WorldWideScience

Sample records for in-bond liquor storeroom

  1. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. 122.135 Section 122.135 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.135 When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. (a) Restocking. Liquor...

  2. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom. 122.134 Section 122.134 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.134 When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom. (a...

  3. Toxic waste liquor disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Toxic waste liquors, especially radio active liquors, are disposed in a sub-zone by feeding down a bore hole a first liquid, then a buffer liquid (e.g. water), then the toxic liquors. Pressure variations are applied to the sub-zone to mix the first liquid and liquors to form gels or solids which inhibit further mixing and form a barrier between the sub-zone and the natural waters in the environment of the sub-zone. In another example the location of the sub-zone is selected so that the environement reacts with the liquors to produce a barrier around the zone. Blind bore holes are used to monitor the sub-zone profile. Materials may be added to the liquor to enhance barrier formation. (author)

  4. 46 CFR 190.05-20 - Segregation of chemical laboratories and chemical storerooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Segregation of chemical laboratories and chemical storerooms. 190.05-20 Section 190.05-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT General Fire Protection § 190.05-20 Segregation of...

  5. Potentialities of spinal liquor scanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlakhov, N.; Vylkanov, P.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that spinal liquor scanography is a harmless and informative method for the examination of patients, permitting to detect injury foci for spinal cord tumours in 90% cases, for acute injuries of the vertebral column and spinal cord in 89.5% cases, for herniation of nucleus pulposus in 81% cases. The method of spinal liquor scanography can be used in neurology and neurosurgery to select the method of treatment and to evaluate its efficiency

  6. 21 CFR 163.111 - Chocolate liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chocolate liquor. 163.111 Section 163.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.111 Chocolate liquor. (a) Description. (1) Chocolate liquor is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by finely grinding...

  7. Mystery behind Chinese liquor fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Guangyuan; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Background Chinese liquor, a very popular fermented alcoholic beverage with thousands of years’ history in China, though its flavour formation and microbial process have only been partly explored, is facing the industrial challenge of modernisation and standardisation for food quality and safety as

  8. Sulphate removal from uraniferous liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, B.

    1983-01-01

    A process for the recovery of uranium from liquor resulting from the attack of sulphur containing uraniferous ores by an alkaline solution of sodium carbonate and/or sodium bicarbonate is claimed. An ion exchange resin is used to separate the uranium from the solution of sodium carbonate and/or bicarbonate and sodium sulphate. The ion exchange resin is then eluted with a solution of ammonium carbonate and/or bicarbonate to provide an eluate containing ammonium uranyl tricarbonate, ammonium carbonate and/or bicarbonate and ammonium sulphate. The eluate is heated to boiling to convert the ammonium uranyl tricarbonate to ammonium uranate and/or diuranate. Ammonia, carbon dioxide and water vapor are released. The precipitated ammonium uranate and/or diuranate is separated from the remaining liquor and calcined to give uranium trioxide

  9. Black liquor properties; Svartlutens fysikaliska egenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhraie, Reza [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Heat and Furnace Technology

    2001-03-01

    The main objectives of this work are: * Literature study regarding the black liquor properties, * Reviewing and analysing the Aabo Akademi data base regarding the black liquor properties, * By computer simulation of a Kaskinen recovery boiler using two liquor with different properties, estimate the level of carryover, and * To develop new methods and models. 17 liquor samples were gathered in the Aabo Akademi data base. The developed tests were based on the combustion of or pyrolysis of the single black liquor droplets in laboratory scale furnaces. The different stages of combustion were identified by using video-recording equipment. Three important combustion stages were identified, pyrolysis time, char burning time and pyrolysis swelling. The pyrolysis and char burning times were estimated for two temperatures, 700 and 800 deg C. The pyrolysis and char burning times are liquor dependent variables and don't show a clear tendency. NSSC liquor swells less than the other liquors 13 cm{sup 3}/g S during the pyrolysis at 700 deg C while liquor no 11 shows a high swelling tendency under the ,same conditions. Further on, the results show that swelling may be dependent on the lignin content. Higher content of lignin causes higher swelling. Two liquors with lowest and highest swelling tendencies were chosen and two simulations of Kaskinen recovery boiler were done. The results show the flow pattern, flue gas velocity, temperature profile, carryover amount and the drying zones were strongly changed when the swelling was changed.

  10. Recycling paper-pulp waste liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbolouki, M. N.

    1981-01-01

    Papermills in U.S. annually produce 3 million tons of sulfite waste liquor solids; other fractions of waste liquor are monomeric sugars and lignosulfonates in solution. Recovery of lignosulfonates involves precipitation and cross-linking of sulfonates to form useful solid ion-exchange resin. Contamination of sugars recovered from liquor is avoided by first converting them to ethanol, then removing ethanol by distillation.

  11. 27 CFR 27.208 - Liquor bottles denied entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquor bottles denied... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 27.208 Liquor bottles denied entry. Filled liquor bottles, not conforming to the...

  12. 27 CFR 27.204 - Distinctive liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distinctive liquor bottles..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 27.204 Distinctive liquor bottles. (a) Application. Liquor bottles of distinctive shape or...

  13. Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Sinquefeld; James Cantrell; Xiaoyan Zeng; Alan Ball; Jeff Empie

    2009-01-07

    The cost-benefit outlook of black liquor gasification (BLG) could be greatly improved if the smelt causticization step could be achieved in situ during the gasification step. Or, at a minimum, the increase in causticizing load associated with BLG could be mitigated. A number of chemistries have been proven successful during black liquor combustion. In this project, three in situ causticizing processes (titanate, manganate, and borate) were evaluated under conditions suitable for high temperature entrained flow BLG, and low temperature steam reforming of black liquor. The evaluation included both thermodynamic modeling and lab experimentation. Titanate and manganate were tested for complete direct causticizing (to thus eliminate the lime cycle), and borates were evaluated for partial causticizing (to mitigate the load increase associated with BLG). Criteria included high carbonate conversion, corresponding hydroxide recovery upon hydrolysis, non process element (NPE) removal, and economics. Of the six cases (three chemistries at two BLG conditions), only two were found to be industrially viable: titanates for complete causticizing during high temperature BLG, and borates for partial causticizing during high temperature BLG. These two cases were evaluated for integration into a gasification-based recovery island. The Larsen [28] BLG cost-benefit study was used as a reference case for economic forecasting (i.e. a 1500 tpd pulp mill using BLG and upgrading the lime cycle). By comparison, using the titanate direct causticizing process yielded a net present value (NPV) of $25M over the NPV of BLG with conventional lime cycle. Using the existing lime cycle plus borate autocausticizing for extra capacity yielded a NPV of $16M.

  14. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-03-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  15. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie; Xiaoting Liang; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected or developed that reacted with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  16. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  17. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick; Musa Karakus; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-03-30

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  18. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-07-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  19. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  20. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-01-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  1. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-04-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  2. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-07-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  3. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-04-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  4. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  5. Caprolactam waste liquor degradation by various yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, V; Patel, S J; Patel, K A; Mehta, M H

    1994-09-01

    Waste liquor from caprolactam manufacture contains many mono- and di-carboxylic acids. Of four yeasts tested, Yarrowia lipolytica DS-1 was the best at decreasing Chemical Oxygen Demand values, by up to 60% with 50 and 100 g waste liquor/after 48 h. Caproic, butyric and valeric acids were utilized most easily. Adipic acid was not decreased below 13% (w/v).

  6. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Laing

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  7. 27 CFR 27.209 - Used liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Used liquor bottles. 27..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 27.209 Used liquor bottles. The appropriate TTB officer may pursuant to letterhead application...

  8. Pressurized pyrolysis and gasification behaviour of black liquor and biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.; Backman, R.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this project is to obtain basic experimental data on pyrolysis and gasification of various black liquors and biofuels at elevated pressures, and to model these processes. Liquor-to-liquor differences in conversion behavior of single liquor droplets during gasification at atmospheric pressure were investigated. The applicability of a rate equation developed for catalyzed gasification of carbon was investigated with regard to pressurized black liquor gasification. A neural network was developed to simulate the progression of char conversion during pressurized black liquor gasification. Pyrolysis of black liquor in a pressurized drop-tube furnace was investigated in collaboration with KTH in Stockholm. (author)

  9. Radiation chemistry of liquor: Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yan; Qi Shengchu

    1993-01-01

    The effect of the concentrate of liquor made from dried sweet potato on the proliferation of tetrahymena pyriformis has been studied. The toxicity of d-2,3-butanediol and ethanol have also been investigated by the tetrahymena pyriformis and it has been found that they did not produce the effect on the propagation of the cell up to 250 and 1000 ppm, separately. The unirradiated concentrate of the different batch liquors all appear more or less inhibition on the proliferation of tetrahymena pyriformis. The effect is more remarkable for the concentrate of the irradiated liquors and is strengthened as increase of adsorbed dose. It shows that the toxicity of the concentrate of the irradiated liquor to tetrahymena pyriformis may be related to the quality of the dried sweet potato used and the formation of radiolytic products with higher boiling point

  10. Refractive Index of Black and Green Liquors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Avramenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lack of reliable data on the optical properties of black and green liquors complicates control of their composition in technological process of sulphate cellulose production. In this regard the paper presents measurement results of refraction index of black liquors n (k,t at concentration in solutions of bone-dry solids up to k = 70% and at temperatures t = 10-90 °C, as well as in green liquors n(C,t at the total alkalinity of C = 0-250 g/l and in the same temperature range. All samples of solutions of black and green liquors were provided by Segezha Pulp and Paper Mill and certified in factory laboratory. Measurements were taken by means of the laboratory Abbe refractometer (URL-1, digital refractometer "Expert pro", goniometer spectrometer GS-5, and ultra-violet spectrophotometer as well. The work also presents optical D density spectra in the ultra-violet region of the wavelengths for the samples of a green liquor and main mineral component to form it, i.e. Na2S (sodium sulphide. To calculate dispersion of n (λ in the visible spectral range, here a Lorentz single-oscillator model was used. The paper discusses study results of dispersive dependence of refraction index in green liquors with various concentration and chemical components of n (λ, C forming them at t = 20°C. Computing and experimental dependences of n (λ had not only good qualitative, but also quite satisfactory quantitative compliance. The work also describes main mineral components defining optical properties in these liquors. Given here data on concentration and temperature dependences of a refraction index in black n(k,t and green n(C,t liquors have been never published before. These data are of essential interest to control soda recovery technologies in manufacturing sulphate cellulose. The received results can be also used to tune and calibrate modern domestic and foreign industrial refractometers.

  11. Factors affecting the corrosivity of pulping liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlewood, Patrick Evan

    Increased equipment failures and the resultant increase in unplanned downtime as the result of process optimization programs continue to plague pulp mills. The failures are a result of a lack of understanding of corrosion in the different pulping liquors, specifically the parameters responsible for its adjustment such as the role and identification of inorganic and organic species. The current work investigates the role of inorganic species, namely sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, on liquor corrosivity at a range of process conditions beyond those currently experienced in literature. The role of sulfur species, in the activation of corrosion and the ability of hydroxide to passivate carbon steel A516-Gr70, is evaluated with gravimetric and electrochemical methods. The impact of wood chip weathering on process corrosion was also evaluated. Results were used to identify black liquor components, depending on the wood species, which play a significant role in the activation and inhibition of corrosion for carbon steel A516-Gr70 process equipment. Further, the effect of black liquor oxidation on liquor corrosivity was evaluated. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking performance of selected materials provided information on classes of materials that may be reliably used in aggressive pulping environments.

  12. Single particle studies of black liquor gasification under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.; Backman, R.; Hupa, M.; Backman, P.; Ek, P.; Hulden, S.T.; Kullberg, M.; Sorvari, V.

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide experimental data relevant to pressurized black liquor gasification concepts. Specifically, the following two goals will be achieved: Data on swelling, char yields and component release during pressurized pyrolysis of small samples of black liquor will be obtained. The reactivity and physical behavior of single black liquor droplets during simultaneous pyrolysis and gasification will be investigated. The structure and composition of black liquor char during formation and conversion will be studied. (orig.)

  13. Clear Liquor Scrubbing with Anhydrite Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargrove, O. W.; Carey, T. R.; Lowell, P. S.; Meserole, F. B.; Rhudy, R. G.; Feeley, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this project to develop an advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process that has decreased capital and operating costs, higher SO 2 removal efficiency, and better by-product solids quality than existing, commercially available technology. A clear liquor process (which uses a scrubbing liquid with no solids) will be used to accomplish this objective rather than a slurry liquor process (which contains solids). This clear liquor scrubbing (CLS) project is focused on three research areas: (1) Development of a clear liquor scrubbing process that uses a clear solution to remove SO 2 from flue gas and can be operated under inhibited-oxidation conditions; (2) Development of an anhydrite process that converts precipitated calcium sulfite to anhydrous calcium sulfate (anhydrite); and (3) Development of an alkali/humidification process to remove HCl from flue gas upstream of the FGD system. The anhydrite process also can be retrofit into existing FGD systems to produce a valuable by-product as an alternative to gypsum. This fits well into another of FETC's PRDA objectives of developing an advanced byproduct recovery subsystem capable of transforming SO 2 into a useable byproduct or high-volume valuable commodities of interest. This paper describes the proposed processes, outlines the test approach, and preliminary Phase I test results

  14. Daqu - a traditional Chinese liquor fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.; Rezaei Tabrizi, M.; Nout, M.J.R.; Han, B.

    2011-01-01

    Chinese liquor is one of the world's oldest distilled alcoholic beverages, and it is typically obtained with the use of Daqufermentation starters. Daqu is a saccharifying and fermenting agent, having a significant impact on the flavour of the product. Daqucan be categorized according to maximum

  15. Liquor licences issued to Australian schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Bernadette M; Kippen, Rebecca; Munro, Geoffrey; Buykx, Penny; McBride, Nyanda; Wiggers, John; Clark, Madeline

    2017-08-01

    Children's positive socialisation to alcohol is associated with early initiation of drinking and alcohol-related harm in adult life. Internationally, there have been reports of adults' alcohol consumption at school events in the presence of children. The aim of this research was to identify the conditions under which Australian schools are required to apply for a liquor licence and the associated prevalence of liquor licences for these events where children were likely to be present. A document review was conducted to examine temporary liquor licensing legislation. Quantitative analysis was used to examine relevant licensing data. Coding criteria was developed to determine school type, student year levels and the likely presence of children. Four jurisdictions provided data on 1817 relevant licences. The average annual licences/100 schools was highest amongst Independent schools followed by Catholic and public (government) schools. The rates were highest in Queensland and Victoria where children were present at 61% and 32% of events respectively. While there are legislative differences across jurisdictions, the prevalence of adults' alcohol use at school events in the presence of children may reflect the various education department policies and principals' and school communities' beliefs and attitudes. Licences are not required for all events where liquor is consumed so the prevalence of adults' use of alcohol at school events is likely to be higher than our analyses imply. Such practices may undermine teaching about alcohol use in the school curriculum and health promotion efforts to develop alcohol-free events when children are present.

  16. Experiments on black liquor splashplate nozzle performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, K.

    1996-12-31

    The performance of a throttled black liquor splashplate nozzle was studied in this work. A series of industrial-scale experiments were performed using mass flow rate as a variable at a fixed temperature. The experiments were carried out in a spraying chamber next to the recovery boiler with real mill liquor. The disintegration process of the liquor sheet was videotaped for analyzing. The mass flow rate distribution was measured with a collector. The liquor drops produced by the nozzle were videotaped and measured with a video image analysis technique. The industrial-scale experiments were afterwards repeated on a small scale in the laboratory environment which made it possible to study the liquid sheet disintegration process thoroughly. The small-scale experiments were carried out with a solution of water and glycerol and a splashplate nozzle of approximately one tenth the size of full-scale nozzle. The whole liquid sheet and close-up exposures of the plate area were videotaped. However, the videotaping equipment (camera and objective) were not capable of observing the very thin and transparent liquid sheet. The mass flow rate distribution was measured with steps of 2.5 deg from the plate centerline with a collector device. The drop sizes were measured from various sheet angles with Malvern Particle Sizer and a phase Doppler particle anemometer (Aerometrics). The modeling was based on dimensional analysis. The objective was to compare these two experimental settings and to find out whether small-scale experiments can be used in predicting the spraying characteristics in the full-scale. It was also of interest to test the measured black liquor drop sizes against drop size correlations obtained from the literature. (31 refs.)

  17. Eyelid liquoric fistula secondary to orbital meningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Antunes Schiave Germano

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Liquoric fistula (LF is defined as the communication of the subarachnoid space with the external environment, which main complication is the development of infection in the central nervous system. We reported the case of a patient with non-traumatic eyelid liquoric fistula secondary to orbital meningocele (congenital lesion, which main clinical manifestation was unilateral eyelid edema. Her symptoms and clinical signs appeared in adulthood, which is uncommon. The patient received surgical treatment, with complete resolution of the eyelid swelling. In conclusion, eyelid cerebrospinal fluid (CSF fistula is a rare condition but with great potential deleterious to the patient. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unilateral eyelid edema, and surgical treatment is almost always mandatory.

  18. Reduction in Ammonium Ions in Sludge Liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Šlajūtė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Liquor rejected from the centrifugation of the digested sludge can contain the concentrations of ammonium ions up to 1750 mg/L. These loads are usually returned to the intake of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP without additional treatment and can have a negative impact on biological wastewater and/or sludge treatment processes, e.g. phosphorus and nitrogen removal. This article deals with the use of naturally obtained sorbent, zeolite, in batch and column test procedure for removing ammonium from the rejected liquor. This research study was carried out using different sizes of zeolite particles: 0.8–1.6 mm and 1.6–2.5 mm. The highest efficiency of ammonium removal (up to 98 % was achieved by applying the zeolite particles of 0.8–1.6 mm.Article in Lithuanian

  19. Liquor licences issued to Australian schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette M. Ward

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children’s positive socialisation to alcohol is associated with early initiation of drinking and alcohol-related harm in adult life. Internationally, there have been reports of adults’ alcohol consumption at school events in the presence of children. The aim of this research was to identify the conditions under which Australian schools are required to apply for a liquor licence and the associated prevalence of liquor licences for these events where children were likely to be present. Methods A document review was conducted to examine temporary liquor licensing legislation. Quantitative analysis was used to examine relevant licensing data. Coding criteria was developed to determine school type, student year levels and the likely presence of children. Results Four jurisdictions provided data on 1817 relevant licences. The average annual licences/100 schools was highest amongst Independent schools followed by Catholic and public (government schools. The rates were highest in Queensland and Victoria where children were present at 61% and 32% of events respectively. Conclusions While there are legislative differences across jurisdictions, the prevalence of adults’ alcohol use at school events in the presence of children may reflect the various education department policies and principals’ and school communities’ beliefs and attitudes. Licences are not required for all events where liquor is consumed so the prevalence of adults’ use of alcohol at school events is likely to be higher than our analyses imply. Such practices may undermine teaching about alcohol use in the school curriculum and health promotion efforts to develop alcohol-free events when children are present.

  20. Kinetic study of compost liquor nitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnaire, J; Wang, X Y; Chapon, L; Moulin, P; Marrot, B

    2011-01-01

    This study is a first kinetic approach about the compost liquor treatment by activated sludge. This industrial wastewater is highly loaded in organic and nitrogen compounds (COD≈12,000 mg L(-1) and NH(4)(+)-N≈4,000 mg L(-1)). The possibility of its treatment in an urban WWTP is studied measuring ammonia oxidation rate with non-acclimated sludge to the industrial effluent. Compost liquor appears as an inhibitor substrate. The ammonia oxidation rate can be modelled by the Haldane model: U(MAX)=0.180 d(-1), K(S)=12.0 mgN.L(-1) and K(I)=26.0 mgN.L(-1). The ammonia oxidation rate also follows for a synthetic substrate which has the same pollutant load as the real substrate. In this case, the ammonia oxidation rate can be modelled by the Monod model: U(MAX)=0.073 d(-1) and K(S)=4.3 mgN.L(-1). This result confirms that the ammonia oxidising bacteria are inhibited by the real wastewater. The following-up of nitrate production shows also the inhibition of nitrite oxidising bacteria. The compost liquor treatment seems not possible in an urban WWTP (<50,000 p.e.). That's why a specific WWTP is recommended and an acclimation step of activated sludge is essential.

  1. Combustion properties of kraft black liquors; Mustalipeaen koostumuksen vaikutus lipeaen poltto-ominaisuuksiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R.; Siistonen, H.; Heikkinen, T.; Malkavaara, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this work is to study the combustion properties of kraft black liquors from modified cooking. Both the industrial and laboratory-made black liquors are included. In addition, changes in the combustion properties of the spent liquors obtained by mixing prior to combustion different chlorine-free bleach liquors with black liquor are studied. (author)

  2. Catalytic wet oxidation of black liquor

    OpenAIRE

    Viader Riera, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    The major aspects of wet air oxidation and catalytic wet air oxidation have been reviewed in this work paying special attention to the reaction mechanisms, kinetics and the industrial process. In the experimental section a set of heterogeneous catalysts have been tested in the wet oxidation of non-wood black liquor. The oxidation runs were performed batchwise in a laboratory-scale mechanically stirred slurry reactor for 1 h at a temperature of 170°C and total pressure of 12 bar. Pure oxygen w...

  3. Estudo do liquor de cupuaçu Study of cupuassu liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly de Oliveira Cohen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum, que é um fruto amazônico, vem conquistando a cada ano mais espaço no mercado nacional e internacional com a comercialização de sua polpa. Suas sementes, consideradas como subproduto, vem despertando interesse não só no mundo científico como pelas indústrias. Sabe-se que, a partir das sementes, pode-se obter produtos análogos aos oriundos das sementes de cacau, seguindo as mesmas etapas de processamento. Dentre esses produtos tem-se o liquor de cupuaçu, semelhante ao liquor de cacau que é um dos ingredientes da formulação do chocolate. Este trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da obtenção e caracterização física, química e físico-química do liquor de cupuaçu. Obteve-se três amostras de liquor de cupuaçu, cada qual partindo de lotes diferentes de fermentação. Foram avaliados a composição centesimal e o comportamento reológico. O liquor de cupuaçu apresentou alto teor de lipídios (63,93 a 66,51% e alto valor calórico (677,35 a 691,17kcal/100g. O teor de proteínas variou de 8,95 a 10,31%. A viscosidade plástica de Casson diminuiu com o aumento de temperatura. A distribuição do tamanho das partículas influenciou nas diferenças de viscosidades entre as amostras, havendo maior redução de viscosidade plástica com o aumento da temperatura nas amostras que apresentaram maior diâmetro de partículas. A gordura de cupuaçu apresentou comportamento newtoniano à 40ºC.Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum is an amazon fruit, that each year is conquering more space in national and international market with the commercialization of its pulp. Its seeds, considered as subproducts, are arousing interest not only in the scientific world but also in the industry. It's known that from those seeds, it can be obtained analogous products as those cocoa seeds, following the same stages of processing. Among those products there is the cupuassu liquor, similar to cocoa liquor that is one

  4. 27 CFR 31.42 - Restaurants serving liquors with meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restaurants serving... Part Certain Organizations, Agencies, and Persons § 31.42 Restaurants serving liquors with meals. Proprietors of restaurants and other persons who serve liquors with meals to paying customers, even if no...

  5. Fermented Corn Waste Liquor as a Potential Source for Probiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although some fermented cereals are known to contain LAB, limited information is available on the massive production of LAB from low cost fermented meals such as corn mash waste. Hence the efficiency of 72h- corn waste liquor as a rich source for probiotic LAB was evaluated. The liquor aseptically recovered from ...

  6. 27 CFR 5.46 - Standard liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Standards of Fill for... container of a bottle shall not be so designed as to mislead purchasers as to the size of the bottles. (b... after closure. (c) Design. A liquor bottle shall be held (irrespective of the correctness of the stated...

  7. Methylated liquor treatment process in caffeine production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junbo; Yang, Mingyang; Huang, Wenjia; Cui, Shenglu; Gao, Liping

    2018-02-01

    The caffeine production process produces a large amount of sodium methyl sulphate in the methylated mother liquor. In order to recycle this part of ingredient, we use the mother liquid of Shijiazhuang Xin Nuowei Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. as the object of study, the use of “nanofiltration (NF) - Dish Type Reverse Osmosis (DTRO) “combination of membrane technology for desalination and concentration. The experimental results show that the concentration of sodium sulfate in the nanofiltration solution is 0.37 g • L -1, the rejection rate is 98%, and the concentration of sodium methyl sulfate in DTRO concentrated solution is 453.80 g • L -1, which meets the requirements of the enterprise.

  8. Pyrolysis and gasification behavior of black liquor under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study has been to enhance the understanding of the processes involved in pressurized black liquor gasification. Gasification is known to occur in three stages: drying, pyrolysis and char gasification. The work presented here focuses on the pyrolysis and gasification stages. Experiments were carried out primarily in two laboratory-scale reactors. A pressurized grid heater was used to study black liquor pyrolysis under pressurized conditions. Char yields and the fate of elements in the liquor, as well as the degree of liquor swelling, were measured in this device. A pressurized thermogravimetric reactor was used to measure the rate of the char gasification process under different temperatures and pressures and in various gas atmospheres. Pyrolysis experiments were also carried out in this device, and data on swelling behavior, char yields and component release were obtained 317 refs.

  9. Green liquor pretreatment for improving enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Feng; Yang, Linfeng; Jin, Yongcan; Han, Qiang; Chang, Hou-min; Jameel, Hasan; Phillips, Richard

    2012-11-01

    Green liquor consists of sodium carbonate and sodium sulfide and is readily available in any kraft mills. The green liquor pretreatment process for bioethanol production was developed for wood chips. This process uses only proven technology and equipment currently used in a kraft pulp mill and has several additional advantages such as high sugar recovery and concentration, no inhibitive substances produced, as compared to acid-based pretreatment methods. The liquor was used to pretreat corn stover for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis in bioethanol production. Pulp yield of 70% with 45% lignin removal was achieved under optimized conditions (8% total titratable alkali, 40% sulfidity and 140°C). About 70% of the original polysaccharides were converted into fermentable sugars, using 20 FPU/g-pulp of enzyme in the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. The result indicates that green liquor is a feasible pretreatment to improve the enzymatic saccharification of corn stover for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Vanillin: Synthetic Flavoring from Spent Sulfite Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Martin B.

    1997-09-01

    Separation of the lignin component of wood from the cellulose presents an opportunity to access various interesting products from the lignin fragments. The lignin represents availability of a sizable renewable resource. Vanillin, or 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, is one of a series of related substituted aromatic flavor constituents, and represents one of the potentially profitable possibilities. Vanillin production from the lignin-containing waste liquor obtained from acid sulfite pulping of wood began in North America in the mid 1930's. By 1981 one plant at Thorold, Ontario produced 60% of the contemporary world supply of vanillin. The process also simultaneously decreased the organic loading of the aqueous waste streams of the pulping process. Today, however, whilst vanillin production from lignin is still practiced in Norway and a few other areas, all North American facilities using this process have closed, primarily for environmental reasons. New North American vanillin plants use petrochemical raw materials. An innovation is needed to help overcome the environmental problems of this process before vanillin production from lignin is likely to resume here. Current interest in the promotion of chemicals production from renewable raw materials reinforces the incentive to do this.

  11. Proceedings of the black liquor research program review fifth meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    On June 14--17, 1988 the participants and invited guests of the Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery gathered in Charleston, South Carolina, to review progress on four major black liquor research programs being executed at the Institute of Paper Chemistry, the University of Maine, the National Bureau of Standards, and the University of Florida. These programs include: (1) Black Liquor Properties; (2) Black Liquor Droplet Formation; (3) Black Liquor Nozzle Evaluation; and (4) Black Liquor Combustion. In addition to the objectives of previous meetings, this meeting made a direct attempt to gather ideas on how to improve our ability to move from new technology concepts to commercial implementation. Also attached is the agenda for the Charleston meeting. The first two days were involved with updates and reviews of the four major black liquor programs. A half day was spent discussing pathways to implementation and developing thoughts on what industry, DOE and academia could do to facilitate commercial implementation of the research results. This publication is a summary of the presentations made in Charleston and the industry responses to the research work. Readers are cautioned that the contents are in-progress updates on the status of the research and do not represent referred technical papers. Any questions regarding the content should be referred to the principal investigators of the project.

  12. Maternal hydration and L-arginine supplementation improves liquor volume in patients with decreased liquor and prolongs pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shripad Hebbar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oligohydramnios (reduced amniotic fluid may be responsible for the problems of malpresentations, umbilical cord compression, meconium staining of amniotic fluid in the liquor, and difficult or failed external cephalic version. Simple intervention maternal hydration has been reported as a way of increasing amniotic fluid volume in order to reduce some of these problems. Objective: To assess the influence of maternal hydration and l-arginine supplementation in improving liquor volume in patients with decreased liquor. Study Design: Prospective nonrandomized interventional study. Materials and Methods: 50 patients remote from term, with decreased liquor [amniotic fluid index (AFI < 8] were enrolled in the study. Before the proposed intervention, the antenatal risk factors were studied. Patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were administered l-arginine (one sachet 3 g, two times daily and others received both arginine and intravenous hydration (500 ml of fructodex which contains 5% dextrose and 5% fructose, and lactated Ringer′s solution daily. The treatment was continued till the liquor improved significantly. However, patients were considered for delivery if the liquor remained less than 5. Mean increase in liquor, intervention delivery interval, and neonatal outcome were studied. Results: The mean gestational age at the time of recruitment was 33.4 ΁ 1.9 weeks. The mean AFI at the time of enrolment was 6.9 (SD 0.8. These patients were delivered at 36.3 ΁ 1.3 weeks, and thus, pregnancy could be prolonged by 2.9 weeks. The mean AFI at the end of therapeutic intervention was 9.3 (SD 1.7, and thus, an AFI increase of 2.4 could be obtained. There was no significant neonatal morbidity in these patients. Significant improvement in liquor volume was obtained in these patients after intervention with either or both l-arginine and fructodex infusion (P < 0.0001. The pregnancy could be prolonged from 33.4 weeks to 36.3 weeks

  13. Influence of the chemical composition on the combustion properties of kraft black liquor; Mustalipeaen koostumuksen vaikutus lipeaen poltto-ominaisuuksiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R.; Siistonen, H.; Malkavaara, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Inst. of Chemistry

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this work is to study the combustion properties of kraft black liquors from modified cooking. Both the industrial and laboratory-made black liquors are included. In addition, changes in the combustion properties of the spent liquors obtained by mixing prior to combustion different chlorine-free bleach liquors with black liquor are studied. (orig.)

  14. Drop formation of black liquor spraying; Mustalipeaen pisaroituminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogelholm, C.J.; Kankkunen, A.; Nieminen, K.; Laine, J.; Miikkulainen, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland): Lab. of Energy Technology and Environmental Protection

    1997-10-01

    Black liquor is a spent liquor of the pulp and paper industry. It is burned in kraft recovery boilers for chemical and energy recovery. The high dry solids content and viscosity of black liquor require a high spraying temperature. This affects the performance of the boiler. Kraft recovery boiler deposit formation, emissions and chemical recovery are strongly affected by the drop size and the velocity of the black liquor spray formed by a splashplate nozzle. The sheet breakup mechanism is studied with a system based on a video and image-analysis. The drop size of mill-scale nozzles was measured also with an image-analysis-system. Measurements were carried out in a spray test chamber. The sheet breakup mechanism and drop size tests were carried out both below and over the boiling point of black liquor. Special attention was paid to the effect of flashing on drop formation. Temperature increase normally decreases drop size. In the temperature where the wavy-sheet disintegration changes to perforated-sheet disintegration the drop size increases. Spray velocity rises when the temperature is increased above the boiling point. (orig.)

  15. Intrapartum amnioinfusion for meconium-stained liquor in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, J; Matchaba, P; Payne, A J

    1998-01-01

    Intrapartum amnioinfusion (AI) has been reported to decrease perinatal mortality and morbidity in women with meconium-stained liquor. Such work has not previously been performed at King Edward VIII Hospital (KEH), in a developing country, where the incidence of meconium-stained liquor is said to be extremely high. To establish whether AI during the intrapartum period for meconium-stained liquor decreases Caesarean section rates for fetal distress and decreases perinatal morbidity. Informed consent was obtained from patients in labour who were 3-8 cm dilated, with meconium-staining of the liquor, grades I to III inclusive, and who had a normal cardiotocograph on presentation at term. Sixty patients were included in the trial; 30 had AI. The control group was managed by standard methods. The study group had an amnioinfusion of 0.9% normal saline at 15 ml/min under continuous cardiotocographic monitoring, until a volume of 11 was completed. This was repeated if delivery did not occur within 4 h. The mean pH of umbilical arterial blood was significantly higher in the AI group (7.30 versus 7.23; P = 0.0029). In addition fewer patients in this group developed hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (0 versus 2 controls) or meconium aspiration syndrome (1 versus 4 controls). This was not statistically significant. Caesarean section for fetal distress was performed on fewer patients in the AI group (3 versus 7 controls), although this was not statistically significant. These results demonstrate that amnioinfusion is an effective technique for improving the perinatal outcome of pregnancies complicated by meconium-stained liquor in labour. The decrease in Caesarean sections for fetal distress, though not statistically significant in this study, has clinical relevance. Furthermore, this study suggests that amnioinfusion is cost effective in a busy, high-risk labour ward unit and consequently should become standard practice in the management of meconium-stained liquor in labour.

  16. Release model for black liquor droplet; Mustalipeaepisaran vapautumismalli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saastamoinen, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The release of sodium, potassium, chlorine and sulphur from black liquor droplets during pyrolysis, combustion and gasification is studied by modelling work. A model for drying, pyrolysis and swelling of black liquor has been developed earlier. A submodel for the release of sulphur, which takes place at temperatures below 500 deg C has been incorporated to this model. A previous model for the combustion and gasification of char particles has been further developed to account for the effect of sodium, potassium and chlorine. A model for the release of these components as function of time has been developed. (orig.)

  17. Comparison of Ultrasound Cephalometry, Radiology, and Liquor Studies in Patients with Unknown Confinement Dates*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Rosemary A.; Beazley, John M.; Campbell, Stuart

    1971-01-01

    The accuracy of predicting fetal maturity by ultrasound cephalometry, radiology, and liquor studies in patients with unknown confinement dates has been compared. The best prediction was given by ultrasound cephalometry. Liquor studies were least helpful. PMID:4106479

  18. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31

    Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the

  19. Characterization of Chinese liquor aroma components during aging process and liquor age discrimination using gas chromatography combined with multivariable statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M. L.; Yu, Y.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Zhu, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Chinese liquor aroma components were characterized during the aging process using gas chromatography (GC). Principal component and cluster analysis (PCA, CA) were used to discriminate the Chinese liquor age which has a great economic value. Of a total of 21 major aroma components identified and quantified, 13 components which included several acids, alcohols, esters, aldehydes and furans decreased significantly in the first year of aging, maintained the same levels (p > 0.05) for next three years and decreased again (p counterfeit and defective products.

  20. 77 FR 34981 - Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians-Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... conflict with the Agreement, the terms of the Agreement control. Taxation 3.06.620 Tribal Liquor Tax The... exercise the Tribe's jurisdiction to regulate the sale, distribution and taxation of liquor within the... over liquor distribution, sales and taxation within the Tribe's Indian Country. Therefore, in the...

  1. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk..., and malt liquors in bulk. (a) The port director, in his discretion, may require marks, brands, stamps... conveying imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 467. (b) Marks...

  2. 76 FR 4366 - Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel Liquor Control Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel Liquor Control... Control Law No. LB-06-08 of the Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel (Nation). The Liquor Control Law regulates... Legislature of the Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel adopted its Liquor Control Law, LB 06-08, on October 8, 2008...

  3. Feasibility of wood pulping black liquor for treatment of soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of neutral black liquor and moisture heating treatments of soybean meal (SBM) on in situ rumen degradability characteristics in cow and its proteins sub-units fractions by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) discontinuous system.

  4. Selective removal of chromium from sulphuric acid leach liquor of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The selective removal of chromium, a trace impurity that degrades the whiteness of titanium(IV) oxide pigments, from sulphuric acid leach liquor of ilmenite, was investigated by solvent extraction with xylene solutions of trioctylamine. Important factors of commercial significance affecting the extraction operation have been ...

  5. Analyses of microbial consortia in the starter of Fen Liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J-H; Xiao, Y-P; Li, X-R; Ma, E-B; Du, X-W; Quan, Z-X

    2009-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the microbial diversity in the starter of Fen Liquor. The plate method was used to enumerate the micro-organisms; meanwhile, the 16S rDNA of bacteria and the internal transcribed spacer of fungi were used to determine microbial diversity. Several genera were accordingly identified. Among the bacteria, Lactobacillales and Actinomycetales were detected only on the surface of the starter, whereas Bacillales was dominant within the starter. Among the fungi, Saccharomycopsis and Issatchenkia were the main genera in surface and interior starter, respectively; in addition, Thermomyces was found in interior starter, while other species of fungi were detected on the surface. The culture-dependent and polymerase chain reaction-based methods revealed the significant microbial diversity in different locations in the starter of Fen Liquor. This study is the first to identify the bacterial and fungal communities associated with the starter of Fen Liquor using both traditional and molecular methods; it is also the first to compare the microbial diversity on the surface of starter with that in the interior. The results enrich our knowledge on liquor-related micro-organisms, and can be used to promote the development of the traditional fermentation technology.

  6. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Western Cape Liquor Act in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Western Cape Liquor Act in Khayelitsha. Alcohol is one of the key risk factors for the exceptionally high levels of interpersonal violence in South Africa's Western Cape Province. It is also an important contributor to disease. Reducing access to alcohol is one of several strategies ...

  7. Utilization of Brewery Spent Grain Liquor by Aspergillus niger1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Y. D.; Splittstoesser, D. F.; Woodams, E. E.

    1975-01-01

    Aspergillus niger was found capable of rapidly converting about 97% of the sugar from brewery spent grain liquor to fungal mass. The yield of dry mycelium, based on the sugar consumed, was approximately 57%. This fungus produced 1.10% titratable acid calculated as citric acid and reduced the biochemical oxygen demand by 96%. PMID:1200633

  8. Context and consequences of liquor sachets use among young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents a relatively new phenomenon regarding alcohol related problems in Malawi; the context and consequences of the consumption of liquor sachets among young people. The results presented are part of a larger study looking at the prevalence and social norms related to alcohol use, as well as people's ...

  9. Feasibility of wood pulping black liquor for treatment of soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... black liquor, xylose and moisture heated treatment significantly (P<0.05) reduced degradability values of crude protein (CP) for SBM. ... Bags were then dried to a constant weight at 60°C for 48 h and weighed. The solubility or washing loss was determined by soaking samples of each material in water at 37 ...

  10. Evaluation of ogi liquor from different grains for antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-02

    May 2, 2007 ... Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the test organisms. This was done as above except that instead of making wells on the already seeded plates and pouring in the prepared liquors, standard commercial antibiotics disc was placed on the seeded agar plates before the plates were incubated at 37○C for 24 h.

  11. Reduced liquor drainage at delivery: an unusual presentation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 27-year old unbooked G5P3+1 woman with a history of previous caesarean section is reported. She had an apparent normal vaginal delivery at term with very scanty liquor drainage. She then developed severe persistent abdominal pain with stable vital signs. A laparotomy confirmed a ruptured uterus. We therefore ...

  12. 77 FR 61778 - Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community-Liquor Ordinance To Allow for On-Sale Liquor Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... Minnesota. Section III. Definitions A. ``Business Council'' shall mean the body composed of the members of...-related activity is authorized and where the Tribal Gaming Enterprise may be authorized to sell liquor if... not authorized. A non-gaming location shall include areas within a Tribal Gaming Enterprise not...

  13. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.

    1998-05-01

    The overall objective of the program was to develop correlations to predict physical properties within requirements of engineering precision from a knowledge of pulping conditions and of kraft black liquor composition, if possible. These correlations were to include those relating thermodynamic properties to pulping conditions and liquor composition. The basic premise upon which the research was based is the premise that black liquor behaves as a polymer solution. This premise has proven to be true, and has been used successfully in developing data reduction methods and in interpreting results. A three phase effort involving pulping, analysis of liquor composition, and measurement of liquor properties was conducted.

  14. Physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report. Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.

    1983-12-01

    Methods were selected, equipment installed, and procedures developed for determining rheological properties; for determining thermal properties (stability, density, thermal expansion, and heat capacity); for purification and characterization of lignin (glass transition, stability, weight average molecular weight, and number average molecular weight); and for performing chemical analyses (negative inorganic ions, positive inorganic ions, acid organic salts, lignin, and total solids). A strategy for pulping to supply test liquors was developed, and a statistically designed pulping experiment was specified for a Southern softwood species. Arrangements were made for performing initial pulping work in an industrial pilot plant, and a preliminary set of pulping experiments were conducted. Liquors from the preliminary pulping experiments were used to test procedures and to determine reproducibility of the experiment. Literature was also surveyed and preliminary selection of designs for a pilot digester, and for equipment to determine surface tension were made.

  15. 75 FR 65373 - Klamath Tribes Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... liquor at a place or premises that is or would be considered a public, common or other nuisance under any tribal, state or federal statutory or common law. 2.2. Any person who promotes any activity or owns or...: Pursuant to the Act of August 15, 1953, Public Law 83-277, 67 Stat. 586, 18 U.S.C. 1161, as interpreted by...

  16. Analysis of green liquor influence on coal steam gasification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karczewski Mateusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gasification is a clean and efficient technology with a long history dating up to the 19th century. The possible application of this process ranges from gas production and chemical synthesis to the energy sector and therefore this technology holds noticeable potential for future applications. In order to advance it, a new efficient approaches for this complex process are necessary. Among possible methods, a process enhancing additives, such as alkali and alkaline earth metals seems to be a promising way of achieving such a goal, but in practice might turn to be a wasteful approach for metal economy, especially in large scale production. This paper shows alkali abundant waste material that are green liquor dregs as a viable substitute. Green liquor dregs is a waste material known for its low potential as a fuel, when used separately, due to its low organic content, but its high ash content that is also abundant in alkali and alkaline earth elements seems to make it a suitable candidate for application in coal gasification processes. The aim of this work is an evaluation of the suitability of green liquor waste to work as a potential process enhancing additive for coal steam gasification process. During the experiment, three blends of hard coal and green liquor dregs were selected, with consideration for low corrosive potential and possibly high catalytic activity. The mixtures were gasified in steam under four different temperatures. Their energies syngas yield, coal conversion degree and energies of activation were calculated with use of Random Pore Model (RPM and Grain Model (GM which allowed for their comparison.

  17. Hydrogen production by supercritical water gasification of alkaline black liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Changqing; Guo, Liejin; Chen, Yunan; Lu, Youjun [Xi' an Jiatong Univ. (China)

    2010-07-01

    Black liquor was gasified continuously in supercritical water successfully and the main gaseous products were H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} with little amount of CO, C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. The increase of the temperature and the decrease of the flow rate and black liquor concentration enhanced SCWG of black liquor. The change of the system pressure had limited influence on the gasification effect. The maximal COD removal efficiency of 88.69 % was obtained at the temperature of 600 C. The pH values of the aqueous residue were all decreased to the range of 6.4{proportional_to}8 while the pH value of cooling effluence below 360 C increased to about 11 and the sodium content was much higher than that in the aqueous residue. The reaction rate for COD degradation in supercritical water was obtained by assuming pseudo first order reaction. And the activation energy and pre-exponential for COD removal in SCWG were 74.38kJ/mol and 1.11 x 10{sup 4} s{sup -1} respectively. (orig.)

  18. Fenton process combined with coagulation for the treatment of black liquor from bioethanol wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muryanto, Muryanto; Hanifah, Ummu; Amriani, Feni; Ibadurrahman, Ahmad Faiz; Sari, Ajeng Arum

    2017-11-01

    High amounts of black liquor are generated from bioethanol production by using oil palm empty fruit bunches. The black liquor is waste from alkaline pretreatment, it contains high amount of an alkaline solution (NaOH). The black liquor wastewater was highly contaminated with organic materials, and quite toxic for aquatic ecosystems if discharged directly into waters. This study aimed to determine ability of Fenton process combined with coagulation to treat black liquor. The addition 5% of polyaluminium chloride (PAC) could decolorized black liquor, degraded lignin, and produced sludge 70.64%, 68.28%, and 2.76 gram, respectively. Decolorization of black liquor was in line with degradation of black liquor because lignin is the main compound in black liquor. SEM images after addition of PAC of 5% indicated fragmentation of structure. Fenton reagent consist of 0.7 M FeSO4+ 3M H2O2 has able to decolorize black liquor, degrade lignin, and produce sludge 51.67% and 25.44%, and 0.44 gram, respectively. It was concluded that black liquor wastewater from bioethanol can be treated by using Fenton process combined with coagulation. However, these methods still need improvement to obtain the higher degradation rate, and coagulation sludge needs further consideration.

  19. Evaluation of lignin-based black liquor decolorization by Trametes versicolor U 80

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amriani, Feni; Sari, Ajeng Arum; R. Irni Fitria, A.; Abimanyu, Haznan; Tachibana, Sanro

    2017-01-01

    Bioethanol second generation (G-2) production process generated black liquor that need to treat before the disposal to prevent environmental pollution. Usually, coagulation technology using polyaluminium chloride was employed to precipitate dissolved lignin and intended to decolorize black liquor. However, this single work is not effective to treat black liquor, so that it requires another work to treat remain brownish liquor. Isolated fungal strain from Japan Trametes versicolor U 80 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium are white rot fungi that are known in ligninolytic enzymes secretion to biodegrade soluble lignin. Decolorization of black and brownish liquor is an indicator of fungi works since lignin is known as the colour agent in liquor colouration. This work evaluated black and brownish liquor decolorization using both fungi that correspond to fungal growth. Liquor toxicity was observed based on mycelial dry weight after 30 days incubation as the presumption of the connection of fungal growth and decolorization. The biosorption from the dead cell was also evaluated for fungal adsorption capability in black and brownish decolorization. As the result, T. versicolor U 80 was able to decolorize brownish liquor 51.5% after 21 days incubation and 68.6% black liquor at 15 days incubation. MnP and Laccase enzymes activity in 15 and 21 days are correlated to those decolorized results. The dead cell was also able to decolorize 67.3% brownish liquor and 25.1% black liquor after 15 days incubation as biosorption mechanism. This research described fungal potential in decolorization as the simple black liquor treatment technology and gave valuable information related to environmental friendly decolorization process.

  20. The diagnostic importance of phase transitions in liquor at a craniocereberal trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova N.E.; Shadrin Е.В.; Vaskova N.L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of the work is an investigation of biophysical properties of liquors of patients with a craniocereberal trauma. This investigation has been directed on definition of a degree of a brain defeat, the forecast of the further current of disease and development of methods treatment. Materials and methods. Liquor was undertaken from 62 patients with the diagnosis of an craniocereberal trauma. Research of thermo-impedancemetry of liquors was made with the help of equipment for m...

  1. Yeast community associated with the solid state fermentation of traditional Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Chen, Liangqiang; Xu, Yan

    2013-09-02

    Yeasts are the most important group of microorganisms contributing to liquor quality in the solid-state fermentation process of Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor. There occurred a complex yeast community structure during this process, including stages of Daqu (the starter) making, stacking fermentation on the ground and liquor fermentation in the pits. In the Daqu making stage, few yeast strains accumulated. However, the stacking fermentation stage accumulated nine yeast species with different physio-biochemical characteristics. But only four species kept dominant until liquor fermentation, which were Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranifaciens, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, implying their important functions in liquor making. The four species tended to inhabit in different locations of the stack and pits during stacking and liquor fermentation, due to the condition heterogeneity of the solid-state fermentation, including the different fermentation temperature profiles and oxygen density in different locations. Moreover, yeast population was much larger in the upper layer than that in the middle and bottom layers in liquor fermentation, which was in accordance with the profile of reducing sugar consumption and ethanol production. This was a systematical investigation of yeast community structure dynamics in the Maotai-flavor liquor fermentation process. It would be of help to understand the fermentative mechanism in solid-state fermentation for Maotai-flavor liquor. © 2013.

  2. Malt liquor marketing in inner cities: the role of neighborhood racial composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Pat; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Hannan, Peter; Pham, Lan

    2011-01-01

    In response to anecdotal reports that African American neighborhoods are targeted for high-alcohol malt liquor advertising, the authors observed alcohol ads on off-premise alcohol outlets, billboards, and transit structures in 10 U.S. cities over 3 years. Malt liquor ads were prevalent on storefronts, but rare on billboards. Using Poisson regression, the authors found that storefront malt liquor ads were more common in neighborhoods with higher percentages of African Americans, even after controlling for social and physical disorder. Results suggest that policymakers attempting to reduce malt liquor-related harms may do well to consider regulations that limit storefront advertising exposure.

  3. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.; Stoy, M.O.; Schmidl, G.W.; Dong, D.J.; Speck, B.

    1998-04-01

    A wide variety of experimental techniques have been used in this work, and many of these have been developed completely or improved significantly in the course of the research done during this program. Therefore, it is appropriate to describe these techniques in detail as a reference for future workers so that the techniques can be used in future work with little additional effort or so that the results reported from this program can be compared better with future results from other work. In many cases, the techniques described are for specific analytical instruments. It is recognized that these may be superseded by future developments and improvements in instrumentation if a complete description of techniques used successfully in the past on other instrumentation is available. The total pulping and liquor preparation research work performed included chip and white liquor preparation, digestion, pulp washing, liquor and wash recovery, liquor sampling, weak liquor concentration in two steps to about 45--50% solids with an intermediate soap skimming at about 140F and 27--30% solids, determination of pulp yield and Kappa number, determination of total liquor solids, and a check on the total material balance for pulping. All other research was performed either on a sample of the weak black liquor (the combined black liquor and washes from the digester) or on the skimmed liquor that had been concentrated.

  4. Efficient exfoliation of layered materials by waste liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jiheng; Zhao, Hongran; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Qiaolei; Chen, Hao; Dou, Huimin; Yu, Haibin

    2018-03-01

    Based on their unique material properties, two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials such as graphene, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), and boron nitride (BN) have been attracting increased research interest. The potential of 2D materials, in the form of nanoplatelets that are used as new materials, will be important to both nanomaterials and advanced materials. Water is usually considered to be the ideal dispersed medium, and the essential hydrophobicity and limitations to mass production of 2D nanoplatelets have become quite serious obstacles to their usage in various fields. In this paper, pulping black liquor was used as dispersant, with high concentration of lignin to get single- and few-layered nanoplatelets. The whole process required only the high-shear mixing of 2D layered materials and pulping waste liquor. This method was not only simple and efficient but also environmentally friendly and resource-recycling. Moreover, the fabricated single- or few-layered nanoplatelets possessed good solubility in aqueous solution due to their edge functionalization, and could be well dispersed in water at concentrations (10 mg ml‑1 for graphene, 6.3 mg ml‑1 for MoS2, and 6.0 mg ml‑1 for BN) which were much higher than that of other methods. The dispersions of graphene, MoS2, and BN nanosheets were highly stable over several months, which allowed us to easily prepare graphene, MoS2, and BN films through simple vacuum filtration or spraying. These results indicated that pulping black liquor can be used as a material or reagent, and the mass production of 2D material is possible in a simple and fast method.

  5. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Simone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids, whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP. Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m2·h·bar, coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m2·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively.

  6. Generation of PHB from Spent Sulfite Liquor Using Halophilic Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Weissgram

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Halophilic microorganisms thrive at elevated concentrations of sodium chloride up to saturation and are capable of growing on a wide variety of carbon sources like various organic acids, hexose and also pentose sugars. Hence, the biotechnological application of these microorganisms can cover many aspects, such as the treatment of hypersaline waste streams of different origin. Due to the fact that the high osmotic pressure of hypersaline environments reduces the risk of contamination, the capacity for cost-effective non-sterile cultivation can make extreme halophilic microorganisms potentially valuable organisms for biotechnological applications. In this contribution, the stepwise use of screening approaches, employing design of experiment (DoE on model media and subsequently using industrial waste as substrate have been implemented to investigate the applicability of halophiles to generate PHB from the industrial waste stream spent sulfite liquor (SSL. The production of PHB on model media as well as dilutions of industrial substrate in a complex medium has been screened for by fluorescence microscopy using Nile Blue staining. Screening was used to investigate the ability of halophilic microorganisms to withstand the inhibiting substances of the waste stream without negatively affecting PHB production. It could be shown that neither single inhibiting substances nor a mixture thereof inhibited growth in the investigated range, hence, leaving the question on the inhibiting mechanisms open. However, it could be demonstrated that some haloarchaea and halophilic bacteria are able to produce PHB when cultivated on 3.3% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor, whereas H. halophila was even able to thrive on 6.6% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor and still produce PHB.

  7. Kinetics of gasification of black liquor char by steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; van Heiningen, A.R.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the steam gasification kinetics of kraft black liquor char that were studied in a thermogravimetric analysis reactor. The effect of steam and hydrogen concentration on gasification rate can be described by Langmuir-Hinshelwood type kinetics. An activation energy of 210 kJ/mol was obtained. Methane formation was negligible, and H 2 S was the major gaseous sulfur-containing product obtained over the temperature range studied, 873-973 K. The CO 2 concentration was higher than calculated for the water-shift reaction at equilibrium. A gasification mechanism is proposed whereby CO 2 is one of the primary gasification products

  8. Recovery of alumina and some heavy metals from sulfate liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. El Hazek

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The gibbsite bearing shale occurrence in the Paleozoic sedimentary sequence of SW Sinai, Egypt, was found to be associated with several metal values. From sulfate liquor prepared by proper leaching, the recovery of these metal values has been studied. Alumina was first separated in the form of potash alum followed by Cu-selective extraction by hydroxyoxime LIX-973N solvent. Then U recovery using an anionic exchange resin Amberlite IRA-400 was achieved. For the associated heavy metal Zn, it was subsequently extracted using di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid. The relevant factors affecting the extraction process were adequately studied.

  9. Oxidizing attack process of uranium ore by a carbonated liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurel, Pierre; Nicolas, Francois.

    1981-01-01

    A continuous process for digesting a uraniferous ore by oxidation with a recycling aqueous liquor containing alkaline carbonates and bicarbonates in solution as well as uranium in a concentration close to its solubility limit at digestion temperature, and of recuperation of the precipitated uranium within the solid phase remaining after digestion. The digestion is carried out by spraying oxygen into the hot reactional medium in order not only to permit oxidation of the uranium and its solubilization but also to ensure that the sulphides of impurities and organic substances present in the ore are oxidized [fr

  10. Discrimination between authentic and adulterated liquors by near-infrared spectroscopy and ensemble classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Tan, Chao; Wu, Tong; Wang, Li; Zhu, Wanping

    2014-09-01

    Chinese liquor is one of the famous distilled spirits and counterfeit liquor is becoming a serious problem in the market. Especially, age liquor is facing the crisis of confidence because it is difficult for consumer to identify the marked age, which prompts unscrupulous traders to pose off low-grade liquors as high-grade liquors. An ideal method for authenticity confirmation of liquors should be non-invasive, non-destructive and timely. The combination of near-infrared spectroscopy with chemometrics proves to be a good way to reach these premises. A new strategy is proposed for classification and verification of the adulteration of liquors by using NIR spectroscopy and chemometric classification, i.e., ensemble support vector machines (SVM). Three measures, i.e., accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were used for performance evaluation. The results confirmed that the strategy can serve as a screening tool applied to verify adulteration of the liquor, that is, a prior step used to condition the sample to a deeper analysis only when a positive result for adulteration is obtained by the proposed methodology.

  11. 76 FR 77549 - Colorado River Indian Tribes-Amendment to Health & Safety Code, Article 2. Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... Health & Safety Code, Article 2. Liquor AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the amendment to the Colorado River Tribal Health and Safety Code, Article... Code, Article 2, Liquor by Ordinance No. 10-03 on December 13, 2010. This notice is published in...

  12. 75 FR 41518 - Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish (Gun Lake) Tribe Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish (Gun Lake) Tribe... publishes the Secretary's certification of the Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band of Pottawatomi Indians (Gun.... The Tribal Council of the Gun Lake Tribe Liquor Control Ordinance adopted this Liquor Ordinance on...

  13. Feasibility of disposing waste glyphosate neutralization liquor with cement rotary kiln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Y.; Bao, Y.B.; Cai, X.L.; Chen, C.H. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Ye, X.C., E-mail: yexuchu@njtech.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • The waste neutralization liquor was injected directly into the kiln system. • No obvious effect on the quality of cement clinker. • The disposing method was a zero-discharge process. • The waste liquor can be used as an alternative fuel to reduce the coal consumption. - Abstract: The waste neutralization liquor generated during the glyphosate production using glycine-dimethylphosphit process is a severe pollution problem due to its high salinity and organic components. The cement rotary kiln was proposed as a zero discharge strategy of disposal. In this work, the waste liquor was calcinated and the mineralogical phases of residue were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mineralogical phases and the strength of cement clinker were characterized to evaluate the influence to the products. The burnability of cement raw meal added with waste liquor and the calorific value of waste liquor were tested to evaluate the influence to the thermal state of the kiln system. The results showed that after the addition of this liquor, the differences of the main phases and the strength of cement clinker were negligible, the burnability of raw meal was improved; and the calorific value of this liquor was 6140 J/g, which made it could be considered as an alternative fuel during the actual production.

  14. Studies on the antimicrobial effect of corn steep liquor on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ROFIAT

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... The antimicrobial effect of Corn Steep Liquor (CSL) was investigated over a five day period. The pH and titrable acidity of the liquor were determined, while the antimicrobial effect on some diarrhoea causing organisms such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteriditis, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio.

  15. Removal of straw lignin from spent pulping liquor using synthetic cationic and biobased flocculants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqueous alkaline delignification of wheat straw produces hemicellulose for bioenergy and other applications. After removal of the hemicellulose, spent pulping liquor (SPL) remains. The spent pulping liquor is approximately 28% water, 40% ash, 3% hemicellulose, 25% lignin, 5% protein, and less than...

  16. 78 FR 15037 - Bishop Paiute Tribe-Liquor Control Ordinance No. 2012-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... food, except in those areas classified by the California Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control as... service of liquor/ alcoholic beverage in a tribally licensed liquor/alcohol establishment if such person... beverages within the jurisdiction of the Bishop Paiute Tribe. This Ordinance will increase the ability of...

  17. De kristallisatie-methode bij het onderzoek van de liquor cerebro-spinalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittermans, Aafko Willinge

    1941-01-01

    Ongeveer twaalfhonderd liquores zijn volgens een in de kliniek nog weinig bekende zeer eenvoudige methode van onderzoek van den Roemeenschen Hoogleraar TOMESCO onderzocht. Deze methode berust op het beoordeelen van het kristalbeeld dat ontstaat bij het indampen van druppels sterk verdunde liquor

  18. 27 CFR 31.61 - Single sale of liquors or warehouse receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... warehouse receipts. 31.61 Section 31.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.61 Single sale of liquors or warehouse receipts. A single sale of distilled spirits, wines, or beer, or a single sale of one or more warehouse receipts for...

  19. Polymerisation of Kraft lignin from black liquors by laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila: effect of operational conditions and black liquor origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, S; Fernández-Costas, C; Sanromán, M A; Moldes, D

    2013-03-01

    The capacity of laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila to promote the oxidative polymerisation of Kraft lignin (KL) was evaluated in several conditions of pH, temperature, enzyme dosage and treatment time. Moreover, different black liquors from the Kraft cooking of Eucalyptus globulus and mixture of Pinus pinaster/E. globulus were evaluated in order to determine the effect of the KL source on the polymerisation reaction. Furthermore, one of these black liquors was fractionated by sequential organic solvent fractionation and the polymerisation of the corresponding fractions was tested. Polymerisation products were analysed by size exclusion chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results provide evidence of notable lignin modifications after incubation with laccase. Structural oxidation and a notably molecular weight increase were attained, reaching a polymer of 69-fold its initial molecular weight depending on the raw lignin. Moreover, optimum values of reaction conditions were obtained: pH 7.3, 70°C, 2UmL(-1) and 2h. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The relationship between liquor outlet density and injury and violence in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Luis G; Ortiz, Melchor

    2002-09-01

    This study used an ecologic design based on data from 1990 to 1994 gathered from forensic, vital statistic, census, law enforcement and liquor licensing agencies to assess the relationship between liquor outlet density and alcohol-related health outcomes in New Mexico. Linear regression models show that suicide, alcohol-related crash, and alcohol-related crash fatality (adjusted for age, sex, and minority status) are significantly associated with liquor outlet density. Data also show that, compared with the first tertile, suicide and alcohol-related crash rates increase about 50% and the alcohol-related crash fatality rate two-fold with the third tertile of liquor outlet density. Greater availability of liquor outlets is associated with higher rates of suicide, alcohol-related crash, and alcohol-related crash fatality.

  1. Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages and Liquor Consumption by Michigan High School Students, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Katherine R; Largo, Thomas W; Miller, Corinne; Kanny, Dafna; Brewer, Robert D

    2015-11-12

    Excessive alcohol consumption was responsible for approximately 4,300 annual deaths in the United States among people younger than 21 from 2006 through 2010. Underage drinking cost the United States $24.6 billion in 2006. Previous studies have shown that liquor is the most common type of alcohol consumed by high school students. However, little is known about the types of liquor consumed by youth or about the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks. The 2011 Michigan Youth Tobacco Survey was used to assess usual alcohol beverage consumption and liquor consumption and the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks by Michigan high school students. Beverage preferences were analyzed by demographic characteristics and drinking patterns. Overall, 34.2% of Michigan high school students consumed alcohol in the past month, and 20.8% reported binge drinking. Among current drinkers, liquor was the most common type of alcohol consumed (51.2%), and vodka was the most prevalent type of liquor consumed by those who drank liquor (53.0%). The prevalence of liquor consumption was similar among binge drinkers and nonbinge drinkers, but binge drinkers who drank liquor were significantly more likely than nonbinge drinkers to consume vodka and to mix alcohol with energy drinks (49.0% vs 18.2%, respectively). Liquor is the most common type of alcoholic beverage consumed by Michigan high school students; vodka is the most common type of liquor consumed. Mixing alcohol and energy drinks is common, particularly among binge drinkers. Community Guide strategies for reducing excessive drinking (eg, increasing alcohol taxes) can reduce underage drinking.

  2. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who has...

  3. 78 FR 49283 - Chicken Ranch Rancheria-Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance No. 12-10-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ...] Chicken Ranch Rancheria--Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance No. 12-10-03 AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the Chicken Ranch Liquor... consumption of liquor within the Indian Country of the Chicken Ranch Rancheria. The land is trust land and...

  4. A new pulping process for wheat straw to reduce problems with the discharge of black liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guolin; Shi, Jeffrey X; Langrish, Tim A G

    2007-11-01

    Aqueous ammonia mixed with caustic potash as wheat straw pulping liquor was investigated. The caustic potash did not only reduce the NH3 usage and cooking time, but also provided a potassium source as a fertilizer in the black liquor. Excess NH3 in the black liquor was recovered and reused by batch distillation with a 98% recovery rate of free NH3. The black liquor was further treated for reuse by coagulation under alkaline conditions. The effects of different flocculation conditions, such as the dosage of 10% aluminium polychloride, the dosage of 0.1% polyacrylamide, the reaction temperature and the pH of the black liquor on the flocculating process were studied. The supernatant was recycled as cooking liquor by adding extra NH4OH and KOH. The amount of delignification and the pulp yield for the process remained steady at 82-85% and 48-50%, respectively, when reusing the supernatant four times. The coagulated residues could be further processed as solid fertilizers. This study provided a new pulping process for wheat straw to reduce problems of discharge black liquor.

  5. Combustion properties of kraft black liquors; Ligniinifraktion vaikutus mustalipeaen poltto-ominaisuuksiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R.; Rantanen, K.; Ekman, J.; Malkavaara, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to find relationships between the structure of the dissolved lignin and the combustion properties (pyrolysis time, char burning time, and swelling) of softwood and hardwood kraft black liquors. In this conjunction, pine and birch chips, as well as their two mixtures (the mass ratios of pine chips to birch chips were 80:20 and 60:40), were delignified by conventional kraft pulping. In each cook series, a liquor sample was withdrawn at certain time intervals to obtain liquor samples with different chemical composition. The black liquors obtained were analyzed with respect to the content of lignin and `lignin monomers`, but also the molecular-mass distribution and the mass average molecular mass of lignin were made. In addition, the dissolved lignin was characterized by NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Further data on the chemical structures of lignin in black liquors were obtained by identifying various degradation products formed from this material during oxidative (CuO oxidation) and pyrolytic treatments. Several correlations between the `structural parameters` of the dissolved lignin and the combustion properties of black liquor were found. These correlations were significant especially in the case of pine cook. The results revealed many findings which are, together with the earlier data, useful for a better understanding of the thermochemical behavior of different kraft black liquors during combustion in a recovery furnace. (author)

  6. Aroma characteristics of Moutai-flavour liquor produced with Bacillus licheniformis by solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R; Wu, Q; Xu, Y

    2013-07-01

    The potential of Bacillus licheniformis as a starter culture for aroma concentration improvement in the fermentation of Chinese Moutai-flavour liquor was elucidated. The volatile compounds produced by B. licheniformis were identified by GC-MS, in which C4 compounds, pyrazines, volatile acids, aromatic and phenolic compounds were the main ingredients. The strains B. licheniformis (MT-6 and MT-15) produced more volatile compound concentrations, mainly C4 compounds, than the type strain of B. licheniformis (ATCC 14580) at the fermentation temperature of 55°C. Meanwhile, more volatile compound concentrations were produced by B. licheniformis in solid-state fermentation than in submerged state fermentation. Thus, the strains MT-6 and MT-15 were used as the Bacillus starter culture for investigating Moutai-flavour liquor production. The distilled liquor inoculated with Bacillus starter culture was significantly different from the liquor without inoculum. This was particularly evident in the fore-run part of the distilled sample which was inoculated with Bacillus starter culture, where volatile compounds greatly increased compared to the control. Furthermore, the distilled liquor with Bacillus starter culture showed improved results in sensory appraisals. These results indicated that B. licheniformis was one of the main species influencing the aroma characteristics of Moutai-flavour liquor. This is the first report of an investigation into the effect of Bacillus starter cultures on the flavour features of Moutai-flavour liquor, which verified that Bacillus licheniformis can enhance aroma concentration in Moutai-flavour liquor. Bacillus starter culture brought C4 compounds, pyrazines, volatile acids, aromatic and phenolic compounds to the liquor, which gave a better result in sensory appraisals. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. INVESTIGATION OF FUEL CHEMISTRY AND BED PERFORMANCE IN A FLUIDIZED BED BLACK LIQUOR STEAM REFORMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Whitty

    2003-12-01

    The University of Utah project ''Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer'' (DOE award number DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation for projects to provide technical support for black liquor and biomass gasification. The primary focus of the project is to provide support for a DOE-sponsored demonstration of MTCI's black liquor steam reforming technology at Georgia-Pacific's paper mill in Big Island, Virginia. A more overarching goal is to improve the understanding of phenomena that take place during low temperature black liquor gasification. This is achieved through five complementary technical tasks: (1) construction of a fluidized bed black liquor gasification test system, (2) investigation of bed performance, (3) evaluation of product gas quality, (4) black liquor conversion analysis and modeling and (5) computational modeling of the Big Island gasifier. Four experimental devices have been constructed under this project. The largest facility, which is the heart of the experimental effort, is a pressurized fluidized bed gasification test system. The system is designed to be able to reproduce conditions near the black liquor injectors in the Big Island steam reformer, so the behavior of black liquor pyrolysis and char gasification can be quantified in a representative environment. The gasification test system comprises five subsystems: steam generation and superheating, black liquor feed, fluidized bed reactor, afterburner for syngas combustion and a flue gas cooler/condenser. The three-story system is located at University of Utah's Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility, and all resources there are available to support the research.

  8. State-Specific Liquor Excise Taxes and Retail Prices in Eight U.S. States, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Siegel, Michael; Grundman, Jody; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; King, Charles; Albers, Alison B.; Williams, Rebecca S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between state excise taxes and liquor prices in eight states, using 2012 data for 45 brands. We made 6,042 price observations among 177 liquor stores with online prices. Using a hierarchical model, we examined the relationship between excise taxes and product prices. State excise taxes were significantly related to liquor prices, with an estimated pass-through rate of 0.93. The proportion of price accounted for by excise taxes averaged 7.0%. We find that excis...

  9. State-specific liquor excise taxes and retail prices in 8 US states, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Grundman, Jody; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; King, Charles; Albers, Alison B; Williams, Rebecca S; Jernigan, David H

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between state excise taxes and liquor prices in 8 states, using 2012 data for 45 brands. The authors made 6042 price observations among 177 liquor stores with online prices. Using a hierarchical model, the authors examined the relationship between excise taxes and product prices. State excise taxes were significantly related to liquor prices, with an estimated pass-through rate of 0.93. The proportion of price accounted for by excise taxes averaged 7.0%. The authors find that excise taxes do increase the price of alcohol, but states are not taking advantage of this opportunity to reduce alcohol-related morbidity and mortality.

  10. State-Specific Liquor Excise Taxes and Retail Prices in Eight U.S. States, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Grundman, Jody; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; King, Charles; Albers, Alison B.; Williams, Rebecca S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between state excise taxes and liquor prices in eight states, using 2012 data for 45 brands. We made 6,042 price observations among 177 liquor stores with online prices. Using a hierarchical model, we examined the relationship between excise taxes and product prices. State excise taxes were significantly related to liquor prices, with an estimated pass-through rate of 0.93. The proportion of price accounted for by excise taxes averaged 7.0%. We find that excise taxes do increase the price of alcohol, but states are not taking advantage of this opportunity to reduce alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:24159914

  11. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

    2006-05-02

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  12. Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Whitty

    2007-06-30

    University of Utah's project entitled 'Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer' (DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Energy in December 2001, requesting proposals for projects targeted towards black liquor/biomass gasification technology support research and development. Specifically, the solicitation was seeking projects that would provide technical support for Department of Energy supported black liquor and biomass gasification demonstration projects under development at the time.

  13. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  14. Rapid determination of methanol in black liquors by full evaporation headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hailong; Zhan, Huaiyu; Fu, Shiyu; Liu, Mengru; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2007-12-14

    This paper reported a full evaporation headspace gas chromatographic (GC) technique for determination of methanol content in black liquors (pulping spent liquor). In this method, a very small volume (10-20 microL) of liquor sample is introduced into a headspace sample vial (20 mL) and heated up to a temperature of 105 degrees C. A near-complete mass transfer of methanol from the liquid phase to vapor phase (headspace), i.e., a full evaporation, can be achieved within 3 min. The methanol in the headspace of the vial is then measured by GC. The present method is simple, rapid and accurate.

  15. 77 FR 10547 - Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas-First Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... shall have no legal responsibility for any unpaid bills owed by a liquor or beer outlet to a wholesaler... either the KTTT or the Commission, authorized to pledge tribal credit or financial responsibility for any...

  16. Stirred cell ultrafiltration of lignin from black liquor generated from South African kraft mills

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kekana, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafiltration of lignin from black liquor was carried out in a stirred batch cell using polyethersulfone membranes. Parameters such as operating pressure, feed concentration, stirring rate and membrane cut-off size were varied and their effects...

  17. A review of liquor transfer systems for use in nuclear reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.

    1982-01-01

    Liquor pumping systems for use in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants are described. Comparison of the operating characteristics and system constants are made between the air lift/Vacuum Operated Slug Lift, power fluidics and ejector pump systems. (author)

  18. Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian [Marietta, GA; Chai, Xin Sheng [Atlanta, GA; Zhu, Junyoung [Marietta, GA

    2008-06-24

    The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

  19. Decolorization of black liquor from bioethanol G2 production using iron oxide coating sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlianti, Vera; Triwahyuni, Eka; Waluyo, Joko; Sari, Ajeng Arum

    2017-01-01

    Bioethanol G2 production using oil palm empty fruit bunch as raw material consists of four steps, namely pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, and purification process. Pretreatment process generates black liquor that causes serious environmental pollution if it is released to the environment. The objective of this research is studying the ability of iron oxide coating sands to adsorb the color of black liquor. The iron oxide coating sands were synthesized from FeCl3.6H2O with quartz sands as support material. This research was conducted on batch mode using black liquor in various pH values. Result obtained that kind of iron oxide on quartz sands's surface was goethite. The result also indicated decreasing of color intensity of black liquor after adsorption process. This research supports local material utilization in environmental technology development to solve some environmental problems.

  20. Black liquor fractionation for biofuels production - a techno-economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesfun, Sennai; Lundgren, Joakim; Grip, Carl-Erik; Toffolo, Andrea; Nilsson, Rasika Lasanthi Kudahettige; Rova, Ulrika

    2014-08-01

    The hemicelluloses fraction of black liquor is an underutilized resource in many chemical pulp mills. It is possible to extract and separate the lignin and hemicelluloses from the black liquor and use the hemicelluloses for biochemical conversion into biofuels and chemicals. Precipitation of the lignin from the black liquor would consequently decrease the thermal load on the recovery boiler, which is often referred to as a bottleneck for increased pulp production. The objective of this work is to techno-economically evaluate the production of sodium-free lignin as a solid fuel and butanol to be used as fossil gasoline replacement by fractionating black liquor. The hydrolysis and fermentation processes are modeled in Aspen Plus to analyze energy and material balances as well as to evaluate the plant economics. A mathematical model of an existing pulp and paper mill is used to analyze the effects on the energy performance of the mill subprocesses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A review of the determination of organic compounds in Bayer process liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Greg; Loh, Joanne S C; Wajon, Johannes E; Busetti, Francesco; Joll, Cynthia

    2011-03-09

    Bayer process liquors present a difficult and complex matrix to the analytical chemist, and the history of the application of modern analytical techniques to this problem is a case study in innovation. All Bayer process liquors contain organic compounds, in amounts varying from traces to several grams per litre. The total organic carbon content of Bayer liquors may be less than 5 g/L up to as much as 40 g/L. The presence of these organic impurities is of concern to Bayer technologists because they can have significant impacts on the economics of the process and the quality of the product. This review examines the history and current state-of-the-art of the analysis of organics in Bayer process liquors, and provides guidance on the applicable techniques matched to a comprehensive list of the compounds most likely to be present. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 77 FR 39731 - Swinomish Indian Tribal Community-Title 15, Chapter 4: Liquor Legalization, Regulation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ..., sale and consumption of liquor within the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community's Indian country. This Code... license fee. Civic Center 10. Privately Owned Facility Open to the Public......... 20. Snack Bar 125...

  3. Treatment of soak liquor and bioelectricity generation in dual chamber microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathishkumar, Kuppusamy; Narenkumar, Jayaraman; Selvi, Adikesavan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Babujanarthanam, Ranganathan; Rajasekar, Aruliah

    2018-02-08

    The discharge of untreated soak liquor from tannery industry causes severe environmental pollution. This study is characterizing the soak liquor as a substrate in the microbial fuel cell (MFC) for remediation along with electricity generation. The dual chamber MFC was constructed and operated. Potassium permanganate was used as cathode solution and carbon felt electrode as anodic and cathodic material, respectively. The soak liquor was characterized by electrochemical studies viz., cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and polarization studies, respectively. The removal percentage of protein, lipid, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were measured before and after treatment with MFC. The results of MFC showed a highest current density of 300 mA/cm 2 and a power density of 92 mW/m 2 . The removal of COD, protein, and lipid were noted as 96, 81, and 97% respectively during MFC process. This MFC can be used in tannery industries for treating soak liquor and simultaneous electricity generation.

  4. 'White liquor hits black livers': meanings of excessive liquor consumption in South Africa in the second half of the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Anne

    2004-08-01

    Four years into South Africa's first democracy, the African National Congress Youth League, with the help of the liquor industry's Social Aspects of Alcohol Committee drafted a policy to prevent substance abuse in black communities. They declared that alcohol was 'often not used in a socially acceptable way'. Concerned not so much with post-apartheid policy as with making sense of what socially acceptable alcohol usage might mean, this article explores narratives of alcohol use and abuse in South Africa in the second half of the twentieth century. It demonstrates that while multiple understandings of excess in alcohol consumption were articulated, those notions tied to particular constructions of racial difference prevailed. Ideas pairing drinking habits with race were given effect by state institutions. By tying drinking habits to 'race' and by locating 'race' in a social hierarchy, state institutions determined access to liquor and welfare services. By naturalising Africans as heavy drinkers, the state justified its sale of liquor to African men while denying the need for rehabilitation in the event of alcoholic dependence. By placing 'coloured' closer to 'white' in its racial order, the apartheid state found cause to extend limited rehabilitation services to those designated 'coloured'. By tying liquor revenues to apartheid administration, the ruling regime exonerated its policy of excluding blacks from the retail liquor trade even after lifting prohibition in 1962. This policy encouraged rampant illicit liquor dealing, created a social environment in which alcoholic excess, particularly after 1976, reached new proportions and generated new and dangerous meanings of socially acceptable drinking. Against the grain of these dominant discourses of racially designated meanings of drinking, African people forged a more complex set of practices and meanings not rendered any clearer by the ANC Youth League's discourse of acceptable and unacceptable usage.

  5. Analysis of Price Changes in Washington Following the 2012 Liquor Privatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, William C; Williams, Edwina; Greenfield, Thomas K

    2015-11-01

    In June, 2012 the state of Washington ended a wholesale and retail monopoly on liquor sales resulting in about five times as many stores selling liquor. Three-tier restrictions were also removed on liquor, while beer and wine availability did not increase. Substantial taxes at both the wholesale and retail levels were implemented and it was expected that prices would rise. To evaluate price changes after privatization we developed an index of about 68 brands that were popular in Washington during early 2012. Data on final liquor prices (including all taxes) in Washington were obtained through store visits and on-line sources between November 2013 and March of 2014. Primary analyses were conducted on five or six brand indexes to allow the inclusion of most stores. Washington liquor prices rose by an average of 15.5% for the 750 ml size and by 4.7% for the 1.75 l size, while only small changes were seen in the bordering states of Oregon and Idaho. Prices were found to vary greatly by store type. Liquor Superstores had generally the lowest prices while drugstore, grocery and especially smaller Liquor Store prices were found to be substantially higher. Our findings indicate that liquor prices in Washington increased substantially after privatization and as compared to price changes in bordering states, with a much larger increase seen for the 750 ml size and with wide variation across store types. However, persistent drinkers looking for low prices will be able to find them in certain stores. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  6. New black liquor combustion characteristics III; Mustalipeaen uudet poltto-ominaisuudet III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Forssen, M.; Backman, R.; Enestam, S.; Lauren, T.; Skrifvars, B.J. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group

    1997-10-01

    The main purposes in this work is to: 1. Compare black liquor combustion characterization results to recovery boiler experiences. 2. Study the mechanisms of sodium release in black liquor combustion In the first part results from black liquor combustion characterization tests developed by Aabo Akademi University will be compared to experiences at four Finnish kraft recovery boilers. When comparing the laboratory data to the compiled field data emphasis will be put on the behavior of the black liquor during burning, the release of sodium and potassium, the melting behavior of the deposits and the NO and SO{sub 2} emissions. The main purpose in the second part of the work is to study the release mechanisms of sodium from black liquor char during combustion. Sodium is mainly released from the char by the mechanism where the molten sodiumcarbonate reacts with the char carbon. The study is divided into four subtasks and is performed mainly by conducting experiments in laboratory scale devices: (1) Sodium release during char reactions is studied for different liquors by analyzing the amount of sodium remaining in char after different holding times in a hot inert atmosphere. (2) A DTA/TGA apparatus is used to study in isothermal conditions the char reactions on prepyrolyzed char. (3) The effect of the form of sodium on the sodium release during char reactions. Black liquors added with different sodium salts (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}S sekae NaCl) are used in experiments as in subtask 1. (4) Sodium release during combustion (2-5 % O{sub 2}) of single black liquor particles

  7. Second-generation bioethanol from eucalypt sulphite spent liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Ana M R B; Correia, Mariana F; Pereira, Susana R; Evtuguin, Dmitry V

    2010-04-01

    The spent liquor from acidic sulphite pulping of Eucalyptus globulus (HSSL) is the side product from sulphite pulp production and besides sulphonated lignin contains sugars from degraded hemicelluloses, mainly pentoses. Pichia stipitis fermentation of these sugars for bioethanol production was the primary goal of this work. The increasing of HSSL proportion in fermentation media affected negatively the ethanol yield. Thus with 20% of HSSL (v/v) attained maximum ethanol yield was 0.15 g of ethanol by g of sugar consumed (g(e) g(s)(-1)) and with 60% (v/v) only 0.08 g(e) g(s)(-1). Biological removal of acetic acid from HSSL improved fermentation though the complete removal of acetic acid and polyphenolics (including sulphonated species) by treatment with ion-exchange resins was required for highly successful bioethanol production. Accordingly, the fermentative metabolic pathway of P. stipitis has been promoted allowing fair ethanol productivity and yield (Yp/s = 0.49 g(e) g(s)(-1)) at relatively low maximum of cell growth rate (micro(max) = 0.21 h(-1)). Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Liquor legislation, last drinks, and lockouts: the Newcastle (Australia) solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, G R; Palazzi, K; Oteng Boateng, B K; Oldmeadow, C

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the regional implementation of prohibitive liquor legislation, introduced in order to limit the sale of and access to alcohol, can lead to a sustained reduction in the incidence of assault occasioning facial injury, as seen in patients presenting to a level 1 trauma hospital. A retrospective observational cohort study was conducted to document patients who were identified as an acute hospital presentation of assault occasioning facial injury. The period of study was 2003-2015; this ensured a similar period of time before and after the implementation of the legislation in 2008. A statistical analysis was undertaken to assess the rates of change in oral and maxillofacial (OMF) assault admissions pre and post legislation. The study found that pre-legislation numbers of OMF assaults increased at a rate of 14% per annum and then decreased at a rate of 21% per annum post legislation (31% relative rate ratio reduction). Similar trends were seen for all males, males aged 18-35 years, and males where alcohol was recorded at clinical presentation. The introduction of 'last drinks' and 'lock out' legislation has led to a significant and sustained reduction in assaultive alcohol-related facial injury in Newcastle. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Anaerobic treatment of coconut husk liquor for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, R C; Araújo, A M; Freitas-Neto, M A; Rosa, M F; Santaella, S T

    2009-01-01

    The market for coconut water causes environmental problems as it is one of the major agro-industrial solid wastes in some developing countries. With the aim of reusing the coconut husk, Embrapa developed a system for processing this raw material. During the dewatering stage Coconut Husk Liquor (CHL) is generated with chemical oxygen demand (COD) varying from 60 to 70 g/L due to high concentrations of sugars and tannins. The present study evaluated the feasibility of anaerobic treatment of CHL through Anaerobic Toxicity Assay and the operation of a lab-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor. Results showed that CHL can be treated through a UASB reactor operating with an OLR that reaches up to 10 kg/m3.d and that is maintained stable during the whole operation. With this operational condition, the removal efficiency was higher than 80% for COD and approximately 78% for total tannins, and biogas production was 20 m3 of biogas or 130 KWh per m3 of CHL. Seventy-five percent of the biogas composition was methane and toxicity tests demonstrated that CHL was not toxic to the methanogenic consortia. Conversely, increasing the concentration of CHL leads to increased methanogenic activity.

  10. Recovery of Flavonoids from Orange Press Liquor by an Integrated Membrane Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, Alfredo; Conidi, Carmela; Ruby-Figueroa, René

    2014-01-01

    Orange press liquor is a by-product generated by the citrus processing industry containing huge amounts of natural phenolic compounds with recognized antioxidant activity. In this work, an integrated membrane process for the recovery of flavonoids from orange press liquors was investigated on a laboratory scale. The liquor was previously clarified by ultrafiltration (UF) in selected operating conditions by using hollow fiber polysulfone membranes. Then, the clarified liquor with a total soluble solids (TSS) content of 10 g·100 g−1 was pre-concentrated by nanofiltration (NF) up to 32 g TSS 100 g−1 by using a polyethersulfone spiral-wound membrane. A final concentration step, up to 47 g TSS 100 g−1, was performed by using an osmotic distillation (OD) apparatus equipped with polypropylene hollow fiber membranes. Suspended solids were completely removed in the UF step producing a clarified liquor containing most part of the flavonoids of the original press liquor due to the low rejection of the UF membrane towards these compounds. Flavanones and anthocyanins were highly rejected by the NF membrane, producing a permeate stream with a TSS content of 4.5 g·100 g−1. An increasing of both the flavanones and anthocyanins concentration was observed in the NF retentate by increasing the volume reduction factor (VRF). The final concentration of flavonoids by OD produced a concentrated solution of interest for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:25116725

  11. Classification of Aroma Styles and Geographic Origins of Chinese Liquors Using Chemometrics Based on Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y.; Huo, D.-Q.; Qin, H.; Shen, C.-H.; Yang, P.; Hou, C.-J.

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the feasibility of fluorescence spectroscopy as a reliable method for discrimination of Chinese liquor according to different aroma styles and geographic origins. The 84 Chinese liquors were analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy and chemometrics. The results showed that Chinese liquors exhibit characteristic fluorescence spectra recorded at special excitation wavelengths that may be considered as fingerprints. Both principal component analysis (PCA) and stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) were carried out on the emission spectra (330-435 nm) recorded at excitation wavelength 300 nm to classify different aroma styles of Chinese liquors. The first two principal components explained 98.87% of the total variance, and the SLDA classified correctly 100%. Both hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were carried out on the emission spectra (325-420 nm) recorded at excitation wavelength 300 nm to identify different geographic origins of Chinese liquors. HCA accurately identified all the samples and the first three PCA explained 98.25% of the total variance. This study indicates that fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics offers a promising approach for identifying Chinese liquors according to different flavor types and geographic origins.

  12. Recovery of Flavonoids from Orange Press Liquor by an Integrated Membrane Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Cassano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Orange press liquor is a by-product generated by the citrus processing industry containing huge amounts of natural phenolic compounds with recognized antioxidant activity. In this work, an integrated membrane process for the recovery of flavonoids from orange press liquors was investigated on a laboratory scale. The liquor was previously clarified by ultrafiltration (UF in selected operating conditions by using hollow fiber polysulfone membranes. Then, the clarified liquor with a total soluble solids (TSS content of 10 g·100 g−1 was pre-concentrated by nanofiltration (NF up to 32 g TSS 100 g−1 by using a polyethersulfone spiral-wound membrane. A final concentration step, up to 47 g TSS 100 g−1, was performed by using an osmotic distillation (OD apparatus equipped with polypropylene hollow fiber membranes. Suspended solids were completely removed in the UF step producing a clarified liquor containing most part of the flavonoids of the original press liquor due to the low rejection of the UF membrane towards these compounds. Flavanones and anthocyanins were highly rejected by the NF membrane, producing a permeate stream with a TSS content of 4.5 g·100 g−1. An increasing of both the flavanones and anthocyanins concentration was observed in the NF retentate by increasing the volume reduction factor (VRF. The final concentration of flavonoids by OD produced a concentrated solution of interest for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications.

  13. Generation of Hydrogen, Lignin and Sodium Hydroxide from Pulping Black Liquor by Electrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzai Nong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Black liquor is generated in Kraft pulping of wood or non-wood raw material in pulp mills, and regarded as a renewable resource. The objective of this paper was to develop an effective means to remove the water pollutants by recovery of both lignin and sodium hydroxide from black liquor, based on electrolysis. The treatment of a 1000 mL of black liquor (122 g/L solid contents consumed 345.6 kJ of electric energy, and led to the generation of 30.7 g of sodium hydroxide, 0.82 g of hydrogen gas and 52.1 g of biomass solids. Therefore, the recovery ratios of elemental sodium and biomass solids are 80.4% and 76%, respectively. Treating black liquor by electrolysis is an environmentally friendly technology that can, in particular, be an alternative process in addressing the environmental issues of pulping waste liquor to the small-scale mills without black liquor recovery.

  14. Feasibility of disposing waste glyphosate neutralization liquor with cement rotary kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y; Bao, Y B; Cai, X L; Chen, C H; Ye, X C

    2014-08-15

    The waste neutralization liquor generated during the glyphosate production using glycine-dimethylphosphit process is a severe pollution problem due to its high salinity and organic components. The cement rotary kiln was proposed as a zero discharge strategy of disposal. In this work, the waste liquor was calcinated and the mineralogical phases of residue were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mineralogical phases and the strength of cement clinker were characterized to evaluate the influence to the products. The burnability of cement raw meal added with waste liquor and the calorific value of waste liquor were tested to evaluate the influence to the thermal state of the kiln system. The results showed that after the addition of this liquor, the differences of the main phases and the strength of cement clinker were negligible, the burnability of raw meal was improved; and the calorific value of this liquor was 6140 J/g, which made it could be considered as an alternative fuel during the actual production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Recovery of flavonoids from orange press liquor by an integrated membrane process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, Alfredo; Conidi, Carmela; Ruby-Figueroa, René

    2014-08-11

    Orange press liquor is a by-product generated by the citrus processing industry containing huge amounts of natural phenolic compounds with recognized antioxidant activity. In this work, an integrated membrane process for the recovery of flavonoids from orange press liquors was investigated on a laboratory scale. The liquor was previously clarified by ultrafiltration (UF) in selected operating conditions by using hollow fiber polysulfone membranes. Then, the clarified liquor with a total soluble solids (TSS) content of 10 g·100 g-1 was pre-concentrated by nanofiltration (NF) up to 32 g TSS 100 g-1 by using a polyethersulfone spiral-wound membrane. A final concentration step, up to 47 g TSS 100 g-1, was performed by using an osmotic distillation (OD) apparatus equipped with polypropylene hollow fiber membranes. Suspended solids were completely removed in the UF step producing a clarified liquor containing most part of the flavonoids of the original press liquor due to the low rejection of the UF membrane towards these compounds. Flavanones and anthocyanins were highly rejected by the NF membrane, producing a permeate stream with a TSS content of 4.5 g·100 g-1. An increasing of both the flavanones and anthocyanins concentration was observed in the NF retentate by increasing the volume reduction factor (VRF). The final concentration of flavonoids by OD produced a concentrated solution of interest for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications.

  16. A Hand-Held Optoelectronic Nose for the Identification of Liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2018-01-26

    Successful discrimination of 14 representative liquors (including scotch, bourbon and rye whiskies, brandy, and vodka) was achieved using a 36-element colorimetric sensor array comprising multiple classes of cross-reactive, chemically responsive inks. In combination with a palm-sized image analyzer, the sensor array permits real-time identification of liquor products based on vapor analysis within 2 min. Changes in sensor spot colors before and after exposure to the vapors of the liquors that are partially oxidized as they are pumped over the sensor array provides a unique color difference pattern for each analyte. Facile identification of each liquor was demonstrated using several different multivariate analyses of the digital data library, including principal component, hierarchical cluster, and support vector machine analysis. The sensor array is also able to detect dilution (i.e., "watering") of liquors even down to 1% addition of water. This colorimetric sensor array is a promising portable adjunct to other available techniques for quality assurance of liquors and other alcoholic beverages.

  17. Protective effect of Zhuyeqing liquor, a Chinese traditional health liquor, on acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Ying; Huang, Jian; Wang, Hang-Yu; Du, Xiao-Wei; Cheng, Suo-Ming; Han, Ying; Wang, Li-Fei; Li, Guo-Yu; Wang, Jin-Hui

    2013-10-03

    The study first evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of Zhuyeqing Liquor (ZYQL) against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. Animals were administered orally with 50% alcohol 12 ml/kg at 4 h after the doses of ZYQL everyday for fourteen consecutive days except mice in normal group. The protective effect was evaluated by biochemical parameters including serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), total-bilirubin (TBIL) and reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissue. The result were confirmed histopathologically and the expression of TNF-α in mice liver was determined by immunohistochemistry analysis. HPLC-PDA was used for phytochemical analysis of ZYQL, and the plant source of each compound was claritied by UPLC-TOF-MS. The result showed that pretreatment with ZYQL exhibited a significant protective effect by reversing the biochemical parameters and histopathological changes in a dose depended manner. HPLC analysis indicated that ZYQL contained flavonoids, iridoids, terpenoids and phenolic acids, which might be the active chemicals. This study demonstrated the hepatoprotective activity of ZYQL, thus scientifically supported the function of its health care.

  18. Symmetry in bonding and spectra an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Douglas, Bodie E

    1985-01-01

    Many courses dealing with the material in this text are called ""Applications of Group Theory."" Emphasizing the central role and primary importance of symmetry in the applications, Symmetry in Bonding and Spectra enables students to handle applications, particularly applications to chemical bonding and spectroscopy. It contains the essential background in vectors and matrices for the applications, along with concise reviews of simple molecular orbital theory, ligand field theory, and treatments of molecular shapes, as well as some quantum mechanics. Solved examples in the text illustra

  19. Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriaan van Heiningen

    2007-06-30

    MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R&D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) and sodium (as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na{sub 2}S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na{sub 2}S is partly or fully converted to Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO{sub 2} based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and

  20. Impact of chocolate liquor on vascular lesions in apoE-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdekhasti, Narges; Brandsch, Corinna; Hirche, Frank; Kühn, Julia; Schloesser, Anke; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Huebbe, Patricia; Wolffram, Siegfried; Rimbach, Gerald; Stangl, Gabriele I

    2017-10-15

    Cocoa polyphenols are thought to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, cocoa-containing foods may have significant health benefits. Here, we studied the impact of chocolate liquor on vascular lesion development and plaque composition in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein E (apoE)-knockout mice were assigned to two groups and fed a Western diet that contained 250 g/kg of either chocolate liquor or a polyphenol-free isoenergetic control paste for 16 weeks. In addition to fat, protein, and fibers, the chocolate liquor contained 2 g/kg of polyphenols. Compared with the control group, mice fed the chocolate liquor had larger plaque areas in the descending aorta and aortic root, which were attributed to a higher mass of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and collagen. Vascular lipid deposits and calcification areas did not differ between the two groups. The aortic tissue level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA was 5-fold higher in the mice fed chocolate liquor than in the control mice. Chocolate-fed mice exhibited an increased hepatic saturated to polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio than the controls. Although the chocolate liquor contained 14 µg/kg of vitamin D 2 , the chocolate liquor-fed mice did not have measurable 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 in the serum. These mice even showed a 25% reduction in the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 compared with the control mice. Overall, present data may contribute to our understanding how chocolate constituents can impact vascular lesion development. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  1. Social capital, the miniaturisation of community and consumption of homemade liquor and smuggled liquor during the past year. A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin

    2005-12-01

    To study the impact of social participation, trust and the miniaturisation of community, i.e. high social participation/low trust, on consumption of homemade liquor and smuggled liquor during the past year. The Scania 2000 public health survey is a cross-sectional, postal questionnaire study. A total of 13,604 persons aged 18-80 years were included. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between the social capital variables and illegal alcohol consumption. The multivariate analyses analysed the importance of confounders (age, country of origin, education and economic stress) on the differences in consumption of homemade and smuggled liquor according to the social capital variables. A 28.2% proportion of all men and 14.9% of all women had consumed homemade liquor during the past year. The proportions who had consumed smuggled liquor during the past year were even higher, 40.1% among men and 21.4% among women. Both forms of illegal alcohol consumption were significantly positively associated with social participation and negatively associated with trust. The miniaturisation of community category, i.e. high social participation/low trust, had significantly higher risks of consumption during the past year of the consumption of both forms of illegally provided alcohol compared to the high social capital (high social participation/high trust) category, while the low social participation/high trust category had significantly lower risks. High social participation combined with low trust is positively associated with consumption of illegally provided alcohol. The results have implications for alcohol prevention programs, because structural/social factors that may hinder information and norms concerning illegal alcohol have been identified in this study.

  2. Laser Induced Fluorescence For Measurement Of Lignin Concentrations In Pulping Liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, J. J.; Semerjian, H. G.; Biasca, K. L.; Attala, R.

    1988-11-01

    Laser excited fluorescence of pulping liquors was investigated for use in the pulp and paper industry for process measurement and control applications. Liquors from both mill and laboratory cooks were studied. A Nd-YAG pumped dye laser was used to generate the excitation wavelength of 280 nm; measurements were also performed using a commercially available fluorometer. Measurements on mill pulping liquors gave strong signals and showed changes in the fluorescence intensity during the cook. Absorption spectra of diluted mill liquor samples showed large changes during the cook. Samples from well controlled and characterized laboratory cooks showed fluorescence to be linear with concentration over two decades with an upper limit of approximately 1000 ppm dissolved lignin. At the end of these cooks a possible chemical change was indicated by an increase in the observed fluorescence intensity. Results indicate that lignin concentrations in pulping liquors can be accurately determined with fluorescence in the linear optical region over a greater dynamic range than absorption spectroscopy. Laser induced fluorescence may also provide an indication of chemical changes occurring in the lignin structure during a cook.

  3. INDUCTION OF LABOUR WITH VAGINAL MISOPROSTOL AND INCIDENCE OF MECONIUM STAINED LIQUOR AND FETAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Mani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM Induction of labour with low dose of misoprostol and detecting the incidence of meconium stained liquor and foetal outcome. DESIGN Prospective randomized control trail conducted at Niloufer Maternity and Children Hospital from January 2013 to September 2014. PARTICIPANTS 150 pregnant women requiring induction of labour. METHODS The women were divided into 2 groups based on BISHOP score as favorable and unfavorable cervix group. Induction delivery interval, number of misoprostol doses, incidence of meconium stained liquor, NICU admission and APGAR score. RESULTS Among the outcomes compared between unfavorable and favorable cervix groups induction delivery interval, number of misoprostol doses and incidence of meconium stained liquor was more in unfavorable cervix group and ‘p’ value was statistically significant. Long induction delivery interval and higher number of misoprostol doses were associated with higher incidence of meconium stained liquor in primi gravida with unfavorable cervix group. CONCLUSION Misoprostol is an effective priming and labour inducing agent, which fulfils all the criteria of an ideal inducing agent. Though incidence of meconium stained liquor is higher in misoprostol induced labour among women with unfavorable cervix, the foetal outcome seems to be very good.

  4. Development of blueberry liquor: influence of distillate, sweetener and fruit quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Ilda; Lopes, Daniel; Delgado, Teresa; Canas, Sara; Anjos, Ofélia

    2018-02-01

    In this work different formulations of blueberry liquor were tested and characterised based on their physico-chemical and sensory characteristics. Three factors were evaluated: the distillate used to produce the liquor (wine spirit or grape marc spirit); the sweetener (white sugar or honey) and the fruit quantity (two doses). For each liquor, pH, total acidity, dry soluble solids content, dry extract, alcoholic strength, reducing sugars, colour intensity, methanol content, acetaldehyde and fusel alcohols were determined. Sensory tests were carried out with a trained panel. The three factors studied significantly influenced the physico-chemical features of the liquors, being the quantity of fruit the most discriminating factor, except for the volatile compounds which were mainly influenced by the distillate. As regards the sensory analysis, it was found that the most appreciated liquor was that prepared with wine spirit, sugar and a lower dose of blueberry, and the less appreciated formulation was the one made with grape marc spirit, honey and a lower quantity of blueberry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. New black liquor combustion characteristics II; Mustalipeaen uudet poltto-ominaisuudet II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Backman, R.; Bostroem, S.; Forssen, M.; Uusikartano, T. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    In an earlier study (LIEKKI 2, Y 17), the combustion characteristics of 17 liquors of different origin were studied by four laboratory tests. These tests were (1) single droplet burning, (2) single droplet pyrolysis, (3) pressurized gasification, and (4) calculation of melting properties of inorganic carryover particles. The study showed that there are big differences between liquors of different origin. These differences strongly affect the combustion properties, i.e. pyrolysis and burning times, swelling, and fouling tendency of heat transfer surfaces. The objective for the present research project was to investigate the reasons why some properties affect the combustion behavior more than others. The project is partly complementary to the previous study, partly a more detailed study of some of the phenomena observed earlier. The work constitutes of the following studies: (1) further study of several more liquors by the same methods, (2) pyrolysis swelling in inert gas (N{sub 2}) at two temperatures, 700 deg C and 900 deg C, (3) effect of heat treatment black liquors, (4) effect of addition of sodium compounds to a virgin black liquor, (5) data treatment and correlations, (6) nitrogen oxide formation tendency. (author)

  6. Extraction of hazardous metals from green liquor dregs by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmaei, Mohammad; Kinnarinen, Teemu; Jernström, Eeva; Häkkinen, Antti

    2018-04-15

    Green liquor dregs are the major inorganic solid side stream of kraft pulp mills which contain environmentally hazardous metals. The presence of hazardous metals in this industrial residue brings statutory limits for its landfilling, although they are not easily mobilized from the solid phase. In this study, the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is utilized to extract hazardous metals such as Cd, Pb and Zn from green liquor dregs. Furthermore, the influence of EDTA on the removal of Ca as the main mineral nutrient present in the green liquor dregs is studied. The effect of parameters such as EDTA dosage, L/S ratio and contact time on the removal rate of the elements is investigated. In addition, the experimental data are fitted to the Elovich model and the pseudo-first-order model to describe the desorption kinetics. The results show that 59 wt% of Cd, 13 wt% of Co, 62 wt% of Cu, 3 wt% of Mn, 12 wt% of Ni, 43 wt% of Pb, 16 wt% of Zn, and less than 1 wt% of Ca were extracted from green liquor dregs with EDTA dosage of 0.035 g EDTA salt /g dregs and the L/S ratio of 6.25 ml/g. The current study opens up new possibilities to use the green liquor dregs for improving the soil fertility instead of landfilling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The diagnostic importance of phase transitions in liquor at a craniocereberal trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova N.E.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the work is an investigation of biophysical properties of liquors of patients with a craniocereberal trauma. This investigation has been directed on definition of a degree of a brain defeat, the forecast of the further current of disease and development of methods treatment. Materials and methods. Liquor was undertaken from 62 patients with the diagnosis of an craniocereberal trauma. Research of thermo-impedancemetry of liquors was made with the help of equipment for measurement of temperature dependence of an electric impedance of ditches with a researched liquid. On the -shaped site?function of dependence of a full impedance from temperature the was observed. This site is due to globule-ball phase transition in liquor albumens. Result. It is shown, that numerical values of parameters of phase transition correlate with albumen concentration in liquor. Values of correlation factors are directly proportional to concentration of albumen. Conclusion. It is established, that numerical values of thermo-impedancemetry parameters of curves are directly connected to a degree of a brain defeat and can be used as diagnostic and prognostic criteria.

  8. Synthesis of Bio-aromatics from Black Liquors Using Catalytic Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Bio-aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylenes, BTX) were prepared by the catalytic pyrolysis of six different black liquors using both in situ and ex situ approaches. A wide range of catalysts was screened and conditions were optimized in microscale reactors. Up to 7 wt % of BTX, based on the organic fraction of the black liquors, was obtained for both the in situ and ex situ pyrolysis (T = 500–600 °C) using a Ga-modified H-ZSM-5 catalyst. The in situ catalytic pyrolysis of black liquors from hardwood paper mills afforded slightly higher yields of aromatics/BTX than softwood black liquors, a trend that could be confirmed by the results obtained in the ex situ catalytic pyrolysis. An almost full deoxygenation of the lignin and carbohydrate fraction was achieved and both organic fractions were converted to a broad range of (substituted) aromatics. The zeolite catalyst used was remarkably stable and even after 100 experiments in batch mode with intermittent oxidative catalyst regeneration, the yields and selectivity toward BTX remained similar. The ex situ pyrolysis of black liquor has potential for large-scale implementation in a paper mill without disturbing the paper production process. PMID:29607268

  9. The Impact of Single-Container Malt Liquor Sales Restrictions on Urban Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Patricia; Erickson, Darin J; Toomey, Traci; Nelson, Toben; Less, Elyse Levine; Joshi, Spruha; Jones-Webb, Rhonda

    2017-04-01

    Many US cities have adopted legal restrictions on high-alcohol malt liquor sales in response to reports of crime and nuisance behaviors around retail alcohol outlets. We assessed whether these policies are effective in reducing crime in urban areas. We used a rigorous interrupted time-series design with comparison groups to examine monthly crime rates in areas surrounding alcohol outlets in the 3 years before and after adoption of malt liquor sales restrictions in two US cities. Crime rates in matched comparison areas not subject to restrictions served as covariates. Novel methods for matching target and comparison areas using virtual neighborhood audits conducted in Google Street View are described. In Minneapolis, Minnesota, sales of single containers of 16 oz or less were prohibited in individual liquor stores (n = 6). In Washington, D.C., the sale of single containers of any size were prohibited in all retail alcohol outlets within full or partial wards (n = 6). Policy adoption was associated with modest reductions in crime, particularly assaults and vandalism, in both cities. All significant outcomes were in the hypothesized direction. Our results provide evidence that retail malt liquor sales restrictions, even relatively weak ones, can have modest effects on a range of crimes. Policy success may depend on community support and concurrent restrictions on malt liquor substitutes.

  10. Amnioinfusion for meconium-stained liquor in labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, G Justus; Xu, Hairong; Eke, Ahizechukwu C

    2014-01-23

    Amnioinfusion is thought to dilute meconium present in the amniotic fluid and so reduce the risk of meconium aspiration. To assess the effects of amnioinfusion for meconium-stained liquor on perinatal outcome. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (1 December 2013). Randomised trials comparing amnioinfusion with no amnioinfusion for women in labour with moderate or thick meconium staining of the amniotic fluid. Three review authors independently assessed eligibility and trial quality, and extracted data. Fourteen studies of variable quality (4435 women) are included.Subgroup analysis was performed for studies from settings with limited facilities to monitor the baby's condition during labour and intervene effectively, and settings with standard peripartum surveillance.Settings with standard peripartum surveillance: there was considerable heterogeneity for several outcomes. There was no significant reduction in the primary outcomes meconium aspiration syndrome, perinatal death or severe morbidity, and maternal death or severe morbidity. There was a reduction in caesarean sections (CSs) for fetal distress but not overall. Meconium below the vocal cords diagnosed by laryngoscopy was reduced, as was neonatal ventilation or neonatal intensive care unit admission, but there was no significant reduction in perinatal deaths or other morbidity. Planned sensitivity analysis excluding trials with greater risk of bias resulted in an absence of benefits for any of the outcomes studied.Settings with limited peripartum surveillance: three studies were included. In the amnioinfusion group there was a reduction in CS for fetal distress and overall; meconium aspiration syndrome (three studies, 1144 women; risk ratio (RR) 0.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05 to 0.52); perinatal mortality (three studies, 1151 women; RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.53) and neonatal ventilation or neonatal intensive care unit admission. In one of the studies, meconium

  11. An acoustic technique for the determination of liquor level in tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.; Jones, T.L.

    1980-02-01

    The design, development and application of a prototype suitable for the measurement of liquor levels in tanks is described. The technique involves directing an acoustic pulse down a constraining tube to the liquor surface and measuring the time of return of the reflected pulse. Using the equipment it is possible to determine the position of a solid surface with a total error of less than 1 mm. The prototype instrument was used to measure the volume of liquors contained in rectangular slab tanks used for accountancy purposes at Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment. The total error obtained in an individual measurement of volume was less than 0.2 litres (95% confidence limits). The instrument may be used as a replacement for a Pneumercator system in existing installations. (author)

  12. Technical Report Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornetti, Micheal [Escanaba Paper Company, MI (United States); Freeman, Douglas [Escanaba Paper Company, MI (United States)

    2012-10-31

    The Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Project was developed to construct a black liquor to Methanol biorefinery in Escanaba, Michigan. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, NewPage’s Escanaba Paper Mill and when in full operation would: • Generate renewable energy for Escanaba Paper Mill • Produce Methanol for transportation fuel of further refinement to Dimethyl Ether • Convert black liquor to white liquor for pulping. Black liquor is a byproduct of the pulping process and as such is generated from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for black liquor gasification. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. NewPage Corporation planned to replicate this facility at other NewPage Corporation mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility. An overview of the process begins with black liquor being generated in a traditional Kraft pulping process. The black liquor would then be gasified to produce synthesis gas, sodium carbonate and hydrogen sulfide. The synthesis gas is then cleaned with hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide removed, and fed into a Methanol reactor where the liquid product is made. The hydrogen sulfide is converted into polysulfide for use in the Kraft pulping process. Polysulfide is a known additive to the Kraft process that increases pulp yield. The sodium carbonate salts are converted to caustic soda in a traditional recausticizing process. The caustic soda is then part of the white liquor that is used in the Kraft pulping process. Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant project set out to prove that black liquor gasification could

  13. FACTORS AFFECTING THE FIRST STAGE DIGESTION OF FORAGES USING FAECAL LIQUOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Solangi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to study the effect of duration of incubation on the digestibility with the aim to reduce the time of incubation of the first stage digestion. This could be achieved if method for improving the potency of faecal liquor is evolved and verified. To estimate the time required to complete digestion of forages, triplicate samples of ryegrass and two varieties of straw were incubated in the faecal liquor for digestion for the periods of 0, 3, 6, 9, 24, 34, 48, 58, 72, 80 or 96 hours. It was observed that the incubation time required to complete digestion in faecal liquor for ryegrass and straw was 58 and 96 hours, respectively. The rate of digestion was maximal from 9 to 48 hours during which time approximately 1.11 mg/hour were solublised.

  14. Precipitation of uranium peroxide from the leach liquor of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xizhen; Lin Sirong; Guo Erhua; Lu Shijie

    1995-06-01

    A chemical precipitation process of recovering uranium from the leach liquor of uranium ores was investigated. The process primarily includes the precipitation of iron with lime, the preprocessing of the slurry of iron hydroxides and the precipitation of uranium with H 2 O 2 . The leach liquor is neutralized by lime milk to pH 3.7 to precipitate the iron hydroxides which after flocculation and settle is separated out and preprocessed at 170 degree C in an autoclave. H 2 O 2 is then used to precipitate uranium in the leach liquor free of iron, and the pH of process for uranium precipitation adjusted by adding MgO slurry to 3.5. The barren solution can be used to wash the filter cakes of leach tailing. The precipitated slurry of iron hydroxides after being preprocessed is recycled to leaching processes for recovering uranium in it. This treatment can not only avoid the filtering of the slurry of iron hydroxides, but also prevent the iron precipitate from redissolving and consequently the increase of iron concentration in the leach liquor. The results of the investigation indicate that lime, H 2 O 2 and MgO are the main chemical reagents used to obtain the uranium peroxide product containing over 65% uranium from the leach liquor, and they also do not cause environmental pollution. In accordance with the uranium content in the liquor, the consumption of chemical reagent for H 2 O 2 (30%) and MgO are 0.95 kg/kgU and 0.169 kg/kgU, respectively. (1 fig., 8 tabs., 7 refs.)

  15. Fire hazard analysis of alcohol aqueous solution and Chinese liquor based on flash point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qinpei; Kang, Guoting; Zhou, Tiannian; Wang, Jian

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a series of experiments were conducted to study the flash point of alcohol aqueous solution and Chinese liquor. The fire hazard of the experimental results was analysed based on the standard GB50160-2008 of China. The result shows open-cup method doesn’t suit to alcohol aqueous solution. On the other hand, the closed-cup method shows good applicability. There is a non-linear relationship between closed-cup flash point and alcohol volume concentration. And the prediction equation established in this paper shows good fitting to the flash point and fire hazard classification of Chinese liquor.

  16. Washington State Spirits Privatization: How Satisfied were Liquor Purchasers Before and After, and by Type of Retail Store in 2014?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Thomas K; Williams, Edwina; Kerr, William C; Subbaraman, Meenakshi S; Ye, Yu

    2017-11-27

    In 2012 Washington State ended a wholesale/retail monopoly on liquor, permitting sale of spirits in stores with > 10,000 square feet. Implementation resulted in average price increases, but also five times the stores selling liquor. As part of a privatization evaluation, we studied pre-post and between-store-type purchase experiences. A 2010 Washington State Liquor Control Board (LCB) survey of liquor purchasers (n = 599), and the 2014 baseline of a repeated telephone survey (1,202 residents; n = 465 purchasers), each included 10 LCB questions on satisfaction with purchase experiences, each attribute with graded response scale A = 4 to D = 1 and F (0 = fail). Analyses used t-tests for satisfaction differences by time and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for 2014 between-store satisfaction-level differences. Five purchase features were rated more favorably after privatization (ps operating hours, and checkout speed) were highest for liquor superstores, while location convenience favored grocery and drug stores, and price satisfaction favored wholesale (Costco) stores, with staff knowledge highest at liquor stores. Satisfaction with liquor purchases increased after privatization for half the consumer experiences. Availability (location convenience and store hours) was important to liquor purchasers. Such results are relevant to sustained support for the policy of privatizing spirits retail monopolies.

  17. 40 CFR 430.03 - Best management practices (BMPs) for spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the effectiveness of the BMPs, and to detect trends in spent pulping liquor losses. Such monitoring.... (g) Record keeping requirements. (1) Each mill subject to this section must maintain on its premises..., tracking the effectiveness of the BMPs, and detecting trends in spent pulping liquor losses. (2) Whenever...

  18. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of Kraft black liquor. Interim report No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.

    1990-12-01

    Experimental effort for the program to evaluate physical properties of kraft black liquors is now proceeding well. Experimental work includes pulping, liquor analysis, lignin purification and characterization, vapor-liquid equilibria, heat capacity, heats of solution and combustion, and viscosity measurements. Measurement of thermal conductivity has not yet begun. Collection of the data necessary for development of generalized correlations is proceeding, but will require about two more years. The digester is operating very well. It is now possible to operate the digester as a closed, rotating reactor or as a batch reactor with liquor circulation. When operated with liquor circulation, temperatures within the chip bed can be monitored during cooking. Cooking is reproducible, and cooks are being performed to produce liquors for experimental studies. The digester could be further modified to permit us to conduct rapid exchange batch pulping or to permit us to simulate continuous pulping. Liquors to be used in experimental studies are concentrated in our large scale evaporator or in our small scale evaporator. The large scale evaporator is used to concentrate liquors to about 50% solids for storage and for use in studies requiring high solids liquors. The small scale evaporator is used for preparing final samples to as high as 85% solids and for measuring vapor-liquid equilibria. Liquors are now routinely analyzed to determine all components, except higher molecular weight organic acids and extractives. Lignin determination by uv-visible means has been improved. Lignin purification from black liquor has been improved and lignin molecular weights are determined routinely. Work on lignin molecular weight distribution is still not satisfactory, but recent developments holds promise.

  19. 27 CFR 46.207 - Articles held in bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles held in bond. 46... Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Inventories § 46.207 Articles held in bond. If the dealer is a manufacturer or an export warehouse proprietor and holds articles in TTB bond on April 1, 2009, the floor...

  20. 77 FR 10621 - Changes to the In-Bond Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Process; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 35 / Wednesday, February 22, 2012 / Proposed... [USCBP-2012-0002] RIN 1515-AD81 Changes to the In-Bond Process AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... in-bond. This process allows imported merchandise to be entered at one U.S. port of entry without...

  1. Dynamic modelling of nitrous oxide emissions from three Swedish sludge liquor treatment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, E.; Arnell, M.; Flores-Alsina, X.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to model the dynamics and validate the results of nitrous oxide (N2O)emissions from three Swedish nitrifying/denitrifying, nitritation and anammox systems treating real anaerobic digester sludge liquor. The Activated Sludge Model No. 1 is extended to describe N2O pr...

  2. Liquor landscapes: Does access to alcohol outlets influence alcohol consumption in young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Sarah; Trapp, Georgina; Hooper, Paula; Oddy, Wendy H; Wood, Lisa; Knuiman, Matthew

    2017-05-01

    Few longitudinal studies have examined the impact of liquor licences on alcohol consumption, and none in young adults, the life stage when alcohol intake is at its highest. We examined associations between liquor licences (i.e., general licences, on-premise licences, liquor stores, and club licences) and alcohol consumption at 20-years (n=988) and 22-years (n=893), and whether changes in the licences between time-points influenced alcohol consumption (n=665). Only general licences were associated with alcohol consumption at 20-years (p=0.037), but by 22-years, all licences types were positively associated with alcohol consumption (pstores over time, alcohol consumption increased by 1.22g/day or 8% (p=0.030), and for each additional club licence, consumption increased by 0.90g/day or 6% (p=0.007). Limiting liquor licences could contribute to a reduction in young adults' alcohol intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell distilled...

  4. 75 FR 16666 - Liquor Dealer Recordkeeping and Registration, and Repeal of Certain Special (Occupational) Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ..., payment of the special tax, special tax stamps, and abatement or refund of special taxes. In addition, the..., Customs duties and inspection, Electronic funds transfers, Excise taxes, Imports, Labeling, Liquors... and cigarettes, Claims, Customs duties and inspection, Excise taxes, Exports, Foreign trade zones...

  5. Precipitation and valorisation of lignin in South African kraft mill black liquor - first stages: Poster

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Namane, M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available environmentally sustainable. The aims objectives of the current project is to precipitate and characterize lignin form kraft black liquor with an attempts to obtain narrow molecular weight lignin that can further be valorised to encourage Biorefineries in South...

  6. Characterization of volatile compounds in Fen-Daqu - a traditional Chinese liquor fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van-Diep, L.; Zheng, X.; Chen, J.Y.; Han, B.Z.

    2012-01-01

    Fen-Daqu is a saccharifying agent and fermentation starter for the production of Chinese liquor Fen (alcoholic spirit) and Fen traditional vinegar. The volatile compounds produced at seven incubation steps were analysed by HS-SPME-GC-MS. A total of 83 major volatile compounds were identified,

  7. Effect of storage conditions on the shelf life of locally distilled liquor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research was to determine the presence and levels of certain contaminants in akpeteshie from the various sources and to determine effects of ambient temperature, refrigeration, pasteurization and pasteurization in combination with low temperature for the liquor stored for seven weeks. The contaminant ...

  8. 75 FR 62853 - Reno-Sparks Indian Colony Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... will general millions of dollars in sales revenue and increase funding for essential government... introduction, possession, sale and consumption of liquor under Ordinance 14 (approved June 8, 1977) and Title 5... allow the Wal- Mart Superstore to open on RSIC lands, which will generate millions of dollars in sales...

  9. Estimation of Theaflavins (TF) and Thearubigins (TR) Ratio in Black Tea Liquor Using Electronic Vision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuli, Amitava; Pal, Abhra; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyya, Rajib; Tamuly, Pradip; Gogoi, Nagen

    2011-09-01

    Quality of black tea is generally assessed using organoleptic tests by professional tea tasters. They determine the quality of black tea based on its appearance (in dry condition and during liquor formation), aroma and taste. Variation in the above parameters is actually contributed by a number of chemical compounds like, Theaflavins (TF), Thearubigins (TR), Caffeine, Linalool, Geraniol etc. Among the above, TF and TR are the most important chemical compounds, which actually contribute to the formation of taste, colour and brightness in tea liquor. Estimation of TF and TR in black tea is generally done using a spectrophotometer instrument. But, the analysis technique undergoes a rigorous and time consuming effort for sample preparation; also the operation of costly spectrophotometer requires expert manpower. To overcome above problems an Electronic Vision System based on digital image processing technique has been developed. The system is faster, low cost, repeatable and can estimate the amount of TF and TR ratio for black tea liquor with accuracy. The data analysis is done using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Multiple Discriminate Analysis (MDA). A correlation has been established between colour of tea liquor images and TF, TR ratio. This paper describes the newly developed E-Vision system, experimental methods, data analysis algorithms and finally, the performance of the E-Vision System as compared to the results of traditional spectrophotometer.

  10. Effects of Chinese Liquors on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Healthy Young Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Sheng Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To elucidate whether consumption of two Chinese liquors, tea-flavor liquor (TFL and traditional Chinese liquor (TCL have protective effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in healthy human subjects. Methods. Forty-five healthy subjects (23 men, 22 women, aged 23–28, were recruited and randomized into two groups: TFL and TCL, and consumed 30 mL/day (45% (v/v alcohol of either liquor for 28 days. Results. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C/LDL-C and apolipoprotein A1 were significantly increased, and total cholesterol (TC and TC/HDL-C were significantly decreased after the intervention in both groups (P<0.05. Serum uric acid (P=0.004 for TFL, P=0.001 for TCL, glucose (P<0.001 for TFL, P<0.001 for TCL and endothelial adhesion molecules (P<0.05 were significantly decreased after the intervention. ADP-induced whole blood platelet aggregation was also significantly decreased after the intervention in both TFL and TCL groups (P<0.05. Conclusions. TFL and TCL consumption had protective effects on CVD risk factors in young humans. However, the results were valid only for 28 days, and that the possibility of adverse effect (liver, kidney of chronic alcohol consumption should be considered.

  11. 75 FR 23289 - Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... controls the possession, sale, and consumption of liquor within the tribal lands. The tribal lands are... or cereal in pure water containing not more than four percent of Alcohol by volume. For the purpose... mixtures capable of human consumption, and any liquid, semisolid, solid, or other substances that contains...

  12. 78 FR 54670 - Miami Tribe of Oklahoma-Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... accommodations for the sale of liquor or alcoholic beverages by the glass and for consumption on the premises as... of pure hops, or pure extract of hops and pure barley malt or other wholesome grain or cereal in pure... mixtures capable of human consumption and any liquid, semisolid, solid, or other substances, which contains...

  13. Spectroscopic determination of anthraquinone in kraft pulping liquors using a membrane interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    X.S. Chai; X.T. Yang; Q.X. Hou; J.Y. Zhu; L.-G. Danielsson

    2003-01-01

    A spectroscopic technique for determining AQ in pulping liquor was developed to effectively separate AQ from dissolved lignin. This technique is based on a flow analysis system with a Nafion membrane interface. The AQ passed through the membrane is converted into its reduced form, AHQ, using sodium hydrosulfite. AHQ has distinguished absorption characteristics in the...

  14. High temperature attack of ores by a liquor containing essentially a soluble bicarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurel, Pierre; Nicolas, Francois; Bosca, Bernard.

    1978-01-01

    New process for high temperature oxidizing digestion of ores containing at least one metal in the uranium, vanadium and molybdenum group, by an aqueous liquor containing sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate in the presence of free oxygen insufflated into the reaction medium [fr

  15. ROLE OF TRANSCERVICAL AMNIOINFUSION IN LABOUR COMPLICATED WITH THICK MECONIUM STAINED LIQUOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuragamayi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This is to evaluate the effectiveness of amnio infusion in cases of thick and particulate meconium stained liquor to reduce the incidence of fetal distress and meconium aspiration syndrome in neonates and compare neonatal outcome with control group . METHODS: A prospective comparative case control study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and gynecology, Government General Hospital, Kakinada. A total of 100 cases of labour complicated with thick meconium stained liquor were studied of which in 50 cases Transcervical Amnioinfusion was given and remaining 50 cases without amnioinfusion were taken as controls. The statistical analysis of neonatal outcome was done by Chi square test analysis of variance and paired t test. Liquor to reduce the incidence of fetal distress and meconium aspiration syndrome in neonates and compare neonatal. RESULTS: Operative interventions for fetal distress were significantly less in infusion group (p7 were observed in more cases of infusion group with significant difference in control group. Use of resuscitative measures for neonates were relatively more in control group with higher incidence of meconium at and below vocal cords (p <0.01. In amnioinfusion group, admissions in NICU were less (p <0.01 CONCLUSION : Transcervical amnioinfusion during labour is a safe, simple, inexpensive and effective procedure in improving the obstetric and perinatal outcome in patients labouring with thick meconium stained liquor

  16. Price elasticity of demand for malt liquor beer: findings from a US pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael Thomas; Browntaylor, Didra; Bluthenthal, Ricky Neville

    2006-05-01

    Our objective is to estimate the relative price elasticity of demand for malt liquor beer (MLB), regular beer, hard liquor, and a combined group of all other alcoholic beverages. Three hundred and twenty-nine alcohol consumers (mostly male) in South-Central Los Angeles answered a series of questions pertaining to expected consumption responses to hypothetical price increases. We found that based on a 10% price increase, the mean price elasticity of demand (% change in quantity demanded / % change in price) was -0.79 for MLB drinkers, -1.14 for regular beer drinkers, -1.11 for hard liquor drinkers, and -1.69 for the combined group of all other drinkers. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the personal characteristics significantly related to being a MLB drinker were older age, not working, being homeless, and a daily drinker. Daily (or nearly daily) drinkers were more likely to be married, earning lower incomes, and hard liquor drinkers. This study is the first to investigate the price elasticity of demand for MLB drinkers and other heavy alcohol consumers in poor urban neighborhoods of the US. Future research can use the methods from this pilot study to more rigorously examine and compare the price sensitivity among heavy drinking groups.

  17. THE PRODUCTION OF ORANGE PRESS LIQUOR SPIRIT: TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. FERREIRA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The orange juice industry produces, at the end of the residue extraction, a by-product called orange press liquor. Considering its high content of soluble solids and the large volume of the liquor produced in Brazilian orange juice plants, an earlier study was conducted on the technical viability of using orange press liquor as raw material for a new distilled beverage, with promising results. With a view to increasing efficiency and possibly attracting investments in the growing international market for new and exotic beverages, the aim of the present study was to optimize the orange press liquor spirit process and to evaluate the economic aspects of its production. The results showed that this process can yield a good quality beverage, comparable to the sugar cane spirit cachaça and other similar products, as well as having economic advantages and potential for immediate further growth, without extra investment costs.

  18. Precipitation and valorisation of lignin obtained from South African Kraft mill black liquor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Namane, Mpho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available . In this thesis, the isolation and recovery of lignin from kraft mill black liquor was examined, an in-depth characterisation of the polymer was undertaken, and finally, a method for the potential valorisation of the lignin from a South African kraft mill...

  19. Novel Pulping Technology: Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    The general objectives of this new project are the same as those described in the original proposal. Conventional kraft pulping technologies will be modified for significant improvements in pulp production, such as strength, bleachability, and yield by using green liquor, a naturally high, kraft mill-derived sulfidity source. Although split white liquor sulfidity and other high sulfidity procedures have the promise of addressing several of the latter important economic needs of pulp mills, they require considerable engineering/capital retrofits, redesigned production methods, and thus add to overall mill expenditures. Green liquor use, however, possesses the required high sulfidity to obtain in general the benefits attributable to higher sulfidity cooking, without the required capital constraints for implementation. Before introduction of green liquor in our industrial operations, a stronger understanding of its fundamental chemical interaction with the lignin and carbohydrates in US hardwood and softwoods must be obtained. In addition, its effect on bleachability, enhancement of pulp properties, and influence on the overall energy and recovery of the mill requires further exploration before the process witnesses widespread mill use in North America. Thus, proof of principle will be accomplished in this work and the consequent effect of green liquor and other high sulfide sources on the pulping and bleaching operations will be explored for US kraft mills. The first year of this project will generate the pertinent information to validate its ability for implementation in US pulping operations, whereas year two will continue this work while proceeding to analyze pulp bleachability and final pulp/paper properties and develop a general economic and feasibility analysis for its eventual implementation in North America.

  20. Methylxanthine and catechin content of fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa beans, and cocoa liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Peláez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The theobromine and catechin content can affect the quality of cocoa liquor and is influenced by cacao variety, production area (PA, and fermentation, as well as the method of drying beans (FDB and cocoa liquor production (CLP. This study examined variationsin methylxanthine and catechin levels in fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa grains, and in cocoa liquor from Trinitario, Criollo, and Forastero cacao varieties. A total of 123 cocoa bean samples from three Peruvian PAs at different altitudes, Tingo María (TM, San Alejandro (SA, and Curimana (CU, were evaluated. The theobromine (Tb and caffeine (Cf contents in fresh cocoa beans were affected by both cocoa type and PA. The caffeine content was higher in Trinitario cacao than in Criollo and Forastero varieties (p ≤ 0.05. The Tb and CF contents decreased in dry cocoa grain and was affected by FDB (p ≤ 0.05 (1.449 ± 0.004 to 1.140 ± 0.010 and 0.410 ± 0.03 to 0.165 ± 0.02 g Tb and C, respectively, per 100 g dry weight. Cocoa beans from Tingo María, which has thehighest altitude, had higher Tb and CF contents than those from other PAs. The catechin (C and epicatechin (EC contents were affected by the FDB and CLP, and were highestin fresh cocoa beans from the Tingo María area (range: 0.065 ± 0.01 to 0.020 ± 0.00 g C/100 g. The C and EC contents decreased during FDB and CLP (0.001 g C/100 g of cocoa liquor. Taken together, these results show that higher concentrations of Tb, Cf, C,and EC are present in fresh cocoa beans. Moreover, the cocoa variety influenced cocoa liquor quality. Overall, cocoa from the Tingo María PA had the most desirable chemical composition.

  1. Effects of black liquor shocks on activated sludge treatment of bleached kraft pulp mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Gabriela; Pesante, Silvana; Vidal, Gladys

    2015-01-01

    Kraft pulp mills use activated sludge systems to remove organic matter from effluents. Process streams may appear as toxic spills in treatment plant effluents, such as black liquor, which is toxic to microorganisms of the activated sludge. The present study evaluates the effects of black liquor shocks in activated sludge systems. Four black liquor shocks from 883 to 3,225 mg chemical oxygen demand-COD L(-1) were applied during 24 hours in a continuously operating lab-scale activated sludge system. Removal efficiencies of COD, color and specific compounds were determined. Moreover, specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), sludge volumetric index (SVI) and indicator microorganisms were evaluated. Results show that the addition of black liquor caused an increase in COD removal (76-67%) immediately post shock; followed two days later by a decrease (-19-50%). On the other hand, SOUR ranged between 0.152 and 0.336 mgO2 g(-1) volatile suspended solids-VSS• min(-1) during shocks, but the initial value was reestablished at hour 24. When the COD concentration of the shock was higher than 1,014 mg/L, the abundance of stalked ciliates and rotifers dropped. Finally, no changes in SVI were observed, with values remaining in the range 65.8-40.2 mL g(-1) total suspended solids-TSS during the entire operating process. Based on the results, the principal conclusion is that the activated sludge system with the biomass adapted to the kraft pulp effluent could resist a black liquor shock with 3,225 mgCOD L(-1) of concentration during 24 h, under this study's conditions.

  2. Comparison of pulp-mill-integrated hydrogen production from gasified black liquor with stand-alone production from gasified biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, E.; Harvey, S.

    2007-01-01

    When gasified black liquor is used for hydrogen production, significant amounts of biomass must be imported. This paper compares two alternative options for producing hydrogen from biomass: (A) pulp-mill-integrated hydrogen production from gasified back liquor; and (B) stand-alone production of hydrogen from gasified biomass. The comparison assumes that the same amount of biomass that is imported in Alternative A is supplied to a stand-alone hydrogen production plant and that the gasified black liquor in Alternative B is used in a black liquor gasification combined cycle (BLGCC) CHP unit. The comparison is based upon equal amounts of black liquor fed to the gasifier, and identical steam and power requirements for the pulp mill. The two systems are compared on the basis of total CO 2 emission consequences, based upon different assumptions for the reference energy system that reflect different societal CO 2 emissions reduction target levels. Ambitions targets are expected to lead to a more CO 2 -lean reference energy system, in which case hydrogen production from gasified black liquor (Alternative A) is best from a CO 2 emissions' perspective, whereas with high CO 2 emissions associated with electricity production, hydrogen from gasified biomass and electricity from gasified black liquor (Alternative B) is preferable. (author)

  3. Differences in liquor prices between control state-operated and license-state retail outlets in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Albers, Alison B; Naimi, Timothy S; Jernigan, David H

    2013-02-01

    This study aims to compare the average price of liquor in the United States between retail alcohol outlets in states that have a monopoly ('control' states) with those that do not ('licence' states). A cross-sectional study of brand-specific alcohol prices in the United States. We determined the average prices in February 2012 of 74 brands of liquor among the 13 control states that maintain a monopoly on liquor sales at the retail level and among a sample of 50 license-state liquor stores, using their online-available prices. We calculated average prices for 74 brands of liquor by control versus license state. We used a random-effects regression model to estimate differences between control and license state prices-overall and by alcoholic beverage type. We also compared prices between the 13 control states. The overall mean price for the 74 brands was $27.79 in the license states [95% confidence interval (CI): $25.26-30.32] and $29.82 in the control states (95% CI: $26.98-32.66). Based on the random-effects linear regression model, the average liquor price was approximately $2 lower (6.9% lower) in license states. In the United States monopoly of alcohol retail outlets appears to be associated with slightly higher liquor prices. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Differences in liquor prices between control state-operated and license-state retail outlets in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Albers, Alison B.; Naimi, Timothy S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study aims to compare the average price of liquor in the United States between retail alcohol outlets in states that have a monopoly ('control' states) with those that do not ('licence' states). Design A cross-sectional study of brand-specific alcohol prices in the United States. Setting We determined the average prices in February 2012 of 74 brands of liquor among the 13 control states that maintain a monopoly on liquor sales at the retail level and among a sample of 50 license-state liquor stores, using their online-available prices. Measurements We calculated average prices for 74 brands of liquor by control vs. license state. We used a random effects regression model to estimate differences between control and license state prices – overall and by alcoholic beverage type. We also compared prices between the 13 control states. Findings The overall mean price for the 74 brands was $27.79 in the license states (95% confidence interval [CI], $25.26–$30.32) and $29.82 in the control states (95% CI, $26.98–$32.66). Based on the random effects linear regression model, the average liquor price was approximately two dollars lower (6.9% lower) in license states. Conclusions In the United States monopoly of alcohol retail outlets appears to be associated with slightly higher liquor prices. PMID:22934914

  5. Metatranscriptomics Reveals the Functions and Enzyme Profiles of the Microbial Community in Chinese Nong-Flavor Liquor Starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chinese liquor is one of the world's best-known distilled spirits and is the largest spirit category by sales. The unique and traditional solid-state fermentation technology used to produce Chinese liquor has been in continuous use for several thousand years. The diverse and dynamic microbial community in a liquor starter is the main contributor to liquor brewing. However, little is known about the ecological distribution and functional importance of these community members. In this study, metatranscriptomics was used to comprehensively explore the active microbial community members and key transcripts with significant functions in the liquor starter production process. Fungi were found to be the most abundant and active community members. A total of 932 carbohydrate-active enzymes, including highly expressed auxiliary activity family 9 and 10 proteins, were identified at 62°C under aerobic conditions. Some potential thermostable enzymes were identified at 50, 62, and 25°C (mature stage. Increased content and overexpressed key enzymes involved in glycolysis and starch, pyruvate and ethanol metabolism were detected at 50 and 62°C. The key enzymes of the citrate cycle were up-regulated at 62°C, and their abundant derivatives are crucial for flavor generation. Here, the metabolism and functional enzymes of the active microbial communities in NF liquor starter were studied, which could pave the way to initiate improvements in liquor quality and to discover microbes that produce novel enzymes or high-value added products.

  6. Estimated increase in cross-border purchases by Washington residents following liquor privatization and implications for alcohol consumption trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yu; Kerr, William C

    2016-11-01

    To estimate changes in liquor sales occurring in Washington, USA and bordering states following the privatization of government controlled liquor stores. Trend analyses of data from January 2009 to October 2014 of a natural experiment beginning 1 June 2012, when liquor prices increased and the number of stores selling liquor increased in the state of Washington. Difference-in-differences (DID) models and interrupted time-series methods were used. Washington and bordering counties in Oregon and Idaho. Monthly liquor sales in 9-l cases. DID model estimates of adjusted change in liquor sales as a result of privatization produced a cross-model average increase of 10.1% in Oregon and 8.2% in Idaho (both P < 0.001). Similar results were found using interrupted time-series. This represents a total loss to Washington of 89 865 l of liquor, 0.226% of total Washington sales, for June 2012 to May 2013. Adding these sales to Washington totals for fiscal years 2013 and 2014, we find that per-capita spirits sales were 5.80 l in both 2012 and 2013, declining slightly to 5.76 l in 2014. The privatization of liquor sales in the state of Washington, USA in 2012 and the price increases associated with this resulted in a significant increase in sales in bordering counties in the states of Oregon and Idaho. However, the amount of alcohol sales and revenue lost by Washington was relatively small. Per-capita liquor sales in Washington appear to have remained flat after privatization. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Residual liquors of the pulp industries. 1. Lignohemicelluloses and silica from soda black liquors used as adjuvants in the manufacture of compact paper board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Saied, H.; Nada, A.A.M.; Ibrahem, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Lignohemicellulosic materials and SiO/sub 2/ were recovered from black liquors from the pulping of rice straw. The lignohemicellulose improved the properties of compact cardboard from cotton stalk pulp more effectively than those of cardboard from rice straw pulp, while the effectiveness of the SiO/sub 2/ was in the opposite direction. The water resistance of cardboard from cotton stalk pulp made it suitable for both outdoor and indoor use, while cardboard from rice straw pulp could be used only indoors. The lignohemicellulose and SiO/sub 2/ could effectively replace more expensive phenolic resins in cardboard manufacture.

  8. Life cycle greenhouse gases and non-renewable energy benefits of kraft black liquor recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudreault, Caroline; Malmberg, Barry; Upton, Brad; Miner, Reid

    2012-01-01

    The life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) and fossil fuel benefits of black liquor recovery are analyzed. These benefits are due to the production of energy that can be used in the pulping process or sold, and the recovery of the pulping chemicals that would otherwise need to be produced from other resources. The fossil GHG emissions and non-renewable energy consumption of using black liquor in the kraft recovery system are approximately 90% lower than those for a comparable fossil fuel-based system. Across all scenarios, the systems relying on black liquor solids achieve a median reduction of approximately 140 kg CO 2 eq./GJ of energy produced, compared to the systems relying on fossil fuels to provide the same energy and pulping chemical production functions. The benefits attributable to the recovery of pulping chemicals vary from 44% to 75% of the total benefit. Applied to the total production of kraft pulp in the U.S., the avoided emissions are equivalent to the total Scopes 1 and 2 emissions from the entire U.S. forest products industry. These results do not depend on the accounting method for biogenic carbon (because biogenic CO 2 emissions are the same for the systems compared) and the results are valid across a range of assumptions about the displaced fossil fuel, the GHG-intensity of the electricity grid, the fossil fuels used in the lime kiln, and the level of cogeneration at pulp and paper mills. The benefits occur without affecting the amount of wood harvested or the amount of chemical pulp produced. -- Highlights: ► Black liquor, a by-product of kraft pulping, represents about half of the energy used in the paper industry. ► The greenhouse gases (GHG) benefits of black liquor recovery compared to an equivalent fossil fuel system were analyzed. ► The GHG emissions of the black liquor system are approximately 90% lower than those for the fossil fuel system. ► The benefits from the recovery of the chemicals vary from 44% to 75% of the total benefit.

  9. Effectiveness of crime prevention through environmental design in reducing criminal activity in liquor stores: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteel, Carri; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Howard, John; Kraus, Jess F

    2004-05-01

    Liquor store employees experience disproportionately higher rates of workplace injury death than employees in any other retail setting. However, efforts to introduce workplace violence prevention programs into liquor stores have been minimal. This study examines the effectiveness of a Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design intervention in reducing criminal activity in Santa Monica, California liquor stores. Nine stores enrolling in the study received an individualized intervention safety plan; the remaining 13 served as a comparison group. Mixed-effects Poisson regression was used to examine intervention effectiveness. The largest reductions in criminal activity occurred for robbery and shoplifting outcomes. We conclude that the Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design program reduced crime and injury in liquor stores and educated small businesses about the risks associated with retail violence and the countermeasures that can be taken.

  10. Analysis of Illicit Liquor by Headspace Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC-MS): A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punia, Bhupinder Singh; Yadav, Praveen Kumar; Bumbrah, Gurvinder Singh; Sharma, Rakesh Mohan

    2017-01-01

    Illicit liquors are illegally manufactured to evade taxes and represent the majority of unrecorded liquors in developing countries. Because there are no standards, the composition of illicit liquors varies greatly from sample to sample. In the current study, we analyzed the volatile components of 27 different illicit liquors via samples collected from various locations in the northern region of India. Ethanol content varied drastically and methanol was not present in any of the samples. The components found can be categorized into different groups, namely alcohols, esters, acids, nitrogen-containing components, ketones, and aldehydes. Some components-such as 1-propanol; 1-pentanol; 1-butanol; d-limonene; phenylethyl alcohols; anethole; and decanoic, octanoic, and pentanoic acids-were frequently encountered.

  11. Evaluation of the anaerobic degradation of black liquor from a Kraft pulp plant with addition of organic co-substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzini, A P; Sakamoto, I K; Varesche, M B; Pires, E C

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the anaerobic degradation of black liquor with and without additional carbon sources. Batch experiments were conducted using black liquor, from an integrated pulp and paper mill adding ethanol, methanol and nutrients. The PCR/DGGE technique was used to characterize the structure of the microbial community. The addition of extra sources of carbon did not significantly influence the degradation of black liquor under the conditions evaluated and the microbial community was similar in all experiments. It was observed an increase in some members of the archaeal in reactors that had the best efficiencies for removal of black liquor (around 7.5%). Either ethanol or methanol can be used as co-substrates because the produce the same quantitative and qualitative effect.

  12. Determination of thorium and uranium isotopes in the mining lixiviation liquor samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis Júnior, Aluísio de Souza; Monteiro, Roberto Pellacani Guedes, E-mail: reisas@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The alpha spectrometric analysis refers to determination of thorium and uranium isotopes in the mining lixiviation liquor samples. The analytical procedure involves sample preparation steps for rare earth elements, thorium and uranium separation using selective etching with hydrofluoric acid and further radiochemical separation of these using TRU chromatographic resins (Eichrom Industries Inc. USA) besides electroplating of the isolated radionuclides. An isotopic tracer is used to determine the overall chemical yield and to ensure traceability to a national standard. The results are compared to results obtained for the same samples by Becquerel laboratory. We improved the method looking for reproducibility and isotopes isolation as required by alpha spectrometry and the method showing effective in analysis of mining liquor. (author)

  13. Value Addition to Sulfate Waste Pickle Liquor of Steel Industry Using Hydrometallurgical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Archana; Sahu, K. K.

    2009-12-01

    The solvent extraction of concentrated acid was investigated from sulfate waste pickle liquors using Cyanex 923 (trialkylphosphine oxide (TRPO); manufactured by Cytec Industries Inc., Woodland Park, NJ; provided by Cyanamid Canada Inc. (Markham, Canada)) as an extractant. The effect of various parameters was studied such as extractant concentration, organic-to-aqueous phase ratio, temperature. and retention time on acid extraction from the waste pickle liquor to the organic phase, After the saturation of the organic phase with sulfuric acid, stripping studies were performed to back-extract the pure acid into the aqueous phase. The raffinate of the solvent extraction process that contains both ferrous and ferric iron as well as trace impurities was subjected to oxidation and hydrothermal treatment to precipitate iron with a well-defined pseudo-cubic morphology and a high coercivity value that renders it suitable for high-grade ferrite production.

  14. Spectrophotometric determination of uranium(VI) in bacterial leach liquors using arsenazo-III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatti, T.M.; Mateen, A.; Amin, M.; Malik, K.A.; Khalid, A.M. (National Inst. for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad (Pakistan))

    1991-01-01

    A highly sensitive and precise spectrophotometric method for the direct determination of uranium(VI) in bacterial leach liquors, obtained by the action of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and T. thiooxidans, from low-grade sandstone uranium ores, has been developed. Arsenazo-III formed an intense pink-violet complex at pH 2{center dot}0{+-}0{center dot}1, which showed maximum absorption at 655 nm. Interference due to different metal ions, such as Al, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo, Zn and Zr, was successfully masked by diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid without inhibiting the formation of the uranium(VI)-arsenazo-III complex. This method was also found suitable for detecting low levels of uranium(VI) in mine waters, acid leach liquors and tailings liquids. The results obtained were found to be in close agreement with the values determined by fluorometric and indirect spectrophotometric methods. (author).

  15. Physicochemical and functional properties of dietary fiber from maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) liquor residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinjin; Zhao, Qingsheng; Wang, Liwei; Zha, Shenghua; Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Bing

    2015-11-05

    Using maca (Lepidium meyenii) liquor residue as the raw material, dietary fiber (DF) was prepared by chemical (MCDF) and enzymatic (MEDF) methods, respectively, of which the physicochemical and functional properties were comparatively studied. High contents of DF were found in MCDF (55.63%) and MEDF (81.10%). Both fibers showed good functional properties, including swelling capacity, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, glucose adsorption capacity and glucose retardation index. MEDF showed better functional properties, which could be attributed to its higher content of DF, more irregular surface and more abundant monosaccharide composition. The results herein suggest that maca DF prepared by enzymatic method from liquor residue is a good functional ingredient in food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. PCR-DGGE analysis of the microbial communities in three different Chinese "Baiyunbian" liquor fermentation starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaomao; Hu, Yuanliang; Yan, Nanfeng; Huang, Yingna; Peng, Nan; Liang, Yunxiang; Zhao, Shumiao

    2014-08-01

    A systematic investigation was performed on the bacterial, Bacillus, fungal, and yeast communities of the three types of Daqu (mechanically prepared, manually prepared, and mixed prepared) used in Baiyunbian Company by reconditioning PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The DGGE results showed that the microbes in the three types of Daqu were mainly thermotolerant and thermophilic microbes, and the most dominant bacterial species were Bacillus and Virgibacillus, followed by Lactobacillus and Trichococcus. Furthermore, the dominant fungi were found to be molds, such as Rasamsonia, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Monascus, and the dominant yeasts were Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Pichia anomala, and Debaryomyces hansenii. In general, the three types of Daqu showed slight differences in microbial communities, and the Shannon indexes (H') of the manually prepared and mechanically prepared Daqu were similar. The results suggest that mechanically prepared Daqu can replace manually prepared Daqu in liquor production, and this research provides useful information for liquor production and process improvement.

  17. ADAPTATION OF THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE TO THE DIGESTATE LIQUORS DURING THE NITRIFICATION AND DENITRIFICATION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Barbara Majtacz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The activated sludge process of the digestate liquors after chemical separation was conducted using a 10 L lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR and a 0.50 m3 pilot-scale SBR independently (with pH control. Due to the relatively high concentration of free ammonia (FA, clear inhibitory effects of the digestate liquors on the nitrifying bacteria were observed. The adaptation of the activated sludge to the toxicity was evaluated by the trend of ammonia uptake rate (AUR and nitrate utilization rate (NUR. The lab-scale AUR values decreased from 5.3 to 2.6 g N/(kg VSS·h over time after the addition of digestate liquors (5 – 10% of the reactor working volume, indicating an apparent FA inhibition on the nitrification process in the FA concentration range of 0.3 - 0.5 mg N/L. The pilot-scale AUR values increased from 1.8 to 3.6 g N/(kg VSS·h in the first two weeks and then decreased to 2.4 g N/(kg VSS·h, showing a lag of the inhibition on the nitrifying bacteria at the FA concentration ≈ 0.15 mg N/L. The lab-scale NURs increased from 2.6 to 10.4 g N/(kg VSS·h over time, and the pilot-scale NURs increased from 1.0 to 4.0 g N/(kg VSS·h in a similar pattern. The clear dependence of both the lab- and pilot-scale NURs on time indicated the adaptation of the heterotrophic biomass to the digestate liquors. Ethanol instead of fusel oil was found to be a more efficient external carbon source for better adaptation of the activated sludge under unfavorable conditions.

  18. Neutralization of red mud with pickling waste liquor using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Suchita; Wasewar, Kailas L; Lataye, Dilip H; Mishra, Rajshekhar S; Puttewar, Suresh P; Chaddha, Mukesh J; Mahindiran, P; Mukhopadhyay, Jyoti

    2012-09-01

    'Red mud' or 'bauxite residue', a waste generated from alumina refinery is highly alkaline in nature with a pH of 10.5-12.5. Red mud poses serious environmental problems such as alkali seepage in ground water and alkaline dust generation. One of the options to make red mud less hazardous and environmentally benign is its neutralization with acid or an acidic waste. Hence, in the present study, neutralization of alkaline red mud was carried out using a highly acidic waste (pickling waste liquor). Pickling waste liquor is a mixture of strong acids used for descaling or cleaning the surfaces in steel making industry. The aim of the study was to look into the feasibility of neutralization process of the two wastes using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology. This would make both the wastes less hazardous and safe for disposal. The effect of slurry solids, volume of pickling liquor, stirring time and temperature on the neutralization process were investigated. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the volume of the pickling liquor is the most significant parameter followed by quantity of red mud with 69.18% and 18.48% contribution each respectively. Under the optimized parameters, pH value of 7 can be achieved by mixing the two wastes. About 25-30% of the total soda from the red mud is being neutralized and alkalinity is getting reduced by 80-85%. Mineralogy and morphology of the neutralized red mud have also been studied. The data presented will be useful in view of environmental concern of red mud disposal.

  19. Effect of temperature on microbial composition of starter culture for Chinese light aroma style liquor fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H Y; Xu, Y

    2015-01-01

    Light aroma style liquor is one of the basic types of Chinese liquor and is produced with a special technique of using a combination of three types of Daqu as starter culture. The succession of incubation temperature, a main operating parameter, and microbial composition in Daqu were investigated during the manufacturing process. The most significant difference in temperature occurred during the middle stage at which the highest and the lowest temperatures were detected in Houhuo (HH) and Qingcha (QC), respectively. It was shown that for the counting data, the population of fungi was identical and that of bacteria was different between three types of Daqu. According to analysis results of microbial community structure using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), lactic acid bacteria were one of the dominant bacterial groups in all of Daqu and fungal diversity in QC was higher than that in HH and Hongxin (HX). The difference in incubation temperature led to the accumulation of different heat-tolerant and heat-sensitive fungi in the completed Daqu. PCA of DGGE profiles revealed that microbial community structure was distinct between three types of Daqu. It was presumed that temperature might play a decisive role in the formation of micro-organism composition in starter cultures. The usage of a combination of three types of Daqu including Qingcha, Hongxin and Houhuo as starter culture is an important characteristic of production technology of Chinese light aroma style liquor. Micro-organisms from the environment naturally inoculated in Daqu are propagated to form the special microbial community under the control of several operating parameters, especially temperature, and finally play various roles in the fermentation process of liquor. An in-depth study of the relationship between incubation temperature and microbiota in Daqu during the manufacturing is fundamental to understand this complicated process and to prepare high-quality starter culture for

  20. Studies on the antimicrobial effect of corn steep liquor on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using well diffusion method, 0.1 ml (100 μl) of the liquor effectively inhibited the growth of the test organisms with zones of inhibition ranging from 4.00 ± 0.28 to 20.20 ± 0.14 mm. The zones of inhibition increased with increasing number of days of fermentation of the filtrate on which is the CSL. However, there was no ...

  1. Uranium adsorption from the sulphuric acid leach liquor containing more chlorides with cation-exchange resin SL-406

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jun; Wang Zhaoguo; Chi Renqing; Niu Xuejun

    1994-01-01

    The feasibility of uranium adsorption was studied from the sulphuric acid leach liquor of a uranium ore containing more chlorides with cation-exchange resin SL-406. The influence of some factors on uranium adsorption was investigated. It was shown that the resin possesses better selectivity, stability and higher capacity. It can be effectively used to recovery uranium from leach liquors of uranium ores containing more chlorides

  2. Fundamental Study of Black Liquor Gasification Kinetics. Quarterly progress report for the period October 1999 to December 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-31

    The overall objective of this research is to evaluate the kinetics of gasification of kraft black liquor under laboratory conditions simulating pressurized, oxygen-blown gasification. The significant independent variables are gasifier temperature, black liquor composition particle size, and particle residence time. The authors will quantify their impact on the concentration of major and trace gas phase species, as well as the composition of condensed phase inorganic products, including specification of the Na- and S-containing compounds and overall carbon conversion.

  3. Transcriptional characteristics associated with lichenysin biosynthesis in Bacillus licheniformis from Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Zhang, Rong; Peng, Suqin; Xu, Yan

    2015-01-28

    This work investigated the biosynthetic mechanism of lichenysin, the newly identified nonvolatile matrix component in Chinese liquors. Transcriptomes were analyzed in three producers, Bacillus licheniformis CGMCC 3961, 3962, and 3963, which were isolated from Maotai-flavor liquor-making process and produced 386.3, 553.5, and 795.2 μg/L lichenysin in a simulative liquor fermentation process. Lichenysin synthetase genes lchAA-AD in these three producers were expressed much more highly than those of the nonproducer B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 (>18.4-fold). In addition, ABC transporters were the most significant responsive metabolic pathway, and the expression levels of peptide transporter genes dppABCDE all increased more than 19.2-fold. When B. licheniformis CGMCC 3963 was cultured in synthetic medium, the expression of dppABCDE and lichenysin both increased with the addition of casein hydrolysate (containing various peptides). This indicated that peptide would act as a substrate for lichenysin synthesis. This work sheds new light on the mechanism for lichenysin biosynthesis.

  4. Enzymes extracted from apple peels have activity in reducing higher alcohols in Chinese liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qi'an; Shi, Junling; Zhu, Jing; Lv, Hongliang; Du, Shuangkui

    2014-10-01

    As the unavoidable byproducts of alcoholic fermentation, higher alcohols are unhealthy compounds widespread in alcoholic drinks. To investigate the activity of apple crude enzymes toward higher alcohols in liquors, five kinds of apple peels, namely, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Red Star, and Jonagold, were chosen to prepare enzymes, and three kinds of Chinese liquors, namely, Xifeng (containing 45% ethanol), Taibai (containing 50% ethanol), and Erguotou (containing 56% ethanol), were tested. Enzymes were prepared in the forms of liquid solution, powder, and immobilized enzymes using sodium alginate (SA) and chitosan. The treatment was carried out at 37 °C for 1 h. The relative amounts of different alcohols (including ethanol, 1-propanol, isobutanol, 1-butanol, isoamylol, and 1-hexanol) were measured using gas chromatography (GC). Conditions for preparing SA-immobilized Fuji enzymes (SA-IEP) were optimized, and the obtained SA-IEP (containing 0.3 g of enzyme) was continuously used to treat Xifeng liquor eight times, 20 mL per time. Significant degradation rates (DRs) of higher alcohols were observed at different degrees, and it also showed enzyme specificity according to the apple varieties and enzyme preparations. After five repeated treatments, the DRs of the optimized Fuji SA-IEP remained 70% for 1-hexanol and >15% for other higher alcohols.

  5. Design of a portable electronic nose for real-fake detection of liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Pei-Feng; Zeng, Ming; Li, Zhi-Hua; Sun, Biao; Meng, Qing-Hao

    2017-09-01

    Portability is a major issue that influences the practical application of electronic noses (e-noses). For liquors detection, an e-nose must preprocess the liquid samples (e.g., using evaporation and thermal desorption), which makes the portable design even more difficult. To realize convenient and rapid detection of liquors, we designed a portable e-nose platform that consists of hardware and software systems. The hardware system contains an evaporation/sampling module, a reaction module, a control/data acquisition and analysis module, and a power module. The software system provides a user-friendly interface and can achieve automatic sampling and data processing. This e-nose platform has been applied to the real-fake recognition of Chinese liquors. Through parameter optimization of a one-class support vector machine classifier, the error rate of the negative samples is greatly reduced, and the overall recognition accuracy is improved. The results validated the feasibility of the designed portable e-nose platform.

  6. Green chemicals from pulp production black liquor by partial wet oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muddassar, Hassan Raja; Melin, Kristian; de Villalba Kokkonen, Daniela; Riera, Gerard Viader; Golam, Sarwar; Koskinen, Jukka

    2015-11-01

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, more sustainable sources of energy, fuel and chemicals are needed. Biomass side streams such as black liquor, which is a by-product of pulp production, has the potential to be used for this purpose. The aim of the study was the production of carboxylic acids, such as lactic acid, formic acid and acetic acid, from kraft and non-wood black liquor. The processes studied were partial wet oxidation (PWO) and catalytic partial wet oxidation (CPWO). The results show that the yield of carboxylic acid is higher when treated by PWO than the results from CPWO at temperatures of 170 °C and 230 °C. The results shows that the PWO process can increase the yield of carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids in black liquor, reduce lignin content and decrease pH, which makes further separation of the acids more favourable. The hydroxy acids are valuable raw materials for biopolymers, and acetic acid and formic acid are commonly used chemicals conventionally produced from fossil feedstock. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Characterisation of microbial communities in Chinese liquor fermentation starters Daqu using nested PCR-DGGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqiang; Wu, Chongde; Ding, Xiaofei; Zheng, Jia; Zhou, Rongqing

    2014-12-01

    In this study, characterises of the microbial community structures of three typical Chinese liquor Daqu, as well as different kinds of light flavour Daqu were investigated using nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results showed that microbial diversity was considerably different, and the microfloral compositions were highly variable among various Daqu. Lactic acid bacteria, which accounted for 30.95 % of all identified bacteria, were dominant in all Daqu samples, whereas Bacillus species were also predominant in the Luzhou (14.8 %) and Langjiu Daqu (18.2 %). Citrobacter and Burkholderia were first identified in light flavour Daqu. Aspergillus was the dominant moulds, and the non-Saccharomyces yeast species, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Wallemia sebi, Wallemia muriae, and Pichia subpelliculosa, were the dominant yeasts. Rasamsonia, Galactomyces, Geotrichum and Wallemia were first identified using nested PCR-DGGE. Cluster analysis indicated that the microbial community structures of different Daqu samples exhibited some differences. These may be ascribed to the different peak production temperatures, raw material constituents and microhabitats around the liquor enterprises. The current study provides insights into the microbial community structures of three typical Daqu samples, and may facilitate the development of starter cultures for manufacturing Chinese liquor.

  8. Investigating the Variation of Volatile Compound Composition in Maotai-Flavoured Liquor During Its Multiple Fermentation Steps Using Statistical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Yun Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of multiple fermentations is one of the most specific characteristics of Maotai-flavoured liquor production. In this research, the variation of volatile composition of Maotai-flavoured liquor during its multiple fermentations is investigated using statistical approaches. Cluster analysis shows that the obtained samples are grouped mainly according to the fermentation steps rather than the distillery they originate from, and the samples from the first two fermentation steps show the greatest difference, suggesting that multiple fermentation and distillation steps result in the end in similar volatile composition of the liquor. Back-propagation neural network (BNN models were developed that satisfactorily predict the number of fermentation steps and the organoleptic evaluation scores of liquor samples from their volatile compositions. Mean impact value (MIV analysis shows that ethyl lactate, furfural and some high-boiling-point acids play important roles, while pyrazine contributes much less to the improvement of the flavour and taste of Maotai-flavoured liquor during its production. This study contributes to further understanding of the mechanisms of Maotai-flavoured liquor production.

  9. Classification of Multiple Chinese Liquors by Means of a QCM-based E-Nose and MDS-SVM Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese liquors are internationally well-known fermentative alcoholic beverages. They have unique flavors attributable to the use of various bacteria and fungi, raw materials, and production processes. Developing a novel, rapid, and reliable method to identify multiple Chinese liquors is of positive significance. This paper presents a pattern recognition system for classifying ten brands of Chinese liquors based on multidimensional scaling (MDS and support vector machine (SVM algorithms in a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-based electronic nose (e-nose we designed. We evaluated the comprehensive performance of the MDS-SVM classifier that predicted all ten brands of Chinese liquors individually. The prediction accuracy (98.3% showed superior performance of the MDS-SVM classifier over the back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN classifier (93.3% and moving average-linear discriminant analysis (MA-LDA classifier (87.6%. The MDS-SVM classifier has reasonable reliability, good fitting and prediction (generalization performance in classification of the Chinese liquors. Taking both application of the e-nose and validation of the MDS-SVM classifier into account, we have thus created a useful method for the classification of multiple Chinese liquors.

  10. Classification of Multiple Chinese Liquors by Means of a QCM-based E-Nose and MDS-SVM Classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Gu, Yu; Jia, Jing

    2017-01-30

    Chinese liquors are internationally well-known fermentative alcoholic beverages. They have unique flavors attributable to the use of various bacteria and fungi, raw materials, and production processes. Developing a novel, rapid, and reliable method to identify multiple Chinese liquors is of positive significance. This paper presents a pattern recognition system for classifying ten brands of Chinese liquors based on multidimensional scaling (MDS) and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms in a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)-based electronic nose (e-nose) we designed. We evaluated the comprehensive performance of the MDS-SVM classifier that predicted all ten brands of Chinese liquors individually. The prediction accuracy (98.3%) showed superior performance of the MDS-SVM classifier over the back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) classifier (93.3%) and moving average-linear discriminant analysis (MA-LDA) classifier (87.6%). The MDS-SVM classifier has reasonable reliability, good fitting and prediction (generalization) performance in classification of the Chinese liquors. Taking both application of the e-nose and validation of the MDS-SVM classifier into account, we have thus created a useful method for the classification of multiple Chinese liquors.

  11. PROFIL AROMA DAN MUTU SENSORI CITARASA PASTA KAKAO UNGGULAN DARI BEBERAPA DAERAH DI INDONESIA [Aroma and Flavor Sensory Profiles of Superior Cocoa Liquors from Different Regions in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Kusumaningrum*

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the aroma profiles and flavor sensory qualities of three cocoa liquors obtained from different regions in Indonesia, namely East Java, South Sulawesi and Bali. The Ghanaian cocoa liquor was used as the reference. The aroma of cocoa liquors was extracted by using a Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME, followed by detection with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O with the Nassal Impact Frequency (NIF method. A total of 28 aroma active compounds in the cocoa liquors were identified, where in 21, 19, 22 and 18 compounds were detected in East Java, Bali, South Sulawesi and Ghana liquors, respectively. The profiles of these three liquors were not only different from one another but were also different from the reference. East Java liquor had a specific aroma of strong chocolate, enriched with creamy, caramel and coffee bean aroma, whileBali liquor was dominated by creamy, caramel and sweet, and South Sulawesi liquor was specified by its sweet green aroma. The aroma sensory characteristic was evaluated by descriptive test, presenting the aroma of nutty, acid, caramel, earthy and chocolate, while the taste sensory attributes included astringency, bitterness and acidity. The sensory profile analysis was carried out by applying a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA method. Accompired with preference and ranking tests were also conducted. Among the three cocoa liquors, the sensory profile of South Sulawesi was the most similar to that of Ghanaian cocoa liquor. However, the cocoa liquor from Bali and East Java cocoa were more preferred comparing to the liquor from South Sulawesi.

  12. Xylitol production from xylose mother liquor: a novel strategy that combines the use of recombinant Bacillus subtilis and Candida maltosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Mingguo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylose mother liquor has high concentrations of xylose (35%-40% as well as other sugars such as L-arabinose (10%-15%, galactose (8%-10%, glucose (8%-10%, and other minor sugars. Due to the complexity of this mother liquor, further isolation of xylose by simple method is not possible. In China, more than 50,000 metric tons of xylose mother liquor was produced in 2009, and the management of sugars like xylose that present in the low-cost liquor is a problem. Results We designed a novel strategy in which Bacillus subtilis and Candida maltosa were combined and used to convert xylose in this mother liquor to xylitol, a product of higher value. First, the xylose mother liquor was detoxified with the yeast C. maltosa to remove furfural and 5-hydromethylfurfural (HMF, which are inhibitors of B. subtilis growth. The glucose present in the mother liquor was also depleted by this yeast, which was an added advantage because glucose causes carbon catabolite repression in B. subtilis. This detoxification treatment resulted in an inhibitor-free mother liquor, and the C. maltosa cells could be reused as biocatalysts at a later stage to reduce xylose to xylitol. In the second step, a recombinant B. subtilis strain with a disrupted xylose isomerase gene was constructed. The detoxified xylose mother liquor was used as the medium for recombinant B. subtilis cultivation, and this led to L-arabinose depletion and xylose enrichment of the medium. In the third step, the xylose was further reduced to xylitol by C. maltosa cells, and crystallized xylitol was obtained from this yeast transformation medium. C. maltosa transformation of the xylose-enriched medium resulted in xylitol with 4.25 g L-1·h-1 volumetric productivity and 0.85 g xylitol/g xylose specific productivity. Conclusion In this study, we developed a biological method for the purification of xylose from xylose mother liquor and subsequent preparation of xylitol by C. maltosa

  13. Xylitol production from xylose mother liquor: a novel strategy that combines the use of recombinant Bacillus subtilis and Candida maltosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Xylose mother liquor has high concentrations of xylose (35%-40%) as well as other sugars such as L-arabinose (10%-15%), galactose (8%-10%), glucose (8%-10%), and other minor sugars. Due to the complexity of this mother liquor, further isolation of xylose by simple method is not possible. In China, more than 50,000 metric tons of xylose mother liquor was produced in 2009, and the management of sugars like xylose that present in the low-cost liquor is a problem. Results We designed a novel strategy in which Bacillus subtilis and Candida maltosa were combined and used to convert xylose in this mother liquor to xylitol, a product of higher value. First, the xylose mother liquor was detoxified with the yeast C. maltosa to remove furfural and 5-hydromethylfurfural (HMF), which are inhibitors of B. subtilis growth. The glucose present in the mother liquor was also depleted by this yeast, which was an added advantage because glucose causes carbon catabolite repression in B. subtilis. This detoxification treatment resulted in an inhibitor-free mother liquor, and the C. maltosa cells could be reused as biocatalysts at a later stage to reduce xylose to xylitol. In the second step, a recombinant B. subtilis strain with a disrupted xylose isomerase gene was constructed. The detoxified xylose mother liquor was used as the medium for recombinant B. subtilis cultivation, and this led to L-arabinose depletion and xylose enrichment of the medium. In the third step, the xylose was further reduced to xylitol by C. maltosa cells, and crystallized xylitol was obtained from this yeast transformation medium. C. maltosa transformation of the xylose-enriched medium resulted in xylitol with 4.25 g L-1·h-1 volumetric productivity and 0.85 g xylitol/g xylose specific productivity. Conclusion In this study, we developed a biological method for the purification of xylose from xylose mother liquor and subsequent preparation of xylitol by C. maltosa-mediated biohydrogenation of xylose

  14. Utilisation aspects of ashes and green liquor dregs from an integrated semichemical pulp and board mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manskinen, K.

    2013-09-01

    This thesis investigated the properties of bottom and fly ashes originating from a bubbling fluidised bed boiler (120 MW) using two different fuel mixtures (i.e. Fuel mixture A: coal, wood and peat; and B: wood and peat) and of the green liquor dregs originating from the associated semichemical pulp and board mill in relation to the potential utilisation of these residues from various aspects. The total concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg in the bottom ashes were lower than the maximum allowable concentrations for these elements in forest fertilisers. The total Ca concentrations in bottom ashes A (2.4%; d.w.) and B (3.4%; d.w.) were lower than the legal requirement of 6.0% (d.w.) for ash used as a forest fertiliser. The total Ca concentrations in fly ashes A (6.4%; d.w.) and B (11.0%; d.w.) were higher than the minimum limit value of 6.0% (d.w.), but the concentration of As in fly ashes A (46.9 mg/kg d.w.) and B (41.3 mg/kg; d.w.) exceeded the maximum limit value of 40 mg/kg (d.w.). Only bottom ash B could be used as a forest fertiliser, provided some additional Ca is used. The bottom ashes both fulfilled the Finnish regulations on waste recovery in earth construction. Due to the elevated total concentration of PAH (23 mg/kg; d.w.) and extractable concentrations of Mo (3.9 mg/kg; d.w.) and Se (0.2 mg/kg; d.w.) in fly ash A, this residue cannot be used in covered structures. Due to the elevated concentration of PAH (90 mg/kg; d.w.) in fly ash B, this residue cannot be used in covered and paved structures. However, the utilisation of these residues as an earth construction agent is still possible, but an environmental permit would be required. According to the sequential extraction studies, extractable concentrations of most of the elements in the fly ash A were higher than those in the bottom ash A. The extractability of various elements, both in the bottom and fly ashes A, varied widely. Most of the elements did not occur as readily soluble and

  15. Hydrothermal Conversion of Neutral Sulfite Semi-Chemical Red Liquor into Hydrochar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramy Gamgoum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrochar was produced from neutral sulfite semi-chemical (NSSC red liquor as a possible bio-based solid fuel for use in power generation facilities. Hydrothermal conversion (HTC experiments were conducted using a fixed liquor-to-water volume ratio of 1:8 and reaction time of 3 h. Solutions were processed using different chemical additives, pH and temperature conditions to determine the optimum conditions required for producing a high energy content solid fuel. The hydrochar samples produced were analyzed by ultimate, thermogravimetric (TGA and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analyses to determine physicochemical properties that are important for utilization as a fuel. The residual process liquids were also analyzed to better understand the effect of HTC process conditions on their properties. It was determined that the optimum conditions for producing a solid fuel was at a reaction temperature of 250 °C, in the presence of acetic acid at pH 3. The maximum energy content (HHV of the hydrochar produced from red liquor at this condition was 29.87 MJ/kg, and its ash content was 1.12 wt.%. This result reflects the effect of increasing reaction temperature on the physicochemical characteristics of the hydrochar. The increase of HTC temperature significantly reduces the ash content of the hydrochar, leads to a significant increase in the carbon content of the hydrochar, and a reduction in both the oxygen and hydrogen content. These effects suggests an increase in the degree of condensation of the hydrochar products, and consequently the formation of a high energy content material. Based on TGA and FTIR analyses, hydrochars prepared at high HTC temperature showed lower adsorbed moisture, hemicellulose and cellulose contents, with enrichment in content of higher temperature volatiles, such as lignin.

  16. Alcohol distribution reforms and school proximity to liquor sales outlets in New Brunswick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaunwhite, Amanda K; McEachern, Julie; Ronis, Scott T; Peters, Paul A

    2018-01-22

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate how changes to the sale of alcohol in New Brunswick would be distributed across urban and rural communities, and low- and high-income neighbourhoods. The study objectives were to 1) estimate the population living close to alcohol outlets before and after liquor distribution reforms, 2) identify communities or regions that would be more or less affected, and 3) determine whether expanding access to alcohol products would reduce school proximity to retailers. Data from Statistics Canada, Desktop Mapping Technologies Inc. (DMTI), and geocoded publicly available information were spatially linked and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The populations living within 499 m, 500-999 m and 1-5 km of an outlet were estimated, and the distances from schools to stores were examined by geographic characteristics and neighbourhood socio-economic status. Permitting the sale of alcohol in all grocery stores throughout the province would increase the number of liquor outlets from 153 to 282 and would increase the population residing within 499 m of an outlet by 97.49%, from 19 886 to 39 273 residents. The sale of alcohol in grocery stores would result in an additional 35 liquor sales outlets being located within 499 m of schools. Low-income neighbourhoods would have the highest number and proportion of stores within 499 m of schools. The findings of this study demonstrate the importance of considering social, economic and health inequities in the context of alcohol policy reforms that will disproportionately affect low-income neighbourhoods and youth living within these areas.

  17. Integration of pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion--use of aqueous liquor from digestate pyrolysis for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Tobias; Mumme, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of aqueous pyrolysis liquor derived from pyrolysis of solid digestate was tested in batch mode using an un-adapted inoculum. Three pyrolysis liquors produced at 330°C, 430°C and 530°C in four COD-based concentrations of 3, 6, 12 and 30 g L(-1) were investigated. The three lower concentrations showed considerable biogas production, whereas the 30 g L(-1) dosage caused process inhibition. The highest methane yield of 199.1±18.5 mL g(COD)(-1) (COD removal: 56.9±5.3%) was observed for the 330°C pyrolysis liquor, followed by the 430°C sample with only slightly lower values. The 530°C sample dropped to a yield of 129.3±19.7 mL g(COD)(-1) (COD removal: 36.9±5.6%). Most VOCs contained in the pyrolysis liquor (i.e. furfural, phenol, catechol, guaiacol, and levoglucosan) were reduced below detection limit (cresol by 10-60%). Consequently, integrated pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion in addition to thermochemical conversion of digestate also promises bioconversion of pyrolysis liquors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Starter Culture Selection for Making Chinese Sesame-Flavored Liquor Based on Microbial Metabolic Activity in Mixed-Culture Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Ling, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Selection of a starter culture with excellent viability and metabolic activity is important for inoculated fermentation of traditional food. To obtain a suitable starter culture for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor, the yeast and bacterium community structures were investigated during spontaneous and solid-state fermentations of this type of liquor. Five dominant species in spontaneous fermentation were identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranaefaciens, Issatchenkia orientalis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The metabolic activity of each species in mixed and inoculated fermentations of liquor was investigated in 14 different cocultures that used different combinations of these species. The relationships between the microbial species and volatile metabolites were analyzed by partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis. We found that S. cerevisiae was positively correlated to nonanal, and B. licheniformis was positively associated with 2,3-butanediol, isobutyric acid, guaiacol, and 4-vinyl guaiacol, while I. orientalis was positively correlated to butyric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, and 2,3-butanediol. These three species are excellent flavor producers for Chinese liquor. Although P. membranaefaciens and B. amyloliquefaciens were not efficient flavor producers, the addition of them alleviated competition among the other three species and altered their growth rates and flavor production. As a result, the coculture of all five dominant species produced the largest amount of flavor compounds. The result indicates that flavor producers and microbial interaction regulators are important for inoculated fermentation of Chinese sesame-flavored liquor. PMID:24814798

  19. Integrating black liquor gasification with pulping - Process simulation, economics and potential benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Erik Vilhelm Mathias

    Gasification of black liquor could drastically increase the flexibility and improve the profit potential of a mature industry. The completed work was focused on research around the economics and benefits of its implementation, utilizing laboratory pulping experiments and process simulation. The separation of sodium and sulfur achieved through gasification of recovered black liquor, can be utilized in processes like modified continuous cooking, split sulfidity and green liquor pretreatment pulping, and polysulfide-anthraquinone pulping, to improve pulp yield and properties. Laboratory pulping protocols have been developed for these modified pulping technologies and different process options evaluated. The process simulation work around BLG has led to the development of a WinGEMS module for the low temperature MTCI steam reforming process, and case studies comparing a simulated conventional kraft process to different process options built around the implementation of a BLG unit operation into the kraft recovery cycle. Pulp yield increases of 1-3% points with improved product quality, and the potential for capital and operating cost savings relative to the conventional kraft process have been demonstrated. Process simulation work has shown that the net variable operating cost for a pulping process using BLGCC is highly dependent on the cost of lime kiln fuel and the selling price of green power to the grid. Under the assumptions taken in the performed case study, the BLGCC process combined with split sulfidity or PSAQ pulping operations had net variable operating cost 2-4% greater than the kraft reference. The influence of the sales price of power to the grid is the most significant cost factor. If a sales price increase to 6 ¢/KWh for green power could be achieved, cost savings of about $40/ODtP could be realized in all investigated BLG processes. Other alternatives to improve the process economics around BLG would be to modify or eliminate the lime kiln unit

  20. Processing of spent pickling liquor formed during treatment of titanium products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykovsky, N. A.; Rahman, P. A.; Puchkova, L. N.; Fanakova, N. N.

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the research findings on processing of spent acid pickling liquor (SAPL) formed during etching of titanium products. The processing includes neutralizing the SAPL with alkali, filtering, drying and calcining the titanium hydroxide precipitate as well as electrochemical processing of the filtrate in an ion-exchange membrane cell. The proposed SAPL processing procedure allows obtaining titanium dioxide, sodium hydroxide and a mixture of acids. Titanium dioxide can be used in paint-and-varnish industry. The alkali can be used in neutralizing the SAPL. A mixture of acids is suitable for use in etching process of titanium products.

  1. Replacement of soybean meal with maize steep liquor in the diets of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ferreira

    2015-12-14

    Dec 14, 2015 ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v45i5.9. Replacement of soybean meal with maize steep liquor in the diets of feedlot lambs. A.P.D. de Freitas, M.deA. Ferreira, J.P.F. de Oliveira, Á.E.M. da Silva, L.F.P. Soares,. J.deL. Silva#, L.E. Salla & A.R.D.L. Souza. Department of Animal Science, Federal Rural University ...

  2. Otobasal liquor fistula causing recurrent bacterial meningitis; Otobasale Liquorfistel als Ursache einer rezidivierenden bakteriellen Meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doege, H. [Abteilung fuer Nuklearmedizin, Leipzig Univ. (Germany); Klinghammer, A.; Elix, H. [Klinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, Leipzig Univ. (Germany); Pilz, D. [Institut fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik der Klinikum Chemnitz gGmbH (Germany); Bootz, F. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde/ Plastische Operationen, Leipzig Univ. (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Cerebral subarachnoid space scintigraphy today still is the modality of choice for detection of a liquorrea or a liquor fistula, especially in the case of a recurrent menengitis of unclear origin. This diagnostic method yielded the results required in the case reported for efficient and successful surgical treatment. (orig./CB) [German] Die zerebrale Liquorraumszintigraphie ist aufgrund der hohen Empfindlichkeit auch heute noch die Methode der Wahl zum Nachweis einer Liquorrhoe beziehungsweise einer Liquorfistel, insbesondere bei einer rezidivierenden Meningitis unklarer Genese. Sie ermoeglichte bei unserer Patientin eine gezielte definitive operative Behandlung. (orig.)

  3. 27 CFR 19.998 - Transfer in bond of spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer in bond of spirits. 19.998 Section 19.998 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... spirits plants. Spirits (not including spirits produced from petroleum, natural gas, or coal) may be...

  4. Electronic nose with a new feature reduction method and a multi-linear classifier for Chinese liquor classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yaqi; Meng, Qinghao; Qi, Peifeng; Zeng, Ming; Li, Wei; Ma, Shugen

    2014-05-01

    An electronic nose (e-nose) was designed to classify Chinese liquors of the same aroma style. A new method of feature reduction which combined feature selection with feature extraction was proposed. Feature selection method used 8 feature-selection algorithms based on information theory and reduced the dimension of the feature space to 41. Kernel entropy component analysis was introduced into the e-nose system as a feature extraction method and the dimension of feature space was reduced to 12. Classification of Chinese liquors was performed by using back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), and a multi-linear classifier. The classification rate of the multi-linear classifier was 97.22%, which was higher than LDA and BP-ANN. Finally the classification of Chinese liquors according to their raw materials and geographical origins was performed using the proposed multi-linear classifier and classification rate was 98.75% and 100%, respectively.

  5. Electronic nose with a new feature reduction method and a multi-linear classifier for Chinese liquor classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, Yaqi; Meng, Qinghao; Qi, Peifeng; Zeng, Ming; Li, Wei; Ma, Shugen

    2014-01-01

    An electronic nose (e-nose) was designed to classify Chinese liquors of the same aroma style. A new method of feature reduction which combined feature selection with feature extraction was proposed. Feature selection method used 8 feature-selection algorithms based on information theory and reduced the dimension of the feature space to 41. Kernel entropy component analysis was introduced into the e-nose system as a feature extraction method and the dimension of feature space was reduced to 12. Classification of Chinese liquors was performed by using back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), and a multi-linear classifier. The classification rate of the multi-linear classifier was 97.22%, which was higher than LDA and BP-ANN. Finally the classification of Chinese liquors according to their raw materials and geographical origins was performed using the proposed multi-linear classifier and classification rate was 98.75% and 100%, respectively

  6. Fast high-pressure freezing of protein crystals in their mother liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, Anja; Warmer, Martin; Panneerselvam, Saravanan; Wagner, Armin; Zouni, Athina; Glöckner, Carina; Reimer, Rudolph; Hohenberg, Heinrich; Meents, Alke

    2012-01-01

    Protein crystals were vitrified using high-pressure freezing in their mother liquor at 210 MPa and 77 K without cryoprotectants or oil coating. The method was successfully applied to photosystem II, which is representative of a membrane protein with a large unit cell and weak crystal contacts. High-pressure freezing (HPF) is a method which allows sample vitrification without cryoprotectants. In the present work, protein crystals were cooled to cryogenic temperatures at a pressure of 210 MPa. In contrast to other HPF methods published to date in the field of cryocrystallography, this protocol involves rapid sample cooling using a standard HPF device. The fast cooling rates allow HPF of protein crystals directly in their mother liquor without the need for cryoprotectants or external reagents. HPF was first attempted with hen egg-white lysozyme and cubic insulin crystals, yielding good to excellent diffraction quality. Non-cryoprotected crystals of the membrane protein photosystem II have been successfully cryocooled for the first time. This indicates that the presented HPF method is well suited to the vitrification of challenging systems with large unit cells and weak crystal contacts

  7. Investigating the potential of thermophilic species for ethanol production from industrial spent sulfite liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Weissgram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic microorganisms hold a great potential for bioethanol production on waste biomass, due to their ability to utilize pentoses and hexoses alike. However, to date hardly any data on thermophiles growing directly on industrial substrates like spent sulfite liquor (SSL are available. This contribution investigates the ability of Thermoanaerobacter species to utilize the main sugars in the used SSL (mannose, glucose and xylose and the effect of process parameters (pH, temperature and sugar concentration on their growth. Based on these results the strain T. mathranii was chosen for further studies. The ability of T. mathranii to grow directly on SSL was investigated and the effect of several inhibiting substances on growth was elucidated. Furthermore it was tested whether pretreatment with activated charcoal can increase the fermentability of SSL. The fermentations were evaluated based on yields and specific rates. It could be shown that T. mathranii was able to ferment all sugars in the investigated softwood SSL and fermented diluted, untreated SSL (up to 2.7% (w/w dry matter. Pretreatment with activated charcoal could slightly reduce the amount of phenols in the substrate and thus facilitate growth and ethanol production on higher SSL concentrations (up to 4.7% (w/v dry matter. Ethanol yields of 0.29-0.44 Cmmol of ethanol per Cmmol sugar were obtained on untreated and pretreated spent sulfite liquor, respectively. These results on an industrial substrate strengthen the claim that thermophilic microorganisms might be the optimal candidates for forest biorefinery.

  8. Rapid startup and high rate nitrogen removal from anaerobic sludge digester liquor using a SNAP process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Sen; Nishiyama, Takashi; Fujii, Tatsuo; Bhatti, Zafar; Furukawa, Kenji

    2012-02-01

    In this study, a single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal reactor, packed with a novel acrylic fiber biomass carrier material (Biofix), was applied for nitrogen removal from sludge digester liquor. For rapid start-up, conventional activated sludge was added to the reactor soon after the attachment of anammox biomass on the Biofix carriers, which allowed conventional activated sludge to form a protective layer of biofilm around the anammox biomass. The Nitrogen removal efficiency reached 75% within 1 week at a nitrogen loading rate of 0.46 kg-N/m(3)/day for synthetic wastewater treatment. By the end of the synthetic wastewater treatment period, the maximum nitrogen removal rate had increased to 0.92 kg-N/m(3)/day at a nitrogen loading rate of 1.0 kg-N/m(3)/day. High nitrogen removal rate was also achieved during the actual raw digester liquor treatment with the highest nitrogen removal rate being 0.83 kg-N/m(3)/day at a nitrogen loading rate of 0.93 kg-N/m(3)/day. The thick biofilm on Biofix carriers allowed anammox bacteria to survive under high DO concentration of 5-6 mg/l resulting in stable and high nitrogen removal performance. FISH and CLSM analysis demonstrated that anammox bacteria coexisted and surrounded by ammonium oxidizing bacteria.

  9. Changes in alcohol consumption patterns following the introduction of credit cards in Ontario liquor stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, S A; Wells, S L; Giesbrecht, N; West, P M

    1999-05-01

    In 1994, regulatory changes were introduced in Ontario, Canada, permitting the purchase of alcoholic beverages with credit cards at government-operated liquor stores. Two objectives of this study were: (1) to compare the characteristics of credit card shoppers with non credit card shoppers at liquor stores, and (2) to assess whether changes occurred in alcohol consumption patterns among shoppers following the introduction of credit cards. Random digit dialing was used to interview 2,039 telephone participants prior to the introduction of credit cards (Time 1); 1,401 of these subjects were contacted 1 year later (Time 2). Independent sample t tests were used to compare credit card shoppers with shoppers not using credit cards, and paired t tests were performed to assess whether drinking behaviors changed from Time 1 to Time 2. The credit card shoppers were more likely than the non credit card shoppers to be highly educated (p Credit card shoppers drank an average of 6.3 drinks over the previous week compared with 4.0 drinks among non credit card shoppers (p credit card shoppers dropped from 6.7 drinks at Time 1 to 6.3 at Time 2 (NS), credit card shoppers reported drinking significantly more often after credit cards were introduced (p credit cards may not present public health problems since significant increases in alcohol consumption among credit card shoppers were not found.

  10. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 4 (Appendix IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 4 contains the following appendix sections: Radiative heat transfer properties for black liquor combustion -- Facilities and techniques and Spectral absorbance and emittance data; and Radiate heat transfer determination of the optical constants of ash samples from kraft recovery boilers -- Calculation procedure; Computation program; Density determination; Particle diameter determination; Optical constant data; and Uncertainty analysis.

  11. Production of red pigments by Monascus ruber in culture media containing corn steep liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Hamano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of red pigments by Monascus ruber was evaluated utilizing complex culture media composed of glucose or sucrose (10 g/L, corn steep liquor (5 or 10 g/L and monosodium glutamate (0, 5.0, 7.6, 11.4 or 15.2 g/L. Medium containing 10 g/L glucose, 5 g/L corn steep liquor and 7.6 g/L monosodium glutamate resulted the highest values of extracellular red pigment absorbance (20.7 U and productivity (0.35 U/h. This medium also produced better results than using semi-synthetic medium with analytical grade reagents (12.4 U and 0.21 U/h. The cell growth was similar in both media (X @ 6.5 g/L, indicating that the capacity of the cells to produce red pigments was higher in complex culture media. In addition, in the complex culture medium, less of the intracellular red pigments accumulated than in semi-synthetic medium (9.1% and 30%, respectively.

  12. MRI in the liquor hypotension syndrome: a case report and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Machado Junior, Marcos Alberto da; Barbosa, Veronica Aline Oliveira; Taglietti, Isabella; D'Almeida Filho, Fernando.

    1996-01-01

    The case of a man is presented, who suddenly suffered headaches, with no other neurological disorder or clinical symptom, that partially remitted only in horizontal decubitus. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigation showed isointense dural thickening or detachment of the convexity in T1, that was hyperintense in T2. After contrast medium i.v. injection, MRI images showed diffuse and marked dural enhancement of the convexity, along the tentorium, at the base, in the upper cervix. Liquor hypotension, accompanied by dural thickening and enhancement visible by MRI have been reported in the literature. In this case, no loss of cerebrospinal fluid was identified as a possible cause for its reduced pressure. Within the frame work of essential liquor hypotension, the authors underline the postural nature of headaches, and hypothesizes the dural alterations are the expression of traction inducing tears in the dural border cell layer with consequent blood extravasation. The correlation of the radiological aspects with these alterations and their changes are discussed. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs

  13. Hydrometallurgical recovery of metal values from sulfuric acid leaching liquor of spent lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangping; Chen, Yongbin; Zhou, Tao; Liu, Depei; Hu, Hang; Fan, Shaoyun

    2015-04-01

    Environmentally hazardous substances contained in spent Li-ion batteries, such as heavy metals and nocuous organics, will pose a threat to the environment and human health. On the other hand, the sustainable recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries may bring about environmental and economic benefits. In this study, a hydrometallurgical process was adopted for the comprehensive recovery of nickel, manganese, cobalt and lithium from sulfuric acid leaching liquor from waste cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries. First, nickel ions were selectively precipitated and recovered using dimethylglyoxime reagent. Recycled dimethylglyoxime could be re-used as precipitant for nickel and revealed similar precipitation performance compared with fresh dimethylglyoxime. Then the separation of manganese and cobalt was conducted by solvent extraction method using cobalt loaded D2EHPA. And McCabe-Thiele isotherm was employed for the prediction of the degree of separation and the number of extraction stages needed at specific experimental conditions. Finally, cobalt and lithium were sequentially precipitated and recovered as CoC2O4 ⋅ 2H2O and Li2CO3 using ammonium oxalate solution and saturated sodium carbonate solution, respectively. Recovery efficiencies could be attained as follows: 98.7% for Ni; 97.1% for Mn, 98.2% for Co and 81.0% for Li under optimized experimental conditions. This hydrometallurgical process may promise a candidate for the effective separation and recovery of metal values from the sulfuric acid leaching liquor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. System aspects of black liquor gasification - Consequences for both industry and society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    The pulp and paper industry consumes large quantities of biofuels (mainly bark and black liquor) to satisfy process requirements. Biomass is however a limited resource, and biofuel usage should therefore be as effective as possible. Modern pulp mills and integrated pulp and paper mills have excess fuel compared to the amounts needed to satisfy the process steam demand. The excess fuel is often used for cogeneration of electric power in CHP units. For integrated pulp and paper mills, this usually requires import of supplementary fuel to the plant. For market pulp mills, the excess internal biofuel quantities are sufficient to also allow electric power generation in condensing power plant units. If biofuel availability at a reasonable price is limited, import/export to, from a mill changes the amount of such biofuel available to alternative users. The goal of this thesis is to compare different mill powerhouse technologies and CHP plant configurations (including conventional recovery boiler technology and black liquor gasification technology) in order to identify the technology and CHP plant configuration that can produce the most electric power output from a given fuel resource for a given process steam demand. Different process steam demand levels for different representative mill types are considered. The comparison accounts for increased/decreased electricity production in an alternative energy system when biofuel is imported/exported to/from from the mill. The alternative energy system considered includes a district heating system with CHP capacity and natural gas fired combined cycle power plant capacity. The results show that black liquor gasification is in all cases considered an attractive powerhouse recovery cycle technology compared to conventional recovery boiler technology. If the marginal electric power generation efficiency for biofuel exported to the reference alternative energy system is 49%, excess mill internal biofuel should be used on mill

  15. A constructed alkaline consortium and its dynamics in treating alkaline black liquor with very high pollution load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu Yang

    Full Text Available Paper pulp wastewater resulting from alkaline extraction of wheat straw, known as black liquor, is very difficult to be treated and causes serious environmental problems due to its high pH value and chemical oxygen demand (COD pollution load. Lignin, semicellulose and cellulose are the main contributors to the high COD values in black liquor. Very few microorganisms can survive in such harsh environments of the alkaline wheat straw black liquor. A naturally developed microbial community was found accidentally in a black liquor storing pool in a paper pulp mill of China. The community was effective in pH decreasing, color and COD removing from the high alkaline and high COD black liquor.Thirty-eight strains of bacteria were isolated from the black liquor storing pool, and were grouped as eleven operational taxonomy units (OTUs using random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR profiles (RAPD. Eleven representative strains of each OTU, which were identified as genera of Halomonas and Bacillus, were used to construct a consortium to treat black liquor with a high pH value of 11.0 and very high COD pollution load of 142,600 mg l(-1. After treatment by the constructed consortium, about 35.4% of color and 39,000 mg l(-1 (27.3% COD(cr were removed and the pH decreased to 7.8. 16S rRNA gene polymerase chain reaction denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS analysis suggested a two-stage treatment mechanism to elucidate the interspecies collaboration: Halomonas isolates were important in the first stage to produce organic acids that contributed to the pH decline, while Bacillus isolates were involved in the degradation of lignin derivatives in the second stage under lower pH conditions.Tolerance to the high alkaline environment and good controllability of the simple consortium suggested that the constructed consortium has good potential for black liquor treatment. Facilitating the treatment process by the

  16. Complex microbiota of a Chinese "Fen" liquor fermentation starter (Fen-Daqu), revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.; Zheng, Y.; Han, B.; Zwietering, M.H.; Samson, R.A.; Boekhout, T.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Daqu is a traditional fermentation starter that is used for Chinese liquor production. Although partly mechanized, its manufacturing process has remained traditional. We investigated the microbial diversity of Fen-Daqu, a starter for light-flavour liquor, using combined culture-dependent and

  17. THE PROPERTIES OF CHARCOAL FROM THE BLACK LIQUOR OF THE SODA PULPING OF RICE STRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Jaya Wistara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present works was to determine chemical changes, thermal decomposition, and the content of moisture, ash, volatile, fixed carbon and calorific value of soda pulping black liquor of the rice straw. Neutralized black liquor was dried to a moisture content of 10% and then pyrolized at 106oC-750oC. It was found that calorific value, fixed carbon, volatile mater, and moisture content were in the range of 2782-4716 cal/g, 49.2-81.6%, 15.5-47.5%, and 0.2-3.5%, respectively. Ash content was not influenced by the temperature of pyrolysis and was thought to depend on its initial silicate content. The weight loss of pulp was higher than that of black liquor. Extreme weight loss has been found in the temperature of 200-400oC. Noticeable functional groups changes were found with the increasing temperature of pyrolysis. Hydroxyl group completely disappeared at 300oC and above. Carbonyl related groups were also disappeared at 300-500oC, but it was reformed at 650 and 750oC. It might be brought about by the deformation of chemical bonding of oxygen ring in lignin structures. SIFAT-SIFAT ARANG LINDI HITAM DARI PEMASAKAN JERAMI DENGAN LARUTAN SODA API. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan perubahan sifat kimia, dekomposisi termal dan kadar air, abu, zat terbang, karbon terikat serta nilai kalor arang lindi hitam pemasakan soda jerami padi. Dalam penelitian ini, lindi hitam netral dikeringkan (kadar air 10%, kemudian dipirolisis pada selang suhu 100-750oC di dalam reaktor berpengatur suhu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai kalor, karbon terikat, zat terbang dan kadar air masing-masing berselangdari 2782-4716 cal/g, 49,2-81,6%, 15,5-47,5%, dan 0,2-3,5%. Kadar abu tidak dipengaruhi oleh suhu pirolisis dan diduga bergantung pada kadar silika bahan bakunya. Nilai kalor meningkat dengan meningkatnya kadar karbon terikat. Perilaku kehilangan berat arang dari lindi hitam berbeda dengan perilaku kehilangan berat pulp jerami. Kehilangan

  18. Study on Effectiveness of Processed and Unprocessed Black Liquor pulps in improving the properties of PPC mortar, Concrete and SCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthkumar, M.; Sathyan, Dhanya; Prabha, B.

    2018-02-01

    The cost of construction materials is increasing day by day because of high demand, scarcity of raw materials and high price of energy. From the view point of energy saving and over consumption of resources, the use of alternative constituents in construction materials is now a global concern. From this, the extensive research and development works towards exploring new ingredients are required for producing sustainable and environment friendly construction materials. Bagasse pulp liquor is one such material that can be used as a chemical admixture which is obtained as a by-product of paper manufacturing process. Around 5 million tons of bagasse pulp is obtained throughout the world each year. since the material is a waste product from paper industry, this can be changed as a admixture by its effective use in concrete. In the present investigation black pulp liquor is added to fresh concrete in different dosages, the concrete is then tested for workability, compressive strength, flexural, split tensile strength and setting time. From results it is shown that 1% replacement of water with black pulp liquor increases the fresh properties of the concrete, 2% replacement of water with black pulp liquor increases the mechanical properties of the concrete and acts as a set retarder.

  19. Use of corn steep liquor as an economical nitrogen source for biosuccinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J. P.; Jahim, J. M.; Wu, T. Y.; Harun, S.; Mumtaz, T.

    2016-06-01

    Expensive raw materials are the driving force that leads to the shifting of the petroleum-based succinic acid production into bio-based succinic acid production by microorganisms. Cost of fermentation medium is among the main factors contributing to the total production cost of bio-succinic acid. After carbon source, nitrogen source is the second largest component of the fermentation medium, the cost of which has been overlooked for the past years. The current study aimed at replacing yeast extract- a costly nitrogen source with corn steep liquor for economical production of bio-succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z. In this study, a final succinic acid concentration of 20.6 g/L was obtained from the use of corn steep liquor as the nitrogen source, which was comparable with the use of yeast extract as the nitrogen source that had a final succinate concentration of 21.4 g/l. In terms of economical wise, corn steep liquor was priced at 200 /ton, which was one fifth of the cost of yeast extract at 1000 /ton. Therefore, corn steep liquor can be considered as a potential nitrogen source in biochemical industries instead of the costly yeast extract.

  20. 75 FR 39969 - Liquor Control Ordinance for the Manchester Band of Pomo Indians of the Manchester-Point Arena...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... controls the possession, sale and consumption of liquor within the Manchester-Point Arena Rancheria tribal... the Manchester-Point Arena Rancheria reads as follows: ORDINANCE GOVERNING THE SALE, CONSUMPTION, AND... Band of Pomo Indians of the Manchester-Point Arena Rancheria AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...

  1. Bleaching of kraft pulps produced from green liquor pre-hydrolyzed South African Eucalyptus grandis wood chips

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Andrew, JE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hemicellulose pre-extraction of South African Eucalyptus grandis wood chips using green liquor, on subsequent kraft pulping and bleaching processes was studied. This was done in the context of a biorefinery mill producing both ethanol...

  2. Surface layer properties of dough liquor components: Are they key parameters in gas retention in bread dough?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martín, C.; Hamer, R.J.; Jongh, H.H.J.de

    2006-01-01

    Gas cell stability during bread making is controlled by both surface and bulk properties. This paper is focused on studying the surface properties of the water-soluble phase of the dough, the dough liquor (with and without lipids), as well as the composition of the air/water interface. Using

  3. 78 FR 15970 - Cedarville Rancheria-Liquor Licensing Ordinance of the Cedarville Rancheria, Ordinance No. 2012-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... otherwise. The term shall also include the businesses of the Tribe. It shall be interchangeable in this.... The Executive Committee shall have the authority to issue the following types of liquor licenses... morals. The Executive Committee shall deny an application for issuance, renewal or transfer of a license...

  4. 78 FR 4431 - Santee Sioux Nation-Title XXI-Alcohol, Chapter 1.-Santee Sioux Nation Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... association, corporation, municipal corporation, estate, trust, business receiver, or any group or combination... States Active Duty Military card; or 3. Passport. E. Liquor which is possessed contrary to the terms of... may be brought to abate as a nuisance any real estate or other property involved in the violation of...

  5. Characterization of Chinese Liquor Starter, ''Daqu", by Flavor Type with H-1 NMR-Based Nontargeted Analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, X.H.; Zheng, X.; Han, B.Z.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2009-01-01

    "Daqu" is a fermentation starter and substrate complex that is used to initiate fermentations for the production of Chinese liquor (alcoholic spirit). Several different types of Daqu are customary used, having different flavours, i.e. light, strong, or sauce flavor. With the aim to develop objective

  6. Fermentation kinetics for xylitol production by a Pichia stipitis D-xylulokinase mutant previously grown in spent sulfite liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita C.L.B. Rodrigues; Chenfeng Lu; Bernice Liu; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2008-01-01

    Spent sulfite pulping liquor (SSL) contains lignin, which is present as lignosulfonate, and hemicelluloses that are present as hydrolyzed carbohydrates. To reduce the biological oxygen demand of SSL associated with dissolved sugars, we studied the capacity of Pichia stipitis FPL-YS30 (xyl3[delta]) to convert these sugars into useful products. FPL-YS30 produces a...

  7. Surface Layer Properties of Dough Liquor Components: Are They Key Parameters in Gas Retention in Bread Dough?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo Martin, C.; Hamer, R.J.; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Gas cell stability during bread making is controlled by both surface and bulk properties. This paper is focused on studying the surface properties of the water-soluble phase of the dough, the dough liquor (with and without lipids), as well as the composition of the air/water interface. Using

  8. Cost estimate for the production of ethanol from spent sulphite liquors and wood residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Q.

    1990-03-01

    A Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet model for estimating the production cost of 95 wt % ethanol from spent sulfite liquors (SSL) and from a wood hydrolysis front-end is described. The most economically attractive process is the fermentation of softwood SSL (SSSL) by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yielding a production cost estimate of $0.47/liter. The cost of producing ethanol from cellulosic waste (clarifier sludge) via acid hydrolysis is approximately $0.55/liter, still below the market price of ca $0.60/liter for industrial ethanol. Neither the fermentation of hardwood SSL nor the conversion of sawdust to ethanol, using current technology, are economically viable. However, these processes can become commercially viable if acetic acid-tolerant xylose-fermenting yeasts can be found. 17 refs., 12 figs., 16 tabs

  9. Ni-Cu-Zn Ferrite Powder Prepared from Steel Pickled Liquor and Electroplating Waste Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chung-Wen; Fu, Yen-Pei; Lin, Cheng-Hsiung

    2007-03-01

    In this study, we propose a new method of synthesizing Ni-Cu-Zn ferrite powder using steel pickled liquor and electroplating waste solutions as starting materials. It was found that the Ni-Cu-Zn ferrite powder prepared by a hydrothermal process from the waste solutions shows the formation of cubic ferrite with a saturation magnetization (Ms) of 31.5 emu/g and an intrinsic coercive force (Hci) of 19.3 Oe. Upon annealing at 750 °C for 2 h, the saturation magnetization increases to 52.6 emu/g and the intrinsic coercive force reaches 42.8 Oe. This useful method can promote the recycling of industrial waste solution and contribute to the preservation of the earth. Moreover, this method decreases the manufacturing cost in the treatment of the industrial waste solution for electroplating and steel industries.

  10. Improvement of cocoa-pod husk using sheep rumen liquor for tilapia diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Jusadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of sheep rumen liquor enzyme addition on the reduction of cocoa-pod husk meal (CPHM fiber content, and the digestibility of hydrolyzed CPHM for tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. In the first trial, sheep rumen liquor enzyme was added with various concentration, i.e. 0, 50, 100 and 150 mL/kg CPHM with three different incubation periods, namely 0, 12, and 24 hours. In the second trial, digestibility was determined by the addition of Cr2O3 as the indicator in both reference and experimental diets, i.e. feed with hydrolyzed CPHM and unhydrolyzed CPHM. Tilapia with an average body weight of 3.86±0.44 g were stocked at a density of 15 fish/aquarium and were maintained for 15 days. In the first trial, CPHM hydrolyzed with 150 mL/kg and incubated for 12 and 24 hour showed the lowest crude fiber content (21.38% and 21.67%. Apparent digestibility coefficient of hydrolyzed CPHM was 33.95%, which was higher than unhydrolyzed CPHM (10.97%. As conclusions sheep rumen liquor enzyme addition was effective to decrease crude fiber content of CPHM and improve the apparent digestibility coefficient of CPHM for tilapia diet. Keywords: sheep rumen liquor enzyme, cocoa-pod husk meal, digestibility, tilapia  ABSTRAK Dua tahap penelitian dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi penambahan enzim cairan rumen domba dalam menurunkan kandungan serat kasar kulit buah kakao (KBK dan mengevaluasi ketercernaan KBK yang telah dihidrolisis dengan enzim cairan rumen domba dalam pakan ikan nila Oreochromis niloticus. Pada penelitian tahap satu, enzim cairan rumen domba ditambahkan dengan konsentrasi yang berbeda yaitu 0, 50, 100, dan 150 mL/kg KBK dengan lama inkubasi yang berbeda yaitu 0, 12, dan 24 jam. Pada penelitian tahap dua, nilai ketercernaan ditentukan dengan menggunakan indikator Cr2O3 yang ditambahkan ke dalam pakan acuan dan pakan perlakuan, yaitu pakan dengan penambahan KBK yang telah dihidrolisis dengan dosis

  11. Uranium concentrate obtained from sulfuric liquor by solvent extraction using ammonium sulfate as extractant agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Carlos Antonio de; Gomiero, Luiz Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Results of uranium concentrate obtainment from sulfuric liquor by solvent extraction followed by chemical precipitation techniques are presented. In the extraction process a tertiary amine as extractant agent and ammonium sulfate solution as stripping agent were used. Uranium was precipitated from the pregnant strip solution as ammonium diuranate by addition of ammonium hydroxide solution. Equilibrium pH and chloride content in the loaded solvent were the main interference on the uranium stripping stage. From a chloride-free uranium loaded organic phase a pregnant strip solution containing 33.2 g/L U 3 O 8 and a stripped solvent with 0.006 g/L U 3 O 8 using 5 stages of mixer-settlers were obtained. The chemical precipitation stage yielded a high purity ammonium diuranate precipitate with a recovery of 99.98%. After calcination, the product presented 99.7 % U 3 O 8 content. (author)

  12. Cracking and Corrosion of Composite Tubes in Black Liquor Recovery Boiler Primary Air Ports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, James R.; Singbeil, Douglas L.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Kish, Joseph R.; Yuan, Jerry; Frederick, Laurie A.; Choudhury, Kimberly A.; Gorog, J. Peter; Jetté, Francois R.; Hubbard, Camden R.; Swindeman, Robert W.; Singh, Prett M.; Maziasz, Phillip J.

    2006-10-01

    Black liquor recovery boilers are an essential part of kraft mills. Their design and operating procedures have changed over time with the goal of providing improved boiler performance. These performance improvements are frequently associated with an increase in heat flux and/or operating temperature with a subsequent increase in the demand on structural materials associated with operation at higher temperatures and/or in more corrosive environments. Improvements in structural materials have therefore been required. In most cases the alternate materials have provided acceptable solutions. However, in some cases the alternate materials have solved the original problem but introduced new issues. This report addresses the performance of materials in the tubes forming primary air port openings and, particularly, the problems associated with use of stainless steel clad carbon steel tubes and the solutions that have been identified.

  13. Enzymatic polymerisation and effect of fractionation of dissolved lignin from Eucalyptus globulus Kraft liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, S; Fernández-Costas, C; Sanromán, M A; Moldes, D

    2012-10-01

    The potential ability of the laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila, either alone or with low molecular weight (LMW) additives, to polymerise a dissolved lignin from Kraft liquor of eucalypt cooking was investigated. A previous study of enzymatic performance (activity and stability) was carried out using a design experiment methodology. In addition, Kraft dissolved lignin (KDL) was fractionated according to two different protocols (solvent extraction and acidic fractionation) in order to identify possible lignin fractions with noticeable polymerisation ability. KDL and its corresponding lignin fractions were treated with laccase and analysed by size exclusion chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results provide conclusive evidence of notable lignin modifications after incubation with laccase. Moreover, lignin fractionation allows to obtain lignin fractions with different chemical characteristics and polymerisation capability. Depending on the type of raw lignin, molecular weight can increase from 4- to 21-fold by means of laccase polymerisation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhanced laccase production by Trametes versicolor using corn steep liquor as both nitrogen source and inducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Hu, Jian-Hua; Guo, Chen; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2014-08-01

    A highly efficient strategy for laccase production by Trametes versicolor was developed using corn steep liquor (CSL) as both a nitrogen source and a laccase inducer. At the optimal CSL concentration of 20 gL(-1), an extracellular laccase activity of 633.3 UL(-1) was produced after a culture period of only 5 days. This represented a 1.96-fold increase relative to control medium lacking CSL. The addition of crude phenolic extracts from CSL improved laccase production to 91.8% greater than the control. Sinapinic acid, present in CSL, caused a reduction in laccase production, vanillic acid and ferulic acid (also present in CSL) synergistically induced laccase production by more than 100% greater than the control medium. Vanillic acid and ferulic acid provided the main contribution to the enhancement of laccase production. This study provides a basis for understanding the induction mechanism of CSL for laccase production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ambient temperature SNAD process treating anaerobic digester liquor of swine wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daverey, Achlesh; Hung, Nien-Tzu; Dutta, Kasturi; Lin, Jih-Gaw

    2013-08-01

    In present study, effluent from anaerobic digestion of swine wastewater was treated by the simultaneous partial nitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation and denitrification (SNAD) process using a lab scale 5L sequencing batch reactor (SBR) under ambient temperature. The fluctuation of anaerobic digester liquor quality (COD, 387 ± 145 mg/L; TKN, 662 ± 190 mg/L; NH₄(+)-N, 519 ± 134 mg/L) and temperature created difficulties to develop a stable SNAD process in the SBR (days 1-285). Fed batch feeding strategy was adopted to have a stable condition in the reactor and overcome the negative effects of organic nitrogen. The average total nitrogen, NH₄(+)-N and COD removal efficiencies in the SBR under steady state conditions (days 485-523) were 80%, 96% and 76%, respectively. The results showed that presence of organic nitrogen, mode of feeding and reactor temperature affects the SNAD process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Identification of common medicinal snakes in medicated liquor of Guangdong by COI barcode sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jing; Chao, Zhi; Zhang, Liang

    2013-11-01

    To identify the common snakes in medicated liquor of Guangdong using COI barcode sequence,and to test the feasibility. The COI barcode sequences of collected medicinal snakes were amplified and sequenced. The sequences combined with the data from GenBank were analyzed for divergence and building a neighbor-joining(NJ) tree with MEGA 5.0. The genetic distance and NJ tree demonstrated that there were 241 variable sites in these species, and the average (A + T) content of 56.2% was higher than the average (G + C) content of 43.7%. The maximum interspecific genetic distance was 0.2568, and the minimum was 0. 1519. In the NJ tree,each species formed a monophyletic clade with bootstrap supports of 100%. DNA barcoding identification method based on the COI sequence is accurate and can be applied to identify the common medicinal snakes.

  17. Gradual enhancement of ethyl acetate production through promoter engineering in chinese liquor yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jian; Hong, Kun-Qiang; Hao, Ai-Li; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Fu, Xiao-Meng; Wang, Peng-Fei; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2018-01-05

    As content and proportion of ethyl acetate is critical to the flavor and quality of beverages, the concise regulation of the ethyl acetate metabolism is a major issue in beverage fermentations. In this study, for ethyl acetate yield regulation, we finely modulated the expression of ATF1 through precise and seamless insertion of serially truncated PGK1 promoter from the 3' end by 100bp steps in the Chinese liquor yeast, CLy12a. The three engineered promoters carrying 100-, 200-, and 300-bp truncations exhibited reduced promoter strength but unaffected growth. These three promoters were integrated into the CLy12a strain, generating strains CLy12a-P-100, CLy12a-P-200, and CLy12a-P-300, respectively. The transcription levels of CLy12a-P-100, CLy12a-P-200, and CLy12a-P-300 were 20%, 17%, and 10% of that of CLy12a-P, respectively. The AATase (alcohol acetyl transferases, encoded by the ATF1 gene) activity of three engineered strains were 36%, 56%, and 62% of that of CLy12a-P. In the liquid fermentation of corn hydrolysate at 30°C, the concentration of ethyl acetate in CLy12a-P-100, CLy12a-P-200, and CLy12a-P-300 were reduced by 28%, 30%, and 42%, respectively, compared to CLy12a-P. These results verifying that the ethyl acetate yield could be gradually enhanced by finely modulating the expression of ATF1. The engineered strain CLy12a-P-200 produced the ethyl acetate concentration with the best sensorial quality compared to the other engineered yeast strains. The method proposed in this work supplies a practical proposal for breeding Chinese liquor yeast strains with finely modulated ethyl acetate yield. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2018. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  18. HIGHLY ENERGY EFFICIENT D-GLU (DIRECTED-GREEN LIQ-UOR UTILIZATION) PULPING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucia, Lucian A

    2013-04-19

    Purpose: The purpose of the project was to retrofit the front end (pulp house) of a commercial kraft pulping mill to accommodate a mill green liquor (GL) impregna-tion/soak/exposure and accrue downstream physical and chemical benefits while prin-cipally reducing the energy footprint of the mill. A major player in the mill contrib-uting to excessive energy costs is the lime kiln. The project was intended to offload the energy (oil or natural gas) demands of the kiln by by-passing the causticization/slaking site in the recovery area and directly using green liquor as a pulping medium for wood. Scope: The project was run in two distinct, yet mutually compatible, phases: Phase 1 was the pre-commercial or laboratory phase in which NC State University and the Insti-tute of Paper Science and Technology (at the Georgia Institute of Technology) ran the pulping and associated experiments, while Phase 2 was the mill scale trial. The first tri-al was run at the now defunct Evergreen Pulp Mill in Samoa, CA and lead to a partial retrofit of the mill that was not completed because it went bankrupt and the work was no longer the low-hanging fruit on the tree for the new management. The second trial was run at the MeadWestvaco Pulp Mill in Evedale, TX which for all intents and pur-poses was a success. They were able to fully retrofit the mill, ran the trial, studied the pulp properties, and gave us conclusions.

  19. Hydrometallurgical recovery of metal values from sulfuric acid leaching liquor of spent lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiangping; Chen, Yongbin; Zhou, Tao; Liu, Depei; Hu, Hang; Fan, Shaoyun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Selective precipitation and solvent extraction were adopted. • Nickel, cobalt and lithium were selectively precipitated. • Co-D2EHPA was employed as high-efficiency extraction reagent for manganese. • High recovery percentages could be achieved for all metal values. - Abstract: Environmentally hazardous substances contained in spent Li-ion batteries, such as heavy metals and nocuous organics, will pose a threat to the environment and human health. On the other hand, the sustainable recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries may bring about environmental and economic benefits. In this study, a hydrometallurgical process was adopted for the comprehensive recovery of nickel, manganese, cobalt and lithium from sulfuric acid leaching liquor from waste cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries. First, nickel ions were selectively precipitated and recovered using dimethylglyoxime reagent. Recycled dimethylglyoxime could be re-used as precipitant for nickel and revealed similar precipitation performance compared with fresh dimethylglyoxime. Then the separation of manganese and cobalt was conducted by solvent extraction method using cobalt loaded D2EHPA. And McCabe–Thiele isotherm was employed for the prediction of the degree of separation and the number of extraction stages needed at specific experimental conditions. Finally, cobalt and lithium were sequentially precipitated and recovered as CoC 2 O 4 ⋅2H 2 O and Li 2 CO 3 using ammonium oxalate solution and saturated sodium carbonate solution, respectively. Recovery efficiencies could be attained as follows: 98.7% for Ni; 97.1% for Mn, 98.2% for Co and 81.0% for Li under optimized experimental conditions. This hydrometallurgical process may promise a candidate for the effective separation and recovery of metal values from the sulfuric acid leaching liquor

  20. Hydrometallurgical recovery of metal values from sulfuric acid leaching liquor of spent lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiangping; Chen, Yongbin; Zhou, Tao, E-mail: zhoutao@csu.edu.cn; Liu, Depei; Hu, Hang; Fan, Shaoyun

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Selective precipitation and solvent extraction were adopted. • Nickel, cobalt and lithium were selectively precipitated. • Co-D2EHPA was employed as high-efficiency extraction reagent for manganese. • High recovery percentages could be achieved for all metal values. - Abstract: Environmentally hazardous substances contained in spent Li-ion batteries, such as heavy metals and nocuous organics, will pose a threat to the environment and human health. On the other hand, the sustainable recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries may bring about environmental and economic benefits. In this study, a hydrometallurgical process was adopted for the comprehensive recovery of nickel, manganese, cobalt and lithium from sulfuric acid leaching liquor from waste cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries. First, nickel ions were selectively precipitated and recovered using dimethylglyoxime reagent. Recycled dimethylglyoxime could be re-used as precipitant for nickel and revealed similar precipitation performance compared with fresh dimethylglyoxime. Then the separation of manganese and cobalt was conducted by solvent extraction method using cobalt loaded D2EHPA. And McCabe–Thiele isotherm was employed for the prediction of the degree of separation and the number of extraction stages needed at specific experimental conditions. Finally, cobalt and lithium were sequentially precipitated and recovered as CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4}⋅2H{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} using ammonium oxalate solution and saturated sodium carbonate solution, respectively. Recovery efficiencies could be attained as follows: 98.7% for Ni; 97.1% for Mn, 98.2% for Co and 81.0% for Li under optimized experimental conditions. This hydrometallurgical process may promise a candidate for the effective separation and recovery of metal values from the sulfuric acid leaching liquor.

  1. Comparison between mixed liquors of two side-stream membrane bioreactors treating wastewaters from waste management plants with high and low solids anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuriaga-Agustí, E; Mendoza-Roca, J A; Bes-Piá, A; Alonso-Molina, J L; Fernández-Giménez, E; Álvarez-Requena, C; Muñagorri-Mañueco, F; Ortiz-Villalobos, G

    2016-09-01

    In the last years, biological treatment plants for the previously separated organic fraction from municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) have gained importance. In these processes a liquid effluent (liquid fraction from the digestate and leachate from composting piles), which has to be treated previously to its discharge, is produced. In this paper, the characteristics of the mixed liquor from two full-scale membrane bioreactors treating the effluents of two OFMSW treatment plants have been evaluated in view to study their influence on membrane fouling in terms of filterability. For that, the mixed liquor samples have been ultrafiltrated in an UF laboratory plant. Besides, the effect of the influent characteristics to MBRs and the values of the chemical and physical parameters of the mixed liquors on the filterability have been studied. Results showed that the filterability of the mixed liquor was strongly influenced by the soluble microbial products in the mixed liquors and the influent characteristics to MBR. Permeate flux of MBR mixed liquor treating the most polluted wastewater was considerable the lowest (around 20 L/m(2) h for some samples), what was explained by viscosity and soluble microbial products concentration higher than those measured in other MBR mixed liquor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Direct Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification in a Circulating Fluidized Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Sinquefield; Xiaoyan Zeng, Alan Ball

    2010-03-02

    Gasification of black liquor (BLG) has distinct advantages over direct combustion in Tomlinson recovery boilers. In this project we seek to resolve causticizing issues in order to make pressurized BLG even more efficient and cost-effective. One advantage of BLG is that the inherent partial separation of sulfur and sodium during gasification lends itself to the use of proven high yield variants to conventional kraft pulping which require just such a separation. Processes such as polysulfide, split sulfidity, ASAQ, and MSSAQ can increase pulp yield from 1% to 10% over conventional kraft but require varying degrees of sulfur/sodium separation, which requires additional [and costly] processing in a conventional Tomlinson recovery process. However during gasification, the sulfur is partitioned between the gas and smelt phases, while the sodium all leaves in the smelt; thus creating the opportunity to produce sulfur-rich and sulfur-lean white liquors for specialty pulping processes. A second major incentive of BLG is the production of a combustible product gas, rich in H2 and CO. This product gas (a.k.a. “syngas”) can be used in gas turbines for combined cycle power generation (which is twice as efficient as the steam cycle alone), or it can be used as a precursor to form liquid fuels, such as dimethyl ether or Fischer Tropsh diesel. There is drawback to BLG, which has the potential to become a third major incentive if this work is successful. The causticizing load is greater for gasification of black liquor than for combustion in a Tomlinson boiler. So implementing BLG in an existing mill would require costly increases to the causticizing capacity. In situ causticizing [within the gasifier] would handle the entire causticizing load and therefore eliminate the lime cycle entirely. Previous work by the author and others has shown that titanate direct causticizing (i.e. in situ) works quite well for high-temperature BLG (950°C), but was limited to pressures below

  3. Lichenysin, a cyclooctapeptide occurring in Chinese liquor jiannanchun reduced the headspace concentration of phenolic off-flavors via hydrogen-bond interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Wu, Qun; Xu, Yan

    2014-08-20

    Nonvolatile compounds play important roles in the quality of alcoholic beverages. In our previous work, a type of cyclooctapeptide lichenysin was newly identified in Chinese strong-aroma type liquor. In this work, it was found that lichenysin could selectively affect aroma volatility in strong-aroma type (Jiannanchun) liquor. Interaction of lichenysin and volatile phenolic compounds (off-odors in strong-aroma type liquor) was characterized using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). HS-SPME results indicated that lichenysin very efficiently suppressed the volatility of phenolic compounds by 36-48% (P flavor and nonvolatile matrix components in Chinese liquors.

  4. Selective arsenic purification during the oxidizing digestion by a carbonated liquor of a uraniferous ore containing some

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurel, Pierre.

    1983-01-01

    An uranium bearing ore containing arsenical substances as impurities is digested in the presence of an oxidant by an aqueous liquor composed of a recycling solution containing alkaline carbonates and bicarbonates, as well as the uranium approaching its solubility limit, in conditions of concentration, temperature and pressure bringing about the solubilization of the uranium present in the ore and its precipitation in the digesting medium. A solid phase suspension is collected from a liquid phase which, after cooling, undergoes separation. During digestion the liquid phase is recycled and the separated solid phase is treated with an aqueous liquor to redissolve the precipitated uranium. The arsenic solubilized during the digestion is extracted by means of a magnesium compound, introduced in a quantity not less than the stoichiometric amount needed to bring about the precipitation of the magnesium arsenate [fr

  5. Catalytic pyrolysis of black-liquor lignin by co-feeding with different plastics in a fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiyan; Xiao, Rui; Nie, Jianlong; Jin, Baosheng; Shao, Shanshan; Xiao, Guomin

    2015-09-01

    Catalytic co-pyrolysis of black-liquor lignin and waste plastics (polyethylene, PE; polypropylene PP; polystyrene, PS) was conducted in a fluidized bed. The effects of temperature, plastic to lignin ratio, catalyst and plastic types on product distributions were studied. Both aromatic and olefin yields increased with increasing PE proportion. Petrochemical yield of co-pyrolysis of PE and lignin was LOSA-1 > spent FCC > Gamma-Al2O3 > sand. The petrochemical yield with LOSA-1 is 43.9% which is more than two times of that without catalyst. The feedstock for co-pyrolysis with lignin is polystyrene > polyethylene > polypropylene. Catalytic co-pyrolysis of black-liquor lignin with PS produced the maximum aromatic yield (55.3%), while co-pyrolysis with PE produced the maximum olefin yield (13%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Zygosaccharomyces bailii Is a Potential Producer of Various Flavor Compounds in Chinese Maotai-Flavor Liquor Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Xu; Yan Zhi; Qun Wu; Rubing Du; Yan Xu

    2017-01-01

    Zygosaccharomyces bailii is a common yeast in various food fermentations. Understanding the metabolic properties and genetic mechanisms of Z. bailii is important for its industrial applications. Fermentation characteristics of Z. bailii MT15 from Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor fermentation were studied. Z. bailii MT15 produced various flavor compounds, including 19 alcohols, six acids, three esters, three ketones, and two aldehydes. Moreover, production of acids and aldehydes were increased by ...

  7. Investigation of molybdenum content reduction in uranium Leach Liquor by using activated Charcoal in Bandar Abbas plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghadiri, A.; Daneshvar, Gh.; Nozari, N.; Moghtaderi, Sh.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the possibilities of molybdenum content reduction in uranium leach liquor was investigated by adsorption techniques. Several activated charcoals were used as adsorbents. Under the optimized condition, 83.59% of molybdenum was adsorbed with N orit PK 0.25-1 a ctivated charcoal. Since the low uranium adsorption is the aim of this work, by performing the optimization conditions, the uranium adsorption with activated charcoal was determined to be 2.74%.

  8. Long-range correlation and market segmentation in bond market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongxing; Yan, Yan; Chen, Xiaosong

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates the long-range auto-correlations and cross-correlations in bond market. Based on Detrended Moving Average (DMA) method, empirical results present a clear evidence of long-range persistence that exists in one year scale. The degree of long-range correlation related to maturities has an upward tendency with a peak in short term. These findings confirm the expectations of fractal market hypothesis (FMH). Furthermore, we have developed a method based on a complex network to study the long-range cross-correlation structure and applied it to our data, and found a clear pattern of market segmentation in the long run. We also detected the nature of long-range correlation in the sub-period 2007-2012 and 2011-2016. The result from our research shows that long-range auto-correlations are decreasing in the recent years while long-range cross-correlations are strengthening.

  9. INVESTMENTS IN BONDS ON ROMANIA’S CAPITAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIE RĂSCOLEAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Capital market, both the primary and secondary record financial transactions not only through property titles, but also issues debt securities, designed to attract monetary funds in the form of loans or medium term. Bonds are securities, consisting of a long-term debt on a company giving the holder of Bonds (Bondholders claim equal rights, corresponding nominal value of the bond. Bonds can be bought either in the public offering period, from banks or corporations Brokerage Financial Services Distributors, or from the stock through a brokerage firm by a procedure similar to that for action. Investing in bonds also entails risks, among which include the risk of default, interest rate risks and currency risks.

  10. Improving flavor metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by mixed culture with Bacillus licheniformis for Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xing; Wu, Qun; Wang, Li; Wang, Diqiang; Chen, Liangqiang; Xu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Microbial interactions could impact the metabolic behavior of microbes involved in food fermentation, and therefore they are important for improving food quality. This study investigated the effect of Bacillus licheniformis, the dominant bacteria in the fermentation process of Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor, on the metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results indicated that S. cerevisiae inhibited the growth of B. licheniformis in all mixed culture systems and final viable cell count was lower than 20 cfu/mL. Although growth of S. cerevisiae was barely influenced by B. licheniformis, its metabolism was changed as initial inoculation ratio varied. The maximum ethanol productions were observed in S. cerevisiae and B. licheniformis at 10(6):10(7) and 10(6):10(8) ratios and have increased by 16.8 % compared with single culture of S. cerevisiae. According to flavor compounds, the culture ratio 10(6):10(6) showed the highest level of total concentrations of all different kinds of flavor compounds. Correlation analyses showed that 12 flavor compounds, including 4 fatty acids and their 2 corresponding esters, 1 terpene, and 5 aromatic compounds, that could only be produced by S. cerevisiae were significantly correlated with the initial inoculation amount of B. licheniformis. These metabolic changes in S. cerevisiae were not only a benefit for liquor aroma, but may also be related to its inhibition effect in mixed culture. This study could help to reveal the microbial interactions in Chinese liquor fermentation and provide guidance for optimal arrangement of mixed culture fermentation systems.

  11. Correlation among physical and electrochemical behaviour of nanostructured electrolytic manganese dioxide from leach liquor and synthetic for aqueous asymmetric capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakshi Sundaram, Manickam; Biswal, Avijit; Mitchell, David; Jones, Rob; Fernandez, Carlos

    2016-02-14

    An attempt has been made to correlate the differences in structural parameters, surface areas, morphology etc. with the electrochemical capacitive behaviour of the EMDs. The nanostructured electrolytic manganese dioxides (EMD) have been synthesized through electrodepositing MnO2 from two different leach liquors and a synthetic analogue thereof. The structural and chemical state was determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) respectively. Multiplet structure determination led to estimates of the manganese valence states present in the EMD. The EMDs have been tested in an asymmetric capacitor which we have developed. This used activated carbon as the negative electrode and the various EMDs as the positive electrode. Aqueous 2 M NaOH solution was used as the electrolyte. The capacitor achieved 1.6 V corresponding to a capacitance of ∼50 F g(-1) of the EMDs from leach liquors. The EMD derived from the synthetic solution showed an inferior capacitance of 25 F g(-1). Extended cycling (2000 cycles), showed 100% capacity retention was achieved for one EMD produced from the leach liquor derived from low-grade manganese ore/residue. This outstanding capacitor performance was correlated with the presence of a nanofibrous morphology. These findings open up the possibility of extracting a high performance EMD product from a low cost, low-grade source of manganese.

  12. The effects of aluminum content, temperature and impurities on the electrical conductivity of synthetic bayer liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, G. R.; Finn, C. W. P.

    1981-09-01

    The electrical conductivity of pure sodium aluminate solutions with compositions in the range 93 to 128 gl-1 free soda and O to 125 gl-1’ alumina was investigated over the temperature range 40 to 70 °C. Under these conditions, the solution electrical conductivity was found to vary as a linear function of temperature. For a given free soda content, the temperature coefficient of conductivity varied as an approximate guadratic function of the alumina content. A single equation was developed relating solution conductivity to free soda content in the range 105 to 128 gl-1 alumina, 40 to 100 gl-1 over the temperature range 40 to 70 °C. The addition of sodium oxalate and sodium succinate at levels up to 20 gl-1 was found to have no measurable effect on solution conductivity. However, the addition of sodium carbonate at levels of 40 gl-1 had a significant effect, generally decreasing the conductivity. The magnitude of the effect is a complex function of solution composition and temperature. The technique was used to follow the precipitation of alumina from synthetic Bayer liquor continuously for 4 h. Possible applications to industrial practice, of the relationship determined, are briefly discussed.

  13. Genoprotective effects of lignin isolated from oil palm black liquor waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Prashantha; Rozman, Hj Din; Bhat, Rajeev

    2013-07-01

    Black liquor waste (BLW), a major by-product of palm oil extraction process contains lignin as one of the constituents. Lignin isolated from BLW was evaluated for antioxidant and genoprotective properties and was compared with the commercial lignin for overall efficacy. Antioxidant compounds (phenolics and tannins) and antioxidant activities (phosphomolybdenum assay, ABTS(+) and FRAP assays) of lignin isolated from BLW were compared with commercial lignin. Bone marrow micronucleus (MN) test was employed for evaluating the dose-yield protective effect against cyclophosphamide (CP, 50mg/kg b.w.) induced genotoxicity in mouse. Results revealed isolated lignin to exhibit rich antioxidant activities. A decrease in MN frequency and recovery of P/N ratio (P: polychromatic erythrocytes, N: normochromatic erhythocytes) indicated protective effects of lignin against cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity and cytotoxicity. The efficacy of BLW-derived lignin as an antioxidant and genoprotective agent was comparable to commercial lignin. Results on lignin isolated from BLW are envisaged to find potential applications in food and/or pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Taiwan Tobacco and Liquor Corporation: To 'join the ranks of global companies'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Fang, Jennifer; Lee, Kelley

    2017-03-01

    Until the late 1990s, the Taiwan Tobacco and Liquor Corporation (TTL) focused almost exclusively on serving the domestic market as a highly protected monopoly. This paper describes how the company has adopted a more outward looking strategy since 2000, with ambitions to become a regional, and eventually global, business by 2021. Drawing on company documents and industry sources, the paper argues that this shift in strategy was a direct reaction to the decline in domestic market share following liberalisation of the Taiwanese tobacco market and adoption of tougher domestic tobacco control measures. Market opening occurred as a result of pressure from the U.S. Trade Representative in the 1980s, as well as World Trade Organization membership in 2002. It is argued that TTL's efforts to globalise operations have been limited by bureaucratic company management and structures, and ongoing political tension between Taiwan and China. However, the relative success of TTL's alcohol branch, and potential détente as the Taiwanese government reaches out to improve relations with China, may provide TTL with new opportunities to achieve its goal of becoming a regional player with global ambitions. This article is part of the special issue 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance.'

  15. Optimization of liquid-liquid extraction of biosurfactants from corn steep liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecino, X; Barbosa-Pereira, L; Devesa-Rey, R; Cruz, J M; Moldes, A B

    2015-09-01

    In this work, the optimization of the operational conditions for the chloroform-based extraction of surface-active compounds from corn steep liquor (CSL) was carried out and the nutritional properties of the remnant aqueous phase (CSL-less biosurfactant) was evaluated as microbial fermentation medium. The optimal conditions to obtain biosurfactants from CSL were as follows: chloroform/CSL ratio 2 (v/v), 56 °C at extraction times >30 min. At the optima conditions, 100 % of biosurfactant extract can be obtained from CSL, obtaining 12.0 ± 0.5 g of biosurfactant extract/Kg of CSL. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the biosurfactant extract was 399.4 mg L(-1). This value is similar to the CMC of cetrimonium bromide (CTAB), a cationic surfactant used in the formulation of nanoparticles. The extraction of biosurfactant can be also carried out at room temperature although in this case, the extraction yield decreased about 15 %. The extraction of surface-active compounds from agroindustrial streams can suppose important advances for the bio-based surfactants industry. Biosurfactants obtained in this work are not only more eco-friendly than chemical detergents but also can be cost competitive with its chemical counterparts. Furthermore, after the extraction of surface-active compounds, CSL-less biosurfactant was found to be suitable as nutritional supplement for lactic acid bacteria, maintaining its nutritional properties in comparison with regular CSL.

  16. The Taiwan Tobacco and Liquor Corporation: To ‘join the ranks of global companies’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Fang, Jennifer; Lee, Kelley

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Until the late 1990s, the Taiwan Tobacco and Liquor Corporation (TTL) focused almost exclusively on serving the domestic market as a highly protected monopoly. This paper describes how the company has adopted a more outward looking strategy since 2000, with ambitions to become a regional, and eventually global, business by 2021. Drawing on company documents and industry sources, the paper argues that this shift in strategy was a direct reaction to the decline in domestic market share following liberalisation of the Taiwanese tobacco market and adoption of tougher domestic tobacco control measures. Market opening occurred as a result of pressure from the U.S. Trade Representative in the 1980s, as well as World Trade Organization membership in 2002. It is argued that TTL’s efforts to globalise operations have been limited by bureaucratic company management and structures, and ongoing political tension between Taiwan and China. However, the relative success of TTL’s alcohol branch, and potential détente as the Taiwanese government reaches out to improve relations with China, may provide TTL with new opportunities to achieve its goal of becoming a regional player with global ambitions. This article is part of the special issue ‘The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance.’ PMID:28139964

  17. Influence of membrane fouling reducers (MFRs) on filterability of disperse mixed liquor of jet loop bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseoglu-Imer, Derya Yuksel; Dizge, Nadir; Karagunduz, Ahmet; Keskinler, Bulent

    2011-07-01

    The effects of membrane fouling reducers (MFRs) (the cationic polyelectrolyte (CPE) and FeCI(3)) on membrane fouling were studied in a lab-scale jet loop submerged membrane bioreactor (JL-SMBR) system. The optimum dosages of MFRs (CPE dosage=20 mg g(-1)MLSS, FeCI(3) dosage=14 mg g(-1)MLSS) were continuously fed to JL-SMBR system. The soluble and bound EPS concentrations as well as MLSS concentration in the mixed liquor of JL-SMBR were not changed substantially by the addition of MFRs. However, significant differences were observed in particle size and relative hydrophobicity. Filtration tests were performed by using different membrane types (polycarbonate (PC) and nitrocellulose mixed ester (ME)) and various pore sizes (0.45-0.22-0.1 μm). The steady state fluxes (J(ss)) of membranes increased at all membranes after MFRs addition to JL-SMBR. The filtration results showed that MFRs addition was an effective approach in terms of improvement in filtration performance for both membrane types. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fractionation and characterization of saccharides and lignin components in wood prehydrolysis liquor from dissolving pulp production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaojiang; Wang, Xiaojun; Jiang, Jungang; Fu, Yingjuan; Qin, Menghua

    2015-08-01

    Saccharides and lignin components in prehydrolysis liquor (PHL) from kraft-based dissolving pulp production was characterized after being fractionated using membrane filtration. The results showed that the membrane filtration provided a method for organics fractionation with considerable recovery rate, but exhibited some disadvantages. Besides the limited ability in purifying oligosaccharides (OS) due to the overlaps of molecular weight distribution with lignin components, the membrane filtration could not improve the homogeneity of OS as indicated by the analysis of chemical compositions and the degree of polymerization (DP), which may be ascribed to the linear conformation of OS. The characterization of lignin components indicated a great potential for polymer industry because of the remarkable content of phenolic hydroxyl groups (PhOH), especially for low molecular weight (LMW) fraction. It was concluded the organics in PHL provided streams of value-added chemicals. However, the practical significance thereof can be realized and maximized only when they are successfully and completely fractionated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Critical Comparison of Methods for the Analysis of Indigo in Dyeing Liquors and Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Buscio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Indigo is one of the most important dyes in the textile industry. The control of the indigo concentration in dyeing liquors and effluents is an important tool to ensure the reproducibility of the dyed fabrics and also to establish the efficiency of the wastewater treatment. In this work, three analytical methods were studied and validated with the aim to select a reliable, fast and automated method for the indigo dye determination. The first method is based on the extraction of the dye, with chloroform, in its oxidized form. The organic solution is measured by Ultraviolet (UV-visible spectrophotometry at 604 nm. The second method determines the concentration of indigo in its leuco form in aqueous medium by UV-visible spectrophotometry at 407 nm. Finally, in the last method, the concentration of indigo is determined by redox titration with potassium hexacyanoferrate (K3(Fe(CN6. The results indicated that the three methods that we studied met the established acceptance criteria regarding accuracy and precision. However, the third method was considered the most adequate for application on an industrial scale due to its wider work range, which provides a significant advantage over the others.

  20. Investigating stock-outs in Johannesburg’s warehouse retail liquor sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Govind

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate how management practices and processes contribute to stock-outs in the warehouse retail liquor sector in Johannesburg. Research design: A pragmatic research philosophy was used in a multi-case approach to determine the association between business management practices and stock-outs. The unit of analysis of the study is the highest turnover outlets. Findings: The results revealed that retailers base demand forecasting on judgement and naïve or simple moving average forecast methods. There is little consideration of variability, lead time or targeted customer service levels when determining optimal inventory levels. Product breakages are common, implying that data inaccuracies and stock-outs are highly probable. Information sharing between the retailers and suppliers is limited and formal collaboration programmes do not exist. The respondents revealed that frequent stock-outs resulted in poor business performance characterised by declining sales, customer retention and competitive advantage. Limitations: Although the sample selected represented a significant portion of the top 50% contributors to the sector’s sales, the sample is small and the focus of the study is limited, which decreases the generalisability of the results. Practical implications: Retailers can reduce stock-outs by investing in improvements in demand forecasting, synchronisation through collaboration and training of employees. Originality or value: This study provides empirical evidence of the linkages between poor management practices and processes, stock-outs, customer service and business performance.

  1. The effect of alkali on the product distribution from black liquor conversion under supercritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawangchu, Y; Atong, D; Sricharoenchaikul, V

    2017-07-01

    Lignin in chemical pulping waste, or black liquor (BL), can be converted into various products via supercritical water gasification (SCWG). However, the inherited alkaline contents from the pulping chemicals may affect the product yields and properties. In this research, the influence of the residual alkali on the product distribution via SCWG of soda BL and kraft BL was evaluated. The SCWG was performed in a batch quartz reactor for 10 min at various temperatures (673, 773 and 873 K) and pressures (250, 300 and 400 bar). The highest hydrogen (H 2 ) production occurred at 873 K for the soda BL. The water-gas shift reaction with sodium ions played an important part in the H 2 production, while only small amounts of methane and carbon monoxide were detected. Hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids and esters were the dominant substrates in the liquid products, which denoted the potential of this method for bond cleaving of the lignin macromolecule. As a result, BL, which typically contains alkali salt, was an appropriate feedstock for the SCWG reaction to produce renewable fuel. This method not only has a positive influence on the generation of value added products from highly corrosive waste but also helps avoid some technical problems commonly encountered with direct firing in a recovery boiler.

  2. Toxicity of raw and neutralized bauxite refinery residue liquors to the freshwater cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia and the marine amphipod Paracalliope australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Pelli Louise; Clark, Malcolm W; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda; Johnston, Max

    2011-12-01

    The extraction of alumina from bauxite produces a highly toxic residue, termed bauxite refinery residue (BRR) or red mud. The toxicity of this material is due to chemical and biological effects of high pH, alkalinity, electrical conductivity (EC), and Na(+) and Al(3+) concentrations. Several neutralization techniques may allow BRR to be used for environmental remediation. The present study investigated standardized 48-h acute toxicity tests with a freshwater cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and a marine amphipod, Paracalliope australis, against raw supernatant BRR liquor (RL) versus liquors neutralized with acid (ANL), CO(2) (CNL), seawater (SNL), and a hybrid method (HNL). Based on 48-h LC50 values, the toxicity of the liquors to C. dubia increased in the following order; HNL ≤ SNL< ANL ≤ CNL < RL, with comparable responses from P. australis. The high toxicity of RL likely is due to high pH (≈ 12), alkalinity, and Al concentration. Toxicity of CNL likely is due to high EC and alkalinity. Sulfate and Na(+) concentrations are considered sources of toxicity in ANL. Seawater-neutralized liquor and HNL were considerably less toxic to both test species. These data provide evidence of the acute lethal toxicity of raw supernatant liquor from BRR and four neutralized supernatant liquors to the freshwater cladoceran C. dubia and the marine amphipod P. australis, providing valuable baselines for further ecotoxicological investigations of BRR materials in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  3. Co-gasification of black liquor and pyrolysis oil: Evaluation of blend ratios and methanol production capacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Jim; Furusjö, Erik; Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Lundgren, Joakim; Landälv, Ingvar

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biomethanol from co-gasified black liquor and pyrolysis oil at different capacities. • Enables higher biofuel production for given available amount of black liquor. • Opportunity for cost efficient black liquor gasification also in small pulp mills. • The methanol can be cost competitive to 2nd generation ethanol and fossil fuels. • Fewer pulp mills would need to be converted to meet given biofuel demand. - Abstract: The main aim of this study is to investigate integrated methanol production via co-gasification of black liquor (BL) and pyrolysis oil (PO), at Swedish pulp mills. The objectives are to evaluate techno-economically different blends ratios for different pulp mill capacities. Furthermore, the future methanol production potential in Sweden and overall system consequences of large-scale implementation of PO/BL co-gasification are also assessed. It is concluded that gasification of pure BL and PO/BL blends up to 50% results in significantly lower production costs than what can be achieved by gasification of unblended PO. Co-gasification with 20–50% oil addition would be the most advantageous solution based on IRR for integrated biofuel plants in small pulp mills (200 kADt/y), whilst pure black liquor gasification (BLG) will be the most advantageous alternative for larger pulp mills. For pulp mill sizes between 300 and 600 kADt/y, it is also concluded that a feasible methanol production can be achieved at a methanol market price below 100 €/MW h, for production capacities ranging between 0.9 and 1.6 TW h/y for pure BLG, and between 1.2 and 6.5 TW h/y for PO/BL co-gasification. This study also shows that by introducing PO/BL co-gasification, fewer pulp mills would need to be converted to biofuel plants than with pure BLG, to meet a certain biofuel demand for a region. Due to the technical as well as organizational complexity of the integration this may prove beneficial, and could also potentially lower the total investment

  4. Bench-scale Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Blythe; John Currie; David DeBerry

    2008-03-31

    This document is the final report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42314, 'Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors'. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory and EPRI. The objective of the project has been to determine the mechanisms and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of mercury absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, and develop a kinetics model to predict mercury reactions in wet FGD systems. The model may be used to determine optimum wet FGD design and operating conditions to maximize mercury capture in wet FGD systems. Initially, a series of bench-top, liquid-phase reactor tests were conducted and mercury species concentrations were measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy to determine reactant and byproduct concentrations over time. Other measurement methods, such as atomic absorption, were used to measure concentrations of vapor-phase elemental mercury, that cannot be measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy. Next, a series of bench-scale wet FGD simulation tests were conducted. Because of the significant effects of sulfite concentration on mercury re-emission rates, new methods were developed for operating and controlling the bench-scale FGD experiments. Approximately 140 bench-scale wet FGD tests were conducted and several unusual and pertinent effects of process chemistry on mercury re-emissions were identified and characterized. These data have been used to develop an empirically adjusted, theoretically based kinetics model to predict mercury species reactions in wet FGD systems. The model has been verified in tests conducted with the bench-scale wet FGD system, where both gas-phase and liquid-phase mercury concentrations were measured to determine if the model accurately predicts the tendency for mercury re-emissions. This report presents and discusses results from the initial laboratory kinetics measurements, the bench-scale wet FGD tests, and the kinetics modeling

  5. Efficacy of different essential oils in modulating rumen fermentation in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Roy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Present study was conducted to examine the modulatory effect of different essential oils on rumen fermentation pattern in vitro using wheat straw based diet (concentrate: wheat straw 50:50. Materials and Methods: Four essential oils i.e. cinnamon, garlic, oregano and rosemary oils were tested at concentration of 0, 30, 300 and 600 mg/litre (ppm of total culture fluid using in vitro gas production technique. Total gas production, methane production, nutrient degradability, volatile fatty acid (VFA production and ammonia nitrogen concentration were studied in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor. Results: Results indicated that all four essential oils decreased gas production significantly (P<0.05 at 600ppm concentration. However, in case of garlic oil, 300 ppm concentration was also found to be effective in decreasing total gas production. Reduction in methane production was found maximum (P<0.05 at higher doses in most of the oils. Maximum reduction in methane was noticed with garlic oil at 600ppm dose. Ammonia-N concentration was also decreased significantly (P<0.05 with essential oils and was found minimum with oregano oil at 600 ppm dose. Partition factor was found to be significantly (P<0.05 higher in 600 ppm concentration of garlic and oregano oil. The degradability of dry matter decreased significantly with higher concentration of essential oil in most of treatment combinations. Conclusion: Supplementation with different essential oils on wheat straw based diet modulates rumen fermentation and reduced methane and ammonia- N production and improved utilization of nutrients.

  6. Volatile profile of Greek dried white figs (Ficus carica L.) and investigation of the role of β-damascenone in aroma formation in fig liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palassarou, Maria; Melliou, Eleni; Liouni, Maria; Michaelakis, Antonios; Balayiannis, George; Magiatis, Prokopios

    2017-12-01

    During an investigation of the chemical profile of Greek figs (Ficus carica L.), several aqueous ethanol extracts (liquors) were prepared from dried Smyrna fig varieties cultivated in the two major fig-producing geographical areas in Greece: Peloponnese and Evia Island. The distinctive aroma observed among the prepared fig liquors led to the investigation of the odor profile of the different fig cultivars through HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS analysis, with focus on the factors that affect it before and during the preparation of the respective liquors. Significant variation in volatiles was noticed among all fig cultivars, as also between each fig cultivar pulp and the respective liquor. The observed diversity was a result of chemical reactions taking place in the ethanol matrix during the preparation of the liquor. The 'key' odor compound of dried fig aroma was found to be β-damascenone. Owing to its low detection threshold and minute quantity in fig cultivars, the presence of β-damascenone was furthermore confirmed through GC/MS/MS and GC/TOF-MS. β-Damascenone was identified in variable quantities among fig varieties and their liquors, predominating in Kalamon fig cultivar of Peloponnese region, while its amount was found to be dependent on the postharvest storage time and preservation process of dried figs. Each of the studied fig cultivars and liquors showed a unique aroma profile, and the obtained results were used for the preparation of the first dried fig liqueur for potential commercial use with the highest content of β-damascenone. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Waste Soybean Oil and Corn Steep Liquor as Economic Substrates for Bioemulsifier and Biodiesel Production by Candida lipolytica UCP 0998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Adriana Ferreira; Rodriguez, Dayana M; Ribeaux, Daylin R; Luna, Marcos A C; Lima E Silva, Thayse A; Andrade, Rosileide F Silva; Gusmão, Norma B; Campos-Takaki, Galba M

    2016-09-23

    Almost all oleaginous microorganisms are available for biodiesel production, and for the mechanism of oil accumulation, which is what makes a microbial approach economically competitive. This study investigated the potential that the yeast Candida lipolytica UCP0988, in an anamorphous state, has to produce simultaneously a bioemulsifier and to accumulate lipids using inexpensive and alternative substrates. Cultivation was carried out using waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor in accordance with 2² experimental designs with 1% inoculums (10⁷ cells/mL). The bioemulsifier was produced in the cell-free metabolic liquid in the late exponential phase (96 h), at Assay 4 (corn steep liquor 5% and waste soybean oil 8%), with 6.704 UEA, IE24 of 96.66%, and showed an anionic profile. The emulsion formed consisted of compact small and stable droplets (size 0.2-5 µm), stable at all temperatures, at pH 2 and 4, and 2% salinity, and showed an ability to remove 93.74% of diesel oil from sand. The displacement oil (ODA) showed 45.34 cm² of dispersion (central point of the factorial design). The biomass obtained from Assay 4 was able to accumulate lipids of 0.425 g/g biomass (corresponding to 42.5%), which consisted of Palmitic acid (28.4%), Stearic acid (7.7%), Oleic acid (42.8%), Linoleic acid (19.0%), and γ-Linolenic acid (2.1%). The results showed the ability of C. lipopytica to produce both bioemulsifier and biodiesel using the metabolic conversion of waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor, which are economic renewable sources.

  8. Waste Soybean Oil and Corn Steep Liquor as Economic Substrates for Bioemulsifier and Biodiesel Production by Candida lipolytica UCP 0998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ferreira Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Almost all oleaginous microorganisms are available for biodiesel production, and for the mechanism of oil accumulation, which is what makes a microbial approach economically competitive. This study investigated the potential that the yeast Candida lipolytica UCP0988, in an anamorphous state, has to produce simultaneously a bioemulsifier and to accumulate lipids using inexpensive and alternative substrates. Cultivation was carried out using waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor in accordance with 22 experimental designs with 1% inoculums (107 cells/mL. The bioemulsifier was produced in the cell-free metabolic liquid in the late exponential phase (96 h, at Assay 4 (corn steep liquor 5% and waste soybean oil 8%, with 6.704 UEA, IE24 of 96.66%, and showed an anionic profile. The emulsion formed consisted of compact small and stable droplets (size 0.2–5 µm, stable at all temperatures, at pH 2 and 4, and 2% salinity, and showed an ability to remove 93.74% of diesel oil from sand. The displacement oil (ODA showed 45.34 cm2 of dispersion (central point of the factorial design. The biomass obtained from Assay 4 was able to accumulate lipids of 0.425 g/g biomass (corresponding to 42.5%, which consisted of Palmitic acid (28.4%, Stearic acid (7.7%, Oleic acid (42.8%, Linoleic acid (19.0%, and γ-Linolenic acid (2.1%. The results showed the ability of C. lipopytica to produce both bioemulsifier and biodiesel using the metabolic conversion of waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor, which are economic renewable sources.

  9. Structural characterization of Kraft lignins from different spent cooking liquors by 1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Costas, C.; Gouveia, S.; Sanromán, M.A.; Moldes, D.

    2014-01-01

    Three Kraft lignins isolated from black liquors of several paper pulp mills of the North of Spain and Portugal were structurally characterized by using monodimensional ( 1 H and 13 C) and bidimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrometry. From the latter, 13 C– 1 H heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC) and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC) were employed. Lignins from black liquors are usually burned for power generation. Nevertheless, they could become high value added products within a biorefinery context. In that case, a good understanding of their structure is a prior step to transform them. From all the NMR techniques studied, HSQC has risen as the most powerful tool in lignin characterization. Kraft cooking conditions and the type of wood seem to be the main factors that determine the differences observed in the lignins. All the samples have shown an important decrease in the number of β–O–4′ linkages, due to the Kraft process, and resinol has become the most resistant linkage to the process. Moreover, all samples seem to be mainly linked to a one polysaccharide: xylan. Several parameters like S/G ratio, portion of phenolic and aliphatic hydroxyls, amount of aromatic protons and other structural aspects were also estimated. - Highlights: • Lignins from three Kraft spent liquors were obtained by acid precipitation. • Structural characterization of the dissolved lignins was performed by NMR. • Wood source and pulping conditions determine the lignin characteristics. • Kraft process implies cleavage of β–O–4 linkages and survival of resinol linkages. • Comparison of the samples would aid decisions on its future revalorization

  10. Electrochemical acidification of Kraft black liquor by electrodialysis with bipolar membrane: Ion exchange membrane fouling identification and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Maryam; Mikhaylin, Sergey; Bazinet, Laurent; Savadogo, Oumarou; Paris, Jean

    2017-02-15

    Integrated forest biorefinery offers promising pathways to sustainably diversify the revenue of pulp and paper industry. In this context, lignin can be extracted from a residual stream of Kraft pulping process, called black liquor, and subsequently converted into a wide spectrum of bio-based products. Electrochemical acidification of Kraft black liquor by electrodialysis with bipolar membrane results in lignin extraction and caustic soda production. Even though the implementation of this method requires less chemicals than the chemical acidification process, fouling of the ion exchange membranes and especially bipolar membrane impairs its productivity. Membrane thickness and ash content measurements along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), elemental analysis (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) analysis were performed to identify the nature and mechanisms of the membrane fouling. The results revealed that the fouling layer mostly consisted of organic components and particularly lignin. Based on our proposed fouling mechanisms, throughout the electrodialysis process the pH of the black liquor gradually decreased and as a result more proton ions were available to trigger protonation reaction of lignin phenolic groups and decrease the lignin solubility. Due to the abundance of the proton ions on the surface of the cation exchange layers of the bipolar membrane, destabilized lignin macro-molecules started to self-aggregate and formed lignin clusters on its surface. Over the time, these lignin clusters covered the entire surface of the bipolar membrane and the spaces between the membranes and, eventually, attached to the surface of the cation exchange membrane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nano-powders prepared from purified sulphate leach liquor of red mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsakiridis, P.E., E-mail: ptsakiri@central.ntua.gr [School of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (Greece); Oustadakis, P.; Katsiapi, A.; Perraki, M.; Agatzini-Leonardou, S. [School of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (Greece)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} Ti can be recovered from red mud leach liquor by 40% Cyanex 272 in toluene. {yields} 3 stages are required for Ti extraction at pH = 0.3, T = 25 {sup o}C and A/O = 1.5. {yields} Ti can be stripped from loaded Cyanex 272 with diluted HCl at 25 {sup o}C. {yields} TiO{sub 2} is precipitated as anatase at pH = 6 and T = 95 {sup o}C, using MgO pulp. {yields} Fe in the precipitate did not exceed 0.3%, whereas no Al was detected. - Abstract: The research work presented in this paper is focused on the development of a purification process of red mud sulphate leach liquor for the recovery of titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) nano-powders in the form of anatase. Initially, titanium was extracted over iron and aluminium from the leach liquor by solvent extraction using Cyanex 272 in toluene, at pH: 0.3 and T: 25 {sup o}C, with 40% extractant concentration. Stripping of the loaded, with titanium, organic phase was carried out by diluted HCl (3 mol/L) at ambient temperature. Finally, the recovery of titanium nano-powder, in the form of anatase, was performed by chemical precipitation at pH: 6 and T: 95 {sup o}C, using 10 wt% MgO pulp as neutralizing agent. The produced precipitates were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). Their morphological characteristics and microstructure were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). High grade titanium white precipitate, in the form of anatase, was obtained. Iron concentration in the precipitate did not exceed 0.3%, whereas no aluminium was detected.

  12. Biopulping of sugarcane bagasse and decolorization of kraft liquor by the laccase produced by Klebsiella aerogenes NCIM 2098

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha H.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Laccase, a copper-containing enzyme, oxidizes variety of aromatic compounds. Since laccase is essential for lignin degradation, it can be used for lignin removal in the pulp and paper industry (biopulping. Laccase is also employed as a dechlorinating agent (biobleaching, along with the removal of phenolic and other aromatic pollutants. In the present investigation it was aimed to employ the laccase produced by the bacterium Klebsiella aerogenes along with the bacterium itself in biopulping of sugarcane bagasse and biobleaching of kraft liquor effluent. Methodology and results: A laccase was isolated from the bacterium K. aerogenes, purified to homogeneity and characterized. The enzyme was purified by conventional techniques following salt precipitation, ion exchange chromatography, and affinity chromatography on Con A sepharose. The purified laccase was found to be monomeric glycoprotein with a Mr of 64 kDa when measured by Sephadex G-200 gel chromatography and SDS-PAGE. The Vmax and Km of laccase towards the substrate guaiacol was determined. The optimum pH of the laccase was found to be 5.0. biopulping and biobleaching activities were determined by TAPPI standard methods. Treatment of sugarcane baggase by K. aerogenes also significantly reduced lignin content of the bagasse. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The bacterium K. aerogenes and a laccase produced by it were used separately for biopulping of sugarcane bagasse and biobleaching of kraft liquor effluent. Treatment with both brought significant reduction in lignin content and kappa number of the pulp. The handsheets prepared from the treated pulp showed improved brightness without affecting the strength properties of paper. The bacterium and the laccase efficiently decolorized the kraft liquor proving to have biobleaching potential.

  13. A novel method to prepare L-Arabinose from xylose mother liquor by yeast-mediated biopurification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Shuangjun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background L-arabinose is an important intermediate for anti-virus drug synthesis and has also been used in food additives for diets-controlling in recent years. Commercial production of L-arabinose is a complex progress consisting of acid hydrolysis of gum arabic, followed by multiple procedures of purification, thus making high production cost. Therefore, there is a biotechnological and commercial interest in the development of new cost-effective and high-performance methods for obtaining high purity grade L-arabinose. Results An alternative, economical method for purifying L-arabinose from xylose mother liquor was developed in this study. After screening 306 yeast strains, a strain of Pichia anomala Y161 was selected as it could effectively metabolize other sugars but not L-arabinose. Fermentation in a medium containing xylose mother liquor permitted enrichment of L-arabinose by a significant depletion of other sugars. Biochemical analysis of this yeast strain confirmed that its poor capacity for utilizing L-arabinose was due to low activities of the enzymes required for the metabolism of this sugar. Response surface methodology was employed for optimization the fermentation conditions in shake flask cultures. The optimum conditions were: 75 h fermentation time, at 32.5°C, in a medium containing 21% (v/v xylose mother liquor. Under these conditions, the highest purity of L-arabinose reached was 86.1% of total sugar, facilitating recovery of white crystalline L-arabinose from the fermentation medium by simple methods. Conclusion Yeast-mediated biopurification provides a dynamic method to prepare high purity of L-arabinose from the feedstock solution xylose mother liqour, with cost-effective and high-performance properties.

  14. Difference of microbial community stressed in artificial pit muds for Luzhou-flavour liquor brewing revealed by multiphase culture-independent technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Zhou, R; Niu, M; Zheng, J; Wu, C

    2015-11-01

    Artificial pit muds (APMs) is produced by peats, aged pit muds, yellow and black clays etc. and is one of essential factors for Luzhou-flavour liquor production. The microbial community of APMs significantly influence the quality of Luzhou-flavour liquor. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in bacterial, archaeal and fungal community of APMs, starters and materials. Multiphase culture-independent technology were employed in this study, including nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (nested PCR-DGGE), phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), phospholipid ether lipids (PLEL) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Results suggested that the microbial diversity significantly changed under environmental stress and different culture patterns during APMs cultivation. The dominant bacteria in APMs mainly fell into Clostridiales, Lactobacillales, Bacteroidales and Rhizobiales, Archaea affiliated with Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales, and fungi belonged to Saccharomycetales and Eurotiales. Furthermore, the microbial community structures of APMs cultured by ground pile pattern were more similar with that of aged pit muds, meanwhile, the relative bands intensities of microbes, which are the main contributors for liquor brewing, increased with the culture times. Not only the niche selection and biogeochemical properties of APMs, but also the mutual collaboration and constraint between different microbes may result in enriching different liquor-brewing microbes into APMs. APM cultivation technology was necessary to promote enriching functional liquor-brewing microbes into APMs. These results may facilitate understanding the microbial succession during APMs manufacture. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Separation of Caffeine and Tea Poly-phenols from Instant (Soluble) Tea Waste Liquor by Macro-porous Resins

    OpenAIRE

    Xueling Gao; Bin Zhang; Zenglang Shao; Yong Yang; Pengxiang Yue

    2014-01-01

    Instant tea is presently manufactured by spraying and freeze drying the concentrated brew of processed tea leaves and dust. The purpose of this study was to develop a technique using macro-porous resins for separating Caffeine (Caf) and Tea Poly-phenols (TP) from the waste liquor generated by manufacturing instant tea. Optimum adsorption conditions were obtained using an initial concentration of Caf solution of 80 mg/L and a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min at 60°C; The optimal desorption conditions w...

  16. [Detection of fungi in liquor workers with tinea corporis and tinea cruris using arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dan; Li, Liao; Chen, De-yu; Zhang, Yu-hua; Hu, Chao-hui; Deng, Zheng-hua

    2007-03-01

    To explore the method of rapid detection of skin fungi and the significance of conventional diagnosis liquor worker tinea corporis and tinea cruris using arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction AP-PCR. Among liquor workers who were 50 tinea corporis patients, 58 tinea cruris patients and 50 health persons, we amplified the DNAs of the dermatophytes were amplified using AP-PCR and random primers OPD18 5'-GAGAGCCAAC-3' and OPAA11 5'-ACCCGACCTG-3', at the same time, the dermatophytes with microscope were detected and cultured. AP-PCR analysis detected fungal DNA in 45 patients(90.00%) among 50 liquor worker patients with tinea corporis, 31 patients(62.00%) had the positive results of microscope detection, and 41 patients(82.00%) had the positive results of standard culture. Among these workers who suffered from tinea corporis, T.rubrum, T.mentagrophyte, M. canis and E.floccosum were detected by AP-PCR. T.rubrum, T.mentagrophyte and M.canis were detected by standard culture. AP-PCR analysis detected fungal DNA in 53 patients(91.38%) among 58 liquor worker patients with tinea cruris, 37 patients(63.79%) had the positive results of microscope detection, and 48(82.76%) had the positive results of standard culture. Among the 58 workers who had tinea cruris, T.rubrum, E.floccosum and T.mentagrophyte were detected by AP-PCR and standard culture. Among 50 health persons, AP-PCR analysis detected fungal DNA in 3 persons(6.00%). The detection result with AP-PCR indicated that the kinds of fungi were T.rubrum and T.mentagrophyte. No one health person had the positive result in detection of fungi using microscope detection. Only one(2.00%) health person was detected to be infected by fungus with cultural way. The kind of fungus was T.rubrum. AP-PCR is a rapid, sensitive and specific detection method for occupational dermatophyte patients. It can be used to detect and diagnose professional dermatophytosis.

  17. Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor as alternative culture medium substrates for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis AMT-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Rodrigo Pires; Junior, Nelson Alves; Coelho, Rosalie Reed Rodrigues

    2011-10-01

    Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor or yeast extract were used as the sole organic forms for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis in submerged fermentation. The influence of the C and N concentrations, as well as the incubation periods, were assessed. Eight proteolytic bands were detected through gelatin-gel-electrophoresis in the various extracts obtained from the different media and after different incubation periods, with apparent molecular masses of 20, 35, 43, 50, 70, 100, 116 and 212 kDa. The results obtained suggest an opportunity for exploring this alternative strategy for proteinases production by actinomycetes, using BSG and CSL as economically feasible substrates.

  18. Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor as alternative culture medium substrates for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis AMT-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pires do Nascimento

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor or yeast extract were used as the sole organic forms for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis in submerged fermentation. The influence of the C and N concentrations, as well as the incubation periods, were assessed. Eight proteolytic bands were detected through gelatin-gel-electrophoresis in the various extracts obtained from the different media and after different incubation periods, with apparent molecular masses of 20, 35, 43, 50, 70, 100, 116 and 212 kDa. The results obtained suggest an opportunity for exploring this alternative strategy for proteinases production by actinomycetes, using BSG and CSL as economically feasible substrates.

  19. Investigation of ESEM/EDX to measure liquor penetration and diffusion in Eucalyptus grandis wood chips during kraft pulping

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grzeskowiak, V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available 2011. 6. Quinde A. (1994). Pulping additives in kraft pulping: Past, present and future. Spring Conference Canadian Pulp and Paper Ass. Jasper, Alberta. May 19 ? 21. 7. Stamm A.J. (1953). Diffusion and penetration mechanism of liquids into wood... and aspen wood chips using SEM/EDXA. J. Pulp and Paper Sci. 22(3): 71-77. 10. Jensen W., Folgelberg B.C. and Johanson M. (1960). Studies on the possibilities of using radioactive tracers to follow the penetration of cooking liquors into wood. Paperi ja...

  20. Numerical simulation of bubble induced shear in membrane bioreactors: effects of mixed liquor rheology and membrane configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuefei; Wang, Yuan; Waite, T David; Leslie, Greg

    2015-05-15

    A CFD model, incorporating an empirically determined rheology model and a porous media model, was developed to simulate bubble induced surface shear in membrane bioreactors configured with hollow fibre membranes with outer diameters ranging from 1.3 to 2.4 mm, arranged in vertically orientated modules with packing density from 200 to 560 m(2)/m(3). The rheology model was developed for mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations of 3 to 16 gL(-1) in the presence and absence of coagulant (generated by addition of a ferrous salt) for shear rates ranging from 0 to 500 s(-1). Experimentally determined particle relaxation times for the biological flocs in the mixed liquor, both in the absence and presence of iron, were negligible, consistent with an environment where positive buoyancy forces were greater than negative settling forces thereby allowing the sludge mixture to be modelled as a single continuous phase. The non-Newtonian behaviour of the mixed liquor was incorporated into the CFD simulations using an Ostwald-de Waele rheology model. Interactions between mixed liquor and hollow fibre membranes of different fibre size and packing density were described using a porous media model that was calibrated by empirical measurement of inertial loss coefficients over a range of viscosities (0.8 × 10(-3) to 2.1 × 10(-3) Pa.s) and velocities (0 to 0.35 m/s) typically encountered in full scale MBRs. Experimental results indicated that addition of iron salts resulted in an increase in MLSS and sludge viscosity. Shear stress is affected by both velocity and viscosity. The increase in sludge viscosity resulted in an increase in resistance to flow through the hollow fibre membrane bundles and, as a result, decreased the liquid flow velocities. CFD simulations provided insight on the effects of point of coagulant addition and MLSS concentration on bubble-induced shear over a range of industrially relevant conditions. A 12% increase in shear stress was observed when

  1. Two Stage Anaerobic Reactor Design and Treatment To Produce Biogas From Mixed Liquor of Vegetable Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiastuti, H.; Ghozali, M.; Wicaksono, H. K.; Hadiansyah, R.

    2018-01-01

    Municipal solid waste has become a common challenged problem to be solved for developing countries including Indonesia. Municipal solid waste generating is always bigger than its treatment to reduce affect of environmental pollution. This research tries to contribute to provide an alternative solution to treat municipal solid waste to produce biogas. Vegetable waste was obtained from Gedebage Market, Bandung and starter as a source of anaerobic microorganisms was cow dung obtained from a cow farm in Lembang. A two stage anaerobic reactor was designed and built to treat the vegetable waste in a batch run. The capacity of each reactor is 20 liters but its active volume in each reactor is 15 liters. Reactor 1 (R1) was fed up with mixture of filtered blended vegetable waste and water at ratio of 1:1 whereas Reactor 2 (R2) was filled with filtered mixed liquor of cow dung and water at ratio of 1:1. Both mixtures were left overnight before use. Into R1 it was added EM-4 at concentration of 10%. pH in R1 was maintained at 5 - 6.5 whereas pH in R1 was maintained at 6.5 - 7.5. Temperature of reactors was not maintained to imitate the real environmental temperature. Parameters taken during experiment were pH, temperature, COD, MLVSS, and composition of biogas. The performance of reactor built was shown from COD efficiencies reduction obtained of about 60% both in R1 and R2, pH average in R1 of 4.5 ± 1 and R2 of 7 ± 0.6, average temperature in both reactors of 25 ± 2°C. About 1L gas produced was obtained during the last 6 days of experiment in which CH4 obtained was 8.951 ppm and CO2 of 1.087 ppm. The maximum increase of MLVSS in R1 reached 156% and R2 reached 89%.

  2. Production of Bacterial Cellulose by Gluconacetobacter hansenii Using Corn Steep Liquor As Nutrient Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea F. S. Costa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose is mainly produced by plants, although many bacteria, especially those belonging to the genus Gluconacetobacter, produce a very peculiar form of cellulose with mechanical and structural properties that can be exploited in numerous applications. However, the production cost of bacterial cellulose (BC is very high to the use of expensive culture media, poor yields, downstream processing, and operating costs. Thus, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the use of industrial residues as nutrients for the production of BC by Gluconacetobacter hansenii UCP1619. BC pellicles were synthesized using the Hestrin–Schramm (HS medium and alternative media formulated with different carbon (sugarcane molasses and acetylated glucose and nitrogen sources [yeast extract, peptone, and corn steep liquor (CSL]. A jeans laundry was also tested. None of the tested sources (beside CSL worked as carbon and nutrient substitute. The alternative medium formulated with 1.5% glucose and 2.5% CSL led to the highest yield in terms of dry and hydrated mass. The BC mass produced in the alternative culture medium corresponded to 73% of that achieved with the HS culture medium. The BC pellicles demonstrated a high concentration of microfibrils and nanofibrils forming a homogenous, compact, and three-dimensional structure. The biopolymer produced in the alternative medium had greater thermal stability, as degradation began at 240°C, while degradation of the biopolymer produced in the HS medium began at 195°C. Both biopolymers exhibited high crystallinity. The mechanical tensile test revealed the maximum breaking strength and the elongation of the break of hydrated and dry pellicles. The dry BC film supported up to 48 MPa of the breaking strength and exhibited greater than 96.98% stiffness in comparison with the hydrated film. The dry film supported up to 48 MPa of the breaking strength and exhibited greater than 96.98% stiffness in comparison with the hydrated film

  3. Production of Bacterial Cellulose by Gluconacetobacter hansenii Using Corn Steep Liquor As Nutrient Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Andrea F. S.; Almeida, Fabíola C. G.; Vinhas, Glória M.; Sarubbo, Leonie A.

    2017-01-01

    Cellulose is mainly produced by plants, although many bacteria, especially those belonging to the genus Gluconacetobacter, produce a very peculiar form of cellulose with mechanical and structural properties that can be exploited in numerous applications. However, the production cost of bacterial cellulose (BC) is very high to the use of expensive culture media, poor yields, downstream processing, and operating costs. Thus, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the use of industrial residues as nutrients for the production of BC by Gluconacetobacter hansenii UCP1619. BC pellicles were synthesized using the Hestrin–Schramm (HS) medium and alternative media formulated with different carbon (sugarcane molasses and acetylated glucose) and nitrogen sources [yeast extract, peptone, and corn steep liquor (CSL)]. A jeans laundry was also tested. None of the tested sources (beside CSL) worked as carbon and nutrient substitute. The alternative medium formulated with 1.5% glucose and 2.5% CSL led to the highest yield in terms of dry and hydrated mass. The BC mass produced in the alternative culture medium corresponded to 73% of that achieved with the HS culture medium. The BC pellicles demonstrated a high concentration of microfibrils and nanofibrils forming a homogenous, compact, and three-dimensional structure. The biopolymer produced in the alternative medium had greater thermal stability, as degradation began at 240°C, while degradation of the biopolymer produced in the HS medium began at 195°C. Both biopolymers exhibited high crystallinity. The mechanical tensile test revealed the maximum breaking strength and the elongation of the break of hydrated and dry pellicles. The dry BC film supported up to 48 MPa of the breaking strength and exhibited greater than 96.98% stiffness in comparison with the hydrated film. The dry film supported up to 48 MPa of the breaking strength and exhibited greater than 96.98% stiffness in comparison with the hydrated film. The values

  4. Zygosaccharomyces bailii Is a Potential Producer of Various Flavor Compounds in Chinese Maotai-Flavor Liquor Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Zygosaccharomyces bailii is a common yeast in various food fermentations. Understanding the metabolic properties and genetic mechanisms of Z. bailii is important for its industrial applications. Fermentation characteristics of Z. bailii MT15 from Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor fermentation were studied. Z. bailii MT15 produced various flavor compounds, including 19 alcohols, six acids, three esters, three ketones, and two aldehydes. Moreover, production of acids and aldehydes were increased by 110 and 41%, respectively, at 37°C (the maximum temperature in liquor fermentation compared with that at 30°C, indicating its excellent flavor productivity. Z. bailii MT15 is a diploid with genome size of 20.19 Mb. Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed that 12 genes related to amino acid transport were significantly up-regulated (2.41- to 5.11-fold at 37°C. Moreover, genes ARO8, ARO9, and ALDH4 involved in amino acid metabolism also showed higher expression levels (>1.71-fold at 37°C. Increased substrate supply and a vigorous metabolism might be beneficial for the increased production of acids and aldehydes at 37°C. This work revealed the potential contribution of Z. bailii to various flavor compounds in food fermentation, and produced insights into the metabolic mechanisms of Z. bailii in flavor production.

  5. Effect of preprocessing high-resolution mass spectra on the pattern recognition of Cannabis, hemp, and liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyi; Harrington, Peter de B; Baugh, Steven F

    2018-04-01

    High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) combined with pattern recognition was used to discriminate among twenty-five Cannabis samples, twenty hemp samples, and eight liquor samples. The effects of preprocessing on multivariate data analysis were evaluated for Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectra. Different root transformations were evaluated with respect to the bin width and the average classification rates. In addition, linear binning and proportional binning with various resolving powers were studied with respect to the average classification rates. The proportional binning with the square root transformation gave the best overall performance for chemical profiling or spectral fingerprinting. Six classification methods, fuzzy rule-building expert system (FuRES), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), super partial least squares discriminant analysis (sPLS-DA), support vector machine (SVM), SVM classification tree type gap (SVMTreeG), and SVM classification tree type entropy (SVMTreeH) had similar trends in prediction rate with respect to the resolving power. The optimal proportional mass bin width may depend on the data set, i.e., for the Cannabis samples is resolving power 10 -4 , for the hemp samples and the liquor samples are resolving power 10 -3 . Hence, data preprocessing methods such as different transformations, binning strategies, and resolving powers are important factors to be optimized for HRMS direct infusion measurements combined with pattern recognition to be an authentication and characterization tool for various products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis of TiO2 nano-powders prepared from purified sulphate leach liquor of red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiridis, P E; Oustadakis, P; Katsiapi, A; Perraki, M; Agatzini-Leonardou, S

    2011-10-30

    The research work presented in this paper is focused on the development of a purification process of red mud sulphate leach liquor for the recovery of titanium oxide (TiO(2)) nano-powders in the form of anatase. Initially, titanium was extracted over iron and aluminium from the leach liquor by solvent extraction using Cyanex 272 in toluene, at pH: 0.3 and T: 25°C, with 40% extractant concentration. Stripping of the loaded, with titanium, organic phase was carried out by diluted HCl (3 mol/L) at ambient temperature. Finally, the recovery of titanium nano-powder, in the form of anatase, was performed by chemical precipitation at pH: 6 and T: 95°C, using 10 wt% MgO pulp as neutralizing agent. The produced precipitates were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). Their morphological characteristics and microstructure were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). High grade titanium white precipitate, in the form of anatase, was obtained. Iron concentration in the precipitate did not exceed 0.3%, whereas no aluminium was detected. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of anaerobic digestion processes for short sludge-age waste activated sludge combined with anammox treatment of digestate liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Huoqing; Batstone, Damien; Keller, Jurg

    2016-01-01

    The need to reduce energy input and enhance energy recovery from wastewater is driving renewed interest in high-rate activated sludge treatment (i.e. short hydraulic and solids retention times (HRT and SRT, respectively)). This process generates short SRT activated sludge stream, which should be highly degradable. However, the evaluation of anaerobic digestion of short SRT sludge has been limited. This paper assesses anaerobic digestion of short SRT sludge digestion derived from meat processing wastewater under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. The thermophilic digestion system (55°C) achieved 60 and 68% volatile solids destruction at 8 day and 10 day HRT, respectively, compared with 50% in the mesophilic digestion system (35°C, 10 day HRT). The digestion effluents from the thermophilic (8-10 day HRT) and mesophilic systems were stable, as assessed by residual methane potentials. The ammonia rich sludge dewatering liquor was effectively treated by a batch anammox process, which exhibited comparable nitrogen removal rate as the tests using a control synthetic ammonia solution, indicating that the dewatering liquor did not have inhibiting/toxic effects on the anammox activity.

  8. Energy conversion performance of black liquor gasification to hydrogen production using direct causticization with CO(2) capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, M; Yan, J; Dahlquist, E

    2012-04-01

    This paper estimates potential hydrogen production via dry black liquor gasification system with direct causticization integrated with a reference pulp mill. The advantage of using direct causticization is elimination of energy intensive lime kiln. Pressure swing adsorption is integrated in the carbon capture process for hydrogen upgrading. The energy conversion performance of the integrated system is compared with other bio-fuel alternatives and evaluated based on system performance indicators. The results indicated a significant hydrogen production potential (about 141MW) with an energy ratio of about 0.74 from the reference black liquor capacity (about 243.5MW) and extra biomass import (about 50MW) to compensate total energy deficit. About 867,000tonnes of CO(2) abatement per year is estimated i.e. combining CO(2) capture and CO(2) offset from hydrogen replacing motor gasoline. The hydrogen production offers a substantial motor fuel replacement especially in regions with large pulp and paper industry e.g. about 63% of domestic gasoline replacement in Sweden. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Green liquor impregnation and Kraft pulping of South African Pinus Patula – “A practical approach to provide cost savings in a Kraft mill’s pulping operation”

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johakimu, Jonas K

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of green liquor pre-treatment (GLP) on Kraft pulping of Pinus Patula has been investigated. Wood chips were pre-treated with green liquor, and subsequently subjected to Kraft pulping to achieve a target Kappa number of 65-70. The results...

  10. An Investigation of Mechanisms in Bonding and Failure of Thermal Spray Coatings

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project is an investigation of the mechanisms in bonding and failure of thermal spray coatings. The objectives for this project are as follows:...

  11. Screening of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Rumen Liquor and King Grass Silage as well as Their Antibacterial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sofyan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic is a live microbial culture which has positive effect on animal by improving the natural balance of microflora in the digestive tract. This experiment aimed to screen and identify indigenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB from rumen liquor and king grass (Pennisetum hybrid silage as a probiotic candidate and to evaluate their resistance in low pH, and inhibitory activities against pathogenic bacteria. The LAB isolate was characterized by a clear zone formed on MRSA medium + CaCO3 0.2% (w/v and further identified by morphological and biochemical assays. The selected isolates were evaluated for their viability in low pH, pathogenic bacterial inhibition, and lactic acid production. The experimental arrangement was a factorial block design (4 x 2 consisted of four isolates and two levels of pH value (pH 2 and 3, each treatment in 3 equal replicates. The result showed that four isolates (two isolates from the rumen liquor of fistulated cattle and two isolates from silage were identified as lactic acid bacteria. The four isolates showed inhibition activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and performed viability at low pH during 2 h treatment. The highest lactic acid production was obtained from isolates Sil.3 (21.42% and followed by CR2 (19.88%, CR1 (15.40% and Sil.9 (15.08%. Biochemical identification by standard of analytical profile index (API 50 CHL kit showed that the selected isolates CR1 was Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei 3 (91.5%, L. paracasei ssp. paracasei 3 (76.5%, Sil.3 was Lactobacillus brevis (95.1%, and Sil.9 was Lactobacillus collinoides (92.5%. In conclusion, probiotic candidates isolated from rumen liquor are confirmed as L. paracasei ssp. paracasei (CR1 and CR2, while two other isolates from king grass silage are identified as L. brevis (Sil.3 and L. collinoides (Sil.9. L. brevis (Sil.3 and L. paracasei ssp. paracasei (CR1 has higher inhibition against pathogenic bacteria (E. coli, S

  12. Nipah Virus Transmission from Bats to Humans Associated with Drinking Traditional Liquor Made from Date Palm Sap, Bangladesh, 2011–2014

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-30

    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of the article, Nipah Virus Transmission from Bats to Humans Associated with Drinking Traditional Liquor Made from Date Palm Sap, Bangladesh, 2011–2014.  Created: 6/30/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/30/2016.

  13. Extraction of hemicellulose from South African eucalyptus grandis using weak white liquor activation technology and its impact on kraft pulping efficiency

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johakimu, Jonas K

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available , near neutral pH during woodchips activation, a short wood activation time (15 min), and weak white liquor to water ratio of 20:80 is required. The concentration of hemicelluloses in the extract was approximately 2.0 g/L. During kraft pulping, weak white...

  14. 77 FR 10553 - Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band of Pottawatomi Indians (Gun Lake)-Amendment to Liquor Beverage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band of Pottawatomi Indians (Gun Lake)-- Amendment to Liquor Beverage Control Ordinance AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This notice publishes the amendments to the Match-E-Be-Nash- She-Wish...

  15. Remote age verification to prevent underage alcohol sales. First results from Dutch liquor stores and the economic viability of national adoption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, Joris Jasper; Velthoven, Ben C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Alcohol consumption among minors is a popular topic in the public health debate, also in the Netherlands. Compliance with the legal age limits for selling alcohol proves to be rather low. Some Dutch liquor stores (outlets with an exclusive license to sell off-premise drinks with 15%

  16. Ultrafiltration and valorisation of lignin in black liquor from South African Kraft mills: A focus on dead-end stirred cell filtration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kekana, PT

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this project is to develop a method that can effectively extract lignin from Kraft black liquors from South African mills in the form that would be suitable for valorisation into high value products. In this study the effects...

  17. A 3D CFD Simulation and Analysis of Flow-Induced Forces on Polymer Piezoelectric Sensors in a Chinese Liquors Identification E-Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Gu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese liquors can be classified according to their flavor types. Accurate identification of Chinese liquor flavors is not always possible through professional sommeliers’ subjective assessment. A novel polymer piezoelectric sensor electric nose (e-nose can be applied to distinguish Chinese liquors because of its excellent ability in imitating human senses by using sensor arrays and pattern recognition systems. The sensor, based on the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM principle is comprised of a quartz piezoelectric crystal plate sandwiched between two specific gas-sensitive polymer coatings. Chinese liquors are identified by obtaining the resonance frequency value changes of each sensor using the e-nose. However, the QCM principle failed to completely account for a particular phenomenon: we found that the resonance frequency values fluctuated in the stable state. For better understanding the phenomenon, a 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulation using the finite volume method is employed to study the influence of the flow-induced forces to the resonance frequency fluctuation of each sensor in the sensor box. A dedicated procedure was developed for modeling the flow of volatile gas from Chinese liquors in a realistic scenario to give reasonably good results with fair accuracy. The flow-induced forces on the sensors are displayed from the perspective of their spatial-temporal and probability density distributions. To evaluate the influence of the fluctuation of the flow-induced forces on each sensor and ensure the serviceability of the e-nose, the standard deviation of resonance frequency value (SDF and the standard deviation of resultant forces (SDFy in y-direction (Fy are compared. Results show that the fluctuations of Fy are bound up with the resonance frequency values fluctuations. To ensure that the sensor's resonance frequency values are steady and only fluctuate slightly, in order to improve the identification accuracy of Chinese

  18. Biological treatment of eucalypt spent sulphite liquors: a way to boost the production of second generation bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Susana R; Ivanuša, Spela; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Serafim, Luísa S; Xavier, Ana M R B

    2012-01-01

    The fermentation of reducing sugars from hardwood (eucalypt) spent sulphite liquor (HSSL) into ethanol by Pichia (Scheffersomyces) stipitis is hindered by concomitant inhibitors of microbial metabolism. The conditions for the HSSL biological treatment step by Paecilomyces variotii were evaluated and optimised. Two different strategies of reactor operation were compared using single batch (B) and sequential batch reactor (SBR). Biological treatment of HSSL in the SBR revealed the best results with respect to the removal of microbial inhibitors. Also, most of inhibitory compounds, acetic acid, gallic acid, pyrogallol, amongst others, were removed from HSSL by P. variotii before the ethanol fermentation. The bio-detoxified HSSL was subjected to a successful fermentation by P. stipitis, attaining a maximum ethanol concentration of 2.4 g L(-1) with a yield of 0.24 g ethanol g sugars(-1). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reuse of Anode Slime Generated by the Zinc Industry to Obtain a Liquor for Manufacturing Electrolytic Manganese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, J.; Fernández, B.

    2013-08-01

    A hydrometallurgical process is proposed in this article to recover manganese from a zinc electrowinning residue. The article describes the digestion-leaching experiments, precipitation, and electrowinning assays to recover Mn from this residue. Anode slime is treated with sulfuric acidic in a furnace within a temperature range of 400-450°C, leached with water, and then filtered. The results show that the dissolution of manganese increases with increasing temperature in the digestion step. The recovery yield of manganese was higher than 90%. As manganese electrolysis requires an electrolyte free of Zn, Ni, Co, and Cu pollutants, the sulfuric acid liquor needs a purification step. Na2S is used to remove pollutants. The results obtained in this study have shown that the proposed process for the recovery of manganese from this type of residue is technically viable.

  20. Development of bioelectrochemical systems using various biogas fermenter effluents as inocula and municipal waste liquor as adapting substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakonyi, Péter; Koók, László; Keller, Enikő; Bélafi-Bakó, Katalin; Rózsenberszki, Tamás; Saratale, Ganesh Dattatraya; Nguyen, Dinh Duc; Banu, J Rajesh; Nemestóthy, Nándor

    2018-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to improve microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance - treating landfill-derived waste liquor - by applying effluents of various biogas fermenters as inocula. It turned out that the differences of initial microbial community profiles notably influenced the efficiency of MFCs. In fact, the adaptation time (during 3 weeks of operation) has varied significantly, depending on the source of inoculum and accordingly, the obtainable cumulative energy yields were also greatly affected (65% enhancement in case of municipal wastewater sludge inoculum compared to sugar factory waste sludge inoculum). Hence, it could be concluded that the capacity of MFCs to utilize the complex feedstock was heavily dependent on biological factors such as the origin/history of inoculum, the microbial composition as well as proper acclimation period. Therefore, these parameters should be of primary concerns for adequate process design to efficiently generate electricity with microbial fuel cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Interfacial reaction of silver ultra-thin film deposited on interpenetrating polymer network substrate by liquor-phase reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Dongyan, E-mail: dytang@hit.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Guo Yudi [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang Xiaohong [College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Yin Yuelong [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2010-08-01

    The interfacial reaction, metal transformations, and nonmetal bond types of silver ultra-thin film deposited on polyurethane (PU) based interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN) substrate by the liquor-phase reduction at room temperatures were studied by atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The IPN substrate was prepared by dip-pulling precursors onto a silicon wafer or a glass plate, followed by solidification at room temperature. The interpenetrate structures of IPN with two crosslinked networks restricted the aggregation of silver during the reduction and deposition. The devised -OH terminal group in PU simplified the determination of reactive site in IPN and reinforced the adhesion between IPN and silver through interfacial reaction. The XPS results, which matched well with the ATR-FTIR results, verified the chemical reactive site of PU in IPN with silver in the oxide state.

  2. Modeling, simulation, and analysis of a reactor system for the generation of white liquor of a pulp and paper industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andreola

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An industrial system for the production of white liquor of a pulp and paper industry, Klabin Paraná Papéis, formed by ten reactors was modeled, simulated, and analyzed. The developed model considered possible water losses by the evaporation and reaction, in addition to variations in the volumetric flow of lime mud across the reactors due to the composition variations. The model predictions agreed well with the process measurements at the plant and the results showed that the slaking reaction was nearly complete at the third causticizing reactor, while causticizing ends by the seventh reactor. Water loss due to slaking reaction and evaporation occurred more pronouncedly in the slaker reactor than in the final causticizing reactors; nevertheless, the lime mud flow remained nearly constant across the reactors.

  3. Mineral phases of green liquor dregs, slaker grits, lime mud and wood ash of a Kraft pulp and paper mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Fernanda Machado; Munhoz Martins, Joaniel; Ferracin, Luiz Carlos; Cunha, Carlos Jorge da

    2007-01-01

    Four residues generated in a Kraft, pulp and paper plant, were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XFA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimmetric analysis (TG) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A quantitative phase composition model, that accounts for the observed data and for the physico-chemical conditions of formation, was postulated for each material. Emphasis was given on the identification of the mineral components of each material. The green liquor dregs and the lime mud contain Calcite and Gipsite. The slaker grits contains Calcite, Portlandite, Pirssonite, Larnite and Brucite. The Calcite phase, present in the dregs and in the lime mud, has small amounts of magnesium replacing calcium. The wood ash contains Quartz as the major crystalline mineral phase

  4. Extraction of uranium and copper from sulphate leach liquors of West Central Sinai uraniferrous siltstone of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, T.E.; Mahdy, M.A.; El-Hazek, N.T.; El Bayoumi, R.M.; Hassanein, S.

    2000-01-01

    Extraction of uranium and copper from sulphate leach liquors of west central Sinai ore samples were performed using solvent extraction technique. Sulphate leach solutions were processed for the extraction of copper using 3% v/v LIX 973N. Copper extractions higher than 98.1% were obtained. Then, uranium was extracted using a tertiary amine. Two amines have been studied 2% v/v tri-n-octyl amine and 1.5% Alamine 336. Parameters studied included solvents concentration, contact time and solution pH. Stripping of uranium and copper were studied using sodium carbonate and sulphuric acid, respectively. Conditions were established for determining the number of stages required for extraction and stripping of copper and uranium through the construction of the corresponding McCabe-Theile diagrams. The results obtained have been utilized to formulate a proposed flowsheet for the production of uranium and copper from west central Sinai ore samples. (author)

  5. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum steep liquor as a leavening agent: Effect on dough rheology and sensory properties of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Ahmed M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dough fermentation is one of the oldest process in food technologies. It has been recently intensively studied for its impact on the sensory, structural, nutritional and shelf life properties of leavened baked products. The goals of this work were to investigate chickpea steep liquor (CSL as a dough-leavening agent and to study the effect of CSL on the dough rheology and sensory properties of leavened bread. CSL was prepared by submerging chickpea seeds in boiled distilled water (1:2, w/v for 24 h at 37оC, and then obtained liquor was filtered and freeze-dried to obtain CSL. The addition of CSL to wheat flour (WF brought changes in the dough mixing behavior as measured by the farinograph. An increase in the farinograph water absorption of WF dough was observed when 4.5% CSL and 1.5% yeast was added, while arrival time was not affected. Addition of CSL to the dough at a content of 4.5, 9.0 and 13.5 g CSL/300 g WF caused an increase in dough stability. The CSL addition also increased mechanical tolerance index, dough weakening and mixing time. Dough development time for all blends was higher than the control (1.2-1.5 min, while between the CSL samples no significant difference was observed. The loaf weight slightly increased from 146.2 g for control to 152.2 g for CSL fermented bread, whereas the loaf volume and specific volume of CSL-fermented bread were lower than the control. The combination of yeast and CSL increased the acceptability of bread with the increasing level of both leavening agents’. The results show that CSL could be used as an alternative to yeast for syngas fermentation. On the other hand, CLS is rich in nutrients and lower in cost compared to yeast.

  6. Bacillus licheniformis affects the microbial community and metabolic profile in the spontaneous fermentation of Daqu starter for Chinese liquor making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Wu, Qun; Jiang, Xuejian; Wang, Zhiqiang; Tang, Jingli; Xu, Yan

    2017-06-05

    Chinese liquor is produced from spontaneous fermentation starter (Daqu) that provides the microbes, enzymes and flavors for liquor fermentation. To improve the flavor character of Daqu, we inoculated Bacillus licheniformis and studied the effect of this strain on the community structure and metabolic profile in Daqu fermentation. The microbial relative abundance changed after the inoculation, including the increase in Bacillus, Clavispora and Aspergillus, and the decrease in Pichia, Saccharomycopsis and some other genera. This variation was also confirmed by pure culture and coculture experiments. Seventy-three metabolites were identified during Daqu fermentation process. After inoculation, the average content of aromatic compounds were significantly enriched from 0.37mg/kg to 0.90mg/kg, and the average content of pyrazines significantly increased from 0.35mg/kg to 5.71mg/kg. The increase in pyrazines was positively associated with the metabolism of the inoculated Bacillus and the native genus Clavispora, because they produced much more pyrazines in their cocultures. Whereas the increase in aromatic compounds might be related to the change of in situ metabolic activity of several native genera, in particular, Aspergillus produced more aromatic compounds in cocultures with B. licheniformis. It indicated that the inoculation of B. licheniformis altered the flavor character of Daqu by both its own metabolic activity and the variation of in situ metabolic activity. Moreover, B. licheniformis inoculation influenced the enzyme activity of Daqu, including the significant increase in amylase activity (from 1.3gstarch/g/h to 1.7gstarch/g/h), and the significant decrease in glucoamylase activity (from 627.6mgglucose/g/h to 445.6mgglucose/g/h) and esterase activity (from 28.1mgethylcaproate/g/100h to 17.2mgethylcaproate/g/100h). These effects of inoculation were important factors for regulating the metabolism of microbial communities, hence for improving the flavor profile

  7. Characterization of three Brazilian bauxites and the corresponding bayer liquors in regard to rare earth and other minor elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda Oba, C.A.; Avritscher, W.; Pini, R.A.; Abrao, A.; Chaves, A.P.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: In this paper the results of chemical analysis of representative Brazilian bauxites are presented and discussed. Analyses were made on original mother rocks, ores, tailings from washing plants, Bayer liquors produced from this ores and also from the red muds. Samples of the ores were submitted to size, magnetic and density separation and these fractions were also analysed. Minor elements of interest assayed were rare earth, gallium and vanadium. Atomic absorption spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence and emission spectroscopy were applied for the minor elements and also conventional wet chemical analyses mainly for major elements. A special technique for a rapid identification and semi-quantitative analysis of gallium and a permanent file for the results are presented as well. Brazilian bauxites are all of lateritic origin, constituted essentially by gibbsite and formed by intense tropical weathering of different rocks. This paper presents the chemical characterization of three Brazilian bauxites, namely Porto Trombetas, Cataguazes and Pocos de Caldas and the behaviour of their minor elements during the industrial processing in the mines and alumina mills. The grades of rare earths elements, gallium and vanadium show significant variations. This is most probably due to mother rocks characteristics than to bauxitization processes. The review deposits have the following mother rocks: Porto Trombetas Sedimentary - Cataguazes Metamorphic - Pocos de Caldas Alkaline (sienite). The samples from Pocos de Caldas show high grade for La+Ce with an average over 800ppm, Cataguazes has an average of 76 ppm La+Ce and Porto Trombetas 6,5ppm. Gallium grades are higher for Pocos de Caldas (average 135 ppm), followed by Porto Trombetas (62 ppm) and Cataguazes (37ppm). Vanadium grades are higher for Porto Trombetas (243 ppm) then Pocos de Caldas (165 ppm). Pocos de Caldas shows 50% enrichment in Ce in the washed ore and in Porto Trombetas most of the Y goes to the fines (product

  8. Uranium extraction from ores with lemon juice; II,b. uranium recovery from pregnant lemon juice liquors obtained by attacking phosphate ore and suggested flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    In order to recover uranium from the pregnant liquors obtained by attacking Safaga phosphate and Qatrani phosphatic sandstone ore materials with lemon juice, methylation for acidic fraction-salt separation has been carried out. Afterwards, separation of uranium from the associated calcium (mainly present in lemon juice liquors as citrate) has been performed by making-use of the wide difference in their water solubility. The solutions containing the separated uranium were then subjected to evaporation till dryness whereby the precipitated uranyl citrate was calcined at 500 degree C to obtain the yellow orange oxide powder (UO 3 ). On the basis of one ton ore treatment, a flowsheet for uranium recovery from the two ore materials has been suggested

  9. Uranium extraction from ores with lemon juice I,b-uranium recovery from pregnant lemon juice liquors obtained by attacking phosphate ores and suggested flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Sayed, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    In order to recover uranium from the pregnant liquors obtained by attacking safaga phosphate and qatrani phosphatic sandstone ore materials with lemon juice, methylation for acidic fraction-salt separation has been carried out. Afterwards, separation of uranium from the associated calcium (mainly present in lemon juice liquors as citrate) has been performed by making-use of the wide difference in their water solubility. The solutions containing the separated uranium were then subjected to evaporation till dryness whereby the precipitated uranyl citrate was calcined at 500 degree C to obtain the yellow orange oxide powder (U o 3 ). On the basis of one ton ore treatment, a flowsheet for uranium recovery from the two ore materials has been suggested

  10. Avaliação do uso da levedura de descarte da indústria cervejeira na obtenção da aguardente de liquor de laranja

    OpenAIRE

    Paula, Crislaine Alvarenga Perez de; Faria, João Bosco

    2017-01-01

    Resumo O liquor de laranja, subproduto da indústria cítrica brasileira, é atualmente destinado à produção de ração animal, assim como o fermento da indústria cervejeira, que é descartado, após cinco ciclos de produção, contendo ainda alta porcentagem de células viáveis. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a reutilização da levedura de descarte da indústria cervejeira na produção da aguardente de liquor de laranja, sem reposição do pé-de-cuba, além de avaliar o impacto desta prática na q...

  11. THE EFFECTIVITY TEST OF SHEEP RUMEN LIQUOR ENZYME ADDED TO PALM KERNEL MEAL ON ITS DECREASE OF CRUDE FIBER AND APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY COEFFICIENT FOR CATFISH Pangasius hypophthalmus DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Pamungkas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the hydrolysis of fiber content in palm kernel meal (PKM by sheep rumen liquor enzyme and to know the apparent digestibility coefficient of hydrolyzed PKM for catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus. The first trial examined effectivity of sheep rumen liquor enzyme to decrease crude fiber content of PKM. The added volume of sheep rumen liquor enzyme was 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mL/kg PKM and then it was incubated for 0, 12, and 24 hours. A factorial completely randomized experimental design consisted of 2 variables and triplicates were selected. The second trial was conducted to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of hydrolized PKM for catfish. Apparent digestibility coefficients were determined using chromic oxide indicator added to both reference and test diets. The feed ingredients used in the trial were hydrolyzed PKM (PKMe and unhydrolyzed PKM (PKM. Ten fishes with weighing around 20 g were used in the trial and held in 80 l tanks. Feces were collected from three replicate groups of fish using a fecal collection column attached to fish rearing tank. PKM hydrolyzed with 100 mL/kg and incubated for 24 hour showed the lowest crude fiber content (6.99% among the treatments (P<0.05. Apparent digestibility coefficient of hydrolyzed PKM was 57.57% compared with unhydrolyzed PKM 15.31%. Based on the evaluation in those parameters it was concluded that sheep rumen liquor enzyme added to PKM was effective to decrease crude fiber content of PKM and improve apparent digestibility coefficient of PKM for catfish.

  12. Conversion of levulinic acid into γ-valerolactone using Fe3(CO)12: mimicking a biorefinery setting by exploiting crude liquors from biomass acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzker, Gustavo; Burtoloso, Antonio C B

    2015-09-28

    The conversion of biomass-derived levulinic acid (LA) into gamma-valerolactone (GVL) using formic acid (FA) and Fe3(CO)12 as the catalyst precursor was achieved in 92% yield. To mimic a biorefinery setting, crude liquor (containing 20% LA) from the acid hydrolysis of sugarcane biomass in a pilot plant facility was directly converted into GVL in good yield (50%), without the need for isolating LA.

  13. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 1 (Main text and Appendix I, sections 1--4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 1 contains the main body of the report and the first 4 sections of Appendix 1: Modeling of black liquor recovery boilers -- summary report; Flow and heat transfer modeling in the upper furnace of a kraft recovery boiler; Numerical simulation of black liquor combustion; and Investigation of turbulence models and prediction of swirling flows for kraft recovery furnaces.

  14. [Influence of acupoint injection with small dose of fentanyl-droperidol mixed liquor on labor analgesia and level of stress hormone in parturient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Xia; Yao, Yuan; Wu, Yong-Sheng; Liu, Yuan; Yan, Li-Rong; Su, Xin-Jing

    2013-04-01

    To observe the clinical effect of acupoint injection with small dose of fentanyl-droperido mixed liquor at different time stages on labor analgesia, and explore its function mechanism. One hundred and fifty cases of full-term primiparas who were intended to take vaginal delivery were randomly divided into 3 groups, 50 cases in each one. The acupoint injection with fentanyl-droperido mixed liquor at different time stages was applied in the group I, where Shenshu (BL 23) was selected in active phase and Ciliao (BL 32) was selected in the 2nd stage of labor. The subcutaneous injection with fentanyl-droperido mixed liquor was adopted in group II. The group III, which was considered as a control group, was treated with subcutaneous injection of 0.9% NaCl at the same time stage as group I and II. The blood pressure, VAS score and level of norepinephrine and adrenaline were observed at different time stages. Compared before the injection, the blood pressure of group III in the active phase and 2nd stage of labor was significantly increased (P labor was significantly lower than that in the group II and III (P labor analgesia, and it could significantly relieve stress reaction of parturient during the labor. Its mechanism could be related to the reduction of stress hormone in parturient.

  15. Minimizing the creation of spent pickling liquors in a pickling process with high-concentration hydrochloric acid solutions: mechanism and evaluation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bing; Su, Wen; Wang, Jing; Fu, Fenglian; Yu, Guojun; Zhang, Jianyin

    2012-05-15

    The purpose of this investigation is to propose a strategy for minimizing the creation of spent pickling liquors through the synergistic corrosion inhibition of OP-10 and potassium iodide, thus facilitating a cleaner production process for acid pickling of metals with a high-concentration solution (6.0 mol/l) of hydrochloric acid. Results obtained with the methods of weight loss and electrochemical polarization showed that adding KI and OP-10 could enhance the energy barrier of the corrosion reaction and improved the corrosion inhibition for mild steel in high concentration of HCl solutions. A synergistic effect was identified when KI and OP-10 were present in suitable proportions. The results of the electrochemical experiments and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations showed that the complex inhibitor was a mixed-type inhibitor and it formed a compact film on the metal surface, thus providing an effective protection for the metal in the aggressive solutions, which significantly minimized the creation of spent pickling liquors. A simple and convenient method was also proposed for the quantificational evaluation of the inhibition degree in the creation of spent pickling liquors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 27 CFR 24.65 - Claims for wine or spirits lost or destroyed in bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claims for wine or spirits lost or destroyed in bond. 24.65 Section 24.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... fermentation in bottles, by artificial carbonation, and by bulk processing; and (3) Claims covering losses of...

  17. Streptomyces misionensis PESB-25 Produces a Thermoacidophilic Endoglucanase Using Sugarcane Bagasse and Corn Steep Liquor as the Sole Organic Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Raquel de Carvalho; Gravina-Oliveira, Mônica Pires; Pereira, Pedro Henrique Freitas; do Nascimento, Rodrigo Pires; Bon, Elba Pinto da Silva; Macrae, Andrew; Coelho, Rosalie Reed Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Streptomyces misionensis strain PESB-25 was screened and selected for its ability to secrete cellulases. Cells were grown in a liquid medium containing sugarcane bagasse (SCB) as carbon source and corn steep liquor (CSL) as nitrogen source, whose concentrations were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). A peak of endoglucanase accumulation (1.01 U·mL−1) was observed in a medium with SCB 1.0% (w/v) and CSL 1.2% (w/v) within three days of cultivation. S. misionensis PESB-25 endoglucanase activity was thermoacidophilic with optimum pH and temperature range of 3.0 to 3.6 and 62° to 70°C, respectively. In these conditions, values of 1.54 U mL−1 of endoglucanase activity were observed. Moreover, Mn2+ was demonstrated to have a hyperactivating effect on the enzyme. In the presence of MnSO4 (8 mM), the enzyme activity increased threefold, up to 4.34 U·mL−1. Mn2+ also improved endoglucanase stability as the catalyst retained almost full activity upon incubation at 50°C for 4 h, while in the absence of Mn2+, enzyme activity decreased by 50% in this same period. Three protein bands with endoglucanase activity and apparent molecular masses of 12, 48.5 and 119.5 kDa were detected by zymogram. PMID:23586048

  18. PYROLIGNEOUS LIQUOR PRODUCED FROM ACACIA MEARNSII DE WILD WOOD UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS AS A RENEWABLE SOURCE OF CHEMICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina M. Furtado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mearnsii de Wild (black wattle is one of the most important trees planted in Southern Brazil for tannin extraction and charcoal production. The pyrolysis of the black wattle wood used for obtaining charcoal is performed in brick ovens, with the gas fraction being sent directly into the environment. The present study examines the condensable compounds present in the liquor produced from black wattle wood at different thermal degradation conditions, using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Branches of black wattle were thermally degraded at controlled ambient and temperature conditions. Overall, a higher variety of compounds were obtained under atmospheric air pressure than under synthetic air pressure. Most of the tentatively identified compounds, such as carboxylic acids, phenols, aldehydes, and low molecular mass lignin fragments, such as guayacol, syringol, and eugenol, were products of lignin thermoconversion. Substituted aromatic compounds, such as vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and 2-methoxy-4-propeny-phenol, were also identified. At temperatures above 200 ºC, furan, 2-acetylfuran, methyl-2-furoate, and furfural, amongst others, were identified as polysaccharide derivatives from cellulose and hemicellulose depolymerization. This study evidences the need for adequate management of the condensable by-products of charcoal production, both for economic reasons and for controlling their potential environmental impact.

  19. Study of Adsorption Property of Ga(III) onto Strongly Basic Resin for Ga Extraction from Bayer Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhuo; Yang, Yongxiang; Lu, Hao; Hua, Zhongsheng; Ma, Xiaoling

    Ion-exchange is the main technology used in industry for gallium recovery from Bayer liquor, the largest gallium production resource. However, the co-extraction of vanadium and the degradation of resins are the major issues. Further investigations related to fundamental theory are needed. This paper reports the study of the adsorption properties of a strongly basic resin having a combination of one =NOH group and another active group -NH2 for Ga(III) extraction. The influence of operational conditions such as contact time, initial Ga(III) concentration and temperature on Ga(III) adsorption were extensively investigated. The results revealed that the resin has high adsorption capacity and Ga(III) selectivity. The optimal adsorption condition was obtained at temperatures of 40-50°C and contact time of 40-60 min. The Ga(III) adsorption data on the resin fit well with the pseudo second-order kinetics. Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to describe Ga(III) adsorption isotherms on the resin.

  20. Increasing the lignin yield of the Alkaline Polyol Pulping process by treating black liquor with laccases of Myceliophthora thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Norman; Hundt, Martin; Schapals, Tino

    2016-03-01

    The Alkaline Polyol Pulping process separates cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass by dissolving lignin to a great extent. Due to the pulping conditions the dissolved lignin depolymerises and only 75% can be precipitated. To increase this amount, a 24 h reaction of laccases of Myceliophthora thermophila with lignin dissolved in black liquor of the AlkaPolP process was investigated. The influence of pH, temperature, enzyme concentration and partial oxygen pressure was examined in a batch stirred tank reactor using a Box-Behnken factorial design. Due to the enzymatic reaction the lignin polymerises which results in an enhanced lignin precipitation. The addition of a mediator improves the polymerisation but decreases the amount of precipitable lignin. The influence of the parameters on precipitation yield and molecular mass can sufficiently be described with a second-order model and optimum conditions can be assessed. FT-IR spectra of the obtained lignins revealed that its typical phenolic structure is preserved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of Co3O4 prepared from atmospheric pressure acid leach liquors of nickel laterite ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Long; Guo, Zhan-cheng; Qu, Jing-kui; Qi, Tao; Guo, Qiang; Hou, Gui-hua; Dong, Peng-yu; Xi, Xin-guo

    2018-01-01

    A chemical precipitation-thermal decomposition method was developed to synthesize Co3O4 nanoparticles using cobalt liquor obtained from the atmospheric pressure acid leaching process of nickel laterite ores. The effects of the precursor reaction temperature, the concentration of Co2+, and the calcination temperature on the specific surface area, morphology, and the electrochemical behavior of the obtained Co3O4 particles were investigated. The precursor basic cobaltous carbonate and cobaltosic oxide products were characterized and analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, specific surface area analysis, and electrochemical analysis. The results indicate that the specific surface area of the Co3O4 particles with a diameter of 30 nm, which were obtained under the optimum conditions of a precursor reaction temperature of 30°C, 0.25 mol/L Co2+, and a calcination temperature of 350°C, was 48.89 m2/g. Electrodes fabricated using Co3O4 nanoparticles exhibited good electrochemical properties, with a specific capacitance of 216.3 F/g at a scan rate of 100 mV/s.

  2. Corn steep liquor as a nutrition adjunct for the production of Aspergillus niger lipase and hydrolysis of oils thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwinoliver, N G; Thirunavukarasu, K; Purushothaman, S; Rose, C; Gowthaman, M K; Kamini, N R

    2009-11-25

    Corn steep liquor (CSL) has been used as a nutrition adjunct for the production of an extracellular lipase from Aspergillus niger, which has immense importance as an additive in laundry detergent formulations. A five-level four-factorial central composite design was chosen to determine the optimal medium components with four critical variables, namely, CSL, NH4H2PO4, Na2HPO4, and sesame oil, that were found to be influential for lipase production by the classical one-factor-at-a-time method. The model suggested that all of the factors chosen had a significant impact on lipase production, and the optimum values of the influential parameters were CSL, 2.0%, w/v; NH4H2PO4, 0.05%, w/v; Na2HPO4, 0.75%, w/v; and sesame oil, 2.0%, w/v, with an activity of 26.7 U/mL at 48 h and 30 degrees C, which was 2.16-fold higher than the initial activity (12 U/mL) obtained by the conventional one-factor-at-a-time method. Furthermore, the enzyme has good potential for the hydrolysis of vegetable oils and fish oils, and a hydrolytic ratio of 88.73% was obtained with palm oil at 48 h. The utilization of CSL and sesame oil for lipase production from A. niger makes the process green, because both are renewable substrates and economically viable at an industrial scale.

  3. Preparation and characterization of PTFE coating in new polymer quartz piezoelectric crystal sensor for testing liquor products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Yu; Li Qiang

    2015-01-01

    A new method was developed based on the electron beam vacuum dispersion (EBVD) technology to prepare the PTFE polymer coating of the new polymer quartz piezoelectric crystal sensor for testing liquor products. The new method was applied in the new EBVD equipment which we designed. A real-time system monitoring the polymer coating’s thickness was designed for the new EBVD equipment according to the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) principle, playing an important role in preparing stable and uniform PTFE polymer coatings of the same thickness. 30 pieces of PTFE polymer coatings on the surface of the quartz crystal basis were prepared with the PTFE polymer ultrafine powder (purity ≥ 99.99%) as the starting material. We obtained 30 pieces of new PTFE polymer sensors. By using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the structure of the PTFE polymer coating’s column clusters was studied. One sample from the 30 pieces of new PTFE polymer sensors was analysed by SEM in four scales, i.e., 400×, 1000×, 10000×, and 25000×. It was shown that under the condition of high bias voltage and low bias current, uniformly PTFE polymer coating could be achieved, which indicates that the new EBVD equipment is suitable for mass production of stable and uniform polymer coating. (paper)

  4. High-cell-density fed-batch culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae KV-25 using molasses and corn steep liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Van Hanh; Kim, Keun

    2009-12-01

    High-cell-density cultivation of yeast was investigated using the agricultural waste products corn steep liquor (CSL) and molasses. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae KV-25 cell mass was significantly dependent on the ratio between C and N sources. The concentrations of molasses and CSL in the culture medium were statistically optimized at 10.25% (v/v) and 16.87% (v/v), respectively, by response surface methodology (RSM). Batch culture in a 5-l stirred tank reactor using the optimized medium resulted in a cell mass production of 36.5 g/l. In the fed-batch culture, the feed phase was preceded by a batch phase using the optimized medium, and a very high dried-cell-mass yield of 187.63 g/l was successfully attained by feeding a mixture of 20% (v/v) molasses and 80% (v/v) CSL at a rate of 22 ml/h. In this system, the production of cell mass depended mainly on the agitation speed, the composition of the feed medium, and the glucose level in the medium, but only slightly on the aeration rate.

  5. Effect of ruminant species (bovine vs buffalo and source of inoculum (rumen liquor vs faeces on in vitro fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Piccolo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of inoculum (rumen liquor - RL vs faeces - FA from cow or buffalo with respect to feed evaluation using in vitro gas systems was estimated in a trial using 8 substrates. The substrate influenced significantly all fermentation characteristics; with each inoculum the substrates were ranked according the same trends for organic matter digestibility (dOM and cumulative gas volume per gram of OM incubated (OMCV. The animal species affected dOM and OMCV which were significantly higher in buffalo and cow, respectively. Buffalo showed significantly higher values of acetic, propionic, butyric acids and total VFA, while isobutyric, isovaleric and valeric acids were higher in cow. The inocula influenced the fermentation characteristics in both species: while in cow all parameters, except OMCV, were higher with FA than RL, in buffalo dOM, OMCV, acetic and total VFAs were higher with RL. The results confirmed the lower cellulolytic activity of FA micropopulation than RL one. All the data suggest that, while there may be scope for faeces to replace rumen fluid as inoculum for some end-point measures, is not possible to replace cow inocula to buffalo.

  6. Effect of corn steep liquor on lettuce root rot (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lactucae) in hydroponic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinta, Yufita D; Kano, Kazuki; Widiastuti, Ani; Fukahori, Masaru; Kawasaki, Shizuka; Eguchi, Yumi; Misu, Hideyuki; Odani, Hiromitsu; Zhou, Songying; Narisawa, Kazuhiko; Fujiwara, Kazuki; Shinohara, Makoto; Sato, Tatsuo

    2014-08-01

    Recent reports indicate that organic fertilisers have a suppressive effect on the pathogens of plants grown under hydroponic systems. Furthermore, microorganisms exhibiting antagonistic activity to diseases have been observed in organic hydroponic systems. This study evaluated the effect of corn steep liquor (CSL) on controlling lettuce root rot disease [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lactucae (FOL)] in a hydroponic system. The effect of CSL and Otsuka A (a chemical fertiliser) on the inhibition of FOL in terms of mycelial growth inhibition was tested in vivo. Addition of CSL suppressed FOL infection rates. CSL inhibited FOL infection by 26.3-42.5% from 2 days after starting incubation. In comparison, Otsuka A inhibited FOL growth by 5.5-19.4%. In addition, four of 10 bacteria isolated from the nutrient media containing CSL exhibited inhibition zones preventing FOL mycelial growth. We found that CSL suppressed FOL in lettuce via its antifungal and biostimulatory effects. We suggest that activation of beneficial microorganisms present in CSL may be used to decrease lettuce root rot disease and contribute to lettuce root growth. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Biological treatment of high-pH and high-concentration black liquor of cotton pulp by an immediate aerobic-anaerobic-aerobic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihong, Miao; Furong, Li; Jinli, Wen

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an immediate aerobic-anaerobic-aerobic (O/A/O) biological process was established for the treatment of black liquor of cotton pulp and was tested by both laboratory-scale batch experiment and pilot-scale continuous experiment. The effects of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) were studied, as were the alkaliphilic bacteria number, the culturing temperature and the concentration of black liquor on COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal. The total COD (COD(tot)) removal rate of the novel O/A/O process, for a black liquor with influent COD(tot) over 8,000 mg/L and pH above 12.8, was 68.7+/-4% which is similar with that of the traditional acidic-anaerobic-aerobic process (64.9+/-3%). The first aerobic stage based on alkaliphilic bacteria was the crucial part of the process, which was responsible for decreasing the influent pH from above 12 to an acceptable level for the following treatment unit. The average generation time of the alkaliphilic bacteria in the black liquor was about 36 minutes at 40 degrees C in a batch aerobic activated sludge system. The efficiency of the first aerobic stage was affected greatly by the temperature. The COD(tot) removal at 55 degrees C was much lower in comparison with the COD(tot) removal at 45 degrees C or 50 degrees C. Both the laboratory-scale batch experiments and the pilot-scale continuous experiment showed that the COD(tot) removal rate could reach about 65% for original black liquor with a pH of about 13.0 and a COD of 18,000-22,000 mg/L by the immediate O/A/O process. The first aerobic stage gave an average COD(tot) removal of 45.5% at 35 degrees C (HRT = 72 h) at a volume loading rate of 3.4 kg COD m(-3) d(-1).

  8. 19 CFR 19.15 - Withdrawal for exportation of articles manufactured in bond; waste or byproducts for consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... manufactured in bond; waste or byproducts for consumption. 19.15 Section 19.15 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... exportation of articles manufactured in bond; waste or byproducts for consumption. (a) Except cigars... may be withdrawn from the warehouse for consumption under Customs Form 7501 upon payment of the duties...

  9. The functional potential and active populations of the pit mud microbiome for the production of Chinese strong-flavour liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yong; Wang, Xiang; Li, Xiangzhen; Wei, Na; Jin, Hong; Xu, Zhancheng; Tang, Qinglan; Zhu, Xiaoyu

    2017-11-01

    The popular distilled Chinese strong-flavour liquor (CSFL) is produced by solid fermentation in the ground pit. Microbes inhabiting in the pit mud (PM) on the walls of the fermentation pit are responsible for the production of caproic acid (CA) that determines the quality of CSFL to a large degree. However, little is known about the active microbial populations and metabolic potential of the PM microbiome. Here, we investigated the overall metabolic features of the PM microbiome and its active microbial components by combining metagenomics and MiSeq-sequencing analyses of the 16S rRNA genes from DNA and RNA (cDNA). Results showed that prokaryotes were predominant populations in the PM microbiome, accounting for 95.3% of total metagenomic reads, while eukaryotic abundance was only 1.8%. The dominant prokaryotic phyla were Firmicutes, Euryarchaeota, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, accounting for 48.0%, 19.0%, 13.5%, 2.5% and 2.1% of total metagenomic reads respectively. Most genes encoding putative metabolic pathways responsible for the putative CA production via chain elongation pathway were detected. This indicated that the PM microbiome owned functional potential for synthesizing CA from ethanol or lactate. Some key genes encoding enzymes involved in hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogenesis pathways were detected in the PM metagenome, suggesting the possible occurrence of interspecies hydrogen transfer between CA-producing bacteria and methanogens. The 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA profiles showed that the Clostridial cluster IV, Lactobacillus, Caloramator, Clostridium, Sedimentibacter, Bacteroides and Porphyromonas were active populations in situ, in which Clostridial cluster IV and Clostridium were likely involved in the CA production. This study improved our understandings on the active populations and metabolic pathways of the PM microbiome involved in the CA synthesis in the CSFL fermentation. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology

  10. Exposure to secondhand smoke at work: a survey of members of the Australian Liquor, Hospitality and Miscellaneous Workers Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Melissa; Wakefield, Melanie; Trotter, Lisa; Inglis, Graeme

    2003-10-01

    To measure workers' attitudes towards and experiences of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in the workplace. A stratified random sample of members from the Victorian Branch of the Australian Liquor, Hospitality and Miscellaneous Workers Union (LHMU) was interviewed by telephone in September 2001. Of the 1,078 respondents surveyed (77% response rate), hospitality workers comprised 49% of the sample, while the remainder comprised community services, property services and manufacturing workers. Overall, 54% of union members were employed in workplaces that did not completely ban smoking and 34% reported being exposed to SHS during their typical working day. Workplaces with total smoking bans had a high level of compliance with these restrictions, with no workers in these settings indicating exposure to SHS at work. Compared with other workers, hospitality workers reported working in environments that had more permissive smoking policies. Consistent with this, 56% of hospitality workers said they were exposed to SHS during a typical day at work compared with 11% of other workers. Overall, 79% of workers expressed concern about exposure to SHS, including 66% of smokers. Compared with other workers, hospitality workers reported a higher level of concern about exposure to SHS at work. These findings provide evidence that many workers, and especially those employed in the hospitality sector, are exposed to SHS during their working day and are concerned about the effects of such exposure on their health. These findings indicate that workplace smoke-free policies are effective in reducing worker exposure to SHS and demonstrate support for the extension of smoke-free policies to hospitality workplaces.

  11. Survey Estimates of Changes in Alcohol Use Patterns Following the 2012 Privatization of the Washington Liquor Monopoly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, William C; Williams, Edwina; Ye, Yu; Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Greenfield, Thomas K

    2018-02-08

    The US state of Washington's 333 state-run liquor stores were privatized on 1 June 2012 and purchases began in ~1500 licensed stores of a variety of types. A regime of taxes and fees was implemented to replace the revenues generated by the state stores and, 1 year later, the beer tax was reduced by two thirds. This study evaluates the impact of these changes on total alcohol and spirits consumption in a retrospective pre-test design. The study sample consists of 2289 adults recruited in three cross-sectional surveys during 2014 and 2015. Retrospective typical past month quantity-frequency measures for before privatization drinking and current past month quantity-frequency measures were compared within subjects, for all alcohol and for spirits only. No change in alcohol volume was seen across privatization while spirits volume was found to decrease, suggesting a shift from spirits to beer. This decline in spirits volume came from a reduction in drinking days while overall drinking days were found to increase. This was offset by a reduction in drinks per drinking day and in heavy occasions. These findings accurately mirror the overall flat trend in per capita alcohol sales but seem to exaggerate the very small shift towards beer seen in sales data. Effects of increased spirits availability appear to have been countered by increased spirits prices and a decreased beer tax, leading to a shift to beer consumption. Survey-based analyses of alcohol use across Washington's spirits privatization, beer tax reduction and marijuana legalization found no change in alcohol volume, a reduction in spirits volume and a shift to more moderate drinking patterns. Reductions in drinking occurred among marijuana users and those with lower educational attainment reduced spirits volume. © The Author(s) 2018. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  12. Fermentation Kinetics for Xylitol Production by a Pichia stipitis d-Xylulokinase Mutant Previously Grown in Spent Sulfite Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Rita C. L. B.; Lu, Chenfeng; Lin, Bernice; Jeffries, Thomas W.

    Spent sulfite pulping liquor (SSL) contains lignin, which is present as lignosulfonate, and hemicelluloses that are present as hydrolyzed carbohydrates. To reduce the biological oxygen demand of SSL associated with dissolved sugars, we studied the capacity of Pichia stipitis FPL-YS30 (xyl3Δ) to convert these sugars into useful products. FPL-YS30 produces a negligible amount of ethanol while converting xylose into xylitol. This work describes the xylose fermentation kinetics of yeast strain P.stipitis FPL-YS30. Yeast was grown in rich medium supplemented with different carbon sources: glucose, xylose, or ammonia-base SSL. The SSL and glucose-acclimatized cells showed similar maximum specific growth rates (0.146 h-1). The highest xylose consumption at the beginning of the fermentation process occurred using cells precultivated in xylose, which showed relatively high specific activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49). However, the maximum specific rates of xylose consumption (0.19 gxylose/gcel h) and xylitol production (0.059 gxylitol/gcel h) were obtained with cells acclimatized in glucose, in which the ratio between xylose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21) and xylitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.9) was kept at higher level (0.82). In this case, xylitol production (31.6 g/l) was 19 and 8% higher than in SSL and xylose-acclimatized cells, respectively. Maximum glycerol (6.26 g/l) and arabitol (0.206 g/l) production were obtained using SSL and xylose-acclimatized cells, respectively. The medium composition used for the yeast precultivation directly reflected their xylose fermentation performance. The SSL could be used as a carbon source for cell production. However, the inoculum condition to obtain a high cell concentration in SSL needs to be optimized.

  13. Effect of different levels of corn steep liquor addition on fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of fresh rice straw silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to determine the proper mixing ratio of fresh rice straw to corn steep liquor (CSL to obtain a high protein content silage feed. The following experimental silages were generated: the control (C1, composed of fresh rice straw without CSL additive, mixed with CSL in the ratios of 4:1 (C4, 3:1 (C3 and 2:1 (C2. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB inoculant was applied at the rate of 50 mL/kg (fresh basis of forage to achieve a final application rate of 1 × 106 cfu/g of fresh matter (FM. Duplicate silos for each treatment were opened after 0, 3, 7, 10, 20, 30, 45 and 60 d for microbiological and chemical analysis. The results showed that the addition of CSL significantly increased crude protein (CP contents, and decreased neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF contents of treatments after 60 d of ensiling (P < 0.05. The lactic acid contents in C4 and C3 were significantly higher than that in C1 (P < 0.05. In summary, mixing fresh rice straw with CSL at addition levels of 4:1 (C4 and 3:1 (C3 can improve the fermentation quality and nutrient composition of fresh rice straw silage. However, a large proportion of CSL (C3 had a negative impact on the aerobic stability of fresh rice straw.

  14. Development and characterization of the tangerine peel liquor with different alcoholic bases - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i1.7873

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Fleury Viana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to produce and characterize a liquor of tangerine peel with three alcoholic bases (grain alcohol, sugar cane spirit and tangerine spirit. The physical and chemical analyses were performed relative to volatile acidity, dry extract, density and alcohol degree. The density in all samples was 1.13 g mL-1, volatile acidity 48.54 g 100 mL-1 for the treatment with grain alcohol, 28.43 g 100 mL-1 with spirit sugar cane and 22.09 g 100 mL-1 for the tangerine spirit treatment. The dry extract ranged from 431 g L-1 for grain alcohol treatment, 446.26 g L-1 for sugar cane spirit treatment and 443.84 g L-1 for the tangerine spirit treatment, the alcohol degree ranged from 18.84, 20.01 and 19.67 °GL among the treatments. We accomplished an acceptance test through sensory analysis of the following attributes: alcoholic taste, fruit flavor, sweetness and overall impression. The liquor based on grain alcohol produced the highest mean regarding all attributes (6.32, 6.66, 6.34 e 6.26 for taste alcoholic, fruit flavor, sweetness and overall impression, respectively, but without significant difference among the treatments. In conclusion, the tangerine peel liquor made using the own fruit spirit is a viable alternative for the total use of the fruit and can be a source of income for small farmers. Nevertheless, further studies are necessary to develop of this product.

  15. Bio-refinery system in a pulp mill for methanol production with comparison of pressurized black liquor gasification and dry gasification using direct causticization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Muhammad; Yan, Jinyue; Dahlquist, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Black liquor gasification (BLG) for bio-fuel or electricity production at the modern pulp mills is a field in continuous evolution and the efforts are considerably driven by the climate change, fuel security, and renewable energy. This paper evaluates and compares two BLG systems for methanol production: (i) oxygen blown pressurized thermal BLG; and (ii) dry BLG with direct causticization, which have been regarded as the most potential technology candidates for the future deployment. A key objective is to assess integration possibilities of BLG technologies with the reference Kraft pulp mill producing 1000 air dried tonnes (ADt) pulp/day replacing conventional recovery cycle. The study was performed to compare the systems’ performance in terms of potential methanol production, energy efficiency, and potential CO 2 reductions. The results indicate larger potential of black liquor conversion to methanol from the pressurized BLG system (about 77 million tonnes/year of methanol) than the dry BLG system (about 30 million tonnes/year of methanol) utilizing identical amount of black liquor available worldwide (220 million tDS/year). The potential CO 2 emissions reduction from the transport sector is substantially higher in pressurized BLG system (117 million tonnes/year CO 2 reductions) as compared to dry BLG system (45 million tonnes/year CO 2 reductions). However, the dry BLG system with direct causticization shows better results when considering consequences of additional biomass import. In addition, comparison of methanol production via BLG with other bio-refinery products, e.g. hydrogen, dimethyl ether (DME) and bio-methane, has also been discussed.

  16. Comparative studies on the fermentation performance of autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in Chinese light-fragrant liquor during solid-state or submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Y; Wu, Q; Xu, Y

    2017-04-01

    To explore the metabolic characteristic of autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in Chinese light-fragrant liquor fermentation. Inter-delta amplification analysis was used to differentiate the S. cerevisiae strains at strain level. Twelve biotypes (I-XII) were identified among the 72 S. cerevisiae strains preselected. A comparison was conducted between solid-state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF) with S. cerevisiae strains had different genotype, with a focus on the production of ethanol and the volatile compounds. The degree of ethanol ranged from 28·0 to 45·2 g l -1 in SmF and from 14·8 to 25·6 g kg -1 in SSF, and SSF was found to be more suitable for the production of ethanol with higher yield coefficient of all the S. cerevisiae strains. The metabolite profiles of each yeast strain showed obvious distinction in the two fermentations. The highest amounts of ethyl acetate in SmF and SSF were found in genotype VII (328·2 μg l -1 ) and genotype V (672 μg kg -1 ), respectively. In addition, the generation of some volatile compounds could be strictly related to the strain used. Compound β-damascenone was only detected in genotypes I, II, X and XII in the two fermentation processes. Furthermore, laboratory scale fermentations were clearly divided into SSF and SmF in hierarchical cluster analysis regardless of the inoculated yeast strains, indicating that the mode of fermentation was more important than the yeast strains inoculated. The autochthonous S. cerevisiae strains in Chinese light-fragrant liquor vary considerably in terms of their volatiles profiles during SSF and SmF. This work facilitates a better understanding of the fermentative mechanism in the SSF process for light-fragrant liquor production. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Tracking and quantification of nitrifying bacteria in biofilm and mixed liquor of a partial nitrification MBBR pilot plant using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abzazou, Tarik, E-mail: tabzazou@ub.edu [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 643, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Araujo, Rosa M., E-mail: raraujo@ub.edu [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 643, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Auset, María, E-mail: maria.auset.vallejo@acciona.com [ACCIONA AGUA, S.A., Av de les Garrigues 22, El Prat de Llobregat, 08820 Barcelona (Spain); Salvadó, Humbert, E-mail: hsalvado@ub.edu [Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 643, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    A moving bead biofilm reactor (MBBR) pilot plant was implemented as a partial nitrification process for pre-treatment of ammonium-rich liquors (676 ± 195 mg L{sup −1}), and studied for 479 days under variations in hydraulic retention time. The main purpose of this work, was the study of dynamics abundance of total bacteria and single-cells nitrifying bacteria belonging to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in biofilms and mixed liquor of the plant. The microbial monitoring was successfully achieved using fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with flocs disaggregation protocol as a useful microbial monitoring tool. A partial nitrification process with a N-NH{sub 4}{sup +} removal rate of about 38.6 ± 14.8% was successfully achieved at 211 days after start-up, with a clear dominance of AOB, which accounted for 11.3 ± 17.0% of total bacterial cells compared with only 2.1 ± 4.0% of NOB. The effluent obtained was subsequently supplied to an Anammox reactor for complete ammonium treatment. - Highlights: • Partial nitrification process in a MBBR fed with ammonium-rich liquor was achieved. • The operational key parameters were the HRT and temperature. • DAPI and FISH were useful to monitoring microbial composition of MBBR pilot plant. • The AOB were the dominant nitrifying bacteria, presenting 11.3% of total bacteria. • A significant correlation (R = 0.68) between AOB and ammonia removal was found.

  18. Characterization of the Typical Potent Odorants in Chinese Roasted Sesame-like Flavor Type Liquor by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction-Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis, with Special Emphasis on Sulfur-Containing Odorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Sha; Chen, Shuang; Qian, Michael; Wang, Chengcheng; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-11

    The aroma profile of Chinese roasted sesame-like flavor type liquor was investigated by means of headspace solid phase microextraction-aroma extract dilution analysis (HS-SPME-AEDA). Sixty-three odor-active regions were detected by HS-SPME-AEDA with flavor dilution (FD) factors >5, and 58 of these were further identified. Among them, ethyl hexanoate, 2-furfurylthiol, dimethyl trisulfide, 3-methylbutanal, ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl pentanoate, and ethyl 4-methylpentanoate appeared with the highest FD factors. In particular, eight sulfur-containing odorants were identified to be potentially important to roasted sesame-like flavor type liquor. The concentration of these odor-active compounds was further quantitated by combination of four different quantitative measurements, and 36 odorants had concentrations higher than their corresponding odor thresholds. On the basis of the odor activity values (OAVs), 2-furfurylthiol (OAV 1182), dimethyl trisulfide (OAV 220), β-damascenone (OAV 116), and methional (OAV 99) could be responsible for the unique aroma of roasted sesame-like flavor type liquor. An aroma recombination model prepared by mixing 36 aroma compounds with OAVs >1 showed a good similarity to the aroma of the original roasted sesame-like flavor type liquor. For the first time, 2-furfurylthiol was determined to be a typical potent odorant in roasted sesame-like flavor type liquor by omission study.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of high photocatalytic activity and stable Ag3PO4/TiO2 fibers for photocatalytic degradation of black liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Li; Long, Qiyi; Yin, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers were prepared via in situ Ag 3 PO 4 particles onto the surface of TiO 2 fiber. • Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers have stronger catalytic activity and excellent chemical stability. • Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers act as an efficient catalyst for the photocatalytic degradation of black liquor. - Abstract: The TiO 2 fiber was prepared by using cotton fiber as a template, and then Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers were synthesized via in situ Ag 3 PO 4 particles onto the surface of TiO 2 fiber. Their structure and physical properties were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), specific surface analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis absorption spectra and photoluminescence spectra (PL). SEM analysis indicated that the well-defined surface morphology of natural cotton fiber was mostly preserved in TiO 2 and Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers. Compared with TiO 2 fiber, the absorbance wavelengths of Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers were apparently red shifted and the PL intensities revealed a significant decrease. By using the photocatalytic degradation of black liquor as a model reaction, the visible light and ultraviolet light catalytic efficiencies of TiO 2 , Ag 3 PO 4 and Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers were evaluated. The reaction results showed that Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers had stronger photocatalytic activity and excellent chemical stability in repeated and long-term applications. Therefore, the prepared Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers could act as an efficient catalyst for the photocatalytic degradation of black liquor, which suggested their promising applications. It was proposed that the • OH radicals played the leading role in the photocatalytic degradation of the black liquor by Ag 3 PO 4 /TiO 2 fibers system

  20. Comparison of two continuous fungal bioreactors for posttreatment of anaerobically pretreated weak black liquor from kraft pulp mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Clemente, Alfredo; Marín-Mezo, G; Ponce-Noyola, M T; Montes-Horcasitas, M C; Caffarel-Méndez, S; Barrera-Cortés, Josefina; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate and compare two continuous systems of posttreatment of anaerobically pretreated weak black liquor (WBL). The first system consisted of a packed bed reactor (PBR) with Trametes versicolor (Tv) immobilized on wood cubes of holm oak (biocubes). The second system was a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) with Lentinus edodes (Le) immobilized on wood cubes of holm oak. The reactors operated for 65 days at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5 days, at 28 degrees C, with continuous aeration. Response variables monitored were conventional and specific, unit, net removal efficiency (eta and eta(sun), respectively) of chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, and ligninoids, and enzymatic activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP), laccase (Lac) and proteases. The PBR showed an average color eta superior to that of the FBR (52.42 +/- 21.78% and 25.34 +/- 14.38% for PBR and FBR, respectively); removals of COD and ligninoids presented a similar pattern to that of color. Lac activity was significantly larger in PBR than in FBR. Activity of MnP in PBR was higher than that of the FBR (0.004 and 0.002 U MnP/mL, respectively). This difference could be ascribed to the different fungi present in each bioreactor. LiP activity was very low in both reactors. Average value of proteases was almost double in the FBR as compared with PBR (0.472 and 0.209 U Proteases/mL, respectively). During the last 2 weeks of operation, biocubes in the FBR experienced a significant loss of the attached Le biomass, probably by attrition. This and higher protease activity in the FBR could explain the lower pollutant removals achieved in the FBR. Overall, PBR with immobilized Tv showed a better performance than the FBR with Le for the posttreatment of the recalcitrant anaerobic effluent. Extended and sustained pollutant removal (65 days) was achieved in the PBR, although more research is needed to evaluate bioreactor performance at shorter hydraulic

  1. Paralkalibacillus indicireducens gen., nov., sp. nov., an indigo-reducing obligate alkaliphile isolated from indigo fermentation liquor used for dyeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Kikue; Nishita, Masatoshi; Matsuyama, Hidetoshi; Yumoto, Isao

    2017-10-01

    Obligately alkaliphilic, indigo-reducing strains, designated Bps-1 T , Bps-2 and Bps-3, were isolated from an indigo fermentation liquor used for dyeing, which was produced from sukumo (composted Polygonum indigo leaves) obtained from a craft centre in Data City, Hokkaido, Japan, by using medium containing cellulase-treated sukumo. The 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny suggested that Bps-1 T has a distinctive position among the alkaliphilic species of the genus Bacillus, with its closest neighbours being Bacillus pseudofirmus DSM 8715 T , Bacillus lindianensis DSM 26864 T and Bacillus alcalophilus DSM 485 T (96.1, 95.8 and 95.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, respectively). The 16S rRNA sequence of strain Bps-1 T was identical to those of strains Bps-2 and Bps-3. Cells of the novel isolate were Gram-stain-positive and were facultatively anaerobic straight rods that were motile by means of a pair of flagella (subpolar and centre sides). Spherical endospores were formed in the terminal position. Strain Bps-1 T grew between 18 and 40 °C with optimum growth at 33 °C. The isolate grew in the pH range 8‒11, with optimum growth at pH 9‒10. The isoprenoid quinone detected was menaquinone-7 (MK-7), and the DNA G+C content was 40.3 %. The whole-cell fatty acid profile (>10 %) mainly consisted of anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, the isolates represent a novel species of a novel genus, for which the name Paralkalibacillus indicireducens gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of this species is Bps-1 T (JCM 31808 T =NCIMB 15080 T ), with strains Bps-2 and Bps-3 representing additional strains of the species.

  2. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN EKSTRAK ENZIM CAIRAN RUMEN DOMBA PADA KOMPONEN SERAT KASAR, KANDUNGAN ASAM FITAT TEPUNG DAUN LAMTORO GUNG (Leucaena leucocephala (The Effect of Addition Sheep Rumen Liquor Enzyme Extract On Fiber Component and Fitate Acid Content Leucaena Leaf Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Fitriliyani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the nutrient quality of  leucaena leaf meal (LLM with addition of sheep rumen liquor enzyme for nile tilapia feed which incubated 24 hours (in vitro; This experiment was designed in completely randomized design with 6 treatments and 3 replications each with different level of enzyme addition (0; 20; 40; 60; 80; and 100 ml/kg LLM.  Results of the experiment showed that nutrient quality of LLM  with addition of sheep rumen liquor enzyme which incubated for 24 hours, where significantly affected (P<0.05 on decrease of crude fiber (53,640%, NDF, ADF component and phytic acid (68,088%.  Over all conclusion is a great potential for using sheep rumen liquor enzyme for improving nutrition quality of leucaena leaf meal

  3. Recover of some rare earth elements from leach liquor of the Saghand uranium ore using combined precipitation and cation exchange methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanchi, A. R.; Rafati, H.; Rezvaniyanzadeh, M. R.

    2008-01-01

    In this research work, the recovery and separation of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III), Dy(III) and Nd(III) from Saghand uranium ore have been studied by precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography methods using Dowex 50 W-X 8 cation exchanger. At first, some preliminary and preconcentration experiments such as comminution, sieve analysis, gravity table and electrostatic in preconcentration of lanthanides were performed. Then, acidic digesting and leaching procedure were used. The results of experiments showed that rare earth elements, along with interfering ions such as Al(III), Fe(III), Mg(II) and Mn(II) present in the leach liquor solution. The investigation of separation process by precipitation method revealed that precipitation and then fast separation using centrifugal technique had the best results in the elimination of interference elements. In order to separate the lanthanides and to obtain their elution curves, the chromatographic column containing Dowex 50 W-X 8 resin was employed. For efficient separation of lanthanides from interference elements the hydrochloric acid with concentration of two and six molar was used respectively. Recovery of lanthanides from the leach liquor solution was achieved more than 85%

  4. Effect of Ducks Yolk and Formic Acid in Fat Liquoring Process on the Physical Quality of Broiler Chicken Shank Chrome Tanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustakim Mustakim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of ducks yolk and formic acid in fat liquoring process of the tanned skin.  The materials used in this study were 30 pieces of 7 weeks of broiler chicken shank. The study was carried out using completely randomized design. The variables measured were softness, tensile strength and stretch of the tanned skin. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The research results showed that the addition of ducks yolk and formic acid didn’t gave significantly affect on the softness (p>0.05, while gave highly significant affect on tensile strength and stretch (p0.05 on the softness and stretch, and have significantly (p<0.05 on the tensile strength of leather. The conclusion of this research the addition of 11% duck yolk and 1% formic acid in fat liquoring is the best treatment for broiler chicken shank chrome tanning on the skin softness (2,667, tensile strength (135,707 kg/cm2, and stretch (37,34%, respectively.

  5. Influence of corn steep liquor and glucose on colonization of control and CCB (Cu/Cr/B)-treated wood by brown rot fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humar, Miha; Amartey, Sam A.; Pohleven, Franc

    2006-01-01

    There are increasing problems with regard to the disposal of treated wood waste. Due to heavy metals or arsenic in impregnated wood waste, burning and landfill disposal options are not considered to be environmentally friendly solutions for dealing with this problem. Extraction of the heavy metals and recycling of the preservatives from the wood waste is a much more promising and environmentally friendly solution. In order to study the scale up of this process, copper/chromium/boron-treated wood specimens were exposed to copper tolerant (Antrodia vaillantii and Leucogyrophana pinastri) and copper sensitive wood decay fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum and Poria monticola). Afterwards, the ability of fungal hyphae to penetrate and overgrow the wood specimens was investigated. The fungal growths were stimulated by immersing the specimens into aqueous solution of glucose or corn steep liquor prior to exposure to the fungi. The fastest colonization of the impregnated wood was by the copper tolerant A. vaillantii. Addition of glucose onto the surface of the wood specimens increased the fungi colonization of the specimens; however, immersion of the specimens into the solution of corn steep liquor did not have the same positive influence. These results are important in elucidating copper toxicity in wood decay fungi and for using these fungi for bioremediation of treated wood wastes

  6. Sewage Sludge Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Decontamination Technique Based on the Utilization of a Lipopeptide Biosurfactant Extracted from Corn Steep Liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecino, Xanel; Rodríguez-López, Lorena; Cruz, Jose M; Moldes, Ana B

    2015-08-19

    A decontamination technique based on the utilization of a lipopeptide biosurfactant extracted from corn steep liquor has been developed to eliminate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge. High concentrations of PAHs were used during experiments observing that 408.3 mg/kg of naphthalene was almost completely mobilized and biodegraded, only 1.7% of naphthalene remained in the sewage sludge, whereas anthracene and pyrene were reduced up to 51.7 and 69.4%, respectively. The biodegradation of PAHs was fitted to several kinetic models (zero- and first-order kinetic models), observing good correlation coefficient values when biodegradation was described by the first-order kinetic model. Experimental results suggest that biosurfactant extracted from corn steep liquor may have great potential, as an ecofriendly washing agent, for the treatment of sewage sludge contaminated with PAHs. Therefore, in situ application of natural biosurfactants may be considered to be a good remediation alternative as they are not hazardous for water and soil organisms.

  7. Isopentyl-Sulfide-Impregnated Nano-MnO2 for the Selective Sorption of Pd(II from the Leaching Liquor of Ores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengjie Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional separation methods are not suitable for recovering palladium present in low concentrations in ore leaching solutions. In this study, a novel isopentyl sulfide (S201-impregnated α-MnO2 nanorod adsorbent (BISIN was prepared, characterized, and applied for the selective adsorption and separation of palladium from the leaching liquor of ores. Batch studies were carried out, and the main adsorption parameters were systematically investigated, in addition to the relevant thermodynamic parameters, isotherms, and kinetic models. The thermodynamic parameters reflected the endothermic and spontaneous nature of the adsorption. Moreover, the experimental results indicated that the Langmuir isotherm model fits the palladium adsorption data well and the adsorption was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The main adsorption mechanisms of palladium were elucidated at the molecular level by X-ray crystal structure analysis. Thiourea was found to be an excellent desorption agent, and the palladium-thiourea complex was also confirmed by X-ray crystal structure analysis. The results indicated that almost all of the Pd(II (>99.0% is adsorbed on BISIN, whereas less than 2% of the adsorbed Pt(IV, Fe3+, Cu2+, Ni2+, and Co2+ is observed under the optimum conditions. The proposed method can be used for the efficient adsorption and separation of palladium from the leaching liquor of ores.

  8. Model-Based Feasibility Assessment of Membrane Biofilm Reactor to Achieve Simultaneous Ammonium, Dissolved Methane, and Sulfide Removal from Anaerobic Digestion Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueming; Liu, Yiwen; Peng, Lai; Yuan, Zhiguo; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) is proposed to achieve simultaneous removal of ammonium, dissolved methane, and sulfide from main-stream and side-stream anaerobic digestion liquors. To avoid dissolved methane stripping, oxygen is introduced through gas-permeable membranes, which also from the substratum for the growth of a biofilm likely comprising ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB), anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) bacteria, denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) microorganisms, aerobic methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB), and sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB). A mathematical model is developed and applied to assess the feasibility of such a system and the associated microbial community structure under different operational conditions. The simulation studies demonstrate the feasibility of achieving high-level (>97.0%), simultaneous removal of ammonium, dissolved methane, and sulfide in the MBfRs from both main-stream and side-stream anaerobic digestion liquors through adjusting the influent surface loading (or hydraulic retention time (HRT)) and the oxygen surface loading. The optimal HRT was found to be inversely proportional to the corresponding oxygen surface loading. Under the optimal operational conditions, AOB, DAMO bacteria, MOB, and SOB dominate the biofilm of the main-stream MBfR, while AOB, Anammox bacteria, DAMO bacteria, and SOB coexist in the side-stream MBfR to remove ammonium, dissolved methane, and sulfide simultaneously. PMID:27112502

  9. Production and partial characterization of alkaline polygalacturonase secreted by thermophilic Bacillus sp. SMIA-2 under submerged culture using pectin and corn steep liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vicente Vieira de Andrade

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Polygalacturonase production by the thermophilic Bacillus sp. SMIA-2 cultivated in liquid cultures containing 0.5% (w/v apple pectin and supplemented with 0.3% (w/v corn steep liquor, reached its maximum after 36 hours with levels of 39 U.mL-1. The increase in apple pectin and corn steep liquor concentrations in the medium from 0.5 and 0.3%, respectively, to 0.65%, markedly affected the production of polygalacturonase, whose activity increased four times, reaching a maximum of 150.3 U.mL-1. Studies on polygalacturonase characterization revealed that the optimum temperature of this enzyme was between 60-70 °C. Thermostability profile indicated that the enzyme retained about 82 and 63% of its activity at 60 and 70 °C, respectively, after 2 hours of incubation. The optimum pH of the enzyme was found to be 10.0. After incubation of crude enzyme solution at room temperature for 2 hours at pH 8.0, a decrease of about 29% on its original activity was observed. At pH 10.0, the decrease was 25%.

  10. A pilot-scale study on the start-up of partial nitrification-anammox process for anaerobic sludge digester liquor treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Xu, Xiaochen; Zhou, Liang; Wang, Chao; Yang, Fenglin

    2017-10-01

    Treatment of sludge digester liquor was successfully accomplished using a pilot-scale partial nitrification-anammox (PN/A) reactor with a nitrogen removal rate (NRR) of 1.23kgN/m 3 /d. A stable and efficient PN process was attained by controlling the concentration of free ammonia (0.7-8.4mg/L) and free nitrous acid (0.02-1.0mg/L). The application of hydroxylamine played a vital role in the reactivation of anammox bacteria. The bacteria exhibited improved granule properties at a specific input power between 0.065 and 0.097kW/m 3 , and achieved a specific anammox activity (SAA) of 1.01kgN/kgVSS/d on day 148. From day 0 to 120, the heme c content in the granules increased from 0.42±0.1 to 5.77±1.0µmol/gVSS, with a corresponding increase in NRRs and SAAs. High-throughput sequencing techniques revealed that the dominant anammox bacterial genus was Candidatus Brocadia. These conclusions provide valuable information for the full-scale treatment of sludge digester liquor. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Streptococcus pneumoniae: estudo das cepas isoladas de liquor Streptococcus pneumoniae: a study of strains isolated from cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataiza C. Vieira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a freqüência dos sorotipos capsulares e a susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae, assim como dar suporte à indicação de vacinas disponíveis e ao uso de antimicrobianos. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo retrospectivo, foram adotadas metodologias padronizadas para identificar, sorotipar e determinar a susceptibilidade à penicilina, cefotaxima e vancomicina. O estudo foi realizado com cepas de pneumococo isoladas de liquor em pacientes atendidos nos hospitais públicos e em três hospitais particulares do Distrito Federal no período de janeiro de 1995 a dezembro de 2004. A identificação e a determinação de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos foi realizada no Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública no Distrito Federal. A sorotipagem foi realizada no Instituto Adolfo Lutz. RESULTADOS: Foram isoladas 232 cepas de pneumococo, compreendendo 126 cepas (54,31% de pacientes do sexo masculino. A idade dos pacientes variou de 0 a 62 anos, sendo agrupados em faixas etárias de 0 a 5, 6 a 17, 18 a 50 e acima de 50 anos. Identificaram-se 36 sorotipos distintos. Desses destacaram-se oito: 14, 6B, 18C, 5, 19F, 23F, 9V e 6A. O teste de oxacilina caracterizou 67 cepas resistentes à penicilina; dessas, 47 foram confirmadas pelo E teste com resistência de nível intermediário. Nenhuma cepa apresentou resistência de alto nível. CONCLUSÃO: A resistência do pneumococo à penicilina apresentou um aumento gradativo nos últimos 10 anos no Distrito Federal. Os sorotipos mais isolados na faixa etária de 0 a 5 anos foram também os mais envolvidos na resistência à penicilina, e estão incluídos na vacina 7-valente.OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of capsular serotypes and the antimicrobial susceptibility of strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as to provide recommendations on the use of available vaccines and antimicrobial drugs. METHODS: In this retrospective study, standard procedures were followed

  12. The use of biomass energy in the pulp and paper industry and the prospects for black liquor gasification combined cycle generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    The world production of paper and paperboard products, which increased 3.3% per year since 1980, reached 243 million tonnes in 1991 and is expected to continue to grow by about 2.5% per year over the next decade. Consumption levels in 1990 ranged from 2.8 kg per capita in India to 313 kg per capita in the United States. The biggest producers of pulp are the United States, Canada and the Scandinavian countries, but much of the expansion of pulp production capacity is taking place in countries such as Brazil, Chile and Indonesia. The pulp and paper industry has always relied on biomass as a fuel source to meet process energy demands. Kraft pulping is the most common process accounting for about two thirds of world wood pulp production. Energy recovered from burning black liquor, a lignin-rich by-product, in a chemicals recovery boiler typically provides most of the on-site demand for heat and electricity in a modem kraft pulp mill. Another important fuel source is bark and wood waste generated at the mill. Aging recovery boilers in industrialized countries and increasing electricity/heat demand ratios are stimulating interest in alternative co-generation technologies. Most of the interest in new biomass and black liquor co-generation technologies focuses on those that would utilize gas turbines rather than steam turbines. Gas turbines are generally characterized by higher electricity/heat ratios than steam turbines, as well as lower unit capital costs. With the black liquor and biomass gasification technologies that are now being developed and demonstrated, the energy needs of an energy-efficient kraft pulp mill could be met and 40-50 MW of baseload power would be available for export. Using, in addition, currently unused logging residues for fuel would increase that potential. The pulp and paper industry is likely to be an important early market for advanced biomass-based cogeneration technology owing to its access to biomass fuels and the potential for co

  13. Acclimation of denitrifying activated sludge to a single vs. complex external carbon source during a start-up of sequencing batch reactors treating ammonium-rich anaerobic sludge digester liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwionka, Krzysztof; Luczkiewicz, Aneta; Majtacz, Joanna; Kowal, Przemyslaw; Jankowska, Katarzyna; Ciesielski, Slawomir; Pagilla, Krishna; Makinia, Jacek

    2014-11-01

    In this study, denitrification of ammonium-reach anaerobic sludge digester liquor was investigated during start-up periods of two laboratory-scale "fill-and-draw" reactors. One reactor was fed with a single carbon source (ethanol), whereas the other reactor was fed with a complex carbon source (fusel oil). During two acclimation experiments, the structure of microbial community involved in denitrification was analyzed using 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints and fluorescent in situ hybridization. The characteristics of the mixed liquor were additionally supported by regular measurements of nitrate uptake rates. The addition of fusel oil and ethanol resulted in a significant enhancement of the denitrification rate and efficiency combined with the increasing volumetric addition of sludge digester liquor up to 15 % of the reactor volume. The microbiological analyses revealed that the addition of sludge digester liquor as well as both external carbon sources (fusel oil and ethanol) did not affect the structure of microbial communities in a severe way. In both reactors, Curvibacter sp. and Azoarcus sp. were found as the most abundant representatives of denitrifiers.

  14. Importância do exame do liquor de controle em meningite bacteriana como critério de alta Importance of cerebrospinal fluid control tests in bacterial meningitis cases as a discharge criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Buarque Cordeiro Cabral

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Há controvérsias sobre indicação do exame do liquor de controle em pacientes recuperados clinicamente de meningite bacteriana como critério de cura. Alguns autores defendem alta hospitalar após normalização clínica e liqüórica, outros que a análise do liquor não se justifica em todos os pacientes. Esta série de casos com comparação de grupos investiga alterações no exame liqüórico de controle e avalia a importância do exame na decisão da alta. De 297 pacientes estudados, em 89,9%, o liquor de controle não mudou a intenção de alta (liquor resolutivo, já em 10,1% a alta foi suspensa (liquor não-resolutivo. Destes, o esquema antibiótico foi trocado em 30%. Entre as variáveis que pudessem ser preditivas de liquor não-resolutivo, à admissão, proteinorraquia maior que 100mg/dL (p=0,04 e glicorraquia menor ou igual a 20mg/dL (p=0,03 associaram-se a chance 2,5 vezes maior, podendo ser úteis como critérios para indicar exame do liquor como controle de cura para alta.There is controversy regarding indications for cerebrospinal fluid control tests on patients who have clinically recovered from bacterial meningitis, as a cure criterion. Some authors advocate discharge after confirmation of clinical and cerebrospinal fluid normalization, while others maintain that cerebrospinal fluid analysis is not justified in all cases. This case series with group comparisons investigated changes seen in cerebrospinal fluid control tests and evaluated the importance of this for the discharge decision. Out of 297 patients studied, the cerebrospinal fluid control test did not change the discharge intention in 89.9% of the cases (healed cerebrospinal fluid, while in 10.1%, the discharge was suspended (non-healed cerebrospinal fluid. Of these, the antibiotic scheme was changed in 30%. Among the variables that might predict the presence of non-healed cerebrospinal fluid on admission, cerebrospinal fluid protein levels higher than 100mg/dl (p

  15. Investigation of freeze concentration as a process for industrial energy conservation in black liquor, acetic acid, and citrus juice applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    One of the largest consumers of energy in industrial processing is the equipment that concentrates weak aqueous solutions to stronger more sellable or reusable concentrations. The technical and economic feasibility of applying freeze concentration (that is, crystallization and removal from solution of pure solvent - water) as an alternative to heat evaporation (or distillation) to three industrial applications is established. For each of the applications - pulp mill black liquor concentration, acetic acid recovery and orange juice concentration - the economic analyses indicate that the energy savings achievable by freezing justify the respective capital investments with pay out periods of generally one to three years. Past freeze concentration operations have been in the 10,000 to 100,000 gallons per day range for sea water desalination. Research and development work will be required to adapt this work to the three industrial applications.

  16. Ethyl Carbamate Formation Regulated by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Nonconventional Yeasts in Solid-State Fermentation of Chinese Moutai-Flavor Liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hai; Song, Zhewei; Xu, Yan

    2018-01-10

    This study aimed to identify specific microorganisms related to the formation of precursors of EC (ethyl carbamate) in the solid-state fermentation of Chinese Moutai-flavor liquor. The EC content was significantly correlated with the urea content during the fermentation process (R 2 = 0.772, P < 0.01). Differences in urea production and degradation were found at both species and functional gene levels by metatranscriptomic sequencing and culture-dependent analysis. Lactobacillus spp. could competitively degrade arginine through the arginine deiminase pathway with yeasts, and most Lactobacillus species were capable of degrading urea. Some dominant nonconventional yeasts, such as Pichia, Schizosaccharomyces, and Zygosaccharomyces species, were shown to produce low amounts of urea relative to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Moreover, unusual urea degradation pathways (urea carboxylase, allophanate hydrolase, and ATP-independent urease) were identified. Our results indicate that EC precursor levels in the solid-state fermentation can be controlled using lactic acid bacteria and nonconventional yeasts.

  17. Transport of Zn (II by TDDA-Polypropylene Supported Liquid Membranes and Recovery from Waste Discharge Liquor of Galvanizing Plant of Zn (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanif Ur Rehman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The facilitated passage of Zn (II across flat sheet supported liquid membrane saturated with TDDA (tri-n-dodecylamine in xylene membrane phase has been investigated. The effect of acid and metal ion concentration in the feed solution, the carrier concentration in membrane phase, stripping agent concentration in stripping phase, and coions on the extraction of Zn (II was investigated. The stoichiometry of the extracted species, that is, complex, was investigated on slope analysis method and it was found that the complex (LH2·Zn(Cl2 is responsible for transport of Zn (II. A mathematical model was developed for transport of Zn (II, and the predicted results strongly agree with experimental ones. The mechanism of transport was determined by coupled coion transport mechanism with H+ and Cl− coupled ions. The optimized SLM was effectively used for elimination of Zn (II from waste discharge liquor of galvanizing plant of Zn (II.

  18. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Black Liquor Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for removal of acid gases from black liquor-derived syngas for use in both power and liquid fuels synthesis. Two 3,200 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, both low-temperature/low-pressure (1100 deg F, 40 psi) and high-temperature/high-pressure (1800 deg F, 500 psi) were used for syngas production. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Princeton University. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

  19. LICOR DE MORA DE CASTILLA (Rubus glaucus Benth CON DIFERENTES PORCENTAJES DE PULPA BLACKBERRY LIQUOR (Rubus glaucus Benth WITH DIFFERENT PULP PERCENTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Montoya Gómez

    2005-12-01

    . Large quantities of fruits are affected in their physical characteristics principally, with this product adequate for industrial processing. Twenty kg of blackberry were converted to pulp and homogenized and the pulp was characterized, encountering: grades of brix of 6,0; percent acidity of 2,91 % and density of 0,991 g/ml on average. Liquors were prepared with blackberry pulp in the following compositions: 25 %, 30 %, 35 %, 40 %, 45 %, 50 %, and 55 %, beginning with 35 °Brix for all cases in the fermentable must, adjusting the formulations with sucrose; the added yeast was Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex E.C. Hansen in a concentration of 0,2%; the fermentation was conducted in 2 liter capacity tanks with latex tube vents, the fermentable must remained in the tanks for 20 weeks, later the liquors were filtered and characterized chemically and physically, evaluating the alcohol percentage for distillation, documenting that the 40% blackberry pulp liquors produced the highest concentration of 8,36% of alcohol volume, on average. The statistical results showed a significant difference among the percent participation of pulp and its influence on the production of alcohol for levels of 25 % and 30 % with respect to levels of 35 %, 40 %, 45 %, 50 % and 55 %. A mathematical lineal model appropriate for the production of alcohol as a function of the participation of pulp was obtained. The sensory test with 10 judges indicated that the liquor prepared with 35 % pulp was the most accepted.

  20. Production of succinic acid from sugarcane molasses supplemented with a mixture of corn steep liquor powder and peanut meal as nitrogen sources by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, N; Qin, Y; Wang, Q; Liao, S; Zhu, J; Zhu, Q; Mi, H; Adhikari, B; Wei, Y; Huang, R

    2015-06-01

    The potential of using corn steep liquor powder (CSLP), peanut meal (PM), soybean meal (SM), cotton meal (CM) and urea as the substitute of yeast extract (YE) as the nitrogen source was investigated for producing succinic acid (SA). Actinobacillus succinogenes GXAS137 was used as the fermenting bacterium and sugarcane molasses was used as the main substrate. None of these materials were able to produce SA as high as YE did. The CSLP could still be considered as a feasible and inexpensive alternate for YE as the yield of SA produced using CSLP was second only to the yield of SA obtained by YE. The use of CSLP-PM mixed formulation (CSLP to PM ratio = 2·6) as nitrogen source produced SA up to 59·2 g l(-1) with a productivity of 1·2 g l(-1) h(-1). A batch fermentation using a stirred bioreactor produced up to 60·7 g l(-1) of SA at the same formulation. Fed-batch fermentation that minimized the substrate inhibition produced 64·7 g l(-1) SA. These results suggest that sugarcane molasses supplemented with a mixture of CSLP and PM as the nitrogen source could be used to produce SA more economically using A. succinogenes. Significance and impact of the study: Succinic acid (SA) is commonly used as a platform chemical to produce a number of high value derivatives. Yeast extract (YE) is used as a nitrogen source to produce SA. The high cost of YE is currently the limiting factor for industrial production of SA. This study reports the use of a mixture of corn steep liquor powder (CSLP) and peanut meal (PM) as an inexpensive nitrogen source to substitute YE. The results showed that this CSLP-PM mixed formulation can be used as an effective and economic nitrogen source for the production of SA. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

    2010-01-27

    As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also

  2. Triadic male-infant-male interaction serves in bond maintenance in male Assamese macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefine Kalbitz

    Full Text Available While the ultimate consequences of social bonds start to be better understood, the proximate behavioural mechanisms underlying the formation and maintenance of these close affiliative relationships have received less attention. We investigated the possible function of male-infant-male interactions (MIMIs in male-male social bonding processes by analysing about 9000h of focal animal observations collected on two groups of wild Assamese macaques. In support of an agonistic buffering function of MIMIs, after engaging in a MIMI upon approach, subordinates stayed longer in close proximity of a dominant male. Overall, the frequency of MIMIs increased the stronger the affiliative relationship between two males, suggesting that MIMIs like grooming function in relationship maintenance. We did not find support for a role of MIMIs in bond formation as the frequency of MIMIs did not affect the time a male dyad spent in proximity in the consecutive year. Our results contribute to the general debate on behaviours influencing social dynamics in group living mammals.

  3. A study of laser surface treatment in bonded repair of composite aircraft structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaolong; Sun, Ting; Liu, Chang; Yang, Wenfeng; Tang, Qingru

    2018-03-01

    Surface pre-treatment is one of the key processes in bonded repair of aircraft carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites. This paper investigates the surface modification of physical and chemical properties by laser ablation and conventional polish treatment techniques. Surface morphology analysed by laser scanning confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that a laser-treated surface displayed higher roughness than that of a polish-treated specimen. The laser-treated laminate exhibited more functional groups in the form of O 1 s/C 1 s atomic ratio of 30.89% for laser-treated and 20.14% for polish-treated as evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observation. Contact angle goniometry demonstrated that laser treatment can provide increased surface free energy and wettability. In the light of mechanical interlocking, molecular bonding and thermodynamics theories on adhesion, laser etching process displayed enhanced bonding performance relative to the polishing surface treatment. These properties resulted in an increased single lap shear strength and a cohesive failure mode for laser etching while an adhesive failure mode occurred in polish-treated specimen.

  4. Fly-ash and Green liquor as binder in gravel road stabilization. Pilot study at Iggesund; Flygaska-Groenlutslamstabiliserad skogsbilvaeg. Fallstudie Iggesund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macsik, Josef; Erlandsson, Aasa; Wexell, Bengt-Arne

    2009-03-15

    The quality of gravel roads is of importance for public and the forestry industry. Frost damages lead to the closure of roads due to reduced bearing capacity, settlements and tracks made by wheel. Lately these frost damages have worsened due to milder winter temperatures. The need to improve the quality of these roads and to minimize the periods when the roads are closed is ever increasing. Several Swedish and Finnish projects have shown that rest materials from the paper industry can improve bearing capacity of roads. Both green liquor and fly ash was used successfully in an earlier project as pelletized mineral nutrient in forest soil. In this project fly ash and green liquor from Iggesund Paperboard was used as a binder during stabilization of a gravel road. The aim was to improve bearing capacity of a gravel road, mainly during the thawing period. The target group of the project was local road associations, forestry industry, which have a need to improve road quality, the paper industry which produce suitable rest materials and local environmental agencies. During an initial laboratory investigation proper binder recipe, based on fly ash, green liquor and cement was chosen. The laboratory investigation and earlier studies indicate in order to increase resistance to frost damage cement should be included in the binder. The aim was to stabilize ballast and improve the stabilized road materials shear strength, frost susceptibility. Total elemental content and Leachability was also investigated. Based on the results the local environmental agency was notified. During spring of 2008 two road sections, about 2 km was stabilized. The stabilized road was investigated during autumn 2008 regarding bearing capacity and environmental impact. The stabilization of the road section was estimated to cause minor impact on the recipient. The local environmental agency approved the stabilization of the road section, however increased the follow up effort with more analyses

  5. Coeficientes de transferencia de calor experimental para el enfriamiento de licor en intercambiadores de placas//Experimental heat transfer coefficients for the liquor cooling in plate heat exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Torres‐Tamayo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La pérdida de eficiencia del proceso de enfriamiento del licor amoniacal, mediante el uso de intercambiadores de calor de placas, está asociada a imprecisiones en la estimación de los coeficientes de transferencia de calor y la acumulación de incrustaciones en la superficie de intercambio. El objetivo de la investigación es determinar los coeficientes de transferencia de calor y la influencia de lasincrustaciones en la pérdida de eficiencia de la instalación. Mediante un procedimiento iterativo se estableció la ecuación del número de Nusselt y su relación con el número de Reynolds y Prandtl. Se utilizó un diseño experimental multifactorial. Los resultados predicen el conocimiento de los coeficientespara el cálculo del número de Nusselt en ambos fluidos. Los valores de los coeficientes del licor amoniacal son inferiores, ello se debe a la presencia de componentes gaseosos. La ecuación obtenida muestra correspondencia con el modelo de Buonapane, el error comparativo es del 3,55 %.Palabras claves: intercambiador de calor de placas, coeficientes de transferencia de calor, eficiencia térmica.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe loss of efficiency of the ammonia liquor cooling process, by means of the plate heat exchanger, is associated to the incorrect estimate of the heat transfer coefficients and the accumulation of inlays in the exchange surface. The objective of the investigation is to determine the transfer coefficients and the influence of the inlays in the efficiency loss of the installation. By means of an iterative procedure was obtained the Nusselt number equation and the relationship with the Reynolds and Prandtl number, for it was used it a design experimental multifactorial. The results predict the knowledge of the coefficients forthe calculation of the Nusselt number for both fluids. The ammonia liquor coefficients values are inferior, due to the presence of gassy

  6. Influence of several non ferrous metals in the treatment of residual liquors from sulfuric acid picking processes. Influencia de diversos metales no ferreos en el tratamiento de lejias residuales de decapado con acido sulfurico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negro, C.; Gonzalez, A.; Latorre, R.; Dufour, J.; Formoso, A.; Lopez-Mateos, F. (Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica. Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    In the oxiprecipitation of waste liquors from sulfuric picking processes several kinds of ferrous oxides and oxihydroxides are obtained which can be used like raw materials for the chemical industry. Generally, in this process different mixtures of then are obtained and only in the most drastic conditions, pure products can be obtained. The presence of non-ferrous metals catalyzes and modifies the mechanism of the reaction, yielding pure products. The aim of this work is to determine the influence of Cu(II), Al(III), Zn(II) and Mo(VI) on the oxiprecipitation of residual liquors from sulfuric acid picking processes, selecting the most favorable operation conditions at which it is possible to obtain products for industrial applications. (Author) 20 refs.

  7. Precipitation of the rare earth double sodium and rare earths from the sulfuric liquor and the conversion into rare earth hydroxides through meta ethic reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Renata D.; Oliveira, Ester F.; Brito, Walter de; Morais, Carlos A.

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the purification study of the rare earths through precipitation of rare earth and sodium (Na TR (SO 4 ) 2 . x H 2 O)) double sulfate and his conversion to rare earths hydroxide TR(OH) 3 by meta ethic reaction through the addition of sodium hydroxide solution to the solid double sulfate. The study used the sulfuric liquor as rare earth sample, generated in the chemical processing of the monazite with sulfuric acid by the Industrias Nucleares do Brasil - INB, Brazil, after the thorium and uranium extraction. The work investigated the influence of the main variables involved in the precipitation of Na TR(SO 4 ) 2 .xH 2 O and in the conversion for the TR(OH) 3 , as follows: type and excess of the precipitation agent, temperature and time reaction. The obtained solid composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared and chemical analysis. The double sulfate diffractogram indicated the Na TR(SO 4 ) 2 mono-hydrated. The characterization of the metatese products has shown that, for obtaining the complete conversion of NaTR(SO 4 ) 2 .H 2 O into TR(OH) 3 , the reaction must be hot processed (∼70 deg C) and with small excess of Na OH (≤ 5 percent). (author)

  8. Determination of the pH and total titratable acidity of the rumen liquor from australian merino and corriedale sheep, fed on pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Leydson Formiga Feitosa

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the pH and total titratable acidity from rumen liquor was carried out in Australian Merino and Corriedale sheep fed on pasture, in two seasons of the year (winter and summer, in Botucatu City, São Paulo, Brazil. Ruminal samples were collected using a standard tube, from 103 sheep during the winter period (50 Corriedale and 53 Australian Merino and from 107 sheep in the summer (52 Corriedale and 55 Australian Merino. The results obtained for pH and total titratable acidity in Australian Merino sheep in winter and summer were, respectively 6,69 ± 0,20 and 6,75 ± 0,23, and 26,27 ± 5,02 and 29,24 ± 6.24 units. The results observed in these tests for Corriedale sheep in winter and summer were, respectively, 6,70 ± 0,21 and 6,84 ±0,28, and 27,26 ± 4,82 and 30,40 ± 5,11 units.

  9. Effect of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS and hydraulic retention time (HRT on the performance of activated sludge process during the biotreatment of real textile wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adequate information is available on colour and organics removal in batch mode using pure microbial cultures from dye contaminated wastewater. There was a need to develop environment friendly and cost effective treatment technique for actual field conditions. Therefore, the present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the potential of acclimatized mixed microbial consortia for the removal of colour and organics from real textile wastewater. Experiments were performed in laboratory scale activated sludge process (ASP unit under steady state condition, varying mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS (2500, 3500 and 5000 mg/l and hydraulic retention time (HRT (18, 24 and 36 h. The results showed that decolourization and chemical oxygen demand (COD removal increased with increase in MLVSS and HRT. At 18 h HRT, decolourization was found to be 46, 54 and 67%, which increased to 67, 75 and 90% (36 h HRT at 2500, 3500 and 5000 mg/l MLVSS, respectively. COD removal was found to be 62, 73 and 77% (at 18 h HRT which increased to 77, 85 and 91% (36 h HRT at 2000, 3500 and 5000 mg/l MLVSS, respectively. On the basis of the results obtained in this study suitable treatment techniques can be developed for the treatment of wastewater contaminated with variety of dyes in continuous mode of operation. This shall have the advantage of treatment of larger quantity of wastewater in shorter duration.

  10. Pilot-Scale Lactic Acid Production via Batch Culturing of Lactobacillus sp. RKY2 Using Corn Steep Liquor As a Nitrogen Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jung Wee

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the determination of the efficiency of a pilot-scale fermentation process using corn steep liquor as a nitrogen source was attempted in order to produce lactic acid via batch culturing of Lactobacillus sp. RKY2. Using pure glucose, fermentation efficiency characteristics, such as final lactic acid, cell growth, yield, and productivity were not substantially influenced by the scale-up of the laboratory-scale fermentation from 2.5- to 30- and 300-litre scale fermentations. In all experiments, the content of lactic acid produced increased in a linear fashion with increases in the initial glucose concentration. In the experiments using wood hydrolyzate, both lactic acid productivity and cell growth were decreased as a result of the scaling-up of the fermentation. This might be attributed to the toxic chemicals contained in the wood hydrolyzates. However, in all experiments, lactic acid yields remained higher than 90 % with regard to the amount of glucose consumed. Therefore, lactic acid was successfully produced by the pilot-scale bioreactor scheme adopted in this study.

  11. Fermentation performance and physiology of two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during growth in high gravity spruce hydrolysate and spent sulphite liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Emma; Xiros, Charilaos; Larsson, Christer

    2014-05-21

    Lignocellulosic materials are a diverse group of substrates that are generally scarce in nutrients, which compromises the tolerance and fermentation performance of the fermenting organism. The problem is exacerbated by harsh pre-treatment, which introduces sugars and substances inhibitory to yeast metabolism. This study compares the fermentation behaviours of two yeast strains using different types of lignocellulosic substrates; high gravity dilute acid spruce hydrolysate (SH) and spent sulphite liquor (SSL), in the absence and presence of yeast extract. To this end, the fermentation performance, energy status and fermentation capacity of the strains were measured under different growth conditions. Nutrient supplementation with yeast extract increased sugar uptake, cell growth and ethanol production in all tested fermentation conditions, but had little or no effect on the energy status, irrespective of media. Nutrient-supplemented medium enhanced the fermentation capacity of harvested cells, indicating that cell viability and reusability was increased by nutrient addition. Although both substrates belong to the lignocellulosic spruce hydrolysates, their differences offer specific challenges and the overall yields and productivities largely depend on choice of fermenting strain.

  12. Studies on supplementary desalted mother liquor on digestibility of nutrients, ruminal fermentation, and energy and nitrogen balance in Thai native cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Takashi; Angthong, Wanna; Takeda, Motoharu; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime

    2017-09-01

    Four Thai native steers were used to determine the adequate levels of supplementary desalted mother liquor (DML) for energy and nitrogen balances and ruminal fermentation. The crude protein and sodium chloride contents of DML were 25.5% and 60.3% on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. A 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment was conducted by adding different amounts of DML to three experimental diets (T1: 1.1%, T2: 2.2%, T3: 3.4% sodium chloride concentration with supplementary DML on a DM basis) and comparing their effects with those of a control diet (C) containing 1.0% commercial salt on a DM basis. The animals were given the experimental diets and rice straw daily at 1.2% and 0.8% of body weight, respectively, on a DM basis. No significant differences in the apparent digestibility of nutrients were observed among treatments. T3 achieved the lowest nitrogen retention (P < 0.05), followed by C, T2 and T1. The ratios of energy retention to gross energy were higher in T1 and T3 than T2, and that in C was lowest (P < 0.05). Supplementary NaCl concentration at 1% and 2% can be replaced with DML without an adverse effect on the digestibility of nutrients or on the nitrogen and energy retention. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Does Increasing Community and Liquor Licensees’ Awareness, Police Activity, and Feedback Reduce Alcohol-Related Violent Crime? A Benefit-Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Héctor José; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Christopher M.; Petrie, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees’ awareness, police activity, and feedback) on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions. PMID:24169411

  14. Does Increasing Community and Liquor Licensees’ Awareness, Police Activity, and Feedback Reduce Alcohol-Related Violent Crime? A Benefit-Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Petrie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees’ awareness, police activity, and feedback on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions.

  15. Determination of microbial diversity in Daqu, a fermentation starter culture of Maotai liquor, using nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Liu; Kunliang, Guo; Hongxun, Zhang

    2012-06-01

    This study endeavored to investigate the diversity of microbes present during the shaping, ripening and drying of Daqu, a fermentation starter culture and substrata complex of Maotai alcoholic spirit. A nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technique was utilized with different combinations of primers. The results showed the presence of bacteria, yeasts and molds. The microflora, which originate from wheat, were readily detectable during every stage of the fermentation process. However, the microbial structure had clear differences in the shaping, ripening and drying processes. In the shaping stage, there was a high level of diversity of the LAB (lactic acid bacteria) and fungi in the shaped samples. In the ripening stage, however, a reduction of diversity of fungi with a high level of diversity of the Bacilli was observed in the ripened samples. In the drying stage, the diversity of Bacilli and fungi, especially acid-producing bacteria, reduced dramatically. Interestingly, uncultured Lactococcus sp., Microbacterium testaceum, Cochliobolus sp., and Thermoascus crustaceus were the first to be detected in the fermentation starters used in liquor production. This study revealed the microbial diversity and distributions during the shaping, ripening and drying of Daqu-making, facilitating evaluation of the hygienic conditions and aiding in the design of specific starter and/or adjunct cultures.

  16. Flavanol and procyanidin content (by degree of polymerization 1-10) of chocolate, cocoa liquors, cocoa powders, and cocoa extracts: first action 2012.24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Rebecca J; Leonczak, Jadwiga; Li, Julia; Johnson, J Christopher; Collins, Tom; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Schmitz, Harold H

    2013-01-01

    An international collaborative study was conducted on an HPLC method with fluorescent detection for the determination of flavanols and procyanidins in chocolate and cocoa-containing materials. The sum of the oligomeric fractions with degree of polymerization 1-10 was the determined content value. Sample materials included dark and milk chocolates, cocoa powder, cocoa liquors, and cocoa extracts. The content ranged from approximately 2 to 500 mg/g (defatted basis). Thirteen laboratories--representing commercial, industrial, and academic institutions in six countries--participated in this interlaboratory study. Fourteen samples were sent as blind duplicates to the collaborators. Results for 12 laboratories yielded repeatability RSD (RSDr) values below 10% for all materials analyzed, ranging from 4.17 to 9.61%. Reproducibility RSD (RSDR) values ranged from 5.03 to 12.9% for samples containing 8.07 to 484.7 mg/g material analyzed. In one sample containing a low content of flavanols and procyanidins (approximately 2 mg/g), the RSDR was 17.68%.

  17. Lithium recycling and cathode material regeneration from acid leach liquor of spent lithium-ion battery via facile co-extraction and co-precipitation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Xu, Shengming; He, Yinghe

    2017-06-01

    A novel process for extracting transition metals, recovering lithium and regenerating cathode materials based on facile co-extraction and co-precipitation processes has been developed. 100% manganese, 99% cobalt and 85% nickel are co-extracted and separated from lithium by D2EHPA in kerosene. Then, Li is recovered from the raffinate as Li 2 CO 3 with the purity of 99.2% by precipitation method. Finally, organic load phase is stripped with 0.5M H 2 SO 4 , and the cathode material LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 is directly regenerated from stripping liquor without separating metal individually by co-precipitation method. The regenerative cathode material LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 is miro spherical morphology without any impurities, which can meet with LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 production standard of China and exhibits good electrochemical performance. Moreover, a waste battery management model is introduced to guarantee the material supply for spent battery recycling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification and quantification of the caproic acid-producing bacterium Clostridium kluyveri in the fermentation of pit mud used for Chinese strong-aroma type liquor production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Long; Du, Hai; Xu, Yan

    2015-12-02

    Chinese strong-aroma type liquor (CSAL) is a popular distilled alcoholic beverage in China. It is produced by a complex fermentation process that is conducted in pits in the ground. Ethyl caproate is a key flavor compound in CSAL and is thought to originate from caproic acid produced by Clostridia inhabiting the fermentation pit mud. However, the particular species of Clostridium associated with this production are poorly understood and problematic to quantify by culturing. In this study, a total of 28 closest relatives including 15 Clostridia and 8 Bacilli species in pit muds from three CSAL distilleries, were detected by culture-dependent and -independent methods. Among them, Clostridium kluyveri was identified as the main producer of caproic acid. One representative strain C. kluyveri N6 could produce caproic, butyric and octanoic acids and their corresponding ethyl esters, contributing significantly to CSAL flavor. A real time quantitative PCR assay of C. kluyveri in pit muds developed showed that a concentration of 1.79×10(7) 16S rRNA gene copies/g pit mud in LZ-old pit was approximately six times higher than that in HLM and YH pits and sixty times higher than that in LZ-new pit respectively. This method can be used to improve the management of pit mud microbiology and its impact on CSAL quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Corn Steep Liquor (CSL and Cassava Wastewater (CW on Chitin and Chitosan Production by Cunninghamella elegans and Their Physicochemical Characteristics and Cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Raquel Ramos Berger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological processes were used for chitin and chitosan production with Cunninghamella elegans UCP/WFCC 0542 grown in different concentrations of two agro-industrial wastes, corn steep liquor (CSL and cassava wastewater (CW established using a 22 full factorial design. The polysaccharides were extracted by alkali-acid treatment and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, viscosity, thermal analysis, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The cytotoxicity of chitosan was evaluated for signs of vascular change on the chorioallantoic membrane of chicken eggs. The highest biomass (9.93 g/L was obtained in trial 3 (5% CW, 8% CSL, the greatest chitin and chitosan yields were 89.39 mg/g and 57.82 mg/g, respectively, and both were obtained in trial 2 (10% CW, 4% CSL. Chitin and chitosan showed a degree of deacetylation of 40.98% and 88.24%, and a crystalline index of 35.80% and 23.82%, respectively, and chitosan showed low molecular weight (LMW 5.2 × 103 Da. Chitin and chitosan can be considered non-irritating, due to the fact they do not promote vascular change. It was demonstrated that CSL and CW are effective renewable agroindustrial alternative substrates for the production of chitin and chitosan.

  20. Economical production of poly(γ-glutamic acid) using untreated cane molasses and monosodium glutamate waste liquor by Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Feng, Xiaohai; Zhou, Zhe; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Hong

    2012-06-01

    The production of poly(γ-glutamic acid) by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 from cane molasses and monosodium glutamate waste liquor (MGWL) was studied for the first time in this work. When batch fermentation was carried out with untreated molasses, 33.6±0.37 g L(-1) PGA was obtained with a productivity of 0.46±0.006 g L(-1) h(-1). In order to minimize the substrate inhibition, fed-batch fermentation was performed with untreated or hydrolyzed molasses in 7.5 L bioreactor, giving 50.2±0.53 and 51.1±0.51 g L(-1) of PGA at 96 h, respectively. Further studies were carried out by using MGWL as another carbon source, resulting in a PGA concentration of 52.1±0.52 g L(-1) with a productivity of 0.54±0.003 g L(-1) h(-1). These results suggest that the low-cost cane molasses and MGWL can be used for the environmental-friendly and economical production of PGA by B. subtilis NX-2. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Detoxification of pulping black liquor with Pleurotus ostreatus or recombinant Pichia pastoris followed by CuO/TiO2/visible photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Hoyos, Claudia M; Morales-Álvarez, Edwin D; Abelló-Esparza, Juanita; Buitrago-Pérez, Daniel F; Martínez-Aldana, Nicolás; Salcedo-Reyes, Juan C; Poutou-Piñales, Raúl A; Pedroza-Rodríguez, Aura M

    2018-02-22

    Cellulose-pulping requires chemicals such as Cl 2 , ClO 2 , H 2 O 2 , and O 2 . The black liquor (BL) generated exhibits a high chemical oxygen demand (COD), five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 ), and chlorophenol content, along with an augmented colour and increased pH. BL is often discharged into water bodies, where it has a negative impact on the environment. Towards that end, laccases are of great interest for bioremediation, since they can degrade aromatic and non-aromatic compounds while reducing O 2 to water instead of H 2 O 2 . As such, we evaluated Pleurotus ostreatus and Pichia pastoris (which produces rPOXA 1B laccase) in the treatment of synthetic BL (SBL) in an "in vitro" modified Kraft process followed by CuO/TiO 2 /visible light photocatalysis. Treating SBL with P. ostreatus viable biomass (VB) followed by CuO/TiO 2 /visible light photocatalysis resulted in 80.3% COD removal and 70.6% decolourisation. Toxic compounds such as 2-methylphenol, 4-methylphenol, and 2-methoxyphenol were eliminated. Post-treated SBL exhibited low phytotoxicity, as evidenced by a Lactuca sativa L seed germination index (GI) > 50%. Likewise, SBL treatment with P. pastoris followed by VB/CuO/TiO 2 /visible light photocatalysis resulted in 63.7% COD removal and 46% decolourisation. Moreover, this treatment resulted in the elimination of most unwanted compounds, with the exception of 4-chlorophenol. The Lactuca sativa L seed GI of the post-treated SBL was 40%, indicating moderate phytotoxicity.

  2. Simultaneous α-amylase and protease production by the soil bacterium Bacillus sp. SMIA-2 under submerged culture using whey protein concentrate and corn steep liquor: compatibility of enzymes with commercial detergents

    OpenAIRE

    Corrêa, Thamy Lívia Ribeiro; Moutinho, Stella Karla dos Santos; Martins, Meire Lelis Leal; Martins, Marco Antônio

    2011-01-01

    Protease and α-amylase production by a thermophilic Bacillus sp. SMIA-2 cultivated in liquid cultures containing 0.25% (w/v) starch as a carbon source reached a maximum at 18 hours (47 U.mg-1 Protein) and 36 hours (325 U.mg-1 Protein), respectively. Culture medium supplementation with whey protein concentrate (0.1%, w/v) and corn steep liquor (0.3%, w/v) not only improved the production of both enzymes but also enabled them to be produced simultaneously. Under these conditions, α-amylase and ...

  3. Xylitol production from waste xylose mother liquor containing miscellaneous sugars and inhibitors: one-pot biotransformation by Candida tropicalis and recombinant Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hengwei; Li, Lijuan; Zhang, Lebin; An, Jin; Cheng, Hairong; Deng, Zixin

    2016-05-16

    The process of industrial xylitol production is a massive source of organic pollutants, such as waste xylose mother liquor (WXML), a viscous reddish-brown liquid. Currently, WXML is difficult to reuse due to its miscellaneous low-cost sugars, high content of inhibitors and complex composition. WXML, as an organic pollutant of hemicellulosic hydrolysates, accumulates and has become an issue of industrial concern in China. Previous studies have focused only on the catalysis of xylose in the hydrolysates into xylitol using one strain, without considering the removal of other miscellaneous sugars, thus creating an obstacle to subsequent large-scale purification. In the present study, we aimed to develop a simple one-pot biotransformation to produce high-purity xylitol from WXML to improve its economic value. In the present study, we developed a procedure to produce xylitol from WXML, which combines detoxification, biotransformation and removal of by-product sugars (purification) in one bioreactor using two complementary strains, Candida tropicalis X828 and Bacillus subtilis Bs12. At the first stage of micro-aerobic biotransformation, the yeast cells were allowed to grow and metabolized glucose and the inhibitors furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), and converted xylose into xylitol. At the second stage of aerobic biotransformation, B. subtilis Bs12 was activated and depleted the by-product sugars. The one-pot process was successfully scaled up from shake flasks to 5, 150 L and 30 m(3) bioreactors. Approximately 95 g/L of pure xylitol could be obtained from the medium containing 400 g/L of WXML at a yield of 0.75 g/g xylose consumed, and the by-product sugars glucose, L-arabinose and galactose were depleted simultaneously. Our results demonstrate that the one-pot procedure is a viable option for the industrial application of WXML to produce value-added chemicals. The integration of complementary strains in the biotransformation of hemicellulosic hydrolysates is

  4. Not in My Back Yard: A Comparative Analysis of Crime Around Publicly Funded Drug Treatment Centers, Liquor Stores, Convenience Stores, and Corner Stores in One Mid-Atlantic City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Milam, Adam J; Nesoff, Elizabeth D; Johnson, Renee M; Fakunle, David O; Jennings, Jacky M; Thorpe, Roland J

    2016-01-01

    This research examined whether publicly funded drug treatment centers (DTCs) were associated with violent crime in excess of the violence happening around other commercial businesses. Violent crime data and locations of community entities were geocoded and mapped. DTCs and other retail outlets were matched based on a Neighborhood Disadvantage score at the census tract level. Street network buffers ranging from 100 to 1,400 feet were placed around each location. Negative binomial regression models were used to estimate the relationship between the count of violent crimes and the distance from each business type. Compared with the mean count of violent crime around drug treatment centers, the mean count of violent crime (M = 2.87) was significantly higher around liquor stores (M = 3.98; t test; p crime and the distance from drug treatment centers (β = -.069, p crime associated with drug treatment centers is similar to that associated with liquor stores and is less frequent than that associated with convenience stores and corner stores.

  5. Influence of several nonferrous metals in the treatment of residual liquors from hydrochloric acid pickling processes. Influencia de diversos metales no ferreos en el tratamiento de lejias residuales de decapado con acido clorhidrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negro, C.; Cobos, M.A.; Latorre, R.; Dufour, J.; Formoso, A.; Lopez, F.

    1994-01-01

    In the oxiprecipitation of waste liquors from siderurgical processes of pickling with hydrochloric acid, several kinds of iron oxides and oxihydroxides are obtained: alpha-FeOOH, gamma-FeOOH, Fe[sub 3]O[sub 4], gamma-Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3]. Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3].1,2H[sub 2]O, etc. These products can be used like pigments in the painting industry and like raw materials for the obtaining of ferrites. Varying the operation conditions, the presence of these products can be changed greatly, obtaining different mixtures of them. The presence of non-ferrous metals catalyzes and modifies the mechanism of the reaction, yielding pure products. This simplifies their later industrial applications. The aim of this work is to determine the influence of Cu(II), Zn(II), Mo(VI) and Al(III) on the oxiprecipitation of residual liquors from hydrochloric acid pickling processes, selecting the most favourable operation conditions at which it is possible to obtain products for industrial applications.

  6. Determination of flavanol and procyanidin (by degree of polymerization 1-10) content of chocolate, cocoa liquors, powder(s), and cocoa flavanol extracts by normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Rebecca J; Leonczak, Jadwiga; Li, Julia; Johnson, J Christopher; Collins, Tom; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Schmitz, Harold H

    2012-01-01

    An international collaborative study was conducted on an HPLC method with fluorescent detection (FLD) for the determination of flavanols and procyanidins in materials containing chocolate and cocoa. The sum of the oligomeric fractions with degree of polymerization 1-10 was the determined content value. Sample materials included dark and milk chocolates, cocoa powder, cocoa liquors, and cocoa extracts. The content ranged from approximately 2 to 500 mg/g (defatted basis). Thirteen laboratories representing commercial, industrial, and academic institutions in six countries participated in the study. Fourteen samples were sent as blind duplicates to the collaborators. Results from 12 laboratories yielded repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) values that were below 10% for all materials analyzed, ranging from 4.17 to 9.61%. The reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSD(R)) values ranged from 5.03 to 12.9% for samples containing 8.07 to 484.7 mg/g. In one sample containing a low content of flavanols and procyanidins (approximately 2 mg/g), the RSD(R) was 17.68%. Based on these results, the method is recommended for Official First Action for the determination of flavanols and procyanidins in chocolate, cocoa liquors, powder(s), and cocoa extracts.

  7. Evaluation of the nitrogen load of the sludge liquor from the band filters of the sewage treatment plant of Pinedo (Valencia); Nitrogeno aportado por el licor del fango de los filtros banda a la linea de retorno en la EDAR de Pinedo (Valencia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bes Pia, A.; Mendoza Roca, J. A. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The sludge treatment in a sewage treatment plant generates liquid effluents called sludge liquors that are pumped to the plant entrance. These effluents provide a pollution load that must be considered in the design of the sewage treatment plant, outstanding, all and above the nitrogen load produced by the sludge dewatering after its anaerobic digestion. In the present research the mentioned liquor is studied and characterized in order to determine the nitrogen load recirculated to the entrance of the old-established line of the Pinedo sewage treatment plant (Valencia). (Author) 3 refs.

  8. Perspectives for the electricity surplus generation at the paper and cellulose segment through the gasification of black liquor; Perspectivas para a geracao de excedentes de eletricidade no segmento de papel e celulose atraves da gaseificacao de lixivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia]. E-mail: velazquez@mackenzie.com.br; Coelho, Suani Teixeira [CENBIO - Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa, Sao Paulo, Sp (Brazil)]. E-mail: suani@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    The pulp/paper segment is enclosed enters the most energointensive of the industrial sector. Its industries generate great part of the energy that consume from by-products of the process, but still are not self-sufficient. On the other hand, the difficulties of the industrial sector to the availability energy guarantee are well known, due to lack of trustworthiness of the electricity transmission and distribution. In this context, the increase of the self generation of electricity in the segment's plants certainly would go to collaborate for bigger flexibility in the Brazilian energy matrix, not only for the option of Demand Side Management, but even for the possibility of electricity excesses generation, as it is considered in this study. Thus, this work presents an economic and technique analysis of the energy cogeneration and the generation of electricity excesses in the pulp and paper segment and cellulose using more efficient technologies (although in development), as the black liquor gasification. The perspectives for the use of black liquor gasification systems and coupling of this unit to a gas turbine (BLGCC) are studied, with exploitation of the exhaustion gases in cogeneration systems. One is about technology in development phase in the industrialized countries and that it allows high conversion efficiency. They are, also, calculated the excesses generation costs, by means of the thermo economy, on the basis of the exergy concept, the most adjusted methodology to analyze cogeneration processes. Despite the biggest efficiency, the exceeding electricity, in some of the studied configurations, presented generation costs that do not reveal competitive with the sale's price of electricity, defined for the PROINFA, leaving evident the necessity of other mechanisms that make possible the implementation of new technologies, as the incorporation of the external factors and the carbon credits discouragement of the generation costs. In the pulp and paper

  9. A combined process of activated carbon adsorption, ion exchange resin treatment and membrane concentration for recovery of dissolved organics in pre-hydrolysis liquor of the kraft-based dissolving pulp production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jing; Kaur, Ishneet; Baktash, Mir Mojtaba; He, Zhibin; Ni, Yonghao

    2013-01-01

    To recover dissolved organics in pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) of the kraft-based dissolving pulp production process, a new combined process concept of sequential steps of activated carbon adsorption, ion exchange resin treatment, and membrane concentration, was proposed. The removal of lignin in the PHL was achieved in the activated carbon adsorption step, which also facilitates the subsequent operations, such as the membrane filtration and ion exchange resin treatment. The ion exchange resin treatment resulted in the removal/concentration of acetic acid, which opens the door for acetic acid recovery. The membrane filtration is to recover/concentrate the dissolved sugars. The combined process resulted in the production of PHL-based concentrate with relatively high concentration of hemicellulosic sugars, i.e., 22.13%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Níveis de interleucina-6 e fator de necrose tumoral-alfa no liquor de recém-nascidos a termo com encefalopatia hipóxico-isquêmica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Rita de Cássia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os níveis liquóricos de IL-6 e TNF-alfa em recém-nascidos a termo com encefalopatia hipóxico-isquêmica (EHI, comparando-os com os de recém-nascidos controles. METODOLOGIA: estudo caso-controle realizado no período de julho de 1999 a outubro de 2001, incluindo dois grupos de recém-nascidos a termo: controle, com 20 recém-nascidos sem sepse e/ou meningite e com escore de Apgar > 9 no primeiro e quinto minutos de vida; e casos, com 15 recém-nascidos asfixiados, caracterizados pelo escore de Apgar 3,0 mmol/l e necessidade de ventilação com pressão positiva pelo menos durante 2 minutos após o nascimento. Foram coletadas amostras de liquor nas primeiras 48 horas de vida, para determinação dos níveis de IL-6 e TNF-alfa pelo método de enzimoimunoensaio. RESULTADOS: os grupos não diferiram quanto ao peso de nascimento, idade gestacional, classificação quanto ao peso e idade gestacional, tipo de parto e tempo médio de obtenção do liquor; seus exames foram obtidos em média com 17 horas de vida. Nos recém-nascidos asfixiados, as medianas dos níveis liquóricos foram: 157,5 pg/ml para IL-6 e 14,7 pg/ml para TNF-alfa, significativamente mais elevadas que nos controles (IL-6: 4,1 pg/ml e TNF-alfa: 0,16 pg/ml. CONCLUSÕES: recém-nascidos a termo com EHI apresentaram níveis liquóricos de IL-6 e TNF-alfa mais elevados que controles, possivelmente devido à produção local cerebral dessas citocinas, especialmente o TNF-alfa. Estes achados estimulam estudos futuros, utilizando bloqueadores cerebrais das ações dessas citocinas como estratégia de neuroproteção.

  11. DETERMINACIÓN DE FENOLES TOTALES EN DERIVADOS LÍGNICOS OBTENIDOS DEL “LICOR NEGRO” COMO ALTERNATIVA DE PRODUCCIÓN // DETERMINATION OF TOTAL PHENOL DERIVATIVES OBTAINED FROM LIGNIN "BLACK LIQUOR" AS ALTERNATIVE TO PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José López Villalobos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is an industrial waste being worthless in papermaking byproduct of black liquor obtained from the pulping process in some Venezuelan plants. The black liquor is obtained from the Kraft pulping process to extract lignin sulphite by acid precipitation and quantify the amount of total phenols in such lignin products used in this study. Spectrophotometry Molecular absorption in the UV-Visible and Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR region were used to carry out these study techniques. The products obtained in the study had the same signs than commercial lignin (LA, along with the extracted lignin present little degradation HCl, confirmed by infrared spectra. Also, the amount of total phenols was quantified in derivative lignin obtained using the Folin-Ciocalteu. In the sulphite process extracted lignin with acetic acid derivative contains more phenols, and in the Kraft process, the derivative lignin extracted with fewer nitric acid present. The amount of total phenolics present in these derivatives are good for making antiseptics, detergents, nylon, resin and many industrial products. // RESUMEN La lignina es un subproducto del licor negro obtenido del proceso de despulpado en algunas plantas de Venezuela, siendo un desecho industrial que carece de valor en la fabricación de papel. En este estudio se utilizó el licor negro obtenido de los procesos de pulpado Kraft y Sulfito para extraer la lignina mediante precipitaciones ácidas y cuantificar la cantidad de fenoles totales en dichos productos lígnicos. Para llevar a cabo este estudio, se utilizaron las técnicas de Espectrofotometría de Absorción Molecular en la región UV-Visible y la Espectroscopia de Infrarrojo (FTIR. Los productos obtenidos en el estudio presentaron señales similares que la lignina comercial (LA, además la lignina extraída con HCl presentó poca degradación, corroborado por los espectros infrarrojos. Asimismo, se cuantificó la cantidad de fenoles totales en los

  12. Not in My Back Yard: A Comparative Analysis of Crime Around Publicly Funded Drug Treatment Centers, Liquor Stores, Convenience Stores, and Corner Stores in One Mid-Atlantic City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furr-Holden, C. Debra M.; Milam, Adam J.; Nesoff, Elizabeth D.; Johnson, Renee M.; Fakunle, David O.; Jennings, Jacky M.; Thorpe, Roland J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This research examined whether publicly funded drug treatment centers (DTCs) were associated with violent crime in excess of the violence happening around other commercial businesses. Method: Violent crime data and locations of community entities were geocoded and mapped. DTCs and other retail outlets were matched based on a Neighborhood Disadvantage score at the census tract level. Street network buffers ranging from 100 to 1,400 feet were placed around each location. Negative binomial regression models were used to estimate the relationship between the count of violent crimes and the distance from each business type. Results: Compared with the mean count of violent crime around drug treatment centers, the mean count of violent crime (M = 2.87) was significantly higher around liquor stores (M = 3.98; t test; p stores (M = 3.78; t test; p stores (M = 2.65; t test; p = .32). In the adjusted negative binomial regression models, there was a negative and significant relationship between the count of violent crime and the distance from drug treatment centers (β = -.069, p stores (β = -.081, p stores (β = -.116, p stores (β = -.154, p stores and is less frequent than that associated with convenience stores and corner stores. PMID:26751351

  13. Uranium concentrate obtained from sulfuric liquor by solvent extraction using ammonium sulfate as extractant agent; Obtencao de concentrado de uranio a partir de licor sulfurico por extracao por solventes utilizando sulfato de amonio como agente reextratante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Carlos Antonio de [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: cmorais@cdtn.br; Gomiero, Luiz Alberto [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Caetite, BA (Brazil)]. E-mail: gomiero@inb.gov.br

    2005-07-01

    Results of uranium concentrate obtainment from sulfuric liquor by solvent extraction followed by chemical precipitation techniques are presented. In the extraction process a tertiary amine as extractant agent and ammonium sulfate solution as stripping agent were used. Uranium was precipitated from the pregnant strip solution as ammonium diuranate by addition of ammonium hydroxide solution. Equilibrium pH and chloride content in the loaded solvent were the main interference on the uranium stripping stage. From a chloride-free uranium loaded organic phase a pregnant strip solution containing 33.2 g/L U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and a stripped solvent with 0.006 g/L U{sub 3}O{sub 8} using 5 stages of mixer-settlers were obtained. The chemical precipitation stage yielded a high purity ammonium diuranate precipitate with a recovery of 99.98%. After calcination, the product presented 99.7 % U{sub 3}O{sub 8} content. (author)

  14. Alterações no metabolismo da homocisteína induzidas por aguardente de cana-de-açúcar em alcoólatras Homocystein metabolism alterations induced by sugar-cane liquor in alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Nogueira Prioste

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available O alcoolismo está relacionado a má nutrição e baixos níveis de várias vitaminas que fazem parte do metabolismo da homocisteína (Hci. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a prevalência de hiper-homocisteinemia em pacientes com alta ingestão diária de aguardente de cana-de-açúcar. Foram incluídos neste estudo 31 homens hospitalizados para tratamento de alcoolismo. Hci, folato (Fol, vitamina B12 séricos e enzimas hepáticas foram determinados e repetidos após 21 dias de abstinência alcoólica. Os valores de Hci em µmol/l antes e depois do tratamento foram, respectivamente, de 24,88 ± 2,09 e 12,48 ± 0,69. A abstinência alcoólica diminuiu significativamente os valores de aspartato aminotransferase, alanina aminotransferase e gamaglutamiltranspeptidase. Não houve alteração dos níveis de hemácias, proteínas totais e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média. Os níveis de Hci antes do tratamento se correlacionaram com os de folato (r² = 0,333. Estes resultados sugerem que o alcoolismo crônico está acompanhado por perturbação do metabolismo de aminoácidos sulfurados e que a hiper-homocisteinemia etanol-induzida através de aguardente de cana-de-açúcar pode ser acompanhada de níveis séricos baixos de folato, agravando o estado nutricional destes pacientes.Alcoholism is related to malnutrition and low levels of several vitamins that take part in the metabolism of homocystein (HCY. The objective of this study was to analyse the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia in patients with heavy daily intake of sugar-cane liquor. In this study were included 31 hospitalized man for alcoholism treatment. Serum folate (FOL, HCY, vitamin B12 (B12 and liver enzymes were determinated and repeated after 21 days of alcohol withdrawal. The values of HCY in µmol/l before and after treatment were respectivally of 24.88 ± 2.09 and 12.48 ± 0.69. The alcohol abstinence decreased significativally the values of aspartate transaminase

  15. Removal of boron (B) from waste liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J Q; Xu, Y; Simon, J; Quill, K; Shettle, K

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the use of electrocoagulation to remove boron from waste effluent in comparison with alum coagulation. In treating model test wastes, greater boron removals were achieved with electrocoagulation at low doses than conventional alum coagulation when reaction was undertaken for the same conditions (pH 8.5, and initial boron concentration was 500 mg/L). Al electrocoagulation can achieve good boron removal performance (68.3%) at a dose of 2.1 (as molar ratio of Al:B, and for current density of 62.1 A/m2), while alum coagulation can only achieve the maximum boron removal of 56% at a dose of 2.4. Also, Al electrocoagulation can remove 15-20% more boron than alum coagulation for the same dose compared in the treatment of both model test wastes and industry effluent. The estimation of running costs shows that to achieve 75% boron removal from industry waste effluent, i.e. removing 150 g of boron from 1 m3 of effluent, electrocoagulation was 6.2 times cheaper than alum coagulation. The economic advantage of electrocoagulation in the treatment of boron-containing waste effluent is thus significant.

  16. The roles of 4f- and 5f-orbitals in bonding: a magnetochemical, crystal field, density functional theory, and multi-reference wavefunction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukens, W W; Speldrich, M; Yang, P; Duignan, T J; Autschbach, J; Kögerler, P

    2016-07-28

    The electronic structures of 4f(3)/5f(3) Cp''3M and Cp''3M·alkylisocyanide complexes, where Cp'' is 1,3-bis-(trimethylsilyl)cyclopentadienyl, are explored with a focus on the splitting of the f-orbitals, which provides information about the strengths of the metal-ligand interactions. While the f-orbital splitting in many lanthanide complexes has been reported in detail, experimental determination of the f-orbital splitting in actinide complexes remains rare in systems other than halide and oxide compounds, since the experimental approach, crystal field analysis, is generally significantly more difficult for actinide complexes than for lanthanide complexes. In this study, a set of analogous neodymium(iii) and uranium(iii) tris-cyclopentadienyl complexes and their isocyanide adducts was characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility. The crystal field model was parameterized by combined fitting of EPR and susceptibility data, yielding an accurate description of f-orbital splitting. The isocyanide derivatives were also studied using density functional theory, resulting in f-orbital splitting that is consistent with crystal field fitting, and by multi-reference wavefunction calculations that support the electronic structure analysis derived from the crystal-field calculations. The results highlight that the 5f-orbitals, but not the 4f-orbitals, are significantly involved in bonding to the isocyanide ligands. The main interaction between isocyanide ligand and the metal center is a σ-bond, with additional 5f to π* donation for the uranium complexes. While interaction with the isocyanide π*-orbitals lowers the energies of the 5fxz(2) and 5fyz(2)-orbitals, spin-orbit coupling greatly reduces the population of 5fxz(2) and 5fyz(2) in the ground state.

  17. Electron density characteristics in bond critical point (QTAIM) versus interaction energy components (SAPT): the case of charge-assisted hydrogen bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankiewicz, Barbara; Matczak, Piotr; Palusiak, Marcin

    2012-01-12

    Charge-assisted hydrogen bonds (CAHBs) of N-H···Cl, N-H···Br, and P-H···Cl type were investigated using advanced computational approach (MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory). The properties of electron density function defined in the framework of Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) were estimated as a function of distance in H-bridges. Additionally, the interaction energy decomposition was performed for H-bonded complexes with different H-bond lengths using the Symmetry-Adapted Perturbation Theory (SAPT). In this way both QTAIM parameters and SAPT energy components could be expressed as a function of the same variable, that is, the distance in H-bridge. A detailed analysis of the changes in QTAIM and SAPT parameters due to the changes in H···A distance revealed that, over some ranges of H···A distances, electrostatic, inductive and dispersive components of the SAPT interaction energy show a linear correlation with the value of the electron density at H-BCP ρ(BCP). The linear relation between the induction component, E(ind), and ρ(BCP) confirms numerically the intuitive expectation that the ρ(BCP) reflects directly the effects connected with the sharing of electron density between interacting centers. These conclusions are important in view of charge density studies performed for crystals in which the distance between atoms results not only from effects connected with the interaction between atomic centers directly involved in bonding, but also from packing effects which may strongly influence the length of the H-bond.

  18. 27 CFR 24.282 - Multiple transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Transfer of Wine in Bond § 24.282... transfer record for all wine (including distilling material and vinegar stock) transferred by pipeline to...

  19. Evaluación de la eficiencia de una batería de filtros empacados en zeolita en la remoción de metales pesados presentes en un licor mixto bajo condiciones de laboratorio Evaluation of efficiency of a filter battery packaging zeolite in the removal of heavy metals in a mixed liquor under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rocío Acevedo Cifuentes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se muestran resultados de investigación obtenidos en la remoción de los metales pesados, plomo, níquel, cromo, cadmio y mercurio, presentes en una solución compuesta por licor mixto proveniente de la planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales de San Fernando y una solución preparada con metales pesados con una concentración conocida, mediante el uso de una batería de filtros empacados en zeolita clinoptilolita. La experimentación se desarrolló bajo condiciones controladas de caudal y pH, a temperatura ambiente. Se encontró que la eficiencia de los filtros bajo las condiciones específicas de diseño es significativamente alta en la remoción de los metales pesados evaluados en la solución acuosa. Se encontró, además, que sin importar el valor de la concentración inicial, se obtuvo una remoción importante en los contaminantes luego de pasar por los filtros con una mayor eficiencia en la remoción del mercurio.This article shows the research results on the removal of five heavy metals (lead, nickel, chromium, cadmium and mercury present in a liquor made of a mixture of wastewater from San Fernando wastewater treatment plant and a solution prepared with known concentrations of heavy metals, using a series of batery filters packed with zeolita clinoptilolita. The experiments were run under controlled conditions of flow and pH, at room temperature. It was found that the removal efficiency was significantly high under the specified design conditions; also, it was found an important removal of the contaminants after passing through the filters, independently of the initial concentration, with the highest observed removal for mercury.

  20. Ozonização em meio básico para redução de cor do licor negro de indústria de celulose de algodão Color reduction of black liquor from cotton cellulose industry using ozonation in an alkaline medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Guimarães

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As indústrias de papel e celulose descartam no ambiente um grande volume de efluente contendo grande quantidade da substância lignina, que atribui coloração e apresenta considerável potencial de toxicidade. Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a ozonização em meio básico para a redução de cor do licor negro gerado por uma indústria de celulose de algodão. Face aos resultados, foi possível observar que, para menores concentrações iniciais de ozônio (0,4 gO3 L-1 h-1, foi necessário um tempo mais longo de ozonização para se obter a redução desejada de 80% da cor. O consumo específico de ozônio, entretanto, em comparação a experimentos com dosagens mais elevadas (4,3 gO3 L-1 h-1 foi menor. Sugere-se que o oxigênio molecular desempenhe, também, um importante papel na oxidação dos compostos, participando do mecanismo de oxidação iniciado por radical hidroxila, •OH, formado na ozonização em meio básico.Pulp and paper mills discharge large amounts of wastewater containing high concentrations of lignin, a coloring substance that is dangerous and presents high toxicity to the environment. In this study, ozonation in alkaline ambience was evaluated for color reduction in black liquor, generated in a cotton linter mill. It was observed that the ozonation time to reach 80% color reduction was higher at a lower initial ozone dose (0,4 gO3 L-1 h-1 in comparison to a higher initial ozone dose (4,3 gO3 L-1 h-1. On the other hand, the amount of consumed oxidant was lower at the lower ozone dose. It is suggested that molecular oxygen participates in the oxidation mechanism of colored compounds, which is initiated by hydroxyl radicals (•OH formed during ozonation in alkaline ambience.

  1. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Western Cape Liquor Act in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alcohol is one of the key risk factors for the exceptionally high levels of interpersonal violence in South Africa's Western Cape Province. It is also an important contributor to disease. Reducing access to alcohol is one of several strategies recommended for lowering alcohol-related harm; it has been identified as a suitable ...

  2. Anaerobic biodegradation of spent sulphite liquor in a UASB reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantsch, T.G.; Angelidaki, Irini; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2002-01-01

    with diluted SSL and pretreated SSL indicated a potential of 12–22 l methane per litre SSL, which corresponds to 0.13–0.22 l methane ðg VSÞ1 and COD removal of up to 37%. COD removal in a mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB, reactor ranged from10% to 31% at an organic loading rate, OLR, of 10–51 g...... ðl dÞ1 and hydraulic retention time from 3.7 to 1.5 days. The biogas productivity was 3 l ðlreactor dÞ1, with a yield of 0.05 l gas ðg VSÞ1. These results suggest that anaerobic digestion in UASB reactors may provide a new alternative for the treatment of SSL to other treatment strategies...

  3. Baijiu (白酒, Chinese liquor: History, classification and manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Zheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Baijiu (白酒 is a traditional fermented alcoholic drink originating in China, which is typically obtained by natural fermentation. It has a high reputation and constitutes an important part of Chinese dietary profile. The production of baijiu involves five major steps, materials preparation, daqu (大曲 making, alcoholic fermentation, distillation, and aging. There is a range of baijiu with different flavors and corresponding names. Baijiu can be categorized according to the production techniques (solid state and semi-solid state, types of starter [daqu, xiaoqu (小曲, and fuqu (麸曲] and product flavor (strong, light, sauce, etc.. different types of baijiu have their home microbiota and flavor because of their distinct production techniques. In this review, we discuss the critical steps and the microorganisms involved in the production of different types of baijiu. Although baijiu contains alcohol, it has been proven that it plays a significant role in the heath and quality of peoples' lives.

  4. The denitration of simulated fast reactor highly active liquor waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saum, C.J.; Ford, L.H.; Platts, N.

    1981-11-01

    Vitrification of the highly active arisings from PFR fuel reprocessing is proposed as the optimum long-term solution to the disposal problem. During vitrification ruthenium volatilises as the tetroxide. Evidence is presented which indicates that a substantial reduction in volatility can be effected by denitration of the liquid feed by treatment with formic acid. The kinetics and stoichiometry of the reactions involved in denitration are examined and empirical rate equations developed. The predictions of the empirical rate equation have been confirmed using a one-tenth scale continuous denitrator, thus giving confidence for the design of full-scale units. (author)

  5. Multi-liquor dispenser series; Multi rika dispenser series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-10

    Fuji Electric Co. developed a series of dispensers (FTS-50W and FTM-50W) which enables the sale of a plurality of drinks by one machine by making a beer dispenser and a carbonated drink dispenser monolithic. Main characteristics are as follows. Beer and carbonated drink (soft drinks and alcohols such as shochu) can be sold by one machine (FTS is for 1 flavor and FTM is for 3 flavor). It has a portion function which enables the quantitative sale of carbonated drink just by pressing a button, and also has a function which enables only the sale of carbonated water. The cost reduction can be realized by standardizing the parts of other beer dispensers and soft drink dispensers. (NEDO)

  6. Influence of probiotics on rumen liquor characteristics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a completely randomised design, eighteen goats were allotted to six dietary treatments: control (D1); antibiotic (D2); 2.5g bakers yeast (D3); 5.0g bakers yeast (D4); 2.5g yeast plus Lactobacilli (D5) and 5.0g yeast plus Lactobacilli (D6), where D5 and D6 were fortified with Lactobacillus acidophilus at 1.00x1012cfu/g each.

  7. Storage of hazardous substances in bonded warehouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos Artavia, Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    A variety of special regulations exist in Costa Rica for registration and transport of hazardous substances; these set the requirements for entry into the country and the security of transport units. However, the regulations mentioned no specific rules for storing hazardous substances. Tax deposits have been the initial place where are stored the substances that enter the country.The creation of basic rules that would be regulating the storage of hazardous substances has taken place through the analysis of regulations and national and international laws governing hazardous substances. The regulatory domain that currently exists will be established with a field research in fiscal deposits in the metropolitan area. The storage and security measures that have been used by the personnel handling the substances will be identified to be putting the reality with that the hazardous substances have been handled in tax deposits. A rule base for the storage of hazardous substances in tax deposits can be made, protecting the safety of the environment in which are manipulated and avoiding a possible accident causing a mess around. The rule will have the characteristics of the storage warehouses hazardous substances, such as safety standards, labeling standards, infrastructure features, common storage and transitional measures that must possess and meet all bonded warehouses to store hazardous substances. (author) [es

  8. 27 CFR 24.302 - Effervescent wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effervescent wine record..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.302 Effervescent wine record. A proprietor who produces or receives sparkling wine or artificially carbonated wine in bond shall maintain records...

  9. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond shall...

  10. 27 CFR 24.301 - Bulk still wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk still wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.301 Bulk still wine record. A proprietor who produces or receives still wine in bond, (including wine intended for use as distilling material or vinegar...

  11. 27 CFR 7.60 - Exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports. 7.60 Section 7.60... TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES General Provisions § 7.60 Exports. This part shall not apply to malt beverages exported in bond. ...

  12. 27 CFR 4.80 - Exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports. 4.80 Section 4.80... TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE General Provisions § 4.80 Exports. The regulations in this part shall not apply to wine exported in bond. ...

  13. Recent development in bonded NdFeB magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, B.M.; Herchenroeder, J.W.; Smith, B.; Suda, M.; Brown, D.N.; Chen, Z.

    2002-01-01

    The magnetic properties of isotropic NdFeB powders used for bonded magnets are compared. The characteristics of two newly developed powders, namely MQP-13-9 and MQP-S-9-8 were compared with respect to existing powders. The advantages of spherical powders for injection molding were highlighted. Development targets for the 180 deg. C application and NdFeB nanocomposites were also discussed

  14. Best-Estimates in Bond Markets with Reinvestment Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne MacKay

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of best-estimate, prescribed by regulators to value insurance liabilities for accounting and solvency purposes, has recently been discussed extensively in the industry and related academic literature. To differentiate hedgeable and non-hedgeable risks in a general case, recent literature defines best-estimates using orthogonal projections of a claim on the space of replicable payoffs. In this paper, we apply this concept of best-estimate to long-maturity claims in a market with reinvestment risk, since in this case the total liability cannot easily be separated into hedgeable and non-hedgeable parts. We assume that a limited number of short-maturity bonds are traded, and derive the best-estimate price of bonds with longer maturities, thus obtaining a best-estimate yield curve. We therefore use the multifactor Vasiˇcek model and derive within this framework closed-form expressions for the best-estimate prices of long-term bonds.

  15. Drastic Improvements in Bonding of Fiber Reinforced Multifunctional Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Achievement of a dramatic increase in the bond strength in the adhesive and composite/adhesive interfaces of existing fiber reinforced composite material joints and...

  16. 27 CFR 19.562 - Determination of losses in bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., denatured spirits, or wine recorded as deposited on bonded premises cannot be located or otherwise accounted..., or otherwise) of spirits, denatured spirits, and wines shall be determined by the proprietor: (i... the appropriate TTB officer. (3) In any instance in which spirits, denatured spirits or wines are lost...

  17. Puzzles in bonding and spectroscopy: the case of dicarbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrae, Roderick M

    2016-01-01

    The unstable molecule C₂ has been of interest since its identification as the source of the "Swan band" features observable in the spectra offlames, carbon arcs, white dwarf stars, and comets, and it continues to serve as a focal point for experimental and theoretical discovery. Recent spectroscopic work has identified a quintet state of the molecule for the first time, while new insights into the bond order of C₂ in its ground state have been provided by sophisticated computational methods based on valence bond theory. This article gives a review of spectroscopic and computational work on C₂ including both historical background and the most recent discoveries.

  18. A Study in Bonding: Metal to Glass to Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1952-03-01

    Mill Batch Compositions Coating No. 3- 11104M-I 44.3-_ * 4 )YF-I* 445-1* 446-1* 447-l* * 448-1 Frit(l) 88 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Diaspore (2) 12...grade diaspore (AlýO3 . H20) preground to pass a 20 mesh sieve. * Enamels of Series A ** Enamels of Series B Note: All enamels were wet milled to a

  19. [Water absorption of five dental resins used in bonded restorations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, D; Dupuis, V

    2002-12-01

    The actual restorative dentistry need to bond material which are under the constraint of saliva likely, as all liquid, to enter inside the product with time and to modify its characteristics. In this study, we compare the behaviour of five materials opposite water absorption, in vitro, until one year: two composite resins (Tetric et Pertac II), two ceromer (ceromer (Tetric ceram et Tetric flow) and one compomer (Hytac(r)). Each pastille weight is expressed in percentage of initial weight. All materials loose weight in the first hours except Tetric ceram which stay stable. At 48 h, all materials except Pertac II get back their initial weight. At long-term, all the materials are stable with a profit of 1% for Hytac, 0.5% for Tetric, Tetric ceram et Tetric flow and a loss of à 0.3% for Pertac II. As a result of this study, we understand why the clinical used of Hytac must be done following strict conditions.

  20. EXTRACTION OF COPPER FROM LEACH LIQUOR OF METALLIC COMPONENT IN DISCARDED CELL PHONE BY CYANEX® 272

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALAFARA A. BABA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Discarded cell phones contribute significantly to the amount of electronic waste generation whilst some of its components are toxic and recoverable. Also, due to the increasing demand for Cu(II in building/construction, electrical and as chemical tool in freshwater, it is imperative to develop low cost and ecofriendly technique as a substitute for the conventional treatments such as reduction-roasting route at elevated temperatures. In the present study, the hydrometallurgical operations involving leaching, solvent extraction and precipitation for the recovery of Cu(II by Cyanex® 272 in kerosene was examined. Various parameters affecting the extraction of Cu(II such as pH, extractant concentration and phase ratio were optimized. At optimal conditions, about 96.3 % Cu(II was extracted into the organic phase by 0.2 mol/L Cyanex® 272 at equilibrium pH 5.0 and aqueous to organic phase ratio 1:1. The stripping of the loaded organic was carried out by 0.1 mol/L HCl solution and stripping efficiency of 98 % was obtained. By McCabe Thiele diagram, four stages are required for complete extraction of Cu(II.

  1. 77 FR 74025 - Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria-Liquor Control Statute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... beverage. If there is any conflict between State law and the terms of the Compact regarding the age limits... conflict with any applicable tribal, federal or state law. Regulations enacted pursuant to this Statute may... or all of the foregoing actions on its behalf. Chapter Six--Taxes Section: 6.1 Taxation. Nothing...

  2. MODE OF DELIVERY AND FOETAL OUTCOME IN MECONIUM-STAINED LIQUOR: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Narasimhaiah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To study the incidence of MSL, mode of delivery and foetal outcome in women with MSL in labour. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study was conducted from January 2014 to December 2015 on patients admitted in labour room of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Medical College and Hospital and assessed for MSL, mode of delivery and foetal outcome. RESULTS Out of the 1661 deliveries 195 (11.73 % were complicated with MSL. Chi square test was applied to analyse Grades of meconium and APGAR score at 95 % confidence and p value of < 0.05 was obtained which was statistically significant. CONCLUSION MSL alone is not an indication for Caesarean Section and is not associated with adverse neonatal outcome. Increase in the grades of MSL is associated with more adverse outcome.

  3. Spectral analysis of bacanora (agave-derived liquor) by using FT-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Clavero, Valentin; Weber, Andreas; Schröder, Werner; Curticapean, Dan

    2016-04-01

    The industry of the agave-derived bacanora, in the northern Mexican state of Sonora, has been growing substantially in recent years. However, this higher demand still lies under the influences of a variety of social, legal, cultural, ecological and economic elements. The governmental institutions of the state have tried to encourage a sustainable development and certain levels of standardization in the production of bacanora by applying different economical and legal strategies. However, a large portion of this alcoholic beverage is still produced in a traditional and rudimentary fashion. Beyond the quality of the beverage, the lack of proper control, by using adequate instrumental methods, might represent a health risk, as in several cases traditional-distilled beverages can contain elevated levels of harmful materials. The present article describes the qualitative spectral analysis of samples of the traditional-produced distilled beverage bacanora in the range from 0 cm-1 to 3500 cm-1 by using a Fourier Transform Raman spectrometer. This particular technique has not been previously explored for the analysis of bacanora, as in the case of other beverages, including tequila. The proposed instrumental arrangement for the spectral analysis has been built by combining conventional hardware parts (Michelson interferometer, photo-diodes, visible laser, etc.) and a set of self-developed evaluation algorithms. The resulting spectral information has been compared to those of pure samples of ethanol and to the spectra from different samples of the alcoholic beverage tequila. The proposed instrumental arrangement can be used the analysis of bacanora.

  4. lactic acid production by Lactobacillus SMI8 using corn steep liquor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Lactic acid: recent advances in products, processes and technologies- A review. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 81: 1119-1129. Datta R, Tsai SP, Bonsignore P, Moon SH, Frank JR (1995). Technological and economic potential of poly-lactic acid and lactic acid derivatives. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 16: 221-231.

  5. 77 FR 31381 - Habematolel Pomo of Upper Lake-Tribal Liquor Ordinance No. 2008-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... establishment; public buildings; public meeting halls; lobbies, halls and dining rooms of hotels, restaurants... of a felony or a crime of moral turpitude as defined by the laws of the State of California; g...

  6. 75 FR 22419 - Liquor Control Ordinance of the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ..., ranging from unemployment to malnutrition. (e) Alcohol abuse contributes to the vast majority of the crime... establishments, public buildings, public meeting halls, lobbies, halls and dining room of hotels, restaurants...

  7. 75 FR 44011 - Liquor Ordinance of the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... of hotels, restaurants, theaters, gaming facilities, entertainment centers, store garages, and... of the applicant, if an entity, has ever been convicted of a felony or a crime of moral turpitude...

  8. Diluting drinks and deepening discontent : colonial liquor controls and public resistance in Windhoek, Namibia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gewald, J.B.; Bryceson, D.F.

    2002-01-01

    The colonial conquest of Namibia was extremely brutal. Repressive controls continued in the decades that followed as exemplified by the South African colonial administration's regulation of the production and consumption of alcohol by the territory's black African inhabitants. Nonetheless, the

  9. Reduced sludge growth at high bulk liquor dissolved oxygen induced by increased secondary cell maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khursheed, Anwar; Tyagi, Vinay Kumar; Gaur, Rubia Z; Sharma, Meena Kumari; Khan, Abid Ali; Kazmi, A A

    2017-10-01

    Sludge reduction by physico-chemical methods results in the buildup of chemicals, which may require further treatment. Owing these reasons various biologically sustainable methods of sludge reduction including the application of high oxygenation have been successfully tested. Experiments on actual sewage in two lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were conducted under normal (1.5-2.5 mgDO/L) and high dissolved oxygen (DO) (HDO: 3-6.5 mgDO/L) regimes. It was observed that microorganism allocated substrate between maintenance and growth in the form of maintenance coefficient. Which could be induced by endogenous respiration owing to high solids retention time (SRT), predation on bacteria, chemical toxicity, adverse environment, and viral attack on bacteria. The wastewater treatment process may experience one or more maintenance inducing factors; nevertheless, high SRT and prevailing environmental conditions are imminent and thus considered as primary maintenance (m p ), while remaining are classified as secondary maintenance (m s ). Average yield coefficient reduction at HDO was 32.7% and 28.2% compared to stoichiometric and at normal DO, respectively. The observed primary and secondary maintenance was 0.11gCOD/gVSS.d (±0.01) at an SRT of 25.2 d (±2.0) and 0.096 g 0.1 gCOD/gVSS.d (±0.045) at an SRT of 24.2 d (±3.6d), respectively. The results obtained under the study are not as precise as on pure culture and defined substrate, nevertheless, it gives an idea that how stress factors inducing maintenance need to be addressed more seriously and objectively while managing our efforts on sludge reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. MODELING OF MIXED LIQUOR VOLATILE SUSPENDED SOLIDS AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION FOR A SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Mirbagheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous removal from municipal wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor and biokinetic coefficients were evaluated according to results of BOD and COD. Furthermore, the MLVSS in the aeration reactor was modeled by using multilayer perceptron and radial basis function artificial neural networks (MLPANN and RBFANN. The experiments were performed so that the cell retention time, filling time and intensity of aeration were (5, 10 and 15 d, (1, 2 and 3 h and (weak, medium and strong respectively. The result indicated that with cell retention time of 15 d, filling time of 1 h, aeration time of 6 h and settling time of 3 h the HRT is optimized at 10 h. The BOD5, COD, TP, TN and NH4  N removal efficiencies were 97.13%, 94.58%, 94.27%, 89.7% and 92.75% respectively. The yield coefficient (Y, decay coefficient (Kd, maximum specific growth rate (K and saturation constant (Ks were 6.22 mgVSS/mgCOD, 0.002 1/d, 0.029 1/d and 20 mg COD/L according to COD experimental data. The values of the biokinetic coefficients were found to be as follows: Y = 10.45 mgVSS/mgBOD, Kd = 0.01 1/d, 0.014 1/d and 3.38 mgBOD/L according to BOD5 experimental data. The training procedures for simulation of MLVSS were highly collaborated for both RBFANN and MLPANN. The train and test models for both MLPANN and RBFANN demonstrated perfectly matched results between the experimental and the simulated values of MLVSS. The values of RMSE for train and test (verification models obtained by MLPANN were 31.82 and 40.25 mg/L respectively, and the value of R2 was 0.99 for both models. The values of RMSE for train and test models obtained by RBFANN were 69.04 and 43.87 mg/L respectively, and the value of R2 was 0.99 for both models. It was observed that the MLPANN has stronger approximation and generalization ability than the RBFANN with regard to our experimental data for MLVSS.

  11. Why did Canada nationalize liquor sales in the 1920s?: A political economy story

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Dupré

    2008-01-01

    While the American episode of alcohol prohibition (1919-1933) is notorious and has been extensively studied, very little work has been done in a comparative international perspective. We contribute to this comparative international analysis by focusing here on the different path chosen by Canada in the 1920s. At the same time that its American neighbor went «bone dry», the Canadian provinces, one by one, starting with Quebec and British Columbia in 1921 and ending with Ontario in 1927, set up...

  12. Mutagenesis Strategies for the Enhancement of Glucose Oxidase Production from Corn Steep Liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalaf, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    During screening of the twenty eight Aspergillus and Penicillium species for GOD production, only A. niger (84) was observed to release high extra (3.15 U ml -1 ) and intracellular (9.30 U mg -l ) GOD activity. Conidia of A. niger S4 were subjected to mutagenesis with UV radiation, nitrous acid, and sodium azide, as a single or combined treatments, and GOD activity was detected with the diffusion plate method. Out of 27 over producing mutants tested in shaken flasks, UVNA54 mutant strain showed the highest level of GOD activity (171 %, higher than the wild type). Using CSL at concentration 25 ml rl as the sol nutrient source, the enzyme activity was increased to 5.16 U ml -1 and 22.40 U mg -1 for extra and intracellular, respectively. Viable cell numbers of Pseudomonas and Salmonella spp. decreased as the concentration of the produced enzyme increased from 1 to 3 U ml -1

  13. Recovery of sugars from ionic liquid biomass liquor by solvent extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Timothy Charles R.; Holmes, Bradley M.; Simmons, Blake A.; Blanch, Harvey W.

    2015-10-13

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a solution comprising (a) an ionic liquid (IL) or ionic liquid-aqueous (ILA) phase and (b) an organic phase, wherein the solution comprises a sugar and a boronic acid. The present invention also provides for a method of removing a sugar from a solution, comprising: (a) providing a solution comprising (i) an IL or ILA phase and (ii) an organic phase, wherein the solution comprises an IL, a sugar and a boronic acid; (b) contacting the sugar with the boronic acid to form a sugar-boronic acid complex, (c) separating the organic phase and the aqueous phase, wherein the organic phase contains the sugar-boronic acid complex, and optionally (d) separating the sugar from the organic phase.

  14. Dynamic modelling of nitrous oxide emissions from three Swedish sludge liquor treatment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, E.; Arnell, M.; Flores-Alsina, X.

    2016-01-01

    production by both heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrification. In addition, mass transfer equations are implemented to characterize the dynamics of N2O in the water and the gas phases.The biochemical model is simulated and validated for two hydraulic patterns: (1) a sequencing batch reactor; and, (2...

  15. Modelling Sulfonation Kinetics On The Sodium Lignosulphonate Synthesis From Black Liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hapsoro Aruno Aji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfactant is a compound that has the ability to lower the interfacial tension between the face of two phases (liquid. The need of surfactant has increased along with the development of the industrial sector. One example is sodium lignosulfonat (SLS which is useful to improve oil acquisition in its application for EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery. SLS is a result of the reaction between lignin, NaHSO3 (bisulfite and sodium hydroxide as catalyst. The purpose of this research is to determining the reaction mechanism and determining the value of the reaction rate constant (k. The sulphonation kinetics of lignin was carried out in various temperature (50, 60, 70, 80, and 90°C. From this research obtained a positive (linear response between sulfonation temperature against reaction rate constants. The lowest k values obtained k50 = 2,05 x 10-4 minute-1 and the highest one is k90= 3,35 x 10-4. From graphycally calculation obtained the value of A is 0,015 and the energy activation (Ea is-11,708 kJ/mol with R2 = 95,69%. The correlation of the temperature influence to the constant of reaction rate espressed in arhenius equation as follows : k = 0,015 exp (-1408,3/T

  16. Membrane treatment by nanofiltration of exhausted vegetable tannin liquors from the leather industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, A; Adzet, J; Molinari, R; Buonomenna, M G; Roig, J; Drioli, E

    2003-05-01

    A rational use of water in the leather industry is described by applying the criteria of "clean technologies" by means of membrane processes. A nanofiltration (NF) process was used for recovering tannins and water from exhausted baths and reusing them as tanning agents and washings. Results of experiments performed on laboratory and semi-industrial pilot scale plants, operating and fluid-dynamic conditions and mass balance of the NF process are reported and discussed. Chemical and physical analytical values measured on skins treated with the recovered solutions were very similar to those measured on control skins tanned with standard solutions. According to the obtained results, a process scheme is suggested. It permits both to recover water and to increase the tannin/non tannin (T/NT) ratio in the retentate solution, starting from exhausted tanning baths and by using a NF membrane purification/concentration. The final volume reduction factor of tested exhausted baths was 5.25, the increase of T/NT ratio was from 1.1 to 2.3 and the average permeate flux was 12.5l/m(2)h. Advantages are in terms of: reduction of environmental impact (up to 75% of COD reduction of the global effluent), simplification of cleaning-up processes of wastewaters, decrease of disposal costs, saving of chemicals and water.

  17. Efficiency of 72h- fermented corn waste liquor as a potential source for

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    okafor

    associated diarrhea, management of lactose intolerance, prevention of colon cancer and lowering of cholesterol level ... need to source for available local food substances that can be rich in probiotic Lactic acid bacteria. .... observed optima growth variation can be explained from their varying physiological characteristics.

  18. 77 FR 10551 - Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation-Amendment to Liquor Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... areas: lounge(s), restaurant(s), bingo/ multipurpose hall when used for entertainment, food service, or... alcoholic beverages within the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla's Reservation. This Code will increase... government and the delivery of tribal services. DATES: Effective Date: This Amendment is effective 30 days...

  19. Precipitation and characterisation of lignin obtained from South African kraft mill black liquor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Namane, M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available International Conference on Chemical Thermodynamics and South African Institution of Chemical Engineering Conference, Durban, South Africa, 27 July - 1 August 2014 Precipitation and characterisation of lignin obtained from South African kraft mill black...

  20. Non-invasive Detection of Human Body Liquor Intake Based on Optical Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abaoag Christian Jhoart

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol-related incidents are increasing despite the implementation of RA 10586, the Anti-Drunk or Drugged Driving Act of 2013. Conventionally, blood alcohol content (BAC is tested by gas chromatography or breathalyzers. This work aims to design and fabricate a paper-strip based sensor for the detection of alcohol using saliva as biomedium. The sensor will act as an alternative alcohol detection platform, which will provide low cost analysis of BAC. Different tests were undergone using p-nitrophenol, PNP, as recognition element, which include stability, repeatability, and sensitivity. In order to establish the change of PNP in the presence of alcohol, a UV-Vis spectrophotometer was used. For stability and repeatability, an RSD of 1.24% and 4.61% were obtained, respectively. Furthermore, the sensitivity to alcohol concentration was found to have an R2 value equal to 0.987. For the paper-strip application, 10 mm x 60 mm optical sensing membrane (OSM with immobilized PNP was prepared. It is analysed through the use of digital image captured by a smartphone camera. The RGB values are then measured using the ImageJ software application. The stability, repeatability, and sensitivity of biosensor are 1.85% RSD, 2.23% RSD, and 0.9731 coefficient of linearity, respectively. This method is a promising alternative to breathalyzer.

  1. Replacement of soybean meal with maize steep liquor in the diets of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-two Santa Inês intact male lambs, with an average initial weight of 21.0 ± 2.3 kg, were assigned to a completely randomized block design with four treatments and eight replicates. Intake of DM, organic matter, ether extract, neutral detergent fibre and total digestible nutrients were not affected by the diets. However, the ...

  2. Évaluation de l'efficacité de la Western Cape Liquor Act à Khayelitsha

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... de diabète après le diabète gestationnel en Afrique du Sud. Les femmes ayant souffert de diabète sucré de la grossesse, un diabète temporaire qui apparaît pendant la grossesse, présentent un risque élevé de développer le diabète de type 2 après leur grossesse. Voir davantageIntervention intégrée quant au risque de ...

  3. Comparison between the tricaprylylamine and trilaurilamine extrability in uranium and mobibdenum extraction of low concentration liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte Neto, J.; Coelho, S.V.

    1980-01-01

    The extrability of trilaurilamine and tricaprylilamine in uranium and molibdenum extraction of sulfuric lixivium were studied and compared. The characteristics of solvent extraction, phase separation, emulsion formation and impurity interference were also determined. (C.G.C.) [pt

  4. Hazardous waste to materials: recovery of molybdenum and vanadium from acidic leach liquor of spent hydroprocessing catalyst using alamine 308.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, K K; Agrawal, Archana; Mishra, D

    2013-08-15

    Recovery of valuable materials/metals from waste goes hand in hand with environmental protection. This paper deals with the development of a process for the recovery of metals such as Mo, V, Ni, Al from spent hydroprocessing catalyst which may otherwise cause a nuisance if dumped untreated. A detailed study on the separation of molybdenum and vanadium from the leach solution of spent hydroprocessing catalyst of composition: 27.15% MoO₃, 1.7% V₂O₅, 3.75% NiO, 54.3% Al₂O₃, 2.3% SiO₂ and 10.4% LOI is reported in this paper. The catalyst was subjected to roasting under oxidizing atmosphere at a temperature of about 550 °C and leaching in dilute sulphuric acid to dissolve molybdenum, vanadium, nickel and part of aluminium. Metals from the leach solution were separated by solvent extraction. Both molybdenum and vanadium were selectively extracted with a suitable organic solvent leaving nickel and dissolved aluminium in the raffinate. Various parameters such as initial pH of the aqueous feed, organic to aqueous ratio (O:A), solvent concentration etc. were optimized for the complete extraction and recovery of Mo and V. Molybdenum and vanadium from the loaded organic were stripped by ammonia solution. They were recovered as their corresponding ammonium salt by selective precipitation, and were further calcined to get the corresponding oxides in pure form. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Purification of Gold from Chloride Leach Liquor of Copper Anode Slime by Octanol-Kerosene Organic Extractant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sadeghi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the copper anode slime was leached in chloride media. Then, pregnant leach solution (PLS was purified using solvent extraction method and Octanol-kerosene solution. HAuCl4.2L was determined as the extracted macromolecule, and separation of impurities, such as copper, iron and selenium was done in the presence of gold. McCabe-Thiele diagram of Au–HCl (3 M– Octanol (40% v/v in O/A=3/4 showed that Au concentration in aqueous phase decreased from the initial value of 200 to 7 mg/L, after 5 stages. Ammonia solution was proposed as the stripper and McCabe-Thiele diagram was presented to obtain the number of gold stripping steps by ammonia solution

  6. Purification of Gold from Chloride Leach Liquor of Copper Anode Slime by Octanol-Kerosene Organic Extractant

    OpenAIRE

    N. Sadeghi; E. Keshavarz Alamdari

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the copper anode slime was leached in chloride media. Then, pregnant leach solution (PLS) was purified using solvent extraction method and Octanol-kerosene solution. HAuCl4.2L was determined as the extracted macromolecule, and separation of impurities, such as copper, iron and selenium was done in the presence of gold. McCabe-Thiele diagram of Au–HCl (3 M)– Octanol (40% v/v) in O/A=3/4 showed that Au concentration in aqueous phase decreased from the initial value of 200 ...

  7. Cadmium biosorption by ozonized activated sludge: The role of bacterial flocs surface properties and mixed liquor composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Julien; Casellas, Magali; Pons, Marie-Noelle; Dagot, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium uptake by activated sludge was studied following modifications of sludge composition and surface properties induced by ozone treatment. Ozone leads to the solubilization of sludge compounds as well as their mineralization, especially humic like substances. Small particles were formed following floc disintegration, leading to a decrease of average floc size. The study of surface properties underlined the mineralization as the number of surface binding sites decreased with the increase of ozone dose. Depending on ozone dose, cadmium uptake by activated sludge flocs was either increased or decreased. Different mechanisms were involved: below 10 mg O 3 /g TS, the increase of floc specific surface area following floc size decrease as well as the release of phosphate ions yielded an increase by 75% of cadmium uptake, due to the better availability of biosorption sites and the increase of precipitation. Inversely, at higher ozone doses, the number of biosorption sites decreased due to oxidation by ozone. Moreover, dissolved organic matter concentration increased and provided ligands for metal complexation. Cadmium uptake was therefore limited for ozone doses ranging from 10 to 16.8 mg O 3 /g TS.

  8. Discrimination between authentic and false tax stamps from liquor bottles using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, Fabiano Barbieri; Rocha, Werickson Fortunato de Carvalho; Correa, Deleon Nascimento

    2015-07-01

    This work describes the preliminary application of a compact and low-cost laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument for falsification detection of tax stamps used in alcoholic beverages. The new instrument was based on a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YLF microchip laser and a mini-spectrometer containing a Czerny-Turner polichromator coupled to a non-intensified, non-gated, and non-cooled 2048 pixel linear sensor array (200 to 850 nm spectral range). Twenty-three tax stamp samples were analyzed by firing laser pulses within two different regions of each sample: a hologram and a blank paper region. For each acquired spectrum, the emitted radiation was integrated for 3000 ms under the continuous application of laser pulses at 100 Hz (integration of 300 plasmas). Principal component analysis (PCA) or hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of all emission spectra from the hologram or blank paper region revealed two well-defined groups of authentic and false samples. Moreover, for the hologram data, three subgroups of false samples were found. Additionally, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was successfully applied for the detection of the false tax stamps using all emission spectra from hologram or blank paper region. The discrimination between the samples was mostly ascribed to different levels of calcium concentration in the samples.

  9. Discrimination between authentic and false tax stamps from liquor bottles using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and chemometrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzaga, Fabiano Barbieri; Rocha, Werickson Fortunato de Carvalho; Correa, Deleon Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the preliminary application of a compact and low-cost laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument for falsification detection of tax stamps used in alcoholic beverages. The new instrument was based on a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YLF microchip laser and a mini-spectrometer containing a Czerny–Turner polichromator coupled to a non-intensified, non-gated, and non-cooled 2048 pixel linear sensor array (200 to 850 nm spectral range). Twenty-three tax stamp samples were analyzed by firing laser pulses within two different regions of each sample: a hologram and a blank paper region. For each acquired spectrum, the emitted radiation was integrated for 3000 ms under the continuous application of laser pulses at 100 Hz (integration of 300 plasmas). Principal component analysis (PCA) or hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of all emission spectra from the hologram or blank paper region revealed two well-defined groups of authentic and false samples. Moreover, for the hologram data, three subgroups of false samples were found. Additionally, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was successfully applied for the detection of the false tax stamps using all emission spectra from hologram or blank paper region. The discrimination between the samples was mostly ascribed to different levels of calcium concentration in the samples. - Highlights: • Compact and low-cost laser-induced breakdown spectrometer • Analysis of tax stamps used in alcoholic beverages • Detection of false tax stamps using the LIBS spectra and chemometrics • Falsification detection ascribed to different levels of calcium concentration

  10. Discrimination between authentic and false tax stamps from liquor bottles using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzaga, Fabiano Barbieri, E-mail: fbgonzaga@inmetro.gov.br [Chemical Metrology Division, National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO), Av. Nossa Senhora das Graças, 50, Xerém, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Werickson Fortunato de Carvalho [Chemical Metrology Division, National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO), Av. Nossa Senhora das Graças, 50, Xerém, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Correa, Deleon Nascimento [Technical–Scientific Police Superintendency, Criminalistic Institute Dr. Octávio Eduardo de Brito Alvarenga—IC-SPTC-SP, 05507-060 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work describes the preliminary application of a compact and low-cost laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument for falsification detection of tax stamps used in alcoholic beverages. The new instrument was based on a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YLF microchip laser and a mini-spectrometer containing a Czerny–Turner polichromator coupled to a non-intensified, non-gated, and non-cooled 2048 pixel linear sensor array (200 to 850 nm spectral range). Twenty-three tax stamp samples were analyzed by firing laser pulses within two different regions of each sample: a hologram and a blank paper region. For each acquired spectrum, the emitted radiation was integrated for 3000 ms under the continuous application of laser pulses at 100 Hz (integration of 300 plasmas). Principal component analysis (PCA) or hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of all emission spectra from the hologram or blank paper region revealed two well-defined groups of authentic and false samples. Moreover, for the hologram data, three subgroups of false samples were found. Additionally, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was successfully applied for the detection of the false tax stamps using all emission spectra from hologram or blank paper region. The discrimination between the samples was mostly ascribed to different levels of calcium concentration in the samples. - Highlights: • Compact and low-cost laser-induced breakdown spectrometer • Analysis of tax stamps used in alcoholic beverages • Detection of false tax stamps using the LIBS spectra and chemometrics • Falsification detection ascribed to different levels of calcium concentration.

  11. Effect of operational parameters and internal recycle on rhenium solvent extraction from leach liquors using a mixer-settler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Hosseinzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of rhenium from molybdenite roasting dust leach solution was performed using a mixer-settler extractor by tributyl phosphate (TBP diluted in kerosene as the extractant. In the single-stage extraction experiments, effect of the aqueous to organic phase ratios, Qa/Qo, and the number of extraction stages, N, on the rhenium extraction was studied. It was found that using the phase ratio of 1:1 in a two-stage extraction, 87.5% depletion of rhenium was obtained. The comparison of experimental results with the continuous co-current extraction showed a good agreement. The effect of internal recycle of organic phase was investigated in the phase ratio of 1:1 by changing the flow rate ratio of recycle-to-fresh organic phase, Qro/Qfo. The optimum performance was achieved in the phase ratio, Qro/Qfo, equal to 3:7. It was found that improvement in the performance of the mixer-settler for the rhenium-TBP system can be obtained in the phase ratio of 1:1when Qro/Qfo = 3:7.

  12. Effect of Sodium Nitrate and Nitrate Reducing Bacteria on Methane Production and Fermentation with Buffalo Rumen Liquor

    OpenAIRE

    Pillanatham Civalingam Sakthivel; Devki Nandan Kamra; Neeta Agarwal; Lal Chandra Chaudhary

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate can serve as a terminal electron acceptor in place of carbon dioxide and inhibit methane emission in the rumen and nitrate reducing bacteria might help enhance the reduction of nitrate/nitrite, which depends on the type of feed offered to animals. In this study the effects of three levels of sodium nitrate (0, 5, 10 mM) on fermentation of three diets varying in their wheat straw to concentrate ratio (700:300, low concentrate, LC; 500:500, medium concentrate, MC and 300:700, high conce...

  13. Reduction of enzyme dosage by oxygen delignification and mechanical refining for enzymatic hydrolysis of green liquor-pretreated hardwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bon-Wook; Treasure, Trevor H; Jameel, Hasan; Phillips, Richard B; Chang, Hou-Min; Park, Sunkyu

    2011-10-01

    In this study, a strategy to reduce enzyme dosage is evaluated by applying two post-treatments, oxygen delignification and mechanical refining. The sugar conversion for GL12 substrates was increased from 51.5% to 77.9% with post-treatments at the enzyme dosage of 10 FPU. When the amount of enzyme was reduced to 5 FPU with post-treatments, the conversion of 71.8% was obtained, which was significant higher than the conversion without any post-treatment using 10 FPU (51.5%). This clearly demonstrates the benefit of post-treatments that allows more than 50% of enzyme reduction at the same level of enzymatic conversion. Enzyme-accessible surface area and pore volume were evaluated by Simons' staining and DSC thermoporometry methods, and strong correlations were found with the sugar conversion.

  14. Superparamagnetic cation-exchange adsorbents for bioproduct recovery from crude process liquors by high-gradient magnetic fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll-Nielsen, Anders; Justesen, S.F.L; Hobley, Timothy John

    2004-01-01

    of epichlorohydrin formed on the particle surface. The resultant cation-exchanger had a maximum lysozyme binding capacity of 272 mg g(-1) and a dissociation constant of 0.73 muM. Using lysozyme as a model protein in small-scale studies, appropriate conditions were then selected for the capture of lactoperoxidase......Different routes were screened for the preparation of superparamagnetic cation-exchange adsorbents for the capture of proteins using high-gradient magnetic fishing. Starting from a polyglutaraldehyde-coated base particle, the most successful of these involved attachment of sulphite to oligomers...

  15. Centrifugal washing and recovery as an improved method for obtaining lignin precipitated from South African kraft mill black liquor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Namane, M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available 2-methoxy-3methyl-phenol * 17 24.44 154.1 OCH3 OCH3 Phenol, 2,6-dimethoxy 18 24,63 164.1 CH2CH=CH2 OCH3 Eugenol 19 24.77 151.1 O=CCH3 OCH3 Apocynin 20 24.95 137.1 CH2CH2(CH3 or OH) OCH3 Phenol, 2-methoxy-4-propyl or Homovanillyl alcohol 21...

  16. Forensic Characterization of Liquor Samples by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen K. Yadav

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is a subject of forensic research across the world. The forensic characterization of alcoholic beverages is required in cases of death and crimes due to alcohol consumption. In many cases, determining the geographic origin becomes a very important part of the investigation. Therefore, it is important to develop more sensitive methods for the analysis of alcoholic beverages. In this review, an attempt has been made to summarize the work accomplished so far in the field of analysis and detection of alcoholic beverages. In this review, various sample preparation techniques for GC-MS analysis of alcoholic beverages have been discussed along with its applications. GC-MS based analysis is less time consuming, more sensitive and more accurate.   Keywords: Forensic Sciences, Alcoholic beverages, Mortality, Analysis, GC-MS

  17. Evaluation of the effects of different diets on microbiome diversity and fatty acid composition of rumen liquor in dairy goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonesi, P; Conte, G; Severgnini, M; Turri, F; Monni, A; Capra, E; Rapetti, L; Colombini, S; Chessa, S; Battelli, G; Alves, S P; Mele, M; Castiglioni, B

    2018-01-08

    Fat supplementation plays an important role in defining milk fatty acids (FA) composition of ruminant products. The use of sources rich in linoleic and α-linolenic acid favors the accumulation of conjugated linoleic acids isomers, increasing the healthy properties of milk. Ruminal microbiota plays a pivotal role in defining milk FA composition, and its profile is affected by diet composition. The aim of this study was to investigate the responses of rumen FA production and microbial structure to hemp or linseed supplementation in diets of dairy goats. Ruminal microbiota composition was determined by 16S amplicon sequencing, whereas FA composition was obtained by gas-chromatography technique. In all, 18 pluriparous Alpine goats fed the same pre-treatment diet for 40±7 days were, then, arranged to three dietary treatments consisting of control, linseed and hemp seeds supplemented diets. Independently from sampling time and diets, bacterial community of ruminal fluid was dominated by Bacteroidetes (about 61.2%) and Firmicutes (24.2%) with a high abundance of Prevotellaceae (41.0%) and Veillonellaceae (9.4%) and a low presence of Ruminococcaceae (5.0%) and Lachnospiraceae (4.3%). Linseed supplementation affected ruminal bacteria population, with a significant reduction of biodiversity; in particular, relative abundance of Prevotella was reduced (-12.0%), whereas that of Succinivibrio and Fibrobacter was increased (+50.0% and +75.0%, respectively). No statistically significant differences were found among the average relative abundance of archaeal genera between each dietary group. Moreover, the addition of linseed and hemp seed induced significant changes in FA concentration in the rumen, as a consequence of shift from C18 : 2n-6 to C18 : 3n-3 biohydrogenation pathway. Furthermore, dimethylacetal composition was affected by fat supplementation, as consequence of ruminal bacteria population modification. Finally, the association study between the rumen FA profile and the bacterial microbiome revealed that Fibrobacteriaceae is the bacterial family showing the highest and significant correlation with FA involved in the biohydrogenation pathway of C18 : 3n-3.

  18. Angle-Beam Shear Wave Scattering from Buried Crack-like Defects in Bonded Specimens (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    global repositioning of the plate in between subsequent scans [10], but that was only one possible variation for the data shown here. Not only was a...value (i.e., due north in the wavefield) as marked with two yellow lines in Fig. 6(b). The cutoff is located so that there is a smooth transition

  19. Area-based initiatives – and their work in bonding, bridging and linking social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we provide a conceptual and argumentative framework for studying how Area-based Initiatives (ABIs) can facilitate contact between networks in deprived neighbourhoods and external forms of power (linking social capital). These relations provide the residents and other members...... of civil society with crucial access to leveraging resources, ideas and information. Although few studies on linking social capital have been carried out in relation to urban regeneration, there is empirical evidence that suggests that it can play a positive role in establishing trust and relations between...... civil society and a municipality. We set out with a review of how social capital literature has been applied in an urban context, and then demonstrate empirical examples from Denmark of how, in different contexts (village, town and city), ABIs have facilitated processes that generated different forms...

  20. Medical power and the crisis in bonds of trust within contemporary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Nishijima Azeredo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Basados en el contexto brasileño, en este artículo abordamos el poder médico en términos de los actuales conflictos en las relaciones intersubjetivas que el médico establece en su trabajo, conflictos considerados aquí como producto de una crisis de confianza vinculada a los recientes cambios históricos de la práctica médica. Al interpretar esos conflictos como cuestiones de orden ético y moral, recurrimos a las formulaciones teóricas de Hannah Arendt para analizar con mayor profundidad dicha crisis de confianza. De este modo, a partir de los conceptos arendtianos de “crisis”, “tradición”, “poder”, “autoridad” y “natalidad”, realizamos una lectura con nuevos significados de estos conflictos, que posibiliten futuros caminos y nuevas soluciones que eviten la nostalgia del pasado.

  1. Chemical Pressure Maps of Molecules and Materials: Merging the Visual and Physical in Bonding Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Hussien H; Salvadó, Miguel A; Pertierra, Pilar; Engelkemier, Joshua; Fredrickson, Daniel C; Recio, J Manuel

    2018-01-09

    The characterization of bonding interactions in molecules and materials is one of the major applications of quantum mechanical calculations. Numerous schemes have been devised to identify and visualize chemical bonds, including the electron localization function, quantum theory of atoms in molecules, and natural bond orbital analysis, whereas the energetics of bond formation are generally analyzed in qualitative terms through various forms of energy partitioning schemes. In this Article, we illustrate how the chemical pressure (CP) approach recently developed for analyzing atomic size effects in solid state compounds provides a basis for merging these two approaches, in which bonds are revealed through the forces of attraction and repulsion acting between the atoms. Using a series of model systems that include simple molecules (H 2 , CO 2 , and S 8 ), extended structures (graphene and diamond), and systems exhibiting intermolecular interactions (ice and graphite), as well as simple representatives of metallic and ionic bonding (Na and NaH, respectively), we show how CP maps can differentiate a range of bonding phenomena. The approach also allows for the partitioning of the potential and kinetic contributions to the interatomic interactions, yielding schemes that capture the physical model for the chemical bond offered by Ruedenberg and co-workers.

  2. Robust fault detection in bond graph framework using interval analysis and Fourier-Motzkin elimination technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Mayank Shekhar; Chatti, Nizar; Declerck, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    This paper addresses the fault diagnosis problem of uncertain systems in the context of Bond Graph modelling technique. The main objective is to enhance the fault detection step based on Interval valued Analytical Redundancy Relations (named I-ARR) in order to overcome the problems related to false alarms, missed alarms and robustness issues. These I-ARRs are a set of fault indicators that generate the interval bounds called thresholds. A fault is detected once the nominal residuals (point valued part of I-ARRs) exceed the thresholds. However, the existing fault detection method is limited to parametric faults and it presents various limitations with regards to estimation of measurement signal derivatives, to which I-ARRs are sensitive. The novelties and scientific interest of the proposed methodology are: (1) to improve the accuracy of the measurements derivatives estimation by using a dedicated sliding mode differentiator proposed in this work, (2) to suitably integrate the Fourier-Motzkin Elimination (FME) technique within the I-ARRs based diagnosis so that measurements faults can be detected successfully. The latter provides interval bounds over the derivatives which are included in the thresholds. The proposed methodology is studied under various scenarios (parametric and measurement faults) via simulations over a mechatronic torsion bar system.

  3. Failure behaviour of silicone adhesive in bonded connections with simple geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Staudt, Yves; Odenbreit, Christoph; Schneider, Jens

    2018-01-01

    In façade structures, adhesively bonded connections between glass panels and metallic substructures represent an attractive alternative to mechanical fixation devices. Apart from positive aspects regarding the construction's energy efficiency and aesthetics, the uniform load transfer reduces stress concentrations in the adherends, which is beneficial especially regarding brittle materials like glass. Structural silicone sealants are generally used for these kind of applications due to their e...

  4. Drastic Improvements in Bonding of Fiber Reinforced Multifunctional Composites, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Achievement of a dramatic increase in the bond strength in the composite/adhesive interfaces of existing fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite material joints and...

  5. Assessment and prediction of drying shrinkage cracking in bonded mortar overlays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beushausen, Hans; Chilwesa, Masuzyo

    2013-01-01

    Restrained drying shrinkage cracking was investigated on composite beams consisting of substrate concrete and bonded mortar overlays, and compared to the performance of the same mortars when subjected to the ring test. Stress development and cracking in the composite specimens were analytically modeled and predicted based on the measurement of relevant time-dependent material properties such as drying shrinkage, elastic modulus, tensile relaxation and tensile strength. Overlay cracking in the composite beams could be very well predicted with the analytical model. The ring test provided a useful qualitative comparison of the cracking performance of the mortars. The duration of curing was found to only have a minor influence on crack development. This was ascribed to the fact that prolonged curing has a beneficial effect on tensile strength at the onset of stress development, but is in the same time not beneficial to the values of tensile relaxation and elastic modulus. -- Highlights: •Parameter study on material characteristics influencing overlay cracking. •Analytical model gives good quantitative indication of overlay cracking. •Ring test presents good qualitative indication of overlay cracking. •Curing duration has little effect on overlay cracking

  6. Dental preparation with sonic vs high-speed finishing: analysis of microleakage in bonded veneer restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faus-Matoses, Ignacio; Solá-Ruiz, Fernanda

    2014-02-01

    To compare marginal microleakage in porcelain veneer restorations following dental finishing using two types of instruments to test the hypothesis that microleakage will be less when teeth are prepared with sonic oscillating burs than when prepared with high-speed rotating burs. Fifty-six extracted human maxillary central incisors were selected and divided randomly into two groups. Group 1 samples underwent dental finishing using high-speed rotating diamond burs, while group 2 used sonic oscillating diamond burs. Buccal chamfer preparation was carried out for both groups. Forty eight of the samples (24 per group) were restored using IPS Empress ceramic veneers. 2% methylene blue was used to evaluate microleakage at the tooth/composite veneer interface. Teeth were sectioned lengthwise into three parts and microleakage was measured at two points - cervical and incisal - on each section. Before bonding, four teeth per group underwent SEM examination. Evaluation of microleakage at the cervical dentin margin showed a value of 10.5% in group 1 and 6.6% in group 2, which was statistically significantly different (p microleakage was 1.3% for group 1 and 1.2% for group 2, which was not significantly different. SEM revealed different patterns of surface texture in both areas according to the instrument used. Group 1 exhibited parallel horizontal abrasion grooves with a milled effect and thick smear layers; group 2 showed abrasive erosion, discontinuous perpendicular depressions, and thin smear layers. Tooth preparations finished with sonic burs produced significantly less microleakage in the cervical dentin area of bonded veneer restorations. No differences were found in the incisal enamel area.

  7. Estimation of interface resistivity in bonded Si for the development of high performance radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ikuo; Yamashita, Makoto; Nomiya, Seiichiro; Onabe, Hideaki

    2007-01-01

    For the development of high performance radiation detectors, direct bonding of Si wafers would be an useful method. Previously, p-n bonded Si were fabricated and they showed diode characteristics. The interface resistivity was, however, not investigated in detail. For the study of interface resistivity, n-type Si wafers with different resistivities were bonded. The resistivity of bonded Si wafers were measured and the interface resistivity was estimated by comparing with the results of model calculations. (author)

  8. 46 CFR 194.20-5 - Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-5... expected. Ventilation exhaust outlets shall terminate more than 6 feet from any opening to the interior...

  9. 46 CFR 194.20-19 - Piping and electrical requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-19 Piping and electrical requirements. (a) Piping, electrical equipment, and wiring shall...

  10. Procedure of brewing alcohol as a staple food: case study of the fermented cereal liquor "Parshot" as a staple food in Dirashe special woreda, southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunano, Yui

    2016-07-01

    For most brews, alcohol fermentation and lactic fermentation take place simultaneously during the brewing process, and alcohol fermentation can progress smoothly because the propagation of various microorganisms is prevented by lactic fermentation. It is not necessary to cause lactic fermentation with a thing generated naturally and intentionally. The people living in the Dirashe area in southern Ethiopia drink three types of alcoholic beverages that are prepared from cereals. From these alcoholic beverages, parshot is prepared by the addition of plant leaves for lactic fermentation and nech chaka by adding cereal powder for lactic fermentation before alcohol fermentation. People living in the Dirashe area partake of parshot as part of their staple diet. The brewing process used for parshot and a food culture with alcoholic beverages as parts of the staple diet are rare worldwide. This article discusses the significance of using lactic fermentation before alcoholic fermentation and focuses on lactic fermentation in the brewing methods used for the three kinds of alcoholic beverages consumed in the Dirashe area. We initially observed the brewing process and obtained information about the process from the people in that area. Next, we determined the pH and analyzed the lactic acid (g/100 g) and ethanol (g/100 g) content during lactic fermentation of parshot and nech chaka; the ethyl acetate (mg/100 g) and volatile base nitrogen (mg/100 g) content during this period was also analyzed. In addition, we compared the ethanol (g/100 g) content of all three kinds of alcoholic beverages after completion of brewing. The results showed that it was possible to consume large quantities of these alcoholic beverages because of the use of lactic fermentation before alcoholic fermentation, which improved the safety and preservation characteristics of the beverages by preventing the propagation of various microorganisms, improving flavor, and controlling the alcohol level.

  11. In vitro fermentation of olive oil mill wastewaters using sheep rumen liquor as inoculum: Olive mill wastewaters an alternative for ruminant's nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moufida Aggoun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil mill wastewaters (OMWW are the main liquid effluents generated by the olive oil production industry. This liquid, considered pollutant and toxic, is characterised by its high content of organic matter including mainly sugars and fats, and phenols compounds, which can be used in ruminants feeding. The purpose of this study is to valorise this agricultural by-product in ruminant feeding by estimation its in vitro degradability in presence of ovine ruminale microbiota comparatively to vetch-oat hay, using in vitro gas production technique coupled with NH3-N and protozoa measurements. Cumulative gas production was recorded at 3, 6, 9, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of incubation. The determination of gazes produced (carbon dioxide and methane was recorded at 6, 9, 24, 48 and 96 hours. However, Ammonia and protozoa number were recorded after 24 hours of incubation. Fermentation profile was fitted to the exponential model y = a + b (1 – e-kt. The OMWW are characterized by their high sugars content (39.91% and their low content in ash (1.99% and crude protein (2.70%. This by-product is also characterized by its high concentration in total phenols (7.2% and tannins (4.5%. However, they contain a very small amount of condensed tannins (0.89%. Comparatively to vetch-oat hay, OMWW produced low amount of gas (-23.6 units. Furthermore, its in vitro fermentation generates low volume of methane (9.83%, V/V, suggesting that the OMWW nature enhanced the efficiency of ruminale microbiota towards microbial biomass production and inhibition of ruminale methanogenesis pathway. This result is reinforced by the reduction of ammonia production (-0.35 units and protozoa proliferation (-1 unit comparatively to vetch-oat hay. The anaerobic biodegradation of OMWW reveal their significant use by the rumen microbiota, allowing us to strongly recommend its use as a supplement in feed ruminant. In addition, it allows considering using this residue as a feed additive in diets of ruminants for the reduction of ruminal methanogenesis.

  12. 'Undesirable inhabitant of the union ... supplying liquor to natives': D. F. Malan and the deportation of South Africa's British and Irish lumpen proletarians 1924-1933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Hyslop

    Full Text Available Between 1924 and 1933 scores of British and Irish immigrants were deported from South Africa for crimes that were mainly of a petty character. Prominent in their records was the offence of supplying alcohol to black people, which had been criminalised under the country's racial forms of prohibition. These deportations took place under the direction of the minister of the Interior, D. F. Malan, later notorious as the initiator of the apartheid policy. The article contends that the process of deportation is revealing of both the social trajectory of some metropolitan migrants to the Empire and of the character of the South African state. While turn-of-the-century British immigrants to southern Africa are generally thought of as upwardly socially mobile, a minority took a downward path. As 'poor whites' they constituted a threat to racial boundaries. Malan, concerned to police these boundaries, sought to remove them from society. But he was constrained by his political alliance with the British immigrant labour movement and in the end was selective in his strategy, deporting the most marginalised or lumpen proletarian, while allowing those who could claim some shreds of respectability to remain. The organisational and bureaucratic processes of deportation are traced in detail. The article endorses Robert Bickers' view that imperial history has given too little attention to poor and working class British immigrants in the Empire.

  13. Heterotrophs are key contributors to nitrous oxide production in mixed liquor under low C-to-N ratios during nitrification - batch experiments and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domingo Felez, Carlos; Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Petersen, Morten S.

    2017-01-01

    , rigorous experimental design for calibration of autotrophic N2O production from mixed cultures is essential. The proposed N2O production pathways were examined using five alternative process models confronted with experimental data inferred. Individually, the autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification...... pathway could describe the observed data. In the best-fit model, which combined two denitrification pathways, the heterotrophic was stronger than the autotrophic contribution to N2O production. Importantly, the individual contribution of autotrophic and heterotrophic to the total N2O pool could...

  14. The removal of COD, TSS and colour of black liquor by coagulation–flocculation process at optimized pH, settling and dosing rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulp and Paper mills are generating millions of tons of wastewater and are major source of water pollution. In this research work, pulping wastes have been characterized and found to contain very high COD, TSS and colour. Coagulation–flocculation process was performed to find out the performance of different coagulants and flocculants like alum, ferric chloride, aluminium chloride, ferrous sulphate, poly aluminium chloride (PAC, cationic and anionic polyacrylamide polymers in individual form as well as in different combinations. The effects of dosing rate, settling time and pH were examined for reduction of COD, TSS and colour. Coagulants used in combinations were found to be more effective in reducing COD, TSS and colour instead of using individual form. The initial pH of the effluent for coagulation process was found to have remarkable effect on COD, TSS and colour removal. The most effective results were found using cationic and anionic polyacrylamide combination with ferric chloride and aluminium chloride and reduction of 76% COD, 95% TSS and 95% colour were observed at pH < 3.

  15. Influence of Starter Cultures, Fermentation Techniques, and Acetic Acid on the Volatile Aroma and Sensory Profile of Cocoa Liquor and Chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafack, Michael

    The majority of the World’s cocoa production originates from the West African countries of Ivory Coast, Ghana and Nigeria. In these countries, cocoa is a crop of great socio-economic importance as it is often the main source of income for families in the rural cocoa growing regions. Being...... the principal raw material for chocolate production, good quality cocoa beans are in high demand on the World market as a prerequisite for the production of high quality chocolates and other confectionary products. To produce good quality cocoa suitable for chocolate production, it is essential that the beans...... undergo fermentation and drying processes, during which biochemical reactions lead to the formation of cocoa specific flavour precursors. During subsequent roasting, these precursors are transformed into a wide array of aroma compounds as a result of complex Maillard and Strecker degradation reactions...

  16. The comparative evaluation of fracture resistance and microleakage in bonded amalgam, amalgam, and composite resins in primary molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H S Vanishree

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Bonded amalgam appears to be comparable to amalgam when microleakage is considered and to composite resin when fracture resistance is considered; hence, bonded amalgam can also be an alternative material to amalgam in primary molars.

  17. The comparative evaluation of fracture resistance and microleakage in bonded amalgam, amalgam, and composite resins in primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanishree, H S; Shanthala, B M; Bobby, W

    2015-01-01

    The intense development of adhesive restorative materials and parents' preferences for esthetic restorations prompt clinicians to use alternative restorative materials for primary molars. Amalgam, however, is the choice of material when it comes to occlusal stress bearing areas, either in primary or permanent molars. To overcome the drawbacks of amalgam and restorative adhesive materials, the bonded amalgam technique is employed. To evaluate microleakage and fracture resistance of bonded amalgam in primary molars, and compare it with the microleakage and fracture resistance of high-copper amalgam and composite resin materials. An in vitro study and 60 caries-free primary molars were used. A total of 60 samples were randomly divided into two equal groups for the evaluation of microleakage and fracture resistance. Class V cavities for microleakage study prepared on 30 samples and Class II mesio-occluso-distal cavities for fracture resistance study on other 30 samples were prepared and randomly divided into three equal groups. Group I received amalgam, Group II received bonded amalgam, and Group III received composite resins. The microleakage was viewed under a stereomicroscope. The fracture resistance was evaluated using a universal testing machine. Bonded amalgam exhibited minimum microleakage, when compared to amalgam and composite resin and was found to be statistically insignificant (P = 0.203), while amalgam showed better fracture resistance compared to bonded amalgam and composite resin. It was found to be statistically insignificant (P = 0.144). Bonded amalgam appears to be comparable to amalgam when microleakage is considered and to composite resin when fracture resistance is considered; hence, bonded amalgam can also be an alternative material to amalgam in primary molars.

  18. The comparative evaluation of fracture resistance and microleakage in bonded amalgam, amalgam, and composite resins in primary molars

    OpenAIRE

    H S Vanishree; B M Shanthala; W Bobby

    2015-01-01

    Background : The intense development of adhesive restorative materials and parents′ preferences for esthetic restorations prompt clinicians to use alternative restorative materials for primary molars. Amalgam, however, is the choice of material when it comes to occlusal stress bearing areas, either in primary or permanent molars. To overcome the drawbacks of amalgam and restorative adhesive materials, the bonded amalgam technique is employed. Aims: To evaluate microleakage and fracture re...

  19. Relativistic effects in bonding and dipole moments for the diatomic hydrides of the sixth-row heavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, A.F.; Pyper, N.C.; Malli, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    Ab initio Dirac-Fock (DF) and nonrelativistic-limit (NRL) wave functions and dipole moments are calculated to investigate the bonding characteristics and the relativistic effects in the systems HgH + , TlH, PbH + , and BiH. The dipole moment of AuH is evaluated using the DF self-consistent field and relativistic configuration-interaction wave functions obtained by G. L. Malli and N. C. Pyper [Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 407, 377 (1986)]. Contour plots of relativistic molecular orbital densities and difference density maps are presented to illustrate the arrangement of electronic charge in these systems. It is found that the 5d orbitals are involved in the bonding of HgH + , whereas they do not play a significant role in TlH and PbH + . The relativistic calculations predict HgH + , TlH, and PbH + to be bound. The nonrelativistic-limit wave functions predict HgH + and BiH to be unbound but TlH and PbH + to be bound. It is also found that the calculated dipole moments using the DF and the NRL wave functions for these heavy systems differ significantly in magnitude, and in some cases even in the sign

  20. Effects of yttrium, aluminum and chromium concentrations in bond coatings on the performance of zirconia-yttria thermal barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecura, S.

    1980-01-01

    A cyclic furnace study was conducted on thermal barrier systems to evaluate the effects of yttrium, chromium and aluminum in nickel-base alloy bond coatings and the effect of bond coating thickness on yttria-stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coating life. Without yttrium in the bond coatings, the zirconia coatings failed very rapidly. Increasing chromium and aluminum in the Ni-Cr-Al-Y bond coatings increased total coating life. This effect was not as great as that due to yttrium. Increased bond coat thickness was also found to increase life.