielles, en fonction d'amplitudes invariantes de Joos qui sont, comme l'a montre Williams, sans singularites cinematiques. Ce procede nous permet d'analyser puis d'eliminer les singularites cinematiques des amplitudes d'helicite. Ceci nous conduit a la definition d'amplitudes d'helicite 'regularisees'. Une relation de 'croisement' entre amplitudes d'helicite est ecrite; elle realise leur prolongement analytique le long du chemin utilise pour 'croiser' les amplitudes spinorielles. Nous verifions que les elements de la matrice de croisement entre amplitudes d'helicite 'regularisees' sont bien uniformes. Les contraintes cinematiques qui generalisent, au cas de masses et de spins arbitraires, les relations obtenues dans les reactions {pi
Eikonal representation of N-body Coulomb scattering amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fried, H.M.; Kang, K.; McKellar, B.H.J.
1983-01-01
A new technique for the construction of N-body Coulomb scattering amplitudes is proposed, suggested by the simplest case of N = 2: Calculate the scattering amplitude in eikonal approximation, discard the infinite phase factors which appear upon taking the limit of a Coulomb potential, and treat the remainder as an amplitude whose absolute value squared produces the exact, Coulomb differential cross section. The method easily generalizes to the N-body Coulomb problem for elastic scattering, and for inelastic rearrangement scattering of Coulomb bound states. We give explicit results for N = 3 and 4; in the N = 3 case we extract amplitudes for the processes (12)+3->1+2+3 (breakup), (12)+3->1+(23) (rearrangement), and (12)+3→(12)'+3 (inelastic scattering) as residues at the appropriate poles in the free-free amplitude. The method produces scattering amplitudes f/sub N/ given in terms of explicit quadratures over (N-2) 2 distinct integrands
Expansion of all multitrace tree level EYM amplitudes
Du, Yi-Jian; Feng, Bo; Teng, Fei
2017-12-01
In this paper, we investigate the expansion of tree level multitrace Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) amplitudes. First, we propose two types of recursive expansions of tree level EYM amplitudes with an arbitrary number of gluons, gravitons and traces by those amplitudes with fewer traces or/and gravitons. Then we give many support evidence, including proofs using the Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formula and Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) recursive relation. As a byproduct, two types of generalized BCJ relations for multitrace EYM are further proposed, which will be useful in the BCFW proof. After one applies the recursive expansions repeatedly, any multitrace EYM amplitudes can be given in the Kleiss-Kuijf (KK) basis of tree level color ordered Yang-Mills (YM) amplitudes. Thus the Bern-Carrasco-Johansson (BCJ) numerators, as the expansion coefficients, for all multitrace EYM amplitudes are naturally constructed.
Tensor exchange amplitudes in K +- N charge exchange reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Svec, M.
1979-01-01
Tensor (A 2 ) exchange amplitudes in K +- N charge exchange (CEX) are constructed from the K +- N CEX data supplemented by information on the vector (rho) exchange amplitudes from πN sca tering. We observed new features in the t-structure of A 2 exchange amplitudes which contradict the t-de pendence anticipated by most of the Regge models. The results also provide evidence for violation of weak exchange degeneracy
Loop Amplitudes in Pure Yang-Mills from Generalised Unitarity
Brandhuber, Andreas; McNamara, Simon; Spence, Bill; Travaglini, Gabriele
2005-01-01
We show how generalised unitarity cuts in D = 4 - 2 epsilon dimensions can be used to calculate efficiently complete one-loop scattering amplitudes in non-supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. This approach naturally generates the rational terms in the amplitudes, as well as the cut-constructible parts. We test the validity of our method by re-deriving the one-loop ++++, -+++, --++, -+-+ and +++++ gluon scattering amplitudes using generalised quadruple cuts and triple cuts in D dimensions.
Loop amplitudes in pure Yang-Mills from generalised unitarity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandhuber, Andreas; McNamara, Simon; Spence, Bill; Travaglini, Gabriele
2005-01-01
We show how generalised unitarity cuts in D = 4-2ε dimensions can be used to calculate efficiently complete one-loop scattering amplitudes in non-supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. This approach naturally generates the rational terms in the amplitudes, as well as the cut-constructible parts. We test the validity of our method by re-deriving the one-loop ++++, -+++, --++, -+-+ and +++++ gluon scattering amplitudes using generalised quadruple cuts and triple cuts in D dimensions
Loop amplitudes in pure Yang-Mills from generalised unitarity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brandhuber, Andreas [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); McNamara, Simon [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Spence, Bill [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Travaglini, Gabriele [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)
2005-10-15
We show how generalised unitarity cuts in D = 4-2{epsilon} dimensions can be used to calculate efficiently complete one-loop scattering amplitudes in non-supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. This approach naturally generates the rational terms in the amplitudes, as well as the cut-constructible parts. We test the validity of our method by re-deriving the one-loop ++++, -+++, --++, -+-+ and +++++ gluon scattering amplitudes using generalised quadruple cuts and triple cuts in D dimensions.
Calculation and modular properties of multiloop superstring amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Danilov, G. S.
2013-01-01
Multiloop superstring amplitudes are calculated within an extensively used gauge where the two-dimensional gravitino field carries Grassmann moduli. In general, the amplitudes possess, instead of modular symmetry, symmetry with respect to modular transformation supplemented with appropriate transformations of two-dimensional local supersymmetry. If the number of loops is larger than three, the integrationmeasures are notmodular forms, while the expression for the amplitude contains integrals along the boundary of the fundamental region of the modular group.
Efficient analytic computation of higher-order QCD amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bern, Z.; Chalmers, G.; Dunbar, D.C.; Kosower, D.A.
1995-01-01
The authors review techniques simplifying the analytic calculation of one-loop QCD amplitudes with many external legs, for use in next-to-leading-order corrections to multi-jet processes. Particularly useful are the constraints imposed by perturbative unitarity, collinear singularities and a supersymmetry-inspired organization of helicity amplitudes. Certain sequences of one-loop helicity amplitudes with an arbitrary number of external gluons have been obtained using these constraints
Improved pion pion scattering amplitude from dispersion relation formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cavalcante, I.P.; Coutinho, Y.A.; Borges, J. Sa
2005-01-01
Pion-pion scattering amplitude is obtained from Chiral Perturbation Theory at one- and two-loop approximations. Dispersion relation formalism provides a more economic method, which was proved to reproduce the analytical structure of that amplitude at both approximation levels. This work extends the use of the formalism in order to compute further unitarity corrections to partial waves, including the D-wave amplitude. (author)
Ambitwistor strings and reggeon amplitudes in N=4 SYM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L.V. Bork
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We consider the description of reggeon amplitudes (Wilson lines form factors in N=4 SYM within the framework of four dimensional ambitwistor string theory. The latter is used to derive scattering equations representation for reggeon amplitudes with multiple reggeized gluons present. It is shown, that corresponding tree-level string correlation function correctly reproduces previously obtained Grassmannian integral representation of reggeon amplitudes in N=4 SYM.
The five-gluon amplitude and one-loop integrals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bern, Z.; Dixon, L.; Kosower, D.A.
1992-12-01
We review the conventional field theory description of the string motivated technique. This technique is applied to the one-loop five-gluon amplitude. To evaluate the amplitude a general method for computing dimensionally regulated one-loop integrals is outlined including results for one-loop integrals required for the pentagon diagram and beyond. Finally, two five-gluon helicity amplitudes are given
Renormalization in the complete Mellin representation of Feynman amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calan, C. de; David, F.; Rivasseau, V.
1981-01-01
The Feynmann amplitudes are renormalized in the formalism of the CM representation. This Mellin-Barnes type integral representation, previously introduced for the study of asymptotic behaviours, is shown to have the following interesting property: in contrast with the usual subtraction procedures, the renormalization leaves the CM intergrand unchanged, and only results into translations of the integration path. The explicit CM representation of the renormalized amplitudes is given. In addition, the dimensional regularization and the extension to spinor amplitudes are sketched. (orig.)
Algebraic evaluation of rational polynomials in one-loop amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Binoth, Thomas; Guillet, Jean-Philippe; Heinrich, Gudrun
2007-01-01
One-loop amplitudes are to a large extent determined by their unitarity cuts in four dimensions. We show that the remaining rational terms can be obtained from the ultraviolet behaviour of the amplitude, and determine universal form factors for these rational parts by applying reduction techniques to the Feynman diagrammatic representation of the amplitude. The method is valid for massless and massive internal particles. We illustrate this method by evaluating the rational terms of the one-loop amplitudes for gg→H, γγ→γγ, gg→gg,γγ→ggg and γγ→γγγγ
Phase and amplitude control system for Stanford Linear Accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoo, S.J.
1983-01-01
The computer controlled phase and amplitude detection system measures the instantaneous phase and amplitude of a 1 micro-second 2856 MHz rf pulse at a 180 Hz rate. This will be used for phase feedback control, and also for phase and amplitude jitter measurement. The program, which was originally written by John Fox and Keith Jobe, has been modified to improve the function of the system. The software algorithms used in the measurement are described, as is the performance of the prototype phase and amplitude detector system
New rigorous asymptotic theorems for inverse scattering amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lomsadze, Sh.Yu.; Lomsadze, Yu.M.
1984-01-01
The rigorous asymptotic theorems both of integral and local types obtained earlier and establishing logarithmic and in some cases even power correlations aetdeen the real and imaginary parts of scattering amplitudes Fsub(+-) are extended to the inverse amplitudes 1/Fsub(+-). One also succeeds in establishing power correlations of a new type between the real and imaginary parts, both for the amplitudes themselves and for the inverse ones. All the obtained assertions are convenient to be tested in high energy experiments when the amplitudes show asymptotic behaviour
Proof of the fundamental BCJ relations for QCD amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cruz, Leonardo de la; Kniss, Alexander; Weinzierl, Stefan
2015-01-01
The fundamental BCJ-relation is a linear relation between primitive tree amplitudes with different cyclic orderings. The cyclic orderings differ by the insertion place of one gluon. The coefficients of the fundamental BCJ-relation are linear in the Lorentz invariants 2p_ip_j. The BCJ-relations are well established for pure gluonic amplitudes as well as for amplitudes in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory. Recently, it has been conjectured that the BCJ-relations hold also for QCD amplitudes. In this paper we give a proof of this conjecture. The proof is valid for massless and massive quarks.
Amplitude dependent damping in single crystalline high purity molybdenum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zelada-Lambri, G.I; Lambri, O.A; Garcia, J.A; Lomer, J.N
2004-01-01
Amplitude dependent damping measurements were performed on high purity single crystalline molybdenum at several different constant temperatures between room temperature and 1273K. The employed samples were single crystals with the orientation, having a residual resistivity ratio of about 8000. Previously to the amplitude dependent damping tests, the samples were subjected to different thermomechanical histories. Amplitude dependent damping effects appear only during the first heating run in temperature where the samples have the thermomechanical state of the deformation process at room temperature. In the subsequent run-ups in temperature, i.e, after subsequent annealings, amplitude dependent damping effects were not detected (au)
Analytical structure of the 3. -->. 3 forward scattering amplitude
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Logunov, A A; Medvedev, B V; Muzafarov, L M; Pavlov, V P; Polivanov, M K; Sukhanov, A D [AN SSSR, Moscow. Matematicheskij Inst.
1979-08-01
Analytical properties of the amplitude of 3..-->..3 forward scattering established in the framework of the Bogolyubov axiomatic approach are described. The amplitudes of the different channels of the process are boundary values of a unique analytical function of invariant variables. Crossing-symmetry property of the amplitude is proved. Analysis of the absorptive part of the amplitude is performed and the generalized optical theorem is proved which connects one of the contributions into the absorptive part with the distribution function of the inclusive process.
Generalized unitarity for N=4 super-amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drummond, J.M.; Henn, J. [LAPTH, Université de Savoie, CNRS B.P. 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France); Korchemsky, G.P., E-mail: Gregory.Korchemsky@cea.fr [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Sokatchev, E. [LAPTH, Université de Savoie, CNRS B.P. 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France)
2013-04-21
We develop a manifestly supersymmetric version of the generalized unitarity cut method for calculating scattering amplitudes in N=4 SYM theory. We illustrate the power of this method by computing the one-loop n-point NMHV super-amplitudes. The result confirms two conjectures which we made in Drummond, et al., [1]. Firstly, we derive the compact, manifestly dual superconformally covariant form of the NMHV tree amplitudes for arbitrary number and types of external particles. Secondly, we show that the ratio of the one-loop NMHV to the MHV amplitude is dual conformal invariant.
Tree-level amplitudes and dual superconformal symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drummond, J M, E-mail: drummond@lapp.in2p3.fr [PH-TH Division, CERN, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); LAPTH, Universite de Savoie, CNRS, B.P. 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France)
2011-11-11
We review the structure of gauge theory scattering amplitudes at tree level and describe how a compact expression can be found which encodes all the tree-level amplitudes in the maximally supersymmetric N=4 theory. The expressions for the amplitudes reveal a dual superconformal symmetry. We describe how these ideas can be extended to leading singularities and the loop integrand in the planar theory and discuss the appearance of dual conformal symmetry in higher-dimensional gauge theories. This paper is an invited review for a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to 'Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories'. (review)
New relations for Einstein–Yang–Mills amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stieberger, Stephan; Taylor, Tomasz R.
2016-01-01
We obtain new relations between Einstein–Yang–Mills (EYM) amplitudes involving N gauge bosons plus a single graviton and pure Yang–Mills amplitudes involving N gauge bosons plus one additional vector boson inserted in a way typical for a gauge boson of a “spectator” group commuting with the group associated to original N gauge bosons. We show that such EYM amplitudes satisfy U(1) decoupling relations similar to Kleiss–Kuijf relations for Yang–Mills amplitudes. We consider a D-brane embedding of EYM amplitudes in the framework of disk amplitudes involving open and closed strings. A new set of monodromy relations is derived for mixed open–closed amplitudes with one closed string inserted on the disk world-sheet and a number of open strings at the boundary. These relations allow expressing the latter in terms of pure open string amplitudes and, in the field-theory limit, they yield the U(1) decoupling relations for EYM amplitudes.
Source-Space Cross-Frequency Amplitude-Amplitude Coupling in Tinnitus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oliver Zobay
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The thalamocortical dysrhythmia (TCD model has been influential in the development of theoretical explanations for the neurological mechanisms of tinnitus. It asserts that thalamocortical oscillations lock a region in the auditory cortex into an ectopic slow-wave theta rhythm (4–8 Hz. The cortical area surrounding this region is hypothesized to generate abnormal gamma (>30 Hz oscillations (“edge effect” giving rise to the tinnitus percept. Consequently, the model predicts enhanced cross-frequency coherence in a broad range between theta and gamma. In this magnetoencephalography study involving tinnitus and control cohorts, we investigated this prediction. Using beamforming, cross-frequency amplitude-amplitude coupling (AAC was computed within the auditory cortices for frequencies (f1,f2 between 2 and 80 Hz. We find the AAC signal to decompose into two distinct components at low (f1,f230 Hz frequencies, respectively. Studying the correlation of AAC with several key covariates (age, hearing level (HL, tinnitus handicap and duration, and HL at tinnitus frequency, we observe a statistically significant association between age and low-frequency AAC. Contrary to the TCD predictions, however, we do not find any indication of statistical differences in AAC between tinnitus and controls and thus no evidence for the predicted enhancement of cross-frequency coupling in tinnitus.
True amplitude wave equation migration arising from true amplitude one-way wave equations
Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Guanquan; Bleistein, Norman
2003-10-01
One-way wave operators are powerful tools for use in forward modelling and inversion. Their implementation, however, involves introduction of the square root of an operator as a pseudo-differential operator. Furthermore, a simple factoring of the wave operator produces one-way wave equations that yield the same travel times as the full wave equation, but do not yield accurate amplitudes except for homogeneous media and for almost all points in heterogeneous media. Here, we present augmented one-way wave equations. We show that these equations yield solutions for which the leading order asymptotic amplitude as well as the travel time satisfy the same differential equations as the corresponding functions for the full wave equation. Exact representations of the square-root operator appearing in these differential equations are elusive, except in cases in which the heterogeneity of the medium is independent of the transverse spatial variables. Here, we address the fully heterogeneous case. Singling out depth as the preferred direction of propagation, we introduce a representation of the square-root operator as an integral in which a rational function of the transverse Laplacian appears in the integrand. This allows us to carry out explicit asymptotic analysis of the resulting one-way wave equations. To do this, we introduce an auxiliary function that satisfies a lower dimensional wave equation in transverse spatial variables only. We prove that ray theory for these one-way wave equations leads to one-way eikonal equations and the correct leading order transport equation for the full wave equation. We then introduce appropriate boundary conditions at z = 0 to generate waves at depth whose quotient leads to a reflector map and an estimate of the ray theoretical reflection coefficient on the reflector. Thus, these true amplitude one-way wave equations lead to a 'true amplitude wave equation migration' (WEM) method. In fact, we prove that applying the WEM imaging condition
Pronounced Photovoltaic Response from Multilayered Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides PN-Junctions.
Memaran, Shahriar; Pradhan, Nihar R; Lu, Zhengguang; Rhodes, Daniel; Ludwig, Jonathan; Zhou, Qiong; Ogunsolu, Omotola; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Smirnov, Dmitry; Fernández-Domínguez, Antonio I; García-Vidal, Francisco J; Balicas, Luis
2015-11-11
Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are layered semiconductors with indirect band gaps comparable to Si. These compounds can be grown in large area, while their gap(s) can be tuned by changing their chemical composition or by applying a gate voltage. The experimental evidence collected so far points toward a strong interaction with light, which contrasts with the small photovoltaic efficiencies η ≤ 1% extracted from bulk crystals or exfoliated monolayers. Here, we evaluate the potential of these compounds by studying the photovoltaic response of electrostatically generated PN-junctions composed of approximately 10 atomic layers of MoSe2 stacked onto the dielectric h-BN. In addition to ideal diode-like response, we find that these junctions can yield, under AM-1.5 illumination, photovoltaic efficiencies η exceeding 14%, with fill factors of ~70%. Given the available strategies for increasing η such as gap tuning, improving the quality of the electrical contacts, or the fabrication of tandem cells, our study suggests a remarkable potential for photovoltaic applications based on TMDs.
Room-temperature near-infrared electroluminescence from boron-diffused silicon pn junction diodes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Si eLi
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Silicon pn junction diodes with different doping concentrations were prepared by boron diffusion into Czochralski (CZ n-type silicon substrate. Their room-temperature near-infrared electroluminescence (EL was measured. In the EL spectra of the heavily boron doped diode, a luminescence peak at ~1.6 m (0.78 eV was observed besides the band-to-band line (~1.1eV under the condition of high current injection, while in that of the lightly boron doped diode only the band-to-band line was observed. The intensity of peak at 0.78 eV increases exponentially with current injection with no observable saturation at room temperature. Furthermore, no dislocations were found in the cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy image, and no dislocation-related luminescence was observed in the low-temperature photoluminescence spectra. We deduce the 0.78 eV emission originates from the irradiative recombination in the strain region of diodes caused by the diffusion of large number of boron atoms into silicon crystal lattice.
A van der Waals pn heterojunction with organic/inorganic semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, Daowei; Yang, Ziyi; Wu, Bing; Xu, Bingchen; Zhang, Yuhan; Li, Yun; Shi, Yi; Wang, Xinran; Pan, Yiming; Wang, Baigeng; Nan, Haiyan; Luo, Xiaoguang; Ni, Zhenhua; Gu, Shuai; Zhu, Jia; Chai, Yang
2015-01-01
van der Waals (vdW) heterojunctions formed by two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted tremendous attention due to their excellent electrical/optical properties and device applications. However, current 2D heterojunctions are largely limited to atomic crystals, and hybrid organic/inorganic structures are rarely explored. Here, we fabricate the hybrid 2D heterostructures with p-type dioctylbenzothienobenzothiophene (C 8 -BTBT) and n-type MoS 2 . We find that few-layer C 8 -BTBT molecular crystals can be grown on monolayer MoS 2 by vdW epitaxy, with pristine interface and controllable thickness down to monolayer. The operation of the C 8 -BTBT/MoS 2 vertical heterojunction devices is highly tunable by bias and gate voltages between three different regimes: interfacial recombination, tunneling, and blocking. The pn junction shows diode-like behavior with rectifying ratio up to 10 5 at the room temperature. Our devices also exhibit photovoltaic responses with a power conversion efficiency of 0.31% and a photoresponsivity of 22 mA/W. With wide material combinations, such hybrid 2D structures will offer possibilities for opto-electronic devices that are not possible from individual constituents
A van der Waals pn heterojunction with organic/inorganic semiconductors
He, Daowei; Pan, Yiming; Nan, Haiyan; Gu, Shuai; Yang, Ziyi; Wu, Bing; Luo, Xiaoguang; Xu, Bingchen; Zhang, Yuhan; Li, Yun; Ni, Zhenhua; Wang, Baigeng; Zhu, Jia; Chai, Yang; Shi, Yi; Wang, Xinran
2015-11-01
van der Waals (vdW) heterojunctions formed by two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted tremendous attention due to their excellent electrical/optical properties and device applications. However, current 2D heterojunctions are largely limited to atomic crystals, and hybrid organic/inorganic structures are rarely explored. Here, we fabricate the hybrid 2D heterostructures with p-type dioctylbenzothienobenzothiophene (C8-BTBT) and n-type MoS2. We find that few-layer C8-BTBT molecular crystals can be grown on monolayer MoS2 by vdW epitaxy, with pristine interface and controllable thickness down to monolayer. The operation of the C8-BTBT/MoS2 vertical heterojunction devices is highly tunable by bias and gate voltages between three different regimes: interfacial recombination, tunneling, and blocking. The pn junction shows diode-like behavior with rectifying ratio up to 105 at the room temperature. Our devices also exhibit photovoltaic responses with a power conversion efficiency of 0.31% and a photoresponsivity of 22 mA/W. With wide material combinations, such hybrid 2D structures will offer possibilities for opto-electronic devices that are not possible from individual constituents.
A van der Waals pn heterojunction with organic/inorganic semiconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
He, Daowei; Yang, Ziyi; Wu, Bing; Xu, Bingchen; Zhang, Yuhan; Li, Yun; Shi, Yi, E-mail: yshi@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: xrwang@nju.edu.cn; Wang, Xinran, E-mail: yshi@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: xrwang@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Pan, Yiming; Wang, Baigeng [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Nan, Haiyan; Luo, Xiaoguang; Ni, Zhenhua [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Gu, Shuai; Zhu, Jia [College of Engineering and Applied Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chai, Yang [Department of Applied Physics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)
2015-11-02
van der Waals (vdW) heterojunctions formed by two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted tremendous attention due to their excellent electrical/optical properties and device applications. However, current 2D heterojunctions are largely limited to atomic crystals, and hybrid organic/inorganic structures are rarely explored. Here, we fabricate the hybrid 2D heterostructures with p-type dioctylbenzothienobenzothiophene (C{sub 8}-BTBT) and n-type MoS{sub 2}. We find that few-layer C{sub 8}-BTBT molecular crystals can be grown on monolayer MoS{sub 2} by vdW epitaxy, with pristine interface and controllable thickness down to monolayer. The operation of the C{sub 8}-BTBT/MoS{sub 2} vertical heterojunction devices is highly tunable by bias and gate voltages between three different regimes: interfacial recombination, tunneling, and blocking. The pn junction shows diode-like behavior with rectifying ratio up to 10{sup 5} at the room temperature. Our devices also exhibit photovoltaic responses with a power conversion efficiency of 0.31% and a photoresponsivity of 22 mA/W. With wide material combinations, such hybrid 2D structures will offer possibilities for opto-electronic devices that are not possible from individual constituents.
Nucleon fragmentation in pn and pp interactions compared with quark counting rules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bakken, V.; Breivik, F.O.; Jacobsen, T. (Oslo Univ. (Norway). Fysisk Inst.)
1981-11-01
New data on longitudinal invariant structure functions Edsigma/dx for several low-psub(T) fragmentation processes in pn interactions at 19 GeV/c are presented, based on a bubble chamber study of pd collisions. The single-particle processes n..--> pi../sup + -/, p..--> pi../sup + -/, is investigated n..-->..p, n/p..-->..rho/sup 0/, p..-->..psub(inel) and p..--> delta../sup + +/(1232) as well as the dipion processes n..--> pi../sup -/..pi../sup -/, n..--> pi../sup +/..pi../sup +/, n..--> pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/ and p..--> pi../sup -/..pi../sup -/. Data of the authors on pp collisions at 19 GeV/c regarding p..--> pi../sup -/, p..-->..K/sup 0/sub(S) and p..--> lambda.. have also been considered. The structure functions of these processes are, in the fragmentation region, adequately fitted by Edsigma/dx ..cap alpha.. (1-xi such that sup(n). imilar fits are made to published data on hadron-neutron interactionseractions and ISR data on pp..-->..n+X. The results are compared with earlier data on proton fragmentation. The values of n show no energy dependence. They are in qualitative agreement with the recently formulated quark counting rules, but some quantitative disagreements are observed.
Nucleon fragmentation in pn and pp interactions compared with quark counting rules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bakken, V.; Breivik, F.O.; Jacobsen, T. (Oslo Univ. (Norway). Fysisk Inst.)
1981-11-01
New data on longitudinal invariant structure functions E dsigma/dx for several low-psub(T) fragmentation processes in pn interactions at 19 GeV/c are presented, based on a bubble chamber study of pd collisions. We investigate the single-particle processes n..--> pi..sup(+-), p..--> pi..sup(+-), n..-->..p, n/p..-->..p/sup 0/, p..-->..psub(i)sub(n)sub(e)sub(l) and p..--> delta../sup + +/(1232) as well as the dipion processes n..--> pi..-..pi..-, n..--> pi..+..pi..+, n..--> pi..+..pi..- and p..--> pi..-..pi..-. We have also considered our data on pp collisions at 19 GeV/c regarding p..--> pi..-, p..-->..Ksub(s)/sup 0/ and p..--> lambda... The structure functions of these processes are, in the fragmentation region, adequately fitted by Edsigma/dx approx. equal to (1- vertical stroke z vertical stroke )sup(n). Similar fits are made to published data on hadron-neutron interactions and ISR data on pp..-->..n+X. The results are compared with earlier data on proton fragmentation. The values of n show no energy dependence. They are in qualitative agreement with the recently formulated quark counting rules, but some quantitative disagreements are observed.
Nucleon fragmentation in pn and pp interactions compared with quark counting rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bakken, V.; Breivik, F.O.; Jacobsen, T.
New data on longitudinal invariant structure functions Edσ/dx for several low p(sub T) fragmentation processes in pn interactions at 19 GeV/c are presented, based on a bubble chamber study of pd collisions. The single particle processes n→π +- , p→π +- , n→p, n/p→rho 0 , p→p(sub inel) and p→Δ ++ (1232) as well as the di-pion processes n→π - π - , n→π + π + , n→π + π - and p→π - π - have been investigated. Previously published data on pp collisions at 19 GeV/c regarding p→π - , p→K 0 (sub s) and p→Λ have also been considered. The structure functions of these processes in the fragmentation region are adequately fitted by Edσ/dx proportional to (1-/x/)(sup n). Similar fits are made to published data on hadron-neutron interactions and ISR-data on pp→n+X. The values of n show no energy dependence. They are in qualitative agreement with the recently formulated quark counting rules, but some quantitative disagreements are observed. (Auth.)
Bisquert, Juan; Garcia-Canadas, Jorge; Mora-Sero, Ivan; Palomares, Emilio
2004-02-01
We discuss a generalized model for a solar cell, and the realization with heterogeneous photochemical photovoltaic converters such as the dye-sensitized solar cell. The different steps involved in the conversion of photon energy to electrical energy, indicate that a key point to consider is maintaining the separation of Fermi levels in the selective contacts to the absorber. In order to understand the irreversible processes limiting the efficient operation of the solar cell, it is necessary to obtain a precise description of the internal distribution of Fermi levels. We suggest the equivalent circuit as a central tool for obtaining such description, in relation with small perturbation measurement techniques. The fundamental steps of excitation and charge separation, and the losses by transport and charge transfer, can be represented by suitable circuit elements, and the overall circuit configuration indicates the operation of the selective contacts. The comparison of the equivalent circuits for heterogeneous dye solar cells and solid-state p-n junctions, shows the significant difference in the mechanisms of the selective contacts of these solar cells.
High-resolution measurement of the 16O(γ,pn) reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isaksson, L.
1996-10-01
The 16 O(γ,pn) reaction has been measured with a resolution high enough to resolve individual low-lying states in the residual 14 N nucleus. Partial cross-sections, available to the acceptance of the detector system, have been extracted for the individual states, and compared to a recent calculation based on absorption on one-pion exchange currents and the Δ resonance current. The experiment was performed at the Maxlab accelerator laboratory in Lund, Sweden, using tagged photons at an energy of 67 - 76 MeV. The proton detector angular range was 60 - 100 deg and the corresponding for the neutron detector 81 - 103 deg. A missing energy resolution of 1.5 MeV was obtained. The relative population of the states in the residual 14 N nucleus indicates that the reaction takes place predominantly on proton-neutron pairs coupled to (J π ,T) = (1 + ,0). The cross-section for absorption on (0 + ,1) pairs is strongly suppressed. Furthermore, the relative population of the states indicates that both L=0 and L=2 pairs participate in the reaction. 45 refs
Depletion layer characteristics and photovoltaic energy conversion in organic P-N heterojunctions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chamberlain, G A
1983-11-01
The depletion layer characteristics of an organic p-n heterojunction were investigated by measuring the temperature variation of the capacitance, rectification and photovoltaic short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage. The cell consisted of indium-tin-oxide-coated glass/n-type malachite green/p-type merocyanine/Au exposed to chlorine vapour, in the absence of air, to effect the marked rectification and photovoltaic properties observed. Capacitance measurements indicate that a depletion layer of about 65 nm and a barrier height of about 0.8 eV are formed between the two dyes. The forward dark current is dominated by electron tunnelling from the malachite green to the merocyanine. Using an asymmetric trapping model, the reverse saturation current was explained as the thermally activated emission of electrons from filled traps at the Fermi energy of the merocyanine to empty traps in the malachite green over a barrier of 0.72+-0.1 eV. When the cell is working in the photovoltaic mode, the photocurrent is limited by the poor carrier photogeneration efficiency in the malachite green.
High-resolution measurement of the {sup 16}O({gamma},pn) reaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Isaksson, L.
1996-10-01
The {sup 16}O({gamma},pn) reaction has been measured with a resolution high enough to resolve individual low-lying states in the residual {sup 14}N nucleus. Partial cross-sections, available to the acceptance of the detector system, have been extracted for the individual states, and compared to a recent calculation based on absorption on one-pion exchange currents and the {Delta} resonance current. The experiment was performed at the Maxlab accelerator laboratory in Lund, Sweden, using tagged photons at an energy of 67 - 76 MeV. The proton detector angular range was 60 - 100 deg and the corresponding for the neutron detector 81 - 103 deg. A missing energy resolution of 1.5 MeV was obtained. The relative population of the states in the residual {sup 14}N nucleus indicates that the reaction takes place predominantly on proton-neutron pairs coupled to (J{sup {pi}},T) = (1{sup +},0). The cross-section for absorption on (0{sup +},1) pairs is strongly suppressed. Furthermore, the relative population of the states indicates that both L=0 and L=2 pairs participate in the reaction. 45 refs.
Simplified P_n transport core calculations in the Apollo3 system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baudron, Anne-Marie; Lautard, Jean-Jacques
2011-01-01
This paper describes the development of two different neutronics core solvers based on the Simplified P_N transport (SP_N) approximation developed in the context of a new generation nuclear reactor computational system, APOLLO3. Two different approaches have been used. The first one solves the standard SPN system. In the second approach, the SP_N equations are solved as diffusion equations by treating the SP_N flux harmonics like pseudo energy groups, obtained by a change of variable. These two methods have been implemented for Cartesian and hexagonal geometries in the kinetics solver MINOS. The numerical approximation is based on the mixed dual finite formulation and the discretization uses the Raviart-Thomas-Nedelec finite elements. For the unstructured geometries, the SP_N equations are treated by the SN transport solver MINARET by considering the second SP_N approach. The MINARET solver is based on discontinuous Galerkin finite element approximation on cylindrical unstructured meshes composed of a set of conforming triangles for the radial direction. Numerical applications are presented for both solvers in different core configurations (the Jules Horowitz research reactor (JHR) and the Generation IV fast reactor project ESFR). (author)
A P-N Sequence Generator Using LFSR with Dual Edge Trigger Technique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naghwal Nitin Kumar
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper represents the design and implementation of a low power 4-bit LFSR using Dual edge triggered flip flop. A linear feedback shift register (LFSR is assembled by N number of flip flops connected in series and a combinational logic generally xor gate. An LFSR can generate random number sequence which acts as cipher in cryptography. A known text encrypted over long PN sequence, in order to improve security sequence made longer ie 128 bit; require long chain of flip flop leads to more power consumption. In this paper a novel circuit of random sequence generator using dual edge triggered flip flop has been proposed. Data has been generated on every edge of flip flop instead of single edge. A DETFF-LFSR can generate random number require with less number of clock cycle, it minimizes the number of flip flop result in power saving. In this paper we concentrates on the designing of power competent Test Pattern Generator (TPG using four dual edge triggered flip-flops as the basic building block, overall there is reduction of power around 25% by using these techniques.
Background study for the pn-CCD detector of CERN Axion Solar Telescope
Cebrián, S; Kuster, M.; Beltran, B.; Gomez, H.; Hartmann, R.; Irastorza, I. G.; Kotthaus, R.; Luzon, G.; Morales, J.; Ruz, J.; Struder, L.; Villar, J. A.
2007-01-01
The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment searches for axions from the Sun converted into photons with energies up to around 10 keV via the inverse Primakoff effect in the high magnetic field of a superconducting Large Hadron Collider (LHC) prototype magnet. A backside illuminated pn-CCD detector in conjunction with an X-ray mirror optics is one of the three detectors used in CAST to register the expected photon signal. Since this signal is very rare and different background components (environmental gamma radiation, cosmic rays, intrinsic radioactive impurities in the set-up, ...) entangle it, a detailed study of the detector background has been undertaken with the aim to understand and further reduce the background level of the detector. The analysis is based on measured data taken during the Phase I of CAST and on Monte Carlo simulations of different background components. This study will show that the observed background level (at a rate of (8.00+-0.07)10^-5 counts/cm^2/s/keV between 1 and 7 keV) s...
Analytical Study of 90Sr Betavoltaic Nuclear Battery Performance Based on p-n Junction Silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahastama, Swastya; Waris, Abdul
2016-01-01
Previously, an analytical calculation of 63 Ni p-n junction betavoltaic battery has been published. As the basic approach, we reproduced the analytical simulation of 63 Ni betavoltaic battery and then compared it to previous results using the same design of the battery. Furthermore, we calculated its maximum power output and radiation- electricity conversion efficiency using semiconductor analysis method.Then, the same method were applied to calculate and analyse the performance of 90 Sr betavoltaic battery. The aim of this project is to compare the analytical perfomance results of 90 Sr betavoltaic battery to 63 Ni betavoltaic battery and the source activity influences to performance. Since it has a higher power density, 90 Sr betavoltaic battery yields more power than 63 Ni betavoltaic battery but less radiation-electricity conversion efficiency. However, beta particles emitted from 90 Sr source could travel further inside the silicon corresponding to stopping range of beta particles, thus the 90 Sr betavoltaic battery could be designed thicker than 63 Ni betavoltaic battery to achieve higher conversion efficiency. (paper)
Universal tunneling behavior in technologically relevant P/N junction diodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solomon, Paul M.; Jopling, Jason; Frank, David J.; D'Emic, Chris; Dokumaci, O.; Ronsheim, P.; Haensch, W.E.
2004-01-01
Band-to-band tunneling was studied in ion-implanted P/N junction diodes with profiles representative of present and future silicon complementary metal-oxide-silicon (CMOS) field effect transistors. Measurements were done over a wide range of temperatures and implant parameters. Profile parameters were derived from analysis of capacitance versus voltage characteristics, and compared to secondary-ion mass spectroscopy analysis. When the tunneling current was plotted against the effective tunneling distance (tunneling distance corrected for band curvature) a quasi-universal exponential reduction of tunneling current versus, tunneling distance was found with an attenuation length of 0.38 nm, corresponding to a tunneling effective mass of 0.29 times the free electron mass (m 0 ), and an extrapolated tunneling current at zero tunnel distance of 5.3x10 7 A/cm 2 at 300 K. These results are directly applicable for predicting drain to substrate currents in CMOS transistors on bulk silicon, and body currents in CMOS transistors in silicon-on-insulator
The interest in studying beauty baryon in pN interactions at HERA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albrecht, H.; Fridman, A.; Mai, O.; Oest, T.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Kinnunen, R.
1993-11-01
We present some reasons for studying beauty baryons (N b ) produced in pN interactions. We also investigate the possibilities of using a suggested HERA experiment with an internal target in order to observe the beauty baryons. Their triggering process allows the study of N b decays having a J/Ψ in the final state. The estimates of the N b production rates and branching ratios give the possibility of analyzing Λ b → ΛJ/Ψ and Ζ b → ΖJ/Ψ channels as well as their charged conjugated processes. The measurements of the decay parameter and the polarization of N b have been considered. It was also suggested to measure the Λ b → l - νp (b →u) and Λ b → l - νΛ c + (b → c) channels in order to have a new estimate of the ratio of the CKM matrix elements vertical stroke V ub /V cb vertical stroke . (orig.)
UNUSUAL CARBONACEOUS DUST DISTRIBUTION IN PN G095.2+00.7
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohsawa, Ryou; Onaka, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki; Mori, Tamami I.; Miyata, Takashi; Asano, Kentaro; Matsuura, Mikako; Kaneda, Hidehiro
2012-01-01
We investigate the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features in the young Galactic planetary nebula PN G095.2+00.7 based on mid-infrared observations. The near- to mid-infrared spectra obtained with the AKARI/IRC and the Spitzer/IRS show the PAH features as well as the broad emission feature at 12 μm usually seen in proto-planetary nebulae (pPNe). The spatially resolved spectra obtained with Subaru/COMICS suggest that the broad emission around 12 μm is distributed in a shell-like structure, but the unidentified infrared band at 11.3 μm is selectively enhanced at the southern part of the nebula. The variation can be explained by a difference in the amount of the UV radiation to excite PAHs, and does not necessarily require the chemical processing of dust grains and PAHs. It suggests that the UV self-extinction is important to understand the mid-infrared spectral features. We propose a mechanism which accounts for the evolutionary sequence of the mid-infrared dust features seen in a transition from pPNe to PNe.
Double logarithmic asymptotics of quark amplitudes with flavour exchange
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirschner, R.
1982-01-01
Results on the quark scattering and annihilation amplitudes in the Regge region are presented. The perturbative contribution to those amplitudes in the double logarithmic approximation are calculated. In the calculations a method based on dispersion relations and gauge invariance is used. (M.F.W.)
Multi-loop string amplitudes and Riemann surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, J.G.
1986-01-01
The paper was presented at the workshop on 'Supersymmetry and its applications', Cambridge, United Kingdom, 1985. Super-string theory is discussed under the following topic headings: the functional approach to the string amplitude, Rieman surfaces, the determinants Δsub(epsilon)(1) and Δsub(epsilon)(2), Green's functions, total amplitude, and divergence analysis. (U.K.)
Damping and Frequency Shift of Large Amplitude Electron Plasma Waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Kenneth; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1983-01-01
The initial evolution of large-amplitude one-dimensional electron waves is investigated by applying a numerical simulation. The initial wave damping is found to be strongly enhanced relative to the linear damping and it increases with increasing amplitude. The temporal evolution of the nonlinear...
Singularities of elastic scattering amplitude by long-range potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kvitsinsky, A.A.; Komarov, I.V.; Merkuriev, S.P.
1982-01-01
The angular peculiarities and the zero energy singularities of the elastic scattering amplitude by a long-range potential are described. The singularities of the elastic (2 → 2) scattering amplitude for a system of three Coulomb particles are considered [ru
Properties of the scattering amplitude for electron-atom collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Combes, J.M.; Tip, A.
1983-02-01
For the scattering of an electron by an atom finiteness of the amplitude at non threshold energies is proved in the framework of the N-body Schroedinger equation. It is also shown that both the direct and exchange amplitudes have analytic continuations for complex values of incident momentum, with pole or cut singularities on the imaginary axis
Miracles in Scattering Amplitudes: from QCD to Gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Volovich, Anastasia [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)
2016-10-09
The goal of my research project "Miracles in Scattering Amplitudes: from QCD to Gravity" involves deepening our understanding of gauge and gravity theories by exploring hidden structures in scattering amplitudes and using these rich structures as much as possible to aid practical calculations.
Weak decay amplitudes in large N/sub c/ QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bardeen, W.A.
1988-10-01
A systematic analysis of nonleptonic decay amplitudes is presented using the large N/sub c/ expansion of quantum chromodynamics. In the K-meson system, this analysis is applied to the calculation of the weak decay amplitudes, weak mixing and CP violation. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs
Abnormal Selective Attention Normalizes P3 Amplitudes in PDD
Hoeksma, Marco R.; Kemner, Chantal; Kenemans, J. Leon; van Engeland, Herman
2006-01-01
This paper studied whether abnormal P3 amplitudes in PDD are a corollary of abnormalities in ERP components related to selective attention in visual and auditory tasks. Furthermore, this study sought to clarify possible age differences in such abnormalities. Children with PDD showed smaller P3 amplitudes than controls, but no abnormalities in…
Multiphoton states and amplitude k-th power squeezing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buzek, V.; Jex, I.
1991-01-01
On the basis of the work of d'Ariano and coworkers a new type of multiphoton states is introduced. Amplitude k-th power squeezing of the multiphoton states are analysed. In particular, it is shown that even if the multiphoton states do not exhibit ordinary squeezing they can be amplitude k-th power squeezed
Automated force controller for amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miyagi, Atsushi, E-mail: atsushi.miyagi@inserm.fr, E-mail: simon.scheuring@inserm.fr; Scheuring, Simon, E-mail: atsushi.miyagi@inserm.fr, E-mail: simon.scheuring@inserm.fr [U1006 INSERM, Université Aix-Marseille, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13009 Marseille (France)
2016-05-15
Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is widely used in physics, chemistry, and biology to analyze the topography of a sample at nanometer resolution. Controlling precisely the force applied by the AFM tip to the sample is a prerequisite for faithful and reproducible imaging. In amplitude modulation (oscillating) mode AFM, the applied force depends on the free and the setpoint amplitudes of the cantilever oscillation. Therefore, for keeping the applied force constant, not only the setpoint amplitude but also the free amplitude must be kept constant. While the AFM user defines the setpoint amplitude, the free amplitude is typically subject to uncontrollable drift, and hence, unfortunately, the real applied force is permanently drifting during an experiment. This is particularly harmful in biological sciences where increased force destroys the soft biological matter. Here, we have developed a strategy and an electronic circuit that analyzes permanently the free amplitude of oscillation and readjusts the excitation to maintain the free amplitude constant. As a consequence, the real applied force is permanently and automatically controlled with picoNewton precision. With this circuit associated to a high-speed AFM, we illustrate the power of the development through imaging over long-duration and at various forces. The development is applicable for all AFMs and will widen the applicability of AFM to a larger range of samples and to a larger range of (non-specialist) users. Furthermore, from controlled force imaging experiments, the interaction strength between biomolecules can be analyzed.
Numerical evaluation of one-loop QCD amplitudes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Badger, Simon David; Biedermann, Benedikt; Uwer, Peter
2012-01-01
We present the publicly available program NGluon allowing the numerical evaluation of primitive amplitudes at one-loop order in massless QCD. The program allows the computation of one-loop amplitudes for an arbitrary number of gluons. The focus of the present article is the extension to one-loop ...
Conformal higher spin scattering amplitudes from twistor space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adamo, Tim [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hähnel, Philipp; McLoughlin, Tristan [School of Mathematics, Trinity College Dublin, College Green, Dublin 2 (Ireland)
2017-04-04
We use the formulation of conformal higher spin (CHS) theories in twistor space to study their tree-level scattering amplitudes, finding expressions for all three-point (MHV)-bar amplitudes and all MHV amplitudes involving positive helicity conformal gravity particles and two negative helicity higher spins. This provides the on-shell analogue for the covariant coupling of CHS fields to a conformal gravity background. We discuss the restriction of the theory to a ghost-free unitary subsector, analogous to restricting conformal gravity to general relativity with a cosmological constant. We study the flat-space limit and show that the restricted amplitudes vanish, supporting the conjecture that in the unitary sector the S-matrix of CHS theories is trivial. However, by appropriately rescaling the amplitudes we find non-vanishing results which we compare with chiral flat-space higher spin theories.
Simplicity in the structure of QED and gravity amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Badger, Simon [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States). School of Natural Sciences; Vanhove, Pierre [Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques IHES, Bures sur Yvette (France); CEA, IPhT, CNRS, URA, Gif-sur-Yvette, (France). Inst. de Physique Theorique
2008-11-15
We investigate generic properties of one-loop amplitudes in unordered gauge theories in four dimensions. For such theories the organisation of amplitudes in manifestly crossing symmetric expressions poses restrictions on their structure and results in remarkable cancellations. We show that one-loop multi-photon amplitudes in QED with at least eight external photons are given only by scalar box integral functions. This QED 'no-triangle' property is true for all helicity configurations and has similarities to the 'notriangle' property found in the case of maximal N=8 supergravity. Results are derived both via a world-line formalism as well as using on-shell unitarity methods. We show that the simple structure of the loop amplitude originates from the extremely good BCFW scaling behaviour of the QED tree-amplitude. (orig.)
Simplicity in the structure of QED and gravity amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Badger, Simon; Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J.; Vanhove, Pierre; CEA, IPhT, CNRS, URA, Gif-sur-Yvette,
2008-11-01
We investigate generic properties of one-loop amplitudes in unordered gauge theories in four dimensions. For such theories the organisation of amplitudes in manifestly crossing symmetric expressions poses restrictions on their structure and results in remarkable cancellations. We show that one-loop multi-photon amplitudes in QED with at least eight external photons are given only by scalar box integral functions. This QED 'no-triangle' property is true for all helicity configurations and has similarities to the 'notriangle' property found in the case of maximal N=8 supergravity. Results are derived both via a world-line formalism as well as using on-shell unitarity methods. We show that the simple structure of the loop amplitude originates from the extremely good BCFW scaling behaviour of the QED tree-amplitude. (orig.)
High Frequency Amplitude Detector for GMI Magnetic Sensors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aktham Asfour
2014-12-01
Full Text Available A new concept of a high-frequency amplitude detector and demodulator for Giant-Magneto-Impedance (GMI sensors is presented. This concept combines a half wave rectifier, with outstanding capabilities and high speed, and a feedback approach that ensures the amplitude detection with easily adjustable gain. The developed detector is capable of measuring high-frequency and very low amplitude signals without the use of diode-based active rectifiers or analog multipliers. The performances of this detector are addressed throughout the paper. The full circuitry of the design is given, together with a comprehensive theoretical study of the concept and experimental validation. The detector has been used for the amplitude measurement of both single frequency and pulsed signals and for the demodulation of amplitude-modulated signals. It has also been successfully integrated in a GMI sensor prototype. Magnetic field and electrical current measurements in open- and closed-loop of this sensor have also been conducted.
Conformal higher spin scattering amplitudes from twistor space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adamo, Tim; Hähnel, Philipp; McLoughlin, Tristan
2017-01-01
We use the formulation of conformal higher spin (CHS) theories in twistor space to study their tree-level scattering amplitudes, finding expressions for all three-point (MHV)-bar amplitudes and all MHV amplitudes involving positive helicity conformal gravity particles and two negative helicity higher spins. This provides the on-shell analogue for the covariant coupling of CHS fields to a conformal gravity background. We discuss the restriction of the theory to a ghost-free unitary subsector, analogous to restricting conformal gravity to general relativity with a cosmological constant. We study the flat-space limit and show that the restricted amplitudes vanish, supporting the conjecture that in the unitary sector the S-matrix of CHS theories is trivial. However, by appropriately rescaling the amplitudes we find non-vanishing results which we compare with chiral flat-space higher spin theories.
Correlation between dislocations and leakage current of p-n diodes on a free-standing GaN substrate
Usami, Shigeyoshi; Ando, Yuto; Tanaka, Atsushi; Nagamatsu, Kentaro; Deki, Manato; Kushimoto, Maki; Nitta, Shugo; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi; Sugawara, Yoshihiro; Yao, Yong-Zhao; Ishikawa, Yukari
2018-04-01
Dislocations that cause a reverse leakage current in vertical p-n diodes on a GaN free-standing substrate were investigated. Under a high reverse bias, dot-like leakage spots were observed using an emission microscope. Subsequent cathodoluminescence (CL) observations revealed that the leakage spots coincided with part of the CL dark spots, indicating that some types of dislocation cause reverse leakage. When etch pits were formed on the dislocations by KOH etching, three sizes of etch pits were obtained (large, medium, and small). Among these etch pits, only the medium pits coincided with leakage spots. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that pure screw dislocations are present under the leakage spots. The results revealed that 1c pure screw dislocations are related to the reverse leakage in vertical p-n diodes.
Tunnel currents produced by defects in p-n junctions of GaAs grown on vapor phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrales Guadarrama, V R; Rodríguez Rodriguez, E M; Barrales Guadarrama, R; Reyes Ayala, N
2017-01-01
With the purpose of assessing if the epitaxy on vapor phase technique “Close Space Vapor Deposition (CSVT)” is capable of produce thin films with adequate properties in order to manufacture p-n junctions, a study of invert and direct current was developed, in a temperature range of 94K to 293K, to junctions p-n of GaAs grown through the technique CSVT. It is shown that the dominant current, within the range 10 -7 to 10 -2 A, is consistent with a currents model of the type of internal emission form field, which shows these currents are due to the presence of localized states in the band gap. (paper)
Gherasoiu, I.; Yu, K. M.; Reichertz, L.; Walukiewicz, W.
2015-09-01
PN junctions are basic building blocks of many electronic devices and their performance depends on the structural properties of the component layers and on the type and the amount of the doping impurities incorporated. Magnesium is the common p-type dopant for nitride semiconductors while silicon and more recently germanium are the n-dopants of choice. In this paper, therefore we analyze the quantitative limits for Mg and Ge incorporation on GaN and InGaN with high In content. We also discuss the challenges posed by the growth and characterization of InGaN pn-junctions and we discuss the properties of large area, long wavelength nanocolumn LEDs grown on silicon (1 1 1) by PA-MBE.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okamoto, K.; Mehta, M.K.
1988-05-01
The second IAEA Research Co-ordination Meeting on Measurement and Analysis of Double-Differential Neutron Emission Spectra in (p,n) and (α,n) Reactions was convened by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna during 8-10 February, 1988. The main objectives of the Co-ordinated Research Project for which this meeting was held are (i) to extract systematic information about nuclear level densities as a function of excitation energy by analysing the neutron emission spectra from (p,n) and (α,n) reactions on properly selected targets and bombarding energy range, and (ii) to parametrize this information into appropriate phenomenological models to enable reliable extrapolation for general use of level density information in basic and applied nuclear physics related problems. Detailed conclusions and recommendations, together with a summary of the programme during 1988/1989 are attached in the Appendices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laboure, Vincent M.; Wang, Yaqi; DeHart, Mark D.
2016-05-01
In this paper, we study the Least-Squares (LS) PN form of the transport equation compatible with voids [1] in the context of Continuous Finite Element Methods (CFEM).We first deriveweakly imposed boundary conditions which make the LS weak formulation equivalent to the Self-Adjoint Angular Flux (SAAF) variational formulation with a void treatment [2], in the particular case of constant cross-sections and a uniform mesh. We then implement this method in Rattlesnake with the Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) framework [3] using a spherical harmonics (PN) expansion to discretize in angle. We test our implementation using the Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS) and find the expected convergence behavior both in angle and space. Lastly, we investigate the impact of the global non-conservation of LS by comparing the method with SAAF on a heterogeneous test problem.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vincent M. Laboure; Yaqi Wang; Mark D. DeHart
2016-05-01
In this paper, we study the Least-Squares (LS) PN form of the transport equation compatible with voids in the context of Continuous Finite Element Methods (CFEM).We first deriveweakly imposed boundary conditions which make the LS weak formulation equivalent to the Self-Adjoint Angular Flux (SAAF) variational formulation with a void treatment, in the particular case of constant cross-sections and a uniform mesh. We then implement this method in Rattlesnake with the Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) framework using a spherical harmonics (PN) expansion to discretize in angle. We test our implementation using the Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS) and find the expected convergence behavior both in angle and space. Lastly, we investigate the impact of the global non-conservation of LS by comparing the method with SAAF on a heterogeneous test problem.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bakken, V.; Jacobsen, T.
The charge exchange cross sections observed for pN interactions at 19 GeV/c in terms of the quark-quark interchange concept are discussed. If one uu-pair and one dd-pair of sea-quarks are assigned to each initial nucleon in pn and pp inelastic reactions, and if these quarks are assumed to participate on equal footing with the valence quarks in a quark-quark interchange mechanism between the two initial nucleons, the ratios between some observed charge exchange cross sections are well reproduced. This indicates that in this model the sea-quarks contribute significantly to the particle production in low p(subT) hadronic processes. (Auth.)
Does the delta quench Gamow-Teller strength in (p,n)- and (p vector,p vector')-reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osterfeld, F.; Schulte, A.; Udagawa, T.; Yabe, M.
1986-01-01
Microscopic analyses of complete forward angle intermediate energy (p,n)-, ( 3 He,t)- and (p vector,p vector')-spin-flip spectra are presented for the reactions 90 Zr(p,n), 90 Zr( 3 He,t) and 90 Zr(p vector,p vector'). It is shown that the whole spectra up to high excitation energies (E X ∝50 MeV) are the result of correlated one-particle-one-hole (1p1h) spin-isospin transitions only. The spectra reflect, therefore, the linear spin-isospin response of the target nucleus to the probing external hadronic fields. Our results suggest that the measured (p,n)-, ( 3 He,t)- and (p vector,p vector')-cross sections are compatible with the transition strength predictions as obtained from random phase approximation (RPA) calculations. This means that the Δ isobar quenching mechanism is likely to be rather small. (orig.)
Relative cross-sections of In isomer production in the (pn) and (p,2n) reactions on Cd isotopes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skakun, E A; Klyucharev, A P; Rakivnenko, Yu N; Romanij, I A [AN Ukrainskoi SSR, Kiev. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskii Inst.
1975-01-01
Ratios of excitation cross-sections for isomeric pairs are measured in a range of incident proton energy up to 20 MeV in the following reactions: sup(110)Cd(pn)sup(110*,g)In, sup(112)Cd(pn)sup(112*,g)In, sup(110)Cd(p,2n)sup(109*,g)In, sup(111)Cd(p,2n)sup(110*,g)In, and sup(113)Cd(p,2n)sup(112*,g)In. Calculations in terms of the equilibrium statistical theory have been performed for the same reactions. Comparison of the experiment with the theory yields better values for theoretical parameters.
Steady-state characteristics of lateral p-n junction vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers
Ryzhii, V.; Tsutsui, N.; Khmyrova, I.; Ikegami, T.; Vaccaro, P. O.; Taniyama, H.; Aida, T.
2001-09-01
We developed an analytical device model for lateral p-n junction vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (LJVCSELs) with a quantum well active region. The model takes into account the features of the carrier injection, transport, and recombination in LJVCSELs as well as the features of the photon propagation in the cavity. This model is used for the calculation and analysis of the LJVCSEL steady-state characteristics. It is shown that the localization of the injected electrons primarily near the p-n junction and the reabsorption of lateral propagating photons significantly effects the LJVCSELs performance, in particular, the LJVCSEL threshold current and power-current characteristics. The reincarnation of electrons and holes due to the reabsorption of lateral propagating photons can substantially decrease the threshold current.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Chengxin; Yang Guowei; Liu Hongwu; Han Yonghao; Luo Jifeng; Gao Chunxiao; Zou Guangtian
2004-01-01
High-quality heterojunctions between p-type diamond single-crystalline films and highly oriented n-type ZnO films were fabricated by depositing the p-type diamond single-crystal films on the I o -type diamond single crystal using a hot filament chemical vapor deposition, and later growing a highly oriented n-type ZnO film on the p-type diamond single-crystal film by magnetron sputtering. Interestingly, anomalously high ideality factors (n>>2.0) in the prepared ZnO/diamond p-n junction diode in the interim bias voltage range were measured. For this, detailed electronic characterizations of the fabricated p-n junction were conducted, and a theoretical model was proposed to clarify the much higher ideality factors of the special heterojunction diode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Li; Lei, Jingguo; Ji, Tianhao
2011-01-01
Graphical abstract: Cu 2 O particle-deposited TiO 2 nanobelts with p-n semiconductor heterojunction structure were successfully prepared via two-step preparation process, and their visible-light photodegradation activities of Rhodamine B were investigated in detail. Highlights: → Cu 2 O particle-deposited TiO 2 nanobelts mainly with diameters in a range of 200-400 nm were successfully prepared. → The amount of Cu 2 O particles deposited on TiO 2 nanobelts can be tuned. → The composite structure with Cu 2 O particles and TiO 2 nanobelts exhibits p-n semiconductor heterojunction performance. → Photocatalytic properties of such composites. -- Abstract: In this paper, Cu 2 O particle-deposited TiO 2 nanobelts with p-n semiconductor heterojunction structure were successfully prepared via a two-step preparation process to investigate electron-transfer performance between p-type Cu 2 O and n-type TiO 2 . Various measurement results confirm that the amount of pure Cu 2 O submicroparticles, with diameters within the range of 200-400 nm and deposited on the surface of TiO 2 nanobelts, can be controlled, and that the purity of Cu 2 O is heavily affected by reaction time. Visible-light photodegradation activities of Rhodamine B show that photocatalysts have little or no photocatalytic activities mainly due to their p-n heterojunction structure, indicating that there hardly appears any electron-transfer from Cu 2 O to TiO 2 .
Yunia Mayasari, Ratih; Atmojo Kusmayadi, Tri
2018-04-01
Let G be a connected graph with vertex set V(G) and edge set E(G). For every pair of vertices u,v\\in V(G), the interval I[u, v] between u and v to be the collection of all vertices that belong to some shortest u ‑ v path. A vertex s\\in V(G) strongly resolves two vertices u and v if u belongs to a shortest v ‑ s path or v belongs to a shortest u ‑ s path. A vertex set S of G is a strong resolving set of G if every two distinct vertices of G are strongly resolved by some vertex of S. The strong metric basis of G is a strong resolving set with minimal cardinality. The strong metric dimension sdim(G) of a graph G is defined as the cardinality of strong metric basis. In this paper we determine the strong metric dimension of a generalized butterfly graph, starbarbell graph, and {C}mȯ {P}n graph. We obtain the strong metric dimension of generalized butterfly graph is sdim(BFn ) = 2n ‑ 2. The strong metric dimension of starbarbell graph is sdim(S{B}{m1,{m}2,\\ldots,{m}n})={\\sum }i=1n({m}i-1)-1. The strong metric dimension of {C}mȯ {P}n graph are sdim({C}mȯ {P}n)=2m-1 for m > 3 and n = 2, and sdim({C}mȯ {P}n)=2m-2 for m > 3 and n > 2.
Energy dependence of V/sub tau/ in the (p,n) reaction 10 to 30 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poppe, C.H.
1979-03-01
Because of the relative insensitivity of the (p,n) analog reaction to details of the nuclear wave functions, a simple description is given for the studied reaction 92 Mo(p,n) at 26 MeV in which a proton is created and a neutron destroyed in the 1/sub g9/2/ orbit. The differential and angle-integrated analog cross sections and the effective potential for IF range are plotted. 27 references
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suarez Antola, R.
2008-11-01
The cores of nuclear reactors, including its structural parts and cooling fluids, are complex mechanical systems able to vibrate in a set of normal modes and frequencies, if suitable perturbed. The cyclic variations in the strain state of the core materials may produce changes in density. Changes in density modify the reactivity. Changes in reactivity modify thermal power. Modifications in thermal power produce variations in temperature fields. Variations in temperature produce variations in strain due to thermal-elastic effects. If the variation of the temperature field is fast enough and if the Doppler Effect and other stabilizing prompt effects in the fuel are weak enough, a fast oscillatory instability could be produced, coupled with mechanical vibrations of small amplitude. A recently constructed, simple mathematical model of nuclear reactor kinetics, that improves the one due to A.S. Thompson, is reviewed. It was constructed in order to study, in a first approximation, the stability of the reactor: a nonlinear nuclear-thermal oscillator (that corresponds to reactor point kinetics with thermal-elastic feedback and with frozen delayed neutron effects) is coupled nonlinearly with a linear mechanical-thermal oscillator (that corresponds to the first normal mode of mechanical vibrations excited by thermo-elastic effects). This mathematical model is studied here from the standpoint of mechanical vibrations. It is shown how, under certain conditions, a suitable mechanical perturbation could elicit fast and growing oscillatory instabilities in the reactor power. Applying the asymptotic method due to Krylov, Bogoliubov and Mitropolsky, analytical formulae that may be used in the calculation of the time varying amplitude and phase of the mechanical oscillations are given, as functions of the mechanical, thermal and nuclear parameters of the reactor. The consequences for the mechanical integrity of the reactor are assessed. Some conditions, mainly, but not exclusively
Nakao, Masayuki; Mun, Mingyon; Nakagawa, Ken; Nishio, Makoto; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Okumura, Sakae
2015-01-01
Purpose: To identify prognostic factors for pathologic N2 (pN2) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated by surgical resection. Methods: Between 1990 and 2009, 287 patients with pN2 NSCLC underwent curative resection at the Cancer Institute Hospital without preoperative treatment. Results: The 5-year overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were 46%, 55% and 24%, respectively. The median follow-up time was 80 months. Multivariate analysis identified four independent predictors for poor OS: multiple-zone mediastinal lymph node metastasis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.616; p = 0.003); ipsilateral intrapulmonary metastasis (HR, 1.042; p = 0.002); tumor size >30 mm (HR, 1.013; p = 0.002); and clinical stage N1 or N2 (HR, 1.051; p = 0.030). Multivariate analysis identified three independent predictors for poor RFS: multiple-zone mediastinal lymph node metastasis (HR, 1.457; p = 0.011); ipsilateral intrapulmonary metastasis (HR, 1.040; p = 0.002); and tumor size >30 mm (HR, 1.008; p = 0.032). Conclusion: Multiple-zone mediastinal lymph node metastasis, ipsilateral intrapulmonary metastasis, and tumor size >30 mm were common independent prognostic factors of OS, CSS, and RFS in pN2 NSCLC. PMID:25740454
Tsai, Meng-Lin
2017-06-26
The recent development of 2D monolayer lateral semiconductor has created new paradigm to develop p-n heterojunctions. Albeit, the growth methods of these heterostructures typically result in alloy structures at the interface, limiting the development for high-efficiency photovoltaic (PV) devices. Here, the PV properties of sequentially grown alloy-free 2D monolayer WSe-MoS lateral p-n heterojunction are explores. The PV devices show an extraordinary power conversion efficiency of 2.56% under AM 1.5G illumination. The large surface active area enables the full exposure of the depletion region, leading to excellent omnidirectional light harvesting characteristic with only 5% reduction of efficiency at incident angles up to 75°. Modeling studies demonstrate the PV devices comply with typical principles, increasing the feasibility for further development. Furthermore, the appropriate electrode-spacing design can lead to environment-independent PV properties. These robust PV properties deriving from the atomically sharp lateral p-n interface can help develop the next-generation photovoltaics.
Isospin excitation of nucleus in 42,44,48Ca (p,n)42,44,48Sc
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Keiji
2002-01-01
To obtain information of (p,n) reaction of heavy nucleus in 100 MeV or less, 42,44,48 Ca(p,n) 42,44,48 Sc was observed on the Cyclotron Radio Isotope Center in Tohoku University. The experimental results showed that 7, 8 and 10 spin parities were determined for 42 Sc, 44 Sc and 48 SC, respectively. It was the first determination of one and two negative parity transition of 42 Sc and 48 Sc,respectively, by (p,n) reaction. The full space wave function made by 0f1p shell effective interaction by Richter,et al is good accuracy and reliability. On the (p,n) reaction at E p =35 MeV, the transition matrix elements of 42 Ca, 44 Ca and 48 Ca were derived. On the experiment of 42 Ca(p,n) 42 Sc at E p 2 on energy was agreed with the calculation results by Franey and Love. The nuclear structure of 42 Ca was thought to show more stronger U(4) symmetry, because strong GT transition at T=1 was not observed, which was expected by j-j bonding shell model calculation. (S.Y.)
Direct assessment of p-n junctions in single GaN nanowires by Kelvin probe force microscopy
Minj, Albert; Cros, Ana; Auzelle, Thomas; Pernot, Julien; Daudin, Bruno
2016-09-01
Making use of Kelvin probe force microscopy, in dark and under ultraviolet illumination, we study the characteristics of p-n junctions formed along the axis of self-organized GaN nanowires (NWs). We map the contact potential difference of the single NW p-n junctions to locate the space charge region and directly measure the depletion width and the junction voltage. Simulations indicate a shrinkage of the built-in potential for NWs with small diameter due to surface band bending, in qualitative agreement with the measurements. The photovoltage of the NW/substrate contact is studied by analyzing the response of NW segments with p- and n-type doping under illumination. Our results show that the shifts of the Fermi levels, and not the changes in surface band bending, are the most important effects under above band-gap illumination. The quantitative electrical information obtained here is important for the use of NW p-n junctions as photovoltaic or rectifying devices at the nanoscale, and is especially relevant since the technique does not require the formation of ohmic contacts to the NW junction.
Chemically fixed p-n heterojunctions for polymer electronics by means of covalent B-F bond formation
Hoven, Corey V.; Wang, Huiping; Elbing, Mark; Garner, Logan; Winkelhaus, Daniel; Bazan, Guillermo C.
2010-03-01
Widely used solid-state devices fabricated with inorganic semiconductors, including light-emitting diodes and solar cells, derive much of their function from the p-n junction. Such junctions lead to diode characteristics and are attained when p-doped and n-doped materials come into contact with each other. Achieving bilayer p-n junctions with semiconducting polymers has been hindered by difficulties in the deposition of thin films with independent p-doped and n-doped layers. Here we report on how to achieve permanently fixed organic p-n heterojunctions by using a cationic conjugated polyelectrolyte with fluoride counteranions and an underlayer composed of a neutral conjugated polymer bearing anion-trapping functional groups. Application of a bias leads to charge injection and fluoride migration into the neutral layer, where irreversible covalent bond formation takes place. After the initial charging and doping, one obtains devices with no delay in the turn on of light-emitting electrochemical behaviour and excellent current rectification. Such devices highlight how mobile ions in organic media can open opportunities to realize device structures in ways that do not have analogies in the world of silicon and promise new opportunities for integrating organic materials within technologies now dominated by inorganic semiconductors.
Large amplitude ion-acoustic solitons in dusty plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tiwari, R. S.; Jain, S. L.; Mishra, M. K.
2011-01-01
Characteristics of ion-acoustic soliton in dusty plasma, including the dynamics of heavily charged massive dust grains, are investigated following the Sagdeev Potential formalism. Retaining fourth order nonlinearities of electric potential in the expansion of the Sagdeev Potential in the energy equation for a pseudo particle and integrating the resulting energy equation, large amplitude soliton solution is determined. Variation of amplitude (A), half width (W) at half maxima and the product P = AW 2 of the Korteweg-deVries (KdV), dressed and large amplitude soliton as a function of wide range of dust concentration are numerically studied for recently observed parameters of dusty plasmas. We have also presented the region of existence of large amplitude ion-acoustic soliton in the dusty plasma by analyzing the structure of the pseudo potential. It is found that in the presence of positively charged dust grains, system supports only compressive solitons, on the other hand, in the presence of negatively charged dust grains, the system supports compressive solitons up to certain critical concentration of dust grains and above this critical concentration, the system can support rarefactive solitons also. The effects of dust concentration, charge, and mass of the dust grains, on the characteristics of KdV, dressed and large amplitude the soliton, i.e., amplitude (A), half width at half maxima (W), and product of amplitude (A) and half width at half maxima (P = AW 2 ), are discussed in detail
Fringe image analysis based on the amplitude modulation method.
Gai, Shaoyan; Da, Feipeng
2010-05-10
A novel phase-analysis method is proposed. To get the fringe order of a fringe image, the amplitude-modulation fringe pattern is carried out, which is combined with the phase-shift method. The primary phase value is obtained by a phase-shift algorithm, and the fringe-order information is encoded in the amplitude-modulation fringe pattern. Different from other methods, the amplitude-modulation fringe identifies the fringe order by the amplitude of the fringe pattern. In an amplitude-modulation fringe pattern, each fringe has its own amplitude; thus, the order information is integrated in one fringe pattern, and the absolute fringe phase can be calculated correctly and quickly with the amplitude-modulation fringe image. The detailed algorithm is given, and the error analysis of this method is also discussed. Experimental results are presented by a full-field shape measurement system where the data has been processed using the proposed algorithm. (c) 2010 Optical Society of America.
Broadband metasurface holograms: toward complete phase and amplitude engineering.
Wang, Qiu; Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Yuehong; Gu, Jianqiang; Li, Yanfeng; Tian, Zhen; Singh, Ranjan; Zhang, Shuang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili
2016-09-12
As a revolutionary three-dimensional imaging technique, holography has attracted wide attention for its ability to photographically record a light field. However, traditional phase-only or amplitude-only modulation holograms have limited image quality and resolution to reappear both amplitude and phase information required of the objects. Recent advances in metasurfaces have shown tremendous opportunities for using a planar design of artificial meta-atoms to shape the wave front of light by optimal control of both its phase and amplitude. Inspired by the concept of designer metasurfaces, we demonstrate a novel amplitude-phase modulation hologram with simultaneous five-level amplitude modulation and eight-level phase modulation. Such a design approach seeks to turn the perceived disadvantages of the traditional phase or amplitude holograms, and thus enable enhanced performance in resolution, homogeneity of amplitude distribution, precision, and signal-to-noise ratio. In particular, the unique holographic approach exhibits broadband characteristics. The method introduced here delivers more degrees of freedom, and allows for encoding highly complex information into designer metasurfaces, thus having the potential to drive next-generation technological breakthroughs in holography.
Evaluation of forest management practices through application of a biogeochemical model, PnET-BGC
Valipour, M.; Driscoll, C. T.; Johnson, C. E.; Campbell, J. L.; Fahey, T.; Zeng, T.
2017-12-01
Forest ecosystem response to logging disturbance varies significantly, depending on site conditions, species composition, land use history, and the method and frequency of harvesting. The long-term effects of forest cuttings are less clear due to limited information on land use history and long-term time series observations. The hydrochemical model, PnET-BGC was modified and verified using field data from multiple experimentally harvested northern hardwood watersheds at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), New Hampshire, USA, including a commercial whole-tree harvest (Watershed 5), a devegetation experiment (Watershed 2; devegetation and herbicide treatment), a commercial strip-cut (Watershed 4) to simulate the hydrology, biomass accumulation, and soil solution and stream water chemistry responses to clear-cutting. The confirmed model was used to investigate temporal changes in aboveground biomass accumulation and nutrient dynamics under three different harvesting intensities (40%, 60%, 80%) over four varied rotation lengths (20, 40, 60, 80 years) with results compared with a scenario of no forest harvesting. The total ecosystem carbon pool (biomass, soil and litter) was reduced over harvesting events. The greatest decline occurred in litter by 40%-70%, while the pool of carbon stored in aboveground biomass decreased by 30%-60% for 80% cutting levels at 40 and 20 year rotation lengths, respectively. The large pool of soil organic carbon remained relatively stable, with only minor declines over logging regimes. Stream water simulations demonstrated increased loss of major elements over cutting events. Ca+2 and NO3- were the most sensitive elements to leaching over frequent intensive logging. Accumulated leaching of Ca+2 and NO3- varied between 90-520 t Ca/ha and 40-420 t N/ha from conservative (80-year period and 40% cutting) to aggressive (20-year period and 80% cutting) cutting regimes, respectively. Moreover, a reduction in nutrient plant uptake over
Energy dependent charge spread function in a dedicated synchrotron beam pnCCD detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yousef, Hazem
2011-01-01
A scan on the pixel edges is the method which is used to resolve the electron cloud size in the pixel array of the pnCCD detector. The EDR synchrotron radiation in BESSY is the source of the X-ray photons which are used in the scans. The radius of the electron cloud as a function of the impinging photon energy is analyzed. The angle of incidence of the X-ray beam is employed in the measurements. The measurements are validated by the numerical simulation models. The inclined X-ray track leads to distribute the electron clouds in a certain number of pixels according to the incident angle of the X-ray beam. The pixels detect different electron clouds according to their generation position in the detector bulk. A collimated X-ray beam of 12.14 keV is used in the measurements with 30 and 40 entrance angles. It is shown that the two factors that leads to expand the electron clouds namely the diffusion and the mutual electrostatic repulsion can be separated from the measured electron clouds. It is noticed as well that the influence of the mutual electrostatic repulsion dominates the cloud expansion over the diffusion process in the collection time of the detector. The perpendicular X-ray track leads to determine the average radius of the electron cloud per photon energy. The results show that the size of the electron clouds (RMS) in the energy range of [5.0-21.6] keV is smaller than the pixel size. (orig.)
An apparatus and process for forming P-N junction semiconductor units
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1975-01-01
It is stated that although many methods of ion implantation have been developed it seems that the method of 'hot implantation' is still in its infancy. In this method the target is preheated in an ion implantor during implantation of ions, leading to radiation enhanced diffusion. The apparatus described comprises the following: (i) a bell jar evacuated to -3 Torr containing four electrodes arranged in two pairs, one electrode of the first pair being in the form of a mesh; (ii) a source of high pulsating direct voltage connected to the first pair of electrodes, with the mesh electrode negatively poled, to ionise the rarified air in the bell jar and accelerate the resulting positive N and O ions; (iii) an RF voltage source connected to the other pair of electrodes to facilitate the ionisation; (iv) a dopant semiconductor body, heated by a wire wound heater, placed underneath the mesh electrode so that the accelerated ions bombard the dopant layer through the mesh electrode and implant dopant atoms in the semiconductor body. The distance between the mesh electrode and the surface of the dopant-coated semiconductive body, should be about 5mm. The mesh electrode consists of a sputtering-resistant refractory metal, and includes a cooling system. The dopant-coated semiconductive body is placed on a ceramic plate in the bell jar, and the power supply line of the heater is insulated from the voltage applied to the negative electrode, which is earthed, by using an insulated heater transformer combined with an autotransformer. The ceramic plate is attached to a plate on which the heater is wound, and the temperature of the heating should be variable between 400 0 and 500 0 C. A process for forming P-N junction semiconductor units using this apparatus is described. (U.K.)
Energy dependent charge spread function in a dedicated synchrotron beam pnCCD detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yousef, Hazem
2011-05-20
A scan on the pixel edges is the method which is used to resolve the electron cloud size in the pixel array of the pnCCD detector. The EDR synchrotron radiation in BESSY is the source of the X-ray photons which are used in the scans. The radius of the electron cloud as a function of the impinging photon energy is analyzed. The angle of incidence of the X-ray beam is employed in the measurements. The measurements are validated by the numerical simulation models. The inclined X-ray track leads to distribute the electron clouds in a certain number of pixels according to the incident angle of the X-ray beam. The pixels detect different electron clouds according to their generation position in the detector bulk. A collimated X-ray beam of 12.14 keV is used in the measurements with 30 and 40 entrance angles. It is shown that the two factors that leads to expand the electron clouds namely the diffusion and the mutual electrostatic repulsion can be separated from the measured electron clouds. It is noticed as well that the influence of the mutual electrostatic repulsion dominates the cloud expansion over the diffusion process in the collection time of the detector. The perpendicular X-ray track leads to determine the average radius of the electron cloud per photon energy. The results show that the size of the electron clouds (RMS) in the energy range of [5.0-21.6] keV is smaller than the pixel size. (orig.)
Epitaxial growth of a monolayer WSe2-MoS2 lateral p-n junction with an atomically sharp interface
Li, Ming Yang; Shi, Yumeng; Cheng, Chia Chin; Lu, Li Syuan; Lin, Yung Chang; Tang, Hao-Ling; Tsai, Meng Lin; Chu, Chih Wei; Wei, Kung Hwa; He, Jr-Hau; Chang, Wen Hao; Suenaga, Kazu; Li, Lain-Jong
2015-01-01
. Spatially connected TMDC lateral heterojunctions are key components for constructing monolayer p-n rectifying diodes, light-emitting diodes, photovoltaic devices, and bipolar junction transistors. However, such structures are not readily prepared via
Jump phenomena. [large amplitude responses of nonlinear systems
Reiss, E. L.
1980-01-01
The paper considers jump phenomena composed of large amplitude responses of nonlinear systems caused by small amplitude disturbances. Physical problems where large jumps in the solution amplitude are important features of the response are described, including snap buckling of elastic shells, chemical reactions leading to combustion and explosion, and long-term climatic changes of the earth's atmosphere. A new method of rational functions was then developed which consists of representing the solutions of the jump problems as rational functions of the small disturbance parameter; this method can solve jump problems explicitly.
Elementary amplitudes from full QCD and the stochastic vacuum model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martini, A.F.; Menon, M.J.
2002-01-01
In a previous work, making use of the gluon gauge-invariant two-point correlation function determined from lattice QCD in the quenched approximation and the stochastic vacuum model, we determined the elementary (parton-parton) scattering amplitude in the momentum transfer space. In this communication we compute the elementary amplitude from new lattice QCD calculations that include the effects of dynamical fermions (full QCD). The main conclusion is that the inclusion of dynamical fermions leads to a normalized elementary amplitude that decreases more quickly with the momentum transfer than that in the quenched approximation. (author)
Renormalization Scale-Fixing for Complex Scattering Amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; /Madrid U.
2005-12-21
We show how to fix the renormalization scale for hard-scattering exclusive processes such as deeply virtual meson electroproduction by applying the BLM prescription to the imaginary part of the scattering amplitude and employing a fixed-t dispersion relation to obtain the scale-fixed real part. In this way we resolve the ambiguity in BLM renormalization scale-setting for complex scattering amplitudes. We illustrate this by computing the H generalized parton distribution at leading twist in an analytic quark-diquark model for the parton-proton scattering amplitude which can incorporate Regge exchange contributions characteristic of the deep inelastic structure functions.
Calculation and modular properties of multi-loop superstring amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Danilov, G S
2012-01-01
Multi-loop superstring amplitude is calculated in the conventional gauge where Grassmann moduli are carried by the 2D gravitino field. Generally, instead of the modular symmetry, the amplitudes hold the symmetry under modular transformations added by relevant transformations of the 2D local supersymmetry. If a number of loops are larger than 3, the integration measures are not modular forms. In this case the expression for the amplitude contains an integral over the bound of the fundamental region of the modular group. (paper)
Amplitude Modulation in the δ Sct star KIC 7106205
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bowman Dominic. M.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The δ Sct star KIC 7106205 showed amplitude modulation in a single p mode, whilst all other p and g modes remained stable in amplitude and phase over 1470 d of the Kepler dataset. The data were divided into 30 time bins of equal length and a series of consecutive Fourier transforms was calculated. A fixed frequency, calculated from a least-squares fit of all data, allowed amplitude and phase for every mode in each time bin to be tracked. The missing p mode energy was not transferred to any other visible modes.
Corrections to the large-angle scattering amplitude
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goloskokov, S.V.; Kudinov, A.V.; Kuleshov, S.P.
1979-01-01
High-energy behaviour of scattering amplitudes is considered within the frames of Logunov-Tavchelidze quasipotential approach. The representation of scattering amplitude of two scalar particles, convenient for the study of its asymptotic properties is given. Obtained are corrections of the main value of scattering amplitude of the first and the second orders in 1/p, where p is the pulse of colliding particles in the system of the inertia centre. An example of the obtained formulas use for a concrete quasipotential is given
Direct Calculation of the Scattering Amplitude Without Partial Wave Analysis
Shertzer, J.; Temkin, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Two new developments in scattering theory are reported. We show, in a practical way, how one can calculate the full scattering amplitude without invoking a partial wave expansion. First, the integral expression for the scattering amplitude f(theta) is simplified by an analytic integration over the azimuthal angle. Second, the full scattering wavefunction which appears in the integral expression for f(theta) is obtained by solving the Schrodinger equation with the finite element method (FEM). As an example, we calculate electron scattering from the Hartree potential. With minimal computational effort, we obtain accurate and stable results for the scattering amplitude.
Amplitude-to-frequency converter of radioisotope instruments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demchenkov, V.P.; Korobkov, I.N.
1988-01-01
An amplitude-to-frequency converter designed for signal processing of radioisotope relay devices is descibed. The basic elements of the converter are a scaling amplifier, an analog-to-digital converter, a code-to-frequency converter, a null-organ, a delay unit and a clock-pulse generator. The designed amplitude-to-frequency converter takes into account a prior information about the signal shape of the energy spectrum. The converter processes input pulses of 0.10 V amplitude and duration more than 2μs. The energy channel number is 64
Gluon cascades and amplitudes in light-front perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cruz-Santiago, C.A.; Staśto, A.M.
2013-01-01
We construct the gluon wave functions, fragmentation functions and scattering amplitudes within the light-front perturbation theory. Recursion relations on the light-front are constructed for the wave functions and fragmentation functions, which in the latter case are the light-front analogs of the Berends–Giele recursion relations. Using general relations between wave functions and scattering amplitudes it is demonstrated how to obtain the maximally-helicity violating amplitudes, and explicit verification of the results is based on simple examples.
Spin-dependent relativistic effect on heavy quarkonium properties in medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong Yubing
1997-01-01
Spin-dependent relativistic effect on the binding and dissociation of the heavy quarkonium in a thermal environment is investigated. The result shows that the interactions could influence the heavy quarkonium properties in medium
Separation of flip and non-flip parts of np → pn charge exchange at energies Tn = 0,5-2,0 GeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shindin, R.A.; Gur'ev, D.K.; Morozov, A.A.; Nomofilov, A.A.; Strunov, L.N.
2011-01-01
The new 'Delta-Sigma' experimental data on the ratio R dp allowed separating the Flip and Non-Flip parts of the differential cross section of np → pn charge exchange process at the zero angle by the Dean formula. The PSA solutions for the np → np elastic scattering are transformed to the np → pn charge exchange representation using unitary transition, and good agreement is obtained
GaAsPN-based PIN solar cells MBE-grown on GaP substrates: toward the III-V/Si tandem solar cell
Da Silva, M.; Almosni, S.; Cornet, C.; Létoublon, A.; Levallois, C.; Rale, P.; Lombez, L.; Guillemoles, J.-F.; Durand, O.
2015-03-01
GaAsPN semiconductors are promising material for the elaboration of high efficiencies tandem solar cells on silicon substrates. GaAsPN diluted nitride alloy is studied as the top junction material due to its perfect lattice matching with the Si substrate and its ideal bandgap energy allowing a perfect current matching with the Si bottom cell. We review our recent progress in materials development of the GaAsPN alloy and our recent studies of some of the different building blocks toward the elaboration of a PIN solar cell. A lattice matched (with a GaP(001) substrate, as a first step toward the elaboration on a Si substrate) 1μm-thick GaAsPN alloy has been grown by MBE. After a post-growth annealing step, this alloy displays a strong absorption around 1.8-1.9 eV, and efficient photoluminescence at room temperature suitable for the elaboration of the targeted solar cell top junction. Early stage GaAsPN PIN solar cells prototypes have been grown on GaP (001) substrates, with 2 different absorber thicknesses (1μm and 0.3μm). The external quantum efficiencies and the I-V curves show that carriers have been extracted from the GaAsPN alloy absorbers, with an open-circuit voltage of 1.18 V, while displaying low short circuit currents meaning that the GaAsPN structural properties needs a further optimization. A better carrier extraction has been observed with the absorber displaying the smallest thickness, which is coherent with a low carriers diffusion length in our GaAsPN compound. Considering all the pathways for improvement, the efficiency obtained under AM1.5G is however promising.
A pulse amplitude discriminator with very low-power consuming
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deng Changming; Liu Zhengshan; Zhang Zhiyong; Cheng Chang
2000-01-01
A low-power pulse amplitude discriminator is described. The discriminator circuit is mainly composed of an integrated voltage comparator, MAX921, and owns the characters of very low-power and low operating voltage
Some tree-level string amplitudes in the NSR formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Melnikov, Ilarion V.; Robbins, Daniel; Royston, Andrew B.
2015-01-01
We calculate tree level scattering amplitudes for open strings using the NSR formalism. We present a streamlined symmetry-based and pedagogical approach to the computations, which we first develop by checking two-, three-, and four-point functions involving bosons and fermions. We calculate the five-point amplitude for massless gluons and find agreement with an earlier result by Brandt, Machado and Medina. We then compute the five-point amplitudes involving two and four fermions respectively, the general form of which has not been previously obtained in the NSR formalism. The results nicely confirm expectations from the supersymmetric F 4 effective action. Finally we use the prescription of Kawai, Lewellen and Tye (KLT) to compute the amplitudes for the closed string sector.
Amplitude chimeras and chimera death in dynamical networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zakharova, Anna; Kapeller, Marie; Schöll, Eckehard
2016-01-01
We find chimera states with respect to amplitude dynamics in a network of Stuart- Landau oscillators. These partially coherent and partially incoherent spatio-temporal patterns appear due to the interplay of nonlocal network topology and symmetry-breaking coupling. As the coupling range is increased, the oscillations are quenched, amplitude chimeras disappear and the network enters a symmetry-breaking stationary state. This particular regime is a novel pattern which we call chimera death. It is characterized by the coexistence of spatially coherent and incoherent inhomogeneous steady states and therefore combines the features of chimera state and oscillation death. Additionally, we show two different transition scenarios from amplitude chimera to chimera death. Moreover, for amplitude chimeras we uncover the mechanism of transition towards in-phase synchronized regime and discuss the role of initial conditions. (paper)
Stora's fine notion of divergent amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Várilly, Joseph C.; Gracia-Bondía, José M.
2016-01-01
Stora and coworkers refined the notion of divergent quantum amplitude, somewhat upsetting the standard power-counting recipe. This unexpectedly clears the way to new prototypes for free and interacting field theories of bosons of any mass and spin.
Euclidean to Minkowski Bethe-Salpeter amplitude and observables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carbonell, J.; Frederico, T.; Karmanov, V.A.
2017-01-01
We propose a method to reconstruct the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude in Minkowski space given the Euclidean Bethe-Salpeter amplitude - or alternatively the light-front wave function - as input. The method is based on the numerical inversion of the Nakanishi integral representation and computing the corresponding weight function. This inversion procedure is, in general, rather unstable, and we propose several ways to considerably reduce the instabilities. In terms of the Nakanishi weight function, one can easily compute the BS amplitude, the LF wave function and the electromagnetic form factor. The latter ones are very stable in spite of residual instabilities in the weight function. This procedure allows both, to continue the Euclidean BS solution in the Minkowski space and to obtain a BS amplitude from a LF wave function. (orig.)
Laser beam complex amplitude measurement by phase diversity.
Védrenne, Nicolas; Mugnier, Laurent M; Michau, Vincent; Velluet, Marie-Thérèse; Bierent, Rudolph
2014-02-24
The control of the optical quality of a laser beam requires a complex amplitude measurement able to deal with strong modulus variations and potentially highly perturbed wavefronts. The method proposed here consists in an extension of phase diversity to complex amplitude measurements that is effective for highly perturbed beams. Named camelot for Complex Amplitude MEasurement by a Likelihood Optimization Tool, it relies on the acquisition and processing of few images of the beam section taken along the optical path. The complex amplitude of the beam is retrieved from the images by the minimization of a Maximum a Posteriori error metric between the images and a model of the beam propagation. The analytical formalism of the method and its experimental validation are presented. The modulus of the beam is compared to a measurement of the beam profile, the phase of the beam is compared to a conventional phase diversity estimate. The precision of the experimental measurements is investigated by numerical simulations.
Mimicking an amplitude damping channel for Laguerre Gaussian Modes
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Dudley, Angela L
2010-10-01
Full Text Available An amplitude damping channel for Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) modes is presented. Experimentally the action of the channel on LG modes is in good agreement with that predicted theoretically....
Singularities in four-body final-state amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adhikari, S.K.
1978-01-01
Like three-body amplitudes, four-body amplitudes have subenergy threshold singularities over and above total-energy singularities. In the four-body problem we encounter a new type of subenergy singularity besides the usual two- and three-body subenergy threshold singularities. This singularity will be referred to as ''independent-pair threshold singularity'' and involves pair-subenergy threshold singularities in each of the two independent pair subenergies in four-body final states. We also study the particularly interesting case of resonant two- and three-body interactions in the four-body isobar model and the rapid (singular) dependence of the isobar amplitudes they generate in the four-body phase space. All these singularities are analyzed in the multiple-scattering formalism and it is shown that they arise from the ''next-to-last'' rescattering and hence may be represented correctly by an approximate amplitude which has that rescattering
Bessel–Gauss resonator with internal amplitude filter
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Litvin, IA
2008-05-01
Full Text Available The authors investigate a conventional resonator configuration, using only spherical curvature optical elements, for the generation of Bessel–Gauss beams. This is achieved through the deployment of a suitable amplitude filter at a Fourier plane...
Analytic computations of massive one-loop amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Badger, Simon; Yundin, Valery; Sattler, Ralf
2010-06-01
We show some new applications of on-shell methods to calculate compact helicity amplitudes for t anti t production through gluon fusion. The rational and mass renormalisation contributions are extracted from two independent Feynman diagram based approaches. (orig.)
Nonlinear Saturation Amplitude in Classical Planar Richtmyer–Meshkov Instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Wan-Hai; Jiang Hong-Bin; Ma Wen-Fang; Wang Xiang
2016-01-01
The classical planar Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI) at a fluid interface supported by a constant pressure is investigated by a formal perturbation expansion up to the third order, and then according to definition of nonlinear saturation amplitude (NSA) in Rayleigh–Taylor instability (RTI), the NSA in planar RMI is obtained explicitly. It is found that the NSA in planar RMI is affected by the initial perturbation wavelength and the initial amplitude of the interface, while the effect of the initial amplitude of the interface on the NSA is less than that of the initial perturbation wavelength. Without marginal influence of the initial amplitude, the NSA increases linearly with wavelength. The NSA normalized by the wavelength in planar RMI is about 0.11, larger than that corresponding to RTI. (paper)
Euclidean to Minkowski Bethe-Salpeter amplitude and observables
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carbonell, J. [Universite Paris-Sud, IN2P3-CNRS, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay Cedex (France); Frederico, T. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, DCTA, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Karmanov, V.A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2017-01-15
We propose a method to reconstruct the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude in Minkowski space given the Euclidean Bethe-Salpeter amplitude - or alternatively the light-front wave function - as input. The method is based on the numerical inversion of the Nakanishi integral representation and computing the corresponding weight function. This inversion procedure is, in general, rather unstable, and we propose several ways to considerably reduce the instabilities. In terms of the Nakanishi weight function, one can easily compute the BS amplitude, the LF wave function and the electromagnetic form factor. The latter ones are very stable in spite of residual instabilities in the weight function. This procedure allows both, to continue the Euclidean BS solution in the Minkowski space and to obtain a BS amplitude from a LF wave function. (orig.)
The zerology of kaon-nucleon forward scattering amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dumbrajs, O.
1981-01-01
It has been realized for a long time that zeros of the forward kaon-nucleon scattering amplitudes are useful in correlating different low and high-energy scattering parameters and in providing a consistency test of available data. The simplest possibility of exploring zeros is to evaluate the ordinary dispersion relations in the complex energy plane. The more natural way of bringing zeros of amplitudes into play is to consider either one of the more sophisticated forms of dispersion relations: i) phase dispersion relations, ii) inverse-amplitude dispersion relations, iii) logarithmic dispersion relations, or to apply the maximum modulus theorem and a factorization theorem. The author concentrates on the use of logarithmic dispersion relations because this approach seems to be the most convenient one for future extensions to nonforward scattering data analyses based on the zeros of the amplitude. (Auth.)
The method of contour rotations and the three particle amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brinati, J.R.
1980-01-01
The application of the method of contour rotations to the solution of the Faddeev-Lovelace equations and the calculation of the break-up and stripping amplitudes in a system of three distinct particles is reviewed. A relationship between the masses of the particles is obtained, which permits the break-up amplitude to be calculated from a single iteration of the final integral equation. (Author) [pt
Cosmological constraints on the amplitude of relic gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novosyadlij, B.; Apunevich, S.
2005-01-01
The evolution of the amplitude of relic gravitational waves (RGW) generated in early Universe has been analyzed. The analytical approximation is presented for angular power spectrum of cosmic microwave background anisotropies caused by gravitational waves through Sachs-Wolfe effect. The estimate of the most probable value for this amplitude was obtained on the basis of observation data on cosmic microwave background anisotropies from COBE, WMAP and BOOMERanG experiments along with large-scale structure observations
Amplitude Modulated Sinusoidal Signal Decomposition for Audio Coding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, M. G.; Jacobson, A.; Andersen, S. V.
2006-01-01
In this paper, we present a decomposition for sinusoidal coding of audio, based on an amplitude modulation of sinusoids via a linear combination of arbitrary basis vectors. The proposed method, which incorporates a perceptual distortion measure, is based on a relaxation of a nonlinear least......-squares minimization. Rate-distortion curves and listening tests show that, compared to a constant-amplitude sinusoidal coder, the proposed decomposition offers perceptually significant improvements in critical transient signals....
Multiple pole in the electron--hydrogen-atom scattering amplitude
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amusia, M.Y.; Kuchiev, M.Y.
1982-01-01
It is demonstrated that the amplitude for electron--hydrogen-atom forward scattering has the third-order pole at the point E = -13.6 eV, E being the energy of the incident electron. The coefficients which characterize the pole are calculated exactly. The invalidity of the Born approximation is proved. The contribution of the pole singularity to the dispersion relation for the scattering amplitude is discussed
Examining the time dependence of DAMA's modulation amplitude
Kelso, Chris; Savage, Christopher; Sandick, Pearl; Freese, Katherine; Gondolo, Paolo
2018-03-01
If dark matter is composed of weakly interacting particles, Earth's orbital motion may induce a small annual variation in the rate at which these particles interact in a terrestrial detector. The DAMA collaboration has identified at a 9.3σ confidence level such an annual modulation in their event rate over two detector iterations, DAMA/NaI and DAMA/LIBRA, each with ˜ 7 years of observations. This data is well fit by a constant modulation amplitude for the two iterations of the experiment. We statistically examine the time dependence of the modulation amplitudes, which "by eye" appear to be decreasing with time in certain energy ranges. We perform a chi-squared goodness of fit test of the average modulation amplitudes measured by the two detector iterations which rejects the hypothesis of a consistent modulation amplitude at greater than 80, 96, and 99.6% for the 2-4, 2-5 and 2-6 keVee energy ranges, respectively. We also find that among the 14 annual cycles there are three ≳ 3σ departures from the average in our estimated data in the 5-6 keVee energy range. In addition, we examined several phenomenological models for the time dependence of the modulation amplitude. Using a maximum likelihood test, we find that descriptions of the modulation amplitude as decreasing with time are preferred over a constant modulation amplitude at anywhere between 1σ and 3σ , depending on the phenomenological model for the time dependence and the signal energy range considered. A time dependent modulation amplitude is not expected for a dark matter signal, at least for dark matter halo morphologies consistent with the DAMA signal. New data from DAMA/LIBRA-phase2 will certainly aid in determining whether any apparent time dependence is a real effect or a statistical fluctuation.
Factorization of the six-particle multi-Regge amplitude
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moen, I.O.
1975-01-01
It is shown that factorization of the multi-Regge contribution to the six-particle amplitude follows from the complex-helicity-plane structure, the Steinmann relations, and extended unitarity. The six-particle multi-Regge amplitude also satisfies some new discontinuity relations which are interpreted as resulting from the interplay of singularities required by the Gram-determinant constraint in four-dimensional space-time
Controlling quantum interference in phase space with amplitude
Xue, Yinghong; Li, Tingyu; Kasai, Katsuyuki; Okada-Shudo, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Masayoshi; Zhang, Yun
2017-01-01
We experimentally show a quantum interference in phase space by interrogating photon number probabilities (n?=?2, 3, and 4) of a displaced squeezed state, which is generated by an optical parametric amplifier and whose displacement is controlled by amplitude of injected coherent light. It is found that the probabilities exhibit oscillations of interference effect depending upon the amplitude of the controlling light field. This phenomenon is attributed to quantum interference in phase space a...
Fatigue life assessment under multiaxial variable amplitude loading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morilhat, P.; Kenmeugne, B.; Vidal-Salle, E.; Robert, J.L.
1996-06-01
A variable amplitude multiaxial fatigue life prediction method is presented in this paper. It is based on a stress as input data are the stress tensor histories which may be calculated by FEM analysis or measured directly on the structure during the service loading. The different steps of he method are first presented then its experimental validation is realized for log and finite fatigue lives through biaxial variable amplitude loading tests using cruciform steel samples. (authors). 9 refs., 7 figs
Light Diffraction by Large Amplitude Ultrasonic Waves in Liquids
Adler, Laszlo; Cantrell, John H.; Yost, William T.
2016-01-01
Light diffraction from ultrasound, which can be used to investigate nonlinear acoustic phenomena in liquids, is reported for wave amplitudes larger than that typically reported in the literature. Large amplitude waves result in waveform distortion due to the nonlinearity of the medium that generates harmonics and produces asymmetries in the light diffraction pattern. For standing waves with amplitudes above a threshold value, subharmonics are generated in addition to the harmonics and produce additional diffraction orders of the incident light. With increasing drive amplitude above the threshold a cascade of period-doubling subharmonics are generated, terminating in a region characterized by a random, incoherent (chaotic) diffraction pattern. To explain the experimental results a toy model is introduced, which is derived from traveling wave solutions of the nonlinear wave equation corresponding to the fundamental and second harmonic standing waves. The toy model reduces the nonlinear partial differential equation to a mathematically more tractable nonlinear ordinary differential equation. The model predicts the experimentally observed cascade of period-doubling subharmonics terminating in chaos that occurs with increasing drive amplitudes above the threshold value. The calculated threshold amplitude is consistent with the value estimated from the experimental data.
Separation of musical instruments based on amplitude and frequency comodulation
Jacobson, Barry D.; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Quatieri, Thomas F.
2002-05-01
In previous work, amplitude comodulation was investigated as a basis for monaural source separation. Amplitude comodulation refers to similarities in amplitude envelopes of individual spectral components emitted by particular types of sources. In many types of musical instruments, amplitudes of all resonant modes rise/fall, and start/stop together during the course of normal playing. We found that under certain well-defined conditions, a mixture of constant frequency, amplitude comodulated sources can unambiguously be decomposed into its constituents on the basis of these similarities. In this work, system performance was improved by relaxing the constant frequency requirement. String instruments, for example, which are normally played with vibrato, are both amplitude and frequency comodulated sources, and could not be properly tracked under the constant frequency assumption upon which our original algorithm was based. Frequency comodulation refers to similarities in frequency variations of individual harmonics emitted by these types of sources. The analytical difficulty is in defining a representation of the source which properly tracks frequency varying components. A simple, fixed filter bank can only track an individual spectral component for the duration in which it is within the passband of one of the filters. Alternatives are therefore explored which are amenable to real-time implementation.
An Analysis of Fundamental Mode Surface Wave Amplitude Measurements
Schardong, L.; Ferreira, A. M.; van Heijst, H. J.; Ritsema, J.
2014-12-01
Seismic tomography is a powerful tool to decipher the Earth's interior structure at various scales. Traveltimes of seismic waves are widely used to build velocity models, whereas amplitudes are still only seldomly accounted for. This mainly results from our limited ability to separate the various physical effects responsible for observed amplitude variations, such as focussing/defocussing, scattering and source effects. We present new measurements from 50 global earthquakes of fundamental-mode Rayleigh and Love wave amplitude anomalies measured in the period range 35-275 seconds using two different schemes: (i) a standard time-domain amplitude power ratio technique; and (ii) a mode-branch stripping scheme. For minor-arc data, we observe amplitude anomalies with respect to PREM in the range of 0-4, for which the two measurement techniques show a very good overall agreement. We present here a statistical analysis and comparison of these datasets, as well as comparisons with theoretical calculations for a variety of 3-D Earth models. We assess the geographical coherency of the measurements, and investigate the impact of source, path and receiver effects on surface wave amplitudes, as well as their variations with frequency in a wider range than previously studied.
A proposed physical analog for a quantum probability amplitude
Boyd, Jeffrey
What is the physical analog of a probability amplitude? All quantum mathematics, including quantum information, is built on amplitudes. Every other science uses probabilities; QM alone uses their square root. Why? This question has been asked for a century, but no one previously has proposed an answer. We will present cylindrical helices moving toward a particle source, which particles follow backwards. Consider Feynman's book QED. He speaks of amplitudes moving through space like the hand of a spinning clock. His hand is a complex vector. It traces a cylindrical helix in Cartesian space. The Theory of Elementary Waves changes direction so Feynman's clock faces move toward the particle source. Particles follow amplitudes (quantum waves) backwards. This contradicts wave particle duality. We will present empirical evidence that wave particle duality is wrong about the direction of particles versus waves. This involves a paradigm shift; which are always controversial. We believe that our model is the ONLY proposal ever made for the physical foundations of probability amplitudes. We will show that our ``probability amplitudes'' in physical nature form a Hilbert vector space with adjoints, an inner product and support both linear algebra and Dirac notation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saeki, T [Japan National Oil Corporation, Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center
1996-10-01
For the seismic reflection method conducted on the ground surface, generator and geophone are set on the surface. The observed waveforms are affected by the ground surface and surface layer. Therefore, it is required for discussing physical properties of the deep underground to remove the influence of surface layer, preliminarily. For the surface consistent amplitude correction, properties of the generator and geophone were removed by assuming that the observed waveforms can be expressed by equations of convolution. This is a correction method to obtain records without affected by the surface conditions. In response to analysis and correction of waveforms, wavelet conversion was examined. Using the amplitude patterns after correction, the significant signal region, noise dominant region, and surface wave dominant region would be separated each other. Since the amplitude values after correction of values in the significant signal region have only small variation, a representative value can be given. This can be used for analyzing the surface consistent amplitude correction. Efficiency of the process can be enhanced by considering the change of frequency. 3 refs., 5 figs.
Ethylene polymerization by PN3-type pincer chromium(III) complexes
Gong, Dirong
2014-12-01
Chromium (III) complexes, Cr1, [2,6-(tBu2PNH) 2C5H4N]CrCl3; Cr2, [2,6-(Ph 2PNH)2C5H4N]CrCl3; Cr3, [2-(tBu2PNH)C5H4N]CrCl3 THF; Cr4, [6-(tBu2PNH)C5H4N-2- CH2NEt2]CrCl3; Cr5, [6-(tBu 2PNH)C5H4N-2-C3H2N 2]CrCl3; Cr6, [6-(tBu2PNH)C 5H4N-2-(3,5-Me2)C3H 2N2]CrCl3; Cr7, [6-(tBu 2PNH)C5H4N-2-(3,5-iPr 2)C3H2N2]CrCl3; Cr8, [6-(tBu2PNH)C5H4N-2-(3,5-Ph 2)C3H2N2]CrCl3, bearing a family of neutral PN3-type pincer ligands have been prepared. The molecular structure of Cr2 was further elucidated by the X-ray crystallographic analysis, showing an octahedral geometry. Treatment of these complexes with MAO or alkylaluminum led to catalysts with moderate activities (about 105 g (PE)/Cr(mol) h) for ethylene polymerization, affording exclusively linear low molecular weight solid PE without any detectable oligomers. Among Cr1-Cr8, the highest activity was achieved for Cr1/MAO at room temperature with production of PE with highest molecular weight, indicating that replacement of both tBu groups in Cr1 with Ph groups, or one PtBu2 with the N (imine) arm, resulted in a lower catalytic activity and lower M w. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Mathematical and numerical analysis of PN models for photons transport problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valentin, Xavier
2015-01-01
Computational costs for direct numerical simulations of photon transport problems are very high in terms of CPU time and memory. One way to tackle this issue is to develop reduced models that a cheaper to solve numerically. There exists number of these models: moments models, discrete ordinates models (S N ), diffusion-like models... In this thesis, we focus on P N models in which the transport operator is approached by mean of a truncated development on the spherical harmonics basis. These models are arbitrary accurate in the angular dimension and are rotationally invariants (in multiple space dimensions). The latter point is fundamental when one wants to simulate inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments where the spherical symmetry plays an important part in the accuracy of the numerical solutions. We study the mathematical structure of the PN models and construct a new numerical method in the special case of a one dimensional space dimension with spherical symmetry photon transport problems. We first focus on a linear transport problem in the vacuum. Even in this simple case, it appears in the P N equations geometrical source terms that are stiff in the neighborhood of r = 0 and thus hard to discretize. Existing numerical methods are not satisfactory for multiple reasons: (1) inaccuracy in the neighborhood of r = 0 ('flux-dip'), (2) do not capture steady states (well-balanced scheme), (3) no stability proof. Following recent works, we develop a new well-balanced scheme for which we show the L 2 stability. We then extend the scheme for photon transport problems within a no moving media, the linear Boltzmann equation, and interest ourselves on its behavior in the diffusion limit (asymptotic-preserving property). In a second part, we consider radiation hydrodynamics problems. Since modelization of these problems is still under discussion in the literature, we compare a set of existing models by mean of mathematical analysis and establish a hierarchy
The open superstring 6-point amplitude with manifest symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barreiro, Luiz Antonio; Medina, Ricardo; Stieberger, Stephan
2011-01-01
Full text: The general tree level amplitude for massless bosons states of open superstrings has been known for a long time ago. It is clear how to obtain this general formula using vertex operators in the Ramond-Neveu-Schwarz formalism. From the beginning of the eighties the explicit expression for this formula has been known in the case of 3 and 4-point amplitudes. In that decade an attempt (with partial success) was done, by Kitazawa, to obtain the corresponding 5-point amplitude. Only in 2002 a complete and correct expression for this amplitude was obtained. Its low energy expansion was compared to the corresponding one from the low energy effective Lagrangian of the open superstring, finding a perfect match. A few years later, in 2005, it was realized that the 5-point formula could be written in a very much compact form, as a sum of two terms: each of them consisting of a momentum factor and a kinematic expression. This constituted a generalization of the 4-point amplitude case, which had been known to be cast in only one momentum factor multiplied by one kinematic expression. For this simplification to happen, known symmetries of the (tree level) scattering amplitudes were implemented in a manifest form. These symmetries are (on-shell) gauge symmetry, cyclic symmetry and twisting symmetry (or world sheet parity). In the recent years it has been realized that the N-point amplitude can be written as a sum of (N - 3)! terms (where N > 3). This result not only agrees with the 3, 4 and 5-point results, but also with the 6-point result which had been obtained by 2005, written as a sum of six terms. The expression that up to now has been obtained for the 6-point amplitude is quite complicated and, besides knowing that it consists of six terms, is not very illuminating. In this work we report on the recent result of writing the 6-point amplitude with gauge, cyclic and twisting symmetries manifest. Not only because of the manifest symmetries this result is important
Hanke, A A; Joch, C; Görlinger, K
2013-05-01
The rapid reversal of the effects of vitamin K antagonists is often required in cases of emergency surgery and life-threatening bleeding, or during bleeding associated with high morbidity and mortality such as intracranial haemorrhage. Increasingly, four-factor prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) containing high and well-balanced concentrations of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors are recommended for emergency oral anticoagulation reversal. Both the safety and efficacy of such products are currently in focus, and their administration is now expanding into the critical care setting for the treatment of life-threatening bleeding and coagulopathy resulting either perioperatively or in cases of acute trauma. After 15 yr of clinical use, findings of a pharmacovigilance report (February 1996-March 2012) relating to the four-factor PCC Beriplex P/N (CSL Behring, Marburg, Germany) were analysed and are presented here. Furthermore, a review of the literature with regard to the efficacy and safety of four-factor PCCs was performed. Since receiving marketing authorization (February 21, 1996), ~647 250 standard applications of Beriplex P/N have taken place. During this time, 21 thromboembolic events judged to be possibly related to Beriplex P/N administration have been reported, while no incidences of viral transmission or heparin-induced thrombocytopenia were documented. The low risk of thromboembolic events reported during the observation period (one in ~31 000) is in line with the incidence observed with other four-factor PCCs. In general, four-factor PCCs have proven to be well tolerated and highly effective in the rapid reversal of vitamin K antagonists.
Hydrogen Passivation of N(+)P and P(+)N Heteroepitaxial InP Solar Cell Structures
Chatterjee, B.; Davis, W. C.; Ringel, S. A.; Hoffman, R., Jr.
1995-01-01
Dislocations and related point defect complexes caused by lattice mismatch currently limit the performance of heteroepitaxial InP cells by introducing shunting paths across the active junction and by the formation of deep traps within the base region. We have previously demonstrated that plasma hydrogenation is an effective and stable means to passivate the electrical activity of such defects in specially designed heteroepitaxial InP test structures to probe hydrogen passivation at typical base depths within a cell structure. In this work, we present our results on the hydrogen passivation of actual heteroepitaxial n(+)p and p(+)n InP cell structures grown on GaAs substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We have found that a 2 hour exposure to a 13.56 MHz hydrogen plasma at 275 C reduces the deep level concentration in the base regions of both n(+)p and p(+)n heteroepitaxial InP cell structures from as-grown values of 5 - 7 x 10(exp 14)/cc, down to 3 - 5 x 10(exp 12)/cc. All dopants were successfully reactivated by a 400 C, 5 minute anneal With no detectable activation of deep levels. I-V analysis indicated a subsequent approx. 100 fold decrease In reverse leakage current at -1 volt reverse bias, and an improved built in voltage for the p(+)n structures. ln addition to being passivated,dislocations are also shown to participate in secondary interactions during hydrogenation. We find that the presence of dislocations enhances hydrogen diffusion into the cell structure, and lowers the apparent dissociation energy of Zn-H complexes from 1.19 eV for homoepitaxial Zn-doped InP to 1.12 eV for heteroepitaxial Zn-doped InP. This is explained by additional hydrogen trapping at dislocations subsequent to the reactivation of Zn dopants after hydrogenation.
Hydrogen passivation of N(+)-P and P(+)-N heteroepitaxial InP solar cell structures
Chatterjee, Basab; Davis, William C.; Ringel, Steve A.; Hoffman, Richard, Jr.
1996-01-01
Dislocations and related point defect complexes caused by lattice mismatch currently limit the performance of heteroepitaxial InP cells by introducing shunting paths across the active junction and by the formation of deep traps within the base region. We have previously demonstrated that plasma hydrogenation is an effective and stable means to passivate the electrical activity of such defects in specially designed heteroepitaxial InP test structures to probe hydrogen passivation at typical base depths within a cell structure. In this work, we present our results on the hydrogen passivation of actual heteroepitaxial n-p and p-n InP cell structures grown on GaAs substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We have found that a 2 hour exposure to a 13.56 MHz hydrogen plasma at 275 C reduces the deep level concentration in the base regions of both n(+)-p and p(+)-n heteroepitaxial InP cell structures from as-grown values of 5-7 x 10(exp 14) cm(exp -3), down to 3-5 x 10(exp 12) cm(exp -3). All dopants were successfully reactivated by a 400 C, 5 minute anneal with no detectable activation of deep levels. One to five analysis indicated a subsequent approximately 100 fold decrease in reverse leakage current at -1 volt reverse bias, and an improved built in voltage for the p(+)-n structures. In addition to being passivated, dislocations are also shown to participate in secondary interactions during hydrogenation. We find that the presence of dislocations enhances hydrogen diffusion into the cell structure, and lowers the apparent dissociation energy of Zn-H complexes from 1.19 eV for homoepitaxial Zn-doped InP to 1.12 eV for heteroepitaxial Zn-doped InP. This is explained by additional hydrogen trapping at dislocations subsequent to the reactivation of Zn dopants after hydrogenation.
Du, Yong; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Jiang, Binbin; Huang, Dasong; Yao, Lingling
2015-04-01
In this paper, a total of 28 water samples were collected mainly from three sections(C section in the Yangtze river inner estuary, PN section and F section on the spindle of Changjiang diluted water influenced by different hydrodynamic processes),which taken on two cruises in spring and summer of 2011. Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy were measured along with dissolved organic carbon(DOC) concentrations and temperature, salinity and another environmental parameters to characterize the material sources and environmental implications of dissolved organic matter(DOM). Two protein-like components(tyrosine-like peak B and tryptophan-like peak T1), and two humic-like components(marine humic-like peak M and ultraviolet region humic-like peak A ) were identified by PARAFAC. We discussed CDOM distribution characteristic, material composition, and influence factors during the slowly dilution process of Changjiang diluted water into the east China sea by comparing the correlation of the CDOM absorption, fluorescence intensity, and fluorescence peak with DOC, in order to provide the based biogeochemistry theory basis for building DOC implications using CDOM fluorescence properties. The results revealed that:1) the Yangtze river and its inner estuary (upstream of the river mouth) were detected a higher amount of humic-like components. With the rapid dilution (or settlement) at the inner estuary, the humic-like components would further spread and dilute slowly on PN section and F section. On PN section, the terrigenous material is the main source material, and the main mechanism of CDOM distribution characteristics is controlled by dilution diffusion. Affected by the water mass convergence, marine dissolved organic matter in local waters had obvious input. However, due to the complexed hydrodynamic environment on F section, the input of terrigenous material has many ways. The influence of marine dissolved organic matter increased with the offshore distance increases.2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamai, Toyosato; Tanabe, Masatada; Satoh, Katashi
1987-01-01
The interpretation of scintigraphic patterns and the role of pathophysiological mechanisms in patients with primary lung cancer were investigated. To determine the relative roles of perfusion, inhalation and ventilation scintigraphy, the relationship between the count ratio of the affected side to the healthy side and the post-surgical histological lymph nodes factors were observed in this study. These scintigraphic count ratio's in patients with primary lung cancer did not reflect the pN factors except in the perfusion study in patients with hilar primary lung cancer. (author)
Hybrid van der Waals p-n Heterojunctions based on SnO and 2D MoS2
Wang, Zhenwei
2016-08-30
A p-type oxide/2D hybrid van der Waals p-n heterojunction is demonstrated for the first time between SnO (tin monoxide) (the p-type oxide) and 2D MoS2 (molybdenum disulfide), showing an ideality factor of 2 and rectification ratio up to 10(4) . The reported heterojunction is gate-tunable with typical anti-ambipolar transfer characteristics. Surface potential mapping is performed and a current model for such a heterojunction is proposed.