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Sample records for in-class written activities

  1. Written feedback as interaction: Knowledge exchange or activity exchange?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Wharton

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines in-text, handwritten feedback comments on first year undergraduate writing in the discipline of Statistics. Using a small corpus of annotated assignments, I examine the grammar choices and content choices made by tutors as they comment on students’ work.  To better understand the purposes of the comments, I draw on an interview with a tutor. I make use of Halliday’s concepts of knowledge exchange and activity exchange to interpret the choices observed in the data, and the motivations discussed by the tutor, from the perspective of interaction. Finally, I discuss the implications of the analysis in terms of the formative potential of the feedback. 

  2. An Examination of In-Class Physical Activity across Games Classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Dana J.; Forrest, Greg

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the in-class physical activity opportunities across game classifications. A total of 221 (male, 100; female, 121) Year 9/10 physical education students were used within this study. Each student was engaged in four sport-based units (target, net/wall, striking/fielding, and invasion). Physical activity data…

  3. Self-efficacy as a mediator of children's achievement motivation and in-class physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Lochbaum, Marc; Podlog, Leslie

    2011-12-01

    The present study was designed to examine the mediating effect of self-efficacy on relations of middle school students' four achievement goals with their perceptions of two motivational climates and in-class physical activity in physical education. The four achievement goals (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance), perceptions of the motivational climate (mastery- and performance-involving climates), and self-efficacy were measured in a sample of 194 students (93 boys, 101 girls) in a public school. Students' in-class physical activity was assessed using Actical Accelerometers. A series of multiple-regression analyses supported the mediating effect of self-efficacy on the relationships among students' mastery-approach goal, perceived mastery-involving climate, and physical activity.

  4. An Eectromyographic Ccomparison Between the Activities of Temporal and Masseter Muscles in Class III Skeletal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Hossein-Zadeh-Nik

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Electromyographic (EMG investigations about the activities of the muscles have been the focus of attention for many years. In the field of orthodontics, investigators, among other things, tried to evaluate correlation between EMG activity, occlusal relationships and craniofacial morphology to analyze the effect of muscular activity, as an etiological factor in malocclusion. The purpose of the present investigation is to analyze the effect of EMG activity of temporal and masseter muscles quantitatively in skeletal class III malocclusion. 26 patients (9 to If years old, with class III malocclusion were selected and their EMG activity of temporal and masseter muscles in rest position, centric occlusion, clenching, mastication and swallowing were compared with 20 normal children at the same age range. Then the statistical correlation between 13 cephalometric parameters and EMG activities were analyzed and then the regression analysis was performed and the results were as follows:1- The mean amplitude of masseter and temporal muscles activity in rest position, centric occlusion, mastication, and clenching in class III samples were greater than normal group (PO.05.2- The mean duration of masseter and temporal muscles activity in rest position and centric occlusion in class III samples were more than normal group (PO.05.3- According to regression analysis, a linear correlation was observed between ANB angle and temporal muscle activity in rest and centric occlusion that was not observed in other cases.The findings of this study showed that difference in temporal muscle activity in class III malocclusion, in comparison with the normal group, is correlated with skeletal morphology of the face, but according to other investigations it is not ture for the masseter muscle.

  5. Broadband Optical Active Waveguides Written by Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Lithium Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismael, Chiamenti; Francesca, Bonfigli; Anderson, S. L. Gomes; Rosa, Maria Montereali; Larissa, N. da Costa; Hypolito, J. Kalinowski

    2014-01-01

    Broadband waveguiding through light-emitting strips directly written in a blank lithium fluoride crystal with a femtosecond laser is reported. Light guiding was observed at several optical wavelengths, from blue, 458 nm, to near-infrared, at 1550 nm. Visible photoluminescence spectra of the optically active F2 and F3+ color centers produced by the fs laser writing process were measured. The wavelength-dependent refractive index increase was estimated to be in the order of 10-3-10-4 in the visible and near-infrared spectral intervals, which is consistent with the stable formation of point defects in LiF.

  6. Implementation and impact of in-class physical activities in a positive mental health perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lars Breum Skov; Holt, Anne-Didde; Smedegaard, Søren

    Introduction School physical activity and other activities with the body in focus hold the potential to benefit student’s positive mental health and psychosocial well-being. In-class activities (ICAs) (e.g. energizers, active breaks, brain breaks) can positively influence social connectedness...... intervention components in the RCT-designed ‘Move for well-being in school’ research program. The program comprises 2797 students 9-13 years old on 12 intervention schools and 12 comparison schools. During a full school year ICAs should be delivered two times every day focusing on four different aims: social...... interaction, energizing, coordination and wellness. A mixed methods design was used to evaluate the intervention comprising questionnaires and interviews with teachers and students. The collected data was used to assess the degree of implementation; perception of advantages and pitfalls of ICAs...

  7. Cascading activation from lexical processing to letter-level processing in written word production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Adam; Falconer, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Descriptions of language production have identified processes involved in producing language and the presence and type of interaction among those processes. In the case of spoken language production, consensus has emerged that there is interaction among lexical selection processes and phoneme-level processing. This issue has received less attention in written language production. In this paper, we present a novel analysis of the writing-to-dictation performance of an individual with acquired dysgraphia revealing cascading activation from lexical processing to letter-level processing. The individual produced frequent lexical-semantic errors (e.g., chipmunk → SQUIRREL) as well as letter errors (e.g., inhibit → INBHITI) and had a profile consistent with impairment affecting both lexical processing and letter-level processing. The presence of cascading activation is suggested by lower letter accuracy on words that are more weakly activated during lexical selection than on those that are more strongly activated. We operationalize weakly activated lexemes as those lexemes that are produced as lexical-semantic errors (e.g., lethal in deadly → LETAHL) compared to strongly activated lexemes where the intended target word (e.g., lethal) is the lexeme selected for production.

  8. Enhancing student retention of prerequisite knowledge through pre-class activities and in-class reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ann T S; Olofson, Eric L; Novak, Walter R P

    2017-03-04

    To foster the connection between biochemistry and the supporting prerequisite concepts, a collection of activities that explicitly link general and organic chemistry concepts to biochemistry ideas was written and either assigned as pre-class work or as recitation activities. We assessed student learning gains after using these activities alone, or in combination with regularly-integrated clicker and discussion questions. Learning gains were determined from student performance on pre- and post-tests covering key prerequisite concepts, biochemistry course exams, and student self-evaluation. Long-term retention of the material was assessed using a comprehensive exam given to a subset of the students. Our results show that using the pre-class exercises in combination with integrative questions was effective at improving student performance in both the short and long term. Similar results were obtained at both a large research institution with large class enrollments and at a private liberal arts college with moderate enrollments. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(2):97-104, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  9. Inverse correlation between promoter strength and excision activity in class 1 integrons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jové

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Class 1 integrons are widespread genetic elements that allow bacteria to capture and express gene cassettes that are usually promoterless. These integrons play a major role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacteria. They typically consist of a gene (intI encoding an integrase (that catalyzes the gene cassette movement by site-specific recombination, a recombination site (attI1, and a promoter (Pc responsible for the expression of inserted gene cassettes. The Pc promoter can occasionally be combined with a second promoter designated P2, and several Pc variants with different strengths have been described, although their relative distribution is not known. The Pc promoter in class 1 integrons is located within the intI1 coding sequence. The Pc polymorphism affects the amino acid sequence of IntI1 and the effect of this feature on the integrase recombination activity has not previously been investigated. We therefore conducted an extensive in silico study of class 1 integron sequences in order to assess the distribution of Pc variants. We also measured these promoters' strength by means of transcriptional reporter gene fusion experiments and estimated the excision and integration activities of the different IntI1 variants. We found that there are currently 13 Pc variants, leading to 10 IntI1 variants, that have a highly uneven distribution. There are five main Pc-P2 combinations, corresponding to five promoter strengths, and three main integrases displaying similar integration activity but very different excision efficiency. Promoter strength correlates with integrase excision activity: the weaker the promoter, the stronger the integrase. The tight relationship between the aptitude of class 1 integrons to recombine cassettes and express gene cassettes may be a key to understanding the short-term evolution of integrons. Dissemination of integron-driven drug resistance is therefore more complex than previously thought.

  10. The Intersection between Out-of-class Language Learning Strategies and In-class Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Saazai Mat Saad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies on out-of-class language learning strategies (OCLLSs are usually divorced from the activities in class. Thus, this study addresses the connection of the two entities. The participants in this study were nine international postgraduate students who were undergoing their English language proficiency course in an institution in Malaysia.  Data were gathered through their weekly online postings on Google + and interview during the course. The data from the students were triangulated with the information found in the pro forma of the modules and interview with the lecturers. Atlas ti was used to manage the data.  It was discovered that the type of assessment set by lecturers for the course determined the use of OCLLSs. Findings show that firstly, more OCLLS were used in completing assignments than preparing for quizzes/tests. Thus, from the 3 modules; it was found that students employed more strategies for oral communication and writing rather than for reading.  Secondly, the OCLLSs used could form a 'strategy chain or cluster' for the tasks of preparing for oral presentation and completing writing assignments. Lastly, there was evidence of technology dependency on some of the main OCLLSs.

  11. Reflecting on Scientists' Activity Based on Science Fiction Stories Written by Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Pedro; Galvao, Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    In this article the authors resort to a qualitative analysis of the plot of science fiction stories about a group of scientists, written by two 11th-grade Earth and Life Science students (aged 17), and to semi-structured interviews, with the double purpose of diagnosing their conceptions of the nature of science (namely, as regards scientists'…

  12. A qualitative study of how to create supportive environments for the implementation of in-class-activities in middle school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Anne-Didde; Christiansen, Lars Breum Skov; Smedegaard, Søren

    Purpose School physical activity (SPA) holds the potential to benefit children’s psychosocial well-being. PA can positively influence mental health through social connectedness, physical self-perception, and improvements in emotions. For such reasons, in-class-activities (ICA) (e.g. energizers......, active breaks) has been given increased attention in the literature. However, if all students are to benefit from the potential mental health qualities of ICA, the right supportive environment is crucial. The purpose of this study was, on the basis of students and teachers feedback to an ICA...... was important to satisfy different needs of the students, and the focus on social connectedness instead of competition was essential regarding the motivation of the less active students....

  13. Effectiveness and student perceptions of an active learning activity using a headline news story to enhance in-class learning of cell cycle regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J

    2016-06-01

    An active learning activity was used to engage students and enhance in-class learning of cell cycle regulation in a PharmD level integrated biological sciences course. The aim of the present study was to determine the effectiveness and perception of the in-class activity. After completion of a lecture on the topic of cell cycle regulation, students completed a 10-question multiple-choice quiz before and after engaging in the activity. The activity involved reading of a headline news article published by ScienceDaily.com entitled "One Gene Lost Equals One limb Regained." The name of the gene was deleted from the article and, thus, the end goal of the activity was to determine the gene of interest by the description in the story. The activity included compiling a list of all potential gene candidates before sufficient information was given to identify the gene of interest (p21). A survey was completed to determine student perceptions of the activity. Quiz scores improved by an average of 20% after the activity (40.1 ± 1.95 vs. 59.9 ± 2.14,Pactivity, found the news article interesting, and believed that the activity improved their understanding of cell cycle regulation. The majority of students agreed that the in-class activity piqued their interest for learning the subject matter and also agreed that if they understand a concept during class, they are more likely to want to study that concept outside of class. In conclusion, the activity improved in-class understanding and enhanced interest in cell cycle regulation. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  14. A qualitative study of how to create supportive environments for the implementation of in-class-activities in middle school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Anne-Didde; Smedegaard, Søren; Christiansen, Lars Breum Skov

    the intervention period, a case study comprising 10 semi-structured focus group interviews were carried out with 37 4th and 6th-grade students. Furthermore, the involved class teachers were interviewed. The interviews aimed to gain insight into students and teachers experiences with the implementation of ICA......Purpose School physical activity (SPA) holds the potential to benefit children’s psychosocial well-being. PA can positively influence mental health through social connectedness, physical self-perception, and improvements in emotions. For such reasons, in-class-activities (ICA) (e.g. energizers......, active breaks) has been given increased attention in the literature. However, if all students are to benefit from the potential mental health qualities of ICA, the right supportive environment is crucial. The purpose of this study was, on the basis of students and teachers feedback to an ICA...

  15. Novel Use of a Remote Laboratory for Active Learning in Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Darinka; Ramírez, María Soledad; Marrero, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to describe a novel teaching mode that allows for direct instructor-student and student-student discussions of material balance concepts by means of active learning. The instructor explains the concepts during class time while using a remotely controlled laboratory system that is projected on a screen with real-time access to the…

  16. The Influence of the Sport Education Model on Amotivated Students' In-Class Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Dana

    2012-01-01

    The Sport Education Model (SEM) was designed by Siedentop to provide students with a holistic sport-based experience. As research on the SEM continues, an aspect that has gained interest is the influence on (a) students with low levels of motivation and (b) opportunities to engage in health-enhancing levels of physical activity. The purpose of…

  17. Collaboration of general practitioners and exercise providers in promotion of physical activity a written survey among general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemrijse, C J; de Bakker, D H; Ooms, L; Veenhof, C

    2015-08-06

    General practitioners have an ideal position to motivate inactive patients to increase their physical activity. Most patients are able to exercise in regular local facilities outside the health care setting. The purpose of this study was to get insight into general practitioners perceptions and current practices regarding referral of patients to local exercise facilities. Furthermore, collaboration with exercise providers in the community was investigated, and motivators and barriers for referral. A written questionnaire sent to a representative random sample of 800 Dutch general practitioners. Descriptive statistics and Chi(2) tests were used. All responding general practitioners (340) recommend their patients to take more exercise when necessary and 87 % say to refer patients sometimes. Limited motivation of the patient (44 %) and reduced health status (34 %) are the most mentioned barriers for advising patients to increase physical activity. When referred, most patients are send to a physical therapist (69 %) but also local exercise facilities were mentioned (54 %). The most important barrier for referring patients to local exercise activities are patients limited financial possibilities (46 %). Restricted knowledge of local exercise- or sport facilities was an additional barrier (19 %). There is little structural collaboration between general practitioners and exercise providers, but when collaboration exists general practitioners refer more often. Positive experiences of patients (67 %), affordable offers (59 %) and information of local exercise facilities (46 %) are seen as important promoting factors for referral. Although 32 % of the general practitioners think that good collaboration would be stimulating, regular meetings with sports and exercise providers were considered the least important for increasing referral (3 %). Dutch physicians have a positive attitude towards stimulating physical activity but referral to local exercise facilities is low

  18. A Sport Education Fitness Season's Impact on Students' Fitness Levels, Knowledge, and In-Class Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jeffery Kurt; Hastie, Peter A; Wadsworth, Danielle D; Foote, Shelby; Brock, Sheri J; Hollett, Nikki

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which a sport education season of fitness could provide students with recommended levels of in-class moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) while also increasing students' fitness knowledge and fitness achievement. One hundred and sixty-six 5th-grade students (76 boys, 90 girls) participated in a 20-lesson season called "CrossFit Challenge" during a 4-week period. The Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run, push-ups, and curl-ups tests of the FITNESSGRAM® were used to assess fitness at pretest and posttest, while fitness knowledge was assessed through a validated, grade-appropriate test of health-related fitness knowledge (HRF). Physical activity was measured with Actigraph GT3X triaxial accelerometers. Results indicated a significant time effect for all fitness tests and the knowledge test. Across the entire season, the students spent an average of 54.5% of lesson time engaged in MVPA, irrespective of the type of lesson (instruction, free practice, or competition). The results suggest that configuring the key principles of sport education within a unit of fitness is an efficient model for providing students with the opportunity to improve fitness skill and HRF knowledge while attaining recommended levels of MVPA.

  19. Should Physical Activity Be Included in Nutrition Education? A Comparison of Nutrition Outcomes with and without In-Class Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Keenan, Debra M.; Corda, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Limited-resource adults' dietary intakes and nutrition behaviors improve as a result of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) participation; however, physical activity education is needed for improved health. The experimental study reported here assessed if spending time…

  20. Working Together in Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pateşan Marioara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The scores obtained by the military students are very important as a lot of opportunities depend on them: the choice of the branch, selection for different in and off-campus activities, the appointment to the workplace and so on. A qualifier, regardless of its form of effective expression, can make a difference in a given context of issuing a value judgment, in relation to the student's performance assessment. In our research we tried to find out what motives students, what determines them to get actively involved in the tasks they are given and the ways we can improve their participation in classes and assignments. In order to have an educated generation we need to have not only well prepared teachers but ones that are open-minded, flexible and in pace with the methodological novelties that can improve the teaching learning process in class. Along the years we have noticed that in classes where students constituted a cohesive group with an increasing degree of interaction between members, the results were better than in a group that did not appreciate team-work. In this article we want to highlight the fact that a teacher can bring to class the appropriate methods and procedures can contribute decisively to the strengthening of the group cohesion and high scores.

  1. Engaging Participation and Promoting Active Learning through Student Usage of the Internet to Create Notes for General Chemistry in Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Renee Monica

    2017-01-01

    Reported here is a study of an interactive component to General Chemistry I and General Chemistry II where a new pedagogy for taking notes in class was developed. These notes, called key word created class notes, prompted students to locate information using the Internet guided by a key word. Reference Web sites were added to a next generation of…

  2. WRITTEN COMMUNICATION IN BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Oana COSMAN

    2013-01-01

    The article examines the work of researchers primarily interested in the investigation of written communication in business settings. The author regards 'business discourse' as a field of study with distinct features in the domain of discourse analysis. Thus, the paper overviews the most important contributions to the development of written business discourse with a number of landmark studies. To gain a greater understanding of the written business discourse, the author also investigates some...

  3. The Development of Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in L2 Written Production through Informal Participation in Online Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusyk, Meryl

    2017-01-01

    Research into the online informal learning of English (OILE) examines how nonnative speakers of English may develop L2 skills through participation in leisure activities on the Internet in the target language. Such activities include, e.g., watching television series, films, or videos, interacting on Facebook, reading articles, or listening to…

  4. Pevonedistat (MLN4924), a First-in-Class NEDD8-activating enzyme inhibitor, in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndromes: a phase 1 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swords, Ronan T; Erba, Harry P; DeAngelo, Daniel J; Bixby, Dale L; Altman, Jessica K; Maris, Michael; Hua, Zhaowei; Blakemore, Stephen J; Faessel, Hélène; Sedarati, Farhad; Dezube, Bruce J; Giles, Francis J; Medeiros, Bruno C

    2015-05-01

    This trial was conducted to determine the dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of the first in class NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE) inhibitor, pevonedistat, and to investigate pevonedistat pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Pevonedistat was administered via a 60-min intravenous infusion on days 1, 3 and 5 (schedule A, n = 27), or days 1, 4, 8 and 11 (schedule B, n = 26) every 21-days. Dose escalation proceeded using a standard '3 + 3' design. Responses were assessed according to published guidelines. The MTD for schedules A and B were 59 and 83 mg/m(2) , respectively. On schedule A, hepatotoxicity was dose limiting. Multi-organ failure (MOF) was dose limiting on schedule B. The overall complete (CR) and partial (PR) response rate in patients treated at or below the MTD was 17% (4/23, 2 CRs, 2 PRs) for schedule A and 10% (2/19, 2 PRs) for schedule B. Pevonedistat plasma concentrations peaked after infusion followed by elimination in a biphasic pattern. Pharmacodynamic studies of biological correlates of NAE inhibition demonstrated target-specific activity of pevonedistat. In conclusion, administration of the first-in-class agent, pevonedistat, was feasible in patients with MDS and AML and modest clinical activity was observed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Collaboration of general practitioners and exercise providers in promotion of physical activity a written survey among general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemrijse, C J; de Bakker, D H; Ooms, L; Veenhof, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: General practitioners have an ideal position to motivate inactive patients to increase their physical activity. Most patients are able to exercise in regular local facilities outside the health care setting. The purpose of this study was to get insight into general practitioners

  6. Exploring Collaborative Reverse Subtitling for the Enhancement of Written Production Activities in English as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaván, Noa; Ibáñez, Ana; Bárcena, Elena

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the effects of collaborative reverse subtitling as an activity for the promotion of writing skills in English as a second language. An initial analysis is undertaken of the pros and cons of the role of translation in second language learning historically and the role of information and communication technology in this…

  7. Collaboration of general practitioners and exercise providers in promotion of physical activity a written survey among general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemrijse, C.J.; Bakker, D.H. de; Ooms, L.; Veenhof, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: General practitioners have an ideal position to motivate inactive patients to increase their physical activity. Most patients are able to exercise in regular local facilities outside the health care setting. The purpose of this study was to get insight into general practitioners

  8. Four minutes of in-class high-intensity interval activity improves selective attention in 9- to 11-year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jasmin K; Le Mare, Lucy; Gurd, Brendon J

    2015-03-01

    The amount of time allocated to physical activity in schools is declining. Time-efficient physical activity solutions that demonstrate their impact on academic achievement-related outcomes are needed to prioritize physical activity within the school curricula. "FUNtervals" are 4-min, high-intensity interval activities that use whole-body actions to complement a storyline. The purpose of this study was to (i) explore whether FUNtervals can improve selective attention, an executive function posited to be essential for learning and academic success; and (ii) examine whether this relationship is predicted by students' classroom off-task behaviour. Seven grade 3-5 classes (n = 88) were exposed to a single-group, repeated cross-over design where each student's selective attention was compared between no-activity and FUNtervals days. In week 1, students were familiarized with the d2 test of attention and FUNterval activities, and baseline off-task behaviour was observed. In both weeks 2 and 3 students completed the d2 test of attention following either a FUNterval break or a no-activity break. The order of these breaks was randomized and counterbalanced between weeks. Neither motor nor passive off-task behaviour predicted changes in selective attention following FUNtervals; however, a weak relationship was observed for verbal off-task behaviour and improvements in d2 test performance. More importantly, students made fewer errors during the d2 test following FUNtervals. In supporting the priority of physical activity inclusion within schools, FUNtervals, a time efficient and easily implemented physical activity break, can improve selective attention in 9- to 11-year olds.

  9. Superantigen and HLA-DR ligation induce phospholipase-C gamma 1 activation in class II+ T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanner, S B; Odum, Niels; Grosmaire, L

    1992-01-01

    activated by HLA-DR ligation through antibody cross-linking or by direct enterotoxin superantigen binding. Both types of stimuli induced tyrosine phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLC gamma 1) and an increase in intracellular calcium concentration; however......, superantigen-induced signaling was stronger than class II ligation alone. Antibody-mediated ligation of HLA-DR with CD3 resulted in augmented PLC gamma 1 activation and increased calcium mobilization, consistent with a mechanism of superantigen activity through a combination of class II and CD3/Ti signals...... engagement and PMA addition. In addition, superantigen-induced growth was induced by CD28 receptor ligation with antibody or the B7 counter-receptor expressed on Chinese hamster ovary cells. Taken together, these results indicate that class II molecules expressed on activated T cells are directly coupled...

  10. Variations in Written English

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Collins, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    .... The implication is that these five dimensions mark fundamental rhetorical "cut points" in written English, functioning as a heretofore hidden meso-layer linking micro-level linguistic decisions...

  11. Coming Out in Class: Challenges and Benefits of Active Learning in a Biology Classroom for LGBTQIA Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Katelyn M.; Brownell, Sara E.

    2016-01-01

    As we transition our undergraduate biology classrooms from traditional lectures to active learning, the dynamics among students become more important. These dynamics can be influenced by student social identities. One social identity that has been unexamined in the context of undergraduate biology is the spectrum of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and asexual (LGBTQIA) identities. In this exploratory interview study, we probed the experiences and perceptions of seven students who identify as part of the LGBTQIA community. We found that students do not always experience the undergraduate biology classroom to be a welcoming or accepting place for their identities. In contrast to traditional lectures, active-learning classes increase the relevance of their LGBTQIA identities due to the increased interactions among students during group work. Finally, working with other students in active-learning classrooms can present challenges and opportunities for students considering their LGBTQIA identity. These findings indicate that these students’ LGBTQIA identities are affecting their experience in the classroom and that there may be specific instructional practices that can mitigate some of the possible obstacles. We hope that this work can stimulate discussions about how to broadly make our active-learning biology classes more inclusive of this specific population of students. PMID:27543636

  12. Coming out in Class: Challenges and Benefits of Active Learning in a Biology Classroom for LGBTQIA Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Katelyn M.; Brownell, Sara E.

    2016-01-01

    As we transition our undergraduate biology classrooms from traditional lectures to active learning, the dynamics among students become more important. These dynamics can be influenced by student social identities. One social identity that has been unexamined in the context of undergraduate biology is the spectrum of lesbian, gay, bisexual,…

  13. Coming Out in Class: Challenges and Benefits of Active Learning in a Biology Classroom for LGBTQIA Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Katelyn M; Brownell, Sara E

    As we transition our undergraduate biology classrooms from traditional lectures to active learning, the dynamics among students become more important. These dynamics can be influenced by student social identities. One social identity that has been unexamined in the context of undergraduate biology is the spectrum of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and asexual (LGBTQIA) identities. In this exploratory interview study, we probed the experiences and perceptions of seven students who identify as part of the LGBTQIA community. We found that students do not always experience the undergraduate biology classroom to be a welcoming or accepting place for their identities. In contrast to traditional lectures, active-learning classes increase the relevance of their LGBTQIA identities due to the increased interactions among students during group work. Finally, working with other students in active-learning classrooms can present challenges and opportunities for students considering their LGBTQIA identity. These findings indicate that these students' LGBTQIA identities are affecting their experience in the classroom and that there may be specific instructional practices that can mitigate some of the possible obstacles. We hope that this work can stimulate discussions about how to broadly make our active-learning biology classes more inclusive of this specific population of students. © 2016 K. M. Cooper and S. E. Brownell. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  14. Pevonedistat, a first-in-class NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE) inhibitor, combined with azacitidine, in patients with AML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swords, Ronan T; Coutre, Steven; Maris, Michael B; Zeidner, Joshua F; Foran, James M; Cruz, Jose; Erba, Harry P; Berdeja, Jesus G; Tam, Wayne; Vardhanabhuti, Saran; Pawlikowska-Dobler, Iwona; Faessel, Hélène M; Dash, Ajeeta B; Sedarati, Farhad; Dezube, Bruce J; Faller, Douglas V; Savona, Michael R

    2018-01-18

    Pevonedistat (TAK-924/MLN4924) is a novel inhibitor of NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE) with single-agent activity in relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We performed a phase 1b study (NCT01814826) of pevonedistat (PEV) with azacitidine (AZA) based on synergistic activity seen preclinically. Primary objectives included safety and tolerability, and secondary objectives included pharmacokinetics (PK) and disease response. Patients ≥60 years with treatment-naïve AML, unfit for standard induction therapy, received PEV 20 or 30 mg/m 2 IV on days 1, 3, and 5, combined with fixed-dose AZA (75 mg/m 2 IV/SC) on days 1-5, 8, and 9, every 28 days. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were constipation (48%), nausea (42%), fatigue (42%), and anemia (39%). In total, 11 deaths were observed and considered unrelated to study therapy by the investigators. Transient elevations in AST and ALT were dose limiting. The recommended phase 2 dose of PEV in this combination is 20 mg/m 2 PEV PK was not altered by the addition of AZA. Overall response rate (ORR) based on an ITT analysis was 50% (20 CR, 5 CRi, 7 PR), with an 8.3-month median duration of remission. In patients receiving ≥6 cycles of therapy (n = 23, 44%), ORR was 83%. In patients with TP53 mutations, the composite CR/PR rate was 80% (4/5). Two of these patients stayed on study for >10 cycles. Baseline bone marrow blast percentage or cytogenetic/molecular risk did not influence ORR. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Hematology.

  15. First-Year and Non-First-Year Student Expectations Regarding In-Class and Out-of-Class Learning Activities in Introductory Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Louise Brown

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available National calls for teaching transformation build on a constructivist learning theory and propose that students learn by actively engaging in course activities and interacting with other students. While interactive pedagogies can improve learning, they also have the potential to challenge traditional norms regarding class participation and learning strategies. To better understand the potential openness of students to interactive teaching practices, we administered a survey during the first week of two sections of an introductory biology course to characterize how students envisioned spending time during class as well as what activities they expected to complete outside of class during non-exam weeks and in preparation for exams. Additionally, we sought to test the hypothesis that the expectations of first-year students differed from those of non-first-year students. Analyses of closed-ended and open-ended questions revealed that students held a wide range of expectations and that most students expressed expectations consistent with some degree of transformed teaching. Furthermore, first-year students expected more active learning in class, more out-ofclass coursework during non-exam weeks, and more social learning strategies than non-first-year students. We discuss how instructor awareness of incoming student expectations might be used to promote success in introductory science courses.

  16. First-Year and Non-First-Year Student Expectations Regarding In-Class and Out-of-Class Learning Activities in Introductory Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tanya L; Brazeal, Kathleen R; Couch, Brian A

    2017-04-01

    National calls for teaching transformation build on a constructivist learning theory and propose that students learn by actively engaging in course activities and interacting with other students. While interactive pedagogies can improve learning, they also have the potential to challenge traditional norms regarding class participation and learning strategies. To better understand the potential openness of students to interactive teaching practices, we administered a survey during the first week of two sections of an introductory biology course to characterize how students envisioned spending time during class as well as what activities they expected to complete outside of class during non-exam weeks and in preparation for exams. Additionally, we sought to test the hypothesis that the expectations of first-year students differed from those of non-first-year students. Analyses of closed-ended and open-ended questions revealed that students held a wide range of expectations and that most students expressed expectations consistent with some degree of transformed teaching. Furthermore, first-year students expected more active learning in class, more out-of-class coursework during non-exam weeks, and more social learning strategies than non-first-year students. We discuss how instructor awareness of incoming student expectations might be used to promote success in introductory science courses.

  17. A preliminary fMRI study of a novel self-paced written fluency task: observation of left-hemispheric activation, and increased frontal activation in late vs. early task phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golestanirad, Laleh; Das, Sunit; Schweizer, Tom A; Graham, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests of verbal fluency are very widely used to characterize impaired cognitive function. For clinical neuroscience studies and potential medical applications, measuring the brain activity that underlies such tests with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is of significant interest-but a challenging proposition because overt speech can cause signal artifacts, which tend to worsen as the duration of speech tasks becomes longer. In a novel approach, we present the group brain activity of 12 subjects who performed a self-paced written version of phonemic fluency using fMRI-compatible tablet technology that recorded responses and provided task-related feedback on a projection screen display, over long-duration task blocks (60 s). As predicted, we observed robust activation in the left anterior inferior and medial frontal gyri, consistent with previously reported results of verbal fluency tasks which established the role of these areas in strategic word retrieval. In addition, the number of words produced in the late phase (last 30 s) of written phonemic fluency was significantly less (p < 0.05) than the number produced in the early phase (first 30 s). Activation during the late phase vs. the early phase was also assessed from the first 20 s and last 20 s of task performance, which eliminated the possibility that the sluggish hemodynamic response from the early phase would affect the activation estimates of the late phase. The last 20 s produced greater activation maps covering extended areas in bilateral precuneus, cuneus, middle temporal gyrus, insula, middle frontal gyrus and cingulate gyrus. Among these areas, greater activation was observed in the bilateral middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann area BA 9) and cingulate gyrus (BA 24, 32) likely as part of the initiation, maintenance, and shifting of attentional resources. Consistent with previous pertinent fMRI literature involving overt and covert verbal responses, these findings highlight the

  18. Written Materials for the IYA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro Gossman, Julieta

    2008-05-01

    In the poster presentation I shall describe the written materials we have edited for the IYA. The first is a book written for general public about Galileo's life and research. The rest are a series of articles for teachers so that they include hands-on astronomy activities in their classroom including a star party. All these materials are written in Spanish, that is a language spoken is large areas of the world. I believe science is better understood in the mother tong so that many of these materials will be also useful for countries where Spanish is a second language. References Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro Galileo y el telescopio, 400 anios de ciencia Uribe y Ferrari Editores, 2007 ISBN 970 756 238-2 Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro Newton, la luz y el movimiento de los cuerpos Uribe y Ferrari Editores, 2007 ISBN 970 756 238 2 Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro, Galileo para Maestros I Correo del Maestro, Núm. 133, p. 15-26, Anio 12, Junio 2007. Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro, Galileo para Maestros II Correo del Maestro, Num. 134, p. 17-26, Anio 12, 2007. Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro, Galileo para Maestros III Correo del Maestro, Num. 135, p. 10-18, Anio 12, 2007. Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro Experimentos sobre la caida de los cuerpos El Correo del Maestro, anio 12 Numero 142, p. 5-18, 2008.

  19. Cascadedness in Chinese Written Word Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing eQu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In written word production, is activation transmitted from lexical-semantic selection to orthographic encoding in a serial or cascaded fashion? Very few previous studies have addressed this issue, and the existing evidence comes from languages with alphabetic orthographic systems. We report a study in which Chinese participants were presented with coloured line drawings of objects and were instructed to write the name of the colour while attempting to ignore the object. Significant priming was found when on a trial, the written response shared an orthographic radical with the written name of the object. This finding constitutes clear evidence that task-irrelevant lexical codes activate their corresponding orthographic representation, and hence suggests that activation flows in a cascaded fashion within the written production system. Additionally, the results speak to how the time interval between processing of target and distractor dimensions affects and modulates the emergence of orthographic facilitation effects.

  20. Cascadedness in Chinese written word production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Qingqing; Damian, Markus F

    2015-01-01

    In written word production, is activation transmitted from lexical-semantic selection to orthographic encoding in a serial or cascaded fashion? Very few previous studies have addressed this issue, and the existing evidence comes from languages with alphabetic orthographic systems. We report a study in which Chinese participants were presented with colored line drawings of objects and were instructed to write the name of the color while attempting to ignore the object. Significant priming was found when on a trial, the written response shared an orthographic radical with the written name of the object. This finding constitutes clear evidence that task-irrelevant lexical codes activate their corresponding orthographic representation, and hence suggests that activation flows in a cascaded fashion within the written production system. Additionally, the results speak to how the time interval between processing of target and distractor dimensions affects and modulates the emergence of orthographic facilitation effects.

  1. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  2. A Preliminary fMRI Study of a Novel Self-Paced Written Fluency Task: Observation of Left-Hemispheric Activation, and Increased Frontal Activation in Late vs. Early Task Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh eGolestanirad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychological tests of verbal fluency are very widely used to characterize impaired cognitive function. For clinical neuroscience studies and potential medical applications, measuring the brain activity that underlies such tests with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is of significant interest - but a challenging proposition because overt speech can cause signal artifacts, which tend to worsen as the duration of speech tasks becomes longer. In a novel approach, we present the group brain activity of 12 subjects who performed a self-paced written version of phonemic fluency using fMRI-compatible tablet technology that recorded responses and provided task-related feedback on a projection screen display, over long-duration task blocks (60 s. As predicted, we observed robust activation in the left anterior inferior and medial frontal gyri, consisting with previously reported results of verbal fluency tasks which established the role of these areas in strategic word retrieval. In addition, the number of words produced in the late phase (last 30 s of written phonemic fluency was significantly less (p < 0.05 than the number produced in the early phase (first 30 s. Activation during the late phase vs. the early phase was also assessed from the first 20 s and last 20 s of task performance, which eliminated the possibility that the sluggish hemodynamic response from the early phase would affect the activation estimates of the late phase. The last 20 s produced greater activation maps covering extended areas in bilateral precuneus, cuneus, middle temporal gyrus, insula, middle frontal gyrus and cingulate gyrus. Among them, greater activation was observed in the bilateral middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann area BA 9 and cingulate gyrus (BA 24, 32 likely as part of the initiation, maintenance, and shifting of attentional resources.

  3. 30 CFR 877.11 - Written consent for entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Written consent for entry. 877.11 Section 877... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION RIGHTS OF ENTRY § 877.11 Written consent for entry. Written consent from the... to enter lands in order to carry out reclamation activities. Nonconsensual entry by exercise of the...

  4. Reconsidering Written Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal P. Sarma

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A number of elite thinkers in Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries pursued an agenda which historian Paolo Rossi calls the “quest for a universal language,” a quest which was deeply interwoven with the emergence of the scientific method. From a modern perspective, one of the many surprising aspects of these efforts is that they relied on a diverse array of memorization techniques as foundational elements. In the case of Leibniz’s universal calculus, the ultimate vision was to create a pictorial language that could be learned by anyone in a matter of weeks and which would contain within it a symbolic representation of all domains of contemporary thought, ranging from the natural sciences, to theology, to law. In this brief article, I explore why this agenda might have been appealing to thinkers of this era by examining ancient and modern memory feats. As a thought experiment, I suggest that a society built entirely upon memorization might be less limited than we might otherwise imagine, and furthermore, that cultural norms discouraging the use of written language might have had implications for the development of scientific methodology. Viewed in this light, the efforts of Leibniz and others seem significantly less surprising. I close with some general observations about cross-cultural origins of scientific thought.

  5. The students’ use of written and internet sources and electronic media for assessment in slovene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Hromin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the frequency of using written and online sources as well as of electronic media during preparation of secondary school students for in-class examinations in Slovene language and literature. Within the scope of the above mentioned aspects we have controlled the of age and type of secondary school programmes. In the first part of the article the concept of information and communication technology/multimedia, the concept of e-learning and the concept of student activity are defined. In the second half of the article I present the results of the research, which show the frequency of use of written and web sources as well as of electronic media. These results have shown that with the oral examination of knowledge of grammar and literature the use of the notebook is prevalent, while with the written examination of knowledge of grammar and literature the use of the course book is predominant. The frequency of use of World Wide Web sources and electronic media increases with age and according to the level of difficultness of education programme. Thus the use of the notebook is the most prevalent in vocational schools whereas the use of the course book is predominant at the level of technical gimnazija and general gimnazija programmes.

  6. Cascadedness in Chinese written word production

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Qingqing; Damian, Markus F.

    2015-01-01

    In written word production, is activation transmitted from lexical-semantic selection to orthographic encoding in a serial or cascaded fashion? Very few previous studies have addressed this issue, and the existing evidence comes from languages with alphabetic orthographic systems. We report a study in which Chinese participants were presented with coloured line drawings of objects and were instructed to write the name of the colour while attempting to ignore the object. Significant priming wa...

  7. Failure to Follow Written Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Most tasks in aviation have a mandated written procedure to be followed specifically under the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 14, Section 43.13(a). However, the incidence of Failure to Follow Procedure (FFP) events continues to be a major iss...

  8. Minimal Poems Written in 1979 Minimal Poems Written in 1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Sirangelo Maggio

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The reading of M. van der Slice's Minimal Poems Written in 1979 (the work, actually, has no title reminded me of a book I have seen a long time ago. called Truth, which had not even a single word printed inside. In either case we have a sample of how often excentricities can prove efficient means of artistic creativity, in this new literary trend known as Minimalism. The reading of M. van der Slice's Minimal Poems Written in 1979 (the work, actually, has no title reminded me of a book I have seen a long time ago. called Truth, which had not even a single word printed inside. In either case we have a sample of how often excentricities can prove efficient means of artistic creativity, in this new literary trend known as Minimalism.

  9. Professional Elites in "Classes" Societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Magala (Slawomir)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractModern European identity has been forged in class struggles between the French revolution and fall of the Berlin Wall, which fell twice. Once, with the rest of the city in May 1945, when a national socialist alternative to a modernizing mix of parliamentary democracy and market economy

  10. Civility in Classes and Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Civility is a polite or courteous act, expression, or standard of conduct, including the display of respect and tolerance to everyone. Teaching and modeling civility in classes and with sport teams is essential so students and athletes can learn the importance of and demonstrate civility in their interactions with others. Teachers and coaches…

  11. Written feedback to mathematics homework

    OpenAIRE

    Žitko, Urša

    2017-01-01

    This diploma thesis is about teachers’ feedback to students’ mathematics homework. In the theoretical part I present the purpose and history of homework assignments as well as various classifications of types of homework. In general, homework assignments are intended for students to learn and refresh the subject matter they have learnt in class, to gain further understanding, to practice various mathematical processes, and to prepare the student for a forthcoming subject matter. By doing home...

  12. [Written language and intellectual disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando-Lucas, M T; Banús-Gómez, P; Hoz-Rosales, A G

    2005-01-15

    Following the diagnosis of intellectual disability, a prognosis can be offered concerning the degree of autonomy the child will be able to achieve based on prior experience, but which depends on the aetiology of the disability. It is still difficult to give a prospective answer regarding the capacity to reach an operative level of written language. The goal of being able to offer an experience-based prognosis involves prior analysis of how learning dysfunctions are approached in the disabled population. Although we have an increasingly deeper understanding of the neurocognitive foundations of specific learning difficulties and the careful neuropsychological management of children with disorders affecting the acquisition of written language with a typical intellectual level, those with intellectual disability continue to be treated using a simplistic approach in which their intelligence quotient is still taken as the most relevant feature. Little attention is paid to neuropsychological aspects, the pedagogical and social environment or comorbid aspects that may affect the acquisition of the function. Yet, these are aspects that are submitted to thorough evaluation in children who are not disabled. The current concept of intellectual disability has gone beyond the definition based on the intelligence quotient. The wide variability in the reading function in children with intellectual disability cannot be explained only according to a psychometric assessment. A more complete neuropsychological approach, as carried out in the population with no disability, will enable us to detect cognitive, pedagogical, social and pathological dysfunctions that interfere with the acquisition of written language.

  13. Comparison of antibacterial activity of glass-ionomer cement and amalgam in class two restorations by Streptococcus mutans count analysis at fixed intervals: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegginmani, Veeresh S; Goel, Beenarani; Uppin, Virendra; Horatti, Priya; Kumar, L S Vijay; Nainani, Abhinav

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of glass ionomer cement and amalgam restoration on the level of Streptococcus mutans in the interproximal plaque at periodic intervals and also to compare these values. Seventeen adult patients having two proximal carious lesions on any quadrant of the jaw (either opposing or contralateral) were selected for this study. Carious lesions were diagnosed clinically and from bitewing radiographs. Of the two carious lesions, one was restored with glass ionomer cermet cement and another with amalgam. Plaque samples were collected from interproximal areas before and at 1 month and 3 months post-treatment in a test tube containing 5 ml of modified Stuart's liquid transport fluid. Identification of organisms in the colony was done after Gram staining. Comparison of values before restoration and after restoration at 1 month interval showed a statistically significant decrease (ppp>0.05). Glass ionomer restorations have definite advantage over the amalgam, as the tunnel preparation is more conservative and fluoride release from the glass ionomer inhibits the growth of S. mutans in the plaque. Glass ionomer cement should be preferred over amalgam in conservatively prepared restorations as it reduces the microbial activities due to fluoride release.

  14. 34 CFR 32.9 - Written decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EMPLOYEES § 32.9 Written decision. (a) The hearing official issues a written decision... with a definite and firm conviction that a mistake was made. (c) In making the decision, the hearing... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Written decision. 32.9 Section 32.9 Education Office of...

  15. Written debriefing: Evaluating the impact of the addition of a written component when debriefing simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Shelly J

    2015-11-01

    Debriefing, the reflective period following a simulation, is said to be where the bulk of simulation learning takes place. Many expert opinions regarding debriefing exist, but evidence-based best practices have yet to be identified. Written debriefing is one of these practices; experts state learning can be extended through the addition of a written component to the debriefing process, but no evidence exists to support this. This study compares three debriefing types: discussion alone, and discussion followed by journaling or blogging. Undergraduate nursing students participating in a simulation were randomized as a simulation group to one of these three debriefing types. Following completion of debriefing activities, students completed a Debriefing Experience Scale, a tool designed to evaluate the student experience during debriefing. Data obtained from completed scales were analyzed with ANOVA followed by Fisher LSD post hoc testing. The results showed the students preferred their experience with discussion debriefing over discussion debriefing with a written component added. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Segmentation of Written Words in French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetail, Fabienne; Content, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Syllabification of spoken words has been largely used to define syllabic properties of written words, such as the number of syllables or syllabic boundaries. By contrast, some authors proposed that the functional structure of written words stems from visuo-orthographic features rather than from the transposition of phonological structure into the…

  17. 42 CFR 456.80 - Individual written plan of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Hospitals Plan of Care § 456.80 Individual written plan of care. (a) Before admission to a hospital or before authorization for... and rehabilitative services; (iv) Activities; (v) Social services; (vi) Diet; (4) Plans for continuing...

  18. A Comparison of Professional-Level Faculty and Student Perceptions of Active Learning: Its Current Use, Effectiveness, and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cynthia J.; Metz, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Active learning is an instructional method in which students become engaged participants in the classroom through the use of in-class written exercises, games, problem sets, audience-response systems, debates, class discussions, etc. Despite evidence supporting the effectiveness of active learning strategies, minimal adoption of the technique has…

  19. Accurate modelling of UV written waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael

    BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure.......BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure....

  20. Accurate modeling of UV written waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael

    BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure.......BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure....

  1. Written Language Shift among Norwegian Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil ÖZERK

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In Norway there are two written Norwegian languages, Bokmål and Nynorsk. Of these two written languages Bokmål is being used by the majority of the people, and Bokmål has the highest prestige in the society. This article is about the shift of written language from Nynorsk to Bokmål among young people in a traditional Nynorsk district in the country. Drawing on empirical data we conclude that many adolescents are experiencing written language shift. We discuss various reasons for this phenomenon in the linguistic landscape of Norway. In our discussions we emphasize the importance of the school with regard to language maintenance and language revitalization. We call for a new language policy in the educational system that can prevent language shift. Having several dialects and two officially written forms of Norwegian in the country, creates a special linguistic landscape in Norway. Despite the fact that the Norwegian language situation is in several ways unique, it’s done very little research on how the existing policy works in practice. Our research reveals that the existing language policy and practice in the school system is not powerful enough to prevent language shift and language decay among the youngsters. The school system functions like a fabric for language shift.

  2. Oral vs. written evaluation of students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asklund, U.; Bendix, Lars Gotfred

    2003-01-01

    In this short paper we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of oral and written evaluation of students. First in more general terms and then followed by details of what we did in our course and our experience. Finally, we outline some topics for further study and discussions......In this short paper we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of oral and written evaluation of students. First in more general terms and then followed by details of what we did in our course and our experience. Finally, we outline some topics for further study and discussions...

  3. 19 CFR 148.13 - Written declarations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... presentation of written declarations. The person arriving in the United States shall complete the information... the time of arrival. Individual items not exceeding $5 per item in fair retail value in the country of... its equivalent in U.S. currency; or (2) The fair retail value in the country of acquisition if the...

  4. Cue Reliance in L2 Written Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechmann, Daniel; Kerz, Elma

    2014-01-01

    Second language learners reach expert levels in relative cue weighting only gradually. On the basis of ensemble machine learning models fit to naturalistic written productions of German advanced learners of English and expert writers, we set out to reverse engineer differences in the weighting of multiple cues in a clause linearization problem. We…

  5. Learners' right to freedom of written expression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Learners' right to freedom of written expression. W.J. van Vollenhoven. Department of Education Management and Policy Studies, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 South Africa wvvollen@postino.up.ac.za. Charles I. Glenn. Training and Policy Studies of the University Professors' Program, University of Boston. Although ...

  6. Increasing advertising power via written scent references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Breulmann, Svenja; Bialkova, Svetlana; Bialkova, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory cues in advertisements can evoke positive consumer emotions and product attitudes, yet including real scent in advertising is not always feasible. This study aimed at investigating whether written scent references could produce effects similar to real scents. Participants in online

  7. On written expression of primary school pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Normative rules of standard Serbian language are acquired during primary and secondary education through curriculum demands of Serbian language instruction, which takes place in three fields: grammar, orthography and culture of expression. Topic of interest in this paper is the quality of written expression of 6th and 7th grade pupils, in the context of all three fields specified to be mastered by the curriculum of Serbian language. Research comprised 148 primary school pupils from Belgrade. Linguistic analysis of spontaneously created written text was performed, in the conditions where it was not explicitly demanded form the pupil to write correctly. The results indicate that the majority of pupils make spelling and grammatical errors, meeting the condition for the basic level of mastering the knowledge in Serbian language according to the standards specified for the end of compulsory education. In addition to this, a considerable majority of pupils has a satisfactory level of culture of written expression. Pupils more often make spelling than grammatical errors. Seventh grade pupils are better than sixth grade pupils with respect to adhering to grammar rules and according to culture of written expression, while the mark in Serbian language and general school achievement of pupils correlate only with the degree of adhering to the orthographic rules. It was concluded that not only individual programs of support for pupils who make more errors are necessary, but also launching national projects for the development of linguistic competence of the young in Serbia.

  8. Comparisons between written and computerised patient histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaak, Martien; Westerman, R. Frans; van Bemmel, Jan H.

    1987-01-01

    Patient histories were obtained from 99 patients in three different ways: by a computerised patient interview (patient record), by the usual written interview (medical record), and by the transcribed record, which was a computerised version of the medical record. Patient complaints, diagnostic

  9. Classifying Written Texts Through Rhythmic Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balint, Mihaela; Dascalu, Mihai; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Rhythm analysis of written texts focuses on literary analysis and it mainly considers poetry. In this paper we investigate the relevance of rhythmic features for categorizing texts in prosaic form pertaining to different genres. Our contribution is threefold. First, we define a set of rhythmic

  10. Written mathematical traditions in Ancient Mesopotamia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Writing, as well as various mathematical techniques, were created in proto-literate Uruk in order to serve accounting, and Mesopotamian mathematics as we know it was always expressed in writing. In so far, mathematics generically regarded was always part of the generic written tradition....

  11. 34 CFR 300.135 - Written affirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Written affirmation. 300.135 Section 300.135 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH...

  12. Written Communication Skills for Scientists and Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2016-12-01

    Lord Chancellor, Francis Bacon of England said: Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man. Even after his death, Francis Bacon remained extremely influential through his works, especially as philosophical advocate and practitioner of the scientific method during the scientific revolution. Written communication skills are extremely important for scientists and engineers because it helps them to achieve their goals effectively and meet stipulated deadlines according to a pre-established schedule. Richard Arum and Josipa Roksa claim that American students are learning very little during their first two years of college (Arum and Roksa, 2011). Written communication involves expressing yourself clearly, using language with precision; constructing a logical argument; taking notes; editing and summarizing; and writing reports. There are three main elements to written communication. First and foremost is the structure because this in principle outlines clearly the way the entire content is laid out. Second, the style which primarily indicates the way it is written and how communication is made effective and vibrant. Third, the content which should document in complete detail, what you are writing about. Some researchers indicate that colleges and universities are failing to prepare the students to meet the demanding challenges of the present day workforce and are struggling to maintain an international status (Johnson, K. 2013). In this presentation, the author provides some guidelines to help students improve their written communication skills. References: Johnson, Kristine (2013) "Why Students Don't Write: Educating in the Era of Credentialing: Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses," Conversations on Jesuit Higher Education: Vol. 43, Article 9. Available at: http://epublications.marquette.edu/conversations/vol43/iss1/9 Arum, Richard and Roksa, Josipa (2011) Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses

  13. The Effect of Overt Prepositional Input on Students’ Written Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Morgan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available I believe that there should be a focus on problematic language issues such as prepositions in the language classroom in order to provide continuous exposure to such features. Consequently I provided my students with supplementary activities on prepositions, and also promoted learner autonomy by highlighting urls which deal with collocation. Analysis of the students written output shows the input to have been successful in focussing students’ attention on this problematic language aspect. While a pre-input writing task generated 83 prepositional errors, at the rate of 1 in every 48 words, longer post-input tasks only generated 76 prepositional errors at the rate of 1 in every 215 words. Consequently, I plan to continue providing students with input on this often neglected language feature, in order to increase students’ written accuracy.

  14. Student Views of Technology-Mediated Written Corrective Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher

    2017-01-01

    and practices concerning the specific – and time-consuming – language-teacher activity of providing WCF and 2) potential changes in student attitudes when technology is used to mediate the feedback. At the core of the study is an eight-month intervention which was carried out with three teachers of English...... as a foreign language and their lower-secondary classes, requiring the teachers to make use of a specific program supportive of effective written corrective feedback in their provision of feedback to their students. The article will report on results pertaining to student attitudes to the changes brought about...... by the intervention, which changed both teacher and student practices. Data was collected through student questionnaires concerning their views of the roles of written corrective feedback for foreign language acquisition, and also their views of and attitudes to their teacher’s normal practice were addressed...

  15. Skin suicide note written in mehndi (henna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Chittaranjan; Swain, Rajanikanta; Bhardwaj, Daya Nand; Millo, Tabin

    2016-03-01

    Suicide messages on the skin are rare. Until now, in all reported cases, the writing tool used by the victims has been a pen. We report a suicide case by hanging in which the victim had written a note on her palm in mehndi, or henna, at a wedding ceremony three days before the fatal act. The note was discovered at autopsy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Written narrative practices in elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano-Soares, Soraia; Soares, Aparecido José Couto; Cárnio, Maria Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Promotion of a written narratives production program in the third grade of an Elementary School. To analyze two written narrative practice proposals in order to verify which resources are more efficient in benefitting the textual productions of third grade Elementary School students. Sixty students were selected from two third grade groups of a public Elementary School in São Paulo (Brazil). For the analysis, students were divided into two groups (Group A and Group B). Fourteen children's storybooks were used. In Group A, the story was orally told by the researchers in a colloquial manner, keeping the narrator role and the original structure proposed by the author. In Group B, the story was fully read. The book was projected onto a screen and read aloud so the students could follow the reading and observe the corresponding illustrations. Voice changing resources in the characters' dialogues were used. In the overall comparison, statistically significant results were found for moment (initial and final assessments) and for interaction between groups. It was observed that both groups presented substantial development from initial to final assessment. The Written Narratives Promotion Program based on the shared reading of children's storybooks constituted a more effective strategy than telling the stories using a single reader.

  17. EXPLORING INTERPERSONAL INTERACTION IN WRITTEN DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risdaneva Risdaneva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of any discourses, either spoken or written ones, is to communicate the messages to the targeted audiences. Written discourse appears to be the most cau-tious piece of work since it is a product of a well-organised and long-term writing process. To achieve the communicative purpose, an author should interpersonally interact with the targeted readers. The interpersonal interaction can be realised through the use of modalisation to express certainty and uncertainty as well as the use of attitudinal evaluation to evaluate things, events, people, situations and etc. In this case, the analysis of some extracts which are produced as guidelines for the teachers suggest that the written texts are quite convincing and evaluative as well as successful in persuading the readers. This is typical to this genre of discourse as its ultimate goal is to win over the interest of the reader in using the product. In other word, the author tries to make the text convincing and persuasive in order to win over the teachers’ interest in using the textbook in their classrooms.

  18. STRATEGIES OF EXPRESSING WRITTEN APOLOGIES IN THE ONLINE NEWSPAPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cipto Wardoyo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Expressing apology is a universal activity although people have different strategies or ways to express the apology based on the culture, situation, and context. An apology has played a vital role in verbal politeness; it is certainly impolite when someone does not express an apology when he or she has commited an offence to the others. Apologies in the Pragmatic study is classified under speech act theory. An apology based on Searle (1969 is classified as expressive speech acts because it expresses speaker’s physiological attitude. An apology expresses speaker’s sorrow and regret because he/she has offended hearers or readers.  This paper tries to discuss strategies of editors in expressing written apologies in the online newspaper. The objective of this paper is to explain what the strategies of written apologies are in the online newspaper. This study uses qualitative method; the writer chooses descriptive interpretative technique for analyzing data. There are four written apologies in the online neswpapers as data sources in this paper, the data are taken from The Jakarta Post, The Daily Express, The Sun, and Brisbane Times. The writer tries to describe and analyzes utterances in the data sources based on Olshtain & Cohen theory (1986. There are five main strategies in expressing apologies according to Olshtain & Cohen (1986; they are Illocutionary Force Indicating Device (IFID, expression responsibility, explanation/justification, offer repairs, and promise forbearance. The writer found that all of the written apologies used combination strategies, they used IFID by using performative verb: apologize and be sorry then followed by expression resposbility, explanation, offer repairs, and promise forbearance. Keywords: apologies, speech acts, politeness, pragmatics

  19. The emotional importance of key: do Beatles songs written in different keys convey different emotional tones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whissel, R; Whissel, C

    2000-12-01

    Lyrics from 155 songs written by the Lennon-McCartney team were scored using the Dictionary of Affect in Language. Resultant scores (pleasantness, activation, and imagery of words) were compared across key signatures using one way analyses of variance. Words from songs written in minor keys were less pleasant and less active than those from songs written in major keys. Words from songs written in the key of F scored extremely low on all three measures. Lyrics from the keys of C, D, and G were relatively active in tone. Results from Dictionary scoring were compared with assignments of character to keys made more than one century ago and with current musicians' opinions.

  20. Written memory: authorship and cultural identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Seltzer Goldstein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a research work in progress which approaches the relationship between written from memory, discourse and cultural identity. This choice rests on the idea that memory, identity and sense of belonging are intrinsically related. The memory space is also the space of the “ressignification”: the space where we construct and reconstruct representations and identities. We build representations of the past according to the representations we make of the present, and both are contaminated by representations socially and historically constructed. Such concepts are associated with the concepts of autonomy (FREIRE, 2002, agency (BAZERMAN, 2011; KLEIMAN, 2006 and authorship (BAZERMAN, 2011.

  1. Modeling statistical properties of written text.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Angeles Serrano

    Full Text Available Written text is one of the fundamental manifestations of human language, and the study of its universal regularities can give clues about how our brains process information and how we, as a society, organize and share it. Among these regularities, only Zipf's law has been explored in depth. Other basic properties, such as the existence of bursts of rare words in specific documents, have only been studied independently of each other and mainly by descriptive models. As a consequence, there is a lack of understanding of linguistic processes as complex emergent phenomena. Beyond Zipf's law for word frequencies, here we focus on burstiness, Heaps' law describing the sublinear growth of vocabulary size with the length of a document, and the topicality of document collections, which encode correlations within and across documents absent in random null models. We introduce and validate a generative model that explains the simultaneous emergence of all these patterns from simple rules. As a result, we find a connection between the bursty nature of rare words and the topical organization of texts and identify dynamic word ranking and memory across documents as key mechanisms explaining the non trivial organization of written text. Our research can have broad implications and practical applications in computer science, cognitive science and linguistics.

  2. Analysis of children's narrative written by women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Sánchez-Pinilla

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Our work tries to approach the study of a corpus of children’s literature published in the adults’ Spanish press during the period from 1920 to 1939 and whose authorship is feminine. It’s fundamental aims, are therefore, to make this production visible; to analyze the different aesthetic and ideological propacals formalised in this writing and reintegrate this artistic production into the literary system which it took place, since it is born inside of this and they are the subsequent historical circumstances that isolate it and turn it into a minor writing. The work is constituted in three phases: women authors who publish in the last third of the nineteenth century; authors who published between 1900 and 1920, and authors writing between 1920 and 1939. The areas for which these women produced are are the school, the family, the woman’s associacions, the editorial, the wold of drawing, and the written press.

  3. Conversation Analysis and Orality in Written Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antônio da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Marcuschi (1977 points out that orality is an important topic to be developed in the classroom. Lamentably, however, it has been left aside, because teachers and those responsible for education do not consider it as an important feature to be emphasized in the mother tongue teaching. The main reason is the focus given to the language teaching in Brazilian schools: the school is supposed to teach writing, and how to write well. Despite the advances of Linguistic studies on speaking and writing; despite the contributions of Sociolinguistics and Conversation Analysis; and despite the overcoming of prejudices, especially on the strict distinction between the two modes, there is still a long way to go. Thus, it is beneficial to bring up a discussion on speaking and writing. After several years of Marcuschi´s findings (1977, textbook authors, teachers, researchers and those responsible for the Portuguese language teaching have another theoretical approach. Nonetheless, in practice, there is still a lot to be accomplished since writing continues to be the focus of the Portuguese language teaching in Brazilian schools. It seems that most of the teachers know the theory, but they experience difficulties when it comes to the practices of everyday school life. This paper aims to analyze oral marks or effects of orality in written literary texts, more precisely in dialogues produced. These analyzes will aid us in giving subsidies to a Portuguese teacher, so that he/she can work consistently and productively. To illustrate our observations, we have chosen fragments of chronicles written by Brazilian writer Luís Fernando Verissimo, published in three of his works: Comédias para se ler na escola, Sexo na cabeça e Amor Veríssimo.

  4. 49 CFR 386.49 - Form of written evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Form of written evidence. 386.49 Section 386.49 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... General Rules and Hearings § 386.49 Form of written evidence. All written evidence should be submitted in...

  5. Concurrent Validity of Standardized Measures of Written Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, Cynthia A.; Boan, Candace H.; Staniszewski, Deborah; Hynd, George W.

    1997-01-01

    A study involving 120 school-aged children that investigated the concurrent validity of measures of written language found that the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test Written Expression subtest correlates moderately with the Written Expression subtest of the Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised and the Spontaneous Writing Quotient of the…

  6. Oral and Literate Strategies in Spoken and Written Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah

    1982-01-01

    Discusses comparative analysis of spoken and written versions of a narrative to demonstrate that features which have been identified as characterizing oral discourse are also found in written discourse and that the written short story combines syntactic complexity expected in writing with features which create involvement expected in speaking.…

  7. Using Morphological Awareness Instruction to Improve Written Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Kenn; Werfel, Krystal

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Written English is a morphophonemic language. Researchers have documented that a conscious awareness of the morphological structure of English morphology is predictive of students' written language skills and that morphological awareness instruction leads to improvements in morphological awareness and in other written language…

  8. Distinguish Spoken English from Written English: Rich Feature Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiufeng

    2013-01-01

    This article aims at the feature analysis of four expository essays (Text A/B/C/D) written by secondary school students with a focus on the differences between spoken and written language. Texts C and D are better written compared with the other two (Texts A&B) which are considered more spoken in language using. The language features are…

  9. Assisting children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to reduce the hyperactive behavior of arbitrary standing in class with a Nintendo Wii remote controller through an active reminder and preferred reward stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Wang, Shu-Hui; Wang, Yun-Ting

    2014-09-01

    Recent studies in the field of special education have shown that in combination with software technology, high-tech commercial products can be applied as useful assistive technology devices to help people with disabilities. This study extended this concept to turn a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller into a high-performance limb action detector, in order to evaluate whether two students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) could reduce their hyperactive behavior through an active reminder and stimulation in the form of the participants' preferred rewards. This study focused on one particular hyperactive behavior common to both students: standing up arbitrarily during class. The active reminder was in the form of vibration feedback provided via the built-in function of the Wii Remote Controller, which was controlled and triggered by a control system to remind participants when they were engaging in standing behavior. This study was performed according to a multiple baseline design across participants. The results showed that both participants significantly improved their control over their hyperactive behavior during the intervention phase, and retained this effective performance in the maintenance phase. The practical and developmental implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Recommendations for reducing ambiguity in written procedures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzen, Laura E.

    2009-11-01

    Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous work instructions (WIs) and operating procedures (OPs) can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. This report outlines some of the sources of ambiguity in written English and describes three recommendations for reducing ambiguity in WIs and OPs. The recommendations are based on commonly used research techniques in the fields of linguistics and cognitive psychology. The first recommendation is to gather empirical data that can be used to improve the recommended word lists that are provided to technical writers. The second recommendation is to have a review in which new WIs and OPs and checked for ambiguities and clarity. The third recommendation is to use self-paced reading time studies to identify any remaining ambiguities before the new WIs and OPs are put into use. If these three steps are followed for new WIs and OPs, the likelihood of human errors related to ambiguity could be greatly reduced.

  11. The Art of Rhetoric at the Amphiareion of Oropos: A Study of Epigraphical Evidence as Written Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enos, Richard Leo

    1986-01-01

    Examines epigraphical evidence (written communication inscribed on durable material) to determine how the Amphiareion of Oropos in Greece became a site for rhetorical display, how such rhetorical activities were sustained for centures, and lastly, the nature of rhetorical displays as revealed by the extant written communication. (HOD)

  12. Factors Related to In-Class Spiritual Experience: Relationship between Pre-Class Scripture Reading, In-Class Note-Taking, and Perceived In-Class Spiritual Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, John, III; Sweat, Anthony R.; Plummer, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between student in-class note-taking and pre-class reading with perceived in-class spiritual and religious outcomes. This study surveyed 620 students enrolled in six different sections of an introductory religion course at a private religious university. Full-time religious faculty members…

  13. Cascaded processing in written compound word production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Raymond; Tønnessen, Finn Egil; Strömqvist, Sven; Hyönä, Jukka; Niemi, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the intricate interplay between central linguistic processing and peripheral motor processes during typewriting. Participants had to typewrite two-constituent (noun-noun) Finnish compounds in response to picture presentation while their typing behavior was registered. As dependent measures we used writing onset time to assess what processes were completed before writing and inter-key intervals to assess what processes were going on during writing. It was found that writing onset time was determined by whole word frequency rather than constituent frequencies, indicating that compound words are retrieved as whole orthographic units before writing is initiated. In addition, we found that the length of the first syllable also affects writing onset time, indicating that the first syllable is fully prepared before writing commences. The inter-key interval results showed that linguistic planning is not fully ready before writing, but cascades into the motor execution phase. More specifically, inter-key intervals were largest at syllable and morpheme boundaries, supporting the view that additional linguistic planning takes place at these boundaries. Bigram and trigram frequency also affected inter-key intervals with shorter intervals corresponding to higher frequencies. This can be explained by stronger memory traces for frequently co-occurring letter sequences in the motor memory for typewriting. These frequency effects were even larger in the second than in the first constituent, indicating that low-level motor memory starts to become more important during the course of writing compound words. We discuss our results in the light of current models of morphological processing and written word production.

  14. Written culture: learning how to read and write in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Pires Vargas Bolzan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the formal aspects of writing and reading within the classroom context, emphasizing the importance of the students’ role, favoring their authorship as writers and readers from written culture. We understand that it is indispensable that the school beholds a prospective view in relation to the students’ learning, taking their ideas and constructions into consideration; that is, bearing in mind the culture of which they are carriers. We highlight the literacy teacher’s role in the process of organizing the pedagogical work that is aimed at teaching and learning reading and writing for the students that are in the early years of elementary school. In this way, we point out that the organization of the teaching requires teaching investment towards the improvement of activities and knowledge that focus on the organization of the pedagogical work, marking a long path to go to allow the assumption of pedagogical protagonism.

  15. The challenge of giving written thesis feedback to nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvesson, Hanna; Borglin, Gunilla

    2014-11-01

    Providing effective written feedback on nursing student's assignments can be a challenging task for any assessor. Additionally, as the student groups tend to become larger, written feedback is likely to gain an overall more prominent position than verbal feedback. Lack of formal training or regular discussion in the teaching faculty about the skill set needed to provide written feedback could negatively affect the students' learning abilities. In this brief paper, we discuss written feedback practices, whilst using the Bachelor of Science in Nursing thesis as an example. Our aim is to highlight the importance of an informed understanding of the impact written feedback can have on students. Creating awareness about this can facilitate the development of more strategic and successful written feedback strategies. We end by offering examples of some relatively simple strategies for improving this practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Age of acquisition and word frequency in written picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, P; Fayol, M; Chalard, M

    2001-05-01

    This study investigates age of acquisition (AoA) and word frequency effects in both spoken and written picture naming. In the first two experiments, reliable AoA effects on object naming speed, with objective word frequency controlled for, were found in both spoken (Experiment 1) and written picture naming (Experiment 2). In contrast, no reliable objective word frequency effects were observed on naming speed, with AoA controlled for, in either spoken (Experiment 3) or written (Experiment 4) picture naming. The implications of the findings for written picture naming are briefly discussed.

  17. Written Corrective Feedback: The Practitioners’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman W. Evans

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerable attention has been given to written corrective feedback (WCF in second language writing (L2 over the past several decades. One of the central questions has focused on the appropriateness of its use in L2 writing. In these academic discussions, scholars frequently describe how WCF is utilized in the classroom. However, many of these claims of teacher practice have no research base, since few studies have actually asked teachers what place WCF has in their writing classroom (Ferris, et al., in press/2011a; Ferris, et al., in press/2011b; Hyland, 2003; Lee, 2004. This paucity of data from teachers about their WCF practices is problematic. Understanding teacher perspectives on corrective feedback is integral to our understanding the place of WCF in L2 writing pedagogy. Accordingly, this article reports on a study that asks two fundamental research questions: (a To what extent do current L2 writing teachers provide WCF? and (b What determines whether or not practitioners choose to provide WCF? These questions were answered by means of an international survey completed by 1,053 L2 writing practitioners in 69 different countries. Results suggest that WCF is commonly practiced in L2 pedagogy by experienced and well-educated L2 practitioners for sound pedagogical reasons.Durante las últimas décadas se ha prestado bastante atención a la pertinencia del empleo de feedback correctivo (FC sobre los textos producidos por los alumnos en una segunda lengua. Aunque hay bastantes descripciones sobre cómo se emplea el FC en el aula, muchas de las afirmaciones sobre la práctica docente no tienen una base científica ya que son pocos los estudios en los que se ha preguntado directamente a los profesores el lugar que el FC ocupa en sus clases (Ferris, et al., in press/2011a; Ferris, et al., in press/2011b; Hyland, 2003; Lee, 2004. Esta escasez de datos es problemática ya que las percepciones de los profesores sobre el del FC son fundamentales a la

  18. Managing Written Directives: A Software Solution to Streamline Workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Robert H; Savir-Baruch, Bital; Gabriel, Medhat S; Halama, James R; Bova, Davide

    2017-06-01

    A written directive is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for any use of 131 I above 1.11 MBq (30 μCi) and for patients receiving radiopharmaceutical therapy. This requirement has also been adopted and must be enforced by the agreement states. As the introduction of new radiopharmaceuticals increases therapeutic options in nuclear medicine, time spent on regulatory paperwork also increases. The pressure of managing these time-consuming regulatory requirements may heighten the potential for inaccurate or incomplete directive data and subsequent regulatory violations. To improve on the paper-trail method of directive management, we created a software tool using a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant database. This software allows for secure data-sharing among physicians, technologists, and managers while saving time, reducing errors, and eliminating the possibility of loss and duplication. Methods: The software tool was developed using Visual Basic, which is part of the Visual Studio development environment for the Windows platform. Patient data are deposited in an Access database on a local HIPAA-compliant secure server or hard disk. Once a working version had been developed, it was installed at our institution and used to manage directives. Updates and modifications of the software were released regularly until no more significant problems were found with its operation. Results: The software has been used at our institution for over 2 y and has reliably kept track of all directives. All physicians and technologists use the software daily and find it superior to paper directives. They can retrieve active directives at any stage of completion, as well as completed directives. Conclusion: We have developed a software solution for the management of written directives that streamlines and structures the departmental workflow. This solution saves time, centralizes the information for all staff to share, and decreases

  19. Written Language Performance Following Embedded Grammar Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Gingere; Norris, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This study explored whether presenting grammar instruction within the context of reading and writing would improve writing skills. The participating schools were using a traditional grammar instruction in which grammar lessons were predominately taught using worksheets and were presented separately from other reading and writing activities. This…

  20. 19 CFR 148.111 - Written declaration for unaccompanied articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written declaration for unaccompanied articles... of the United States § 148.111 Written declaration for unaccompanied articles. The baggage... covers articles which do not accompany him and: (a) The articles are entitled to free entry under the $1...

  1. Written Corrective Feedback in Second Language Acquisition and Writing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Dana R.

    2012-01-01

    Written corrective feedback, referred to hereafter as "written CF" and also known as "grammar correction" or "error correction", has been a controversial topic in second language studies over the past fifteen years. Inspired by John Truscott's thought-provoking 1996 essay in "Language Learning", many different researchers have undertaken new…

  2. 5 CFR 179.306 - Written agreement for repayment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Written agreement for repayment. 179.306 Section 179.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Administrative Offset § 179.306 Written agreement for repayment. A debtor who admits...

  3. Teaching Computation in Primary School without Traditional Written Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Concerns regarding the dominance of the traditional written algorithms in schools have been raised by many mathematics educators, yet the teaching of these procedures remains a dominant focus in in primary schools. This paper reports on a project in one school where the staff agreed to put the teaching of the traditional written algorithm aside,…

  4. 21 CFR 211.100 - Written procedures; deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Written production and process control procedures shall be followed in the execution of the various... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written procedures; deviations. 211.100 Section... (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Production and...

  5. Deixis: "This" and "That" in Written Narrative Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çokal, Derya; Sturt, Patrick; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature presents conflicting models of how "this" and "that" access different segments of a written discourse, frequently relying on implicit analogies with spoken discourse. On the basis of this literature, we hypothesized that in written discourse, "this" more readily accesses the adjacent/right…

  6. The Written Communication Skills That Matter Most for Accountants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Tracey J.; Simons, Kathleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of effective written communication skills to the discipline of accounting, faculty must emphasize these skills in their classroom in order to adequately prepare students for successful careers in the field. Since 2000, only two studies in the accounting literature have examined which written communication skills are needed by…

  7. Two Renaissance Dominican processionals written for Bavarian nuns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was discovered that they were written during the fifteenth and the sixteenth century for two Bavarian nunneries, the one at Augsburg the other at Altenhohenau, probably by nuns of the nearby Dominican nunnery at Nürnberg. They concur with the authoritative Dominican exemplar written during the thirteenth century as ...

  8. Quantity and quality of written feedback, action plans, and student ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Mini-clinical-evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) assessment forms that have been modified with the addition of specific spaces on separate sheets are expected to improve the quantity and quality of written feedback and the action plan for further learning which is agreed upon, and to encourage written reflection.

  9. The Content of Children's Definitions: The Oral-Written Distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinellie, Sally A.

    2009-01-01

    The extant literature on oral and written language has shown several interesting differences in terms of production and style. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the content of word definitions provided by children in both the oral and written modes. A total of 30 typically developing children (mean age: 9 years; 2 months) defined…

  10. Children's Production and Evaluation of Referring Expressions in Written Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Elsa Jaffe

    This study explores how children indicate that a new character or object is being introduced into a written text and how they tell their readers that a particular word refers to something which has appeared in the text before. In particular, the study focuses on information represented by noun phrases in written narrative texts. To investigate how…

  11. Appropriating Written French: Literacy Practices in a Parisian Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Elsie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I examine French language instruction in an elementary classroom serving primarily children of Afro-French immigrants in Paris. I show that a prevalent French language ideology privileges written over oral expression and associates full mastery of written French with rational thought and full inclusion in the French polity. This…

  12. The Historical Development of the Written Discourses on Ubuntu 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, I demonstrate that the term 'ubuntu' has frequently appeared in writing since at least 1846. I also analyse changes in how ubuntu has been defined in written sources in the period 1846 to 2011. The analysis shows that in written sources published prior to 1950, it appears that ubuntu is always defined as a ...

  13. Guidebook to Developing a Collaborative Partnership Written Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Dept. of Human Services, East St. Louis. Head Start State Collaboration Office.

    As programs serving young children and their families increasingly work together to provide services, written agreements or contracts become more important in clarifying the roles of each partner in the collaboration. This document provides guidance in developing written agreements between Head Start programs and other programs or agencies. The…

  14. Effects of written action plan adherence on COPD exacerbation recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bischoff, E.W.M.A.; Hamd, D.H.; Sedeno, M.; Benedetti, A.; Schermer, T.R.J.; Bernard, S.; Maltais, F.; Bourbeau, J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effects of written action plans on recovery from exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have not been well studied. The aims of this study were to assess the effects of adherence to a written action plan on exacerbation recovery time and unscheduled healthcare

  15. How Blind Readers Perceive and Gather Information Written in Braille.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, C.; Huertas, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-six expert adult readers, 13 of whom were blind, were compared for how they perceived and retrieved written information. The study found that braille readers were not limited to the isolated identification of individual braille characters as previously thought, but could integrate greater quantities of written information. Implications for…

  16. 46 CFR 197.486 - Written report of casualty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written report of casualty. 197.486 Section 197.486... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.486 Written report of casualty. The person-in-charge of a vessel or facility for which a notice of casualty was made under § 197.484 shall...

  17. Written Corrective Feedback in Second Language Acquisition and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John; Ferris, Dana R.

    2011-01-01

    What should language and writing teachers do about giving students written corrective feedback? This book surveys theory, research, and practice on the important and sometimes controversial issue of written corrective feedback, also known as "error/grammar correction," and its impact on second language acquisition and second language writing…

  18. Gait and Function in Class III Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Ling

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Walking, more specifically gait, is an essential component of daily living. Walking is a very different activity for individuals with a Body Mass Index (BMI of 40 or more (Class III obesity compared with those who are overweight or obese with a BMI between 26–35. Yet all obesity weight classes receive the same physical activity guidelines and recommendations. This observational study examined the components of function and disability in a group with Class III obesity and a group that is overweight or has Class I obesity. Significant differences were found between the groups in the areas of gait, body size, health condition, and activity capacity and participation. The Timed Up and Go test, gait velocity, hip circumference, and stance width appear to be most predictive of activity capacity as observed during gait assessment. The findings indicate that Class III-related gait is pathologic and not a normal adaptation.

  19. Midwifery competence: Content in midwifery students' daily written reflections on clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekelin, Maria; Kvist, Linda J; Persson, Eva K

    2016-01-01

    to examine the content in midwifery students' written daily reflections and in their supervisors' written feedback during clinical practice at birth units. a total of 388 reflections written by a cohort of 18 midwifery students and written feedback provided by their supervisors have been analysed using content analysis. one main category, transition to midwifery competence emerged and was interpreted as a process of development in midwifery skills over time. This main category encompasses five categories: evaluations, own actions, communication, own emotions and insights comprising fourteen subcategories. As the education programme progressed there was evidence of development from fragmented reflections about care and learning to holistic reflections on learning. Comments from the clinical supervisors contained acknowledgement of the students' reflections or comments with a didactic content. daily written reflections on practice may be a useful pedagogical tool as reflective writing helps students to be active in transition to midwifery competence. Professional development may be facilitated by insights generated by reflection. Amount and content of feedback varied between supervisors which can result in a discrepancy in pedagogical value for individual students. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Written Teacher Feedback: Aspects of Quality, Benefits and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmeier, Monika; Grob, Regula; Nielsen, Jan Alexis

    2018-01-01

    Written feedback provided by the teacher to his or her students is an important aspect of formative assessment. After a theoretical introduction to teacher prerequisites for giving feedback and to the quality of written feedback in general, results from an implementation of feedback methods...... in classrooms will be described for the cases of Germany, Switzerland and Denmark. The focus will be on the inquiry method ‘investigation in science’ that requires from students such competences as planning and/or conducting experiments. This study examines the quality of written teacher feedback which...

  1. Written in Skin: SuicideGirls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Christiansen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Suicidegirls.com is a website which is both an online community, but also a softcore pin-up site, where the models feature extensive body modifications in the form of tattoos and piercings. The website promotes a democratic approach to the photo shoots, as the models remain in control, not the photographer. Marked by their body modifications, the Suicide Girls (as they call themselves, they actively attempt to subvert the typical pin-up conventions, by transgressing mainstream standards of beauty. In what seems remarkably similar to Judith Butler's account of subversive bodily acts, the pin-up shoots of the Suicide Girls mount a critique of a culture's view of the body as a natural entity. Cultural borders are crossed, as the bodies of the Suicide Girls embed ink into their bodies in the form of tattoos, and gender is played as a subversive game against the expectations of pin-up conventions. Acting as different and impure bodies, the Suicide Girls represent a threat to conventional conceptions of the body.

  2. Teaching Written Communication Strategies: A Training to Improve Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane Benali Taouis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research can be described as an experimental quantitative one including: a strategy training; two homogenous experimental groups with different levels of proficiency; and two homogenous control groups. The subjects are 60 Spanish high school students, who have been selected after taking the Oxford Quick Placement-Test. The study aims at investigating the possible relationship between the effect of the strategy training and the subjects' level of proficiency. It is also designed to analyze the effect of the training on the use of communication strategies in the written medium. It is meant to study the effect of the strategy training on the subjects' writing skill in English. The results show that the students' level of proficiency exerts a strong effect on the subjects' use of written communication strategies (CSs and on their strategy preference in written production. They also demonstrate how strategy training improves the subjects' written communication ability.

  3. Improving Written Language Performance of Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delano, Monica E

    2007-01-01

    The effects of a multicomponent intervention involving self-regulated strategy development delivered via video self-modeling on the written language performance of 3 students with Asperger syndrome were examined. During intervention sessions, each student watched a video of himself performing strategies for increasing the number of words written and the number of functional essay elements. He then wrote a persuasive essay. The number of words written and number of functional essay elements included in each essay were measured. Each student demonstrated gains in the number of words written and number of functional essay elements. Maintenance of treatment effects at follow-up varied across targets and participants. Implications for future research are suggested. PMID:17624076

  4. A Theory of Developing Competence with Written Mathematical Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, James

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a theory of how competence with written mathematical symbols develops, tracing a succession of cognitive processes that cumulate to yield competence. Arguments supporting the theory are drawn from the history, philosophy, and psychology of mathematics. (MNS)

  5. The WiLI benchmark dataset for written language identification

    OpenAIRE

    Thoma, Martin

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the WiLI-2018 benchmark dataset for monolingual written natural language identification. WiLI-2018 is a publicly available, free of charge dataset of short text extracts from Wikipedia. It contains 1000 paragraphs of 235 languages, totaling in 23500 paragraphs. WiLI is a classification dataset: Given an unknown paragraph written in one dominant language, it has to be decided which language it is.

  6. Deixis: This and That in Written Narrative Discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Çokal, Derya; Sturt, Patrick; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature presents conflicting models of how this and that access different segments of a written discourse, frequently relying on implicit analogies with spoken discourse. On the basis of this literature, we hypothesized that in written discourse, this more readily accesses the adjacent/right frontier of a preceding chunk of text, whereas that more readily accesses the distant/left. We tested this hypothesis in two eye-tracking experiments, one sentence completion experiment, a...

  7. Enhancing the Benefits of Written Emotional Disclosure through Response Training

    OpenAIRE

    Konig, Andrea; Eonta, Alison; Dyal, Stephanie R.; Vrana, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    Writing about a personal stressful event has been found to have psychological and physical health benefits, especially when physiological response increases during writing. Response training was developed to amplify appropriate physiological reactivity in imagery exposure. The present study examined whether response training enhances the benefits of written emotional disclosure. Participants were assigned to either a written emotional disclosure condition (n = 113) or a neutral writing condit...

  8. Raltegravir: first in class HIV integrase inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelalem Temesgen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Zelalem Temesgen1, Dawd S Siraj21Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 2East Carolina University Greenville, NC, USAAbstract: On October 16, 2007, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved raltegravir for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 infection in combination with other antiretroviral agents in treatment-experienced adult patients who have evidence of viral replication and HIV-1 strains resistant to multiple antiretroviral agents. Raltegravir is first in a novel class of antiretroviral drugs known as integrase inhibitors. It has demonstrated potent anti HIV activity in both antiretroviral treatment-naïve and experienced patients. The most common adverse events reported with raltegravir during phase 2 and 3 clinical trials were diarrhea, nausea, and headache. Laboratory abnormalities include mild elevations in liver transaminases and creatine phosphokinase.Keywords: raltegravir, HIV, antiretroviral agents, integrase inhibitors

  9. Written cohesion in children with and without language learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoftas, Anthony D; Petersen, Victoria

    2017-09-01

    Cohesion refers to the linguistic elements of discourse that contribute to its continuity and is an important element to consider as part of written language intervention, especially in children with language learning disabilities (LLD). There is substantial evidence that children with LLD perform more poorly than typically developing (TD) peers on measures of cohesion in spoken language and on written transcription measures; however, there is far less research comparing groups on cohesion as a measure of written language across genres. The current study addresses this gap through the following two aims. First, to describe and compare cohesion in narrative and expository writing samples of children with and without language learning disabilities. Second, to relate measures of cohesion to written transcription and translation measures, oral language, and writing quality. Fifty intermediate-grade children produced one narrative and one expository writing sample from which measures of written cohesion were obtained. These included the frequency, adequacy and complexity of referential and conjunctive ties. Expository samples resulted in more complex cohesive ties and children with TD used more complex ties than peers with LLD. Different relationships among cohesion measures and writing were observed for narrative verse expository samples. Findings from this study demonstrate cohesion as a discourse-level measure of written transcription and how the use of cohesion can vary by genre and group (LLD, TD). Clinical implications for assessment, intervention, and future research are provided. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  10. Mining amino acid association patterns in class B GPCRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Tannu; Pardasani, Kamal Raj

    2015-01-01

    Class B GPCR family is a small group of receptors which are activated by peptides of intermediate length that range from 30 to 40 amino acid residues including hormones, neuropeptides and autocrine factors that mediate diverse physiological functions. They are involved in physiological processes like glucose homeostasis (glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1), calcium homeostasis and bone turnover (parathyroid hormone and calcitonin), and control of the stress axis (corticotropin-releasing factor). Most of the GPCR structures and their functions are still unknown. Thus, the study of amino acid association patterns can be useful in prediction of their structure and functions. In view of above, in this paper, an attempt has been made to explore amino acid association patterns in class B GPCRs and their relationships with secondary structures and physiochemical properties. The fuzzy association rule mining is employed to take care of uncertainty due to variation in length of sequences. The association rules have been generated with the help of patterns discovered in the sequences.

  11. Examining the central and peripheral processes of written word production through meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jeremy J; Turkeltaub, Peter E; Eden, Guinevere F; Rapp, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Producing written words requires "central" cognitive processes (such as orthographic long-term and working memory) as well as more peripheral processes responsible for generating the motor actions needed for producing written words in a variety of formats (handwriting, typing, etc.). In recent years, various functional neuroimaging studies have examined the neural substrates underlying the central and peripheral processes of written word production. This study provides the first quantitative meta-analysis of these studies by applying activation likelihood estimation (ALE) methods (Turkeltaub et al., 2002). For alphabet languages, we identified 11 studies (with a total of 17 experimental contrasts) that had been designed to isolate central and/or peripheral processes of word spelling (total number of participants = 146). Three ALE meta-analyses were carried out. One involved the complete set of 17 contrasts; two others were applied to subsets of contrasts to distinguish the neural substrates of central from peripheral processes. These analyses identified a network of brain regions reliably associated with the central and peripheral processes of word spelling. Among the many significant results, is the finding that the regions with the greatest correspondence across studies were in the left inferior temporal/fusiform gyri and left inferior frontal gyrus. Furthermore, although the angular gyrus (AG) has traditionally been identified as a key site within the written word production network, none of the meta-analyses found it to be a consistent site of activation, identifying instead a region just superior/medial to the left AG in the left posterior intraparietal sulcus. These meta-analyses and the discussion of results provide a valuable foundation upon which future studies that examine the neural basis of written word production can build.

  12. Examining the central and peripheral processes of written word production through meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy ePurcell

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Producing written words requires central cognitive processes (such as orthographic long-term and working memory as well as more peripheral processes responsible for generating the motor actions needed for producing written words in a variety of formats (handwriting, typing, etc.. In recent years, various functional neuroimaging studies have examined the neural substrates underlying the central and peripheral processes of written word production. This study provides the first quantitative meta-analysis of these studies by applying Activation Likelihood Estimation methods (Turkeltaub et al., 2002. For alphabet languages, we identified 11 studies (with a total of 17 experimental contrasts that had been designed to isolate central and/or peripheral processes of word spelling (total number of participants = 146. Three ALE meta-analyses were carried out. One involved the complete set of 17 contrasts; two others were applied to subsets of contrasts to distinguish the neural substrates of central from peripheral processes. These analyses identified a network of brain regions reliably associated with the central and peripheral processes of word spelling. Among the many significant results, is the finding that the regions with the greatest correspondence across studies were in the left inferior temporal/fusiform gyri and left inferior frontal gyrus. Furthermore, although the angular gyrus has traditionally been identified as a key site within the written word production network, none of the meta-analyses found it to be a consistent site of activation, identifying instead a region just superior/medial to the left angular gyrus in the left posterior intraparietal sulcus. In general these meta-analyses and the discussion of results provide a valuable foundation upon which future studies that examine the neural basis of written word production can build.

  13. Student-generated illustrations and written narratives of biological science concepts: The effect on community college life science students' achievement in and attitudes toward science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Robert Christopher

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two conceptually based instructional strategies on science achievement and attitudes of community college biological science students. The sample consisted of 277 students enrolled in General Biology 1, Microbiology, and Human Anatomy and Physiology 1. Control students were comprised of intact classes from the 2005 Spring semester; treatment students from the 2005 Fall semester were randomly assigned to one of two groups within each course: written narrative (WN) and illustration (IL). WN students prepared in-class written narratives related to cell theory and metabolism, which were taught in all three courses. IL students prepared in-class illustrations of the same concepts. Control students received traditional lecture/lab during the entire class period and neither wrote in-class descriptions nor prepared in-class illustrations of the targeted concepts. All groups were equivalent on age, gender, ethnicity, GPA, and number of college credits earned and were blinded to the study. All interventions occurred in class and no group received more attention or time to complete assignments. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) via multiple regression was the primary statistical strategy used to test the study's hypotheses. The model was valid and statistically significant. Independent follow-up univariate analyses relative to each dependent measure found that no research factor had a significant effect on attitude, but that course-teacher, group membership, and student academic characteristics had a significant effect (p < .05) on achievement: (1) Biology students scored significantly lower in achievement than A&P students; (2) Microbiology students scored significantly higher in achievement than Biology students; (3) Written Narrative students scored significantly higher in achievement than Control students; and (4) GPA had a significant effect on achievement. In addition, given p < .08: (1

  14. Written language production disorders: historical and recent perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Marjorie

    2013-08-01

    Written language production is often the least examined neuropsychological function, yet it provides a sensitive and subtle sign to a variety of different behavioral disorders. The dissociation between written and spoken language and reading and writing first came to clinical prominence in the nineteenth century, with respect to ideas about localization of function. Twentieth century aphasiology research focused primarily on patients with unifocal lesions from cerebrovascular accidents, which have provided insight into the various levels of processing involved in the cognitively complex task of producing written language. Recent investigations have provided a broader perspective on writing impairments in a variety of disorders, including progressive and diffuse brain disorders, and functional brain imaging techniques have been used to study the underlying processes in healthy individuals.

  15. Analyzing graduate student trends in written paper evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddens, Jean Foret; Lobo, Marie

    2008-10-01

    Writing is valued as an essential skill in nursing education. However, the evaluation of written scholarly work is challenging. Limited nursing literature addressing issues or strategies associated with evaluation exists. The purpose of this study was to describe and evaluate differences that exist in the evaluation of a standardized written paper. The study included a sample of 47 graduate nursing students enrolled in a nursing education course. Participants were asked to grade a mock paper as part of a course assignment; their work was retained for data analysis. Wide variability in scoring and comments on the paper were noted; significantly lower scores were assigned by participants who had experience teaching in academic settings. The majority of written comments made by participants were related to grammar and American Psychological Association formatting or citation problems. Further research is needed to better understand paper evaluation practices of nursing faculty.

  16. Location and indexing of articles written by podiatric physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, A; Fikar, C R

    1998-10-01

    This study was undertaken to determine which biomedical journals contain articles written by podiatric physicians and in which indexing sources such articles are likely to appear. A survey was conducted of the 20 most frequently published podiatrist authors from a selected group of podiatric journals during the period from 1990 to 1995. Articles published by these authors during the study period were examined to determine where they had appeared. The MEDLINE database was found to contain the largest number of citations to articles written by these podiatric physicians. Both the Podiatry Index and Embase are also very good sources of citations to podiatric medical literature and should be used to supplement MEDLINE searches.

  17. Champion lineman scores unprecedented 100 on written test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2011-01-15

    The 27th annual international lineman's rodeo saw a lineman from Duke Energy Distribution named World Champion Apprentice. He was also the first competitor to score 100 % in the written test and finished first in the apprentice category in the investor owned utility (IOU) division. The apprentice division is made up of linemen within their first four years of trade. Events include a hurt man rescue, pole climb, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), mystery event and a written test. The rodeo began in 1984, and this year more than 650 men competed.

  18. The determinants of spoken and written picture naming latencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Chalard, Marylène; Méot, Alain; Fayol, Michel

    2002-02-01

    The influence of nine variables on the latencies to write down or to speak aloud the names of pictures taken from Snodgrass and Vanderwart (1980) was investigated in French adults. The major determinants of both written and spoken picture naming latencies were image variability, image agreement and age of acquisition. To a lesser extent, name agreement was also found to have an impact in both production modes. The implications of the findings for theoretical views of both spoken and written picture naming are discussed.

  19. Neural stages of spoken, written, and signed word processing in beginning second language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Matthew K; Ferjan Ramirez, Naja; Torres, Christina; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I; Halgren, Eric

    2013-01-01

    WE COMBINED MAGNETOENCEPHALOGRAPHY (MEG) AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI) TO EXAMINE HOW SENSORY MODALITY, LANGUAGE TYPE, AND LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY INTERACT DURING TWO FUNDAMENTAL STAGES OF WORD PROCESSING: (1) an early word encoding stage, and (2) a later supramodal lexico-semantic stage. Adult native English speakers who were learning American Sign Language (ASL) performed a semantic task for spoken and written English words, and ASL signs. During the early time window, written words evoked responses in left ventral occipitotemporal cortex, and spoken words in left superior temporal cortex. Signed words evoked activity in right intraparietal sulcus that was marginally greater than for written words. During the later time window, all three types of words showed significant activity in the classical left fronto-temporal language network, the first demonstration of such activity in individuals with so little second language (L2) instruction in sign. In addition, a dissociation between semantic congruity effects and overall MEG response magnitude for ASL responses suggested shallower and more effortful processing, presumably reflecting novice L2 learning. Consistent with previous research on non-dominant language processing in spoken languages, the L2 ASL learners also showed recruitment of right hemisphere and lateral occipital cortex. These results demonstrate that late lexico-semantic processing utilizes a common substrate, independent of modality, and that proficiency effects in sign language are comparable to those in spoken language.

  20. PHENOMENA OF CONVERSATIONAL SYNTAX IN THE WRITTEN BUSINESS LANGUAGE OF THE 18TH CENTURY (BASED ON THE TRANSBAIKALIAN WRITTEN RECORDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr P. Mayorov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines syntactic constructions in the written business language of the 18th century which are analogous in structure to modern colloquial constructions. They are various constructions with distant word order, nominative forms as a function of oblique cases, separately arranged syntactic constructions, asyndetic polypredicative constructions, etc. The paper attempts to trace the dependence of the use of these structures on those genres of written business language in which the most favorable conditions for implementation of conversational speech are found. 

  1. RECOGNITION METHOD FOR CURSIVE JAPANESE WORD WRITTEN IN LATIN CHARACTERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maruyama, K.; Nakano, Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a recognition method for cursive Japanese words written in Latin characters. The method integrates multiple classifiers using duplicated can­ didates in multiple classifiers and orders of classifiers to improve the word recog­ nition rate combining their results. In experiments

  2. Oral and Written Picture Description in Individuals with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenborre, Dorien; Visch-Brink, Evy; van Dun, Kim; Verhoeven, Jo; Mariën, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Background: Aphasia is characterized by difficulties in connected speech/writing. Aims: To explore the differences between the oral and written description of a picture in individuals with chronic aphasia (IWA) and healthy controls. Descriptions were controlled for productivity, efficiency, grammatical organization, substitution behaviour and…

  3. A Comparison between Written and Spoken Narratives in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrns, Ingrid; Wengelin, Asa; Broberg, Malin; Hartelius, Lena

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore how a personal narrative told by a group of eight persons with aphasia differed between written and spoken language, and to compare this with findings from 10 participants in a reference group. The stories were analysed through holistic assessments made by 60 participants without experience of aphasia…

  4. Distribution of Articles in Written Composition among Malaysian ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Mia Emily Abdul; Rahim, Emma Marini Abdul; Ning, Chia Han

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the distribution patterns of the English grammar articles (a, an, and the) as well as the distributions of their colligation patterns in written compositions of English among Malaysian ESL learners. This paper reports the results of a corpus-based study on articles used by these learners. The method used in this…

  5. Understanding Written Corrective Feedback in Second-Language Grammar Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jason Paul; Wulf, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Written Corrective Feedback (WCF) is used extensively in second-language (L2) writing classrooms despite controversy over its effectiveness. This study examines indirect WCF, an instructional procedure that flags L2 students' errors with editing symbols that guide their corrections. WCF practitioners assume that this guidance will lead to…

  6. Short message service (SMS) language and written language skills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SMS language is English language slang, used as a means of mobile phone text messaging. This practice may impact on the written language skills of learners at school. The main aim of this study was to determine the perspectives of Grade 8 and 9 English (as Home Language) educators in Gauteng regarding the ...

  7. Integrating Technology Tools for Students Struggling with Written Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedora, Pledger

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to assess the experience of preservice teachers when integrating written language technology and their likelihood of applying that technology in their future classrooms. Results suggest that after experiencing technology integration, preservice teachers are more likely to use it in their future teaching.

  8. The Value of a Focused Approach to Written Corrective Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John; Knoch, Ute

    2009-01-01

    Investigations into the most effective ways to provide ESL learners with written corrective feedback have often been overly comprehensive in the range of error categories examined. As a result, clear conclusions about the efficacy of such feedback have not been possible. On the other hand, oral corrective feedback studies have produced clear,…

  9. Demographic characteristics of users of worksite health promotion written materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golaszewski, T; Yen, L T

    1992-01-01

    Despite a long history of work organizations supplying health-oriented written materials to employees, little was known about the underlying factors contributing to their use. Earlier findings suggested that demographics might play a role in this process. Therefore, this research attempted to define user profiles of four basic written materials commonly found in worksite programs: medical self-care guide, newsletter, health risk appraisal (HRA), and HRA individual report. The results of a post-program questionnaire were collected from 10 work organizations using a commercial health promotion program (N = 5,167; 29.8%). After defining a user for each piece, chi-square and logistic regression determined proportional differences between users and nonusers by selected demographics. After controlling for variable interactions, the most likely user of the medical self-care guide was a non-white, lower educated female over age 40; the newsletter, a female over age 40; the HRA, a higher job rated female; and the HRA report, a female over age 40. Written materials may have a different use pattern than other program offerings, or different than what might have been suspected intuitively. Other than female gender, most demographic variables either offered insignificant or unexpected contributions to prediction models. These results suggest that written materials may have a wider appeal than previously recognized.

  10. Argumentation Schema and the Myside Bias in Written Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Christopher R.; Britt, M. Anne; Butler, Jodie A.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a cognitive argumentation schema for written arguments and presents three empirical studies on the "myside" bias--the tendency to ignore or exclude evidence against one's position. Study 1 examined the consequences of conceding, rebutting, and denying other-side information. Rebuttal led to higher ratings of…

  11. Grammatical Planning, Execution, and Control in Written Sentence Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottbusch, Guido

    2010-01-01

    In this study participants were asked to describe pictured events in one type-written sentence, containing one of two different syntactic structures (subordinated vs. coordinated subject noun phrases). According to the hypothesis, the larger subordinated structure (one noun phrase including a second, subordinated, one) should be cognitively more…

  12. Timed written picture naming in 14 European languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Mark; Nottbusch, Guido; Alves, Rui A; Arfé, Barbara; Chanquoy, Lucile; Chukharev-Hudilainen, Evgeny; Dimakos, Ioannis; Fidalgo, Raquel; Hyönä, Jukka; Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Madjarov, George; Pauly, Dennis N; Uppstad, Per Henning; van Waes, Luuk; Vernon, Michael; Wengelin, Åsa

    2018-04-01

    We describe the Multilanguage Written Picture Naming Dataset. This gives trial-level data and time and agreement norms for written naming of the 260 pictures of everyday objects that compose the colorized Snodgrass and Vanderwart picture set (Rossion & Pourtois in Perception, 33, 217-236, 2004). Adult participants gave keyboarded responses in their first language under controlled experimental conditions (N = 1,274, with subsamples responding in Bulgarian, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Icelandic, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, and Swedish). We measured the time to initiate a response (RT) and interkeypress intervals, and calculated measures of name and spelling agreement. There was a tendency across all languages for quicker RTs to pictures with higher familiarity, image agreement, and name frequency, and with higher name agreement. Effects of spelling agreement and effects on output rates after writing onset were present in some, but not all, languages. Written naming therefore shows name retrieval effects that are similar to those found in speech, but our findings suggest the need for cross-language comparisons as we seek to understand the orthographic retrieval and/or assembly processes that are specific to written output.

  13. The Role of Imagery in the Production of Written Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Ernest T.; Sadoski, Mark; Stricker, Andrew G.; White, Teresa S.; Wang, Zhongmiao

    2007-01-01

    The effect of word concreteness and imagery on the production of written definitions was investigated using procedures designed to produce more generalizable results than previous investigations. A random sample of words was drawn from the Paivio, Yuille, and Madigan (1968) norms, and college undergraduates were presented with a randomly selected,…

  14. Korean College EFL Learners' Task Motivation in Written Language Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bomin; Kim, Haedong

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to explore the effects of two different types of task conditions (topic choice vs. no choice) on the quality of written production in a second language (lexical complexity, syntactic complexity, and cohesion) and to investigate the effects of these two different task conditions on task motivation. This research…

  15. Using Still Images for Written English Communication. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, David John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess student response to teaching English for written communication in a Japanese university context by using students' own photographs instead of textbooks. Thirty Japanese college freshmen English majors of similar ability studying writing receive monthly assignments to use their own photographs to write about…

  16. Written Formative Assessment and Silence in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Hang, Desmond Mene; Bell, Beverley

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, we build on Xinying Yin and Gayle Buck's discussion by exploring the cultural practices which are integral to formative assessment, when it is viewed as a sociocultural practice. First we discuss the role of assessment and in particular oral and written formative assessments in both western and Samoan cultures, building on the…

  17. Perceptions of the Qualities of Written Arguments by Japanese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shinobu

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how Japanese students perceive the qualities of written arguments that were constructed to have different forms. Based on the theoretical dimensions of verbal communication styles that Gudykunst and Ting-Toomey (1988) proposed, the research questions asked whether the respondents would perceive direct arguments to be of higher…

  18. Students' Written Arguments in General Chemistry Laboratory Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Aeran; Hand, Brian; Greenbowe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the written arguments developed by college freshman students using the Science Writing Heuristic approach in inquiry-based general chemistry laboratory classrooms and its relationships with students' achievement in chemistry courses. Fourteen freshman students participated in the first year of the study while 19…

  19. Shortcomings of the written survey questionnaire for discovering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article I describe my reflections on using a written survey questionnaire to investigate, on a large-scale, students' perceptions of studying Xhosa as a first language in high schools. I describe the aims of the project, how the questionnaire was designed, and the problems I encountered with the analysis of the data.

  20. Verbal irony: Differences in usage across written genres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, C.F.; van Mulken, M.J.P.; Schellens, P.J.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    According to Gibbs and Colston, one of the biggest challenges for irony research is the uncovering of the various ways in which irony is used in discourse. This article takes up a genre-based approach to deal with this research challenge. In a content analysis of ironic utterances from six written

  1. Connecting Oral and Written Language Through Applied Writing Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Roanne G.

    2004-01-01

    Written language requires prior knowledge of many foundation language skills. Students with language learning disabilities find it difficult to integrate language skills into academic writing assignments. Exceptional educators can teach foundation writing skills through certain underlying components of language, that is, phonology, morphology,…

  2. Written Narrative Characteristics in Adults with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suddarth, Rachael; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Adults with language-based disabilities are known to have deficits in oral language; however, less is known about their written language skills. Two studies were designed to characterize the writing of adults with language-based disabilities. Method: In Study 1, 60 adults, 30 with language impairment and 30 with typical language,…

  3. 22 CFR 208.50 - How is this part written?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is this part written? 208.50 Section 208.50 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION... for the general public and business community to use. The section headings and text, often in the form...

  4. Effect of Written Presentation on Performance in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John; Ballard, Shawn

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the written work of students in the introductory calculus-based electricity and magnetism course at the University of Arkansas. The students' solutions to hourly exams were divided into a small set of countable features organized into three major categories, mathematics, language, and graphics. Each category was further divided…

  5. Tokenization rules for the disjunctively written verbal segment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article describes the tokenization rules required to analyse the disjunctively written verbal segmentof Northern Sotho correctly. The purpose of such a tokenizer is to isolate verbal segments from runningtext prior to being analysed. The disjunctive elements of the verbal segment that are discussed in thisarticle and for ...

  6. Development and Application of Assessment Standards to Advanced Written Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miihkinen, Antti; Virtanen, Tuija

    2018-01-01

    This study describes the results of a project that focused on developing an assessment rubric to be used as the assessment criteria for the written thesis of accounting majors and the quality of the coursework during the seminar. We used descriptive analysis and the survey method to collect information for the development work and to examine the…

  7. Language Parameters in Written Compositions of Nine Year Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Rosalyn; Buium, Nissan

    The purpose of this study was to develop a foundation for reliable and effective measurement of significant parameters in the development of written language skills in school age children. The subjects for the study were 25 nine-year-old children, 12 boys and 13 girls, who were randomly selected from among 1,559 participants. The findings…

  8. Written Corrective Feedback: The Perception of Korean EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Bohyon

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the perception of Korean EFL learners toward feedback types on their written errors. The survey was administered using an adopted questionnaire from previous studies (Ishii 2011; Leki, 1991). This further allows a comparison of Korean EFL learners' attitudes with the responses to an identical questionnaire by Japanese EFL…

  9. Error treatment in students' written assignments in Discourse Analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is generally no consensus on how lecturers should treat students' errors in written assignments, observations in this study enabled the researcher to provide certain strategies that lecturers can adopt. Key words: Error treatment; error handling; corrective feedback, positive cognitive feedback; negative cognitive feedback; ...

  10. Cognitive Pathways: Analysis of Students' Written Texts for Science Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimberg, Bruna Irene; Hand, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reconstruct writers' reasoning process as reflected in their written texts. The codes resulting from the text analysis were related to cognitive operations, ranging from simple to more sophisticated ones. The sequence of the cognitive operations as the text unfolded represents the writer's cognitive pathway at the…

  11. Dynamic Written Corrective Feedback in Developmental Multilingual Writing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzer, Kendon

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the role of dynamic written corrective feedback (DWCF; Evans, Hartshorn, McCollum, & Wolfersberger, 2010; Hartshorn & Evans, 2015; Hartshorn et al., 2010), a mode of providing specific, targeted, and individualized grammar feedback in developmental English as a second language (ESL) writing classes (pre-first year…

  12. The nature of written language deficits in children with SLI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Clare; Dockrell, Julie E

    2004-12-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have associated difficulties in reading decoding and reading comprehension. To date, few research studies have examined the children's written language. The aim of the present study was to (a) evaluate the nature and extent of the children's difficulties with writing and (b) investigate the relationship between oral and written language. Eleven children with SLI were identified (mean age = 11 years) and were compared with a group of children matched for chronological age (CA; mean age = 11;2 [years;months]) and language age (LA; mean CA = 7;3). All groups completed standardized measures of language production, writing, and reading decoding. The writing assessment revealed that the SLI group wrote fewer words and produced proportionately more syntax errors than the CA group, but they did not differ on a measure of content of written language or on the proportion of spelling errors. The SLI group also produced proportionately more syntax errors than the LA group. The relationships among oral language, reading, and writing differed for the 3 groups. The nature and extent of the children's written language problems are considered in the context of difficulties with spoken language.

  13. Exploring Written Narrative in Children with Poor Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragg, Lucy; Nation, Kate

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated written language production in 10-year-old children with impaired reading comprehension. Despite fluent and accurate reading, these children are poor at understanding what they read. Participants completed a spelling test, and were asked to write an extended narrative, prompted by a series of pictures. Poor comprehenders…

  14. Friends and Nonfriends: Collaboration on a Written Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Robert J.

    In a study of children's production of narratives written in collaboration with a friend, with an acquaintance (nonfriend), or in an individual performance, a total of 64 fourth graders were asked to write stories over a 2-week period. The study was designed to address two questions: (1) How does the friendship relationship affect stories written…

  15. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin-Fortin, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French…

  16. the phonological basis of misspellings in the written english of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Misspellings have been a common error in the written English of non-native speakers. ... The study was done with a view to investigating whether the phonology of Kikuyu as a learner's first language and pronunciation of words in English as the second language, based on the influence of the phonology of Kikuyu affects ...

  17. Written informed consent in health research is outdated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekstra, R.; Maeckelberghe, E. L. M.; Stolk, R. P.

    2017-01-01

    Reference to the Declaration of Helsinki as assurance for ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects has become a meaningless mantra. The participants’ relationship with researchers has been distrusted-based with Written Informed Consent (WIC) hereinafter referred to as WIC)

  18. Ethos versus Persona: Self-Representation in Written Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Roger D.

    1988-01-01

    Examines self-portrayal in fictional and nonfictional written discourse. Argues that two common terms for describing self-representation--ethos and persona--are often conflated but that there are good historical and conceptual grounds for maintaining a distinction between them. (MS)

  19. Basic Writing Students: Investigating Oral and Written Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Marcia; Janda, Mary Ann

    1985-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between the oral and written language of one college-level basic writing student who is a speaker of vernacular Black English (VBE). Reports that neither VBE patterns in the student's oral language nor other features of orality that previous research has identified account for his writing problems. (HOD)

  20. 28 CFR 55.12 - Language used for written material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... language minority groups, for example, Filipino Americans, have more than one language other than English... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Language used for written material. 55.12... OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Determining the Exact Language § 55.12...

  1. 10 CFR 26.27 - Written policy and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Written policy and procedures. 26.27 Section 26.27 Energy..., or possession of illegal drugs on or off site; (ii) The abuse of legal drugs and alcohol; and (iii... consequences of subverting or attempting to subvert the testing process; (4) Prohibit the consumption of...

  2. Characterization of UV written waveguides with luminescence microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael; Harpøth, Anders; Rosbirk, Tue

    2005-01-01

    Luminescence microscopy is used to measure the refractive index profile and molecular defect distribution of UV written waveguides with a spatial resolution of ~0.4 mm and high signal-to-noise ratio. The measurements reveal comlex waveguide formation dynamics with significant topological changes...

  3. Early History of Written Oromo Language up to 1900 | Tolessa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to make known historical development of written Afaan Oromo to 1900. The study draws upon primary and secondary sources. The primary data are drawn from oral and archival sources. Books and articles in Afaan Oromo and in other languages about Afaan Oromo were consulted. Many of ...

  4. 42 CFR 456.180 - Individual written plan of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental Hospitals Plan of Care § 456.180 Individual written plan of care. (a) Before admission to a mental hospital or...; (vii) Diet; and (viii) Special procedures recommended for the health and safety of the patient; (5...

  5. Factors Influencing Spanish Instructors' In-Class Feedback Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurzynski-Weiss, Laura

    2016-01-01

    While oral corrective feedback is a principal focus in second language acquisition research, most studies examine feedback once it has been provided. Investigating how instructors make in-class feedback decisions has not been thoroughly explored, despite the fact that classroom feedback occurs at the discretion of the individual language…

  6. Attitudes of second language students towards self-editing their own written texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kasule

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing students’ deliberate e!orts to minimize errors in their written texts is valuable in seeing them as responsible active agents in text creation. This paper reports on a brief survey of the attitudes towards self-editing of seventy university students using a questionnaire and class discussion. The context of the study is characterized by its emphasis on evaluating the finished written product. Findings show that students appreciate the role of self-editing in minimizing errors in their texts and that it helps in eventually producing well-written texts. Conceptualizing writing as discourse and therefore as social practice leads to an understanding of writers as socially-situated actors; repositions the student writer as an active agent in text creation; and is central to student-centred pedagogy. We recommend the recognition of self-editing as a vital element in the writing process and that additional error detection mechanisms namely peers, the lecturer, and the computer, increase student autonomy.

  7. Cultural-historical and cognitive approaches to understanding the origins of development of written speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Obukhova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of the emergence and development of written speech, its relationship to the oral speech, connections to the symbolic and modeling activities of preschool children – playing and drawing. While a child's drawing is traditionally interpreted in psychology either as a measure of intellectual development, or as a projective technique, or as a criterion for creative giftedness of the child, in this article, the artistic activity is analyzed as a prerequisite for development of written speech. The article substantiates the hypothesis that the mastery of “picture writing” – the ability to display the verbal content in a schematic picturesque plan – is connected to the success of writing speech at school age. Along with the classical works of L.S. Vygotsky, D.B. Elkonin, A.R. Luria, dedicated to finding the origins of writing, the article presents the current Russian and foreign frameworks of forming the preconditions of writing, based on the concepts of cultural-historical theory (“higher mental functions”, “zone of proximal development”, etc.. In Western psychology, a number of pilot studies used the developmental function of drawing for teaching the written skills to children of 5-7 years old. However, in cognitive psychology, relationship between drawing and writing is most often reduced mainly to the analysis of general motor circuits. Despite the recovery in research on writing and its origins in the last decade, either in domestic or in foreign psychology, the written speech is not a sufficiently studied problem.

  8. Optimizing the efficiency of femtosecond-laser-written holograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wædegaard, Kristian Juncher; Hansen, Henrik Dueholm; Balling, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Computer-generated binary holograms are written on a polished copper surface using single 800-nm, 120-fs pulses from a 1-kHz-repetition-rate laser system. The hologram efficiency (i.e. the power in the holographic reconstructed image relative to the incoming laser power) is investigated for diffe......Computer-generated binary holograms are written on a polished copper surface using single 800-nm, 120-fs pulses from a 1-kHz-repetition-rate laser system. The hologram efficiency (i.e. the power in the holographic reconstructed image relative to the incoming laser power) is investigated...... the optimal hole size. For a coverage (i.e. relative laser-structured area) of ∼43 %, the efficiency reaches ∼10 %, which corresponds to a relative power transferred to one reconstructed image of ∼20 %. The efficiency as a function of pitch (for fixed coverage) is fairly constant from 2 to 6 μm....

  9. Oral and written instruction of oral hygiene: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnacke, Daniela; Beldoch, Magdalena; Bohn, Gertrude-Heidi; Seghaoui, Ouarda; Hegel, Nicole; Deinzer, Renate

    2012-10-01

    This randomized, evaluator-masked, controlled study evaluates the effectiveness of oral in contrast to written instruction of oral hygiene. Eighty-three students without clinical signs of periodontitis were randomly assigned to either a control group or one of three experimental conditions: 1) written instruction, 2) standardized oral instruction, or 3) individualized oral instruction. Plaque and bleeding indices were assessed to analyze intervention effects on oral health and oral hygiene skills. Measurements took place at baseline and 4 weeks after intervention. Groups differed significantly with respect to gingival bleeding and were tentatively significant with respect to oral hygiene skills. Participants who had received oral individualized instructions showed the best results. A gradient of effectiveness of the instruction methods was observed with most favorable results for the individualized instruction.

  10. Synergistic relationships between Analytical Chemistry and written standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcárcel, Miguel; Lucena, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analytical Chemistry is influenced by international written standards. •Different relationships can be established between them. •Synergies can be generated when these standards are conveniently managed. -- Abstract: This paper describes the mutual impact of Analytical Chemistry and several international written standards (norms and guides) related to knowledge management (CEN-CWA 14924:2004), social responsibility (ISO 26000:2010), management of occupational health and safety (OHSAS 18001/2), environmental management (ISO 14001:2004), quality management systems (ISO 9001:2008) and requirements of the competence of testing and calibration laboratories (ISO 17025:2004). The intensity of this impact, based on a two-way influence, is quite different depending on the standard considered. In any case, a new and fruitful approach to Analytical Chemistry based on these relationships can be derived

  11. Synergistic relationships between Analytical Chemistry and written standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valcárcel, Miguel, E-mail: qa1vacam@uco.es; Lucena, Rafael

    2013-07-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analytical Chemistry is influenced by international written standards. •Different relationships can be established between them. •Synergies can be generated when these standards are conveniently managed. -- Abstract: This paper describes the mutual impact of Analytical Chemistry and several international written standards (norms and guides) related to knowledge management (CEN-CWA 14924:2004), social responsibility (ISO 26000:2010), management of occupational health and safety (OHSAS 18001/2), environmental management (ISO 14001:2004), quality management systems (ISO 9001:2008) and requirements of the competence of testing and calibration laboratories (ISO 17025:2004). The intensity of this impact, based on a two-way influence, is quite different depending on the standard considered. In any case, a new and fruitful approach to Analytical Chemistry based on these relationships can be derived.

  12. THE WRITTEN DISCOURSE OF INTERVIEWING STYLE FOR A MAGAZINE INTERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Barrot

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper examines the written discourse of interviewing style for the purpose of print publication. Specifically, this paper sought to describe and explain the phases of interviewing procedures, the typology of the questions, and the transitional strategies executed by Oprah Winfrey during her interviews for O Magazine. One hundred and ten (110 response-soliciting statements were subjected to discourse analytic procedure to determine the features of such utterances. The results showed that her interview procedure follows a certain pattern that contributes to her ability to maintain the intimacy, familiarity, and dynamics of conversation. Further, results revealed that the interviewer employs a variety of response-soliciting strategies and transitional strategies that unconsciously put the control and authority in the conversation to the interviewees. Finally, some pedagogical implications were also presented for classroom use. Keywords: discourse analysis, interviewing style, interview questions, written discourse

  13. Perceptions of the Qualities of Written Arguments by Japanese Students

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Shinobu

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how Japanese students perceive the qualities of written arguments that were constructed to have different forms. Based on the theoretical dimensions of verbal communication styles that Gudykunst and Ting-Toomey proposed, the research questions asked whether the respondents would perceive direct arguments to be of higher quality than indirect arguments. They also asked whether they would perceive elaborate arguments to be of higher quality than succinct arguments. Japanese ...

  14. Written communication and teaching of the czech language for foreigners

    OpenAIRE

    Toufarová, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    In her thesis the author looks at written communication in teaching Czech for foreigners. The theoretical part gives an account of theoretical foundations, such as synchronic and diachronic approaches to the language situation (worldwide, in Europe and especially in the Czech Republic) and language education, including introduction to communicative methods. Furthermore, the author describes individual component parts of the language education (means of expression and communication skills), wi...

  15. Disruption of written language in aphasia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman-Stern, R; Ulatowska, H K; Baker, T; DeLacoste, C

    1984-07-01

    This study documents the performance of a Wernicke aphasic on production of written discourse. The discourse data consisted of spontaneously produced texts of three different types: narrative discourse, personal and formal letters, and expository discourse. A detailed description of the language of this aphasic at a sentence and discourse level revealed preservation of discourse structure through proper use of cohesive devices despite severe disruption of linguistic structure at a sentence level.

  16. Polish Phoneme Statistics Obtained On Large Set Of Written Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Ziółko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The phonetical statistics were collected from several Polish corpora. The paper is a summaryof the data which are phoneme n-grams and some phenomena in the statistics. Triphonestatistics apply context-dependent speech units which have an important role in speech recognitionsystems and were never calculated for a large set of Polish written texts. The standardphonetic alphabet for Polish, SAMPA, and methods of providing phonetic transcriptions are described.

  17. Prosodic Parallelism – comparing spoken and written language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Wiese

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Prosodic Parallelism hypothesis claims adjacent prosodic categories to prefer identical branching of internal adjacent constituents. According to Wiese and Speyer (2015, this preference implies feet contained in the same phonological phrase to display either binary or unary branching, but not different types of branching. The seemingly free schwa-zero alternations at the end of some words in German make it possible to test this hypothesis. The hypothesis was successfully tested by conducting a corpus study which used large-scale bodies of written German. As some open questions remain, and as it is unclear whether Prosodic Parallelism is valid for the spoken modality as well, the present study extends this inquiry to spoken German. As in the previous study, the results of a corpus analysis recruiting a variety of linguistic constructions are presented. The Prosodic Parallelism hypothesis can be demonstrated to be valid for spoken German as well as for written German. The paper thus contributes to the question whether prosodic preferences are similar between the spoken and written modes of a language. Some consequences of the results for the production of language are discussed.

  18. The evaluation of undergraduate students' written English language skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chur-Hansen, A; Vernon-Roberts, J

    2000-08-01

    Writing is an important skill for practitioners and students, yet this is a skill rarely taught in a formal capacity at medical school. At the University of Adelaide many students are from non-English speaking backgrounds and have varying proficiencies in English. We wished to devise a method and instrument which could identify students who may benefit from formative feedback and tuition in writing. Students' written account of a short clinical interview with a standardized patient was assessed using a new instrument (the Written Language Rating Scale) designed especially for this study. The assessment of writing was made by one rater with qualifications in teaching English as a second language. 127 second-year medical students enrolled at the University of Adelaide, Australia. INSTRUMENTS AND RESULTS: The scale appeared to have good internal consistency, face and construct validity, and test security was not an issue. However, it had questionable concurrent validity with a standardized language test, although this may be partly due to the period of time which had elapsed between administration of the two tests. This study was useful in providing a means to objectively rate students' written English language skills and to target students in need of formative feedback and tuition. However, further research is necessary for both evaluation of medical writing and interventions for its improvement.

  19. Evaluating the dimensionality of first grade written composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Folsom, Jessica S.; Greulich, Luana; Puranik, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We examined dimensions of written composition using multiple evaluative approaches such as an adapted 6+1 trait scoring, syntactic complexity measures, and productivity measures. We further examined unique relations of oral language and literacy skills to the identified dimensions of written composition. Method A large sample of first grade students (N = 527) was assessed on their language, reading, spelling, letter writing automaticity, and writing in the spring. Data were analyzed using a latent variable approach including confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Results The seven traits in the 6+1 trait system were best described as two constructs: substantive quality, and spelling and writing conventions. When the other evaluation procedures such as productivity and syntactic complexity indicators were included, four dimensions emerged: substantive quality, productivity, syntactic complexity, and spelling and writing conventions. Language and literacy predictors were differentially related to each dimension in written composition. Conclusions These four dimensions may be a useful guideline for evaluating developing beginning writer’s compositions. PMID:24687472

  20. Enhancing the Benefits of Written Emotional Disclosure through Response Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konig, Andrea; Eonta, Alison; Dyal, Stephanie R.; Vrana, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Writing about a personal stressful event has been found to have psychological and physical health benefits, especially when physiological response increases during writing. Response training was developed to amplify appropriate physiological reactivity in imagery exposure. The present study examined whether response training enhances the benefits of written emotional disclosure. Participants were assigned to either a written emotional disclosure condition (n = 113) or a neutral writing condition (n = 133). Participants in each condition wrote for 20 minutes on three occasions and received response training (n = 79), stimulus training (n = 84) or no training (n = 83). Heart rate and skin conductance were recorded throughout a 10-minute baseline, 20-minute writing, and a 10-minute recovery period. Self-reported emotion was assessed in each session. One month after completing the sessions, participants completed follow-up assessments of psychological and physical health outcomes. Emotional disclosure elicited greater physiological reactivity and self-reported emotion than neutral writing. Response training amplified physiological reactivity to emotional disclosure. Greater heart rate during emotional disclosure was associated with the greatest reductions in event-related distress, depression, and physical illness symptoms at follow-up, especially among response trained participants. Results support an exposure explanation of emotional disclosure effects and are the first to demonstrate that response training facilitates emotional processing and may be a beneficial adjunct to written emotional disclosure. PMID:24680230

  1. Enhancing the benefits of written emotional disclosure through response training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konig, Andrea; Eonta, Alison; Dyal, Stephanie R; Vrana, Scott R

    2014-05-01

    Writing about a personal stressful event has been found to have psychological and physical health benefits, especially when physiological response increases during writing. Response training was developed to amplify appropriate physiological reactivity in imagery exposure. The present study examined whether response training enhances the benefits of written emotional disclosure. Participants were assigned to either a written emotional disclosure condition (n=113) or a neutral writing condition (n=133). Participants in each condition wrote for 20 minutes on 3 occasions and received response training (n=79), stimulus training (n=84) or no training (n=83). Heart rate and skin conductance were recorded throughout a 10-minute baseline, 20-minute writing, and a 10-minute recovery period. Self-reported emotion was assessed in each session. One month after completing the sessions, participants completed follow-up assessments of psychological and physical health outcomes. Emotional disclosure elicited greater physiological reactivity and self-reported emotion than neutral writing. Response training amplified physiological reactivity to emotional disclosure. Greater heart rate during emotional disclosure was associated with the greatest reductions in event-related distress, depression, and physical illness symptoms at follow-up, especially among response trained participants. Results support an exposure explanation of emotional disclosure effects and are the first to demonstrate that response training facilitates emotional processing and may be a beneficial adjunct to written emotional disclosure. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Do Enthalpy and Entropy Distinguish First in Class From Best in Class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Ernesto

    2008-01-01

    A drug molecule should bind to its target with high affinity and selectivity. Since the binding affinity is a combined function of the binding enthalpy and the binding entropy, extremely high affinity requires that both terms contribute favorably to binding. The binding enthalpy, however, is notoriously more difficult to optimize than the binding entropy, a fact that has resulted in thermodynamically-unbalanced molecules that do not achieve optimal potency. In fact, with current technologies, the enthalpic optimization of drug candidates may take years and only appear in second-generation products. Within that context, it is not surprising that structure/activity relationships (SAR) that explicitly incorporate the interplay between enthalpy and entropy and accelerate the optimization process are being developed and gaining popularity. PMID:18703160

  3. The hexagram "Feng" in "the book of changes" as the earliest written record of sunspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhen-tao

    1980-12-01

    The hexagram "Feng" of the "Book of Changes" (completed before 800 B.C.) contains the statements "a dou is seen in the Sun" and "a mei is seen in the Sun". The character dou (bushel) is generally understood to refer to an obscured region in this context. As to the character mei, a passage in the "Biography of Wang Mang" in "The History of the Later Han Dynasty" written in 450 A.D. shoes that it is synonymous with the character xing (star), and according to "Kaiyuan Treatise on Prognostication" written in 729 A.D., both dou and xing in this context refer to an obscuration. Lastly, in the years 1626, 1643 and 1684, years of relatively high solar activities over the period 1610-1700 (Eddy, Science192 (1976) 1189), when sunspots were seen in telescopes in Europe (cf. Bray and Loughhead, "Sunspots" 1964, Plate 1.1), these two very same statements are found in some Local Gazettes of China (Xu Zhen-tao and Jiang Yao-tiao, Annals of Nanjing University, (Natural Sciences Series), No. 2, 1979). Thus, the earliest written record of a sunspot is found in China, in this book which was completed before 800 B.C.

  4. Written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia: an empirical-based organizational-ethical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemiengre, Joke; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Schotsmans, Paul; Gastmans, Chris

    2014-05-01

    As euthanasia has become a widely debated issue in many Western countries, hospitals and nursing homes especially are increasingly being confronted with this ethically sensitive societal issue. The focus of this paper is how healthcare institutions can deal with euthanasia requests on an organizational level by means of a written institutional ethics policy. The general aim is to make a critical analysis whether these policies can be considered as organizational-ethical instruments that support healthcare institutions to take their institutional responsibility for dealing with euthanasia requests. By means of an interpretative analysis, we conducted a process of reinterpretation of results of former Belgian empirical studies on written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia in dialogue with the existing international literature. The study findings revealed that legal regulations, ethical and care-oriented aspects strongly affected the development, the content, and the impact of written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia. Hence, these three cornerstones-law, care and ethics-constituted the basis for the empirical-based organizational-ethical framework for written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia that is presented in this paper. However, having a euthanasia policy does not automatically lead to more legal transparency, or to a more professional and ethical care practice. The study findings suggest that the development and implementation of an ethics policy on euthanasia as an organizational-ethical instrument should be considered as a dynamic process. Administrators and ethics committees must take responsibility to actively create an ethical climate supporting care providers who have to deal with ethical dilemmas in their practice.

  5. SOCIOLINGUISTIC FACTORS OF THE WRITTEN SPEECH NORMS APPROXIMATION IN LABOR MIGRANTS’ TEXTS

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    Utesheva Altynay Pazylovna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the features of written Russian speech of labor migrants from different countries considering the norms of written speech. The empirical basis of the research is represented by the handwritten CVs of unemployed migrants from Vietnam and Uzbekistan, that were presented to the departments of the Federal Migration Service of the Russian Federation in the city of Volgograd. Written speech violations are classified according to the age groups which migrants belong to. The following sociolinguistic characteristics of the migrants are also taken into account: nationality, period of school education, higher education, document writing competence. Group 1 combined informants aged from 20 to 30, without higher education, who studied the Russian language at school in the new period of the collapse of the Soviet Union procedures or on their own. It is an educational institution with no experience compiling official documents and communication skills in Russian. Group 2 combined informants aged from 30 to 50, without higher education, who studied Russian at school by Soviet methods with experience of drawing up official documents and possessing basic communication skills to communicate in Russian. Group 3 combined informants aged 50 and older with secondary special education, who studied Russian at school by Soviet methods and actively developed communicative competence at the expense of everyday communication, reading books, listening to the radio and watching programs in Russian, with experience in drafting official documents. The features of migrants' written speech are manifested in specific language and speech mistakes, particularly in graphic, phonetic and genre rules violations. The general patterns of mistakes are registered. The mistakes are caused not only by language transfer and the Russian language competence, but also by sociolinguistic factors. The particular cross-language differences of migrants writing are

  6. Marginalia as the beginning of written culture: The Glosas Emilianensis

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    Maja Šabec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Glosas emilianenses are notes in Latin and in a Romance language dating from the eleventh century, written by an anonymous monk between the lines and in the margins of a Latin manuscript known as Codex Aemilianensis 60 to explicate syntactic, morphological, and semantic difficulties in understanding the original. The document was named after its place of origin, a monastery in the village of San Millán de la Cogolla, known as “the cradle of Castilian.” The non-Latin Romance glosses are believed to be the first written accounts of the language that later evolved into present-day Castilian or Spanish; they are therefore invaluable historical, linguistic, literary, and cultural material. The place and time of the origin of the glosses are not a coincidence, but a consequence of particular historical circumstances in the Iberian Peninsula. The Moorish invasion in 711 AD destroyed the Visigothic Kingdom and constrained the development of Christian culture, confining it to two independent cores in the north. The ninth century therefore saw the establishment of the County of Castile emerging from the two cores as the predecessor of the Kingdom of Castile (1065. Due to turbulent historical events, the place was populated by people from various adjacent and rather distant countries, thus making the spoken language a mixture of several varieties of Vulgar Latin, Mozarabic, and Navarrian (Basque elements. All of these features are reflected in the glosses in the San Millán manuscript. Therefore, it is difficult for linguists to name the variant of the Romance language the glosses were written in: “the Riojan dialect,” “a vernacular Castilian-Riojan dialect of the second half of the eleventh century displaying tendencies towards learned Latin,” or “a Riojan dialect with elements more common to neighboring dialects (Aragon, Navarrian, Léon, and Mozarabic than to Castilian.” However, because the San Millán glosses also include elements

  7. Understanding Extraordinary Architectural Experiences through Content Analysis of Written Narratives

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    Brandon Richard Ro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study a identifies how people describe, characterize, and communicate in written form Extraordinary Architectural Experiences (EAE, and b expands the traditional qualitative approach to architectural phenomenology by demonstrating a quantitative method to analyze written narratives. Specifically, this study reports on the content analysis of 718 personal accounts of EAEs. Using a deductive, ‘theory-driven’ approach, these narratives were read, coded, and statistically analyzed to identify storyline structure, convincing power, and the relationship between subjective and objective experiential qualities used in the story-telling process. Statistical intercoder agreement tests were conducted to verify the reliability of the interpretations to approach the hard problem of “extraordinary aesthetics” in architecture empirically. The results of this study confirm the aesthetic nature of EAE narratives (and of told experiences by showing their higher dependence on external objective content (e.g., a building’s features and location rather than its internal subjective counterpart (e.g., emotions and sensations, which makes them more outwardly focused. The strong interrelationships and intercoder agreement between the thematic realms provide a unique aesthetic construct revealing EAE narratives as memorable, embodied, emotional events mapped by the externally focused content of place, social setting, time, and building features. A majority of EAE narratives were found to possess plot-structure along with significant relationships to objective-subjective content that further grounded their storylines. This study concludes that content analysis provides not only a valid method to understand written narratives about extraordinary architectural experiences quantitatively, but also a view as to how to map the unique nature of aesthetic phenomenology empirically.

  8. How are actual needs recognized in the content and goals of written rehabilitation plans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeglinsky, Ira; Brogren Carlberg, Eva; Autti-Rämö, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to investigate the interrelation between needs and functional difficulties and the therapeutic goals in children with cerebral palsy (CP) as documented in individual written rehabilitation plans. The study was a retrospective cross-sectional register study. The data consisted of randomly chosen register documents for 77 children and adolescents with CP in different predetermined age ranges. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Child and Youth version (ICF-CY) was used as a reference for analyzing the content of the written statements. The rehabilitation plans for 70 children, 1-16 years of age, representing all GMFCS levels were analyzed. Goals were not well reflected in the children's needs and functional difficulties. The needs, functional difficulties and goals mainly encompassed the components of body functions and activity/participation. In half of the plans the presence of the parents was mentioned, and the plans were made in multidisciplinary collaboration. The results of this study indicate deficiencies in the content and goals of the written rehabilitation plans. The ICF-CY could serve as a framework to help professionals and parents identify the child's needs and those areas where the goals should be targeted. Implications for Rehabilitation Documenting the child's and family's needs in relation to activity and participation preferences is critical to rehabilitation and intervention planning. Goals, based on the child's needs, should be identified in collaboration with all parties involved, and focus on the child's functioning in meaningful everyday activities. The ICF-CY could serve as a framework for the family and professionals to identify needs and to communicate rehabilitation goals.

  9. THE ORTHOGRAPHIC NORM IN SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ WRITTEN ASSIGNMENTS

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    Ivana Đorđev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research conducted with the primary objective to determine in which areas secondary school students usually make orthographic mistakes when writing (official written assignments. Starting from the hypothesis that the punctuation writing of whole and split words are areas in which secondary school students (regardless of age and school orientation achieved the weakest achievements an (exploratory research was conducted on a corpus of 3,135 written assignments written in the school year of 2010/11. The research sample was intentional, descriptive and analytical methods were used for the description and the analysis of the results. The results showed the following (1 secondary school students usually make mistakes in punctuation of written assignments - we recorded 4,487 errors in the use of signs to denote intonation and meaning of a text (errors of this type make 53.93% of the total number of spelling errors reported in the corpus of research; by frequency of errors the second are errors related to writing whole and split words (11.02%, the third error is in the use of the capital letter (9.34%; (2 most problems in orthography have second grade students, quantum of mistakes is almost the same with first graders and seniors, but in all grades the most frequent errors are in punctuation, writing of whole and split words and the use of capital letters; (3 Although school orientation affects the spelling skills of pupils, the weakest orthographic achievements are also recorded in punctuation, writing of whole and split words and capitalization, so those are areas that need to be thoroughly addressed in teaching and methodology literature. The results are, on the one hand, a picture of the current status of teaching orthography and grammar knowledge of secondary school students. On the other hand, the research results can be applied in all phases of methodical practical work in teaching orthography, the upgrading the

  10. Initial teaching of written language. From theory to practice

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    María CLEMENTE LINUESA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available For decades the matter of teaching writing focused on a methodological issue, the assessment of the phonetic and global methods. Both approaches were based on the intuitions and practices of teachers and focused mainly on learning the writing system. Today we have available an important body of research-based theory that has contributed essential keys for positing a didactics of the written language with a sturdier foundation. Using contributions from different lines of theory, in this paper we present an integrated proposal for teaching writing.

  11. How diaries written for critically ill influence the relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Højager; Angel, Sanne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diaries written by nurses for the critically ill patient helps relatives cope and support the patient. When relatives participate in writing a diary for the critically ill, patients appreciate it. Furthermore, the diary may reduce post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression...... disorder; however, further research is needed to confirm this. How relatives interact through writing and reading a diary, originally intended for the patient, is unclear. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Providing relatives with a diary may help them cope. However, caution should be taken as possible...

  12. The beginnings of the written culture in Antiquity

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    M. Isabel Panosa

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analysis of writing as a system for communication, since its origins, in terms of its uses and socio-cultural context. We shall also look to review and comment on the way in which it has evolved in time and space and its primordial domains for expression. Likewise, we shall look at the current state of affairs with respect to graphic communication, which includes the alphabet, logographic systems and symbols. From a more global point of view, the relationship between the concept of writing and the concept of civilisation is studied and two dimensions are set out: the oral culture and the written culture.

  13. Narratives: A window on the oral substrate of written language disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silliman, E R

    1989-01-01

    Oral precursors underlying competence with literacy activities are approached through a review of studies on narrative comprehension and production in children identified as language learning disabled (LLD). Areas addressed include a general overview of narrative types, the kinds of narrative knowledge that are acquired, the nature of story organization, and developmental acquisitions in story recall and generation. Nine studies on the oral comprehension and production of language learning disabled children are then compared with respect to methodological issues and patterns of performance. Implications from these studies are discussed in terms of their potential insight for subtypes of a LLD including the value of oral narratives in identifying precursors for competence with written language.

  14. A Large-Scale Analysis of Variance in Written Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Brendan T; Jamieson, Randall K

    2018-01-22

    The collection of very large text sources has revolutionized the study of natural language, leading to the development of several models of language learning and distributional semantics that extract sophisticated semantic representations of words based on the statistical redundancies contained within natural language (e.g., Griffiths, Steyvers, & Tenenbaum, ; Jones & Mewhort, ; Landauer & Dumais, ; Mikolov, Sutskever, Chen, Corrado, & Dean, ). The models treat knowledge as an interaction of processing mechanisms and the structure of language experience. But language experience is often treated agnostically. We report a distributional semantic analysis that shows written language in fiction books varies appreciably between books from the different genres, books from the same genre, and even books written by the same author. Given that current theories assume that word knowledge reflects an interaction between processing mechanisms and the language environment, the analysis shows the need for the field to engage in a more deliberate consideration and curation of the corpora used in computational studies of natural language processing. Copyright © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. [A workshop to improve written communication skills of medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitran, Marcela; Zúñiga, Denisse; Flotts, Paulina; Padilla, Oslando; Moreno, Rodrigo

    2009-05-01

    Despite being among the best academically prepared of the country, many medical students have difficulties to communicate in writing. In 2005, the School of Medicine at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile introduced a writing workshop in the undergraduate curriculum, to enhance the students' writing skills. To describe the workshop and its impact on the writing skills of 3 cohorts of students. This 30-h workshop used a participative methodology with emphasis on deliberate practice and feedback. Students worked in small groups with a faculty member specially trained in writing. The qualities of the essays written before and after the workshop were compared. Essays were rated by a professional team that used an analytic rubric to measure formal aspects of text writing as well as more complex thinking processes. There was a significant improvement in the quality of the texts written after the workshop; the main changes occurred in argumentation, and in paragraph and text structure. This improvement was inversely proportional to the initial level of performance, and independent of gender. A writing workshop based on deliberate practice and personalized feedback is effective to enhance the writing proficiency of medical students. Due to its design, this workshop could be useful for students of other careers and universities.

  16. An Inquiry into Connectives and Their Use in Written Discourse

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    Kamil Kurtul

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: To know a language means to be able to produce coherent verbal and written texts to convey one’s message to the addressee. Texture is a matter of meaning relations and this is what distinguishes a text from something that is not. The text should function as a unity with respect to its environment. An important aspect of discourse understanding and generation involves the recognition and processing of discourse relations and as such connective devices, also known as connectors, play a significant role in the formation and interpretation of the relations present in a text.Method: In the present study connectives both in Turkish and English have been analyzed in terms of their structural properties through the written works of two groups of students studying at Hacettepe University in Ankara. The analysis is based on the same principles as the Penn Discourse TreeBank, which lists connective devices into three categories as coordinating, subordinating conjunctions and sentence adverbials. So as to analyze the reasons behind the mistakes of the participants, a Grammaticality Judgement Test has been designed and implemented.Conclusion: The results indicate that there occurs L1 effect on both groups’ use of connectives in L2 regardless of their language backgrounds.

  17. Research on cognitive, social and cultural processes of written communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo González, Rosario; Salvador Mata, Francisco

    2009-08-01

    This article compiles the investigations carried out by a Research Group of the University of Granada, Spain. Its different projects on writing's cognitive social and cultural processes have been supported by the Spanish Government. This line of research joined together linguistic, psychological, social and cultural contributions to the development of writing from the 1970s. Currently, this line of research develops in collaboration with other European Universities: (a) Interuniversity Centre for Research On Cognitive Processing in Natural and Artificial Systems (ECONA), "La Sapienza" University of Rome (Italy); (b) Anadolu University, (Eskisehir, Turkey); (c) Coimbra University (Portugal); (d) University of Zaragoza (Spain); (e) the Institute of Education of the University of London (United Kingdom). The aforementioned collaboration is materializing into projects like the International Master on Multilingual Writing: Cognitive, Intercultural and Technological Processes of Written Communication ( http://www.multilingualwriting.com ) and the International Congress: Writing in the twenty-first Century: Cognition, Multilinguisim and Technologies, held in Granada ( http://www.asprogrades.org ). This research line is focussed on the development of strategies in writing development, basic to train twenty-first century societies' citizens. In these societies, participation in production media, social exchange and the development of multilingual written communication skills through new computer technologies spread multicultural values. In order to fulfil the social exigencies, it is needed to have the collaboration of research groups for designing and applying international research projects.

  18. Uses of the word "macula" in written English, 1400-present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Leffler, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    We compiled uses of the word "macula" in written English by searching multiple databases, including the Early English Books Online Text Creation Partnership, America's Historical Newspapers, the Gale Cengage Collections, and others. "Macula" has been used: as a non-medical "spot" or "stain", literal or figurative, including in astronomy and in Shakespeare; as a medical skin lesion, occasionally with a following descriptive adjective, such as a color (macula alba); as a corneal lesion, including the earliest identified use in English, circa 1400; and to describe the center of the retina. Francesco Buzzi described a yellow color in the posterior pole ("retina tinta di un color giallo") in 1782, but did not use the word "macula". "Macula lutea" was published by Samuel Thomas von Sömmering by 1799, and subsequently used in 1818 by James Wardrop, which appears to be the first known use in English. The Google n-gram database shows a marked increase in the frequencies of both "macula" and "macula lutea" following the introduction of the ophthalmoscope in 1850. "Macula" has been used in multiple contexts in written English. Modern databases provide powerful tools to explore historical uses of this word, which may be underappreciated by contemporary ophthalmologists. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessing quality of pre-service physics teachers' written arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydeniz, Mehmet; Gürçay, Deniz

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of scientific arguments developed by pre-service physics teachers. Sample: The participants were 171 pre-service physics teachers recruited from two universities: 86 from University A and 85 from University B. Design and method: Participants were prompted to develop a written argument to either support or challenge the Turkish government's decision to invest in nuclear power plants. Data consist of written arguments developed by the participants and information on participants' knowledge of the topic, their confidence in their knowledge and the source of their knowledge related to the topic. Data were analyzed using the CER framework. Results: The results show that participants did not perform at the expected level. The majority of students failed to develop strong scientific arguments. While almost all of the participants provided evidence to justify their claims, they failed to effectively coordinate evidence, claim and theory to develop an argument. Students struggled the most in the warrant/reasoning category of the CER framework. We also identified several misconceptions that students held related to nuclear power plants. Conclusions: In our discussion we problematize college science teaching and advocate integration of instructional strategies such as argumentation that can effectively engage students in construction, evaluation and justification of knowledge.

  20. Clarity Versus Accuracy and Objectivity in Written Legal English

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    Violeta Janulevičienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to analyse the most important grammatical and, specifically, syntactic features and to point out some prominent lexical ones, which aim at accuracy and objectivity of a written legal document, and to discuss how these features influence clarity and transparency of the legal documents. The study covers the analysis of some EU, UK, US legislative acts alongside with some extracts from contract samples. The analysis reveals that written legal English is distinguished by long compound sentences, often with inverted word order and numerous embeddings, passive constructions and nominalisations, specific use of personal pronouns and collocations of synonyms (doublets and triplets, etc. These means allow to achieve the most possible accuracy and objectivity in legal texts but make them complicated and difficult to comprehend at once. Formality, achieved by the mentioned means, makes legal English distant from everyday language and often becomes a reason for criticism. Plain English supporters encourage simplifying legal language; however, long traditions of legal English make changes slow and difficult. Therefore, comprehension and usage of legal English still requires special knowledge of its lexical and grammatical features.

  1. Oral and Written Expression in Children With Reading Comprehension Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretti, Barbara; Motta, Eleonora; Re, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have highlighted that children with reading comprehension difficulties also have problems in tasks that involve telling a story, in writing or verbally. The main differences identified regard poor comprehenders' lower level of coherence in their productions by comparison with good comprehenders. Only one study has compared poor and good comprehenders' performance in both modalities (oral and written), however, to see whether these modalities differently influence poor comprehenders' performance. We qualitatively and quantitatively compared the performance of good and poor comprehenders in oral and written narrative tasks with the aim of shedding light on this issue. Regression analyses were also used to explore the role of working memory and vocabulary in explaining individual differences. Our results showed that the two groups produced narratives of comparable length, with similar percentages of spelling mistakes, whereas they differed in terms of the quality of their narratives, regardless of the modality. These differences were qualified by analyzing the children's use of connective devices, and poor comprehenders were found to use a higher proportion of additive devices than good comprehenders. Regression analyses showed that working memory (particularly the intrusion errors measure) explained a modest part of the qualitative differences in narrative production. Implications for our theoretical understanding of poor comprehenders' profiles and education are discussed. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  2. ELLIPT2D: A Flexible Finite Element Code Written Python

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pletzer, A.; Mollis, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    The use of the Python scripting language for scientific applications and in particular to solve partial differential equations is explored. It is shown that Python's rich data structure and object-oriented features can be exploited to write programs that are not only significantly more concise than their counter parts written in Fortran, C or C++, but are also numerically efficient. To illustrate this, a two-dimensional finite element code (ELLIPT2D) has been written. ELLIPT2D provides a flexible and easy-to-use framework for solving a large class of second-order elliptic problems. The program allows for structured or unstructured meshes. All functions defining the elliptic operator are user supplied and so are the boundary conditions, which can be of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robbins type. ELLIPT2D makes extensive use of dictionaries (hash tables) as a way to represent sparse matrices.Other key features of the Python language that have been widely used include: operator over loading, error handling, array slicing, and the Tkinter module for building graphical use interfaces. As an example of the utility of ELLIPT2D, a nonlinear solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation is computed using a Newton iterative scheme. A second application focuses on a solution of the toroidal Laplace equation coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic stability code, a problem arising in the context of magnetic fusion research

  3. Some Pros and Cons of Laptop Use in Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. W.

    2018-05-01

    We did not have laptops or computer networks in schools in 1968, when I started teaching physics. When classroom computers became available, followed by the internet, I greeted them as great educational tools. I developed my own website in order to provide reference material and assignments for my students. I found that online assignments were more likely than traditional ones to be completed. I also had my own system making password-protected grades available online. The parents loved it. I began giving some tests online. However, there is a downside to laptop use in class.

  4. How EFL students can use Google to correct their “untreatable” written errors

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    Luc Geiller

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of an experiment in which a group of 17 French post-secondary EFL learners used Google to self-correct several “untreatable” written errors. Whether or not error correction leads to improved writing has been much debated, some researchers dismissing it is as useless and others arguing that error feedback leads to more grammatical accuracy. In her response to Truscott (1996, Ferris (1999 explains that it would be unreasonable to abolish correction given the present state of knowledge, and that further research needed to focus on which types of errors were more amenable to which types of error correction. In her attempt to respond more effectively to her students’ errors, she made the distinction between “treatable” and “untreatable” ones: the former occur in “a patterned, rule-governed way” and include problems with verb tense or form, subject-verb agreement, run-ons, noun endings, articles, pronouns, while the latter include a variety of lexical errors, problems with word order and sentence structure, including missing and unnecessary words. Substantial research on the use of search engines as a tool for L2 learners has been carried out suggesting that the web plays an important role in fostering language awareness and learner autonomy (e.g. Shei 2008a, 2008b; Conroy 2010. According to Bathia and Richie (2009: 547, “the application of Google for language learning has just begun to be tapped.” Within the framework of this study it was assumed that the students, conversant with digital technologies and using Google and the web on a regular basis, could use various search options and the search results to self-correct their errors instead of relying on their teacher to provide direct feedback. After receiving some in-class training on how to formulate Google queries, the students were asked to use a customized Google search engine limiting searches to 28 information websites to correct up to

  5. Talking out loud in class: utilizing discussion as an effective teaching strategy with adult learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotler, Amy L

    2013-09-01

    Staff development is an important role of the school nurse, yet little is written to assist the nurse in this role. Though some obtain advanced degrees in education, most school nurses are not prepared for the staff development role without further education in pedagogy, teaching strategies, and evaluation methods. This article presents discussion as one of many active teaching strategies that can engage learners and promote critical thinking. More work is needed in the area of course design and implementation, as well as additional research to help identify the most effective teaching strategies for school employees.

  6. Surdez e linguagem escrita: um estudo de caso Deafness and written language: a case of study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Guarinello

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Partindo do pressuposto de que ao considerar a língua de sinais como a primeira língua do surdo é possível perceber sua inserção no mundo letrado, esse trabalho objetiva analisar produções escritas de um sujeito surdo em momento inicial de apropriação da escrita. Para tanto, concebendo a linguagem como atividade dialógica, como trabalho social e histórico, constitutivo dos sujeitos e da língua, foram analisados cinco textos produzidos, entre os anos de 1998 e 2002, por um sujeito surdo, reconhecido pela inicial R, em conjunto com a sua fonoaudióloga. Cabe esclarecer que tal profissional, proficiente em língua de sinais, atuou como interlocutora e intérprete, priorizando a natureza interativa da linguagem e interferindo nas produções escritas quando solicitada. Durante os anos trabalhados com R, observou-se que ele passou a refletir sobre seus textos e mudou sua postura perante a escrita. O fato de R e a fonoaudióloga compartilharem a língua de sinais permitiu que ele dividisse suas histórias e experiências, levando-os a registrá-las a partir da língua escrita. Deste modo, R passou a fazer uso da escrita com alternâncias e justaposições entre as duas línguas envolvidas: a língua portuguesa e a língua de sinais. A escrita tornou-se, assim, uma possibilidade a mais de manifestação da singularidade de R, que passou a reconstruir a história de sua relação com a linguagem.Considering sign language as deaf peoples' first language, it is possible to conceive of the insertion of the deaf into the written world. This work aims to analyze the written productions of a deaf child during his initiation into literacy. We view language as a dialogic activity, as social and historic production, that enables constitution of individuals and their language. Five written texts produced between 1998 and 2002 were analyzed. These were produced by a deaf subject, R, together with his speech and language therapist. It is important to

  7. Uncovering students' misconceptions by assessment of their written questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olde Bekkink, Marleen; Donders, A R T Rogier; Kooloos, Jan G; de Waal, Rob M W; Ruiter, Dirk J

    2016-08-24

    Misconceptions are ideas that are inconsistent with current scientific views. They are difficult to detect and refractory to change. Misconceptions can negatively influence how new concepts in science are learned, but are rarely measured in biomedical courses. Early identification of misconceptions is of critical relevance for effective teaching, but presents a difficult task for teachers as they tend to either over- or underestimate students' prior knowledge. A systematic appreciation of the existing misconceptions is desirable. This explorative study was performed to determine whether written questions generated by students can be used to uncover their misconceptions. During a small-group work (SGW) session on Tumour Pathology in a (bio)medical bachelor course on General Pathology, students were asked to write down a question about the topic. This concerned a deepening question on disease mechanisms and not mere factual knowledge. Three independent expert pathologists determined whether the content of the questions was compatible with a misconception. Consensus was reached in all cases. Study outcomes were to determine whether misconceptions can be identified in students' written questions, and if so, to measure the frequency of misconceptions that can be encountered, and finally, to determine if the presence of such misconceptions is negatively associated with the students' course formal examination score. A subgroup analysis was performed according to gender and discipline. A total of 242 students participated in the SGW sessions, of whom 221 (91 %) formulated a question. Thirty-six questions did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the 185 questions rated, 11 % (n = 20) was compatible with a misconception. Misconceptions were only found in medical students' questions, not in biomedical science students' questions. Formal examination score on Tumour Pathology was 5.0 (SD 2.0) in the group with misconceptions and 6.7 (SD 2.4) in the group without

  8. Memory and learning for a novel written style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervakis, J; Rubin, D C

    1998-07-01

    Subjects read and recalled a series of five short stories in one of four plot and style combinations. The stories were written in one of two styles that consisted of opposing clause orders (i.e., independent-dependent vs. dependent-independent), tense forms (i.e., past vs. present), and descriptor forms (modifier modifier vs. modifier as a noun). The subjects incorporated both plot and style characteristics into their recalls. Other subjects, who, after five recalls, either generated a new story or listed the rules that had been followed by the stories read, included the marked forms of the characteristics they learned more often, except for tense. The subjects read and recalled four stories of the same plot and style and then read and recalled a fifth story of the same plot and style or of one of the other three plot/style combinations. Ability to switch style depended on both the characteristic and the markedness.

  9. Optical Music Recognition for Scores Written in White Mensural Notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An Optical Music Recognition (OMR system especially adapted for handwritten musical scores of the XVII-th and the early XVIII-th centuries written in white mensural notation is presented. The system performs a complete sequence of analysis stages: the input is the RGB image of the score to be analyzed and, after a preprocessing that returns a black and white image with corrected rotation, the staves are processed to return a score without staff lines; then, a music symbol processing stage isolates the music symbols contained in the score and, finally, the classification process starts to obtain the transcription in a suitable electronic format so that it can be stored or played. This work will help to preserve our cultural heritage keeping the musical information of the scores in a digital format that also gives the possibility to perform and distribute the original music contained in those scores.

  10. Participation in Written Government Consultations in Denmark and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of instruments of public consultation in liberal democracies, little is known of how the design and use of these instruments affect stakeholder participation in practice. The article examines participation in written government consultations in an analysis of approximately...... 5,000 responses to consultations in Denmark and the UK in the first half of 2008. It shows that participation is highly conditional upon system-and actor-level characteristics in practice. Our findings indicate that, even if liberal democracies have adopted similar procedures for actor consultation...... in the last decades, the design and application of crucial rules vary considerably between systems. They emphasize how the conduct of consultation is heavily conditioned by the design of these processes, which is in turn constrained by the historical legacy of state-society structures of the system...

  11. Visual stimuli and written production of deaf signers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacinto, Laís Alves; Ribeiro, Karen Barros; Soares, Aparecido José Couto; Cárnio, Maria Silvia

    2012-01-01

    To verify the interference of visual stimuli in written production of deaf signers with no complaints regarding reading and writing. The research group consisted of 12 students with education between the 4th and 5th grade of elementary school, with severe or profound sensorineural hearing loss, users of LIBRAS and with alphabetical writing level. The evaluation was performed with pictures in a logical sequence and an action picture. The analysis used the communicative competence criteria. There were no differences in the writing production of the subjects for both stimuli. In all texts there was no title and punctuation, verbs were in the infinitive mode, there was lack of cohesive links and inclusion of created words. The different visual stimuli did not affect the production of texts.

  12. Equitable Written Assessments for English Language Learners: How Scaffolding Helps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Marcelle A.; Menon, Deepika; Sinha, Somnath; Promyod, Nattida; Wissehr, Cathy; Halverson, Kristy L.

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of the use of scaffolds in written classroom assessments through the voices of both native English speakers and English language learners from two middle schools. Students responded to assessment tasks in writing, by speaking aloud using think aloud protocols, and by reflecting in a post-assessment interview. The classroom assessment tasks were designed to engage students in scientific sense making and multifaceted language use, as recommended by the Next Generation Science Standards. Data analyses showed that both groups benefitted from the use of scaffolds. The findings revealed specific ways that modifications were supportive in helping students to comprehend, visualize and organize thinking, and elicit responses. This study offers a model for both sensitizing teachers and strengthening their strategies for scaffolding assessments equitably.

  13. Synergistic relationships between Analytical Chemistry and written standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel; Lucena, Rafael

    2013-07-25

    This paper describes the mutual impact of Analytical Chemistry and several international written standards (norms and guides) related to knowledge management (CEN-CWA 14924:2004), social responsibility (ISO 26000:2010), management of occupational health and safety (OHSAS 18001/2), environmental management (ISO 14001:2004), quality management systems (ISO 9001:2008) and requirements of the competence of testing and calibration laboratories (ISO 17025:2004). The intensity of this impact, based on a two-way influence, is quite different depending on the standard considered. In any case, a new and fruitful approach to Analytical Chemistry based on these relationships can be derived. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of written presentation on performance in introductory physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Ballard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the written work of students in the introductory calculus-based electricity and magnetism course at the University of Arkansas. The students’ solutions to hourly exams were divided into a small set of countable features organized into three major categories, mathematics, language, and graphics. Each category was further divided into subfeatures. The total number of features alone explained more than 30% of the variance in exam scores and from 9% to 15% of the variance in conceptual posttest scores. If all features and subfeatures are used, between 44% and 49% of the variance in exam scores is explained and between 22% and 28% of the variance in conceptual posttest scores. The use of language is consistently positively correlated with both exam performance and conceptual understanding.

  15. Preposition use in oral and written learner language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Nacey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns preposition use in oral language produced by advanced Norwegian learners of English, using primary data from an oral learner corpus (LINDSEI-NO. We investigate the frequency of inappropriate preposition use in approximately 13 hours of transcribed informal interviews, as well as the possible extent to which L1 transfer may play a role in production. The contextually inappropriate prepositions were categorized in terms of factors that may influence preposition use, with particular focus on the congruence between L1 and L2 with respect to syntactic structure and basic meaning. These results about spoken preposition use are then contrasted with results from a corresponding investigation into preposition use in a written learner corpus (NICLE, allowing for comparison of preposition usage across modes.

  16. Content validation applied to job simulation and written examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, L.M.; McCutchen, M.A.; White, A.S.; Huenefeld, J.C.

    1984-08-01

    The application of content validation strategies in work settings have become increasingly popular over the last few years, perhaps spurred by an acknowledgment in the courts of content validation as a method for validating employee selection procedures (e.g., Bridgeport Guardians v. Bridgeport Police Dept., 1977). Since criterion-related validation is often difficult to conduct, content validation methods should be investigated as an alternative for determining job related selection procedures. However, there is not yet consensus among scientists and professionals concerning how content validation should be conducted. This may be because there is a lack of clear cut operations for conducting content validation for different types of selection procedures. The purpose of this paper is to discuss two content validation approaches being used for the development of a licensing examination that involves a job simulation exam and a written exam. These represent variations in methods for applying content validation. 12 references

  17. A Look at The Work with The Genre "Invitation" in Class of Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica de Araújo Saraiva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of studies, reflections and articulated research to the project Continuing Education for Teachers of Basic Education in the lower elementary school: actions to literacy in cities with low IDEB of Western Paraná, linked to the Centre for Education Program - CAPES/INEP. In this context, our research, in particular, focuses on actions to mediate the appropriation of writing by working with speech genres language. Thus, as part of this investigative  process, we aim in this paper to analyze the written text activities in a class of 2nd year (lower elementary school, considering a work using the gender invitation. Guided by the question:  “how mediation of the teacher, while working with speech genres from the perspective of literacy, may contribute to the acquisition of written language of students in the 2nd year of elementary school? - Intend to reflect on a didactic - methodological strategies on a qualitative research process, of the ethnographic type, endorsed by the methodology of action research, with gender invitation, from the perspective of emphasizing the importance of the teacher’s role as mediator during this teaching process. It is, therefore, a research in Applied Linguistics, using the theoretical framework of Cultural-Historical Psychology (VYGOTSKY, 1995, 2001, 2007 and the concept of Dialogic Discourse (BAKHTIN/VOLOCHINOV, 2004; BAKHTIN, 2003, being within of the socio-historical approach to language . We also seek support in theoretical studies such as Geraldi (2003, 2006, Cagliari (2009, 1998, Martins (2007, and other authors who address on the inclusion of children in social interaction through writing. The results reveal the teacher importance of “intervention” in activities that facilitate the appropriation of the written language.

  18. The security analyzer: A security analyzer program written in Prolog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.D.; Densley, P.J.

    1986-09-01

    The Security Analyzer is a software tool capable of analyzing the effectiveness of a facility's security system. It is written in the Prolog logic programming computer language, using entity-relationship data modeling techniques. The program performs the following functions: (1) provides descriptive, locational and operational status information about intrusion detectors and assessment devices (i.e., ''sensors'' and ''cameras'') upon request; (2) provides for storage and retrieval of maintenance history information for various components of the security system (including intrusion detectors), and allows for changing that information as desired; (3) provides a ''search'' mode, wherein all paths are found from any specified physical location to another specified location which satisfy user chosen ''intruder detection'' probability and elapsed time criteria (i.e., the program finds the ''weakest paths'' from a security point of view). The first two of these functions can be provided fairly easily with a conventional database program; the third function could be provided using Fortran or some similar language, though with substantial difficulty. In the Security Analyzer program, all these functions are provided in a simple and straight-forward manner. This simplicity is possible because the program is written in the symbolic (as opposed to numeric) processing language Prolog, and because the knowledge base is structured according to entity-relationship modeling principles. Also, the use of Prolog and the entity-relationship modeling technique allows the capabilities of the Security analyzer program, both for knowledge base interrogation and for searching-type operations, to be easily expanded in ways that would be very difficult for a numeric and more algorithmically deterministic language such as Fortran to duplicate. 4 refs

  19. PRAGMATIC AND RHETORICAL STRATEGIES IN THE ENGLISH-WRITTEN JOKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Rochmawati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding verbal jokes in English is problematic for English as Foreign Language (EFL readers since understanding the jokes requires understanding their linguistic, cultural and social elements. Since a joke constitutes a complex and paradoxical phenomenon, it needs multiple approaches of analyses—such as pragmatic and rhetorical analyses—in order to investigate the multiple layers of meanings it carries. Recently there has been a shift in humor studies, emphasizing linguistic humors and involving the field of rhetoric. These studies, however, have mostly addressed the connection between rhetoric and spoken jokes in persuasion. The present study therefore applied Austin’s Speech Act Theory (1975 and Grice’s Cooperative Principles (1957, and Berger’s rhetorical techniques (1993 to crack the funniness of the written jokes. Specifically, the study aims at describing: how the (1 rhetorical and (2 pragmatic strategies are used in the jokes, and (3 how the pragmatic and rhetorical strategies complement to create humor. The study employed a qualitative research method. Some jokes were purposively selected from the Reader’s Digest and two online sources: http://jokes.cc.com/, and http://www.ajokeaday.com/. Document studies were the means of data collection. The collected data were then analyzed using a qualitative content analysis. The results showed that that there was a relationship between the two pragmatic theories, i.e., Speech Act Theory and Cooperative Principles, and Berger’s rhetorical techniques. The results offered an alternative reading and richer understanding of how written jokes employed pragmatic and rhetorical strategies to advance their rhetorical objectives and humor functions.

  20. Readability of Written Materials for CKD Patients: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morony, Suzanne; Flynn, Michaela; McCaffery, Kirsten J; Jansen, Jesse; Webster, Angela C

    2015-06-01

    The "average" patient has a literacy level of US grade 8 (age 13-14 years), but this may be lower for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Current guidelines suggest that patient education materials should be pitched at a literacy level of around 5th grade (age 10-11 years). This study aims to evaluate the readability of written materials targeted at patients with CKD. Systematic review. Patient information materials aimed at adults with CKD and written in English. Patient education materials designed to be printed and read, sourced from practices in Australia and online at all known websites run by relevant international CKD organizations during March 2014. Quantitative analysis of readability using Lexile Analyzer and Flesch-Kincaid tools. We analyzed 80 materials. Both Lexile Analyzer and Flesch-Kincaid analyses suggested that most materials required a minimum of grade 9 (age 14-15 years) schooling to read them. Only 5% of materials were pitched at the recommended level (grade 5). Readability formulas have inherent limitations and do not account for visual information. We did not consider other media through which patients with CKD may access information. Although the study covered materials from the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia, all non-Internet materials were sourced locally, and it is possible that some international paper-based materials were missed. Generalizability may be limited due to exclusion of non-English materials. These findings suggest that patient information materials aimed at patients with CKD are pitched above the average patient's literacy level. This issue is compounded by cognitive decline in patients with CKD, who may have lower literacy than the average patient. It suggests that information providers need to consider their audience more carefully when preparing patient information materials, including user testing with a low-literacy patient population. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by

  1. Developmental perspectives in written language and literacy: In honor of Ludo Verhoeven

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, P.C.J.; Broek, P.W. van den

    2017-01-01

    Research on the development on written language and literacy is inherently multidisciplinary. In this book, leading researchers studying brain, cognition and behavior, come together in revealing how children develop written language and literacy, why they may experience difficulties, and which

  2. 34 CFR 86.405 - What are the requirements for filing written submissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for filing written submissions? 86.405 Section 86.405 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION Appeal Procedures § 86.405 What are the requirements for filing written submissions? (a) Any written submission under this subpart...

  3. Scripting Oral History: An Examination of Structural Differences between Oral and Written Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gail

    The availability of both oral and written historical narratives provides the Readers Theater adapter with a rich opportunity to experiment with mixing oral and written narrative styles in documentary form. Those who plan to use such mixing must consider the differences between oral and written narratives. Writers and readers have almost unlimited…

  4. Correcting Students' Written Grammatical Errors: The Effects of Negotiated versus Nonnegotiated Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassaji, Hossein

    2011-01-01

    A substantial number of studies have examined the effects of grammar correction on second language (L2) written errors. However, most of the existing research has involved unidirectional written feedback. This classroom-based study examined the effects of oral negotiation in addressing L2 written errors. Data were collected in two intermediate…

  5. Written Expression Performance in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBono, Tony; Hosseini, Armita; Cairo, Cassandra; Ghelani, Karen; Tannock, Rosemary; Toplak, Maggie E.

    2012-01-01

    We examined written expression performance in a sample of adolescents with ADHD and subthreshold ADHD using two different strategies: examining performance on standardized measures of written expression and using other indicators of written expression developed in this study. We examined associations between standardized measures of written…

  6. 39 CFR 3005.21 - Authority to order depositions and responses to written interrogatories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... written interrogatories. 3005.21 Section 3005.21 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PROCEDURES FOR COMPELLING PRODUCTION OF INFORMATION BY THE POSTAL SERVICE Depositions and Written Interrogatories § 3005.21 Authority to order depositions and responses to written interrogatories. The Chairman...

  7. 49 CFR 510.8 - Written requests for the production of documents and things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written requests for the production of documents... § 510.8 Written requests for the production of documents and things. The NHTSA may, by the issuance of a written request for the production of documents and things, require any person, sole proprietorship...

  8. 30 CFR 250.1508 - What must I do when MMS administers written or oral tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Production Safety Training § 250.1508 What must I do when MMS administers written or oral tests? MMS or its... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do when MMS administers written or... written or oral tests; and (b) Identify personnel by current position, years of experience in present...

  9. Mapping out the Details: Supporting Struggling Writers' Written Expression with Concept Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Sara M.; Bouck, Emily C.

    2015-01-01

    Written expression is a key component of the secondary curriculum, but many students struggle to produce effective written expression passages. However, written expression can be supported through prewriting strategies such as concept mapping. Using a counterbalanced group design, 19 secondary students alternated between using paper- or…

  10. Benchmarking road safety performance: Identifying a meaningful reference (best-in-class).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Faan; Wu, Jiaorong; Chen, Xiaohong; Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Di

    2016-01-01

    For road safety improvement, comparing and benchmarking performance are widely advocated as the emerging and preferred approaches. However, there is currently no universally agreed upon approach for the process of road safety benchmarking, and performing the practice successfully is by no means easy. This is especially true for the two core activities of which: (1) developing a set of road safety performance indicators (SPIs) and combining them into a composite index; and (2) identifying a meaningful reference (best-in-class), one which has already obtained outstanding road safety practices. To this end, a scientific technique that can combine the multi-dimensional safety performance indicators (SPIs) into an overall index, and subsequently can identify the 'best-in-class' is urgently required. In this paper, the Entropy-embedded RSR (Rank-sum ratio), an innovative, scientific and systematic methodology is investigated with the aim of conducting the above two core tasks in an integrative and concise procedure, more specifically in a 'one-stop' way. Using a combination of results from other methods (e.g. the SUNflower approach) and other measures (e.g. Human Development Index) as a relevant reference, a given set of European countries are robustly ranked and grouped into several classes based on the composite Road Safety Index. Within each class the 'best-in-class' is then identified. By benchmarking road safety performance, the results serve to promote best practice, encourage the adoption of successful road safety strategies and measures and, more importantly, inspire the kind of political leadership needed to create a road transport system that maximizes safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In-Class Robot Flyby of an Endoplanet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, A. J.; Capaldi, T.; Aurnou, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    For our Introduction to Computing class, we have developed a miniature robotic spacecraft mission that performs a flyby of an in-class 'endoplanet.' Our constructed endoplanet contains an internal dipole magnet, tilted with a dip angle that is unknown a priori. The spacecraft analog is a remotely controlled LEGO MINDSTORMS robot programmed using LabVIEW. Students acquire magnetic field data via a first spacecraft flyby past the endoplanet. This dataset is then imported into MATLAB, and is inverted to create a model of the magnet's orientation and dipole moment. Students use their models to predict the magnetic field profile along a different flyby path. They then test the accuracy of their models, comparing their predictions against the data acquired from this secondary flyby. We will be demonstrating this device at our poster in the Moscone Center.

  12. Learning Strategy in Class Management: A Reflection from Manado Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suardi Wekke, Ismail; Yandra, Alexander; Hamuddin, Budianto

    2017-12-01

    This article is a research conducted with qualitative approach with various case studies underlining a strategy that becomes the basis for classroom management. The article discusses and links to the learning revolution that becomes today’s demands, including a discussion that analyses the condition of learners. The article based its data preliminary study conducted in Manado in the province of North Sulawesi in Indonesia. This region has its own characteristics with the encounter of Muslims and the Protestant community for century. Due to its uniqueness 3 Moslem schools and 3 Protestant schools in Manado were selected to study. Data collection was conducted for a year, from May 2016 to April 2017. The study employ four stages research steps: identification, data collection, data validity checking, and directed discussion. The stages include observation and in-depth interviews and conducting focus group discussions. Two important thought about the essence of learning strategy and learning revolution in class were shared briefly within this article.

  13. Iranian EFL Learners’ Reactions to Different Feedbacks in Writing Classrooms: Teacher Written Comments (TWC vs. Peer Written Comments (PWC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Rabiee

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of writing has recently begun to move away from a concentration on the written product to an emphasis on the process of writing. Feedback is a fundamental element of the process approach to writing. It can be defined as input from a reader to a writer with the effect of providing information to the writer for a revision. This study reports on the effectiveness of two types of feedback provided by two different sources– the teacher and the peers– on students’ overall writing quality in an EFL context. To fulfill such an aim, a group of 60 Iranian Persian native speakers aged between 22 and 25 majoring in English Translation were chosen from among a greater population of 98. They were assigned to three homogeneous groups based on their scores on Oxford Placement Test (OPT and a sample writing assignment on a given topic by emphasizing the expository genre through providing some reasons. They covered five topics before and after receiving feedback– ten written texts– in the span of a 15-week semester. Then, the papers were rated analytically. The findings revealed that feedback had a noticeable effect on the students’ draft editing, and of the two sources of feedback, the students benefited from teacher’s feedback more than their peers’ feedback. Other possible implications interpreted from this study supported the occurrence of a change in students’ roles in communicative foreign language learning settings and that, they could take the role of autonomous learners and turn into common respondents to other students’ writings and in this way their L2 knowledge construction and implementation increased

  14. Assessment of Written Expression Skills of University Students in Terms of Text Completion Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir KIRBAŞ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Writing is to transfer the visualised ideas on the paper. Writing, one of the language skills, is a significant tool of communication which provides the permanency of information conveying emotions and thoughts. Since writing has both cognitive and physical aspects, it makes writing the hardest and the latest language skill to improve. The studies show that writing activity is the most difficult skill students have difficulty. In higher education, in order to improve writing skills of students and give basic information and skills about writing skills written expression, composition and writing education lessons are taught both in the department of Turkish Language and Literature and in the departments of Turkish Language in the Faculties of Education. One of the aims of these lessons is to teach students written expression techniques together with the purposes and practices. One of the written expression techniques is text completion skill that improves student’s creativity and enhances her/his imaginary world. The purpose of this study is to assess students’ skills of using text completion technique with reference to the writing studies of students in higher education. the sample of the study consists of 85 college students studying in the department of Turkish Language and Literature in Gümüşhane University in 2016-2017 academic year. The data of the study were obtained from the written expression studies of the students. The introduction part of the article ‘On Reading’ by F. Bacon was given to the students and they were required to complete the text. ‘Text Completion Rating Scale in Writing Expression’ was developed to assess the data of the study by taking opinions of lecturers and Turkish education experts. The data of the study were presented with percentage and frequency rates. At the end of the study, it was concluded that students had weakness in some skills such as writing an effective body part about the topic given

  15. Does the Advanced Proficiency Evaluated in Oral-Like Written Text Support Syntactic Parsing in a Written Academic Text among L2 Japanese Learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Ryu

    2016-01-01

    Corpus linguistics identifies the qualitative difference in the characteristics of spoken discourse vs. written academic discourse. Whereas spoken discourse makes greater use of finite dependent clauses functioning as constituents in other clauses, written academic discourse incorporates noun phrase constituents and complex phrases. This claim can…

  16. Effects of written emotional disclosure on implicit self-esteem and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Daryl B; Hurling, Robert; Hendrickx, Hilde; Osborne, Gabrielle; Hall, Josephine; Walklet, Elaine; Whaley, Ann; Wood, Helen

    2011-09-01

    Negative body image has a significant impact on self-esteem, disordered eating, and general health. Writing about distressing events and experiences has been found to have beneficial effects on psychological and physical health outcomes. This study investigated whether a written self-disclosure intervention, compared to a writing about body image success stories (WSS) intervention, had beneficial effects on self-esteem and body image. One hundred and fifty-eight women (aged 18-22 years) were allocated to either: written emotional disclosure (WED); WSS; or a control, non-emotional writing condition. All measures were completed at baseline and at follow-up 4 weeks later. A condition by time interaction was observed for implicit self-esteem, such that levels of self-esteem were improved 4 weeks later in the WED condition. Implicit self-esteem was also found to be greater following WED compared to the control condition, but not following WSS. This is the first study to demonstrate that WED has beneficial effects on implicit outcome measures such as self-esteem indicating that the positive effects of expressive writing may initially operate by influencing automatically activated attitudes towards the self. The impact of WED on implicit self-esteem may have implications for future health. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  17. On one of the ways of Russian written speech teaching to foreign bachelors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafail M. Tazapchiyan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes one of the approaches to the development of writing skills of foreign students studying in the Russian university program of “Bachelor” on the target language – Russian. The relevance of the issue discussed in the paper is primarily determined by the significance of the written form of communication, which is directly connected with all spheres of human activity. In addition, the methodical feasibility of improving the communicative abilities of the letter stems from the fact that the written language, requiring form the producer greater awareness actions to make a high level of analytical and synthetic transactions that positively affect the quality of the speech orally and in terms of its grammatical formation, and in terms of its logical-structuring. The current practice of training of foreigners in writing in Russian is reduced mainly to the production of the text as a result of compression source. Information processing in this case will be focused on the definition of communicative structure of the text, and in this base allocate the most important data and their subsequent recording. The authors’ propose is to teach writing on the basis of information deployment contained in such sources as announcement, questionnaire, poll. In this situation, on the basis of knowledge of the rules of analysis and synthesis of linguistic units there is the construction of a variety of grammatically correct and semantically marked utterances, the expediency-organized differently in the text.

  18. Written Information Improves Patient Knowledge About Implanted Ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piredda, Michela; Migliozzi, Amelia; Biagioli, Valentina; Carassiti, Massimiliano; De Marinis, Maria Grazia

    2016-04-01

    Implanted ports are frequently used for patients with cancer who require IV chemotherapy. In addition to verbal communication with healthcare providers, patients with cancer may benefit from written information. This pre/post study evaluated the effectiveness of an informational booklet by improving knowledge about ports and assessed the history, need, and preferences for information. Patients with cancer who had an implanted port for at least six months were provided with an informational booklet about ports. Knowledge about ports was tested before (T0) and after (T1) patients read the booklet. Information needs and preferred sources of information were also assessed at T0. Patients reported their opinions of the booklet at T1. The sample included 129 patients; 49% were male, with a mean age of 59 years. Most patients want to receive as much information as possible, preferably before the port is implanted. However, 43% of patients reported they had received little information about ports. After reading the booklet, patients' knowledge, which was measured with a validated seven-item instrument, improved from T0 to T1 (p information, can increase patients' knowledge about implanted ports and their confidence in caring for their ports.

  19. Creative potential of primary school students in written expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševkušić Slavica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The essays of primary school students were studied as a potential source of data about their creative capacities in the field of writing and, more extensively, in the domain of linguistic expression. Sixth and seventh grade students (N=142 wrote an essay the creativity of which was evaluated by three teachers. Based on teachers' evaluations, two extreme groups were formed, which were then mutually compared: the students who wrote creative stories (N=17 and those who did not (N=19. A mixed method approach was applied in analyzing the data about students and their essays. The quantitative research results indicate that the authors of creative stories are characterized by a considerably higher creative potential as measured by the Word Production Test and Urban-Jellen Drawing Test (TCT-DP, a better school achievement and greater knowledge in Serbian language, a wider range of interests and a more pronounced interest in language and humanities. Analysis of narratives of the two groups of stories reveals important differences between the creative and noncreative group in the format, themes and components of creative written expression. The following are perceived in the papers assessed as creative: good composition, existence of a title, a guiding idea, originality, emotional expressiveness and ethical dimension. In the concluding part the authors discuss the advantages of combining the quantitative and qualitative procedures in studying the creative potential in school context.

  20. Combining Chalk Talk with PowerPoint to Increase In-class Student Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Betharia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In striving to attain a higher degree of in-class student engagement, and target a larger number of preferred student-learning styles, this case study describes a multimodal teaching approach. PowerPoint slides have gradually gained popularity over the more traditional chalk and talk lecture design. The student population in today’s age seeks more non-passive modes of information delivery. Numerous novel approaches to enhance active learning, such as flipped classroom and problem-based learning, have recently been explored. While working well for therapeutic and lab-based courses, these formats may not be best-suited for all basic science topics. The importance of basic science in a pharmacy curriculum is well emphasized in the 2016 ACPE Standards. To actively involve students in a pharmacology lecture on diuretics, a session was designed to combine the PowerPoint and chalk talk approaches. Students created 10 concept diagrams following an instructor, who explained each step in the process using a document camera. For visual learners, these diagrams provided a layered representation of the information, gradually increasing in complexity. For learners with a preference for the reading learning style, the information was also available in corresponding PowerPoint slides. Scores from pre- and post-session quizzes indicated a high level of concept understanding and recall (median 1 [IQR 0 – 2] vs 4 [IQR 3 – 5]; p<0.001. The student perception survey data reported higher in-class attention levels (76%, an appreciation for the utility of self-created concept diagrams (88%, and a call for additional sessions being presented in this format (73%. Targeting a variety of student learning styles by using the active development of concept diagrams, in addition to traditional PowerPoint slides, can promote student engagement and enhance content understanding.   Type: Case Study

  1. Relative solubility of cations in Class F fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ann G; Kazonich, George; Dahlberg, Michael

    2003-10-01

    Coal utilization byproducts (CUB), such as fly ash, contain cations that may be released during exposure to fluids such as acid rain or acid mine drainage. Researchers at the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) have conducted a long-term column leaching study of 32 Class F fly ash samples from pulverized coal (PC) combustion, and quantified the release of 19 cations in four leachants with a pH between 1.2 and 12. The relative solubility (M(L/T)) of each cation was defined as the total mass leached (M(L)) relative to the concentration (M(T)) of that element in the fly ash sample. A frequency distribution of relative solubility values was computed with ranges defined as insoluble, slightly soluble, moderately soluble, and very soluble. On the basis of this sample set, Ba, Cd, Fe, Pb, Sb, and Se in PC fly ash are insoluble. The elements Al, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, and Zn are slightly to moderately acid soluble. Only Ca and Na are water soluble; As and Ca are soluble in the basic solution, The results of this study indicate that the extent to which cations in Class F PC fly ash can be leached by naturally occurring fluids is very limited.

  2. Microleakage of four composite resin systems in class II restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, A; Osman, Y I; Al-Omari, T

    2009-11-01

    To compare the microleakage at the enamel and dentine/cementum margins of three nanocomposites and a microhybrid composite in Class II restorations. Four light-cured dental resin restorative materials in combination with their respective bonding agents were investigated. Eighty non-carious, extracted human molars were divided into 4 groups of 20 teeth each. The apices of the teeth were sealed with a resin modified glass ionomer cement. Standardized Class II slot cavities were prepared on the proximal surfaces of each tooth. Each group had an equal number of cavities with gingival margins on enamel and on dentine/cementum. Restorations were placed as indicated: Group 1 (G1): Ceram-X mono/Prime & Bond NT (Dentsply), G2: Premise/ OptiBond Solo Plus (Kerr), G3: Grandio/Admira Bond (VOCO), G4: Z100/Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (3M ESPE). After thermocycling and immersion in 0.5% methylene blue dye solution, the teeth were sectioned and dye penetration was scored on a scale of 0 to 3 on both the enamel and dentine/cementum margins. The data were analyzed using a Kruskal-Wallis one way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U test of ranks (significance at p Grandio/Admira Bond showed significantly lower microleakage when compared to the other materials tested while Z100/Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose showed the largest microleakage (p Grandio/Admira Bond showing the least microleakage when compared to the other three materials tested. At the enamel margins, all materials tested performed reasonably well.

  3. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Lappin-Fortin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French and French immersion graduates was compared based on total output and several measures of grammatical and syntactical accuracy. Few statistically significant differences emerge. However, a subgroup of core French learners who had benefitted from an authentic immersion experience appears to outperform both regular core French and French immersion groups. The purpose of this quantitative study is primarily diagnostic; the results should help universities better serve the needs of first-year students. Résumé Les études comparant la compétence écrite des étudiants de programmes d’immersion française et de français cadre sont peu nombreuses—particulièrement au niveau postsecondaire. Mon corpus consiste en des échantillons du français écrit de 255 étudiants issus de ces deux formations qui commencent un cours de français à l’université. J’ai comparé leur production globale et leur précision sur le plan morphosyntaxique. Peu de différences statistiquement significatives en émergent. Toutefois, un sous-groupe d’étudiants cadre ayant bénéficié d’une expérience d’immersion authentique se révèle comme le plus compétent selon plusieurs des mesures utilisées. Les résultats de cette étude quantitative devraient aider les universités à mieux répondre aux besoins des étudiants de première année.

  4. Comparison of blogged and written reflections in two medicine clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Melissa A; Haley, Heather-Lyn; Saarinen, Carrie L; Chretien, Katherine C

    2011-02-01

    academic medical centres may adopt new learning technologies with little data on their effectiveness or on how they compare with traditional methodologies. We conducted a comparative study of student reflective writings produced using either an electronic (blog) format or a traditional written (essay) format to assess differences in content, depth of reflection and student preference. students in internal medicine clerkships at two US medical schools during the 2008-2009 academic year were quasi-randomly assigned to one of two study arms according to which they were asked to either write a traditional reflective essay and subsequently join in faculty-moderated, small-group discussion (n = 45), or post two writings to a faculty-moderated group blog and provide at least one comment on a peer's posts (n = 50). Examples from a pilot block were used to refine coding methods and determine inter-rater reliability. Writings were coded for theme and level of reflection by two blinded authors; these coding processes reached inter-rater reliabilities of 91% and 80%, respectively. Anonymous pre- and post-clerkship surveys assessed student perceptions and preferences. student writing addressed seven main themes: (i) being humanistic; (ii) professional behaviour; (iii) understanding caregiving relationships; (iv) being a student; (v) clinical learning; (vi) dealing with death and dying, and (vii) the health care system, quality, safety and public health. The distribution of themes was similar across institutions and study arms. The level of reflection did not differ between study arms. Post-clerkship surveys showed that student preferences for blogging or essay writing were predicted by experience, with the majority favouring the method they had used. our study suggests there is no significant difference in themes addressed or levels of reflection achieved when students complete a similar assignment via online blogging or traditional essay writing. Given this, faculty staff

  5. Speech language therapy bilingual clinic, a written language therapeutical proposal to deaf people: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarinello, Ana Cristina; Massi, Giselle; Berberian, Ana Paula; Tonocchi, Rita; Lustosa, Sandra Silva

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the written production of a deaf person who is in the process of written language acquisition. One person with hearing disability, called R., participated in this study together with his Speech Language Pathologist. The therapist, proficient in sign language, acted as an interlocutor and interpreter, prioritizing the interactive nature of language and interfering in the written production only when it was requested. During the 3 years of work with R., a change in stance toward written language was observed. In addition, he began to reflect on his texts and utilize written Portuguese in a way that allowed his texts to be more coherent. Writing became an opportunity to show his singularity and to begin reconstructing his relationship with language. Speech language pathology and audiology therapy, at a bilingual clinic, can allow people with hearing disability early access to sign language and, consequently, enable the development of the written form of Portuguese.

  6. INTERFERENCES OF ORALITY IN WRITTEN PRODUCTION BY UNDERGRADUATES OF THE FACULTY OF LINGUISTICS AND LANGUAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce Elaine de ALMEIDA BARONAS; Patrícia Cristina de Oliveira DUARTE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the interference of orality in written production of undergraduates by checking the most recurrent marks. For the success of the research, we present some considerations about language variation relating to the teaching of Portuguese language in Brazil. Following the sequence, we will also talk about deviation of the norms in written texts. Finally, we present the analysis of the corpus, consisting of 44 texts written by students from the Faculty of L...

  7. Fabrication of self-written waveguide in photosensitive polyimide resin by controlling photochemical reaction of photosensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, K.; Kuro, T.; Oe, K.; Mune, K.; Tagawa, K.; Naitou, R.; Mochizuki, A.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated optical properties of photosensitive polyimide appropriating for long self-written waveguide fabrication. From systematic measurements of absorption properties, it was found that photochemical reaction of photosensitizer dissolved in the photosensitive polyimide resins relates to transparency after the exposure, which limits the length of the fabricated self-written waveguide. By controlling the photochemical reaction, in which the photosensitive polyimide resin has sufficient transparency during exposure, four times longer self-written waveguide core was fabricated

  8. Common Written Errors Of English Departement Student in IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro.

    OpenAIRE

    Chyntia Heru Woro Prastiwi

    2014-01-01

    Common Written Errrors of English Department Students in IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro. Writing is still considered to be the most difficult skill to master as it combines ideas getting, grammatical structures, vocabulary, and mechanics. Producing good written English is an essential and required skill for English Department Students. This study examines the common errors in written English produced by the students of English Department in IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro. The error analysis on writing aims at gi...

  9. MODEL WRITTEN TEXTS IN THE RECOMMENDED SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL ENGLISH TEXTBOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Rukmini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article is based on the study on the model written texts provided in the Senior High School English textbooks. It is aimed at finding out whether those models are written by considering the English two contexts, cultural and situational, which encircle them. The data are all written texts provided in the six recommended English textbooks published by six different publishers. The results reveal that only eleven out of 115 model written texts tend to be incompatible with the two contexts encircling them, this implies that 104 of them (93.43% are likely to be compatible and can be used as model texts.

  10. Word frequencies in written and spoken English based on the British National Corpus

    CERN Document Server

    Leech, Geoffrey; Wilson, Andrew (All Of Lancaster University)

    2014-01-01

    Word Frequencies in Written and Spoken English is a landmark volume in the development of vocabulary frequency studies. Whereas previous books have in general given frequency information about the written language only, this book provides information on both speech and writing. It not only gives information about the language as a whole, but also about the differences between spoken and written English, and between different spoken and written varieties of the language. The frequencies are derived from a wide ranging and up-to-date corpus of English: the British Na

  11. Managing Active Learning Processes in Large First Year Physics Classes: The Advantages of an Integrated Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Drinkwater

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Turning lectures into interactive, student-led question and answer sessions is known to increase learning, but enabling interaction in a large class seems aninsurmountable task. This can discourage adoption of this new approach – who has time to individualize responses, address questions from over 200 students and encourage active participation in class? An approach adopted by a teaching team in large first-year classes at a research-intensive university appears to provide a means to do so. We describe the implementation of active learning strategies in a large first-year undergraduate physics unit of study, replacing traditional, content-heavy lectures with an integrated approach to question-driven learning. A key feature of our approach is that it facilitates intensive in-class discussions by requiring students to engage in preparatory reading and answer short written quizzes before every class. The lecturer uses software to rapidly analyze the student responses and identify the main issues faced by the students before the start of each class. We report the success of the integration of student preparation with this analysis and feedback framework, and the impact on the in-class discussions. We also address some of the difficulties commonly experienced by staff preparing for active learning classes.

  12. NATO Advanced Study Institute on recording or otherwise, without written permission from the Publisher, with the exception a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work. and Elastic Active Media Morphogenesis Through the Interplay of Nonlinear Chemical Instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Borckmans, P; Khokhlov, A. R; Métens, S; Chemomechanical Instabilities in Responsive Materials

    2009-01-01

    This volume contains a selection of the papers presented by renowned specialists of each field. It is the first book in which the communities of nonlinear chemists and gel specialist communicate and show how interactions between the two fields can actually produce working devices based on the transduction of chemical to mechanical energy and vice-versa. Beside subtle ways of using the slaving of responsive materials devices to oscillatory reactions, emphasis is brought on emerging properties that are possessed by neither of the separated constituents. Several contributions on these aspects are included, in relation to their potential relevance to biological, medical and technological applications. The whole constitutes a specific multidisciplinary "new" field. Both advanced and basic aspects of the two fields can be found the this collection of lectures. The book will not only benefit to doctoral students or young post-docs to learn the ropes of both subjects, but also to active researchers from one field, to...

  13. Language and Ageing--Exploring Propositional Density in Written Language--Stability over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Elizabeth; Craig, Hugh; Ferguson, Alison; Colyvas, Kim

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the stability of propositional density (PD) in written texts, as this aspect of language shows promise as an indicator and as a predictor of language decline with ageing. This descriptive longitudinal study analysed written texts obtained from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health in which participants were…

  14. 75 FR 57826 - Notice of Public Meeting and Opportunity To Submit Written Comments Concerning the Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... general principles and policies that OECD adhering Governments agree constitute responsible business... Written Comments Concerning the Administration's Review of the U.S. National Contact Point for the OECD... soliciting written comments and will hold a public meeting concerning the Administration's review of the U.S...

  15. The Relevance of Second Language Acquisition Theory to the Written Error Correction Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polio, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    The controversies surrounding written error correction can be traced to Truscott (1996) in his polemic against written error correction. He claimed that empirical studies showed that error correction was ineffective and that this was to be expected "given the nature of the correction process and "the nature of language learning" (p. 328, emphasis…

  16. When the index of refraction becomes real, it can be written as

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. When the index of refraction becomes real, it can be written as. When the index of refraction becomes real, it can be written as. Where; As X and Y are small, the equation can be approximated as; As X<<1,

  17. English tsotsitaals? − an analysis of two written texts in Surfspeak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... medium of English; (b) give an appreciation of the humour, wit and style associated with English tsotsitaals, via the analysis of two written texts; and (c) show the limitations of tsotsitaals in extended written usage, for which they have to co-exist with more mainstream forms of the dialect of English they utilise for their base.

  18. Relations between scripted online peer feedback processes and quality of written argumentative essay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noroozi, Omid; Biemans, Harm; Mulder, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Teachers often complain about the quality of students' written essays in higher education. This study explores the relations between scripted online peer feedback processes and quality of written argumentative essay as they occur in an authentic learning situation with direct practical relevance.

  19. Transforming Biology Assessment with Machine Learning: Automated Scoring of Written Evolutionary Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Ha, Minsu; Mayfield, Elijah

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the use of machine learning to automatically evaluate the accuracy of students' written explanations of evolutionary change. Performance of the Summarization Integrated Development Environment (SIDE) program was compared to human expert scoring using a corpus of 2,260 evolutionary explanations written by 565 undergraduate…

  20. Evidence for a Limited-Cascading Account of Written Word Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Roux, Sebastien; Barry, Christopher; Canell, Laura

    2012-01-01

    We address the issue of how information flows within the written word production system by examining written object-naming latencies. We report 4 experiments in which we manipulate variables assumed to have their primary impact at the level of object recognition (e.g., quality of visual presentation of pictured objects), at the level of semantic…

  1. A Spoken Genre Gets Written: Online Football Commentaries in English, French, and Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Sabater, Carmen; Pena-Martinez, Gemma; Turney, Ed; Montero-Fleta, Begona

    2008-01-01

    Many recent studies on computer-mediated communication (CMC) have addressed the question of orality and literacy. This article examines a relatively recent subgenre of CMC, that of written online sports commentary, that provides us with written CMC that is clearly based on firmly established oral genres, those of radio and television sports…

  2. Written Language Disorders: Speech-Language Pathologists' Training, Knowledge, and Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Gordon W.; Mamett, Callie; Gordon, Rebecca; Blood, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') perceptions of their (a) educational and clinical training in evaluating and treating written language disorders, (b) knowledge bases in this area, (c) sources of knowledge about written language disorders, (d) confidence levels, and (e) predictors of confidence in working with…

  3. Papa Pig Just Left for Pigtown: Children's Oral and Written Picture Descriptions under Varying Instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Temple, Jeanne M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigates the extent of variation in children's language performance in a picture description task arising from mode (oral or written) versus degree of demand for decontextualization. Finds that children manipulated the wide range of the oral form of the contextualized/decontextualized continuum more skillfully than the written form. Finds no…

  4. Morphosyntactic correctness of written language production in adults with moderate to severe congenital hearing loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, E.; de Jong, J.; Festen, J.M.; Coene, M.M.R.; Goverts, S.T.

    Objective To examine whether moderate to severe congenital hearing loss (MSCHL) leads to persistent morphosyntactic problems in the written language production of adults, as it does in their spoken language production. Design Samples of written language in Dutch were analysed for morphosyntactic

  5. Morphosyntactic correctness of written language production in adults with moderate to severe congenital hearing loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, Elke; de Jong, Jan; Festen, Joost M.; Coene, Martine M.R.; Goverts, S. Theo

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine whether moderate to severe congenital hearing loss (MSCHL) leads to persistent morphosyntactic problems in the written language production of adults, as it does in their spoken language production. Design Samples of written language in Dutch were analysed for morphosyntactic

  6. Visual feedback in written imaginal exposure for posttraumatic stress: a preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truijens, F.L.; van Emmerik, A.A.P.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the visual feedback hypothesis, which states that visual feedback from written trauma narratives contributes to the efficacy of written imaginal exposure in reducing posttraumatic stress, as visual feedback allows for the reuptake of traumatic content during the production of

  7. Advance Planning of Form Properties in the Written Production of Single and Multiple Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Markus F.; Stadthagen-Gonzalez, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the scope of advance planning in written production. Experiment 1 manipulated phonological factors in single word written production, and Experiments 2 and 3 did the same in the production of adjective-noun utterances. In all three experiments, effects on latencies were found which mirrored those previously…

  8. The Development of Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in the Written Production of L2 French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The present longitudinal case study investigated the development of fluency, complexity and accuracy--and the possible relationships between them--in the written production of L2 French. We assessed fluency and complexity in five intermediate learners by means of conventional indicators for written L2 (cf. Wolfe-Quintero et al. 1998), while…

  9. Exploring Management Strategies to Reduce Cheating in Written Examinations: Case Study of Midlands State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taderera, Ever; Nyikahadzoi, Loveness; Matamande, Wilson; Mandimika, Elinah

    2014-01-01

    This study was concerned about cheating in written examinations at Midlands State University (MSU). The study revealed that both male and female students cheat in written examination; business studies students cheat more than other faculties, and younger (lower class) students cheat more than (upper class) older students. Factors influencing…

  10. Relationships between Visual Static Models and Students' Written Solutions to Fraction Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Pence, Katie L.; Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.; Westenskow, Arla; Shumway, Jessica; Jordan, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to deconstruct the relationship between visual static models and students' written solutions to fraction problems using a large sample of students' solutions. Participants in the study included 162 third-grade and 209 fourth-grade students from 17 different classrooms. Students' written responses to open-ended tasks…

  11. Responding Effectively to Composition Students: Comparing Student Perceptions of Written and Audio Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbro, J.; Iluzada, C.; Clark, D. E.

    2013-01-01

    The authors compared student perceptions of audio and written feedback in order to assess what types of students may benefit from receiving audio feedback on their essays rather than written feedback. Many instructors previously have reported the advantages they see in audio feedback, but little quantitative research has been done on how the…

  12. 14 CFR 302.207 - Cases to be decided on written submissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... administrative law judge is otherwise required by the public interest. (b) The standards employed in deciding... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cases to be decided on written submissions....207 Cases to be decided on written submissions. (a) Applications under this subpart will be decided on...

  13. Strengthening Student Understanding of Mathematical Language through Verbal and Written Representations of the Intermediate Value Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey, Vicki; Deshler, Jessica M.; Hazen, Kirk

    2014-01-01

    As part of a larger research study, this paper describes calculus students' reasoning about the Intermediate Value Theorem (IVT) in verbal, written, and graphical form. During interviews, students were asked to verbally describe the IVT in their own words. They then provided written descriptions, watched video of their verbal descriptions,…

  14. 30 CFR 47.86 - Denial of a written request for disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Trade Secret Hazardous Chemical § 47.86 Denial of a written request for disclosure. To deny a written request for disclosure of the identity of a trade secret... claim that the chemical's identity is a trade secret, (2) Stating the specific reasons why the request...

  15. Interdisciplinary Care Planning and the Written Care Plan in Nursing Homes: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellefield, Mary Ellen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article is a critical review of the history, research evidence, and state-of-the-art technology in interdisciplinary care planning and the written plan of care in American nursing homes. Design and Methods: We reviewed educational and empirical literature. Results: Interdisciplinary care planning and the written care plan are…

  16. Written and Oral Production of Non-Narrative Information in Greek Elementary School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimakos, Ioannis C.; Porpodas, Constantine D.

    The production of non-narrative information (descriptive versus expository) across written and oral modes was examined for second-, fourth-, and sixth-grade Greek elementary school students. Written and oral protocols were taken from a total of 240 students at each of 3 grades and evaluated according to: (1) the size of the text produced, measured…

  17. Interplay among Technical, Socio-Emotional and Personal Factors in Written Feedback Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    The centrality of written feedback is clearly seen from the proliferation of research in the context of higher education. As an increasingly expanding field in research, the majority of written feedback studies have been interested in investigating the technical aspect of how feedback should be given in order to promote student learning. More…

  18. 47 CFR 76.939 - Truthful written statements and responses to requests of franchising authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truthful written statements and responses to requests of franchising authority. 76.939 Section 76.939 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.939 Truthful written statement...

  19. A Comparison of Written, Vocal, and Video Feedback When Training Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Kally M.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Wu, Wai-Ling; Dupuis, Danielle L.; Hussein, Louisa A.

    2018-01-01

    We compared the effectiveness of and preference for different feedback strategies when training six special education teachers during a 5-day summer training program. In Experiment 1, teachers received written or vocal feedback while learning to implement two different types of preference assessments. In Experiment 2, we compared either written or…

  20. A Case Study in Business Writing: An Examination of Documents Written by Executives and Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallion, Leona M.; Kavan, C. Bruce

    1994-01-01

    Examines the types of documents written by 23 executives/managers in 2 different companies, finding that the most frequently written documents are memorandums and letters. Notes implications for business writing courses. Suggests that students be required to prepare a wide variety of documents in business writing courses. (SR)

  1. Taken out of Context?: Examining the Influence of Context on Teachers' Written Responses to Student Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Bruce L.

    2016-01-01

    Although response scholarship has continually called for a greater emphasis on context when analyzing instructors' written commentary on student writing, textual analysis of written comments remains a primary direction for response research. Additionally, when context is accounted for, it is oftentimes done so in a rather reductive fashion, with a…

  2. An observation tool for instructor and student behaviors to measure in-class learner engagement: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa K. Alimoglu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Efforts are made to enhance in-class learner engagement because it stimulates and enhances learning. However, it is not easy to quantify learner engagement. This study aimed to develop and validate an observation tool for instructor and student behaviors to determine and compare in-class learner engagement levels in four different class types delivered by the same instructor. Methods: Observer pairs observed instructor and student behaviors during lectures in large class (LLC, n=2 with third-year medical students, lectures in small class (LSC, n=6 and case-based teaching sessions (CBT, n=4 with fifth-year students, and problem-based learning (PBL sessions (~7 hours with second-year students. The observation tool was a revised form of STROBE, an instrument for recording behaviors of an instructor and four randomly selected students as snapshots for 5-min cycles. Instructor and student behaviors were scored 1–5 on this tool named ‘in-class engagement measure (IEM’. The IEM scores were parallel to the degree of behavior's contribution to active student engagement, so higher scores were associated with more in-class learner engagement. Additionally, the number of questions asked by the instructor and students were recorded. A total of 203 5-min observations were performed (LLC 20, LSC 85, CBT 50, and PBL 48. Results: Interobserver agreement on instructor and student behaviors was 93.7% (κ=0.87 and 80.6% (κ=0.71, respectively. Higher median IEM scores were found in student-centered and problem-oriented methods such as CBT and PBL. A moderate correlation was found between instructor and student behaviors (r=0.689. Conclusions: This study provides some evidence for validity of the IEM scores as a measure of student engagement in different class types.

  3. An observation tool for instructor and student behaviors to measure in-class learner engagement: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimoglu, Mustafa K; Sarac, Didar B; Alparslan, Derya; Karakas, Ayse A; Altintas, Levent

    2014-01-01

    Efforts are made to enhance in-class learner engagement because it stimulates and enhances learning. However, it is not easy to quantify learner engagement. This study aimed to develop and validate an observation tool for instructor and student behaviors to determine and compare in-class learner engagement levels in four different class types delivered by the same instructor. Observer pairs observed instructor and student behaviors during lectures in large class (LLC, n=2) with third-year medical students, lectures in small class (LSC, n=6) and case-based teaching sessions (CBT, n=4) with fifth-year students, and problem-based learning (PBL) sessions (~7 hours) with second-year students. The observation tool was a revised form of STROBE, an instrument for recording behaviors of an instructor and four randomly selected students as snapshots for 5-min cycles. Instructor and student behaviors were scored 1-5 on this tool named 'in-class engagement measure (IEM)'. The IEM scores were parallel to the degree of behavior's contribution to active student engagement, so higher scores were associated with more in-class learner engagement. Additionally, the number of questions asked by the instructor and students were recorded. A total of 203 5-min observations were performed (LLC 20, LSC 85, CBT 50, and PBL 48). Interobserver agreement on instructor and student behaviors was 93.7% (κ=0.87) and 80.6% (κ=0.71), respectively. Higher median IEM scores were found in student-centered and problem-oriented methods such as CBT and PBL. A moderate correlation was found between instructor and student behaviors (r=0.689). This study provides some evidence for validity of the IEM scores as a measure of student engagement in different class types.

  4. Rhetorical Strategies Used in Indonesian Persuasive Essays Written by Students Majoring in Indonesian and in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Budi Cahyono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at comparing rhetorical strategies used in the Indonesian persuasive essays written by students majoring in Indonesian and those majoring in English. Two groups were involved: the third-year students of the Department of Indonesian Language and Literature and the fourth-year students of the English Department of the State University of Malang. They were asked to write persuasive essays on whether violence on TV programs should be restricted. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the rhetorical strategies in Indonesian persuasive essays written by students majoring in Indonesian and those written by students majoring in English. In general, the essays written by the students majoring in English were more successful than those written by the students majoring in Indonesian in terms of the superstructure of argument, the Toulmin model of informal reasoning, and the persuasive appeals

  5. Student Evaluation of Instruction: Comparison between In-Class and Online Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capa-Aydin, Yesim

    2016-01-01

    This study compares student evaluations of instruction that were collected in-class with those gathered through an online survey. The two modes of administration were compared with respect to response rate, psychometric characteristics and mean ratings through different statistical analyses. Findings indicated that in-class evaluations produced a…

  6. Children's relative age in class and use of medication for ADHD: a Danish Nationwide Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, J.; Hernandez, Diaz

    2014-01-01

    estimated the prevalence proportion ratio (PPR) of receiving ADHD medication between the youngest children in class (born in October-December) and the oldest in class (born in January-March), specified by grade level, calendar year and gender. As a sensitivity analysis, we added children not on their age...

  7. Online Quizzes Promote Inconsistent Improvements on In-Class Test Performance in Introductory Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory A.; Bice, Matthew R.; Shaw, Brandon S.; Shaw, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Review quizzes can provide students with feedback and assist in the preparation for in-class tests, but students often do not voluntarily use self-testing resources. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate if taking a mandatory online review quiz alters performance on subsequent in-class tests. During two semesters of a single-semester…

  8. WRITTEN FAITH: LITERARY ELEMENTS OF ITALIAN IMMIGRATION IN SOUTH BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Catarina Chitolina Zanini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present and analyze literary productions drawn up by descendants of Italian settlers in Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil and highlight how religiosity is a recurring theme present in this texts. This is a migration process that has more than a century and the writing activity proved to be a very usable tool in conservation (and construction of collectives or individuals memories for the contemporary generations.

  9. [Analysis of the speech and language national scientific production on written language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhoz, Cíntia Mara Affornalli; Massi, Giselle; Berberian, Ana Paula; Giroto, Claudia Regina Mosca; Guarinello, Ana Cristina

    2007-01-01

    National scientific production on written language in the scope of the Speech-Language and Hearing Sciences. To analyze part of the production of the Brazilian Speech-Language and Hearing Sciences on written language, between the years of 1980 and 2004, considering the following: publication period; distribution per period; types of publication; themes; and authorship. This research was developed through the selection and analysis of documents, such as; books, book chapters, and scientific articles published in seven national journals of the Speech-Language and Hearing Sciences (1980 to 2004). Scientific written production found in the studied period consisted of 236 publications. From this total, 3.39% were published during the 80s; 44.1% during the 90s; and 52.5% during the period of 2000-2004. Regarding the type of publication, 18.5% of the scientific production was published as books, 39% as book chapters and 42.5% as research articles. Considering authorship, 42 authors (76.36%) are entailed to institutions of higher education, either as professors or as students, with a higher concentration in the State of São Paulo and a lower concentration in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Overall, the analyzed written productions considered five themes: "Written language disorders" (52%); "Written language appropriation process" (23.5%); "Written language and deafness" (8.90%); "Written language and neurological disorders" (8.22%) and "Written language and school" (7.53%). This research recovered part of the scientific production on written language in the field of the Speech-Language and Hearing Sciences. The increase of publications on this theme suggests an improvement of the researches in the field of the Speech-Language and Hearing Sciences and, therefore, points to the importance of studies that analyze trends in our scientific production.

  10. "Writing Wasn't Really Stressed, Accurate Historical Analysis Was Stressed": Student Perceptions of In-Class Writing in the Inverted, General Education, University History Survey Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphree, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    Taking introductory history courses and writing analytical essays are not the favorite activities of most first-year university students. Undergraduates, seemingly, would rather enroll in classes that pertain only to their majors or job-preparation regimen. If forced to take General Education Program (GEP) courses, students typically favor those…

  11. Using a CBL Unit, a Temperature Sensor, and a Graphing Calculator to Model the Kinetics of Consecutive First-Order Reactions as Safe In-Class Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Russo, Deborah A.; Cortes-Figueroa, Jose E.; Schuman, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    The use of Calculator-Based Laboratory (CBL) technology, the graphing calculator, and the cooling and heating of water to model the behavior of consecutive first-order reactions is presented, where B is the reactant, I is the intermediate, and P is the product for an in-class demonstration. The activity demonstrates the spontaneous and consecutive…

  12. On Instantaneous Power Dissipation in Class B Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo Zhivomirov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the analysis of the instantaneous power dissipation by the two active components in a class B power amplifier. Attention is paid to restrictions of the instantaneous power dissipation relations in reference literature, and the consequences of their misuse. A new generalized equation that takes into account the power dissipated by the two active devices is proposed. The theoretical statement is substantiated by Matlab® numeric computation and visualization, Cadence OrCAD® simulations and measurements of a real-world audio power amplifier performed by NI USB-6211 measurement complex.

  13. Genetic epileptic encephalopathies: is all written into the DNA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striano, Pasquale; de Jonghe, Peter; Zara, Federico

    2013-11-01

    Epileptic encephalopathy is a condition in which epileptic activity, clinical or subclinical, is thought to be responsible for any disturbance of cognition, behavior, or motor control. However, experimental evidence supporting this clinical observation are still poor and the causal relationship between pharmacoresistant seizures and cognitive outcome is controversial. In the past two decades, genetic studies shed new light onto complex mechanisms underlying different severe epileptic conditions associated with intellectual disability and behavioral abnormalities, thereby providing important clues on the relationship between seizures and cognitive outcome. Dravet syndrome is a childhood disorder associated with loss-of-function mutations in SCN1A and is characterized by frequent seizures and severe cognitive impairment, thus well illustrating the concept of epileptic encephalopathy. However, it is difficult to determine the causative role of the underlying sodium channel dysfunction and that of the consequent seizures in influencing cognitive outcome in these children. It is also difficult to demonstrate whether a recognizable profile of cognitive impairment or a definite behavioral phenotype exists. Data from the laboratory and the clinics may provide greater insight into the degree to which epileptic activity may contribute to cognitive impairment in individual syndromes. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

  14. Orthographic revision: a developmental study of how revisers check verbal agreements in written texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largy, Pierre; Dédéyan, Alexandra; Hupet, Michel

    2004-12-01

    Writing is a complex activity involving various cognitive processes in the planning, the transcription and the revision of written texts. The present study focused on the revision of written texts within a developmental approach. The study aimed to examine whether children and adults use different procedures to detect and revise erroneous grammatical agreements. It was predicted that children would use a slow algorithmic procedure while adults would use a fast automatized procedure. One hundred and twenty participants from 5th grade to undergraduate levels (24 per level) participated in the study. The participants were asked to decide as quickly as possible whether a visually presented sentence had any agreement error. The French experimental sentences were of the type 'The N1 of the N2 + Verb', in which N2 was either a plausible subject of the following verb (e. g., The guard of the prisoners watches) or an implausible subject (e. g., The guard of the safes watches). Correctness and latency of the responses were recorded. The main results showed that only the younger participants were affected by the subject-role plausibility of N2, and that there was no difference in response latency between their correct and incorrect responses. These observations support the hypothesis that the younger participants systematically apply a time-consuming algorithmic procedure to verify the agreement; since one step of this procedure consists in searching for the subject of the verb, these participants were frequently misled by the subject-role plausibility of N2. On the contrary, the older participants were not affected by the plausibility of N2, but were frequently misled by erroneous agreements between N2 and the verb. These observations support the view that these older participants use a fast decision strategy based on the co-occurrence of formal indices. Their correct answers, however, were slower than their incorrect ones; this suggests that they also sometimes use a time

  15. Written pain neuroscience education in fibromyalgia: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ittersum, Miriam W; van Wilgen, C Paul; van der Schans, Cees P; Lambrecht, Luc; Groothoff, Johan W; Nijs, Jo

    2014-11-01

    Mounting evidence supports the use of face-to-face pain neuroscience education for the treatment of chronic pain patients. This study aimed at examining whether written education about pain neuroscience improves illness perceptions, catastrophizing, and health status in patients with fibromyalgia. A double-blind, multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial with 6-month follow-up was conducted. Patients with FM (n = 114) that consented to participate were randomly allocated to receive either written pain neuroscience education or written relaxation training. Written pain neuroscience education comprised of a booklet with pain neuroscience education plus a telephone call to clarify any difficulties; the relaxation group received a booklet with relaxation education and a telephone call. The revised illness perception questionnaire, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and fibromyalgia impact questionnaire were used as outcome measures. Both patients and assessors were blinded. Repeated-measures analyses with last observation carried forward principle were performed. Cohen's d effect sizes (ES) were calculated for all within-group changes and between-group differences. The results reveal that written pain neuroscience education does not change the impact of FM on daily life, catastrophizing, or perceived symptoms of patients with FM. Compared with written relaxation training, written pain neuroscience education improved beliefs in a chronic timeline of FM (P = 0.03; ES = 0.50), but it does not impact upon other domains of illness perceptions. Compared with written relaxation training, written pain neuroscience education slightly improved illness perceptions of patients with FM, but it did not impart clinically meaningful effects on pain, catastrophizing, or the impact of FM on daily life. Face-to-face sessions of pain neuroscience education are required to change inappropriate cognitions and perceived health in patients with FM. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  16. Drawn and Written Funds of Knowledge: A Window into Emerging Bilingual Children's Experiences and Social Interpretations through Their Written Narratives and Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Adriana

    2018-01-01

    This qualitative study examines Mexican-American emerging bilingual children's depictions of their lives in the form of written narratives and drawings as a window into their own understandings and interpretations of social contexts and life experiences. Narratives that include drawings were collected once a month in a first grade classroom during…

  17. In-Class Cycling to Augment College Student Academic Performance and Reduce Physical Inactivity: Results from an RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanae Joubert

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Most college students sit 14 hours per week on average, excluding sedentary study time. Researchers observing workplace and elementary school settings with active workstations to combat sedentary behavior have shown enhanced cognition without distraction. Until now, incorporating active workstations in college classroom settings remained relatively unexplored. This study’s purpose was to assess academic performance using in-class stationary cycle desks during a semester-long lecture course. Twenty-one college students (19–24 years enrolled in a lecture course volunteered and were split into traditional sit (SIT and stationary cycle (CYC groups randomly, matched on a calculated factor equal to a physical activity (PA score (0–680 multiplied by grade point average (GPA; 4.0 scale. CYC pedaled a prescribed rate of perceived exertion (RPE of less than 2 out of 10 during a 50-min lecture, 3 × week for 12 weeks. CYC averaged 42 min, 7.9 miles, and 1.7 RPE during class throughout the semester. No significant differences (p > 0.05 were observed between CYC and SIT on in-class test scores or overall course grades. Although statistically insignificant, CYC had higher mean test scores and overall course grades vs. SIT (i.e., B+ vs. B, respectively. Low intensity cycling during a college lecture course maintained student academic performance and possibly reduced weekly sedentary behavior time.

  18. In-Class Cycling to Augment College Student Academic Performance and Reduce Physical Inactivity: Results from an RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Lanae; Kilgas, Matthew; Riley, Alexandrea; Gautam, Yuba; Donath, Lars; Drum, Scott

    2017-11-04

    Most college students sit 14 hours per week on average, excluding sedentary study time. Researchers observing workplace and elementary school settings with active workstations to combat sedentary behavior have shown enhanced cognition without distraction. Until now, incorporating active workstations in college classroom settings remained relatively unexplored. This study's purpose was to assess academic performance using in-class stationary cycle desks during a semester-long lecture course. Twenty-one college students (19-24 years) enrolled in a lecture course volunteered and were split into traditional sit (SIT) and stationary cycle (CYC) groups randomly, matched on a calculated factor equal to a physical activity (PA) score (0-680) multiplied by grade point average (GPA; 4.0 scale). CYC pedaled a prescribed rate of perceived exertion (RPE) of less than 2 out of 10 during a 50-min lecture, 3 × week for 12 weeks. CYC averaged 42 min, 7.9 miles, and 1.7 RPE during class throughout the semester. No significant differences ( p > 0.05) were observed between CYC and SIT on in-class test scores or overall course grades. Although statistically insignificant, CYC had higher mean test scores and overall course grades vs. SIT (i.e., B⁺ vs. B, respectively). Low intensity cycling during a college lecture course maintained student academic performance and possibly reduced weekly sedentary behavior time.

  19. The Effects of Authentic Reading Activities on the Written Production of Novice College Spanish Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capanegra, Ana Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Many scholars have researched reading-to-writing relations, some of which found reading to be an effective enhancer of writing (Al-Jarf, 2004; Asencior, 2006; Lee, 1986a; Lee & Riley, 1990; Perez-Sotelo & Gonzalez-Bueno, 2003; Shang, 2007). Similar beginner college student samples were used previously by Asencior (2006), Perez-Sotelo and…

  20. The Composer’s Program Note for Newly Written Classical Music: Content and Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Diana M.; Bennett, Dawn; Stevenson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    In concerts of western classical music the provision of a program note is a widespread practice dating back to the 18th century and still commonly in use. Program notes tend to inform listeners and performers about historical context, composer biographical details, and compositional thinking. However, the scant program note research conducted to date reveals that program notes may not foster understanding or enhance listener enjoyment as previously assumed. In the case of canonic works, performers and listeners may already be familiar with much of the program note information. This is not so in the case of newly composed works, which formed the basis of the exploratory study reported here. This article reports the views of 17 living contemporary composers on their writing of program notes for their own works. In particular, the study sought to understand the intended recipient, role and the content of composer-written program notes. Participating composers identified three main roles for their program notes: to shape a performer’s interpretation of the work; to guide, engage or direct the listener and/or performer; and as collaborative mode of communication between the composer, performer, and listener. For some composers, this collaboration was intended to result in “performative listening” in which listeners were actively engaged in bringing each composition to life. This was also described as a form of empathy that results in the co-construction of the musical experience. Overall, composers avoided giving too much personal information and they provided performers with more structural information. However, composers did not agree on whether the same information should be provided to both performers and listeners. Composers’ responses problematize the view of a program note as a simple statement from writer to recipient, indicating instead a more complex set of relations at play between composer, performer, listener, and the work itself. These relations

  1. The Composer's Program Note for Newly Written Classical Music: Content and Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Diana M; Bennett, Dawn; Stevenson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    In concerts of western classical music the provision of a program note is a widespread practice dating back to the 18th century and still commonly in use. Program notes tend to inform listeners and performers about historical context, composer biographical details, and compositional thinking. However, the scant program note research conducted to date reveals that program notes may not foster understanding or enhance listener enjoyment as previously assumed. In the case of canonic works, performers and listeners may already be familiar with much of the program note information. This is not so in the case of newly composed works, which formed the basis of the exploratory study reported here. This article reports the views of 17 living contemporary composers on their writing of program notes for their own works. In particular, the study sought to understand the intended recipient, role and the content of composer-written program notes. Participating composers identified three main roles for their program notes: to shape a performer's interpretation of the work; to guide, engage or direct the listener and/or performer; and as collaborative mode of communication between the composer, performer, and listener. For some composers, this collaboration was intended to result in "performative listening" in which listeners were actively engaged in bringing each composition to life. This was also described as a form of empathy that results in the co-construction of the musical experience. Overall, composers avoided giving too much personal information and they provided performers with more structural information. However, composers did not agree on whether the same information should be provided to both performers and listeners. Composers' responses problematize the view of a program note as a simple statement from writer to recipient, indicating instead a more complex set of relations at play between composer, performer, listener, and the work itself. These relations are

  2. The composer’s program note for newly-written classical music: content and intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Mary Blom

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In concerts of western classical music the provision of a program note is a widespread practice dating back to the 18th century and still commonly in use. Program notes tend to inform listeners and performers about historical context, composer biographical details and compositional thinking. However, the scant program note research conducted to date reveals that program notes may not foster understanding or enhance listener enjoyment as previously assumed. In the case of canonic works, performers and listeners may already be familiar with much of the program note information. This is not so in the case of newly composed works, which formed the basis of the exploratory study reported here. This article reports the views of 17 living contemporary composers on their writing of program notes for their own works. In particular the study sought to understand the intended recipient, intended role and the content of composer-written program notes. Participating cComposers identified three main roles for their program notes: to shape a performer’s interpretation of the work; to guide, engage or direct the listener and/or performer; and as collaborative mode of communication between the composer, performer and listener. For some composers this collaboration was intended to result in performative listening in which listeners were actively engaged in bringing each composition to life. This was also described as a form of empathy that results in the co-construction of the musical experience. Overall, composers avoided giving too much personal information and they provided performers with more structural information. However, composers did not agree on whether the same information should be provided to both performers and listeners. Composers’ responses problematize the view of a program note as a simple statement from writer to recipient, indicating instead a more complex set of relations at play between composer, performer, listener and the work itself

  3. Anaphoric reference strategies used in written language productions of deaf teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarinello, Ana Cristina; Pereira, Maria Cristina da Cunha; Massi, Giselle; Santana, Ana Paula; Berberian, Ana Paula

    2008-01-01

    There are few researchers who analyze written productions by deaf individuals; there are also few researchers who discuss the knowledge these people have about written text comprehension and production. For the present study, the investigators analyzed 16 written productions by four deaf individuals based on the anaphoric reference concept as recently proposed in textual linguistics (see, e.g., I. V. Koch & L. A. Marcuschi, 2002). It is important to show that referential progression is one of the textual aspects capable of giving stability and continuity to written productions; referential progression is also relevant to discursive coherence. The results of the writing analysis in the present study show that deaf individuals can learn to use expressive resources that are available in the Portuguese language and can use reference strategies, as long as these individuals can interact with a partner who knows Portuguese.

  4. To improve the teaching of construction of written texts and regulations from all curriculum areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Abello Cruz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In th is article it is offered theoretical references for the construction of texts written according to the rules and suggestions for the daily performance in the universities of pedagogical sciences, since all curricular areas.

  5. Analyse de textes ecrits et apprentissage "grammatical" (Analysis of Written Texts and Learning of Grammar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moirand, Sophie

    1977-01-01

    Presents a method for teaching grammar through an understanding of the content of a written text, using a three-fold approach: sociolinguistic, linguistic, and logico-syntactical. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  6. 10 CFR 35.41 - Procedures for administrations requiring a written directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with the treatment plan, if applicable, and the written directive; (3) Checking both manual and computer-generated dose calculations; and (4) Verifying that any computer-generated dose calculations are...

  7. Which characteristics of written feedback are perceived as stimulating students' reflective competence : an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Hanke; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Snoek, Jos W.; van der Molen, Thys; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-01-01

    Background: Teacher feedback on student reflective writing is recommended to improve learners' reflective competence. To be able to improve teacher feedback on reflective writing, it is essential to gain insight into which characteristics of written feedback stimulate students' reflection processes.

  8. Written object naming, spelling to dictation, and immediate copying: Different tasks, different pathways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Méot, Alain; Lagarrigue, Aurélie; Roux, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    We report an investigation of cross-task comparisons of handwritten latencies in written object naming, spelling to dictation, and immediate copying. In three separate sessions, adults had to write down a list of concrete nouns from their corresponding pictures (written naming), from their spoken (spelling to dictation) and from their visual presentation (immediate copying). Linear mixed models without random slopes were performed on the latencies in order to study and compare within-task fixed effects. By-participants random slopes were then included to investigate individual differences within and across tasks. Overall, the findings suggest that written naming, spelling to dictation, and copying all involve a lexical pathway, but that written naming relies on this pathway more than the other two tasks do. Only spelling to dictation strongly involves a nonlexical pathway. Finally, the analyses performed at the level of participants indicate that, depending on the type of task, the slower participants are more or less influenced by certain psycholinguistic variables.

  9. Facebook as a Modern Tool for Teaching English Written Communication to Students-Philologists

    OpenAIRE

    Hlazunov, M.

    2016-01-01

    The article analyses Facebook social network as a means of teaching English written communication to students. The basic features of the network have been analyzed, its basic advantages and possible drawbacks have been pointed out.

  10. On Verification of PLC-Programs Written in the LD-Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kuzmin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss some questions connected with the construction of a technology of analysing correctness of Programmable Logic Controller programs. We consider an example of modeling and automated verification of PLC-programs written in the Ladder Diagram language (including timed function blocks of the IEC 61131-3 standard. We use the Cadence SMV for symbolic model checking. Program properties are written in the linear-time temporal logic LTL.

  11. About the psycholinguistic models of the writing process for a didactics of written production1

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Debanc, Claudine; Fayol, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This article problematises the possible areas of cooperation between psycholinguists and specialists in didactics by underlining both the interests of an interaction between them and the specific and complementary mission of both fields.After a historic overview of how references to psycholinguistic works emerged in the research on the didactics of written production, the main models of verbal production, especially of written verbal production, published during the 1980s and1990s are present...

  12. The Contribution of Verbal Working Memory to Deaf Children?s Oral and Written Production

    OpenAIRE

    Arf?, Barbara; Rossi, Cristina; Sicoli, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of verbal working memory to the oral and written story production of deaf children. Participants were 29 severely to profoundly deaf children aged 8?13 years and 29 hearing controls, matched for grade level. The children narrated a picture story orally and in writing and performed a reading comprehension test, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition forward digit span task, and a reading span task. Oral and written stories were anal...

  13. Improving Family Medicine Residents’ Written Communication Using a Self-assessment Process

    OpenAIRE

    François, José

    2012-01-01

    Background Although competency in written communication is a core skill, written communication is seldom the focus of formal instruction in medical education. The objective of this intervention was to implement a self-assessment strategy to assist learners in improving their letter writing skills and then to evaluate its feasibility, reliability and potential educational value. Methods Eight first-year family medicine residents from two teaching sites completing a six month family medicine ro...

  14. College Can Fire Teacher for Swearing at Student in Class, U.S. Court Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    1987-01-01

    An appellate court found that a college faculty member's use of offensive language in class was unprofessional, interfered with instruction, and not protected by principles of free speech and academic freedom. (MSE)

  15. Representation of Power in Class Discourse: A Study of Communication Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumadi Jumadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at describing the use of power in class discourse covering representation of power in speech act, representation of power in communication patterns and function of power in class discourse. Communication ethnography and pragmatic methods were used. The research results show that the use of directive, assertive, and expressive acts in class discourse represent the power with certain domination; that the control of speech topics, interruptions, and overlapping tend to represent the power with certain domination that also effect the legitimacy of the user of this strategy. In relation to its function, power in class discourse is applied as a preventive, supportive, and corrective acts in order to achieve instructional objective.

  16. Written reflection in assessment and appraisal: GP and GP trainee views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Pamela; Taylor, Gordon; Riley, Ruth; Pelly, Tom; Harris, Michael

    2017-05-01

    In the UK, evidence of written reflection is part of licensing and revalidation for general practitioners (GPs). However, there is little evidence of specific benefits compared to other forms of reflective practice. To seek GPs' and general practice (GP) trainees' views on the role of written reflection in learning and assessment. An online survey of 1005 GPs and GP trainees (GPTs) in the UK. An anonymous questionnaire containing 38 attitudinal items was administered. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse Likert scale responses, thematic analysis for free-text responses. In total 544 GPs and 461 GPTs completed the survey, with 842 (83.8%) agreeing they find verbal reflection with a colleague more useful than written reflection. Three quarters disagreed that written reflection is a way of identifying poorly performing GPs. Over 70% of respondents stated that summative, written reflection is a time-consuming, box-ticking exercise which distracts from other learning. They question its validity as part of assessment and state that its use may contribute to current difficulties with recruitment and retention to GP. For many GPs, written reflection is an onerous process rather than beneficial to their learning, indicating its continued use in assessment needs to be critically examined.

  17. Vocabulary, phonological awareness and rapid naming: contributions for spelling and written production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Thereza Mazorra dos; Befi-Lopes, Debora Maria

    2012-01-01

    To investigate if the performance on linguistic tasks would be predictive of orthographic domain and quality of written productions. Participants were 82 fourth graders of Elementary Education, from public and private schools of São Paulo, with ages ranging from 9 years to 10 years and 2 months. The test battery was composed of an expressive vocabulary test, phonological awareness and rapid serial naming tasks, words and pseudowords spelling, and written text composition using a visual stimulus as a starting point. The statistical analysis included Spearman (r) correlations among all tasks. The results indicated that the better the vocabulary skills, the smaller the number of spelling errors and the better the quality of the written text productions, considering all the analyzed categories. Also, the higher performance in both phonological awareness and rapid object naming tasks was correlated to fewer spelling errors and written text productions with greater grammatical structure. The linguistic abilities analyzed in this study were predictive of subjects' spelling performance. The vocabulary skills were predictive of the quality of written text productions. However, phonological awareness and rapid serial naming were only predictive of children's performance concerning the syntactic and grammatical structure of their written text productions.

  18. Common Written Errors Of English Departement Student in IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyntia Heru Woro Prastiwi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Common Written Errrors of English Department Students in IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro. Writing is still considered to be the most difficult skill to master as it combines ideas getting, grammatical structures, vocabulary, and mechanics. Producing good written English is an essential and required skill for English Department Students. This study examines the common errors in written English produced by the students of English Department in IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro. The error analysis on writing aims at giving the English teacher or lecturer data about common written errors and arousing the students to be more confident and enthusiastic in producing good writing by giving them correction symbols. Data were collected from narrative and descriptive texts written by the students of class 2C of English Department in IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro. The errors are analyzed in ten categories which use ten correction symbols, they are: 1 S (spelling, WO (word order, G (grammar, T (tense, C (concord, ! (missing things, WW (wrong word, [ ] (unnecessary things, ?M (unclear meaning, and P (punctuation. The overall results indicate that the most errors the students made were grammar mistakes and unnecessary things. On the contrary, the students made the least errors in word order. It was also found that the students made errors in the rest categories including spelling, tenses, concord, missing things, wrong words, unclear meaning, and punctuation. Key words: common errors, written English, correction symbols, descriptive qualitative.

  19. DISCOURSE AND PARTICIPATION IN ESL FACE-TO-FACE AND WRITTEN ELECTRONIC CONFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fitze

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was a comparative investigation of face-to-face and written electronic conferences. The participants were advanced English as a second language (hereafter: ESL students. The two types of conferences were compared in terms of textual features and participation. There was no statistically significant difference in the total number of words that students produced in an equivalent amount of time in the two types of conferences. The discourse in written electronic conferences displayed greater lexical range, and students in these conferences produced more discourse demonstrating interactive competence. The statistically significant finding of increased lexical range in written electronic conferences persisted even when the interactive discourse was eliminated from the conference transcripts and the transcripts were reanalyzed. This finding suggests that, during written electronic conferences, students were better able to use and practice a wider range of vocabulary related to the topics. For one of the groups, participation in written electronic conferences was more balanced among students, while for the other group participation was about equally balanced regardless of the conference setting. This last finding came as a surprise and points to a need for further research into variables that might mediate balanced participation in face-to-face and written electronic conferences.

  20. INVESTIGATING TURNTAKING STRATEGIES IN CLASS DISCUSSIONS AMONG ESL ADULT LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Hanim Rahmat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This quantitative study looked into class discussion strategies used by adult ESL learners. Findings revealed several benefits of class discussions for adult learners. Among some of them are, adult learners practice turn-taking skills in a non-combative environment. The sharing of ideas allowed freedom of thoughts among the learners. On the other hand, adult learners also learn to agree or disagree politely using turn-taking strategies. Finally, the benefits of class discussions may go beyond classroom needs such as improving critical thinking skills among learners. This ability is seen when learners participate in group work and discussions. Learners gain accessibility to participate comfortably in discussions when they are pun in a non-combative environment. This will thus give them the freedom to discuss any topics openly. This freedom will further enhance their general participation in the discussion. However, in a normal conversational process, speakers need to learn to speak up and also to give others space to voice their opinions. Learners need the knowledge of turn-taking skills in order to participate actively in the discussion. This turn-taking skills can be taught in ESL classrooms through class discussions.

  1. Engaged Journalism: Using Experiential Learning Theory (ELT) for In-Class Journaling Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J. Jacob; Clarke, Tracylee

    2017-01-01

    Educators have long recognized the value and import of class journaling. Traditional approaches to journaling, however, only engage students in one mode of communicative expression while allowing them to procrastinate in writing their entries. Typical journals are also read exclusively by the instructor, which overlooks the opportunity for…

  2. Soft tissue changes inconclusive in Class II division 1 patients treated with Activator and Bionator appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin

    2007-01-01

    DATA SOURCES: Medline, Medline In-Process and other non-indexed citations, Lilacs, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and all evidence-based medicine reviews were searched. The reference lists of the retrieved articles were also searched by hand for possible missing articles. Authors were contacted to

  3. Science Learning: A path analysis of its links with reading comprehension, question-asking in class and science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Francisco; García, Ángela; Berbén, A. B. G.; Justicia, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to build and test a conceptual model of the complex interrelationships between students' learning in science (learning approaches and self-regulation), their reading comprehension, question-asking in class and science achievement. These variables were measured by means of a test and a series of questionnaires administered to 604 ninth-grade students, and the data collected were analysed using a correlational, cross-sectional design. Results of a path analysis indicated that (a) students' self-regulated and intentional knowledge-constructing activity (self-regulated strategy use, deep approach and knowledge-building) were what chiefly accounted for their question-asking in class; (b) question-asking (high and low levels) was related directly to reading comprehension and indirectly, through its contribution to the this, to academic achievement; (c) reading comprehension was directly and negatively associated with surface approach and indirectly and positively related to deep approach and knowledge-building; and (d) some of these variables, particularly reading comprehension, accounted for academic achievement in science. This model explained nearly 30% of the variance in academic achievement and provided a substantial and distinctive insight into the web of interrelationships among these variables. Implications for future research and science teaching and learning are discussed (e.g. the importance of supporting students' efforts to learn science in a meaningful, active and self-regulated way and of improving their reading comprehension).

  4. Can Facebook pages be a mode of blended learning to supplement in-class teaching in Saudi Arabia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Khurshid; Sajid, Muhammad Raihan; Cahusac, Peter; Shaikh, Abdul Ahad; Elgammal, Ahmad; Alshedoukhy, Ahlam; Kashir, Junaid

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the potential of a self-designed Facebook page on Neuroscience, to supplement in-class teaching as a mode of blended learning. Posts were split into multiple choice questions (MCQs), general interest articles, neuroscience-related external links and resources, and lecture notes and PowerPoint presentations. The study was divided into three distinct phases: before, during, and after the Neuroscience block. Student responses were evaluated via a self-developed questionnaire. Grades achieved by students undertaking the block in 2015 and 2014 were recorded, as were the grades achieved by the same cohort in concurrent blocks in the same year of study. Results showed that ~80% of students reported that use of the page enhanced their overall subject knowledge and exam preparation. Highest page activity occurred during the Neuroscience block. Peak activity occurred directly before summative assessments, with MCQ posts having the highest impact. The cohort of students with access to the Facebook page achieved better grades in the block compared with the previous cohort, despite similar average performance in other subjects. We demonstrate the utility of Facebook as a powerful tool for undergraduate education, supplementing in-class teaching, and assisting in exam preparation, potentially increasing average student performance. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Cognitive training for children with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial of cogmed working memory training and 'paying attention in class'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Donk, Marthe; Hiemstra-Beernink, Anne-Claire; Tjeenk-Kalff, Ariane; van der Leij, Aryan; Lindauer, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this randomized controlled trial was to replicate and extend previous studies of Cogmed Working Memory Training (CWMT) in children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While a large proportion of children with ADHD suffer from academic difficulties, only few previous efficacy studies have taken into account long term academic outcome measures. So far, results regarding academic outcome measures have been inconsistent. Hundred and two children with ADHD between the age of 8 and 12 years (both medicated and medication naïve) participated in current randomized controlled trial. Children were randomly assigned to CWMT or a new active combined working memory- and executive function compensatory training called 'Paying Attention in Class.' Primary outcome measures were neurocognitive functioning and academic performance. Secondary outcome measures contained ratings of behavior in class, behavior problems, and quality of life. Assessment took place before, directly after and 6 months after treatment. Results showed only one replicated treatment effect on visual spatial working memory in favor of CWMT. Effects of time were found for broad neurocognitive measures, supported by parent and teacher ratings. However, no treatment or time effects were found for the measures of academic performance, behavior in class or quality of life. We suggest that methodological and non-specific treatment factors should be taken into account when interpreting current findings. Future trials with well-blinded measures and a third 'no treatment' control group are needed before cognitive training can be supported as an evidence-based treatment of ADHD. Future research should put more effort into investigating why, how and for whom cognitive training is effective as this would also potentially lead to improved intervention- and study designs.

  6. Public preferences on written informed consent for low-risk pragmatic clinical trials in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal-Ré, Rafael; Carcas, Antonio J; Carné, Xavier; Wendler, David

    2017-09-01

    Pragmatic randomized clinical trials (pRCTs) collect data that have the potential to improve medical care significantly. However, these trials may be undermined by the requirement to obtain written informed consent, which can decrease accrual and increase selection bias. Recent data suggest that the majority of the US public endorses written consent for low-risk pRCTs. The present study was designed to assess whether this view is specific to the US. The study took the form of a cross-sectional, probability-based survey, with a 2 × 2 factorial design, assessing support for written informed consent vs. verbal consent or general notification for two low-risk pRCTs in hypertension, one comparing two drugs with similar risk/benefit profiles and the other comparing the same drug being taken in the morning or at night. The primary outcome measures were respondents' personal preference and hypothetical recommendation to a research ethics committee regarding the use of written informed consent vs. the alternatives. A total of 2008 adults sampled from a probability-based online panel responded to the web-based survey conducted in May 2016 (response rate: 61%). Overall, 77% of respondents endorsed written consent. In both scenarios, the alternative of general notification received significantly more support (28.7-37.1%) than the alternative of verbal consent (12.7-14.0%) (P = 0.001). Forty per cent of respondents preferred and/or recommended general notification rather than written consent. The results suggested that, rather than attempting to waive written consent, current pRCTs should focus on developing ways to implement written consent that provide sufficient information without undermining recruitment or increasing selection bias. The finding that around 40% of respondents endorsed general notification over written consent raises the possibility that, with educational efforts, the majority of Spaniards might accept general notification for low-risk pRCTs. © 2017 The

  7. Morphosyntactic correctness of written language production in adults with moderate to severe congenital hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huysmans, Elke; de Jong, Jan; Festen, Joost M; Coene, Martine M R; Goverts, S Theo

    2017-07-01

    To examine whether moderate to severe congenital hearing loss (MSCHL) leads to persistent morphosyntactic problems in the written language production of adults, as it does in their spoken language production. Samples of written language in Dutch were analysed for morphosyntactic correctness and syntactic complexity. 20 adults with MSCHL and 10 adults with normal hearing (NH). Adults with MSCHL did not differ from adults with NH in the morphosyntactic correctness and syntactic complexity of their written utterances. Within the MSCHL group, the number of morphosyntactic errors in writing was related to the degree of hearing loss in childhood. At the group level, MSCHL does not affect the morphosyntactic correctness of language produced in the written modality, in contrast to earlier observed effects on spoken language production. However, at the individual level, our data suggest that adults who acquired their language with more severe auditory limitations are more at risk of persistent problems with morphosyntax in written language production than adults with a lower degree of hearing loss in childhood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Contribution of Verbal Working Memory to Deaf Children’s Oral and Written Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfé, Barbara; Rossi, Cristina; Sicoli, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of verbal working memory to the oral and written story production of deaf children. Participants were 29 severely to profoundly deaf children aged 8–13 years and 29 hearing controls, matched for grade level. The children narrated a picture story orally and in writing and performed a reading comprehension test, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition forward digit span task, and a reading span task. Oral and written stories were analyzed at the microstructural (i.e., clause) and macrostructural (discourse) levels. Hearing children’s stories scored higher than deaf children’s at both levels. Verbal working memory skills contributed to deaf children’s oral and written production over and above age and reading comprehension skills. Verbal rehearsal skills (forward digit span) contributed significantly to deaf children’s ability to organize oral and written stories at the microstructural level; they also accounted for unique variance at the macrostructural level in writing. Written story production appeared to involve greater verbal working memory resources than oral story production. PMID:25802319

  9. Written emotional disclosure for adults with Type 2 diabetes: a primary care feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennick, Kathryn; Bridle, Chris; Sturt, Jackie

    2015-04-01

    To test the feasibility of written emotional disclosure (WED) for UK primary care patients with Type 2 diabetes. WED holds potential to address depressive symptoms in diabetes, yet its feasibility, and potential benefit, for primary care patients has not been established. Forty-one adults with Type 2 diabetes were randomised to WED (n=23) or neutral writing (n=18). Principal outcomes were feasibility of recruitment, compliance, acceptability and intervention fidelity. Potential benefit was assessed on between-group differences in depressive symptoms (Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale), diabetes distress (Problem Areas in Diabetes scale), diabetes self-management behaviours (Summary of Diabetes Self-care Activities questionnaire) and perceived health status (EQ-5D) at three-month follow-up. Recruitment was modest (6%), yet an unmet treatment need was identified. Fourteen intervention (61%) and 13(72%) control participants returned their writing, while 12 in each group (89%) then completed all sessions. Intervention fidelity was confirmed. Acceptability to patients was mixed. Exploratory effectiveness analyses suggested that relative to improvement in controls, WED is associated with a potentially clinically important worsening in depressive symptoms (P=0.006) and a non-significant trend for a reduction in healthy dietary behaviour (P=0.057). There was no significant effect on other outcomes. The exploratory nature of the study, however, necessitates that the observed effects are interpreted with caution, and both the feasibility and effectiveness findings may be an artefact of the sample obtained. The evidence for the feasibility of WED in primary care diabetes was hence mixed, and in an unevaluated environment it may cause iatrogenic harm. On balance, WED is apparently not appropriate for use in this context in its current format. At most, further research with a more appropriate sample is required. The feasibility that was demonstrated and the

  10. Hands typing what hands do: Action-semantic integration dynamics throughout written verb production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Adolfo M; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2016-04-01

    Processing action verbs, in general, and manual action verbs, in particular, involves activations in gross and hand-specific motor networks, respectively. While this is well established for receptive language processes, no study has explored action-semantic integration during written production. Moreover, little is known about how such crosstalk unfolds from motor planning to execution. Here we address both issues through our novel "action semantics in typing" paradigm, which allows to time keystroke operations during word typing. Specifically, we created a primed-verb-copying task involving manual action verbs, non-manual action verbs, and non-action verbs. Motor planning processes were indexed by first-letter lag (the lapse between target onset and first keystroke), whereas execution dynamics were assessed considering whole-word lag (the lapse between first and last keystroke). Each phase was differently delayed by action verbs. When these were processed for over one second, interference was strong and magnified by effector compatibility during programming, but weak and effector-blind during execution. Instead, when they were processed for less than 900ms, interference was reduced by effector compatibility during programming and it faded during execution. Finally, typing was facilitated by prime-target congruency, irrespective of the verbs' motor content. Thus, action-verb semantics seems to extend beyond its embodied foundations, involving conceptual dynamics not tapped by classical reaction-time measures. These findings are compatible with non-radical models of language embodiment and with predictions of event coding theory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Written reflection and drawing as assessment: A case study of a Navajo elementary science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Madeline

    The purpose of the study was to assess if science learning could be determined by using written reflection and drawings in a science classroom of 5 th-grade Navajo students. The significance of this study was the understanding of the culture, assessments and learning of Navajo students. I studied a classroom on the Navajo reservation wherein 26 members of the class took part in science instruction complemented by using writing and drawing which were used as their assessments. The perceptions of the 8 students who were interviewed represent the case. In the study I profiled the 8 participants. Their culture, language, and views on assessment and learning were documented by their words. Their responses described their learning experiences. Assessments were seen as frustrating and limiting expression of what was known and damaging when not contributed to learning. Students explained that drawing enabled them to remember along with provoking vocabulary development. Student cultural knowledge was documented as valuable background experience contributing to learning within the classroom. Students viewed science as needing to be useful in their culture. Finally, they were also very candid that their teachers must first get to know them for meaningful learning to begin. Learning for students was reinforced through writing and drawing the lesson's activities. Further concept development was assisted utilizing metacognition and creative problem solving techniques of elaboration and fluency applied to the writing and drawings. Based on the findings of this study, recommendations were made for use of holistic means of assessing Navajo children in science where preferred learning styles along with cultural background need to be included in assessment protocols. Using new and better assessment techniques can directly impact how students document their learning as well as reveal how they acquire new knowledge.

  12. Tracking the time course of lexical access in orthographic production: An event-related potential study of word frequency effects in written picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Qingqing; Zhang, Qingfang; Damian, Markus F

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies of spoken picture naming using event-related potentials (ERPs) have shown that speakers initiate lexical access within 200ms after stimulus onset. In the present study, we investigated the time course of lexical access in written, rather than spoken, word production. Chinese participants wrote target object names which varied in word frequency, and written naming times and ERPs were measured. Writing latencies exhibited a classical frequency effect (faster responses for high- than for low-frequency names). More importantly, ERP results revealed that electrophysiological activity elicited by high- and low frequency target names started to diverge as early as 168ms post picture onset. We conclude that lexical access during written word production is initiated within 200ms after picture onset. This estimate is compatible with previous studies on spoken production which likewise showed a rapid onset of lexical access (i.e., within 200ms after stimuli onset). We suggest that written and spoken word production share the lexicalization stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Descriptive Study of Registers Found in Spoken and Written Communication (A Semantic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hidayah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is descriptive study of registers found in spoken and written communication. The type of this research is Descriptive Qualitative Research. In this research, the data of the study is register in spoken and written communication that are found in a book entitled "Communicating! Theory and Practice" and from internet. The data can be in the forms of words, phrases and abbreviation. In relation with method of collection data, the writer uses the library method as her instrument. The writer relates it to the study of register in spoken and written communication. The technique of analyzing the data using descriptive method. The types of register in this term will be separated into formal register and informal register, and identify the meaning of register.

  14. [Differences in morphological awareness, written composition and vocabulary in children from 8 to 11 years old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Jesús Nicasio; González, Lorena

    2006-05-01

    We present a descriptive study of the differences in the morphological awareness in writing (production and judgement), the written vocabulary and the written composition through the essay task (productivity and quality) in children from 8 to 11 years old. We studied 132 students, from 3rd to 6th primary school, coming from six schools. Data evidence a general pattern of improvement as a function of age, although this change pattern is complex in the morphological awareness and depends on the layer analyzed and on the type of task. Similarly, the written morphological awareness is the best predictor of age group. We discuss the implications for the educational practice, and we explicit the shortcoming of the study and the need to implement instructional and longitudinal studies.

  15. Written accounts of an Amazonian landscape over the last 450 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Nigel C A; Azáldegui, María Del Carmen Loyola; Salas, Karina; Vigo, Gabriela T; Lutz, David A

    2007-02-01

    Books, articles, government documents, and other written accounts of tropical biology and conservation reach a tiny fraction of their potential audience. Some texts are inaccessible because of the language in which they are written. Others are only available to subscribers of developed-world journals, or distributed narrowly within tropical countries. To examine this dysfunction in the tropical literature--and what it means for conservation--we tried to compile everything ever written on the biology and conservation of the department of Madre de Dios, Peru, in southwestern Amazonia. Our search of libraries, databases, and existing bibliographies uncovered 2,202 texts totaling roughly 80,000 pages. Texts date from 1553 to 2004, but 93% were written after 1970. Since that year the publication rate has increased steadily from fewer than 10 texts/year to nearly 3 texts/week in 2004. Roughly half of the Madre de Dios bibliography is in Spanish-language texts written by Peruvian authors and mostly inaccessible outside Peru. Most of the remaining material is English-language texts written by foreign authors and largely inaccessible in Peru. Foreign authors tended to write about ecological studies with limited relevance to on-the-ground conservation challenges, whereas Peruvian authors were more likely to make specific management recommendations. The establishment of a Web-based digital library for Neotropical nature would help make the tropical literature a more efficient resource for science and conservation. Additional recommendations include investing in syntheses, translations, popular summaries, and peer-reviewed journals in tropical countries, providing incentives for management-relevant research in tropical protected areas, and reinforcing training of scientific reading and writing in tropical universities.

  16. Consumer Preferences for Written and Oral Information about Allergens When Eating Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begen, Fiona M; Barnett, Julie; Payne, Ros; Roy, Debbie; Gowland, M Hazel; Lucas, Jane S

    2016-01-01

    Avoiding food allergens when eating outside the home presents particular difficulties for food allergic (FA) and intolerant (FI) consumers and a lack of allergen information in restaurants and takeaways causes unnecessary restrictions. Across Europe, legislation effective from December 2014, aims to improve allergen information by requiring providers of non-prepacked foods to supply information related to allergen content within their foods. Using in-depth interviews with 60 FA/FI adults and 15 parents/carers of FA/FI children, we aimed to identify FA/FI consumers' preferences for written and/or verbal allergen information when eating out or ordering takeaway food. A complex and dynamic set of preferences and practices for written and verbal allergen information was identified. Overwhelmingly, written information was favoured in the first instance, but credible personal/verbal communication was highly valued and essential to a good eating out experience. Adequate written information facilitated implicit trust in subsequent verbal information. Where written information was limited, FA/FIs depended on social cues to assess the reliability of verbal information resources, and defaulted to tried and tested allergen avoidance strategies when these were deemed unreliable. Understanding the subtle negotiations and difficulties encountered by FA/FIs when eating out can serve as a guide for legislators and food providers; by encouraging provision of clear written and verbal allergen information, and training of proactive, allergen-aware staff. This, in tandem with legal requirements for allergen information provision, paves the way for FA/FIs to feel more confident in eating out choices; and to experience improved eating out experiences.

  17. Designing written medication instructions: effective ways to help older adults self-medicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Karen

    2005-05-01

    One of the goals of Healthy People 2010 is for 95% of patients who are ordered medication to receive written medication instructions. The declining physical condition often associated with advanced age, lower literacy levels, and education among members of the current elderly cohorts, and increasingly complex medication regimes for chronic illness affect the ability of many older adults to learn. This article addresses Geragogy, the art and science of helping older adults learn, complimentary theories of learning, and examples of how they can be used to guide the construction of appropriate written medication instructions for older adults.

  18. Application programs written by using customizing tools of a computer-aided design system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.; Huang, R.; Juricic, D. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Customizing tools of Computer-Aided Design Systems have been developed to such a degree as to become equivalent to powerful higher-level programming languages that are especially suitable for graphics applications. Two examples of application programs written by using AutoCAD`s customizing tools are given in some detail to illustrate their power. One tool uses AutoLISP list-processing language to develop an application program that produces four views of a given solid model. The other uses AutoCAD Developmental System, based on program modules written in C, to produce an application program that renders a freehand sketch from a given CAD drawing.

  19. The "SignOn"-Model for Teaching Written Language to Deaf People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Hilzensauer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a method of teaching written language to deaf people using sign language as the language of instruction. Written texts in the target language are combined with sign language videos which provide the users with various modes of translation (words/phrases/sentences. As examples, two EU projects for English for the Deaf are presented which feature English texts and translations into the national sign languages of all the partner countries plus signed grammar explanations and interactive exercises. Both courses are web-based; the programs may be accessed free of charge via the respective homepages (without any download or log-in.

  20. Written emotional disclosure: a controlled study of the benefits of expressive writing homework in outpatient psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Maria C; Gaudiano, Brandon A; Geller, Pamela A

    2008-07-01

    The current study investigated the extent to which outpatient psychotherapy clients benefited from Pennebaker's expressive writing protocol (Pennebaker & Beall, 1986) adapted for use as a homework intervention. Participants were randomly assigned to written emotional disclosure or writing control conditions. Pre- and postintervention outcome measures were collected for three consecutive therapy sessions. Clients in the written emotional disclosure group showed significantly greater reductions in anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as greater overall progress in psychotherapy in comparison to the writing control group. Results suggest that emotional disclosure writing homework, in conjunction with outpatient psychotherapy, facilitates therapeutic process and outcome.

  1. Blog Posting After Lung Cancer Notification: Content Analysis of Blogs Written by Patients or Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Akira; Aramaki, Eiji; Shimamoto, Yumiko; Tanaka, Shiro; Kawakami, Koji

    2015-05-18

    The advent and spread of the Internet has changed the way societies communicate. A portion of information on the Internet may constitute an important source of information concerning the experiences and thoughts of patients and their families. Patients and their families use blogs to obtain updated information, search for alternative treatments, facilitate communication with other patients, and receive emotional support. However, much of this information has yet to be actively utilized by health care professionals. We analyzed health-related information in blogs from Japan, focusing on the feelings and satisfaction levels of lung cancer patients or their family members after being notified of their disease. We collected 100 blogs written in Japanese by patients (or their families) who had been diagnosed with lung cancer by a physician. These 100 blogs posts were searchable between June 1 and June 30, 2013. We focused on blog posts that addressed the lung cancer notification event. We analyzed the data using two different approaches (Analysis A and Analysis B). Analysis A was blog content analysis in which we analyzed the content addressing the disease notification event in each blog. Analysis B was patient's dissatisfaction and anxiety analysis. Detailed blog content regarding patient's dissatisfaction and anxiety at the individual sentence level was coded and analyzed. The 100 blog posts were written by 48 men, 46 women, and 6 persons whose sex was undisclosed. The average age of the blog authors was 52.4 years. With regard to cancer staging, there were 5 patients at Stage I, 3 patients at Stage II, 14 patients at Stage III, 21 patients at Stage IV, and 57 patients without a disclosed cancer stage. The results of Analysis A showed that the proportion of patients who were dissatisfied with the level of health care exceeded that of satisfied patients (22% vs 8%). From the 2499 sentences in the 100 blog posts analyzed, we identified expressions of dissatisfaction and

  2. De l'exercice ecrit au texte litteraire (From Written Exercises to Literary Texts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapotot, Franck

    1981-01-01

    Proposes a novel approach to the teaching of writing for advanced language classes. This approach leads students working in pairs through various exercises that enable them to produce a text with given style characteristics. Students' texts are then discussed in class and finally compared with suitable literary models. (MES)

  3. Format und Durchführung schriftlicher Prüfungen [Format and implementation of written assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulze, Johannes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] According to the new German licensing regulations all clinical certificates have to be graded; mostly this requires written tests. Methods tested to date include tests for passive knowledge (single choice questions, multiple choice questions, progress test and active knowledge (short essay questions, long essay questions. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of these methods, as well as the resources required for test preparation, testing and grading of student answers. [german] Alle Leistungsnachweise des klinischen Studienabschnittes nach neuer Ärztlicher Approbationsordnung müssen benotet werden; hierzu sind in der Regel schriftliche Prüfungen notwendig. Bisher erprobte Methoden beinhalten die Prüfung passiven Wissens (Einfachauswahlfragen, multiple choice-Fragen, progress test-Fragen und aktiven Wissens (short essay questions, long essay questions. Vor- und Nachteile dieser Verfahren werden diskutiert, sowie die zur Erstellung, Durchführung und Auswertung schriftlicher Prüfungen notwendigen Ressourcen.

  4. The oral and written side of word production in young and older adults: generation of lexical neighbors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Christelle; Mathey, Stéphanie

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aging on both spoken and written word production by using analogous tasks. To do so, a phonological neighbor generation task (Experiment 1) and an orthographic neighbor generation task (Experiment 2) were designed. In both tasks, young and older participants were given a word and had to generate as many words as they could think of by changing one phoneme in the target word (Experiment 1) or one letter in the target word (Experiment 2). The data of the two experiments were consistent, showing that the older adults generated fewer lexical neighbors and made more errors than the young adults. For both groups, the number of words produced, as well as their lexical frequency, decreased as a function of time. These data strongly support the assumption of a symmetrical age-related decline in the transmission of activation within the phonological and orthographic systems.

  5. An Analysis of Written Feedback on a PhD Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Stracke, Elke

    2007-01-01

    This paper offers an interim analysis of written feedback on a first draft of a PhD thesis. It first looks at two sources of data: in-text feedback and overall feedback. Looking at how language is used in its situational context, we then coded the feedback and developed a model for analysis based on three fundamental functions of speech:…

  6. Speech-language therapy for adolescents with written-language difficulties: the South African context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, D; Schutte, L; van der Merwe, M; Geertsema, S

    2013-12-01

    To investigate whether privately practising speech-language therapists in South Africa are fulfilling their role of identification, assessment and intervention for adolescents with written-language and reading difficulties. Further needs concerning training with regard to this population group were also determined. A survey study was conducted, using a self-administered questionnaire. Twenty-two currently practising speech-language therapists who are registered members of the South African Speech-Language-Hearing Association (SASLHA) participated in the study. The respondents indicated that they are aware of their role regarding adolescents with written-language difficulties. However, they feel that South-African speech-language therapists are not fulfilling this role. Existing assessment tools and interventions for written-language difficulties are described as inadequate, and culturally and age inappropriate. Yet, the majority of the respondents feel that they are adequately equipped to work with adolescents with written-language difficulties, based on their own experience, self-study and secondary training. The respondents feel that training regarding effective collaboration with teachers is necessary to establish specific roles, and to promote speech-language therapy for adolescents among teachers. Further research is needed in developing appropriate assessment and intervention tools as well as improvement of training at an undergraduate level.

  7. 49 CFR 1114.28 - Depositions, requests for admission, written interrogatories, and responses thereto: inclusion in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Depositions, requests for admission, written interrogatories, and responses thereto: inclusion in record. 1114.28 Section 1114.28 Transportation Other... interrogatories, and responses thereto: inclusion in record. At the oral hearing, or upon the submission of...

  8. Information Extraction to Generate Visual Simulations of Car Accidents from Written Descriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugues, P.; Dupuy, S.; Egges, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a system to create animated 3D scenes of car accidents from written reports. The text-to-scene conversion process consists of two stages. An information extraction module creates a tabular description of the accident and a visual simulator generates and animates the scene. We

  9. You and Me and Human Sexuality: A Student Booklet Written for Deaf Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas School for the Deaf, Austin.

    This student booklet, designed to teach deaf adolescents about human sexuality, is written for students with a second- to fourth-grade reading level. Topics include: (1) relationships; (2) adolescent growth and development; (3) female and male anatomy; (4) conception, fetal development, and birth; (5) contraception; and (6) sexual intercourse and…

  10. Hedging to save face: a linguistic analysis of written comments on in-training evaluation reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Shiphra; van der Vleuten, Cees; Eva, Kevin W; Lingard, Lorelei

    2016-03-01

    Written comments on residents' evaluations can be useful, yet the literature suggests that the language used by assessors is often vague and indirect. The branch of linguistics called pragmatics argues that much of our day to day language is not meant to be interpreted literally. Within pragmatics, the theory of 'politeness' suggests that non-literal language and other strategies are employed in order to 'save face'. We conducted a rigorous, in-depth analysis of a set of written in-training evaluation report (ITER) comments using Brown and Levinson's influential theory of 'politeness' to shed light on the phenomenon of vague language use in assessment. We coded text from 637 comment boxes from first year residents in internal medicine at one institution according to politeness theory. Non-literal language use was common and 'hedging', a key politeness strategy, was pervasive in comments about both high and low rated residents, suggesting that faculty may be working to 'save face' for themselves and their residents. Hedging and other politeness strategies are considered essential to smooth social functioning; their prevalence in our ITERs may reflect the difficult social context in which written assessments occur. This research raises questions regarding the 'optimal' construction of written comments by faculty.

  11. Effects of Verbal and Written Performance Feedback on Treatment Adherence: Practical Application of Two Delivery Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Dahlia; Codding, Robin S.; Markus, Keith A.; Tryon, Georgiana Shick; Kyse, Eden Nagler

    2013-01-01

    Verbal and written performance feedback for improving preschool and kindergarten teachers' treatment integrity of behavior plans was compared using a combined multiple-baseline and multiple-treatment design across teacher-student dyads with order counterbalanced as within-series conditions. Supplemental generalized least square regression analyses…

  12. The effect of direct and indirect corrective feedback on L2 learners’ written accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beuningen, C.G.; de Jong, N.H.; Kuiken, F.

    2008-01-01

    Among scholars there is disagreement on the benefits of corrective feedback on second language learners’ written output. While some researchers advocate the usefulness of corrective feedback, Truscott claims that all error correction is unnecessary, ineffective, and even harmful, in that it diverts

  13. The Efficacy of Dynamic Written Corrective Feedback for University-Matriculated ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Norman W.; Hartshorn, K. James; Strong-Krause, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Truscott's (1996) indictment on error correction in second-language (L2) writing has ignited much discussion and research on the appropriateness of written corrective feedback (WCF) in L2 contexts. Out of this has emerged a body of research that suggests that WCF can positively impact the linguistic accuracy of student writing. However, these…

  14. How EFL Students Can Use Google to Correct Their "Untreatable" Written Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiller, Luc

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of an experiment in which a group of 17 French post-secondary EFL learners used Google to self-correct several "untreatable" written errors. Whether or not error correction leads to improved writing has been much debated, some researchers dismissing it is as useless and others arguing that error feedback…

  15. Learners' Uses of Two Types of Written Feedback on a L2 Writing Revision Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Rebecca; Polio, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of written error corrections versus reformulations of second language learners' writing as two means of improving learners' grammatical accuracy on a three-stage composition-comparison-revision task. Concurrent verbal protocols were employed during the comparison stage in order to study the learners' reported…

  16. Language, literacy, attentional behaviors, and instructional quality predictors of written composition for first graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Otaiba, Stephanie Al; Sidler, Jessica Folsom; Gruelich, Luana

    2013-07-01

    We had two primary purposes in the present study: (1) to examine unique child-level predictors of written composition which included language skills, literacy skills (e.g., reading and spelling), and attentiveness and (2) to examine whether instructional quality (quality in responsiveness and individualization, and quality in spelling and writing instruction) is uniquely related to written composition for first-grade children ( N = 527). Children's written composition was evaluated on substantive quality (ideas, organization, word choice, and sentence flow) and writing conventions (spelling, mechanics, and handwriting). Results revealed that for the substantive quality of writing, children's grammatical knowledge, reading comprehension, letter writing automaticity, and attentiveness were uniquely related. Teachers' responsiveness was also uniquely related to the substantive quality of written composition after accounting for child predictors and other instructional quality variables. For the writing conventions outcome, children's spelling and attentiveness were uniquely related, but instructional quality was not. These results suggest the importance of paying attention to multiple component skills such as language, literacy, and behavioral factors as well as teachers' responsiveness for writing development.

  17. Using Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Written Expression with Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Robert; Hagaman, Jessica L.; Graham, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This review assessed the use of self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) for teaching written composition strategies to students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. We examined the participants and the settings in which SRSD has been used, the writing strategies tested, genres addressed, and the effects of SRSD on outcome measures.…

  18. Effects of the Design of Written Music on the Readability for Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Nanke; Timmermans, Anneke; Korpershoek, Hanke

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the design of written music and the number of mistakes dyslexic and non-dyslexic children make in reading music is investigated in this study. Previous research shows that children with dyslexia experience difficulties with reading music, especially discerning pitch. Common mistakes of dyslexic…

  19. South Asian Students' Needs for Cantonese and Written Chinese in Hong Kong: A Linguistic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, David C. S.; Chuk, Joanne Y. P.

    2015-01-01

    Based on qualitative data obtained from 15 South Asian (SA) B.Ed. (EL) (Bachelor of Education in English Language) students, this study reports on SA students' difficulty in mastering Mandarin-based written Chinese and the vernacular Cantonese in Hong Kong. For convenience, SA here also refers to students whose homeland is the Philippines. Since…

  20. The Effects of Specificity and Position of Written Instructional Objectives on Learning from Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Paula Nassif

    The effects of specificity and position of written instructional objectives on learning from an audiotaped lecture were investigated using materials from Rothkopf and Kaplan (1972). Subjects received either specific or general objectives before or after the four sections of the lecture. A control group received no objectives. Vocabulary items used…

  1. 21 CFR 111.16 - What are the requirements under this subpart C for written procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements under this subpart C for written procedures? 111.16 Section 111.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  2. 21 CFR 111.103 - What are the requirements under this subpart F for written procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements under this subpart F for written procedures? 111.103 Section 111.103 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  3. 21 CFR 111.503 - What are the requirements under this subpart N for written procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements under this subpart N for written procedures? 111.503 Section 111.503 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  4. 21 CFR 111.403 - What are the requirements under this subpart L for written procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements under this subpart L for written procedures? 111.403 Section 111.403 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  5. 21 CFR 111.353 - What are the requirements under this subpart K for written procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements under this subpart K for written procedures? 111.353 Section 111.353 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  6. 21 CFR 111.453 - What are the requirements under this subpart for M written procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements under this subpart for M written procedures? 111.453 Section 111.453 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  7. 21 CFR 111.8 - What are the requirements under this subpart B for written procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements under this subpart B for written procedures? 111.8 Section 111.8 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  8. 21 CFR 111.153 - What are the requirements under this subpart G for written procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements under this subpart G for written procedures? 111.153 Section 111.153 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  9. 21 CFR 111.25 - What are the requirements under this subpart D for written procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements under this subpart D for written procedures? 111.25 Section 111.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  10. 21 CFR 111.553 - What are the requirements under this subpart O for written procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements under this subpart O for written procedures? 111.553 Section 111.553 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  11. 21 CFR 111.303 - What are the requirements under this subpart J for written procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements under this subpart J for written procedures? 111.303 Section 111.303 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  12. Computer-Assisted Learning for the Hearing Impaired: An Interactive Written Language Enviroment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R. D.; Rostron, A. B.

    1983-01-01

    To help hearing-impaired children develop their linguistic competence, a computer system that can process sentences and give feedback about their acceptability was developed. Suggestions are made of ways to use the system as an environment for interactive written communication. (Author/CL)

  13. Correcting students’ written grammatical errors: The effects of negotiated versus nonnegotiated feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Nassaji

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A substantial number of studies have examined the effects of grammar correction on second language (L2 written errors. However, most of the existing research has involved unidirectional written feedback. This classroom-based study examined the effects of oral negotiation in addressing L2 written errors. Data were collected in two intermediate adult English as a second language classes. Three types of feedback were compared: nonnegotiated direct reformulation, feedback with limited negotiation (i.e., prompt + reformulation and feedback with negotiation. The linguistic targets chosen were the two most common grammatical errors in English: articles and prepositions. The effects of feedback were measured by means of learner-specific error identification/correction tasks administered three days, and again ten days, after the treatment. The results showed an overall advantage for feedback that involved negotiation. However, a comparison of data per error types showed that the differential effects of feedback types were mainly apparent for article errors rather than preposition errors. These results suggest that while negotiated feedback may play an important role in addressing L2 written errors, the degree of its effects may differ for different linguistic targets.

  14. Individual Differences in the "Myside Bias" in Reasoning and Written Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Three studies examined the "myside bias" in reasoning, evaluating written arguments, and writing argumentative essays. Previous research suggests that some people possess a fact-based argumentation schema and some people have a balanced argumentation schema. I developed reliable Likert scale instruments (1-7 rating) for these constructs…

  15. How Do Finnish Children Express Care and Justice in Comic Strips and Written Narratives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Juha; Hannula, Markku S.

    2014-01-01

    This case study explored how children's moral expressions like love and violence differ according to the mode of narrative, comic strips or written narratives. Sixteen third-grade children from a primary school in Finland took part in the study. Children's moral expressions were divided into justice and care. Reading frequency of fairy tales and…

  16. An Analysis of Tense Errors in the Written English of Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates tense errors in the written English of selected science students of Gombe State University, Nigeria. The work identifies the level of students' competence in the use of the different tense forms in expression as well as the extent to which the problem of wrong use of tense affects the overall ability of the ...

  17. The Written Corrective Feedback Debate: Next Steps for Classroom Teachers and Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Language teachers spend much of their time providing corrective feedback on students' writing in hope of helping them improve grammatical accuracy. Turning to research for guidance, however, can leave practitioners with few concrete answers as to the effectiveness of written corrective feedback (CF). Debate in the literature continues, reflecting…

  18. The Effect of Teachers' Written Corrective Feedback (WCF) Types on Intermediate EFL Learners' Writing Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajanloo, Khadijeh; Mobini, Fariba; Khosravi, Robab

    2016-01-01

    Written Corrective Feedback (WCF) is a controversial topic among theorists and researchers in L2 studies. Ellis, Sheen, Murakami, and Takashima (2008) identify two dominant dichotomies in this regard, that is focused vs. unfocused WCF and direct vs. indirect WCF. This study considered both dichotomies in a matrix format, resulted in the…

  19. Are Written Instructions Enough? Efficacy of Male Condom Packaging Leaflets among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Dana F.; Harbke, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether or not written condom use instructions successfully inform correct condom use skills. Design: Between-subjects, two-group design. Setting: Public university located in rural Midwestern region of the United States. Method: Participants were randomly assigned to either a control condition (read physical exercise…

  20. 76 FR 42762 - Final Written Re-Evaluation for Environmental Impact Statement: Sikorsky Memorial Airport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Final Written Re-Evaluation for Environmental Impact Statement: Sikorsky... Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) has been completed for Sikorsky Memorial Airport in... analysis contained in a Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) that the FAA issued in May 1999. No...

  1. 15 CFR 2003.2 - Testimony and submission of written briefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testimony and submission of written briefs. 2003.2 Section 2003.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE REGULATIONS OF TRADE POLICY STAFF COMMITTEE § 2003.2...

  2. The Students' Procedural Fluency and Written-Mathematical Explanation on Constructed Response Tasks in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Romiro G.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze the procedural fluency and written-mathematical explanation to select constructed response tasks of students in Thermodynamics problems. The study made use of 2 sections, composed of 26 students, in University Physics 1 to conclude on the research problem. It made use of the assumption that mathematical and…

  3. Difference between Written and Spoken Czech: The Case of Verbal Nouns Denoting an Action

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolářová, V.; Kolář, Jan; Mikulová, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 1 (2017), s. 19-38 ISSN 0032-6585 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : written Czech * spoken Czech * verbal nouns Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/pralin.2017.107.issue-1/pralin-2017-0002/pralin-2017-0002. xml

  4. The Contribution of Verbal Working Memory to Deaf Children's Oral and Written Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfé, Barbara; Rossi, Cristina; Sicoli, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of verbal working memory to the oral and written story production of deaf children. Participants were 29 severely to profoundly deaf children aged 8-13 years and 29 hearing controls, matched for grade level. The children narrated a picture story orally and in writing and performed a reading comprehension…

  5. Self-Assessment of Topic Development in Written Production among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Yoko Suganuma

    2014-01-01

    The present study mainly focuses on the topic development in student written production through the consistency between student self-assessment and teacher assessment. In the present study, topic development means "cohesion", "overall organization", and "coherence". It proposes the next hypotheses: (i) Students could…

  6. The Role of Task Type in Foreign Language Written Production: Focusing on Fluency, Complexity, and Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezazadeh, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Mansoor; Rasekh, Abbas Eslami

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two task types on foreign language written production. Particularly it addressed the issue of how three aspects of language production (i.e. fluency, complexity, and accuracy) vary among two different task types (i.e. argumentative writing task and instruction writing task). One hundred sixty…

  7. Attentive Reading With Constrained Summarization Adapted to Address Written Discourse in People With Mild Aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeyer, Jessica A; Edmonds, Lisa A

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the preliminary efficacy of Attentive Reading and Constrained Summarization-Written (ARCS-W) in people with mild aphasia. ARCS-W adapts an existing treatment, ARCS (Rogalski & Edmonds, 2008), to address discourse level writing in mild aphasia. ARCS-W focuses on the cognitive and linguistic skills required for discourse production. This study was a within-subject pre-postdesign. Three people with mild aphasia participated. ARCS-W integrates attentive reading or listening with constrained summarization of discourse level material in spoken and written modalities. Outcomes included macro- (main concepts) and microlinguistic (correct information units, complete utterances) discourse measures, confrontation naming, aphasia severity, and functional communication. All 3 participants demonstrated some generalization to untrained spoken and written discourse at the word, sentence, and text levels. Reduced aphasia severity and/or increased functional communication and confrontation naming were also observed in some participants. The findings of this study provide preliminary evidence of the efficacy of ARCS-W to improve spoken and written discourse in mild aphasia. Different generalization patterns suggest different mechanisms of improvement. Further research and replication are required to better understand how ARCS-W can impact discourse abilities.

  8. Written Pain Neuroscience Education in Fibromyalgia : A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ittersum, Miriam W.; van Wilgen, C. Paul; van der Schans, Cees P.; Lambrecht, Luc; Groothoff, Johan W.; Nijs, Jo

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports the use of face-to-face pain neuroscience education for the treatment of chronic pain patients. This study aimed at examining whether written education about pain neuroscience improves illness perceptions, catastrophizing, and health status in patients with fibromyalgia. A

  9. The Present in Flemish Secondary History Education through the Lens of Written History Exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nieuwenhuyse, Karel; Wils, Kaat; Clarebout, Geraldine; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2015-01-01

    The present plays an important part in history education, in particular in efforts to make the study of the past relevant for today. This contribution examines how the relationship between past and present is dealt with in current Flemish secondary history education by analyzing 190 written history exams for the 11th and 12th grade. Ten percent of…

  10. From Monologue to Dialogue: Improving Written Feedback Processes in Mass Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, David

    2010-01-01

    Student surveys across the world have highlighted that students are dissatisfied with the feedback they receive on their assignments and many institutions have been putting plans in place to address this issue. Much of this work has focused on improving the quality of written comments. This paper takes a different perspective. It argues that the…

  11. Speech Language Group Therapy in the Context of Written Language for Deaf Subjects in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarinello, Ana Cristina; Massi, Giselle; Berberian, Ana Paula; Tonocchi, Rita; Valentin, Silvana Mendonça Lopes

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to investigate deaf people's reasons to participate in a therapeutic group and to analyze some of their reflections on the use of written Portuguese language produced inside this group within a sociocultural perspective. It was carried out at a School for the deaf located in Curitiba, Paraná State/Brazil in a partnership with…

  12. Audio and Written Comments in an Online Undergraduate Composition Class: Student and Instructor Approaches and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Andrew; Song, Liyan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated students' and instructors' approaches and preferences to audio and written comments in an online undergraduate composition class. A mixed-method design was employed utilizing both a survey instrument and interviews for data collection. Forty-nine students and five instructors participated. Students gave more positive…

  13. Investigating Expectations and Experiences of Audio and Written Assignment Feedback in First-Year Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Hannah; Oldfield, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that audio feedback may be an important mechanism for facilitating effective and timely assignment feedback. The present study examined expectations and experiences of audio and written feedback provided through "turnitin for iPad®" from students within the same cohort and assignment. The results showed that…

  14. Batch processing images in Adobe Photoshop using a script written in JavaScript

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Сергеевна Дидык

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to consider the possibility of automating the processing of a series of photographs. Particular attention is paid to the use of scripts written in the programming language Java Script for Adobe Photoshop. Java Script scenarios are dynamic and have significant advantages over a simple-to-use Action.

  15. A Model for Doctoral Students' Perceptions and Attitudes toward Written Feedback for Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Gulfidan; Walker, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate social science doctoral students' perceptions and attitudes toward written feedback about their academic writing and towards those who provide it. The study culminates in an explanatory model to describe the relationships between students' perceptions and attitudes, their revision decisions, and other…

  16. Pragmatic Features in Original Narratives Written by African American Students at Three Grade Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, Jessica M.; Anderson, Michele A.; Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Nelson, Nickola W.

    2015-01-01

    African American English has a rich oral tradition, with identifiable features across all 5 systems of language--phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. This is an investigation of the extent to which pragmatic features of African American oral storytelling traditions are apparent in the written stories of African American…

  17. 20 CFR 404.630 - Use of date of written statement as filing date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... data on the Internet Social Security Benefit Application to us, we will use the date of the... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of date of written statement as filing date. 404.630 Section 404.630 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE...

  18. Written and Computer-Mediated Accounting Communication Skills: An Employer Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    Communication skills are a fundamental personal competency for a successful career in accounting. What is not so obvious is the specific written communication skill set employers look for and the extent those skills are computer mediated. Using survey research, this article explores the particular skills employers desire and their satisfaction…

  19. Developing Oral and Written Communication Skills in Undergraduate Computer Science and Information Systems Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortsarts, Yana; Fischbach, Adam; Rufinus, Jeff; Utell, Janine M.; Yoon, Suk-Chung

    2010-01-01

    Developing and applying oral and written communication skills in the undergraduate computer science and computer information systems curriculum--one of the ABET accreditation requirements - is a very challenging and, at the same time, a rewarding task that provides various opportunities to enrich the undergraduate computer science and computer…

  20. Special Education in Saudi Arabia: A Synthesis of Literature Written in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamimi, Ahmed A.; Lee, Lay Wah; Sayed-Ahmed, Al-sayed A.; Kassem, Mostafa M.

    2015-01-01

    Special education in Saudi Arabia was formally established in 1962. The earliest cited literature on special education written in English was a 1970 government report. This article presents results from the first synthesis of internationally published Saudi special education literature over a 44-year period. This synthesis yielded information…

  1. Mass Communications in Israel: A Bibliography of Articles, Pamphlets, and Books Written in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotliffe, Harvey

    This bibliography on mass communications in Israel contains articles, pamphlets, and books written in English covering the areas of advertising, Arab mass communications, broadcast authority, censorship, culture and communication, film, press and propaganda, publishing writers, radio, commercial and educational television, and the theatre arts.…

  2. Prose Checklist: Strategies for Improving School-to-Home Written Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagro, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Effective communication enhances school-family partnerships. Written communication is a common, efficient way of communicating with families, but potential barriers to effective communication include readability level, clarity of presentation, complexity of format, and structural components. The PROSE Checklist presented in this article can…

  3. Gender Differences in Written Expression Curriculum-Based Measurement in Third- through Eighth-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearrington, Jamie Y.; Parker, Patricia D.; Kidder-Ashley, Pamela; Gagnon, Sandra G.; McCane-Bowling, Sara; Sorrell, Christy A.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have found gender differences in certain areas of academic achievement, such as reading and math. Fewer studies have examined gender disparities in writing skills. The current study explored gender differences in written expression performance. Participants were 1,240 male and female students in third through eighth grade,…

  4. Managing the Written Text: The Beginning of Punctuation in Children's Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Emilia; Pontecorvo, Clotilde

    1999-01-01

    Studied the use of punctuation in children's early writings in connection with organization of the text. Collected 134 stories of second graders written in Spanish, Portuguese, or Italian. Children tried to make sense of writing conventions, including the use of punctuation, and some tried to distinguish the functions of punctuation marks. (SLD)

  5. Controlling the volatility of the written optical state in electrochromic DNA liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Kai; Varghese, Justin; Gerasimov, Jennifer Y.; Polyakov, Alexey O.; Shuai, Min; Su, Juanjuan; Chen, Dong; Zajaczkowski, Wojciech; Marcozzi, Alessio; Pisula, Wojciech; Noheda, Beatriz; Palstra, Thomas T. M.; Clark, Noel A.; Herrmann, Andreas

    Liquid crystals are widely used in displays for portable electronic information display. To broaden their scope for other applications like smart windows and tags, new material properties such as polarizer-free operation and tunable memory of a written state become important. Here, we describe an

  6. Transformation through Research-Based Reflection: A Self-Study of Written Feedback Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the written feedback the author gave during her first year as a university English as a second language writing instructor. The article investigates the form (questions, commands, comments) and the themes (organization, content, grammar) of feedback, the use of mitigation, and the treatment of grammar errors. It shows how…

  7. Integrating Written Communication Skills: Working towards a Whole of Course Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Australian universities, through their graduate attributes, claim that graduates have the ability to communicate, an attribute encompassing, at the least, written and oral literacies. Despite this claim, Australian universities have been criticised over the past decade for their lack of rigour in assessing this attribute; a criticism generally…

  8. Academic Language and the Quality of Written Arguments and Explanations of Chilean 8th Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Javiera; Meneses, Alejandra; Chandia, Eugenio

    2018-01-01

    Writing is a task that entails high cognitive and linguistic efforts, especially when producing academic texts. Academic language might be one of the factors influencing the quality of written texts, given that prior research has shown its impact on reading comprehension. The purpose of this study is to examine the contribution of Spanish Core…

  9. Written Teacher Feedback: Student Perceptions, Teacher Perceptions, and Actual Teacher Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Li

    2016-01-01

    This study sets out to investigate a teacher's and her students' perceptions of written teacher feedback in a college English as a foreign language (EFL) writing class in China. Essays, questionnaires, and interviews were employed to identify the types of feedback given by the teacher, the perceptions and preferences of students and the…

  10. Spelling in Written Stories by School-Age Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straley, Sara G.; Werfel, Krystal L.; Hendricks, Alison Eisel

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the spelling of 3rd to 6th grade children with cochlear implants in written stories. Spelling was analysed using traditional correct/incorrect scoring as well as the Spelling Sensitivity Score, which provides linguistic information about spelling attempts. Children with cochlear implants spelled 86 per cent of words in stories…

  11. Clay Modeling versus Written Modules as Effective Interventions in Understanding Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareither, Mary Lou; Arbel, Vered; Growe, Meghan; Muszczynski, Emily; Rudd, Adam; Marone, Jane R.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of clay modeling to written modules is examined to determine the degree of improvement in learning and retention of anatomical 3D relationships among students with different learning preferences. Thirty-nine undergraduate students enrolled in a cadaver dissection course completed a pre-assessment examination and the VARK…

  12. The Linguistic Development of Students of English as a Second Language in Two Written Genres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyung-Jo; Polio, Charlene

    2017-01-01

    This study examined narrative and argumentative essays written over the course of a 4-month semester by 37 students of English as a second language (ESL). The essays were analyzed for development over time and for genre differences. The goal of the study was to conceptually replicate previous studies on genre differences (e.g., Lu, 2011) and on…

  13. Students' Engagement with a Collaborative Wiki Tool Predicts Enhanced Written Exam Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Tom; Elgueta, Herman; Cameron, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    We introduced voluntary wiki-based exercises to a long-running cognitive psychology course, part of the core curriculum for an undergraduate degree in psychology. Over 2 yearly cohorts, students who used the wiki more also scored higher on the final written exam. Using regression analysis, it is possible to account for students' tendency to score…

  14. Writing about Music: The Selection and Arrangement of Notation in Jazz Students' Written Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jodie L.

    2018-01-01

    Music notation is intrinsic in the composition and performance of Western art music and also in its analysis and research. The process of writing about music remains underexplored, in particular how excerpts of music notation are selected and arranged in a written text, and how that text describes and contextualises the excerpts. This article…

  15. Corporate Culture and the Use of Written English Within British Subsidiaries in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated communication patterns in written English and the prevalent corporate culture, the relationship between a British corporate office and its subsidiary in the Netherlands. Survey respondents were senior-level employees at 107 companies. Results indicate corporate culture plays an important role in the level of English skills…

  16. Tools Used to Evaluate Written Medicine and Health Information: Document and User Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Alice; Aslani, Parisa

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify and review tools used to evaluate consumer-oriented written medicine (WMI) and health (WHI) information from a document and user perspective. Articles that met the following inclusion criteria were reviewed: studies evaluating readability, presentation, suitability, quality of WMI/WHI. A total of 152 articles were…

  17. The Analysis of the Articles Written About Accounting in Academic Journals ofTurkey

    OpenAIRE

    Önce, Saime; Başar, Banu

    2010-01-01

    (The Analysis of the Articles Written About Accounting in Academic Journals of Turkey) This study aims at analyzing and determining the trends of accounting related articles printed in academic research journals in Turkey. The articles are classified as Financial Accounting, Cost and Managerial Accounting, Auditing, Accounting Standards, Accounting Information System, Accounting Education, Accounting Profession, Social Accounting and Reporting, Specialized Accounting and Other categories. As...

  18. A Four-Category Scheme for Coding and Assessing the Level of Reflection in Written Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kember, David; McKay, Jan; Sinclair, Kit; Wong, Frances Kam Yuet

    2008-01-01

    Where courses have as an aim the promotion of reflective practice, it will enhance the achievement of the goal if the level of reflective thinking is assessed. To do this in a satisfactory way requires a reliable protocol for assessing the level of reflection in written work. This article presents a protocol that can be used to guide the…

  19. Webster's word power better English grammar improve your written and spoken English

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkpatrick, Betty

    2014-01-01

    With questions and answer sections throughout, this book helps you to improve your written and spoken English through understanding the structure of the English language. This is a thorough and useful book with all parts of speech and grammar explained. Used by ELT self-study students.

  20. Short Message Service (SMS) Language and Written Language Skills: Educators' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertsema, Salomé; Hyman, Charene; van Deventer, Chantelle

    2011-01-01

    SMS language is English language slang, used as a means of mobile phone text messaging. This practice may impact on the written language skills of learners at school. The main aim of this study was to determine the perspectives of Grade 8 and 9 English (as Home Language) educators in Gauteng regarding the possible influence of SMS language on…

  1. Graduate Students' Needs and Preferences for Written Feedback on Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine graduate students' needs and preferences for written feedback on academic writing from their lecturers and thesis supervisors. Quantitative method via survey questionnaire was used to collect data from 21 respondents. The data collection involved Master and Doctorate students at a tertiary level institution…

  2. An Investigation of Spelling in the Written Compositions of Students Who Read Braille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Bischke, Christine; Stoner, Julia B.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the spelling skills in the written compositions of 20 students who read braille and offers further evidence that the skills of these students are similar to those of sighted students. The assessment of writing samples focused on the number of words spelled correctly and used an error analysis to describe patterns of spelling…

  3. Short message service (SMS language and written language skills: educators' perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomé Geertsema

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available SMS language is English language slang, used as a means of mobile phone text messaging. This practice may impact on the written language skills of learners at school. The main aim of this study was to determine the perspectives of Grade 8 and 9 English (as Home Language educators in Gauteng regarding the possible influence of SMS language on certain aspects of learners' written language skills. If an influence was perceived by the educators, their perceptions regarding the degree and nature of the influence were also explored. A quantitative research design, utilising a questionnaire, was employed. The sample of participants comprised 22 educators employed at independent secondaryschools within Gauteng, South Africa. The results indicated that the majority of educators viewed SMS language as having a negative influence on the written language skills of Grade 8 and 9 learners. The influence was perceived as occurring in the learners' spelling, punctuation, and sentence length. A further finding was that the majority of educators address the negative influences of SMS language when encountered in written tasks.

  4. 14 CFR 250.9 - Written explanation of denied boarding compensation and boarding priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Written explanation of denied boarding compensation and boarding priorities. 250.9 Section 250.9 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... explanation of denied boarding compensation and boarding priorities. (a) Every carrier shall furnish...

  5. The Productive Vocabulary Development in the Written Chinese of the Hong Kong Cantonese-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Emily Yee Man

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a longitudinal investigation into the productive vocabulary development in the written Chinese of the Cantonese-speaking elementary children in Hong Kong. Data gathering took place using two vocabulary tests which selected prescriptive vocabulary from the textbooks and the 2007 Vocabulary List. The two assessment tests also…

  6. "Nous, Nous Ensemble": Orality and Group-Directedness Shaping Written Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas R.

    1992-01-01

    Compares essays by college students from Mali and from the United States, exploring cross-culturally the influence of orality and audience or written discourse. Finds that the "other-directed," group-directed dimension of the Malians' writing contrasts with the overwhelming by self-referential dimension of the U.S. students. (SR)

  7. Written Extended-Response Questions as Classroom Assessment Tools for Meaningful Understanding of Evolutionary Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieswandt, Martina; Bellomo, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study analyzed grade 12 biology students' answers to written extended-response questions that describe hypothetical scenarios of animals' evolution. We investigated whether these type of questions are suitable for students (n = 24) to express a meaningful understanding of evolutionary theory. Meaningful understanding is comprised…

  8. Difference between Written and Spoken Czech: The Case of Verbal Nouns Denoting an Action

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolářová, V.; Kolář, Jan; Mikulová, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 1 (2017), s. 19-38 ISSN 0032-6585 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : written Czech * spoken Czech * verbal nouns Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/pralin.2017.107.issue-1/pralin-2017-0002/pralin-2017-0002.xml

  9. Neural Correlates of Written Emotion Word Processing: A Review of Recent Electrophysiological and Hemodynamic Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citron, Francesca M. M.

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of literature investigating the neural correlates of emotion word processing has emerged in recent years. Written words have been shown to represent a suitable means to study emotion processing and most importantly to address the distinct and interactive contributions of the two dimensions of emotion: valence and arousal. The aim of…

  10. Analysis of Written Expression Revision Skills of the Students in Faculty of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Remzi

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to analyze written expression revision skills of students in Turkish Education Department, Education Faculty. This study was done using qualitative research method. The study group of the research consisted of 3rd grade students. The research data were collected by means of document review, a qualitative research technique. The…

  11. The Influence of Drama on Elementary Students' Written Narratives and On-Task Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alida; Berry, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Dramatic language arts integration (DLA) and conventional language arts (CLA) lessons were compared for their influence on third grade students' written narrative cohesion and on-task behavior in a self-contained, nonpublic elementary classroom. Participants included students (N = 14) with comorbid language-based learning disabilities (LD) and…

  12. 9 CFR 202.111 - Rule 11: Hearing, oral or written.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 11: Hearing, oral or written. 202.111 Section 202.111 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS... for oral hearing, timely filed. Declining to make such withdrawal shall not affect the rights or...

  13. African historiography written by Africans, 1955-1973 : the Nigerian case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapteijns, L.; African Studies Centre, Leiden

    1977-01-01

    In the first part of this essay the development of the study of African history is sketched, and the historical studies written by professional African historians from 1955 to 1972-3 are analysed. Special attention is paid to the manisfestoes of the 1960s, programmatical declarations of what African

  14. Feedback on Feedback: Eliciting Learners' Responses to Written Feedback through Student-Generated Screencasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Toro, María; Furnborough, Concha

    2014-01-01

    Despite the potential benefits of assignment feedback, learners often fail to use it effectively. This study examines the ways in which adult distance learners engage with written feedback on one of their assignments. Participants were 10 undergraduates studying Spanish at the Open University, UK. Their responses to feedback were elicited by means…

  15. Effects of the design of written music on the readability for children with dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, Nanke; Timmermans, Anneke; Korpershoek, Hanke

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between the design of written music and the amount of mistakes children with and without dyslexia make in reading music is investigated. Previous research shows that children with dyslexia can have difficulty in reading music, especially regarding reading pitch.

  16. Roy Reider (1914-1979) selections from his written and spoken words

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paxton, H.C.

    1980-01-01

    Comments by Roy Reider on chemical criticality control, the fundamentals of safety, policy and responsibility, on written procedures, profiting from accidents, safety training, early history of criticality safety, requirements for the possible, the value of enlightened challenge, public acceptance of a new risk, and on prophets of doom are presented

  17. Problems of an Emergent Written Language of the Global System for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Problems of an Emergent Written Language of the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) in Nigeria. ... Most important, is the overall chaotic effect of this language on formal teaching and learning in English in an ESL (English as a Second Language) situation. The paper calls on writers using the English medium ...

  18. Self-Assessment for Writing Instructors: A Practical Guide to More Effective Written Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, Russ S.

    Writing instructors must first examine the ways in which they are currently making written comments to become more effective in fostering improved student writing. Three heuristic rubrics form the basis for a guided self-assessment rubric for writing instructors. The first rubric is based on the work of Elaine O. Lees (1979) and involves…

  19. Home Literacy Environment and Its Influence on Singaporean Children's Chinese Oral and Written Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Tan, Chee Lay

    2016-01-01

    In a bilingual environment such as Singaporean Chinese community, the challenge of maintaining Chinese language and sustaining Chinese culture lies in promoting the daily use of Chinese language in oral and written forms among children. Ample evidence showed the effect of the home language and literacy environment (HLE), on children's language and…

  20. Written Composition Performance of Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Ana Miranda; Ferrer, Manuel Soriano; Fortea, Inmaculada Baixauli

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with learning disabilities. The present study examined the written composition of children with ADHD, which depends to a large degree on continuous self-regulation and attentional control skills for organizing information and maintaining the level of effort. Fifty children…

  1. Student Beliefs towards Written Corrective Feedback: The Case of Filipino High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanga, Roselle A.; Fidel, Irish Van B.; Gumapac, Mone Virma Ginry P.; Ho, Howell T.; Tullo, Riza Mae C.; Villaraza, Patricia Monette L.; Vizconde, Camilla J.

    2016-01-01

    The study identified the beliefs of high school students toward Written Corrective Feedback (WCF), based on the framework of Anderson (2010). It also investigated the most common errors that students commit in writing stories and the type of WCF students receive from teachers. Data in the form of stories which were checked by teachers were…

  2. Error Analysis of Support Verb Constructions in Written Spanish Learner Corpora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salido, Marcos Garcia

    2016-01-01

    This article studies the use of support verb constructions (SVCs) in the written production of learners of Spanish. SVCs are lexical combinations whose content is similar to verbal predicates but is distributed between a verb and a noun, the noun being the carrier of the core lexical meaning of the predicate. Although there is considerable…

  3. 5 CFR 2638.706 - Agency's written plan for annual ethics training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency's written plan for annual ethics training. 2638.706 Section 2638.706 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS AND EXECUTIVE AGENCY ETHICS PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES Executive Agency Ethics...

  4. Factors affecting written distance-learning feedback: the tutor’s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Calfoglou

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Launching the distance-learning student-tutor interaction process, tutors of the first module of the M.Ed in English course at the HOU lay the foundations of academic student autonomy by means of providing – inter alia -- the appropriate written feedback on written assignments. In doing so, they need to gauge the content and form of their written comments systematically with regard to both output- and student-, that is human factor-related issues (cf. Goldstein, 2004, the latter being particularly relevant to the distance-learning context. In this article we discuss tutor policy as well as tutor perceptions (cf. Lee, 2004, 2009 among others regarding written feedback on students’ academic assignments in terms of aspects of deviance treated and the relative gravity of ‘global’ and ‘local’ errors (e.g. Ferris, 2002, the directness of the correction, the punitive or facilitative nature of the comments provided as well as the relative balance of student strengths and weaknesses on the tutor’s comment agenda (cf. Hyland & Hyland, 2006. The role of the tutor as an assessor and/or counsellor is explored and the importance of striking a delicate balance between the two, especially in a context where face-to-face feedback opportunities are severely restricted, is underscored. We suggest that distance-learning feedback practices may need to be at least partially individualized to maximize student response and meet the goal of ‘informed autonomy’.

  5. The Relationship between Cognitive Styles and Young Adult Learners' Preferences for Written Corrective Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslemi, Negar; Dastgoshadeh, Adel

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between learners' cognitive styles and their preferences for different types and frequencies of written corrective feedback and for different types of errors to be corrected. Data were collected from 60 English as a foreign language learners at intermediate and upper-intermediate levels. The…

  6. The Teaching and Learning of Spelling in the Spanish Heritage Language Classroom: Mastering Written Accent Marks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudrie, Sara M.

    2017-01-01

    Spanish spelling, especially the use of written accent marks, is a major stumbling block for Spanish heritage language (SHL) learners (Carreira 2002). In fact, Mikulski (2006) found that most SHL learners ranked bettering their spelling and grammar as a very important learning goal. Despite its importance in literacy development and its perceived…

  7. Evaluation of written patient educational materials in the field of diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryhaenen, A.M. [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Turku University Hospital, FIN-20521 Turku (Finland)], E-mail: anne.m.ryhanen@tyks.fi; Johansson, K. [Department of Nursing Science, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland)], E-mail: kimajo@utu.fi; Virtanen, H. [Department of Nursing Science, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland)], E-mail: heli.virtanen@utu.fi; Salo, S. [Department of Radiology, Turku University Hospital, FIN-20521 Turku (Finland)], E-mail: sakari.salo@tyks.fi; Salanterae, S. [Department of Nursing Science, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland)], E-mail: sanna.salantera@utu.fi; Leino-Kilpi, H. [Department of Nursing Science, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland)], E-mail: helena.leino-kilpi@utu.fi

    2009-05-15

    Aim: To evaluate the quality of written educational materials for diagnostic imaging (radiological and nuclear medicine) patients. Materials and methods: Written educational materials (n = 70) for diagnostic imaging patients were analysed. The materials were evaluated based on their external appearance (9 criteria), instructiveness (7), content (7), language and structure (8) and readability (1). Deductive content analysis was used. Quantified parts of the analyses were analysed by SAS for Windows. Dependence between criteria (32) was tested by Pearson correlation coefficients. Results: The external appearance fulfilled almost completely the criteria of good written education materials. The instructiveness was addressed clearly, except for the purpose of the material. The contents of materials dealt with bio-physiological, functional and cognitive dimensions of knowledge, while financial dimensions of knowledge were hardly dealt with at all. The language and the structure were reasonably good, but the language was partly in passive voice and the text contained strange words. Most of the education material was moderately easy to read. Conclusions: The results show that the quality of material was quite good in all dimensions. Only a small number of criteria were unsatisfactory. The results can be used to further improve written patient education materials and patient education in the imaging unit.

  8. Why was the ma<^16t collection (Ps 120-134) written?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With what purpose was the ma<^lot collection written? In the past different answers were given. A few viewpoints will suffice (cf Viviers 1990; Day 1990): Liebreich. (1955) views these fifteen psalms as the commentary of the people on the Aaronite benediction (Num 6:24-26) pronounced on the steps of the temple court.

  9. Electronic Mail, a New Written-Language Register: A Study with French-Speaking Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volckaert-Legrier, Olga; Bernicot, Josie; Bert-Erboul, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the linguistic forms used by adolescents in electronic mail (e-mail) differ from those used in standard written language. The study was conducted in French, a language with a deep orthography that has strict, addressee-dependent rules for using second person personal pronouns (unfamiliar…

  10. Written Requests in Emails Sent by Adult Chinese Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cynthia F. K.

    2004-01-01

    The paper reports the results of a naturalistic enquiry into written request strategies in emails sent by Chinese learners of English to their teachers. A corpus of 600 emails was collected in the course of an academic year. CCARP (Cross-Cultural Speech-Act Realisation Project) segmentation and coding was used to analyse the requests contained in…

  11. 12 CFR 551.90 - How do I provide a written notice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... receivables or other financial assets that are subject continuously to prepayment (i) A statement that the... receivables or other financial assets are prepaid; and(ii) A statement that you will furnish information... the prepayment assumptions underlying yield) upon the customer's written request. (5) A debt security...

  12. Text Comprehension Mediates Morphological Awareness, Syntactic Processing, and Working Memory in Predicting Chinese Written Composition Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Wagner, Richard K; Meng, Wanjin; Leong, Che Kan

    2014-08-01

    The goal of the present study was to test opposing views about four issues concerning predictors of individual differences in Chinese written composition: (a) Whether morphological awareness, syntactic processing, and working memory represent distinct and measureable constructs in Chinese or are just manifestations of general language ability; (b) whether they are important predictors of Chinese written composition, and if so, the relative magnitudes and independence of their predictive relations; (c) whether observed predictive relations are mediated by text comprehension; and (d) whether these relations vary or are developmentally invariant across three years of writing development. Based on analyses of the performance of students in grades 4 (n = 246), 5 (n = 242) and 6 (n = 261), the results supported morphological awareness, syntactic processing, and working memory as distinct yet correlated abilities that made independent contributions to predicting Chinese written composition, with working memory as the strongest predictor. However, predictive relations were mediated by text comprehension. The final model accounted for approximately 75 percent of the variance in Chinese written composition. The results were largely developmentally invariant across the three grades from which participants were drawn.

  13. First and Second Language Pragmatics in Third Language Oral and Written Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Dale A.; Palmiere, Denise T. L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the transfer of first language (L1) and second language (L2) pragmatic expression--realized in the request speech act--in oral and written modalities by Spanish-speaking third language (L3) Portuguese learners (bilingual Spanish heritage speakers, native English speakers who are proficient in L2 Spanish, and native Spanish…

  14. Written pain neuroscience education in fibromyalgia: a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luc Lambrecht; Dr. C.P. van der Schans; Jo Nijs; Dr. M.W. van Ittersum; Paul van Wilgen; Johan W. Groothoff

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Mounting evidence supports the use of face-to-face pain neuroscience education for the treatment of chronic pain patients. This study aimed at examining whether written education about pain neuroscience improves illness perceptions, catastrophizing, and health status in patients with

  15. A Discussion on an Expression Written about Dimensional Analysis in a Physics Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss a wrong statement written about dimensional analysis in a physics text book prepared for the students who are studying in science, engineering and teaching undergraduate programs at universities and who have to take compulsory physics courses, to analyse the use of the text book including the wrong…

  16. Written Emotional Disclosure and Boundary Making. Minority Children Writing about Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangià, Flavia

    2014-01-01

    The present paper explores how "written emotional disclosure", in particular writing about personal feelings and thoughts concerning discriminatory events, can represent an important opportunity for children to engage in the transformation of categorical boundaries through complex cognitive and emotional processes. In particular, the…

  17. L'argumentation ecrite pas a pas (Written Argumentation Step by Step).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombier, Pierre

    1988-01-01

    Outlines a series of progressive exercises designed to train students in written persuasive discourse in French. The technique involves observation of advertising, study of premises, arguments, and conclusions, pragmatic text analysis, training in logical construction, and development of argumentative strategies. (MSE)

  18. A Corpus-Based View of Lexical Gender in Written Business English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A.

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates lexical gender in specialized communication. The key method of analysis is that of forms of address, professional titles, and "generic man" in a 10 million word corpus of written Business English. After a brief introduction and literature review on both gender in specialized communication and similar corpus-based views of…

  19. 10 CFR 2.706 - Depositions upon oral examination and written interrogatories; interrogatories to parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Depositions upon oral examination and written interrogatories; interrogatories to parties. 2.706 Section 2.706 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF... taken down in the words of the witness. Objections on questions of evidence must be noted in short form...

  20. Modality differences between written and spoken story retelling in healthy older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ann Obermeyer

    2015-04-01

    Methods: Ten native English speaking healthy elderly participants between the ages of 50 and 80 were recruited. Exclusionary criteria included neurological disease/injury, history of learning disability, uncorrected hearing or vision impairment, history of drug/alcohol abuse and presence of cognitive decline (based on Cognitive Linguistic Quick Test. Spoken and written discourse was analyzed for micro linguistic measures including total words, percent correct information units (CIUs; Nicholas & Brookshire, 1993 and percent complete utterances (CUs; Edmonds, et al. 2009. CIUs measure relevant and informative words while CUs focus at the sentence level and measure whether a relevant subject and verb and object (if appropriate are present. Results: Analysis was completed using Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test due to small sample size. Preliminary results revealed that healthy elderly people produced significantly more words in spoken retellings than written retellings (p=.000; however, this measure contrasted with %CIUs and %CUs with participants producing significantly higher %CIUs (p=.000 and %CUs (p=.000 in written story retellings than in spoken story retellings. Conclusion: These findings indicate that written retellings, while shorter, contained higher accuracy at both a word (CIU and sentence (CU level. This observation could be related to the ability to revise written text and therefore make it more concise, whereas the nature of speech results in more embellishment and “thinking out loud,” such as comments about the task, associated observations about the story, etc. We plan to run more participants and conduct a main concepts analysis (before conference time to gain more insight into modality differences and implications.

  1. Examining Elementary Students' Development of Oral and Written Argumentation Practices Through Argument-Based Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chih; Hand, Brian; Park, Soonhye

    2016-05-01

    Argumentation, and the production of scientific arguments are critical elements of inquiry that are necessary for helping students become scientifically literate through engaging them in constructing and critiquing ideas. This case study employed a mixed methods research design to examine the development in 5th grade students' practices of oral and written argumentation from one unit to another over 16 weeks utilizing the science writing heuristic approach. Data sources included five rounds of whole-class discussion focused on group presentations of arguments that occurred over eleven class periods; students' group writings; interviews with six target students and the teacher; and the researcher's field notes. The results revealed five salient trends in students' development of oral and written argumentative practices over time: (1) Students came to use more critique components as they participated in more rounds of whole-class discussion focused on group presentations of arguments; (2) by challenging each other's arguments, students came to focus on the coherence of the argument and the quality of evidence; (3) students came to use evidence to defend, support, and reject arguments; (4) the quality of students' writing continuously improved over time; and (5) students connected oral argument skills to written argument skills as they had opportunities to revise their writing after debating and developed awareness of the usefulness of critique from peers. Given the development in oral argumentative practices and the quality of written arguments over time, this study indicates that students' development of oral and written argumentative practices is positively related to each other. This study suggests that argumentative practices should be framed through both a social and epistemic understanding of argument-utilizing talk and writing as vehicles to create norms of these complex practices.

  2. Improving medical students' written communication skills: design and evaluation of an educational curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, L; Connolly, K; Pitre, L; Dore, K L; Wasi, P

    2015-06-01

    Written and verbal communication skills are important skills for all physicians. While verbal skills are taught and assessed in medical school, medical students report limited instruction in written communication skills. This study examined the impact of a curriculum delivered during a 6-week clinical rotation in Internal Medicine on the objective assessment of medical students' written communication skills. The curriculum consisted of two educational programmes: a medical student communication tutorial and a resident feedback workshop. The study was conducted from March 2012 to January 2013 at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The study featured three arms: (1) control, (2) medical student communication tutorial alone and (3) student tutorial and resident feedback workshop. Data were collected on 126 students during 6-week Internal Medicine clerkship rotations. Students' written consultation notes were collected prior to the educational programmes and at 6 weeks. Blinded faculty assessors used an independently validated Assessment Checklist to evaluate consultation notes. Consultation note scores improved from week 1 to week 6 across all study arms. However, the change was statistically significant only in arm 3, featuring both the medical student tutorial and the resident feedback workshop, with mean scores improving from 4.75 (SD=1.496) to 5.56 (SD=0.984) out of 7. The mean difference between week 1 and week 6 was significantly different (0.806, p=0.002, 95% CI 0.306 to 1.058). The combination of a resident feedback workshop with medical student written communication tutorial improves objective evaluations of consultation note scores over student tutorial alone. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. The Magnetic Sentences Industry Game: A Competitive In-Class Experience of Business-Level Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casile, Maureen; Wheeler, Jane V.

    2005-01-01

    The Magnetic Sentences Industry Game is a high-energy in-class exercise designed to help students gain hands-on experience with setting, implementing, evaluating, and revising business-level strategy. Students compete in teams to create and market sentences using Magnetic Poetry (a product of Magnetic Poetry, Inc.). Revenues earned are highly…

  4. The Effects and Predictor Value of In-Class Texting Behavior on Final Course Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sylvia E.

    2013-01-01

    Cell phones have become a norm within the collegiate environment but little research has examined their impact on academic attainment. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects that in-class texting behavior had on the final grade score in a freshmen level introductory social science course. Students in three different sections were…

  5. Maxillary first molar extraction in Class II malocclusion : Follow-up studies on treatment effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos

    2015-01-01

    This PhD research investigated treatment effects of extraction of one and two maxillary first molars in Class II subdivision and Class II/1 malocclusion cases respectively from a longer time perspective. Private practice records were scrutinized to evaluate aspects of a treatment technique combining

  6. Implementation Integrity of Practice-Based Coaching: Preliminary Results from the BEST in CLASS Efficacy Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kevin S.; Conroy, Maureen A.; Vo, Abigail; Ladwig, Crystal

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the practice-based coaching model used in BEST in CLASS, a Tier-2 classroom-based intervention comprised of evidence-based instructional practices designed to prevent and ameliorate the chronic problem behaviors of young children at risk for the development of emotional/behavioral disorders. Following a…

  7. Measuring Teacher Implementation of the "BEST in CLASS" Intervention Program and Corollary Child Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Maureen A.; Sutherland, Kevin S.; Algina, James J.; Wilson, Reynolds E.; Martinez, Jose R.; Whalon, Kelly J.

    2015-01-01

    This study is part of a larger randomized efficacy trial examining the impact of Behavioral, Emotional, and Social Training: Competent Learners Achieving School Success ("BEST in CLASS"), a Tier 2 intervention that targets the prevention of emotional/behavioral disorders in young, high risk children. In this investigation, we examined…

  8. The Process Of Transforming The Mahabharata Literary Work Written In The Old Javanese Into Geguritan Sarpayajnya And Geguritan Kicaka Written In The Balinese Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Suastika

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The story of the Pandawas and their wife in Wirata was used as the plot of the geguritan Kicakawhich was initially transformed from Wirataparwa in the form of Parwa. The only episode which was transformed into geguritan written in the Balinese language is the one narrating when the Pandawas were in disguise for one year. In this episode the love story of their wife, Drupadi, who was disguised as Sairindriis also narrated. In this episode it is also narrated that the Chief Minister, Kicaka, would like to have her as his wife. However, the Chief Minister, Kicaka, was killed by Bima, who was disguised as Ballawa, meaning that the love story came to an end. From the language point of view, the episode telling that the Pandawas were in Wirata was transformed into Geguritan Kicaka written in the Balinese language. In addition, although the text was dynamically translated, many Old Javanese words are still used in the Balinese version.Similarly, geguritan Sarpayajaya adopted the episode of Sarpayajnya of Adiparwa; however, the plot was modified again using thestrophes pangkur, dangdanggula, sinom and durma and was introduced using the Balinese language. It is narrated that King Parikesit was bitten and killed by a snake named Taksaka. Consequently, his son, Janamejaya, performed a ritual known as Sarpayajaya, causing all the snakes to die. From the cultural point of view, the text is recited as part of the performing art and the art of music ‘magegitan’ in Bali. The text Sarpayajayaisrecited as part of the cremation ceremony ‘ngaben’ known as mamutru.

  9. Language and ageing - exploring propositional density in written language - stability over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Elizabeth; Craig, Hugh; Ferguson, Alison; Colyvas, Kim

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the stability of propositional density (PD) in written texts, as this aspect of language shows promise as an indicator and as a predictor of language decline with ageing. This descriptive longitudinal study analysed written texts obtained from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health in which participants were invited to respond to an open-ended question about their health. The 635 texts used for this study were taken from 127 middle-aged women who responded to this question on each of the five surveys conducted at 3-year intervals over a 16-year period. The study made use of an automated PD rater (CPIDR-3) for the analysis. PD was found to be a stable measure over time when comparing the grouped data, but there was between- and within-subject variation over time. Further research is needed to explore the valid use of this measure in research into language and ageing.

  10. Sparing of written production of proper nouns and dates in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Darren; Buchanan, Lori

    2004-07-01

    Aphasia is a total or partial loss of the ability to produce or understand language, usually caused by brain disease or injury. In this case study, the aphasic patient (BMW) has a profound impairment of oral production and a very moderate impairment in comprehension. Several years of informal observation lead to the current study that contrasts written naming of common nouns to written naming of proper nouns and dates. BMW named professional ice hockey players, team logos, and provided birthdays of players with near perfect accuracy and normal rates of production. In contrast, his performance on naming common nouns was only 50% accurate and appeared very laborious. The results of this study thus show a clear preservation of date and proper noun production in contrast to common nouns.

  11. Meeting the Demands of the Workplace: Science Students and Written Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, F. Elizabeth; Emerson, Lisa; Mackay, Bruce

    2005-12-01

    Over the last 15 years, surveys in a range of English-speaking countries, from North America and the United Kingdom, to New Zealand and Australia, have consistently shown that employers rank oral and written communication skills as highly as or more highly than any technical or quantitative skills. However, in New Zealand there has been very little research into determining exactly what is meant by the "written communication skills" employers state they desire. A further issue in this research to date has been a lack of differentiation between employers—no study has specifically targeted the requirements of employers of science graduates. This article reports the findings of ongoing research into the expectations of science students and of employers of science graduates, and centers around several key questions: What do New Zealand employers of science graduates specifically want in terms of their new hires' writing skills?

  12. Written Corrective Feedback: What do Students and Teachers Think is Right and Why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah R. Amrhein

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A growing body of research has examined the effectiveness of written corrective feedback (WCF for L2 writing. An area that has attracted considerable attention recently is how students and teachers perceive the usefulness of WCF. Most research in this area, however, has focused on students’ perspectives, while many fewer studies comparing students’ and teachers’ opinions. This study investigated how ESL students and teachers perceive the usefulness of different types and amounts of WCF, and also the reasons they have for their preferences. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from 31 ESL teachers and 33 ESL students by means of written questionnaires. The results showed that while there were some areas of agreement between teachers and students, important discrepancies in their opinions did occur, not only in how WCF should be provided but also why. Pedagogical implications of the study are discussed

  13. Controlling the volatility of the written optical state in electrochromic DNA liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Varghese, Justin; Gerasimov, Jennifer Y.; Polyakov, Alexey O.; Shuai, Min; Su, Juanjuan; Chen, Dong; Zajaczkowski, Wojciech; Marcozzi, Alessio; Pisula, Wojciech; Noheda, Beatriz; Palstra, Thomas T. M.; Clark, Noel A.; Herrmann, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Liquid crystals are widely used in displays for portable electronic information display. To broaden their scope for other applications like smart windows and tags, new material properties such as polarizer-free operation and tunable memory of a written state become important. Here, we describe an anhydrous nanoDNA-surfactant thermotropic liquid crystal system, which exhibits distinctive electrically controlled optical absorption, and temperature-dependent memory. In the liquid crystal isotropic phase, electric field-induced colouration and bleaching have a switching time of seconds. Upon transition to the smectic liquid crystal phase, optical memory of the written state is observed for many hours without applied voltage. The reorientation of the DNA-surfactant lamellar layers plays an important role in preventing colour decay. Thereby, the volatility of optoelectronic state can be controlled simply by changing the phase of the material. This research may pave the way for developing a new generation of DNA-based, phase-modulated, photoelectronic devices.

  14. Written but not oral verbal production is preserved in young schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomé, Franck; Boyer, Patrice; Fayol, Michel

    2002-08-30

    The aim of this study is to discover whether the language capabilities of young schizophrenic patients are more affected in speaking than in writing or whether the disorders are equivalent in the two modes. To do this, we compared spoken and written descriptions of pictures obtained from 10 schizophrenic patients with those produced by 10 control subjects. These productions were analysed on the basis of objective indices. The syntax and coherence of the productions were evaluated by judges. The comparison of the performances of the controls and schizophrenic patients supports the hypothesis that the latter suffer from a language disorder affecting the oral mode but impacting less frequently and less severely on the written mode. These results are discussed in the light of the cognitive mechanisms which may provide an explanation of these language disorders.

  15. Testing knowledge of whole English collocations available for use in written production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revier, Robert Lee

    2014-01-01

    of English collocations. These are: (a) collocation knowledge can be conceptualized as an independent knowledge construct, (b) collocations are lexical items in their own right, (c) testing of collocation knowledge should also target knowledge of whole collocations, and (d) the learning burden of a whole......Testing knowledge of whole English collocations available for use in written production: Developing tests for use with intermediate and advanced Danish learners (dansk resume nedenfor) The present foreign language acquisition research derives its impetus from four assumptions regarding knowledge...... the development of Danish EFL learners’ productive knowledge of whole English collocations. Five empirical studies were designed to generate information that would shed light on the reliability and validity of the CONTRIX as a measure of collocation knowledge available for use in written production. Study 1...

  16. Centering Theory, transitions and referent marking in the corpus of the written Serbian language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trnavac Radoslava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to map various types of anaphor to the centering transitions in the corpus of Serbian newspaper articles. Centering Theory (WALKER, JOSHI ET AL. 1998 is a theory of local coherence in which four types of transitions are used as parameters of coherence. As is hypothesized in the previous literature based on various languages, the CONTINUE transition is mostly characterized by a minimal form (a zero form of the topic, while the SMOOTH and ROUGH shifts are found with a full noun phrase topic. The analysis shows that the “Ordering Rule” of Centering Theory is not fully followed in the written corpus of the Serbian language since SMOOTH SHIFT has been identified as a prevalent type of transition in the corpus. The following two reasons were identified for that: (1 the genre of the newspaper articles, and (2 the way clauses are combined within a complex sentence in the Serbian written corpus.

  17. English Language Error Analysis of the Written Texts Produced by Ukrainian Learners: Data Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessia Mykolayivna Kotsyuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available English Language Error Analysis of the Written Texts Produced by Ukrainian Learners: Data Collection Recently, the studies of second language acquisition have tended to focus on learners errors as they help to predict the difficulties involved in acquiring a second language. Thus, teachers can be made aware of the difficult areas to be encountered by the students and pay special attention and devote emphasis to them. The research goals of the article are to define what error analysis is and how it is important in L2 teaching process, to state the significance of corpus studies in identifying of different types of errors and mistakes, to provide the results of error analysis of the corpus of written texts produced by Ukrainian learners. In this article, major types of errors in English as a second language for Ukrainian students are mentioned.

  18. Written corrective feedback in secondary education: learners' and teachers' preferences and perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Buffa, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Treball Final de Màster Universitari en Ensenyament i Adquisició de la Llengua Anglesa en Contextos Multilingües (Pla de 2013). Codi: SAY031. Curs: 2015/2016 The role of corrective feedback (CF, henceforth) in second language acquisition (SLA, henceforth), more specifically written corrective feedback (WCF, henceforth), has been highly studied in the last couple of decades (Truscott, 1996; 1999; Ferris, 1999; Ashwell, 2000; Chandler, 2003; Russell & Spada, 2006; Sheen, 2010; 2...

  19. Long period gratings written in large-mode area photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nodop, D.; Linke, S.; Jansen, F.

    2008-01-01

    We report for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, on the fabrication and characterization of CO2-laser written long-period gratings in a large-mode area photonic crystal fiber with a core diameter of 25 mu m. The gratings have low insertion losses (<1 dB) and high attenuation (> 10 dB) ......B) at the resonant wavelengths, making them particularly interesting for high power applications....

  20. Assessing written communication during interhospital transfers of emergency general surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harl, Felicity N R; Saucke, Megan C; Greenberg, Caprice C; Ingraham, Angela M

    2017-06-15

    Poor communication causes fragmented care. Studies of transitions of care within a hospital and on discharge suggest significant communication deficits. Communication during transfers between hospitals has not been well studied. We assessed the written communication provided during interhospital transfers of emergency general surgery patients. We hypothesized that patients are transferred with incomplete documentation from referring facilities. We performed a retrospective review of written communication provided during interhospital transfers to our emergency department (ED) from referring EDs for emergency general surgical evaluation between January 1, 2014 and January 1, 2016. Elements of written communication were abstracted from referring facility documents scanned into the medical record using a standardized abstraction protocol. Descriptive statistics summarized the information communicated. A total of 129 patients met inclusion criteria. 87.6% (n = 113) of charts contained referring hospital documents. 42.5% (n = 48) were missing history and physicals. Diagnoses were missing in 9.7% (n = 11). Ninety-one computed tomography scans were performed; among 70 with reads, final reads were absent for 70.0% (n = 49). 45 ultrasounds and x-rays were performed; among 27 with reads, final reads were missing for 80.0% (n = 36). Reasons for transfer were missing in 18.6% (n = 21). Referring hospital physicians outside the ED were consulted in 32.7% (n = 37); consultants' notes were absent in 89.2% (n = 33). In 12.4% (n = 14), referring documents arrived after the patient's ED arrival and were not part of the original documentation provided. This study documents that information important to patient care is often missing in the written communication provided during interhospital transfers. This gap affords a foundation for standardizing provider communication during interhospital transfers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.