WorldWideScience

Sample records for in-basin statistical relations

  1. Functional statistics and related fields

    CERN Document Server

    Bongiorno, Enea; Cao, Ricardo; Vieu, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    This volume collects latest methodological and applied contributions on functional, high-dimensional and other complex data, related statistical models and tools as well as on operator-based statistics. It contains selected and refereed contributions presented at the Fourth International Workshop on Functional and Operatorial Statistics (IWFOS 2017) held in A Coruña, Spain, from 15 to 17 June 2017. The series of IWFOS workshops was initiated by the Working Group on Functional and Operatorial Statistics at the University of Toulouse in 2008. Since then, many of the major advances in functional statistics and related fields have been periodically presented and discussed at the IWFOS workshops. .

  2. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  3. Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.

  4. Archive of Census Related Products (ACRP): 1990 Census Block Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 1990 Census Block Statistics portion of the Archive of Census Related Products (ACRP) contains population and housing data from the U.S. Census Bureau's 1990...

  5. Temperature definition and fundamental thermodynamic relations in incomplete statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Congjie; Chen Jincan; Wang, Qiuping A.

    2006-01-01

    Within the incomplete statistics characterized by the normalization -bar i p i q =1, a precise mathematical calculation related to the partial differential of the partition function with respect to the internal energy is provided. A concomitant definition of the physical temperature and several important fundamental thermodynamic relations are given

  6. Managing risk in statistics - "Relative risk" | Durrheim | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Family Practice. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 45, No 8 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Managing risk in statistics - "Relative risk". DN Durrheim ...

  7. Best of Both Worlds – Relational Databases and Statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F. Mühleisen (Hannes); T Lumley

    2013-01-01

    textabstractStatistics software packages and relational database systems possess considerable overlap in the area of data loading, handling, and transformation. However, only databases are mainly optimized towards high performance in this area. In this paper, we present our approach on bringing

  8. Sensitivity analysis and related analysis : A survey of statistical techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in five related types of analysis, namely (i) sensitivity or what-if analysis, (ii) uncertainty or risk analysis, (iii) screening, (iv) validation, and (v) optimization. The main question is: when should which type of analysis be applied; which statistical

  9. A statistic on n-color compositions and related sequences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Logo of the Indian Academy of Sciences. Indian Academy of Sciences ... Volume 124; Issue 2. A Statistic on -Color Compositions and Related Sequences ... A composition of a positive integer in which a part of size may be assigned one of colors is called an -color composition. Let a m denote the number of -color ...

  10. Statistical equilibrium and symplectic geometry in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, P.

    1981-09-01

    A geometrical construction is given of the statistical equilibrium states of a system of particles in the gravitational field in general relativity. By a method of localization variables, the expression of thermodynamic values is given and the compatibility of this description is shown with a macroscopic model of a relativistic continuous medium for a given value of the free-energy function [fr

  11. An application of an optimal statistic for characterizing relative orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jow, Dylan L.; Hill, Ryley; Scott, Douglas; Soler, J. D.; Martin, P. G.; Devlin, M. J.; Fissel, L. M.; Poidevin, F.

    2018-02-01

    We present the projected Rayleigh statistic (PRS), a modification of the classic Rayleigh statistic, as a test for non-uniform relative orientation between two pseudo-vector fields. In the application here, this gives an effective way of investigating whether polarization pseudo-vectors (spin-2 quantities) are preferentially parallel or perpendicular to filaments in the interstellar medium. For example, there are other potential applications in astrophysics, e.g. when comparing small-scale orientations with larger scale shear patterns. We compare the efficiency of the PRS against histogram binning methods that have previously been used for characterizing the relative orientations of gas column density structures with the magnetic field projected on the plane of the sky. We examine data for the Vela C molecular cloud, where the column density is inferred from Herschel submillimetre observations, and the magnetic field from observations by the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimetre Telescope in the 250-, 350- and 500-μm wavelength bands. We find that the PRS has greater statistical power than approaches that bin the relative orientation angles, as it makes more efficient use of the information contained in the data. In particular, the use of the PRS to test for preferential alignment results in a higher statistical significance, in each of the four Vela C regions, with the greatest increase being by a factor 1.3 in the South-Nest region in the 250 - μ m band.

  12. Statistical regularities in art: Relations with visual coding and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Daniel J; Redies, Christoph

    2010-07-21

    Since at least 1935, vision researchers have used art stimuli to test human response to complex scenes. This is sensible given the "inherent interestingness" of art and its relation to the natural visual world. The use of art stimuli has remained popular, especially in eye tracking studies. Moreover, stimuli in common use by vision scientists are inspired by the work of famous artists (e.g., Mondrians). Artworks are also popular in vision science as illustrations of a host of visual phenomena, such as depth cues and surface properties. However, until recently, there has been scant consideration of the spatial, luminance, and color statistics of artwork, and even less study of ways that regularities in such statistics could affect visual processing. Furthermore, the relationship between regularities in art images and those in natural scenes has received little or no attention. In the past few years, there has been a concerted effort to study statistical regularities in art as they relate to neural coding and visual perception, and art stimuli have begun to be studied in rigorous ways, as natural scenes have been. In this minireview, we summarize quantitative studies of links between regular statistics in artwork and processing in the visual stream. The results of these studies suggest that art is especially germane to understanding human visual coding and perception, and it therefore warrants wider study. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Statistical mechanics in the context of special relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniadakis, G

    2002-11-01

    In Ref. [Physica A 296, 405 (2001)], starting from the one parameter deformation of the exponential function exp(kappa)(x)=(sqrt[1+kappa(2)x(2)]+kappax)(1/kappa), a statistical mechanics has been constructed which reduces to the ordinary Boltzmann-Gibbs statistical mechanics as the deformation parameter kappa approaches to zero. The distribution f=exp(kappa)(-beta E+betamu) obtained within this statistical mechanics shows a power law tail and depends on the nonspecified parameter beta, containing all the information about the temperature of the system. On the other hand, the entropic form S(kappa)= integral d(3)p(c(kappa) f(1+kappa)+c(-kappa) f(1-kappa)), which after maximization produces the distribution f and reduces to the standard Boltzmann-Shannon entropy S0 as kappa-->0, contains the coefficient c(kappa) whose expression involves, beside the Boltzmann constant, another nonspecified parameter alpha. In the present effort we show that S(kappa) is the unique existing entropy obtained by a continuous deformation of S0 and preserving unaltered its fundamental properties of concavity, additivity, and extensivity. These properties of S(kappa) permit to determine unequivocally the values of the above mentioned parameters beta and alpha. Subsequently, we explain the origin of the deformation mechanism introduced by kappa and show that this deformation emerges naturally within the Einstein special relativity. Furthermore, we extend the theory in order to treat statistical systems in a time dependent and relativistic context. Then, we show that it is possible to determine in a self consistent scheme within the special relativity the values of the free parameter kappa which results to depend on the light speed c and reduces to zero as c--> infinity recovering in this way the ordinary statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. The statistical mechanics here presented, does not contain free parameters, preserves unaltered the mathematical and epistemological structure of

  14. Thermal equilibrium and statistical thermometers in special relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero, David; Casado-Pascual, Jesús; Dunkel, Jörn; Talkner, Peter; Hänggi, Peter

    2007-10-26

    There is an intense debate in the recent literature about the correct generalization of Maxwell's velocity distribution in special relativity. The most frequently discussed candidate distributions include the Jüttner function as well as modifications thereof. Here we report results from fully relativistic one-dimensional molecular dynamics simulations that resolve the ambiguity. The numerical evidence unequivocally favors the Jüttner distribution. Moreover, our simulations illustrate that the concept of "thermal equilibrium" extends naturally to special relativity only if a many-particle system is spatially confined. They make evident that "temperature" can be statistically defined and measured in an observer frame independent way.

  15. Statistical mechanics in the context of special relativity. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniadakis, G

    2005-09-01

    The special relativity laws emerge as one-parameter (light speed) generalizations of the corresponding laws of classical physics. These generalizations, imposed by the Lorentz transformations, affect both the definition of the various physical observables (e.g., momentum, energy, etc.), as well as the mathematical apparatus of the theory. Here, following the general lines of [Phys. Rev. E 66, 056125 (2002)], we show that the Lorentz transformations impose also a proper one-parameter generalization of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy. The obtained relativistic entropy permits us to construct a coherent and self-consistent relativistic statistical theory, preserving the main features of the ordinary statistical theory, which is recovered in the classical limit. The predicted distribution function is a one-parameter continuous deformation of the classical Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution and has a simple analytic form, showing power law tails in accordance with the experimental evidence. Furthermore, this statistical mechanics can be obtained as the stationary case of a generalized kinetic theory governed by an evolution equation obeying the H theorem and reproducing the Boltzmann equation of the ordinary kinetics in the classical limit.

  16. Statistics and Corporate Environmental Management: Relations and Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1997-01-01

    Statistical methods have long been used to analyse the macroeconomic consequences of environmentally damaging activities, political actions to control, prevent, or reduce these damages, and environmental problems in the natural environment. Up to now, however, they have had a limited and not very...... in the external environment. The nature and extent of the practical use of quantitative techniques in corporate environmental management systems is discussed on the basis of a number of company surveys in four European countries.......Statistical methods have long been used to analyse the macroeconomic consequences of environmentally damaging activities, political actions to control, prevent, or reduce these damages, and environmental problems in the natural environment. Up to now, however, they have had a limited and not very...... specific use in corporate environmental management systems. This paper will address some of the special problems related to the use of statistical techniques in corporate environmental management systems. One important aspect of this is the interaction of internal decisions and activities with conditions...

  17. Statistical Analysis of Hypercalcaemia Data related to Transferability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Anne; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2005-01-01

    In this report we describe statistical analysis related to a study of hypercalcaemia carried out in the Copenhagen area in the ten year period from 1984 to 1994. Results from the study have previously been publised in a number of papers [3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9] and in various abstracts and posters...... at conferences during the late eighties and early nineties. In this report we give a more detailed description of many of the analysis and provide some new results primarily by simultaneous studies of several databases....

  18. f-Deformed Boson Algebra Related to Gentile Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Won Sang; Hassanabadi, Hassan

    2017-06-01

    In this paper the deformed boson algebra giving the Gentile distribution function is constructed by using the model of ideal gas of deformed bosons and some properties of a root of unity. As an example we discuss the quantum optical problem related to the Gentile (or f-deformed) boson algebra with large but finite M. For this algebra we construct the Gentile (or f-deformed) coherent state and discuss its nonclassical properties such as sub-Poissonian statistics and anti-bunching effect.

  19. Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Hayslett, H T

    1991-01-01

    Statistics covers the basic principles of Statistics. The book starts by tackling the importance and the two kinds of statistics; the presentation of sample data; the definition, illustration and explanation of several measures of location; and the measures of variation. The text then discusses elementary probability, the normal distribution and the normal approximation to the binomial. Testing of statistical hypotheses and tests of hypotheses about the theoretical proportion of successes in a binomial population and about the theoretical mean of a normal population are explained. The text the

  20. Stochastic ontogenetic allometry: the statistical dynamics of relative growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    In the absence of stochasticity, allometric growth throughout ontogeny is axiomatically described by the logarithm-transformed power-law model, θt = log(a) b + kφ(t), where θt ≡ θ(t) and φt ≡ φ(t) are the logarithmic sizes of two traits at any given time t. Realistically, however, stochasticity is an inherent property of ontogenetic allometry. Due to the inherent stochasticity in both θt and φt, the ontogenetic allometry coefficients, log(a) b and k, can vary with t and have intricate temporal distributions that are governed by the central and mixed moments of the random ontogenetic growth functions, θt and φt. Unfortunately, there is no probabilistic model for analyzing these informative ontogenetic statistical moments. This study treats θt and φt as correlated stochastic processes to formulate the exact probabilistic version of each of the ontogenetic allometry coefficients. In particular, the statistical dynamics of relative growth is addressed by analyzing the allometric growth factors that affect the temporal distribution of the probabilistic version of the relative growth rate, k ≡ Dt(u)/Dt(v), where is the expected value of the ratio of stochastic θt to stochastic φt, and u and v are the numerator and the denominator of , respectively. These allometric growth factors, which provide important insight into ontogenetic allometry but appear only when stochasticity is introduced, describe the central and mixed moments of θt and φt as differentiable real-valued functions of t. Failure to account for the inherent stochasticity in both θt and φt leads not only to the miscalculation of k, but also to the omission of all of the informative ontogenetic statistical moments that affect the size of traits and the timing and rate of development of traits. Furthermore, even though the stochastic process θt and the stochastic process φt are linearly related, k can vary with t.

  1. Statistical evaluation of design-error related accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, K.O.; Marchaterre, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    In a recently published paper (Campbell and Ott, 1979), a general methodology was proposed for the statistical evaluation of design-error related accidents. The evaluation aims at an estimate of the combined residual frequency of yet unknown types of accidents lurking in a certain technological system. Here, the original methodology is extended, as to apply to a variety of systems that evolves during the development of large-scale technologies. A special categorization of incidents and accidents is introduced to define the events that should be jointly analyzed. The resulting formalism is applied to the development of the nuclear power reactor technology, considering serious accidents that involve in the accident-progression a particular design inadequacy

  2. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    For the years 2004 and 2005 the figures shown in the tables of Energy Review are partly preliminary. The annual statistics published in Energy Review are presented in more detail in a publication called Energy Statistics that comes out yearly. Energy Statistics also includes historical time-series over a longer period of time (see e.g. Energy Statistics, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2004.) The applied energy units and conversion coefficients are shown in the back cover of the Review. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in GDP, energy consumption and electricity consumption, Carbon dioxide emissions from fossile fuels use, Coal consumption, Consumption of natural gas, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices in heat production, Fuel prices in electricity production, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Average monthly spot prices at the Nord pool power exchange, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Supplies and total consumption of electricity GWh, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 2003, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 2003, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Price of natural gas by type of consumer, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes, precautionary stock fees and oil pollution fees

  3. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    For the year 1999 and 2000, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually, which also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g., Energiatilastot 1998, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 1999, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-March 2000, Energy exports by recipient country in January-March 2000, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

  4. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    For the year 1998 and the year 1999, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually, which also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 1998, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 1999, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 1999, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 1999, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

  5. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    For the year 2000, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually, which also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 1999, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2000, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions from the use of fossil fuels, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in 2000, Energy exports by recipient country in 2000, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

  6. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    For the year 2002, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are partly preliminary. The annual statistics of the Energy Review also includes historical time-series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 2001, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2002). The applied energy units and conversion coefficients are shown in the inside back cover of the Review. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in GDP, energy consumption and electricity consumption, Carbon dioxide emissions from fossile fuels use, Coal consumption, Consumption of natural gas, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices in heat production, Fuel prices in electricity production, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Average monthly spot prices at the Nord pool power exchange, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Supply and total consumption of electricity GWh, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 2003, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 2003, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Price of natural gas by type of consumer, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Excise taxes, precautionary stock fees on oil pollution fees on energy products

  7. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    For the year 1999 and 2000, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g., Energiatilastot 1999, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2000, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 2000, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 2000, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

  8. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    For the year 2003 and 2004, the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are partly preliminary. The annual statistics of the Energy Review also includes historical time-series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2003, ISSN 0785-3165). The applied energy units and conversion coefficients are shown in the inside back cover of the Review. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in GDP, energy consumption and electricity consumption, Carbon dioxide emissions from fossile fuels use, Coal consumption, Consumption of natural gas, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices in heat production, Fuel prices in electricity production, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Average monthly spot prices at the Nord pool power exchange, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Supplies and total consumption of electricity GWh, Energy imports by country of origin in January-March 2004, Energy exports by recipient country in January-March 2004, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Price of natural gas by type of consumer, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Excise taxes, precautionary stock fees on oil pollution fees

  9. A statistic on n-color compositions and related sequences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    m, thus providing a polynomial generalization of the sequence F2m. The statistic may be described, equivalently, in terms of statistics on linear tilings and lattice paths. The restriction to the set of n-color compositions having a prescribed number of parts is considered and an explicit formula for the distribution is derived.

  10. Statistics-related and reliability-physics-related failure processes in electronics devices and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhir, E.

    2014-05-01

    The well known and widely used experimental reliability "passport" of a mass manufactured electronic or a photonic product — the bathtub curve — reflects the combined contribution of the statistics-related and reliability-physics (physics-of-failure)-related processes. When time progresses, the first process results in a decreasing failure rate, while the second process associated with the material aging and degradation leads to an increased failure rate. An attempt has been made in this analysis to assess the level of the reliability physics-related aging process from the available bathtub curve (diagram). It is assumed that the products of interest underwent the burn-in testing and therefore the obtained bathtub curve does not contain the infant mortality portion. It has been also assumed that the two random processes in question are statistically independent, and that the failure rate of the physical process can be obtained by deducting the theoretically assessed statistical failure rate from the bathtub curve ordinates. In the carried out numerical example, the Raleigh distribution for the statistical failure rate was used, for the sake of a relatively simple illustration. The developed methodology can be used in reliability physics evaluations, when there is a need to better understand the roles of the statistics-related and reliability-physics-related irreversible random processes in reliability evaluations. The future work should include investigations on how powerful and flexible methods and approaches of the statistical mechanics can be effectively employed, in addition to reliability physics techniques, to model the operational reliability of electronic and photonic products.

  11. Statistical analysis of natural disasters and related losses

    CERN Document Server

    Pisarenko, VF

    2014-01-01

    The study of disaster statistics and disaster occurrence is a complicated interdisciplinary field involving the interplay of new theoretical findings from several scientific fields like mathematics, physics, and computer science. Statistical studies on the mode of occurrence of natural disasters largely rely on fundamental findings in the statistics of rare events, which were derived in the 20th century. With regard to natural disasters, it is not so much the fact that the importance of this problem for mankind was recognized during the last third of the 20th century - the myths one encounters in ancient civilizations show that the problem of disasters has always been recognized - rather, it is the fact that mankind now possesses the necessary theoretical and practical tools to effectively study natural disasters, which in turn supports effective, major practical measures to minimize their impact. All the above factors have resulted in considerable progress in natural disaster research. Substantial accrued ma...

  12. Factors related to student performance in statistics courses in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccache, Hiba Salim

    The purpose of the present study was to identify factors that may contribute to business students in Lebanese universities having difficulty in introductory and advanced statistics courses. Two statistics courses are required for business majors at Lebanese universities. Students are not obliged to be enrolled in any math courses prior to taking statistics courses. Drawing on recent educational research, this dissertation attempted to identify the relationship between (1) students’ scores on Lebanese university math admissions tests; (2) students’ scores on a test of very basic mathematical concepts; (3) students’ scores on the survey of attitude toward statistics (SATS); (4) course performance as measured by students’ final scores in the course; and (5) their scores on the final exam. Data were collected from 561 students enrolled in multiple sections of two courses: 307 students in the introductory statistics course and 260 in the advanced statistics course in seven campuses across Lebanon over one semester. The multiple regressions results revealed four significant relationships at the introductory level: between students’ scores on the math quiz with their (1) final exam scores; (2) their final averages; (3) the Cognitive subscale of the SATS with their final exam scores; and (4) their final averages. These four significant relationships were also found at the advanced level. In addition, two more significant relationships were found between students’ final average and the two subscales of Effort (5) and Affect (6). No relationship was found between students’ scores on the admission math tests and both their final exam scores and their final averages in both the introductory and advanced level courses. On the other hand, there was no relationship between students’ scores on Lebanese admissions tests and their final achievement. Although these results were consistent across course formats and instructors, they may encourage Lebanese universities

  13. Actual problems of accession in relation with library statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Poličnik-Čermelj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Accession is the process of recording bibliographic units in an accession register. Typically,library materials are acquired by purchase, exchange, gift or legal deposit. How-ever, COBISS (Cooperative Online Bibliographic System and Services Holdings software module includes some additional methods of acquisition which causes problems in gathering and presenting statistical data on local holdings. The article explains how to record holdings of different types of library materials and how to record retrospective collections. It describes necessary procedures in case the codes that define the publication pattern of the holdings are changed with special attention to integrating resources. Procedures of accession and circulation of bound materials, supplementary materials, teaching sets, multi parts, multimedia and collection level catalogue records are described. The attention is given to errors in recording lost item replacements and to the problems of circulation of certain types of library materials. The author also suggests how to record remote electronic resources. It is recommended to verify holdings data before the accession register is generated. The relevant and credible statistical data on collection development can only be created by librarians with sufficient acquisition and cataloguing skills.

  14. Statistical analysis of the effects of relative humidity and temperature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meteorological data from the Department of Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CMSAF), DWD Germany have been used to study and investigate the effect of relative humidity and temperature on refractivity in twenty six locations grouped into for climatic regions aloft Nigeria (Coastal, Guinea savannah, ...

  15. Statistical analysis of the effects of relative humidity and temperature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isreal

    Meteorological data from the Department of Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM-. SAF), DWD Germany have been used to study and investigate the effect of relative humidity and temperature on refractivity in twenty six locations grouped into for climatic regions aloft Nigeria. (Coastal, Guinea savannah ...

  16. Contributions to Statistical Problems Related to Microarray Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Feng

    2009-01-01

    Microarray is a high throughput technology to measure the gene expression. Analysis of microarray data brings many interesting and challenging problems. This thesis consists three studies related to microarray data. First, we propose a Bayesian model for microarray data and use Bayes Factors to identify differentially expressed genes. Second, we…

  17. China’s Statist Energy Relations with Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amineh, M.P.; van Driel, M.

    2018-01-01

    During the last decade, China’s diplomatic, economic, security and multilateral relations with Resource-Rich Countries (RRCs) in general, and with Central Asia and the Caspian Region (CACR) in particular, created a regional web of complementarity connecting states and societies. This trend reflects

  18. Exploration of unique relation among industrial fungi by statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Siddique

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to explore the relation among thermophilic cellulolytic fungi, which are of industrialimportance. There was no report found about the genetic relationship of fungi, which are used to produce industrial enzymes.So the aim of the study was to observe the similarity among different cellulolytic fungi on genetic level, which will providethe background to understand the correlation among cellulase producing systems of these fungi. Eleven (11 fungi werestudied for genetic diversity using the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD a PCR based molecular marker system.In this regard twenty universal decamers used for RAPD resulted in 1527 numbers of bands observed during comparison ofall wild strains. Maximum polymorphism was generated with GLA-07. Average numbers of bands per 20 primers were 65-72.An Interesting feature of the study was the similarity of Humicola insolens with Torula thermophile, more than with theother members of the Humicola family. This genetic pattern affects the physical structure of the fungi. Spores of Torulathermophila are more related to Humicola insolens than to its own family. Similarity between the two was found to be 57.8%,whereas between Humicola lanuginosa (Thermomysis lanuginosus and Humicola grisea it was 57.3%. Apart from this,similarity between Talaromyces dupontii and Rhizomucor pusillus was 51.5%. Least similarity was found in Rhizomucorpusillus and Humicola grisea, which was 18.7% and Chaetomium thermophile and Sporotrichum thermophile, which was18.3%. Genetic similarity matrix was constructed on the basis of Nei and Li’s index.

  19. Infant statistical-learning ability is related to real-time language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lany, Jill; Shoaib, Amber; Thompson, Abbie; Estes, Katharine Graf

    2018-03-01

    Infants are adept at learning statistical regularities in artificial language materials, suggesting that the ability to learn statistical structure may support language development. Indeed, infants who perform better on statistical learning tasks tend to be more advanced in parental reports of infants' language skills. Work with adults suggests that one way statistical learning ability affects language proficiency is by facilitating real-time language processing. Here we tested whether 15-month-olds' ability to learn sequential statistical structure in artificial language materials is related to their ability to encode and interpret native-language speech. Specifically, we tested their ability to learn sequential structure among syllables (Experiment 1) and words (Experiment 2), as well as their ability to encode familiar English words in sentences. The results suggest that infants' ability to learn sequential structure among syllables is related to their lexical-processing efficiency, providing continuity with findings from children and adults, though effects were modest.

  20. Uncertainties Related to Extreme Event Statistics of Sewer System Surcharge and Overflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Johansen, C.; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2005-01-01

    by performing long term simulations - using a sewer flow simulation model - and draw up extreme event statistics from the model simulations. In this context it is important to realize that uncertainties related to the input parameters of rainfall runoff models will give rise to uncertainties related...... to the corresponding extreme event statistics. This paper illustrates this problem in a case study with two different values of one input parameter - the hydrological reduction factor - in two otherwise identical operations of the MOUSE LTS model. The use of a long historical rainfall time series makes it possible...... to draw up extreme event statistics covering return periods of as much as 33 years. By comparing these two different extreme event statistics it is evident that these to a great extent depend on the uncertainties related to the input parameters of the rainfall runoff model....

  1. Recurrence relations for higher moments of order statistics from doubly truncated Burr distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinder Pushkarna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have obtained recurrence relations for higher moments of order statistics from doubly truncated Burr distribution, which enable one to obtain all the single, double (product and higher moments of any order of all order statistics for any sample size from doubly truncated Burr distribution in a simple recursive manner, thus generalizing the earlier work done by Khan and Khan (1987 and also by Pushkarna, Saran and Tiwari (2012.

  2. Water Polo Game-Related Statistics in Women’s International Championships: Differences and Discriminatory Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Yolanda; Saavedra, Jose M.; Tella, Victor; Mansilla, Mirella; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Dominguez, Ana M.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to compare women’s water polo game-related statistics by match outcome (winning and losing teams) and phase (preliminary, classificatory, and semi-final/bronze medal/gold medal), and (ii) identify characteristics that discriminate performances for each phase. The game-related statistics of the 124 women’s matches played in five International Championships (World and European Championships) were analyzed. Differences between winning and losing teams in each phase were determined using the chi-squared. A discriminant analysis was then performed according to context in each of the three phases. It was found that the game-related statistics differentiate the winning from the losing teams in each phase of an international championship. The differentiating variables were both offensive (centre goals, power-play goals, counterattack goal, assists, offensive fouls, steals, blocked shots, and won sprints) and defensive (goalkeeper-blocked shots, goalkeeper-blocked inferiority shots, and goalkeeper-blocked 5-m shots). The discriminant analysis showed the game-related statistics to discriminate performance in all phases: preliminary, classificatory, and final phases (92%, 90%, and 83%, respectively). Two variables were discriminatory by match outcome (winning or losing teams) in all three phases: goals and goalkeeper-blocked shots. Key pointsThe preliminary phase that more than one variable was involved in this differentiation, including both offensive and defensive aspects of the game.The game-related statistics were found to have a high discriminatory power in predicting the result of matches with shots and goalkeeper-blocked shots being discriminatory variables in all three phases.Knowledge of the characteristics of women’s water polo game-related statistics of the winning teams and their power to predict match outcomes will allow coaches to take these characteristics into account when planning training and match preparation. PMID

  3. The Green-Kubo formula and the Onsager reciprocity relations in quantum statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jaksic, V; Pillet, C

    2005-01-01

    We study linear response theory in the general framework of algebraic quantum statistical mechanics and prove the Green-Kubo formula and the Onsager reciprocity relations for heat fluxes generated by temperature differentials. Our derivation is axiomatic and the key assumptions concern ergodic properties of non-equilibrium steady states.

  4. WATER POLO GAME-RELATED STATISTICS IN WOMEN'S INTERNATIONAL CHAMPIONSHIPS: DIFFERENCES AND DISCRIMINATORY POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Escalante

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (i to compare women's water polo game-related statistics by match outcome (winning and losing teams and phase (preliminary, classificatory, and semi-final/bronze medal/gold medal, and (ii identify characteristics that discriminate performances for each phase. The game-related statistics of the 124 women's matches played in five International Championships (World and European Championships were analyzed. Differences between winning and losing teams in each phase were determined using the chi-squared. A discriminant analysis was then performed according to context in each of the three phases. It was found that the game-related statistics differentiate the winning from the losing teams in each phase of an international championship. The differentiating variables were both offensive (centre goals, power-play goals, counterattack goal, assists, offensive fouls, steals, blocked shots, and won sprints and defensive (goalkeeper-blocked shots, goalkeeper-blocked inferiority shots, and goalkeeper-blocked 5-m shots. The discriminant analysis showed the game-related statistics to discriminate performance in all phases: preliminary, classificatory, and final phases (92%, 90%, and 83%, respectively. Two variables were discriminatory by match outcome (winning or losing teams in all three phases: goals and goalkeeper-blocked shots

  5. The star-triangle relation and the inversion relation in statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, J.M.

    1983-10-01

    The plan of this paper is the following: we give a definition of the star-triangle relation (S.T.R.); we also define another very simple relation which occurs simultaneously with the S.T.R. for the two-dimensional (2-d) exact models: the inversion relation (I.R.); we study the connection between the S.T.R. and the I.R.: we see that the S.T.R. is deeply connected to the I.R., but, on the contrary, we see that the I.R. can exist even when no S.T.R. exists, as we show for the 2-d anisotropic Potts model by exhibiting an inverse functional equation satisfied by the partition function; having recognized the I.R. as an interesting concept, we use it by looking at the analytical consequences of this I.R. and, at last, we come back to the S.T.R., examining some consequences of the I.R. on the S.T.R

  6. 2015 QuickCompass of Sexual Assult-Related Responders: Statistical Methodology Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    2015 QuickCompass of Sexual Assault Prevention and Response- Related Responders Statistical Methodology Report Additional copies of this report...from: http://www.dtic.mil/ Ask for report by ADA630235 DMDC Report No. 2015-039 February 2016 2015 QUICKCOMPASS OF SEXUAL ASSAULT PREVENTION...Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) is indebted to numerous people for their assistance with the 2015 QuickCompass of Sexual Assault Prevention and

  7. Some statistical considerations related to the estimation of cancer risk following exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, C.E.; Pierce, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Statistical theory and methodology provide the logical structure for scientific inference about the cancer risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. Although much is known about radiation carcinogenesis, the risk associated with low-level exposures is difficult to assess because it is too small to measure directly. Estimation must therefore depend upon mathematical models which relate observed risks at high exposure levels to risks at lower exposure levels. Extrapolated risk estimates obtained using such models are heavily dependent upon assumptions about the shape of the dose-response relationship, the temporal distribution of risk following exposure, and variation of risk according to variables such as age at exposure, sex, and underlying population cancer rates. Expanded statistical models, which make explicit certain assumed relationships between different data sets, can be used to strengthen inferences by incorporating relevant information from diverse sources. They also allow the uncertainties inherent in information from related data sets to be expressed in estimates which partially depend upon that information. To the extent that informed opinion is based upon a valid assessment of scientific data, the larger context of decision theory, which includes statistical theory, provides a logical framework for the incorporation into public policy decisions of the informational content of expert opinion

  8. Quantum fields on manifolds: an interplay between quantum theory, statistical thermodynamics and general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewell, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    The author shows how the basic axioms of quantum field theory, general relativity and statistical thermodynamics lead, in a model-independent way, to a generalized Hawking-Unruh effect, whereby the gravitational fields carried by a class of space-time manifolds with event horizons thermalize ambient quantum fields. The author is concerned with a quantum field on a space-time x containing a submanifold X' bounded by event horizons. The objective is to show that, for a wide class of space-times, the global vacuum state of the field reduces, in X', to a thermal state, whose temperature depends on the geometry. The statistical thermodynaical, geometrical, and quantum field theoretical essential ingredients for the reduction of the vacuum state are discussed

  9. Statistical Modelling of Temperature and Moisture Uptake of Biochars Exposed to Selected Relative Humidity of Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastistella, Luciane; Rousset, Patrick; Aviz, Antonio; Caldeira-Pires, Armando; Humbert, Gilles; Nogueira, Manoel

    2018-02-09

    New experimental techniques, as well as modern variants on known methods, have recently been employed to investigate the fundamental reactions underlying the oxidation of biochar. The purpose of this paper was to experimentally and statistically study how the relative humidity of air, mass, and particle size of four biochars influenced the adsorption of water and the increase in temperature. A random factorial design was employed using the intuitive statistical software Xlstat. A simple linear regression model and an analysis of variance with a pairwise comparison were performed. The experimental study was carried out on the wood of Quercus pubescens , Cyclobalanopsis glauca , Trigonostemon huangmosun , and Bambusa vulgaris , and involved five relative humidity conditions (22, 43, 75, 84, and 90%), two mass samples (0.1 and 1 g), and two particle sizes (powder and piece). Two response variables including water adsorption and temperature increase were analyzed and discussed. The temperature did not increase linearly with the adsorption of water. Temperature was modeled by nine explanatory variables, while water adsorption was modeled by eight. Five variables, including factors and their interactions, were found to be common to the two models. Sample mass and relative humidity influenced the two qualitative variables, while particle size and biochar type only influenced the temperature.

  10. Statistical Modelling of Temperature and Moisture Uptake of Biochars Exposed to Selected Relative Humidity of Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Bastistella

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available New experimental techniques, as well as modern variants on known methods, have recently been employed to investigate the fundamental reactions underlying the oxidation of biochar. The purpose of this paper was to experimentally and statistically study how the relative humidity of air, mass, and particle size of four biochars influenced the adsorption of water and the increase in temperature. A random factorial design was employed using the intuitive statistical software Xlstat. A simple linear regression model and an analysis of variance with a pairwise comparison were performed. The experimental study was carried out on the wood of Quercus pubescens, Cyclobalanopsis glauca, Trigonostemon huangmosun, and Bambusa vulgaris, and involved five relative humidity conditions (22, 43, 75, 84, and 90%, two mass samples (0.1 and 1 g, and two particle sizes (powder and piece. Two response variables including water adsorption and temperature increase were analyzed and discussed. The temperature did not increase linearly with the adsorption of water. Temperature was modeled by nine explanatory variables, while water adsorption was modeled by eight. Five variables, including factors and their interactions, were found to be common to the two models. Sample mass and relative humidity influenced the two qualitative variables, while particle size and biochar type only influenced the temperature.

  11. Properties of incident reporting systems in relation to statistical trend and pattern analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalfsbeek, H.W.; Arsenis, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the properties deemed desirable for an incident reporting system in order to render it useful for extracting valid statistical trend and pattern information. The perspective under which a data collection system is seen in this paper is the following: data are essentially gathered on a set of variables describing an event or incident (the items featuring on a reporting format) in order to learn about (multiple) dependencies (called interactions) between these variables. Hence, the necessary features of the data source are highlighted and potential problem sources limiting the validity of the results to be obtained are identified. In this frame, important issues are the reporting completeness, related to the reporting criteria and reporting frequency, and of course the reporting contents and quality. The choice of the report items (the variables) and their categorization (code dictionary) may influence (bias) the insights gained from trend and pattern analyses, as may the presence or absence of a structure for correlating the reported issues within an incident. The issues addressed in this paper are brought in relation to some real world reporting systems on safety related events in Nuclear Power Plants, so that their possibilities and limitations with regard to statistical trend and pattern analysis become manifest

  12. Relative mass distributions of neutron-rich thermally fissile nuclei within a statistical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Bharat; Kannan, M. T. Senthil; Balasubramaniam, M.; Agrawal, B. K.; Patra, S. K.

    2017-09-01

    We study the binary mass distribution for the recently predicted thermally fissile neutron-rich uranium and thorium nuclei using a statistical model. The level density parameters needed for the study are evaluated from the excitation energies of the temperature-dependent relativistic mean field formalism. The excitation energy and the level density parameter for a given temperature are employed in the convolution integral method to obtain the probability of the particular fragmentation. As representative cases, we present the results for the binary yields of 250U and 254Th. The relative yields are presented for three different temperatures: T =1 , 2, and 3 MeV.

  13. Relative effects of statistical preprocessing and postprocessing on a regional hydrological ensemble prediction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjib; Siddique, Ridwan; Reed, Seann; Ahnert, Peter; Mendoza, Pablo; Mejia, Alfonso

    2018-03-01

    The relative roles of statistical weather preprocessing and streamflow postprocessing in hydrological ensemble forecasting at short- to medium-range forecast lead times (day 1-7) are investigated. For this purpose, a regional hydrologic ensemble prediction system (RHEPS) is developed and implemented. The RHEPS is comprised of the following components: (i) hydrometeorological observations (multisensor precipitation estimates, gridded surface temperature, and gauged streamflow); (ii) weather ensemble forecasts (precipitation and near-surface temperature) from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction 11-member Global Ensemble Forecast System Reforecast version 2 (GEFSRv2); (iii) NOAA's Hydrology Laboratory-Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (HL-RDHM); (iv) heteroscedastic censored logistic regression (HCLR) as the statistical preprocessor; (v) two statistical postprocessors, an autoregressive model with a single exogenous variable (ARX(1,1)) and quantile regression (QR); and (vi) a comprehensive verification strategy. To implement the RHEPS, 1 to 7 days weather forecasts from the GEFSRv2 are used to force HL-RDHM and generate raw ensemble streamflow forecasts. Forecasting experiments are conducted in four nested basins in the US Middle Atlantic region, ranging in size from 381 to 12 362 km2. Results show that the HCLR preprocessed ensemble precipitation forecasts have greater skill than the raw forecasts. These improvements are more noticeable in the warm season at the longer lead times (> 3 days). Both postprocessors, ARX(1,1) and QR, show gains in skill relative to the raw ensemble streamflow forecasts, particularly in the cool season, but QR outperforms ARX(1,1). The scenarios that implement preprocessing and postprocessing separately tend to perform similarly, although the postprocessing-alone scenario is often more effective. The scenario involving both preprocessing and postprocessing consistently outperforms the other scenarios. In some cases

  14. Gravitational lensing statistics with extragalactic surveys III. Joint constraints on lambda(0) and Omega(0) from lensing statistics and the m-z relation for type Ia supernovae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbig, P

    1999-01-01

    I present constraints on cosmological parameters in the lambda(0)-Omega(0) plane from a joint analysis of gravitational lensing statistics (Helbig et al. 1999b) and the magnitude-redshift relation for Type Ia supernovae (Perlmutter et al. 1999; Riess et al. 1998). I discuss reasons why this

  15. 30 CFR 250.192 - What reports and statistics must I submit relating to a hurricane, earthquake, or other natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... relating to a hurricane, earthquake, or other natural occurrence? 250.192 Section 250.192 Mineral Resources... statistics must I submit relating to a hurricane, earthquake, or other natural occurrence? (a) You must submit evacuation statistics to the Regional Supervisor for a natural occurrence, such as a hurricane, a...

  16. Statistical analysis of magnetic parameters in order to discriminate hydrocarbon-related conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana, M.; Ñuflo, J.; Costanzo-Alvarez, V.; Guzmán, O.; Guerrero-Suárez, S.; Martín-Hernández, F.; Osete, M. L.

    2012-04-01

    In this work we try to discriminate near surface magnetic anomalies related to hydrocarbon microseepage using just magnetic parameters. We present preliminary results for two oil fields located at Eastern Venezuela and characterized by different geochemical conditions. Cross-plots that combine hysteresis data (Mrs/Ms and Hcr/Hc), Magnetic Susceptibility (MS) and S-ratio were analysed searching for patterns associated with different type of MS anomalies, i.e. related (A type) and not related (B type) to hydrocarbon migration, with different reducing conditions (associated or not with the presence of organic matter) and/or with distinct chief magnetic mineralogies at these MS anomalous levels (i.e. Fe-oxides or Fe-sulphides). K-means and Hierarchical Cluster Analyses were applied and the possibility of pattern recognition, combining more than two magnetic variables, was examined. The results obtained seem to indicate that it is possible to discriminate between anomalies associated with different chief magnetic mineralogies. Nevertheless, the statistical analysis of the parameters applied here does not discriminate between anomalies related to hydrocarbon microseepage and those reflecting just lithological contrasts, or between anomalies associated with different reducing conditions.

  17. A statistical analysis of insurance damage claims related to rainfall extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spekkers, M. H.; Kok, M.; Clemens, F. H. L. R.; ten Veldhuis, J. A. E.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, a database of water-related insurance damage claims related to private properties and content was analysed. The aim was to investigate whether the probability of occurrence of rainfall-related damage was associated with the intensity of rainfall. Rainfall data were used for the period of 2003-2009 in the Netherlands based on a network of 33 automatic rain gauges operated by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute. Insurance damage data were aggregated to areas within 10-km range of the rain gauges. Through a logistic regression model, high claim numbers were linked to maximum rainfall intensities, with rainfall intensity based on 10-min to 4-h time windows. Rainfall intensity proved to be a significant damage predictor; however, the explained variance, approximated by a pseudo-R2 statistic, was at most 34% for property damage and at most 30% for content damage. When directly comparing predicted and observed values, the model was able to predict 5-17% more cases correctly compared to a random prediction. No important differences were found between relations with property and content damage data. A considerable fraction of the variance is left unexplained, which emphasizes the need to study damage generating mechanisms and additional explanatory variables.

  18. A scoping review of statistical approaches to the analysis of multiple health-related behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAloney, Kareena; Graham, Hilary; Law, Catherine; Platt, Lucinda

    2013-06-01

    Smoking, diet, exercise, and alcohol are leading causes of chronic disease and premature death, many engage in two or more of these behaviours concurrently. The paper identified statistical approaches used to investigate multiple behavioural risk factors. A scoping review of papers published in English from 2000 to 2011 was conducted; papers are related to concurrent participation in at least two of the behaviours. Statistical approaches were recorded and categorised. Across 50 papers, two distinct approaches were identified. Co-occurrence analyses focused on concurrent but independent behaviours, represented by prevalence of behavioural combinations and/or by the summing behaviours into risk indexes. Clustering analyses investigated underlying associations between the concurrent behaviours, with clustering identified by divergences in observed and expected prevalence of combinations or through identification of latent or unobservable clusters. Co-occurrence was more frequently reported, but the use of clustering techniques and, in particular, cluster analytic and latent variable techniques increased across the study period. The two approaches investigate concurrent participation in multiple health behaviours but differ in conceptualisation and analysis. Despite differences, inconsistency in the terminology describing the study of multiple health behaviours was apparent, with potential to influence understandings of concurrent health behaviours in policy and practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Solar granulation and statistical crystallography: A modeling approach using size-shape relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noever, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    The irregular polygonal pattern of solar granulation is analyzed for size-shape relations using statistical crystallography. In contrast to previous work which has assumed perfectly hexagonal patterns for granulation, more realistic accounting of cell (granule) shapes reveals a broader basis for quantitative analysis. Several features emerge as noteworthy: (1) a linear correlation between number of cell-sides and neighboring shapes (called Aboav-Weaire's law); (2) a linear correlation between both average cell area and perimeter and the number of cell-sides (called Lewis's law and a perimeter law, respectively) and (3) a linear correlation between cell area and squared perimeter (called convolution index). This statistical picture of granulation is consistent with a finding of no correlation in cell shapes beyond nearest neighbors. A comparative calculation between existing model predictions taken from luminosity data and the present analysis shows substantial agreements for cell-size distributions. A model for understanding grain lifetimes is proposed which links convective times to cell shape using crystallographic results.

  20. A new Markov-chain-related statistical approach for modelling synthetic wind power time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesch, T; Hake, J F; Schröders, S; Allelein, H J

    2015-01-01

    The integration of rising shares of volatile wind power in the generation mix is a major challenge for the future energy system. To address the uncertainties involved in wind power generation, models analysing and simulating the stochastic nature of this energy source are becoming increasingly important. One statistical approach that has been frequently used in the literature is the Markov chain approach. Recently, the method was identified as being of limited use for generating wind time series with time steps shorter than 15–40 min as it is not capable of reproducing the autocorrelation characteristics accurately. This paper presents a new Markov-chain-related statistical approach that is capable of solving this problem by introducing a variable second lag. Furthermore, additional features are presented that allow for the further adjustment of the generated synthetic time series. The influences of the model parameter settings are examined by meaningful parameter variations. The suitability of the approach is demonstrated by an application analysis with the example of the wind feed-in in Germany. It shows that—in contrast to conventional Markov chain approaches—the generated synthetic time series do not systematically underestimate the required storage capacity to balance wind power fluctuation. (paper)

  1. The derivation and application of a risk related value for saving a statistical life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.; Stone, D.; Butler, G.G.; Mcglynn, G.

    2004-01-01

    A risk related value of spend for saving a statistical life (VSSSL) is proposed for cost-benefit studies across the power generation sector, and the nuclear industry in particular. An upper bound on VSSSL is set based on the UK government standard of around pound 1 M or, in particular circumstances, pound 2 M and the observation that excessive spend (probably of the order of more than pound 5 M per statistical life) will actually cost lives. Above a risk of 10 -3 a -1 it is assumed that VSSSL approaches maximum sustainable value around pound 2 M, whereas below a risk of 10 -9 a -1 the value of further risk reduction approaches zero. At risks around 10 -6 a -1 it is proposed that an appropriate VSSL lies in the range pound 0.25 M to pound 1 M. With respect to radiological protection, it is suggested that where collective doses are dominated by average individual doses no more than a few μSv, the detriment arising from a man-Sv can be valued at about pound 15 k to pound 60 k. It is further suggested that for individual dose contributions below 0.01 μSv (representing a risk equivalent to less than 10 -9 ) a low residual VSSSL should be applied in cost-benefit analyses based on collective dose exposures. (author)

  2. Statistics of the relative velocity of particles in bidisperse turbulent suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Akshay; Gustavsson, Kristian; Mehlig, Bernhard; Mitra, Dhrubaditya

    2017-11-01

    We calculate the joint probability distribution function (JPDF) of relative distances (R) and velocities (V with longitudinal component VR) of a pair of bidisperse heavy inertial particles in homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flows using direct numerical simulations (DNS). A recent paper (J. Meibohm, et. al. 2017), using statistical-model simulations and mathematical analysis of an one-dimensional white-noise model, has shown that the JPDF, P (R ,VR) , for two particles with Stokes numbers, St1 and St2 , can be interpreted in terms of StM , the harmonic mean of St1 and St2 and θ ≡ | St1 - St2 | / (St1 + St2) . For small θ there emerges a small-scale cutoff Rc and a small-velocity cutoff Vc such that for VR Foundation, Dnr. KAW 2014.0048.

  3. Contributions towards uncertainty related to hydrostratigraphic modelling using Multiple-Point Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Adrian; Vilhelmsen, Troels Norvin; Jørgensen, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    Accurately predicting the flow of groundwater requires a hydrostratigraphic model, which describes the structural architecture. State-of-the-art Multiple-Point Statistical (MPS) tools are readily available for creating models depicting subsurface geology. We present a study of the impact of key...... focuses on the error related to the geophysical soft data, borehole lithology logs, and the Training Image (TI). The modeling approach used in this paper utilizes the Kasted cognitive geological model as a TI to simulate ensemble hydrostratigraphic models. The target model contains three overall...... hydrostratigraphic categories, and the MPS realizations are compared visually, as well as quantitatively using mathematical measures of similarity between categorical 3D models. The quantitative similarity analysis is carried out exhaustively, and realizations are compared each other as well as the cognitive...

  4. Statistical distributions of earthquakes and related non-linear features in seismic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, B.-F.

    2006-01-01

    A few basic facts in the science of the earthquakes are briefly reviewed. An accumulation, or growth, model is put forward for the focal mechanisms and the critical focal zone of the earthquakes, which relates the earthquake average recurrence time to the released seismic energy. The temporal statistical distribution for average recurrence time is introduced for earthquakes, and, on this basis, the Omori-type distribution in energy is derived, as well as the distribution in magnitude, by making use of the semi-empirical Gutenberg-Richter law relating seismic energy to earthquake magnitude. On geometric grounds, the accumulation model suggests the value r = 1/3 for the Omori parameter in the power-law of energy distribution, which leads to β = 1,17 for the coefficient in the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence law, in fair agreement with the statistical analysis of the empirical data. Making use of this value, the empirical Bath's law is discussed for the average magnitude of the aftershocks (which is 1.2 less than the magnitude of the main seismic shock), by assuming that the aftershocks are relaxation events of the seismic zone. The time distribution of the earthquakes with a fixed average recurrence time is also derived, the earthquake occurrence prediction is discussed by means of the average recurrence time and the seismicity rate, and application of this discussion to the seismic region Vrancea, Romania, is outlined. Finally, a special effect of non-linear behaviour of the seismic waves is discussed, by describing an exact solution derived recently for the elastic waves equation with cubic anharmonicities, its relevance, and its connection to the approximate quasi-plane waves picture. The properties of the seismic activity accompanying a main seismic shock, both like foreshocks and aftershocks, are relegated to forthcoming publications. (author)

  5. Statistical analysis of event-related potential elicited by verb-complement merge in Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cagy

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available An interesting fact about language cognition is that stimulation involving incongruence in the merge operation between verb and complement has often been related to a negative event-related potential (ERP of augmented amplitude and latency of ca. 400 ms - the N400. Using an automatic ERP latency and amplitude estimator to facilitate the recognition of waves with a low signal-to-noise ratio, the objective of the present study was to study the N400 statistically in 24 volunteers. Stimulation consisted of 80 experimental sentences (40 congruous and 40 incongruous, generated in Brazilian Portuguese, involving two distinct local verb-argument combinations (nominal object and pronominal object series. For each volunteer, the EEG was simultaneously acquired at 20 derivations, topographically localized according to the 10-20 International System. A computerized routine for automatic N400-peak marking (based on the ascendant zero-cross of the first waveform derivative was applied to the estimated individual ERP waveform for congruous and incongruous sentences in both series for all ERP topographic derivations. Peak-to-peak N400 amplitude was significantly augmented (P < 0.05; one-sided Wilcoxon signed-rank test due to incongruence in derivations F3, T3, C3, Cz, T5, P3, Pz, and P4 for nominal object series and in P3, Pz and P4 for pronominal object series. The results also indicated high inter-individual variability in ERP waveforms, suggesting that the usual procedure of grand averaging might not be considered a generally adequate approach. Hence, signal processing statistical techniques should be applied in neurolinguistic ERP studies allowing waveform analysis with low signal-to-noise ratio.

  6. Relative effects of statistical preprocessing and postprocessing on a regional hydrological ensemble prediction system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sharma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The relative roles of statistical weather preprocessing and streamflow postprocessing in hydrological ensemble forecasting at short- to medium-range forecast lead times (day 1–7 are investigated. For this purpose, a regional hydrologic ensemble prediction system (RHEPS is developed and implemented. The RHEPS is comprised of the following components: (i hydrometeorological observations (multisensor precipitation estimates, gridded surface temperature, and gauged streamflow; (ii weather ensemble forecasts (precipitation and near-surface temperature from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction 11-member Global Ensemble Forecast System Reforecast version 2 (GEFSRv2; (iii NOAA's Hydrology Laboratory-Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (HL-RDHM; (iv heteroscedastic censored logistic regression (HCLR as the statistical preprocessor; (v two statistical postprocessors, an autoregressive model with a single exogenous variable (ARX(1,1 and quantile regression (QR; and (vi a comprehensive verification strategy. To implement the RHEPS, 1 to 7 days weather forecasts from the GEFSRv2 are used to force HL-RDHM and generate raw ensemble streamflow forecasts. Forecasting experiments are conducted in four nested basins in the US Middle Atlantic region, ranging in size from 381 to 12 362 km2. Results show that the HCLR preprocessed ensemble precipitation forecasts have greater skill than the raw forecasts. These improvements are more noticeable in the warm season at the longer lead times (> 3 days. Both postprocessors, ARX(1,1 and QR, show gains in skill relative to the raw ensemble streamflow forecasts, particularly in the cool season, but QR outperforms ARX(1,1. The scenarios that implement preprocessing and postprocessing separately tend to perform similarly, although the postprocessing-alone scenario is often more effective. The scenario involving both preprocessing and postprocessing consistently outperforms the other

  7. Infant Statistical-Learning Ability Is Related to Real-Time Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lany, Jill; Shoaib, Amber; Thompson, Abbie; Estes, Katharine Graf

    2018-01-01

    Infants are adept at learning statistical regularities in artificial language materials, suggesting that the ability to learn statistical structure may support language development. Indeed, infants who perform better on statistical learning tasks tend to be more advanced in parental reports of infants' language skills. Work with adults suggests…

  8. Using the bootstrap to establish statistical significance for relative validity comparisons among patient-reported outcome measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Nina; Allison, Jeroan J; Fang, Hua Julia; Ash, Arlene S; Ware, John E

    2013-05-31

    Relative validity (RV), a ratio of ANOVA F-statistics, is often used to compare the validity of patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures. We used the bootstrap to establish the statistical significance of the RV and to identify key factors affecting its significance. Based on responses from 453 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients to 16 CKD-specific and generic PRO measures, RVs were computed to determine how well each measure discriminated across clinically-defined groups of patients compared to the most discriminating (reference) measure. Statistical significance of RV was quantified by the 95% bootstrap confidence interval. Simulations examined the effects of sample size, denominator F-statistic, correlation between comparator and reference measures, and number of bootstrap replicates. The statistical significance of the RV increased as the magnitude of denominator F-statistic increased or as the correlation between comparator and reference measures increased. A denominator F-statistic of 57 conveyed sufficient power (80%) to detect an RV of 0.6 for two measures correlated at r = 0.7. Larger denominator F-statistics or higher correlations provided greater power. Larger sample size with a fixed denominator F-statistic or more bootstrap replicates (beyond 500) had minimal impact. The bootstrap is valuable for establishing the statistical significance of RV estimates. A reasonably large denominator F-statistic (F > 57) is required for adequate power when using the RV to compare the validity of measures with small or moderate correlations (r 0.9).

  9. 28 CFR Appendix D to Part 61 - Office of Justice Assistance, Research, and Statistics Procedures Relating to the Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and criminal justice by providing financial assistance and funding research and statistical programs... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of Justice Assistance, Research... Assistance, Research, and Statistics Procedures Relating to the Implementation of the National Environmental...

  10. Inferences on weather extremes and weather-related disasters: a review of statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Visser

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of weather extremes and their impacts, such as weather-related disasters, plays an important role in research of climate change. Due to the great societal consequences of extremes – historically, now and in the future – the peer-reviewed literature on this theme has been growing enormously since the 1980s. Data sources have a wide origin, from century-long climate reconstructions from tree rings to relatively short (30 to 60 yr databases with disaster statistics and human impacts.

    When scanning peer-reviewed literature on weather extremes and its impacts, it is noticeable that many different methods are used to make inferences. However, discussions on these methods are rare. Such discussions are important since a particular methodological choice might substantially influence the inferences made. A calculation of a return period of once in 500 yr, based on a normal distribution will deviate from that based on a Gumbel distribution. And the particular choice between a linear or a flexible trend model might influence inferences as well.

    In this article, a concise overview of statistical methods applied in the field of weather extremes and weather-related disasters is given. Methods have been evaluated as to stationarity assumptions, the choice for specific probability density functions (PDFs and the availability of uncertainty information. As for stationarity assumptions, the outcome was that good testing is essential. Inferences on extremes may be wrong if data are assumed stationary while they are not. The same holds for the block-stationarity assumption. As for PDF choices it was found that often more than one PDF shape fits to the same data. From a simulation study the conclusion can be drawn that both the generalized extreme value (GEV distribution and the log-normal PDF fit very well to a variety of indicators. The application of the normal and Gumbel distributions is more limited. As for uncertainty, it is

  11. Score As You Lift (SAYL): A Statistical Relational Learning Approach to Uplift Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Houssam; Kuusisto, Finn; Burnside, Elizabeth S; Page, David; Shavlik, Jude; Costa, Vítor Santos

    We introduce Score As You Lift (SAYL), a novel Statistical Relational Learning (SRL) algorithm, and apply it to an important task in the diagnosis of breast cancer. SAYL combines SRL with the marketing concept of uplift modeling, uses the area under the uplift curve to direct clause construction and final theory evaluation, integrates rule learning and probability assignment, and conditions the addition of each new theory rule to existing ones. Breast cancer, the most common type of cancer among women, is categorized into two subtypes: an earlier in situ stage where cancer cells are still confined, and a subsequent invasive stage. Currently older women with in situ cancer are treated to prevent cancer progression, regardless of the fact that treatment may generate undesirable side-effects, and the woman may die of other causes. Younger women tend to have more aggressive cancers, while older women tend to have more indolent tumors. Therefore older women whose in situ tumors show significant dissimilarity with in situ cancer in younger women are less likely to progress, and can thus be considered for watchful waiting. Motivated by this important problem, this work makes two main contributions. First, we present the first multi-relational uplift modeling system, and introduce, implement and evaluate a novel method to guide search in an SRL framework. Second, we compare our algorithm to previous approaches, and demonstrate that the system can indeed obtain differential rules of interest to an expert on real data, while significantly improving the data uplift.

  12. Revisiting Classification of Eating Disorders-toward Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Shrigopal; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Khandelwal, S K

    2012-07-01

    Two of the most commonly used nosological systems- International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD)-10 and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV are under revision. This process has generated a lot of interesting debates with regards to future of the current diagnostic categories. In fact, the status of categorical approach in the upcoming versions of ICD and DSM is also being debated. The current article focuses on the debate with regards to the eating disorders. The existing classification of eating disorders has been criticized for its limitations. A host of new diagnostic categories have been recommended for inclusion in the upcoming revisions. Also the structure of the existing categories has also been put under scrutiny.

  13. Risk management for moisture related effects in dry manufacturing processes: a statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Jorge; Strong, John; Zhang, Lanju

    2016-03-01

    A risk- and science-based approach to control the quality in pharmaceutical manufacturing includes a full understanding of how product attributes and process parameters relate to product performance through a proactive approach in formulation and process development. For dry manufacturing, where moisture content is not directly manipulated within the process, the variability in moisture of the incoming raw materials can impact both the processability and drug product quality attributes. A statistical approach is developed using individual raw material historical lots as a basis for the calculation of tolerance intervals for drug product moisture content so that risks associated with excursions in moisture content can be mitigated. The proposed method is based on a model-independent approach that uses available data to estimate parameters of interest that describe the population of blend moisture content values and which do not require knowledge of the individual blend moisture content values. Another advantage of the proposed tolerance intervals is that, it does not require the use of tabulated values for tolerance factors. This facilitates the implementation on any spreadsheet program like Microsoft Excel. A computational example is used to demonstrate the proposed method.

  14. Processing statistics: an examination of focused and distributed attention using event related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baijal, Shruti; Nakatani, Chie; van Leeuwen, Cees; Srinivasan, Narayanan

    2013-06-07

    Human observers show remarkable efficiency in statistical estimation; they are able, for instance, to estimate the mean size of visual objects, even if their number exceeds the capacity limits of focused attention. This ability has been understood as the result of a distinct mode of attention, i.e. distributed attention. Compared to the focused attention mode, working memory representations under distributed attention are proposed to be more compressed, leading to reduced working memory loads. An alternate proposal is that distributed attention uses less structured, feature-level representations. These would fill up working memory (WM) more, even when target set size is low. Using event-related potentials, we compared WM loading in a typical distributed attention task (mean size estimation) to that in a corresponding focused attention task (object recognition), using a measure called contralateral delay activity (CDA). Participants performed both tasks on 2, 4, or 8 different-sized target disks. In the recognition task, CDA amplitude increased with set size; notably, however, in the mean estimation task the CDA amplitude was high regardless of set size. In particular for set-size 2, the amplitude was higher in the mean estimation task than in the recognition task. The result showed that the task involves full WM loading even with a low target set size. This suggests that in the distributed attention mode, representations are not compressed, but rather less structured than under focused attention conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Statistical Models of F2 Slope in Relation to Severity of Dysarthria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunjung; Weismer, Gary; Kent, Raymond D.; Duffy, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the distribution of second-formant (F2) slopes in a relatively large number of speakers with dysarthria associated with two different underlying diseases. Patients and Methods Forty speakers with dysarthria (20 with Parkinson's disease, PD; 20 with stroke) and 5 control speakers without a history of neurological disease were asked to repeat six words (coat, hail, sigh, shoot, row and wax) 10 times. Acoustic analysis was performed to derive F2 slope, and speech intelligibility data were collected using a direct magnitude estimate technique to examine its relationship to F2 slope. Results Statistical analysis revealed that both clinical groups showed significantly reduced F2 slopes compared to healthy speakers for all words but row. No group difference was found between speakers with PD and stroke; however, different words showed varying sensitivity to the speech motor control problems. The F2 slopes of only two words, shoot and wax, were significantly correlated with scaled speech intelligibility. Conclusion The findings support the idea that distributional characteristics of acoustic variables, such as F2 slope, could be used to develop a quantitative metric of severity of speech motor control deficits in dysarthria, when the materials are appropriately selected and additional distributional characteristics are studied. PMID:19864914

  16. Tropical convective onset statistics and establishing causality in the water vapor-precipitation relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelin, J. D.; Kuo, Y. H.; Schiro, K. A.; Langenbrunner, B.; Mechoso, C. R.; Sahany, S.; Bernstein, D. N.

    2015-12-01

    Previous work by various authors has pointed to the role of humidity in the lower free troposphere in affecting the onset of deep convection in the tropics. Empirical relations between column water vapor and the onset of precipitation have been inferred to be related to this. Evidence includes deep-convective conditional instability calculations for entraining plumes, in which the lower free-tropospheric environment affects the onset of deep convection due to the impact on buoyancy of turbulent entrainment of dry versus moist air. Tropical Western Pacific in situ observations, and tropical ocean basin satellite retrievals in comparison to climate model diagnostics each indicate that substantial entrainment is required to explain the observed relationship. In situ observations from the GoAmazon field campaign confirm that the basic relationship holds over tropical land much as it does over tropical ocean (although with greater additional sensitivity to boundary layer variations and to freezing processes). The relationship between deep convection and water vapor is, however, a two-way street, with convection moistening the free troposphere. One might thus argue that there has not yet been a smoking gun in terms of establishing the causality of the precipitation-water vapor relationship. Parameter perturbation experiments in the coupled Community Earth System Model show that when the deep convective scheme has low values of entrainment, the set of statistics associated with the transition to deep convection are radically altered, and the observed pickup of precipitation with column water vapor is no longer seen. In addition to cementing the dominant direction of causality in the fast timescale precipitation-column water vapor relationship, the results point to impacts of this mechanism on the climatology. Because at low entrainment the convection can fire before the lower troposphere is moistened, the climatology of water vapor remains lower than observed. These

  17. Statistical Post-Processing of Wind Speed Forecasts to Estimate Relative Economic Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Jennifer; Lynch, Peter; Sweeney, Conor

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this research is to get the best possible wind speed forecasts for the wind energy industry by using an optimal combination of well-established forecasting and post-processing methods. We start with the ECMWF 51 member ensemble prediction system (EPS) which is underdispersive and hence uncalibrated. We aim to produce wind speed forecasts that are more accurate and calibrated than the EPS. The 51 members of the EPS are clustered to 8 weighted representative members (RMs), chosen to minimize the within-cluster spread, while maximizing the inter-cluster spread. The forecasts are then downscaled using two limited area models, WRF and COSMO, at two resolutions, 14km and 3km. This process creates four distinguishable ensembles which are used as input to statistical post-processes requiring multi-model forecasts. Two such processes are presented here. The first, Bayesian Model Averaging, has been proven to provide more calibrated and accurate wind speed forecasts than the ECMWF EPS using this multi-model input data. The second, heteroscedastic censored regression is indicating positive results also. We compare the two post-processing methods, applied to a year of hindcast wind speed data around Ireland, using an array of deterministic and probabilistic verification techniques, such as MAE, CRPS, probability transform integrals and verification rank histograms, to show which method provides the most accurate and calibrated forecasts. However, the value of a forecast to an end-user cannot be fully quantified by just the accuracy and calibration measurements mentioned, as the relationship between skill and value is complex. Capturing the full potential of the forecast benefits also requires detailed knowledge of the end-users' weather sensitive decision-making processes and most importantly the economic impact it will have on their income. Finally, we present the continuous relative economic value of both post-processing methods to identify which is more

  18. Statistics for the Relative Detectability of Chemicals in Weak Gaseous Plumes in LWIR Hyperspectral Imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metoyer, Candace N.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Tardiff, Mark F.; Chilton, Lawrence

    2008-10-30

    The detection and identification of weak gaseous plumes using thermal imaging data is complicated by many factors. These include variability due to atmosphere, ground and plume temperature, and background clutter. This paper presents an analysis of one formulation of the physics-based model that describes the at-sensor observed radiance. The motivating question for the analyses performed in this paper is as follows. Given a set of backgrounds, is there a way to predict the background over which the probability of detecting a given chemical will be the highest? Two statistics were developed to address this question. These statistics incorporate data from the long-wave infrared band to predict the background over which chemical detectability will be the highest. These statistics can be computed prior to data collection. As a preliminary exploration into the predictive ability of these statistics, analyses were performed on synthetic hyperspectral images. Each image contained one chemical (either carbon tetrachloride or ammonia) spread across six distinct background types. The statistics were used to generate predictions for the background ranks. Then, the predicted ranks were compared to the empirical ranks obtained from the analyses of the synthetic images. For the simplified images under consideration, the predicted and empirical ranks showed a promising amount of agreement. One statistic accurately predicted the best and worst background for detection in all of the images. Future work may include explorations of more complicated plume ingredients, background types, and noise structures.

  19. Match statistics related to winning in the group stage of 2014 Brazil FIFA World Cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyou; Gomez, Miguel-Ángel; Lago-Peñas, Carlos; Sampaio, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Identifying match statistics that strongly contribute to winning in football matches is a very important step towards a more predictive and prescriptive performance analysis. The current study aimed to determine relationships between 24 match statistics and the match outcome (win, loss and draw) in all games and close games of the group stage of FIFA World Cup (2014, Brazil) by employing the generalised linear model. The cumulative logistic regression was run in the model taking the value of each match statistic as independent variable to predict the logarithm of the odds of winning. Relationships were assessed as effects of a two-standard-deviation increase in the value of each variable on the change in the probability of a team winning a match. Non-clinical magnitude-based inferences were employed and were evaluated by using the smallest worthwhile change. Results showed that for all the games, nine match statistics had clearly positive effects on the probability of winning (Shot, Shot on Target, Shot from Counter Attack, Shot from Inside Area, Ball Possession, Short Pass, Average Pass Streak, Aerial Advantage and Tackle), four had clearly negative effects (Shot Blocked, Cross, Dribble and Red Card), other 12 statistics had either trivial or unclear effects. While for the close games, the effects of Aerial Advantage and Yellow Card turned to trivial and clearly negative, respectively. Information from the tactical modelling can provide a more thorough and objective match understanding to coaches and performance analysts for evaluating post-match performances and for scouting upcoming oppositions.

  20. A statistical study of weather-related disasters. Past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, H.; Bouwman, A.; Petersen, A.; Ligtvoet, W.

    2012-07-15

    Disasters such as floods, storms, heatwaves and droughts may have serious implications for human health and the economic development of countries. One of the main findings of this report is that disaster burdens are dominated by economic and demographic developments, rather than climate change. Furthermore, disaster burden appears to be spread unequally over rich and poor countries. In Chapter 2 the background of the three regions used throughout this report is described: OECD, BRIICS (Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia, China and South Africa and remaining countries. Furthermore, an overview of the disaster databases is given, along with definitions of disaster terminology. The statistical treatment of trends in disaster data is shortly exemplified. Chapter 3 gives on overview of the results for disaster burden and trends therein on a global scale. Results are split-up as for different disaster types. In Chapters 4 and 5 the same analysis is performed, but now split-up for three regions. In Chapter 4, disaster burdens are quantified, while analyses of trends in disaster burdens are given in Chapter 5. Here, the analyses are confined to weather-related disaster events only. In Chapter 6 the trend patterns found in Chapter 5, are explained as far as possible. Here, changes in wealth, changes in population, the role of climate change and changes due to adaptation are treated in separate sections. Chapter 7 shortly deals with communicational aspects of disasters: the attribution of individual disasters to climate change and results in the literature which are contradictory to results presented here. Chapters 3 through 7 deal with historical data on disaster burden. In the subsequent Chapters 8 and 9 the future of disaster burden will be dealt with. Chapter 8 gives a short overview of the future of disasters as presented in the literature. In Chapter 9 a PBL case study for flooding on a global scale is given, with predictions for people at risk and economic losses at

  1. Comparison of game-related statistics in men's international championships between winning and losing teams according to margin of victory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Jose M; Escalantel, Yolanda; Madera, Joaquin; Mansilla, Mirella; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to compare water polo game-related statistics by game outcome (winning and losing teams) and margins of victory (close games, unbalanced games, and very unbalanced games), and (ii) to identify characteristics that mark the differences in performances for each group of margin of victory. The game-related statistics of the 308 men's matches played in seven International Championships (Olympic Games, World and European Championships) were analysed. A cluster analysis established three groups (close games, unbalanced games, and very unbalanced games) according to the margin of victory. Differences between game outcomes (winning or losing teams) and margins of victory (close, unbalanced, and very unbalanced games) were determined using the chi-squared statistic, also calculating the effect sizes of the differences. A discriminant analysis was then performed applying the sample-splitting method according to game outcome (winning and losing teams) by margin of victory. It was found that the game-related statistics differentiate the winning from the losing teams in each final score group, with 7 (offensive and defensive) variables differentiating winners from losers in close games, 16 in unbalanced games, and 11 in very unbalanced games. In all three types of game, the game-related statistics were shown to discriminate performance (85% or more), with two variables being discriminatory by game outcome (winning or losing teams) in all three cases: shots and goalkeeper-blocked shots.

  2. Does response distortion statistically affect the relations between self-report psychopathy measures and external criteria?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watts, A.L.; Lilienfeld, S.O.; Edens, J.F.; Douglas, K.S.; Skeem, J.L.; Verschuere, B.; LoPilato, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    Given that psychopathy is associated with narcissism, lack of insight, and pathological lying, the assumption that the validity of self-report psychopathy measures is compromised by response distortion has been widespread. We examined the statistical effects (moderation, suppression) of response

  3. Statistical applications in nutrigenomics : analyzing multiple genes and proteins in relation to complex diseases in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidema, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    Background The recent advances in technology provide the possibility to obtain large genomic datasets that contain information on large numbers of variables, while the sample sizes are moderate to small. This has lead to statistical challenges in the analysis of multiple genes and proteins in

  4. 76 FR 74839 - Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Import Statistics Relating to Competitive Need Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Import... System of Preferences (GSP) program. These import statistics identify some articles for which the 2011... respect to specific GSP-eligible articles. As previously announced in the Federal Register (76 FR 67531...

  5. 77 FR 66662 - Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Import Statistics Relating to Competitive Need Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Import... System of Preferences (GSP) program. These import statistics identify some articles for which the 2012... respect to specific GSP-eligible articles. As previously announced in the Federal Register (77 FR 44704...

  6. Relating Eulerian and Lagrangian Statistics for the Turbulent Dispersion in the Atmospheric Convective Boundary Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dosio, A.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Builtjes, P.J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Eulerian and Lagrangian statistics in the atmospheric convective boundary layer (CBL) are studied by means of large eddy simulation (LES). Spectra analysis is performed in both the Eulerian and Lagrangian frameworks, autocorrelations are calculated, and the integral length and time scales are

  7. Devising a protocol-related statistical mechanics framework for granular materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillusson, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    Devising a statistical mechanics framework for jammed granular materials is a challenging task as those systems do not share some important properties required to characterize them with statistical thermodynamics tools. In a recent paper [Asenjo et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 098002 (2014)], a new definition of a granular entropy, which puts the protocol used to generate the packings at its roots, has been proposed. Following up these results, it is shown that the protocol used in Asenjo et al. can be recast as a canonical ensemble with a particular value of the temperature. Signature of gaussianity for large system sizes strongly suggests an asymptotic equivalence with a corresponding microcanonical ensemble where jammed states with certain basin volumes are sampled uniformly. We argue that this microcanonical ensemble is not Edwards's microcanonical ensemble and generalize this argument to other protocols.

  8. Tornadoes and related damage costs: statistical modeling with a semi-Markov approach

    OpenAIRE

    Corini, Chiara; D'Amico, Guglielmo; Petroni, Filippo; Prattico, Flavio; Manca, Raimondo

    2015-01-01

    We propose a statistical approach to tornadoes modeling for predicting and simulating occurrences of tornadoes and accumulated cost distributions over a time interval. This is achieved by modeling the tornadoes intensity, measured with the Fujita scale, as a stochastic process. Since the Fujita scale divides tornadoes intensity into six states, it is possible to model the tornadoes intensity by using Markov and semi-Markov models. We demonstrate that the semi-Markov approach is able to reprod...

  9. Statistical imitation system using relational interest points and Gaussian mixture models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Claassens, J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available function is set up so that unlikely points are expensive. There are a number of advantages to this approach. Firstly, the algorithm can be modified to perform col- lision avoidance much like elastic path planning algorithms [8]. Collision avoidance... allows other influences such as collision avoidance to be incorporated into the planner. The statistical model can also be used in be- haviour recognition. A simple drawing experiment is used to demonstrate the proposed system and its performance. 1...

  10. Game Related Statistics Discriminating Between Starters and Nonstarters Players in Women’S National Basketball Association League (WNBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gòmez, Miguel-Ángel; Lorenzo, Alberto; Ortega, Enrique; Sampaio, Jaime; Ibàñez, Sergio-José

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the game-related statistics that allow discriminating between starters and nonstarter players in women’s basketball when related to winning or losing games and best or worst teams. The sample comprised all 216 regular season games from the 2005 Women’s National Basketball Association League (WNBA). The game-related statistics included were 2- and 3- point field-goals (both successful and unsuccessful), free-throws (both successful and unsuccessful), defensive and offensive rebounds, assists, blocks, fouls, steals, turnovers and minutes played. Results from multivariate analysis showed that when best teams won, the discriminant game-related statistics were successful 2-point field-goals (SC = 0.47), successful free-throws (SC = 0.44), fouls (SC = -0.41), assists (SC = 0.37), and defensive rebounds (SC = 0.37). When the worst teams won, the discriminant game-related statistics were successful 2-point field- goals (SC = 0.37), successful free-throws (SC = 0.45), assists (SC = 0.58), and steals (SC = 0.35). The results showed that the successful 2-point field-goals, successful free-throws and the assists were the most powerful variables discriminating between starters and nonstarters. These specific characteristics helped to point out the importance of starters’ players shooting and passing ability during competitions. Key points The players’ game-related statistical profile varied according to team status, game outcome and team quality in women’s basketball. The results of this work help to point out the different player’s performance described in women’s basketball compared with men’s basketball. The results obtained enhance the importance of starters and nonstarters contribution to team’s performance in different game contexts. Results showed the power of successful 2-point field-goals, successful free-throws and assists discriminating between starters and nonstarters in all the analyses. PMID:24149538

  11. Low-level contrast statistics of natural images can modulate the frequency of event-related potentials (ERP in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Ghodrati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans are fast and accurate in categorizing complex natural images. It is, however, unclear what features of visual information are exploited by brain to perceive the images with such speed and accuracy. It has been shown that low-level contrast statistics of natural scenes can explain the variance of amplitude of event-related potentials (ERP in response to rapidly presented images. In this study, we investigated the effect of these statistics on frequency content of ERPs. We recorded ERPs from human subjects, while they viewed natural images each presented for 70 ms. Our results showed that Weibull contrast statistics, as a biologically plausible model, explained the variance of ERPs the best, compared to other image statistics that we assessed. Our time-frequency analysis revealed a significant correlation between these statistics and ERPs’ power within theta frequency band (~3-7 Hz. This is interesting, as theta band is believed to be involved in context updating and semantic encoding. This correlation became significant at ~110 ms after stimulus onset, and peaked at 138 ms. Our results show that not only the amplitude but also the frequency of neural responses can be modulated with low-level contrast statistics of natural images and highlights their potential role in scene perception.

  12. Side effect of acting on the world: Acquisition of action-outcome statistic relation alters visual interpretation of action outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro eKawabe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Humans can acquire the statistical features of the external world and employ them to control behaviors. Some external events occur in harmony with an agent’s action, and thus humans should also be able to acquire the statistical features between an action and its external outcome. We report that the acquired action-outcome statistical features alter the visual appearance of the action outcome. Pressing either of two assigned keys triggered visual motion whose direction was statistically biased either upward or downward, and observers judged the stimulus motion direction. Points of subjective equality (PSE for judging motion direction were shifted repulsively from the mean of the distribution associated with each key. Our Bayesian model accounted for the PSE shifts, indicating the optimal acquisition of the action-effect statistical relation. The PSE shifts were moderately attenuated when the action-outcome contingency was reduced. The Bayesian model again accounted for the attenuated PSE shifts. On the other hand, when the action-outcome contiguity was greatly reduced, the PSE shifts were greatly attenuated, and however, the Bayesian model could not accounted for the shifts. The results indicate that visual appearance can be modified by prediction based on the optimal acquisition of action-effect causal relation.

  13. Towards a best practice of modeling unit of measure and related statistical metadata

    CERN Document Server

    Grossmann, Wilfried

    2011-01-01

    Data and metadata exchange between organizations requires a common language for describing structure and content of statistical data and metadata. The SDMX consortium develops content oriented guidelines (COG) recommending harmonized cross-domain concepts and terminology to increase the efficiency of (meta-) data exchange. A recent challenge is a recommended code list for the unit of measure. Based on examples from SDMX sponsor organizations this paper analyses the diversity of ""unit of measure"" as used in practice, including potential breakdowns and interdependencies of the respective meta-

  14. Tornadoes and related damage costs: statistical modelling with a semi-Markov approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guglielmo D’Amico

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a statistical approach to modelling for predicting and simulating occurrences of tornadoes and accumulated cost distributions over a time interval. This is achieved by modelling the tornado intensity, measured with the Fujita scale, as a stochastic process. Since the Fujita scale divides tornado intensity into six states, it is possible to model the tornado intensity by using Markov and semi-Markov models. We demonstrate that the semi-Markov approach is able to reproduce the duration effect that is detected in tornado occurrence. The superiority of the semi-Markov model as compared to the Markov chain model is also affirmed by means of a statistical test of hypothesis. As an application, we compute the expected value and the variance of the costs generated by the tornadoes over a given time interval in a given area. The paper contributes to the literature by demonstrating that semi-Markov models represent an effective tool for physical analysis of tornadoes as well as for the estimation of the economic damages to human things.

  15. Visual Sample Plan (VSP) Statistical Software as Related to the CTBTO's On-Site Inspection Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Milbrath, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    In the event of a potential nuclear weapons test the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is commissioned to conduct an on-site investigation (OSI) of the suspected test site in an effort to find confirmatory evidence of the nuclear test. The OSI activities include collecting air, surface soil, and underground samples to search for indications of a nuclear weapons test - these indicators include radionuclides and radioactive isotopes Ar and Xe. This report investigates the capability of the Visual Sample Plan (VSP) software to contribute to the sampling activities of the CTBTO during an OSI. VSP is a statistical sampling design software, constructed under data quality objectives, which has been adapted for environmental remediation and contamination detection problems for the EPA, US Army, DoD and DHS among others. This report provides discussion of a number of VSP sample designs, which may be pertinent to the work undertaken during an OSI. Examples and descriptions of such designs include hot spot sampling, combined random and judgment sampling, multiple increment sampling, radiological transect surveying, and a brief description of other potentially applicable sampling methods. Further, this work highlights a potential need for the use of statistically based sample designs in OSI activities. The use of such designs may enable canvassing a sample area without full sampling, provide a measure of confidence that radionuclides are not present, and allow investigators to refocus resources in other areas of concern.

  16. Harmonic statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-05-01

    The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their 'public relations' for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford's law, and 1/f noise.

  17. Relational Aggression and Hostile Attribution Biases: Testing Multiple Statistical Methods and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godleski, Stephanie A.; Ostrov, Jamie M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study used both categorical and dimensional approaches to test the association between relational and physical aggression and hostile intent attributions for both relational and instrumental provocation situations using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development longitudinal Study of Early Child Care and Youth…

  18. The Statistical Analysis of Relation between Compressive and Tensile/Flexural Strength of High Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kępniak M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the tensile and flexural strength of HPC (high performance concrete. The aim of the paper is to analyse the efficiency of models proposed in different codes. In particular, three design procedures from: the ACI 318 [1], Eurocode 2 [2] and the Model Code 2010 [3] are considered. The associations between design tensile strength of concrete obtained from these three codes and compressive strength are compared with experimental results of tensile strength and flexural strength by statistical tools. Experimental results of tensile strength were obtained in the splitting test. Based on this comparison, conclusions are drawn according to the fit between the design methods and the test data. The comparison shows that tensile strength and flexural strength of HPC depend on more influential factors and not only compressive strength.

  19. A statistical estimator for the boiler power and its related parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.

    2001-01-01

    To determine the boiler power accurately is important for both controlling the plant and maximizing the plant productivity. There are two computed boiler powers for each boiler. They are steam based boiler power and feedwater based boiler power. The steam based boiler power is computed as the enthalpy difference between the feedwater enthalpy and the boiler steam enthalpy. The feedwater based boiler power is computed as enthalpy absorbed by the feedwater. The steam based boiler power is computed in RRS program and used in calibrating the measured reactor power, while the feedwater based boiler power is computed in CSTAT program and used for indication. Since the steam based boiler power is used as feedback in the reactor control, it is chosen to be the one estimated in this work. Because the boiler power employs steam flow, feedwater flow and feedwater temperature measurements, and because any measurement contains constant or drifting noise and bias, the reconciliation and rectification procedures are needed to determine the boiler power more accurately. A statistic estimator is developed to perform the function of data reconciliation, gross error detection and instruments performance monitoring

  20. Comparative statistical analysis of chrome and vegetable tanning effluents and their effects on related soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Saadia R; Shah, Munir H; Shaheen, Nazia

    2009-09-30

    Two tanning units of Pakistan, namely, Kasur and Mian Channun were investigated with respect to the tanning processes (chrome and vegetable, respectively) and the effects of the tanning agents on the quality of soil in vicinity of tanneries were evaluated. The effluent and soil samples from 16 tanneries each of Kasur and Mian Channun were collected. The levels of selected metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cr, Mn, Co, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined by using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer under optimum analytical conditions. The data thus obtained were subjected to univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Most of the metals exhibited considerably higher concentrations in the effluents and soils of Kasur compared with those of Mian Channun. It was observed that the soil of Kasur was highly contaminated by Na, K, Ca and Mg emanating from various processes of leather manufacture. Furthermore, the levels of Cr were also present at much enhanced levels than its background concentration due to the adoption of chrome tanning. The levels of Cr determined in soil samples collected from the vicinity of Mian Channun tanneries were almost comparable to the background levels. The soil of this city was found to have contaminated only by the metals originating from pre-tanning processes. The apportionment of selected metals in the effluent and soil samples was determined by a multivariate cluster analysis, which revealed significant differences in chrome and vegetable tanning processes.

  1. Determining the statistical significance of particle precipitation related to EMIC waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, D. K.; Lee, D. Y.; Noh, S. J.; Hwang, J.; Lee, J.

    2016-12-01

    One of the particle loss processes in the magnetosphere is precipitation into the Earth's atmosphere caused by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves through pitch angle scattering. These particle precipitations can affect the dynamics of ring current protons ( tens of keV) and radiation belt electrons ( MeV) in the inner magnetosphere. Although there have been many reports to support the precipitation by EMIC waves, its effectiveness has not been demonstrated statistically. In this study, we use Van Allen Probes observations to identify a large number of EMIC waves for which we then determine their association with relativistic electron and energetic (30-80 keV) proton precipitation observed at NOAA low earth orbit satellites. We find that the detection rates of precipitation given EMIC waves in space strongly depends on the number of available low-altitude satellites: The average detection rates by one low-altitude satellite are 8.4 % for electrons and 22.2 % for protons, and they increase by a factor of > 2 if one uses observations from five NOAA satellites. This implies a strong MLT dependence of precipitation given EMIC wave in space. To demonstrate this we determine the MLT distribution of precipitations as a function of MLT of identified EMIC wave location. Finally we determine the relationship between precipitations of electrons and protons, and dependence of EMIC waves and precipitations on the solar phase years.

  2. Relation Between Firing Statistics of Spiking Neuron with Instantaneous Feedback and Without Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidybida, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    We consider a class of spiking neuron models, defined by a set of conditions which are typical for basic threshold-type models like leaky integrate-and-fire, or binding neuron model and also for some artificial neurons. A neuron is fed with a point renewal process. A relation between the three probability density functions (PDF): (i) PDF of input interspike intervals ISIs, (ii) PDF of output interspike intervals of a neuron with a feedback and (iii) PDF for that same neuron without feedback is derived. This allows to calculate any one of the three PDFs provided the remaining two are given. Similar relation between corresponding means and variances is derived. The relations are checked exactly for the binding neuron model stimulated with Poisson stream.

  3. Relative Dating and Classification of Minerals and Rocks Based on Statistical Calculations Related to Their Potential Energy Index

    OpenAIRE

    Labushev, Mikhail M.; Khokhlov, Alexander N.

    2012-01-01

    Index of proportionality of atomic weights of chemical elements is proposed for determining the relative age of minerals and rocks. Their chemical analysis results serve to be initial data for calculations. For rocks of different composition the index is considered to be classification value as well. Crystal lattice energy change in minerals and their associations can be measured by the index value change, thus contributing to the solution of important practical problems. There was determined...

  4. Nonequilibrium statistical physics of small systems: fluctuation relations and beyond (annual reviews of nonlinear dynamics and complexity (vch))

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive picture of nonequilibrium phenomena in nanoscale systems. Written by internationally recognized experts in the field, this book strikes a balance between theory and experiment, and includes in-depth introductions to nonequilibrium fluctuation relations, nonlinear dynamics and transport, single molecule experiments, and molecular diffusion in nanopores. The authors explore the application of these concepts to nano- and biosystems by cross-linking key methods and ideas from nonequilibrium statistical physics, thermodynamics, stochastic theory, and dynamical s

  5. Testing for Gender Related Size and Shape Differences of the Human Ear canal using Statistical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Rasmus; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2002-01-01

    surface models are built by using the anatomical landmarks to warp a template mesh onto all shapes in the training set. Testing the gender related differences is done by initially reducing the dimensionality using principal component analysis of the vertices of the warped meshes. The number of components...

  6. 76 FR 12823 - Enhanced Collection of Relevant Data and Statistics Relating to Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... areas of families and income, health, employment, education, and violence and crime. This report..., education, and violence and crime. Examples of some of the efforts that could be undertaken by departments and agencies with respect to the gathering or design of comprehensive data related to women include...

  7. Significant Association of Urinary Toxic Metals and Autism-Related Symptoms-A Nonlinear Statistical Analysis with Cross Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James; Howsmon, Daniel P; Kruger, Uwe; Geis, Elizabeth; Gehn, Eva; Fimbres, Valeria; Pollard, Elena; Mitchell, Jessica; Ingram, Julie; Hellmers, Robert; Quig, David; Hahn, Juergen

    2017-01-01

    A number of previous studies examined a possible association of toxic metals and autism, and over half of those studies suggest that toxic metal levels are different in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Additionally, several studies found that those levels correlate with the severity of ASD. In order to further investigate these points, this paper performs the most detailed statistical analysis to date of a data set in this field. First morning urine samples were collected from 67 children and adults with ASD and 50 neurotypical controls of similar age and gender. The samples were analyzed to determine the levels of 10 urinary toxic metals (UTM). Autism-related symptoms were assessed with eleven behavioral measures. Statistical analysis was used to distinguish participants on the ASD spectrum and neurotypical participants based upon the UTM data alone. The analysis also included examining the association of autism severity with toxic metal excretion data using linear and nonlinear analysis. "Leave-one-out" cross-validation was used to ensure statistical independence of results. Average excretion levels of several toxic metals (lead, tin, thallium, antimony) were significantly higher in the ASD group. However, ASD classification using univariate statistics proved difficult due to large variability, but nonlinear multivariate statistical analysis significantly improved ASD classification with Type I/II errors of 15% and 18%, respectively. These results clearly indicate that the urinary toxic metal excretion profiles of participants in the ASD group were significantly different from those of the neurotypical participants. Similarly, nonlinear methods determined a significantly stronger association between the behavioral measures and toxic metal excretion. The association was strongest for the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (including subscales on Irritability, Stereotypy, Hyperactivity, and Inappropriate Speech), but significant associations were found

  8. Significant Association of Urinary Toxic Metals and Autism-Related Symptoms—A Nonlinear Statistical Analysis with Cross Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James; Kruger, Uwe; Geis, Elizabeth; Gehn, Eva; Fimbres, Valeria; Pollard, Elena; Mitchell, Jessica; Ingram, Julie; Hellmers, Robert; Quig, David; Hahn, Juergen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A number of previous studies examined a possible association of toxic metals and autism, and over half of those studies suggest that toxic metal levels are different in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Additionally, several studies found that those levels correlate with the severity of ASD. Methods In order to further investigate these points, this paper performs the most detailed statistical analysis to date of a data set in this field. First morning urine samples were collected from 67 children and adults with ASD and 50 neurotypical controls of similar age and gender. The samples were analyzed to determine the levels of 10 urinary toxic metals (UTM). Autism-related symptoms were assessed with eleven behavioral measures. Statistical analysis was used to distinguish participants on the ASD spectrum and neurotypical participants based upon the UTM data alone. The analysis also included examining the association of autism severity with toxic metal excretion data using linear and nonlinear analysis. “Leave-one-out” cross-validation was used to ensure statistical independence of results. Results and Discussion Average excretion levels of several toxic metals (lead, tin, thallium, antimony) were significantly higher in the ASD group. However, ASD classification using univariate statistics proved difficult due to large variability, but nonlinear multivariate statistical analysis significantly improved ASD classification with Type I/II errors of 15% and 18%, respectively. These results clearly indicate that the urinary toxic metal excretion profiles of participants in the ASD group were significantly different from those of the neurotypical participants. Similarly, nonlinear methods determined a significantly stronger association between the behavioral measures and toxic metal excretion. The association was strongest for the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (including subscales on Irritability, Stereotypy, Hyperactivity, and Inappropriate

  9. Spatial Statistics of Deep-Water Ambient Noise; Dispersion Relations for Sound Waves and Shear Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Dispersion Relations for Sound Waves and Shear Waves Michael J. Buckingham Marine Physical Laboratory , Scripps Institution of Oceanography University...dry, were all from laboratory experiments, since no in situ broadband shear-wave data were available at the time. (Since then, Megan Ballard and...Texas, 11 March 2014. 5. My graduate student, Simon Freeman, won Outstanding Student Paper Award for “Array-based hydroacoustic characterization of P, S

  10. Statistics of the relative velocity of particles in turbulent flows: Monodisperse particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Akshay; Gustavsson, K; Mitra, Dhrubaditya

    2018-02-01

    We use direct numerical simulations to calculate the joint probability density function of the relative distance R and relative radial velocity component V_{R} for a pair of heavy inertial particles suspended in homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flows. At small scales the distribution is scale invariant, with a scaling exponent that is related to the particle-particle correlation dimension in phase space, D_{2}. It was argued [K. Gustavsson and B. Mehlig, Phys. Rev. E 84, 045304 (2011)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.84.045304; J. Turbul. 15, 34 (2014)1468-524810.1080/14685248.2013.875188] that the scale invariant part of the distribution has two asymptotic regimes: (1) |V_{R}|≪R, where the distribution depends solely on R, and (2) |V_{R}|≫R, where the distribution is a function of |V_{R}| alone. The probability distributions in these two regimes are matched along a straight line: |V_{R}|=z^{*}R. Our simulations confirm that this is indeed correct. We further obtain D_{2} and z^{*} as a function of the Stokes number, St. The former depends nonmonotonically on St with a minimum at about St≈0.7 and the latter has only a weak dependence on St.

  11. Statistics of the relative velocity of particles in turbulent flows: Monodisperse particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Akshay; Gustavsson, K.; Mitra, Dhrubaditya

    2018-02-01

    We use direct numerical simulations to calculate the joint probability density function of the relative distance R and relative radial velocity component VR for a pair of heavy inertial particles suspended in homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flows. At small scales the distribution is scale invariant, with a scaling exponent that is related to the particle-particle correlation dimension in phase space, D2. It was argued [K. Gustavsson and B. Mehlig, Phys. Rev. E 84, 045304 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevE.84.045304; J. Turbul. 15, 34 (2014), 10.1080/14685248.2013.875188] that the scale invariant part of the distribution has two asymptotic regimes: (1) | VR|≪R , where the distribution depends solely on R , and (2) | VR|≫R , where the distribution is a function of | VR| alone. The probability distributions in these two regimes are matched along a straight line: | VR|= z*R . Our simulations confirm that this is indeed correct. We further obtain D2 and z* as a function of the Stokes number, St. The former depends nonmonotonically on St with a minimum at about St≈0.7 and the latter has only a weak dependence on St.

  12. Planck early results. X. Statistical analysis of Sunyaev-Zeldovich scaling relations for X-ray galaxy clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.; Polenta, G.

    2011-01-01

    to be in excellent agreement over the whole explored luminosity range. No significant deviation from standard evolution of the scaling relations is detected. For the first time the intrinsic scatter in the scaling relation between SZ signal and X-ray luminosity is measured and found to be consistent with the one...... a wide range in X-ray luminosity. The SZ signal is extracted for each object individually, and the statistical significance of the measurement is maximised by averaging the SZ signal in bins of X-ray luminosity, total mass, or redshift. The SZ signal is detected at very high significance over more than...

  13. On the Relation Between Management and Economics from the Perspective of Institutional Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Yang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Every country's economic development affects all levels of its society and thus the results of its social science research. To make social science research better serve their economic development, many countries have established social science research institutes, among which are management research institutes more related to economic research institutes. Through comparative research of the locations and founding dates of the institutes in different countries, this article analyses the development trends and the relationship between economics and management research, providing us with the relevant experience and background for planning purposes.

  14. Understanding Statistics - Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual reports of U.S. cancer statistics including new cases, deaths, trends, survival, prevalence, lifetime risk, and progress toward Healthy People targets, plus statistical summaries for a number of common cancer types.

  15. The evolution of the causation concept and its relation with statistical methods in Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Lisboa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A historical review places the first registers of Epidemiology in ancient Greece, with Hippocrates, who identified environmental causes of diseases. Along the centuries, the evolution of the causation concept started to be related to changes in scientific paradigms. In London, during the 17th century, the quantitative method was introduced in Epidemiology, but it was only by the end of the 19th century that the concept of the environment and a mathematical approach to understanding Public Health issues were well established. This was a very rich period to setting new concepts and systematizations in epidemiologic methodology. The beginning of the 20th century consolidated Epidemiology as a scientific discipline and the development of computers in the post-war years brought much advance in this field. Nowadays, Epidemiology plays an important role as it integrates scientific knowledge on the health/disease process to the professional area, participating in population healthcare efforts.

  16. Development of 4S and related technologies. (3) Statistical evaluation of safety performance of 4S on ULOF event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Kyoko; Matsumiya, Hisato; Horie, Hideki; Miyagi, Kazumi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate quantitatively and statistically the safety performance of Super-Safe, Small, and Simple reactor (4S) by analyzing with ARGO code, a plant dynamics code for a sodium-cooled fast reactor. In this evaluation, an Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) is assumed, and an Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF) event is selected as a typical ATWS case. After a metric concerned with safety design is defined as performance factor a Phenomena Identification Ranking Table (PIRT) is produced in order to select the plausible phenomena that affect the metric. Then a sensitivity analysis is performed for the parameters related to the selected plausible phenomena. Finally the metric is evaluated with statistical methods whether it satisfies the given safety acceptance criteria. The result is as follows: The Cumulative Damage Fraction (CDF) for the cladding is defined as a metric, and the statistical estimation of the one-sided upper tolerance limit of 95 percent probability at a 95 percent confidence level in CDF is within the safety acceptance criterion; CDF < 0.1. The result shows that the 4S safety performance is acceptable in the ULOF event. (author)

  17. Statistical Study on Variations of the Ionospheric Ion Density Observed by DEMETER and Related to Seismic Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rui; Parrot, Michel; Pinçon, Jean-Louis

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we present the result of a statistical study performed on the ionospheric ion density variations above areas of seismic activity. The ion density was observed by the low altitude satellite DEMETER between 2004 and 2010. In the statistical analysis a superposed epoch method is used where the observed ionospheric ion density close to the epicenters both in space and in time is compared to background values recorded at the same location and in the same conditions. Data associated with aftershocks have been carefully removed from the database to prevent spurious effects on the statistics. It is shown that, during nighttime, anomalous ionospheric perturbations related to earthquakes with magnitudes larger than 5 are evidenced. At the time of these perturbations the background ion fluctuation departs from a normal distribution. They occur up to 200 km from the epicenters and mainly 5 days before the earthquakes. As expected, an ion density perturbation occurring just after the earthquakes and close to the epicenters is also evidenced.

  18. Reversible Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2004-01-01

    The study aims is to describe how the inclusion and exclusion of materials and calculative devices construct the boundaries and distinctions between statistical facts and artifacts in economics. My methodological approach is inspired by John Graunt's (1667) Political arithmetic and more recent work...... within constructivism and the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The result of this approach is here termed reversible statistics, reconstructing the findings of a statistical study within economics in three different ways. It is argued that all three accounts are quite normal, albeit...... in different ways. The presence and absence of diverse materials, both natural and political, is what distinguishes them from each other. Arguments are presented for a more symmetric relation between the scientific statistical text and the reader. I will argue that a more symmetric relation can be achieved...

  19. Some uncertainty results obtained by the statistical version of the KARATE code system related to core design and safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panka, Istvan; Hegyi, Gyoergy; Maraczy, Csaba; Temesvari, Emese [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Reactor Analysis Dept.

    2017-11-15

    The best-estimate KARATE code system has been widely used for core design calculations and simulations of slow transients of VVER reactors. Recently there has been an increasing need for assessing the uncertainties of such calculations by propagating the basic input uncertainties of the models through the full calculation chain. In order to determine the uncertainties of quantities of interest during the burnup, the statistical version of the KARATE code system has been elaborated. In the first part of the paper, the main features of the new code system are discussed. The applied statistical method is based on Monte-Carlo sampling of the considered input data taking into account mainly the covariance matrices of the cross sections and/or the technological uncertainties. In the second part of the paper, only the uncertainties of cross sections are considered and an equilibrium cycle related to a VVER-440 type reactor is investigated. The burnup dependence of the uncertainties of some safety related parameters (e.g. critical boron concentration, rod worth, feedback coefficients, assembly-wise radial power and burnup distribution) are discussed and compared to the recently used limits.

  20. Age and sex differences in game-related statistics which discriminate winners from losers in elite basketball games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruhiko Madarame

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract AIMS To advance knowledge of long-term development of basketball players, this study investigated age and sex differences in game-related statistics which discriminate winners from losers in World Basketball Championships held after the 2010 rule change. METHODS A total of 935 games from six categories (under-17, under-19 and open age for both men and women were analyzed. All games were classified into three types (balanced, unbalanced and very unbalanced according to point differential by a k-means cluster analysis. A discriminant analysis was performed to identify game-related statistics which discriminate winners from losers in each game type. An absolute value of a structural coefficient (SC equal to or above 0.30 was considered relevant for the discrimination. RESULTS In balanced games, assists discriminated winners from losers in open games (men, |SC| = 0.32; women, |SC| = 0.34, whereas successful free throws did so in under-17 games (men, |SC| = 0.30; women, |SC| = 0.31. Successful 2-point field goals discriminated winners from losers only in women’s games (under-19, |SC| = 0.38; open, |SC| = 0.36. CONCLUSION There were three novel findings in balanced games: 1 successful free throws but not assists discriminated winners from losers in under-17 games; 2 successful 2-point field goals discriminated winners from losers in women’s games but not in men’s games; and 3 discriminating power of successful 3-point field goals was extremely small in women’s games. These results may be related to the new rules for the shot clock and the 3-point distance.

  1. Wind observations from a forested hill: Relating turbulence statistics to surface characteristics in hilly and patchy terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Pauscher

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates turbulence characteristics as observed at a 200 m tall mast at a hilly and complex site. It thereby concentrates on turbulence statistics, which are important for the site suitability analysis of a wind turbine. The directional variations in terrain are clearly reflected in the observed turbulence intensities and drag. Integral turbulence statistics showed some variations from their typical flat terrain values. Footprint modelling was used to model the area of effect and to relate the observed turbulence characteristics to the ruggedness and roughness within the estimated fetch area. Among the investigated turbulence quantities, the normalised standard deviation of the wind velocity along the streamlines showed the highest correlation with the effective roughness and ruggedness within the footprint followed by the normalised friction velocity and normalised standard deviation of the vertical wind speed. A differentiation between the effects of roughness and ruggedness was not possible, as forest cover and complex orography are highly correlated at the investigated site. An analysis of turbulence intensity by wind speed indicated a strong influence of atmospheric stability. Stable conditions lead to an overall reduction in turbulence intensity for a wind speed range between approx. 6–12 m s−1 when compared to neutral stratification. The variance of the horizontal wind speed strongly varied over the height range which is typical for a modern wind turbine and was in the order of the differences between different standard turbulence classes for wind turbines.

  2. The Mental Health Statistics Improvement Program (MHSIP) Adult Consumer Satisfaction Survey Factor Structure and Relation to External Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Alan; Ang, Rosemary

    2018-03-19

    The construct validity and generalizability of the Mental Health Statistics Improvement Program (MHSIP) adult consumer satisfaction survey was examined using a representative sample (N = 4242) of public mental health client surveys and assessment data. Factor analysis found five factors generally supporting the hypothesized scales of Satisfaction, Outcomes-Functioning, Access, Quality, and Social Connectedness that had acceptable reliability (average coefficient alpha = 0.91). The relation of the satisfaction survey scales to clinician-rated symptom scales, hospitalization, and functioning for 3 years prior to and after the survey was examined. Correlations were modest in magnitude but were in the predicted directions, with greater patient satisfaction being associated with lower symptoms and more positive outcomes. The largest predictors of the clinician-rated symptom scales were Outcomes-Functioning and Social Connectedness.

  3. Statistical study of the reproductive hormones in relation to age and PCOS for patients undergoing in vitro investigation in Khartoum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelgadir, O. M.

    2002-09-01

    In this study 587 Sudanese woman were studied those women were referred to gynecological clinics a infertile cases. Hormonal investigations were done for them, prolactin, (PRL). Female stimulating hormones (FSH) luotulizing hormones (LH) level were analyzed at Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC), (RIA ) lab, with the radioimmunoassay (RIA) method. The objective of this study was to find the relation between age versus hyperprolicinemia and (PCOS) polycystic ovary syndrome. Statistical analysis was done with the (SPSS) computer program. The result was 39.2% of the total patient 587 were high prolactin level hyper prolactin >370 mu/I which 10% of them were in the age between 25-30 years old. Age between 30-35 years old was found to be high frequency complain high FSH levels (>8 mu/ I) 29.1% of the patients. Found to be of high LH/FSH. Ratio which clear indication of polycystic ovary syndrome. (PCOS). (Author)

  4. Detection of cosmogeophysical periodicities by the statistical analysis of intervals between the dates of birth of genetic relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, G. V.

    2013-12-01

    A statistical analysis of time intervals between the dates of birth of genetic relatives has been carried out on the basis of 33 family trees. Using the Monte Carlo method, a significant departure of the distribution of birthdays from random results is detected relative to two long-period solar harmonics known from the theory of the Earth tides, i.e., a solar elliptical wave ( S a ) with a period of an anomalistic year (365.259640 days) and a solar declinational wave ( S sa ) with a period of half of the tropical year (182.621095 days). Further research requires larger statistical samples and involves clarifying the effect of long-period lunar harmonics, i.e., an lunar elliptical wave ( M m ) with a period of an anomalistic month (27.554551 days) and a lunar declinational wave ( M f ) with a period of half of a tropical month (13.660791 day), as well as the impact of important lunar and solar tides of time intervals with periods of half (14.765294 days, the interval between syzygial tides at new and full moon) and a whole (29.530588 days) synodic month. It is known that the periodic compression and stretching of the Earth's crust at the time of the tides by means of the piezoelectric effect lead to the generation of long-period electric oscillations with periods corresponding to the harmonics of the theory of the Earth tides. The detection of these harmonics in connection with biological processes will make it possible to determine the impact of regular cosmogeophysical fluctuations (tidal waves) on the processes in the biosphere.

  5. Statistical Validation of a Web-Based GIS Application and Its Applicability to Cardiovascular-Related Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Eun; Sung, Jung Hye; Malouhi, Mohamad

    2015-12-22

    There is abundant evidence that neighborhood characteristics are significantly linked to the health of the inhabitants of a given space within a given time frame. This study is to statistically validate a web-based GIS application designed to support cardiovascular-related research developed by the NIH funded Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI) Translational Research Network (RTRN) Data Coordinating Center (DCC) and discuss its applicability to cardiovascular studies. Geo-referencing, geocoding and geospatial analyses were conducted for 500 randomly selected home addresses in a U.S. southeastern Metropolitan area. The correlation coefficient, factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha (α) were estimated to quantify measures of the internal consistency, reliability and construct/criterion/discriminant validity of the cardiovascular-related geospatial variables (walk score, number of hospitals, fast food restaurants, parks and sidewalks). Cronbach's α for CVD GEOSPATIAL variables was 95.5%, implying successful internal consistency. Walk scores were significantly correlated with number of hospitals (r = 0.715; p GIS application may be useful to apply to cardiovascular-related studies aimed to investigate potential impact of geospatial factors on diseases and/or the long-term effect of clinical trials.

  6. A Statistical Model and Computer program for Preliminary Calculations Related to the Scaling of Sensor Arrays; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Max Morris

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in sensor technology and engineering have made it possible to assemble many related sensors in a common array, often of small physical size. Sensor arrays may report an entire vector of measured values in each data collection cycle, typically one value per sensor per sampling time. The larger quantities of data provided by larger arrays certainly contain more information, however in some cases experience suggests that dramatic increases in array size do not always lead to corresponding improvements in the practical value of the data. The work leading to this report was motivated by the need to develop computational planning tools to approximate the relative effectiveness of arrays of different size (or scale) in a wide variety of contexts. The basis of the work is a statistical model of a generic sensor array. It includes features representing measurement error, both common to all sensors and independent from sensor to sensor, and the stochastic relationships between the quantities to be measured by the sensors. The model can be used to assess the effectiveness of hypothetical arrays in classifying objects or events from two classes. A computer program is presented for evaluating the misclassification rates which can be expected when arrays are calibrated using a given number of training samples, or the number of training samples required to attain a given level of classification accuracy. The program is also available via email from the first author for a limited time

  7. Statistical analysis of automatically detected ion density variations recorded by DEMETER and their relation to seismic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Parrot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Many examples of ionospheric perturbations observed during large seismic events were recorded by the low-altitude satellite DEMETER. However, there are also ionospheric variations without seismic activity. The present study is devoted to a statistical analysis of the night-time ion density variations. Software was implemented to detect variations in the data before earthquakes world-wide. Earthquakes with magnitudes >4.8 were selected and classified according to their magnitudes, depths and locations (land, close to the coast, or below the sea. For each earthquake, an automatic search for ion density variations was conducted from 15 days before the earthquake, when the track of the satellite orbit was at less than 1,500 km from the earthquake epicenter. The result of this first step provided the variations relative to the background in the vicinity of the epicenter for each 15 days before each earthquake. In the second step, comparisons were carried out between the largest variations over the 15 days and the earthquake magnitudes. The statistical analysis is based on calculation of the median values as a function of the various seismic parameters (magnitude, depth, location. A comparison was also carried out with two other databases, where on the one hand, the locations of the epicenters were randomly modified, and on the other hand, the longitudes of the epicenters were shifted. The results show that the intensities of the ionospheric perturbations are larger prior to the earthquakes than prior to random events, and that the perturbations increase with the earthquake magnitudes.


  8. Statistical modeling of biomedical corpora: mining the Caenorhabditis Genetic Center Bibliography for genes related to life span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan MI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The statistical modeling of biomedical corpora could yield integrated, coarse-to-fine views of biological phenomena that complement discoveries made from analysis of molecular sequence and profiling data. Here, the potential of such modeling is demonstrated by examining the 5,225 free-text items in the Caenorhabditis Genetic Center (CGC Bibliography using techniques from statistical information retrieval. Items in the CGC biomedical text corpus were modeled using the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA model. LDA is a hierarchical Bayesian model which represents a document as a random mixture over latent topics; each topic is characterized by a distribution over words. Results An LDA model estimated from CGC items had better predictive performance than two standard models (unigram and mixture of unigrams trained using the same data. To illustrate the practical utility of LDA models of biomedical corpora, a trained CGC LDA model was used for a retrospective study of nematode genes known to be associated with life span modification. Corpus-, document-, and word-level LDA parameters were combined with terms from the Gene Ontology to enhance the explanatory value of the CGC LDA model, and to suggest additional candidates for age-related genes. A novel, pairwise document similarity measure based on the posterior distribution on the topic simplex was formulated and used to search the CGC database for "homologs" of a "query" document discussing the life span-modifying clk-2 gene. Inspection of these document homologs enabled and facilitated the production of hypotheses about the function and role of clk-2. Conclusion Like other graphical models for genetic, genomic and other types of biological data, LDA provides a method for extracting unanticipated insights and generating predictions amenable to subsequent experimental validation.

  9. Statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jana, Madhusudan

    2015-01-01

    Statistical mechanics is self sufficient, written in a lucid manner, keeping in mind the exam system of the universities. Need of study this subject and its relation to Thermodynamics is discussed in detail. Starting from Liouville theorem gradually, the Statistical Mechanics is developed thoroughly. All three types of Statistical distribution functions are derived separately with their periphery of applications and limitations. Non-interacting ideal Bose gas and Fermi gas are discussed thoroughly. Properties of Liquid He-II and the corresponding models have been depicted. White dwarfs and condensed matter physics, transport phenomenon - thermal and electrical conductivity, Hall effect, Magneto resistance, viscosity, diffusion, etc. are discussed. Basic understanding of Ising model is given to explain the phase transition. The book ends with a detailed coverage to the method of ensembles (namely Microcanonical, canonical and grand canonical) and their applications. Various numerical and conceptual problems ar...

  10. Statistical Validation of a Web-Based GIS Application and Its Applicability to Cardiovascular-Related Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Eun Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There is abundant evidence that neighborhood characteristics are significantly linked to the health of the inhabitants of a given space within a given time frame. This study is to statistically validate a web-based GIS application designed to support cardiovascular-related research developed by the NIH funded Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI Translational Research Network (RTRN Data Coordinating Center (DCC and discuss its applicability to cardiovascular studies. Methods: Geo-referencing, geocoding and geospatial analyses were conducted for 500 randomly selected home addresses in a U.S. southeastern Metropolitan area. The correlation coefficient, factor analysis and Cronbach’s alpha (α were estimated to quantify measures of the internal consistency, reliability and construct/criterion/discriminant validity of the cardiovascular-related geospatial variables (walk score, number of hospitals, fast food restaurants, parks and sidewalks. Results: Cronbach’s α for CVD GEOSPATIAL variables was 95.5%, implying successful internal consistency. Walk scores were significantly correlated with number of hospitals (r = 0.715; p < 0.0001, fast food restaurants (r = 0.729; p < 0.0001, parks (r = 0.773; p < 0.0001 and sidewalks (r = 0.648; p < 0.0001 within a mile from homes. It was also significantly associated with diversity index (r = 0.138, p = 0.0023, median household incomes (r = −0.181; p < 0.0001, and owner occupied rates (r = −0.440; p < 0.0001. However, its non-significant correlation was found with median age, vulnerability, unemployment rate, labor force, and population growth rate. Conclusion: Our data demonstrates that geospatial data generated by the web-based application were internally consistent and demonstrated satisfactory validity. Therefore, the GIS application may be useful to apply to cardiovascular-related studies aimed to investigate potential impact of geospatial factors on diseases and/or the long

  11. Cosmic Statistics of Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Szapudi, I.; Colombi, S.; Bernardeau, F.

    1999-01-01

    The errors on statistics measured in finite galaxy catalogs are exhaustively investigated. The theory of errors on factorial moments by Szapudi & Colombi (1996) is applied to cumulants via a series expansion method. All results are subsequently extended to the weakly non-linear regime. Together with previous investigations this yields an analytic theory of the errors for moments and connected moments of counts in cells from highly nonlinear to weakly nonlinear scales. The final analytic formu...

  12. Blended learning with Moodle in medical statistics: an assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to e-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li; Cheng, Xiaohua; Wang, Shiyuan; Zhang, Junxue; Zhu, Wenbo; Yang, Jiaying; Liu, Pei

    2017-09-19

    Blended learning that combines a modular object-oriented dynamic learning environment (Moodle) with face-to-face teaching was applied to a medical statistics course to improve learning outcomes and evaluate the impact factors of students' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) relating to e-learning. The same real-name questionnaire was administered before and after the intervention. The summed scores of every part (knowledge, attitude and practice) were calculated using the entropy method. A mixed linear model was fitted using the SAS PROC MIXED procedure to analyse the impact factors of KAP. Educational reform, self-perceived character, registered permanent residence and hours spent online per day were significant impact factors of e-learning knowledge. Introversion and middle type respondents' average scores were higher than those of extroversion type respondents. Regarding e-learning attitudes, educational reform, community number, Internet age and hours spent online per day had a significant impact. Specifically, participants whose Internet age was no greater than 6 years scored 7.00 points lower than those whose Internet age was greater than 10 years. Regarding e-learning behaviour, educational reform and parents' literacy had a significant impact, as the average score increased 10.05 points (P e-learning KAP. Additionally, this type of blended course can be implemented in many other curriculums.

  13. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certification Import Surveillance International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS ...

  14. Cerebral blood flow and related factors in hyperthyroidism patients by SPECT imaging and statistical parametric mapping analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiu Yan; Shi Hongcheng; Liu Wenguan; Chen Xuefen; Gu Yushen; Chen Shuguang; Yu Haojun; Yu Yiping

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the cerebral blood flow (CBF) perfusion patterns and related factors in hyperthyroidism patients. Methods: Twenty-five patients with hyperthyroidism and twenty-two healthy controls matched for age, sex, education were enrolled. 99 Tc m -ethylene cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT CBF perfusion imaging was performed at rest. Statistical parametric mapping 5.0 software (SPM5) was used and a statistical threshold of P 3 , FT 4 ), thyroid autoimmune antibodies: sensitive thyroid stimulating hormone (sTSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) by Pearson analysis, with disease duration by Spearman analysis. Results: rCBF was decreased significantly in limbic system and frontal lobe, including parahippocampal gyrus, uncus (posterior entorhinal cortex, posterior parolfactory cortex, parahippocampal cortex, anterior cingulate, right inferior temporal gyrus), left hypothalamus and caudate nucleus (P 3 (r=-0.468, -0.417, both P 4 (r=-0.4M, -0.418, -0.415, -0.459, all P 4 (r=0.419, 0.412, both P<0.05). rCBF in left insula was negatively correlated with concentration of sTSH, and right auditory associated cortex was positively correlated with concentration of sTSH (r=-0.504, 0.429, both P<0.05). rCBF in left middle temporal gyrus, left angular gyrus was positively correlated with concentration of TRAb while that in right thalamus, right hypothalamus, left anterior nucleus,left ventralis nucleus was negatively correlated with concentration of TRAb (r=0.750, 0.862, -0.691, -0.835, -0.713, -0.759, all P<0.05). rCBF in right anterior cingulate, right cuneus, right rectus gyrus, right superior marginal gyrus was positively correlated with concentration of TPOAb (r=0.696, 0.581, 0.779, 0.683, all P<0.05). rCBF in postcentral gyrus, temporal gyrus, left superior marginal gyrus and auditory associated cortex was positively correlated with disease duration (r=0.502, 0.457, 0.524, 0.440, all P<0.05). Conclusion: Hypoperfusions in

  15. Statistical thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Gyeong Hui

    2008-03-01

    This book consists of 15 chapters, which are basic conception and meaning of statistical thermodynamics, Maxwell-Boltzmann's statistics, ensemble, thermodynamics function and fluctuation, statistical dynamics with independent particle system, ideal molecular system, chemical equilibrium and chemical reaction rate in ideal gas mixture, classical statistical thermodynamics, ideal lattice model, lattice statistics and nonideal lattice model, imperfect gas theory on liquid, theory on solution, statistical thermodynamics of interface, statistical thermodynamics of a high molecule system and quantum statistics

  16. Wind observations from a forested hill: Relating turbulence statistics to surface characteristics in hilly and patchy terrain

    OpenAIRE

    Pauscher, L.; Callies, D.; Klaas, T.; Foken, T.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates turbulence characteristics as observed at a 200 m tall mast at a hilly and complex site. It thereby concentrates on turbulence statistics, which are important for the site suitability analysis of a wind turbine. The directional variations in terrain are clearly reflected in the observed turbulence intensities and drag. Integral turbulence statistics showed some variations from their typical flat terrain values. Footprint modelling was used to model the area of effect a...

  17. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Cancer Statistics Cancer has a major impact on society in ... success of efforts to control and manage cancer. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer in ...

  18. Caregiving Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Coping with Alzheimer’s COPD Caregiving Take Care! Caregiver Statistics Statistics on Family Caregivers and Family Caregiving Caregiving Population ... Health Care Caregiver Self-Awareness State by State Statistics Caregiving Population The value of the services family ...

  19. Canadian Medical Education Statistics=Statistiques Relatives a l'Enseignement Medical au Canada. 1981/82. Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryten, E.

    Statistics on medical education in Canada are presented for 1981-1982, with English and French explanations and tables of contents. Overall areas of concern include undergraduate medical enrollment, graduate medical enrollment for academic and clinical study, research expenditure levels, type and sources of funds, and opportunities for Canadians…

  20. Ragu: A Free Tool for the Analysis of EEG and MEG Event-Related Scalp Field Data Using Global Randomization Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Koenig

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a program (Ragu; Randomization Graphical User interface for statistical analyses of multichannel event-related EEG and MEG experiments. Based on measures of scalp field differences including all sensors, and using powerful, assumption-free randomization statistics, the program yields robust, physiologically meaningful conclusions based on the entire, untransformed, and unbiased set of measurements. Ragu accommodates up to two within-subject factors and one between-subject factor with multiple levels each. Significance is computed as function of time and can be controlled for type II errors with overall analyses. Results are displayed in an intuitive visual interface that allows further exploration of the findings. A sample analysis of an ERP experiment illustrates the different possibilities offered by Ragu. The aim of Ragu is to maximize statistical power while minimizing the need for a-priori choices of models and parameters (like inverse models or sensors of interest that interact with and bias statistics.

  1. Ragu: a free tool for the analysis of EEG and MEG event-related scalp field data using global randomization statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Thomas; Kottlow, Mara; Stein, Maria; Melie-García, Lester

    2011-01-01

    We present a program (Ragu; Randomization Graphical User interface) for statistical analyses of multichannel event-related EEG and MEG experiments. Based on measures of scalp field differences including all sensors, and using powerful, assumption-free randomization statistics, the program yields robust, physiologically meaningful conclusions based on the entire, untransformed, and unbiased set of measurements. Ragu accommodates up to two within-subject factors and one between-subject factor with multiple levels each. Significance is computed as function of time and can be controlled for type II errors with overall analyses. Results are displayed in an intuitive visual interface that allows further exploration of the findings. A sample analysis of an ERP experiment illustrates the different possibilities offered by Ragu. The aim of Ragu is to maximize statistical power while minimizing the need for a-priori choices of models and parameters (like inverse models or sensors of interest) that interact with and bias statistics.

  2. Tridimensional statistic analysis of cooling tower plumes. Methods and results relating to power effect and disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabaton, M.; Viollet, P.L.; Darles, A.; Gland, H.

    1980-07-01

    The PANACH three dimensional calculation code developed from tests on a small scale model and validated from full scale measurement campaigns, was used to estimate a three dimensional statistic of plumes. As it is not possible with the calculation times to make a calculation for each radio sondage, a classification method was adopted. This method developed by the French National Meteorological Office is based on a double classification comprising basic classes in which the plumes are assumed to be dynamically similar and a sub-classification to take better account of the true moisture profiles. This statistical method was then applied to the case of 2 or 4 1300 MWe units fitted with natural draught cooling towers of the wet, dry or wet-dry types [fr

  3. Significant Association of Urinary Toxic Metals and Autism-Related Symptoms?A Nonlinear Statistical Analysis with Cross Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, James; Howsmon, Daniel P.; Kruger, Uwe; Geis, Elizabeth; Gehn, Eva; Fimbres, Valeria; Pollard, Elena; Mitchell, Jessica; Ingram, Julie; Hellmers, Robert; Quig, David; Hahn, Juergen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A number of previous studies examined a possible association of toxic metals and autism, and over half of those studies suggest that toxic metal levels are different in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Additionally, several studies found that those levels correlate with the severity of ASD. Methods In order to further investigate these points, this paper performs the most detailed statistical analysis to date of a data set in this field. First morning urine sampl...

  4. Statistical Performance Measures of the HWM-93 And MSISE-90 Empirical Atmospheric Models and the Relation to Infrasonic CTBT Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    versions of these empirical upper atmospheric models for use in verification and compliance with the CTBT. This study identifies weak areas in the current...The purpose of this paper is to document a statistical performance measures study of the Naval Research Laboratory’s (NRL) empirical upper atmospheric ... models . These models known as the MSISE-90 and HWM-93 models were originally developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and made freely

  5. Statistical treatment of the data related to Environment Monitoring Program of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peixoto, Claudia M.; Jacomino, Vanusa Maria F.; Pego, Valdivio Damasceno

    1999-01-01

    The basic goal in all environmental data analysis is to characterize the value of some parameter in a portion of the environment over some period of time to a stated degree of accuracy from a limited number of data points. More reliability in the results can be acquired if a proper statistical treatment of the data including estimates of precision, frequency distribution analysis and group comparisons, is performed as part of an environmental surveillance program. The main objective of this paper is to describe the procedures adopted for performing the analysis and statistical treatment of the data obtained in the Environmental Monitoring Program of CDTN during the period of 1993 to 1995. In this study, the results of total alpha and beta concentrations in airborne particulates and surface water samples are considered. In this case, the statistical treatment involved the variability estimation and frequency distribution analysis. Time series analysis of the results is carried out through sequential graphics, which give information about the long-term behavior of the variables. (author) work. (author)

  6. The concept of normality through history: a didactic review of features related to philosophy, statistics and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, A A; Conti, A; Gensini, G F

    2006-09-01

    Normality characterises in medicine any possible qualitative or quantitative situation whose absence implies an illness or a state of abnormality. The illness concept was first a philosophical one. But the use of mathematics in the study of biological events, which began with Galton (1822-1911) and with Pearson (1857-1936), changed the frame of reference. In the second part of the 19th century mathematics was used to study the distribution of some biological characteristics in the evolution of the species. Around 1900, statistics became the basis for the study of the diffusion of the illnesses. Half a century later statistics made possible the transition from the description of single cases to groups of cases. Even more important is the concept of "normality" in laboratory medicine. In this field the search for the "perfect norm" was, and possibly still is, under way. The widespread use of statistics in the laboratory has allowed the definition, in a certain sense, of a new normality. This is the reason why the term "reference value" has been introduced. However, even the introduction of this new term has merely shifted the problem, and not resolved it.

  7. Scripts for TRUMP data analyses. Part II (HLA-related data): statistical analyses specific for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Junya

    2016-01-01

    The Transplant Registry Unified Management Program (TRUMP) made it possible for members of the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (JSHCT) to analyze large sets of national registry data on autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, as the processes used to collect transplantation information are complex and differed over time, the background of these processes should be understood when using TRUMP data. Previously, information on the HLA locus of patients and donors had been collected using a questionnaire-based free-description method, resulting in some input errors. To correct minor but significant errors and provide accurate HLA matching data, the use of a Stata or EZR/R script offered by the JSHCT is strongly recommended when analyzing HLA data in the TRUMP dataset. The HLA mismatch direction, mismatch counting method, and different impacts of HLA mismatches by stem cell source are other important factors in the analysis of HLA data. Additionally, researchers should understand the statistical analyses specific for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, such as competing risk, landmark analysis, and time-dependent analysis, to correctly analyze transplant data. The data center of the JSHCT can be contacted if statistical assistance is required.

  8. Effects of measurement strategy and statistical analysis on dose-response relations between physical workload and low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.P. Jansen (Justin); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: In epidemiological studies on physical workloads and back complaints, among the important features in modelling dose-response relations are the measurement strategy of the exposure and the nature of the dose-response relation that is assumed. AIM: To

  9. Mathematical statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Pestman, Wiebe R

    2009-01-01

    This textbook provides a broad and solid introduction to mathematical statistics, including the classical subjects hypothesis testing, normal regression analysis, and normal analysis of variance. In addition, non-parametric statistics and vectorial statistics are considered, as well as applications of stochastic analysis in modern statistics, e.g., Kolmogorov-Smirnov testing, smoothing techniques, robustness and density estimation. For students with some elementary mathematical background. With many exercises. Prerequisites from measure theory and linear algebra are presented.

  10. New Insights on Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Based on Plasticity-Related Network Changes and High-Order Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Erika Reime; Rodríguez, Pedro Xavier Royero; Dos Santos, Bianca Araújo; Higa, Guilherme Shigueto Vilar; Ferraz, Mariana Sacrini Ayres; Schmeltzer, Christian; Rüdiger, Sten; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki

    2018-05-01

    Epilepsy is a disorder of the brain characterized by the predisposition to generate recurrent unprovoked seizures, which involves reshaping of neuronal circuitries based on intense neuronal activity. In this review, we first detailed the regulation of plasticity-associated genes, such as ARC, GAP-43, PSD-95, synapsin, and synaptophysin. Indeed, reshaping of neuronal connectivity after the primary, acute epileptogenesis event increases the excitability of the temporal lobe. Herein, we also discussed the heterogeneity of neuronal populations regarding the number of synaptic connections, which in the theoretical field is commonly referred as degree. Employing integrate-and-fire neuronal model, we determined that in addition to increased synaptic strength, degree correlations might play essential and unsuspected roles in the control of network activity. Indeed, assortativity, which can be described as a condition where high-degree correlations are observed, increases the excitability of neural networks. In this review, we summarized recent topics in the field, and data were discussed according to newly developed or unusual tools, as provided by mathematical graph analysis and high-order statistics. With this, we were able to present new foundations for the pathological activity observed in temporal lobe epilepsy.

  11. Transport of Pb and Zn by carboxylate complexes in basinal ore fluids and related petroleum-field brines at 100°C: the influence of pH and oxygen fugacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Thomas H

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well established through field observations, experiments, and chemical models that oxidation (redox state and pH exert a strong influence on the speciation of dissolved components and the solubility of minerals in hydrothermal fluids. log –pH diagrams were used to depict the influence of oxygen fugacity and pH on monocarboxylate- and dicarboxylate-transport of Pb and Zn in low-temperature (100°C hydrothermal ore fluids that are related to diagenetic processes in deep sedimentary basins, and allow a first-order comparison of Pb and Zn transport among proposed model fluids for Mississippi Valley-type (MVT and red-bed related base metal (RBRBM deposits in terms of their approximate pH and conditions. To construct these diagrams, total Pb and Zn concentrations and Pb and Zn speciation were calculated as a function of log and pH for a composite ore-brine with concentrations of major elements, total sulfur, and total carbonate that approximate the composition of MVT and RBRBM model ore fluids and modern basinal brines. In addition to acetate and malonate complexation, complexes involving the ligands Cl-, HS-, H2S, and OH- were included in the model of calculated total metal concentration and metal speciation. Also, in the model, Zn and Pb are competing with the common-rock forming metals Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, and Al for the same ligands. Calculated total Pb concentration and calculated total Zn concentration are constrained by galena and sphalerite solubility, respectively. Isopleths, in log –pH space, of the concentration of Pb and concentration of Zn in carboxylate (acetate + malonate complexes illustrate that the oxidized model fluids of T. H. Giordano (in Organic Acids in Geological Processes, ed. E. D. Pittman and M. D. Lewan, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994, pp. 319–354 and G. M. Anderson (Econ. Geol., 1975, 70, 937–942 are capable of transporting sufficient amounts of Pb (up to 10 ppm and Zn (up to 100 ppm in the form of carboxylate

  12. Transport of Pb and Zn by carboxylate complexes in basinal ore fluids and related petroleum-field brines at 100°C: the influence of pH and oxygen fugacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Thomas H

    2002-01-01

    It is well established through field observations, experiments, and chemical models that oxidation (redox) state and pH exert a strong influence on the speciation of dissolved components and the solubility of minerals in hydrothermal fluids. log –pH diagrams were used to depict the influence of oxygen fugacity and pH on monocarboxylate- and dicarboxylate-transport of Pb and Zn in low-temperature (100°C) hydrothermal ore fluids that are related to diagenetic processes in deep sedimentary basins, and allow a first-order comparison of Pb and Zn transport among proposed model fluids for Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) and red-bed related base metal (RBRBM) deposits in terms of their approximate pH and conditions. To construct these diagrams, total Pb and Zn concentrations and Pb and Zn speciation were calculated as a function of log and pH for a composite ore-brine with concentrations of major elements, total sulfur, and total carbonate that approximate the composition of MVT and RBRBM model ore fluids and modern basinal brines. In addition to acetate and malonate complexation, complexes involving the ligands Cl-, HS-, H2S, and OH- were included in the model of calculated total metal concentration and metal speciation. Also, in the model, Zn and Pb are competing with the common-rock forming metals Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, and Al for the same ligands. Calculated total Pb concentration and calculated total Zn concentration are constrained by galena and sphalerite solubility, respectively. Isopleths, in log –pH space, of the concentration of Pb and concentration of Zn in carboxylate (acetate + malonate) complexes illustrate that the oxidized model fluids of T. H. Giordano (in Organic Acids in Geological Processes, ed. E. D. Pittman and M. D. Lewan, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994, pp. 319–354) and G. M. Anderson (Econ. Geol., 1975, 70, 937–942) are capable of transporting sufficient amounts of Pb (up to 10 ppm) and Zn (up to 100 ppm) in the form of carboxylate complexes to

  13. Cross-linguistic Differences in Processing Double-Embedded Relative Clauses: Working-Memory Constraints or Language Statistics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stefan L.; Trompenaars, Thijs; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    An English double-embedded relative clause from which the middle verb is omitted can often be processed more easily than its grammatical counterpart, a phenomenon known as the grammaticality illusion. This effect has been found to be reversed in German, suggesting that the illusion is language specific rather than a consequence of universal…

  14. Statistics of Absolute and Relative Dispersion in the Atmospheric Convective Boundary Layer: A Large-Eddy Simulation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dosio, A.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of the different scales of turbulent motion on plume dispersion in the atmospheric convective boundary layer (CBL) is studied by means of a large-eddy simulation (LES). In particular, the large-scale (meandering) and small-scale (relative diffusion) contributions are separated by

  15. Algebraic statistics computational commutative algebra in statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Pistone, Giovanni; Wynn, Henry P

    2000-01-01

    Written by pioneers in this exciting new field, Algebraic Statistics introduces the application of polynomial algebra to experimental design, discrete probability, and statistics. It begins with an introduction to Gröbner bases and a thorough description of their applications to experimental design. A special chapter covers the binary case with new application to coherent systems in reliability and two level factorial designs. The work paves the way, in the last two chapters, for the application of computer algebra to discrete probability and statistical modelling through the important concept of an algebraic statistical model.As the first book on the subject, Algebraic Statistics presents many opportunities for spin-off research and applications and should become a landmark work welcomed by both the statistical community and its relatives in mathematics and computer science.

  16. A statistical method to base nutrient recommendations on meta-analysis of intake and health-related status biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilko van der Voet

    Full Text Available Nutrient recommendations in use today are often derived from relatively old data of few studies with few individuals. However, for many nutrients, including vitamin B-12, extensive data have now become available from both observational studies and randomized controlled trials, addressing the relation between intake and health-related status biomarkers. The purpose of this article is to provide new methodology for dietary planning based on dose-response data and meta-analysis. The methodology builds on existing work, and is consistent with current methodology and measurement error models for dietary assessment. The detailed purposes of this paper are twofold. Firstly, to define a Population Nutrient Level (PNL for dietary planning in groups. Secondly, to show how data from different sources can be combined in an extended meta-analysis of intake-status datasets for estimating PNL as well as other nutrient intake values, such as the Average Nutrient Requirement (ANR and the Individual Nutrient Level (INL. For this, a computational method is presented for comparing a bivariate lognormal distribution to a health criterion value. Procedures to meta-analyse available data in different ways are described. Example calculations on vitamin B-12 requirements were made for four models, assuming different ways of estimating the dose-response relation, and different values of the health criterion. Resulting estimates of ANRs and less so for INLs were found to be sensitive to model assumptions, whereas estimates of PNLs were much less sensitive to these assumptions as they were closer to the average nutrient intake in the available data.

  17. A Statistical Method to Base Nutrient Recommendations on Meta-Analysis of Intake and Health-Related Status Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voet, Hilko; de Boer, Waldo J.; Souverein, Olga W.; Doets, Esmée L.; van 't Veer, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient recommendations in use today are often derived from relatively old data of few studies with few individuals. However, for many nutrients, including vitamin B-12, extensive data have now become available from both observational studies and randomized controlled trials, addressing the relation between intake and health-related status biomarkers. The purpose of this article is to provide new methodology for dietary planning based on dose-response data and meta-analysis. The methodology builds on existing work, and is consistent with current methodology and measurement error models for dietary assessment. The detailed purposes of this paper are twofold. Firstly, to define a Population Nutrient Level (PNL) for dietary planning in groups. Secondly, to show how data from different sources can be combined in an extended meta-analysis of intake-status datasets for estimating PNL as well as other nutrient intake values, such as the Average Nutrient Requirement (ANR) and the Individual Nutrient Level (INL). For this, a computational method is presented for comparing a bivariate lognormal distribution to a health criterion value. Procedures to meta-analyse available data in different ways are described. Example calculations on vitamin B-12 requirements were made for four models, assuming different ways of estimating the dose-response relation, and different values of the health criterion. Resulting estimates of ANRs and less so for INLs were found to be sensitive to model assumptions, whereas estimates of PNLs were much less sensitive to these assumptions as they were closer to the average nutrient intake in the available data. PMID:24682145

  18. Statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sadovskii, Michael V

    2012-01-01

    This volume provides a compact presentation of modern statistical physics at an advanced level. Beginning with questions on the foundations of statistical mechanics all important aspects of statistical physics are included, such as applications to ideal gases, the theory of quantum liquids and superconductivity and the modern theory of critical phenomena. Beyond that attention is given to new approaches, such as quantum field theory methods and non-equilibrium problems.

  19. Harmonic statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliazar, Iddo, E-mail: eliazar@post.tau.ac.il

    2017-05-15

    The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their ‘public relations’ for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford’s law, and 1/f noise. - Highlights: • Harmonic statistics are described and reviewed in detail. • Connections to various statistical laws are established. • Connections to perturbation, renormalization and dynamics are established.

  20. Statistical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Joseph W

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses statistical methods that are useful for treating problems in modern optics, and the application of these methods to solving a variety of such problems This book covers a variety of statistical problems in optics, including both theory and applications.  The text covers the necessary background in statistics, statistical properties of light waves of various types, the theory of partial coherence and its applications, imaging with partially coherent light, atmospheric degradations of images, and noise limitations in the detection of light. New topics have been introduced i

  1. Statistical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Szulc, Stefan

    1965-01-01

    Statistical Methods provides a discussion of the principles of the organization and technique of research, with emphasis on its application to the problems in social statistics. This book discusses branch statistics, which aims to develop practical ways of collecting and processing numerical data and to adapt general statistical methods to the objectives in a given field.Organized into five parts encompassing 22 chapters, this book begins with an overview of how to organize the collection of such information on individual units, primarily as accomplished by government agencies. This text then

  2. Optimization of CAR Sound Package with Statistical Energy Analysis Model Using Grey Relational Analysis and Taguchi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuming; Wang, Dengfeng; Chen, Jing; Liu, Bo; Li, Chuanbing

    Optimization design of the structures and thicknesses of the sound packages is performed for automotive interior acoustic performance and lightweight characteristics. A SEA model of the car was created, and its interior noise of the automobile was predicted and validated at speed of 120 km/h. The contributions of some major subsystems to interior noise were calculated at 120 km/h. Both of major characteristic indices including interior SPL and total weight of sound packages are selected to evaluate automotive interior acoustic performance and lightweight characteristics, and four selected optimization parameters are structures and thicknesses of the sound package of firewall and front floor. The problem of multiple performance indices is simplified into single performance index by using grey relational grade. The optimal combination of sound package parameters is determined by employing grey relational analysis method. Furthermore, the validation tests show that the values of interior SPL and overall weight of sound packages decrease by 1.31% and 60.36%, respectively. Also, the comparison of the overall SPL for automotive interior noise experiments between original and optimized structures and thicknesses of the sound packages shows that automotive interior acoustic performance is obviously improved from 200 Hz to 10,000 Hz. Therefore, it is demonstrated that it is an effective way to deal with optimization problems by using the presented approach in this research.

  3. Energy-related scientists and engineers: a statistical profile of recent entrants into the work force, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Sharon E.

    1979-12-01

    This report examines the educational and employment characteristics of scientists and engineers who graduated during the years 1972, 1974, 1975, and 1976, with special attention to those whose work involves energy. The characteristics of energy-related graduates are also compared to those of more experienced scientists and engineers involved in energy activities. Information is based on the results of the 1976 and 1978 National Surveys of Recent Science and Engineering Graduates, and the 1976 National Survey of Natural and Social Scientists and Engineers, sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the US Department of Energy. Tabulations are included for the first time on employment involving specific energy sources and activities. Other characteristics discussed include educational level, salary, primary work activity, type of employer, and the proportion of graduates who found employment in their major field.

  4. Practical Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Lyons, L.

    2016-01-01

    Accelerators and detectors are expensive, both in terms of money and human effort. It is thus important to invest effort in performing a good statistical anal- ysis of the data, in order to extract the best information from it. This series of five lectures deals with practical aspects of statistical issues that arise in typical High Energy Physics analyses.

  5. Reversible Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2004-01-01

    The study aims is to describe how the inclusion and exclusion of materials and calculative devices construct the boundaries and distinctions between statistical facts and artifacts in economics. My methodological approach is inspired by John Graunt's (1667) Political arithmetic and more recent work...... within constructivism and the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The result of this approach is here termed reversible statistics, reconstructing the findings of a statistical study within economics in three different ways. It is argued that all three accounts are quite normal, albeit...... by accounting for the significance of the materials and the equipment that enters into the production of statistics. Key words: Reversible statistics, diverse materials, constructivism, economics, science, and technology....

  6. Statistics Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Foy, Millennia; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James

    2014-01-01

    Do you have elevated p-values? Is the data analysis process getting you down? Do you experience anxiety when you need to respond to criticism of statistical methods in your manuscript? You may be suffering from Insufficient Statistical Support Syndrome (ISSS). For symptomatic relief of ISSS, come for a free consultation with JSC biostatisticians at our help desk during the poster sessions at the HRP Investigators Workshop. Get answers to common questions about sample size, missing data, multiple testing, when to trust the results of your analyses and more. Side effects may include sudden loss of statistics anxiety, improved interpretation of your data, and increased confidence in your results.

  7. Statistical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wannier, Gregory Hugh

    1966-01-01

    Until recently, the field of statistical physics was traditionally taught as three separate subjects: thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and kinetic theory. This text, a forerunner in its field and now a classic, was the first to recognize the outdated reasons for their separation and to combine the essentials of the three subjects into one unified presentation of thermal physics. It has been widely adopted in graduate and advanced undergraduate courses, and is recommended throughout the field as an indispensable aid to the independent study and research of statistical physics.Designed for

  8. Semiconductor statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Blakemore, J S

    1962-01-01

    Semiconductor Statistics presents statistics aimed at complementing existing books on the relationships between carrier densities and transport effects. The book is divided into two parts. Part I provides introductory material on the electron theory of solids, and then discusses carrier statistics for semiconductors in thermal equilibrium. Of course a solid cannot be in true thermodynamic equilibrium if any electrical current is passed; but when currents are reasonably small the distribution function is but little perturbed, and the carrier distribution for such a """"quasi-equilibrium"""" co

  9. Relationships between the second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) and game-related statistics in semi-professional female basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Makailah; Short, Sandra E; Short, Martin; Manning, John T; Tomkinson, Grant R

    2018-01-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D) is a negative correlate of sports performance, although this relationship may be weak in open-skill sports such as basketball. The primary aim was to quantify relationships between 2D:4D and game-related statistics in semi-professional female basketball players. The secondary aim was to quantify the differences in mean 2D:4Ds between players based on their position in the starting lineup. Using a cross-sectional design, 64 female basketball players who competed in the South Australian Premier League were measured in-season for height, mass, and 2D:4D, with game-related statistics collected end-season. Partial correlations (adjusted for age and body mass index) were used to quantify relationships between right and left 2D:4Ds and game-related statistics. Unpaired t-tests were used to quantify differences in mean 2D:4Ds between starting and reserve players. 2D:4D was a substantial negative correlate of blocks, rebounds, and field-goal percentage; meaning, females with lower 2D:4Ds were generally better defensively as they recorded more blocks and rebounds, and were more efficient scorers, irrespective of their age and body size. Mean 2D:4D differed by position in the starting lineup, as females with lower 2D:4Ds were more likely to be in the starting lineup. This study found evidence that 2D:4D was a correlate of performance in an open-skill sport. Female players with lower digit ratios tended to perform better in several aspects of basketball, especially defensively, and were more likely to be starters, suggesting they are the best players on the team in their positions. These results probably reflect the organizational benefits of prenatal testosterone. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Multiparametric statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Serdobolskii, Vadim Ivanovich

    2007-01-01

    This monograph presents mathematical theory of statistical models described by the essentially large number of unknown parameters, comparable with sample size but can also be much larger. In this meaning, the proposed theory can be called "essentially multiparametric". It is developed on the basis of the Kolmogorov asymptotic approach in which sample size increases along with the number of unknown parameters.This theory opens a way for solution of central problems of multivariate statistics, which up until now have not been solved. Traditional statistical methods based on the idea of an infinite sampling often break down in the solution of real problems, and, dependent on data, can be inefficient, unstable and even not applicable. In this situation, practical statisticians are forced to use various heuristic methods in the hope the will find a satisfactory solution.Mathematical theory developed in this book presents a regular technique for implementing new, more efficient versions of statistical procedures. ...

  11. Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  12. CMS Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Center for Strategic Planning produces an annual CMS Statistics reference booklet that provides a quick reference for summary information about health...

  13. Image Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelberger, Laura Jean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-08

    In large datasets, it is time consuming or even impossible to pick out interesting images. Our proposed solution is to find statistics to quantify the information in each image and use those to identify and pick out images of interest.

  14. The KTOI Ecosystem Project Relational Database : a Report Prepared by Statistical Consulting Services for KTOI Describing the Key Components and Specifications of the KTOI Relational Database.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafii, Bahman [Statistical Consulting Services

    2009-09-24

    Data are the central focus of any research project. Their collection and analysis are crucial to meeting project goals, testing scientific hypotheses, and drawing relevant conclusions. Typical research projects often devote the majority of their resources to the collection, storage and analysis of data. Therefore, issues related to data quality should be of foremost concern. Data quality issues are even more important when conducting multifaceted studies involving several teams of researchers. Without the use of a standardized protocol, for example, independent data collection carried out by separate research efforts can lead to inconsistencies, confusion and errors throughout the larger project. A database management system can be utilized to help avoid all of the aforementioned problems. The centralization of data into a common relational unit, i.e. a relational database, shifts the responsibility for data quality and maintenance from multiple individuals to a single database manager, thus allowing data quality issues to be assessed and corrected in a timely manner. The database system also provides an easy mechanism for standardizing data components, such as variable names and values uniformly across all segments of a project. This is particularly an important issue when data are collected on a number of biological/physical response and explanatory variables from various locations and times. The database system can integrate all segments of a large study into one unit, while providing oversight and accessibility to the data collection process. The quality of all data collected is uniformly maintained and compatibility between research efforts ensured. While the physical database would exist in a central location, access will not be physically limited. Advanced database interfaces are created to operate over the internet utilizing a Web-based relational database, allowing project members to access their data from virtually anywhere. These interfaces provide users

  15. Consomic mouse strain selection based on effect size measurement, statistical significance testing and integrated behavioral z-scoring: focus on anxiety-related behavior and locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labots, M; Laarakker, M C; Ohl, F; van Lith, H A

    2016-06-29

    Selecting chromosome substitution strains (CSSs, also called consomic strains/lines) used in the search for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) consistently requires the identification of the respective phenotypic trait of interest and is simply based on a significant difference between a consomic and host strain. However, statistical significance as represented by P values does not necessarily predicate practical importance. We therefore propose a method that pays attention to both the statistical significance and the actual size of the observed effect. The present paper extends on this approach and describes in more detail the use of effect size measures (Cohen's d, partial eta squared - η p (2) ) together with the P value as statistical selection parameters for the chromosomal assignment of QTLs influencing anxiety-related behavior and locomotion in laboratory mice. The effect size measures were based on integrated behavioral z-scoring and were calculated in three experiments: (A) a complete consomic male mouse panel with A/J as the donor strain and C57BL/6J as the host strain. This panel, including host and donor strains, was analyzed in the modified Hole Board (mHB). The consomic line with chromosome 19 from A/J (CSS-19A) was selected since it showed increased anxiety-related behavior, but similar locomotion compared to its host. (B) Following experiment A, female CSS-19A mice were compared with their C57BL/6J counterparts; however no significant differences and effect sizes close to zero were found. (C) A different consomic mouse strain (CSS-19PWD), with chromosome 19 from PWD/PhJ transferred on the genetic background of C57BL/6J, was compared with its host strain. Here, in contrast with CSS-19A, there was a decreased overall anxiety in CSS-19PWD compared to C57BL/6J males, but not locomotion. This new method shows an improved way to identify CSSs for QTL analysis for anxiety-related behavior using a combination of statistical significance testing and effect

  16. Vital statistics

    CERN Document Server

    MacKenzie, Dana

    2004-01-01

    The drawbacks of using 19th-century mathematics in physics and astronomy are illustrated. To continue with the expansion of the knowledge about the cosmos, the scientists will have to come in terms with modern statistics. Some researchers have deliberately started importing techniques that are used in medical research. However, the physicists need to identify the brand of statistics that will be suitable for them, and make a choice between the Bayesian and the frequentists approach. (Edited abstract).

  17. Practical Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, L.

    2017-01-01

    Accelerators and detectors are expensive, both in terms of money and human effort. It is thus important to invest effort in performing a good statistical anal- ysis of the data, in order to extract the best information from it. This series of five lectures deals with practical aspects of statistical issues that arise in typical High Energy Physics analyses. Accelerators and detectors are expensive, both in terms of money and human effort. It is thus important to invest effort in performing...

  18. Statistics for economics

    CERN Document Server

    Naghshpour, Shahdad

    2012-01-01

    Statistics is the branch of mathematics that deals with real-life problems. As such, it is an essential tool for economists. Unfortunately, the way you and many other economists learn the concept of statistics is not compatible with the way economists think and learn. The problem is worsened by the use of mathematical jargon and complex derivations. Here's a book that proves none of this is necessary. All the examples and exercises in this book are constructed within the field of economics, thus eliminating the difficulty of learning statistics with examples from fields that have no relation to business, politics, or policy. Statistics is, in fact, not more difficult than economics. Anyone who can comprehend economics can understand and use statistics successfully within this field, including you! This book utilizes Microsoft Excel to obtain statistical results, as well as to perform additional necessary computations. Microsoft Excel is not the software of choice for performing sophisticated statistical analy...

  19. Model for the origin of carboxylic acids in basinal brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewald, Jeffrey S.

    2001-11-01

    Carboxylic acids are ubiquitous in basinal brines from petroleum-producing sedimentary basins. Although the absolute concentrations of individual short-chain acids vary systematically over many orders of magnitude, relative abundances are characterized by approximately constant ratios. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that oxidation of aqueous n-alkanes proceeds through a sequence of reactions involving alkene, alcohol, ketone, and carboxylic acid reaction intermediaries. The highly specific nature of these reactions allows the relative distribution of carboxylic acids produced during oxidation of n-alkanes to be predicted quantitatively as a function of petroleum composition. A model based on the results of laboratory experiments was developed to account for the thermogenic production of aqueous carboxylic acids in sedimentary basins. Model predictions are highly consistent with the distribution of carboxylic acids observed in nature. This result suggests that hydrocarbon oxidation reactions may be pervasive during petroleum maturation in sedimentary basins. Likely oxidizing agents include ferric iron-bearing aluminosilicates, oxides, and hydroxides, pyrite, sulfate-bearing minerals, and water. Such chemical interactions allow inorganic sedimentary components to act as sources of oxygen for the formation of oxygenated organic alteration products. Accordingly, the absolute amount and timing of carboxylic acid generation may not be limited by the compositional evolution of kerogen, as suggested by previous models.

  20. Identifying heat-related deaths by using medical examiner and vital statistics data: Surveillance analysis and descriptive epidemiology - Oklahoma, 1990-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew G; Brown, Sheryll; Archer, Pam; Wendelboe, Aaron; Magzamen, Sheryl; Bradley, Kristy K

    2016-10-01

    Approximately 660 deaths occur annually in the United States associated with excess natural heat. A record heat wave in Oklahoma during 2011 generated increased interest concerning heat-related mortality among public health preparedness partners. We aimed to improve surveillance for heat-related mortality and better characterize heat-related deaths in Oklahoma during 1990-2011, and to enhance public health messaging during future heat emergencies. Heat-related deaths were identified by querying vital statistics (VS) and medical examiner (ME) data during 1990-2011. Case inclusion criteria were developed by using heat-related International Classification of Diseases codes, cause-of-death nomenclature, and ME investigation narrative. We calculated sensitivity and predictive value positive (PVP) for heat-related mortality surveillance by using VS and ME data and performed a descriptive analysis. During the study period, 364 confirmed and probable heat-related deaths were identified when utilizing both data sets. ME reports had 87% sensitivity and 74% PVP; VS reports had 80% sensitivity and 52% PVP. Compared to Oklahoma's general population, decedents were disproportionately male (67% vs. 49%), aged ≥65 years (46% vs. 14%), and unmarried (78% vs. 47%). Higher rates of heat-related mortality were observed among Blacks. Of 95 decedents with available information, 91 (96%) did not use air conditioning. Linking ME and VS data sources together and using narrative description for case classification allows for improved case ascertainment and surveillance data quality. Males, Blacks, persons aged ≥65 years, unmarried persons, and those without air conditioning carry a disproportionate burden of the heat-related deaths in Oklahoma. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Schwabl, Franz

    2006-01-01

    The completely revised new edition of the classical book on Statistical Mechanics covers the basic concepts of equilibrium and non-equilibrium statistical physics. In addition to a deductive approach to equilibrium statistics and thermodynamics based on a single hypothesis - the form of the microcanonical density matrix - this book treats the most important elements of non-equilibrium phenomena. Intermediate calculations are presented in complete detail. Problems at the end of each chapter help students to consolidate their understanding of the material. Beyond the fundamentals, this text demonstrates the breadth of the field and its great variety of applications. Modern areas such as renormalization group theory, percolation, stochastic equations of motion and their applications to critical dynamics, kinetic theories, as well as fundamental considerations of irreversibility, are discussed. The text will be useful for advanced students of physics and other natural sciences; a basic knowledge of quantum mechan...

  2. Statistical inference

    CERN Document Server

    Rohatgi, Vijay K

    2003-01-01

    Unified treatment of probability and statistics examines and analyzes the relationship between the two fields, exploring inferential issues. Numerous problems, examples, and diagrams--some with solutions--plus clear-cut, highlighted summaries of results. Advanced undergraduate to graduate level. Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. Probability Model. 3. Probability Distributions. 4. Introduction to Statistical Inference. 5. More on Mathematical Expectation. 6. Some Discrete Models. 7. Some Continuous Models. 8. Functions of Random Variables and Random Vectors. 9. Large-Sample Theory. 10. General Meth

  3. Statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Davidson, Norman

    2003-01-01

    Clear and readable, this fine text assists students in achieving a grasp of the techniques and limitations of statistical mechanics. The treatment follows a logical progression from elementary to advanced theories, with careful attention to detail and mathematical development, and is sufficiently rigorous for introductory or intermediate graduate courses.Beginning with a study of the statistical mechanics of ideal gases and other systems of non-interacting particles, the text develops the theory in detail and applies it to the study of chemical equilibrium and the calculation of the thermody

  4. AP statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Levine-Wissing, Robin

    2012-01-01

    All Access for the AP® Statistics Exam Book + Web + Mobile Everything you need to prepare for the Advanced Placement® exam, in a study system built around you! There are many different ways to prepare for an Advanced Placement® exam. What's best for you depends on how much time you have to study and how comfortable you are with the subject matter. To score your highest, you need a system that can be customized to fit you: your schedule, your learning style, and your current level of knowledge. This book, and the online tools that come with it, will help you personalize your AP® Statistics prep

  5. Statistical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mandl, Franz

    1988-01-01

    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition E. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw The Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient

  6. Statistical Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 10. Statistical Computing - Understanding Randomness and Random Numbers. Sudhakar Kunte. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 10 October 1999 pp 16-21. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  7. Statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schrödinger, Erwin

    1952-01-01

    Nobel Laureate's brilliant attempt to develop a simple, unified standard method of dealing with all cases of statistical thermodynamics - classical, quantum, Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac, and more.The work also includes discussions of Nernst theorem, Planck's oscillator, fluctuations, the n-particle problem, problem of radiation, much more.

  8. Principles of statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Bulmer, M G

    1979-01-01

    There are many textbooks which describe current methods of statistical analysis, while neglecting related theory. There are equally many advanced textbooks which delve into the far reaches of statistical theory, while bypassing practical applications. But between these two approaches is an unfilled gap, in which theory and practice merge at an intermediate level. Professor M. G. Bulmer's Principles of Statistics, originally published in 1965, was created to fill that need. The new, corrected Dover edition of Principles of Statistics makes this invaluable mid-level text available once again fo

  9. Statistics Related Self-Efficacy A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Demonstrating a Significant Link to Prior Mathematics Experiences for Graduate Level Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Larwin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined students' statistics-related self-efficacy, as measured with the current statistics self-efficacy (CSSE inventory developed by Finney and Schraw (2003. Structural equation modeling was used to check the confirmatory factor analysis of the one-dimensional factor of CSSE. Once confirmed, this factor was used to test whether a significant link to prior mathematics experiences exists. Additionally a new post-structural equation modeling (SEM application was employed to compute error-free latent variable score for CSSE in an effort to examine the ancillary effects of gender, age, ethnicity, department, degree level, hours completed, expected course grade, number of college-level math classes, current GPA on students' CSSE scores. Results support the one-dimensional construct and as expected, the model demonstrated a significant link between CSSE scores and prior mathematics experiences to CSSE. Additionally the students' department, expected grade, and number of prior math classes were found to have a significant effect on student's CSSE scores.

  10. [Operative treatment of diabetics with vascular complications : Secondary data analysis of diagnosis-related groups statistics from 2005 to 2014 in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olm, M; Kühnl, A; Knipfer, E; Salvermoser, M; Eckstein, H-H; Zimmermann, A

    2018-03-27

    In Germany approximately 40,000 amputations per year are performed on patients with diabetes mellitus, often with accompanying vascular complications. The aim of this study was to present the various degrees of severity of the vascular complications and the temporal changes of the treatment options in diabetics with vascular complications in Germany. The microdata of the diagnosis-related groups (DRG) statistics of the Federal Statistical Office were analyzed over the period from 2005 to 2014. All cases were included in which the main or secondary diagnosis of diabetes mellitus with concurrent vascular complications (diabetic angiopathy and peripheral arterial disease) was encrypted. The median age of the 1,811,422 cases was 73 years and 62% were male. While the total number of amputations remained stable over time, there was a 41% reduction in knee-preserving and a 31% reduction in non-knee preserving major amputations with an 18% increase in minor amputations. Revascularization increased by 33% from 36 procedures in 2005 to 48 procedures per 100,000 inhabitants. The increase in revascularization was evident in the area of endovascular therapy alone where there was an increase of 78%. Due to the significant increase in endovascular revascularization measures, there was a significant increase in the proportion of diabetes patients with vascular pathologies in whom revascularization was carried out. As a result, improved limb preservation was achieved despite equally high amputation rates due to increasing minor amputation rates.

  11. EDI Performance Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This section contains statistical information and reports related to the percentage of electronic transactions being sent to Medicare contractors in the formats...

  12. Transport statistics 1996

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shepperson, L

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This publication contains transport and related statistics on roads, vehicles, infrastructure, passengers, freight, rail, air, maritime and road traffic, and international comparisons. The information compiled in this publication has been gathered...

  13. The importance of statistical modelling in clinical research : Comparing multidimensional Rasch-, structural equation and linear regression models for analyzing the depression of relatives of psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrowicz, Rainer W; Jahn, Rebecca; Friedrich, Fabian; Unger, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Various studies have shown that caregiving relatives of schizophrenic patients are at risk of suffering from depression. These studies differ with respect to the applied statistical methods, which could influence the findings. Therefore, the present study analyzes to which extent different methods may cause differing results. The present study contrasts by means of one data set the results of three different modelling approaches, Rasch Modelling (RM), Structural Equation Modelling (SEM), and Linear Regression Modelling (LRM). The results of the three models varied considerably, reflecting the different assumptions of the respective models. Latent trait models (i. e., RM and SEM) generally provide more convincing results by correcting for measurement error and the RM specifically proves superior for it treats ordered categorical data most adequately.

  14. Energy Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    For the years 1992 and 1993, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually, which also includes historical time series over a longer period. The tables and figures shown in this publication are: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption; Coal consumption; Natural gas consumption; Peat consumption; Domestic oil deliveries; Import prices of oil; Price development of principal oil products; Fuel prices for power production; Total energy consumption by source; Electricity supply; Energy imports by country of origin in 1993; Energy exports by recipient country in 1993; Consumer prices of liquid fuels; Consumer prices of hard coal and natural gas, prices of indigenous fuels; Average electricity price by type of consumer; Price of district heating by type of consumer and Excise taxes and turnover taxes included in consumer prices of some energy sources

  15. Statistical Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Joseph W.

    2000-07-01

    The Wiley Classics Library consists of selected books that have become recognized classics in their respective fields. With these new unabridged and inexpensive editions, Wiley hopes to extend the life of these important works by making them available to future generations of mathematicians and scientists. Currently available in the Series: T. W. Anderson The Statistical Analysis of Time Series T. S. Arthanari & Yadolah Dodge Mathematical Programming in Statistics Emil Artin Geometric Algebra Norman T. J. Bailey The Elements of Stochastic Processes with Applications to the Natural Sciences Robert G. Bartle The Elements of Integration and Lebesgue Measure George E. P. Box & Norman R. Draper Evolutionary Operation: A Statistical Method for Process Improvement George E. P. Box & George C. Tiao Bayesian Inference in Statistical Analysis R. W. Carter Finite Groups of Lie Type: Conjugacy Classes and Complex Characters R. W. Carter Simple Groups of Lie Type William G. Cochran & Gertrude M. Cox Experimental Designs, Second Edition Richard Courant Differential and Integral Calculus, Volume I RIchard Courant Differential and Integral Calculus, Volume II Richard Courant & D. Hilbert Methods of Mathematical Physics, Volume I Richard Courant & D. Hilbert Methods of Mathematical Physics, Volume II D. R. Cox Planning of Experiments Harold S. M. Coxeter Introduction to Geometry, Second Edition Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Representation Theory of Finite Groups and Associative Algebras Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Methods of Representation Theory with Applications to Finite Groups and Orders, Volume I Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Methods of Representation Theory with Applications to Finite Groups and Orders, Volume II Cuthbert Daniel Fitting Equations to Data: Computer Analysis of Multifactor Data, Second Edition Bruno de Finetti Theory of Probability, Volume I Bruno de Finetti Theory of Probability, Volume 2 W. Edwards Deming Sample Design in Business Research

  16. Energy statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    World data from the United Nation's latest Energy Statistics Yearbook, first published in our last issue, are completed here. The 1984-86 data were revised and 1987 data added for world commercial energy production and consumption, world natural gas plant liquids production, world LP-gas production, imports, exports, and consumption, world residual fuel oil production, imports, exports, and consumption, world lignite production, imports, exports, and consumption, world peat production and consumption, world electricity production, imports, exports, and consumption (Table 80), and world nuclear electric power production

  17. Statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Sheffield, Scott

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, statistical mechanics has been increasingly recognized as a central domain of mathematics. Major developments include the Schramm-Loewner evolution, which describes two-dimensional phase transitions, random matrix theory, renormalization group theory and the fluctuations of random surfaces described by dimers. The lectures contained in this volume present an introduction to recent mathematical progress in these fields. They are designed for graduate students in mathematics with a strong background in analysis and probability. This book will be of particular interest to graduate students and researchers interested in modern aspects of probability, conformal field theory, percolation, random matrices and stochastic differential equations.

  18. Direct superoxide anion scavenging by a disodium disuccinate astaxanthin derivative: Relative efficacy of individual stereoisomers versus the statistical mixture of stereoisomers by electron paramagnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardounel, Arturo J; Dumitrescu, Christian; Zweier, Jay L; Lockwood, Samuel F

    2003-08-01

    Carotenoids are a related group of greater than 600 natural compounds, irrespective of geometric- and stereoisomers, with demonstrated antioxidant efficacy. The carotenoids are broadly divided into "carotenes," or non-oxygen substituted hydrocarbon carotenoids, and "xanthophylls," oxygen-substituted carotenoids. The natural compounds are excellent singlet oxygen quenchers as well as lipid peroxidation chain-breakers; this dual antioxidant capacity is generally attributed to the activity of the polyene chain, and increases with the number of conjugated double bonds along the polyene chain length. However, the poor aqueous solubility of most carotenes and the vast majority of xanthophylls limits their use as aqueous-phase singlet oxygen quenchers and direct radical scavengers. A variety of introduction vehicles (e.g., organic solvents, cyclodextrins) have been used to introduce the insoluble carotenoids into aqueous test systems. Hawaii Biotech, Inc. (HBI) successfully synthesized a novel carotenoid derivative, the disodium disuccinate derivative of astaxanthin (3,3(')-dihydroxy-beta,beta-carotene-4,4(')-dione) in all-trans (all-E) form. The novel derivative is a water-dispersible symmetric chiral molecule with two chiral centers, yielding four stereoisomeric forms: 3R,3(')R and 3S,3(')S (enantiomers), and the diastereomeric meso forms (3R,3(')S and 3(')R,3S). The individual stereoisomers were synthesized at high purity (>90% by HPLC) and compared directly for efficacy with the statistical mixture of stereoisomers obtained from the synthesis from the commercial source of astaxanthin (1:2:1 ratio of 3S,3(')S, meso, and 3R,3(')R, respectively). Direct scavenging of superoxide anion was evaluated in a standard in vitro isolated human neutrophil assay by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging, employing the spin-trap DEPMPO. Each novel derivative was tested in pure aqueous formulation and in ethanolic formulation shown to completely disaggregate the compounds in

  19. Dynamic statistics on radiology-related examinations of the department of dental radiology at the Kyushu Dental College Hospital during the past 10 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakasugi, Nao; Oda, Masahumi; Okabe, Sachiko; Kitou, Shinji; Tanaka, Tatsurou; Morimoto, Yasuhiro

    2008-01-01

    We have reported dynamic statistics on radiology-related examinations and patients in our department every 10 years in order to clarify the role and characteristics of the Department of Dental Radiology at the Kyushu Dental College Hospital. In the last 10 years, the latest models of X-ray CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment have been used, as they were installed when the newly built Kyushu Dental College hospital was opened in September 1999. Therefore, we can now treat more types of disease in the soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial regions than before. In the present study, we examined the precise numbers of radiology-related examinations and patients, and analyzed the purpose of radiology-related examinations in each modality. Plain radiography, X-ray CT scanning, MRI and ultrasonography were performed at our department from April 1, 1995 to March 31, 2007, and were analyzed for examination number and purpose. The results were as follows. The number of patients visiting our hospital and our department increased markedly when the newly built hospital was opened 10 years ago. The annual number of imaging examinations during the same period also increased substantially. However, the annual number of patients has remained relatively constant since the initial increase. There is an apparent relationship between the number of outpatients and the number of imaging examinations. Because our department began to offer MRI examinations in September 1999, the frequency of these examinations has increased annually for the purpose of soft tissue-related diseases in the oral and maxillofacial regions. X-ray CT examination was mainly used for the detection of diseases occurring in the maxilla and mandible, or of calcification-related diseases such as sialolithiasis. On the other hand, the purpose of MRI examination was the precise detection of diseases occurring in the soft tissues, such as salivary glands. The results suggest that the dentists in our

  20. Analysing factors related to slipping, stumbling, and falling accidents at work: Application of data mining methods to Finnish occupational accidents and diseases statistics database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenonen, Noora

    2013-03-01

    The utilisation of data mining methods has become common in many fields. In occupational accident analysis, however, these methods are still rarely exploited. This study applies methods of data mining (decision tree and association rules) to the Finnish national occupational accidents and diseases statistics database to analyse factors related to slipping, stumbling, and falling (SSF) accidents at work from 2006 to 2007. SSF accidents at work constitute a large proportion (22%) of all accidents at work in Finland. In addition, they are more likely to result in longer periods of incapacity for work than other workplace accidents. The most important factor influencing whether or not an accident at work is related to SSF is the specific physical activity of movement. In addition, the risk of SSF accidents at work seems to depend on the occupation and the age of the worker. The results were in line with previous research. Hence the application of data mining methods was considered successful. The results did not reveal anything unexpected though. Nevertheless, because of the capability to illustrate a large dataset and relationships between variables easily, data mining methods were seen as a useful supplementary method in analysing occupational accident data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Gender trouble: The World Health Organization, the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD)-11 and the trans kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Sam

    2017-10-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is revising its diagnostic manual, the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD). At the time of writing, and based on recommendations from its ICD Working Group on Sexual Disorders and Sexual Health, WHO is proposing a new ICD chapter titled Conditions Related to Sexual Health, and that the gender incongruence diagnoses (replacements for the gender identity disorder diagnoses used in ICD-10) should be placed in that chapter. WHO is proposing that there should be a Gender incongruence of childhood (GIC) diagnosis for children below the age of puberty. This last proposal has come under fire. Trans community groups, as well as many healthcare professionals and others working for transgender health and wellbeing, have criticised the proposal on the grounds that the pathologisation of gender diversity at such a young age is inappropriate, unnecessary, harmful and inconsistent with WHO's approach in regard to other aspects of development in childhood and youth. Counter proposals have been offered that do not pathologise gender diversity and instead make use of Z codes to frame and document any contacts that young gender diverse children may have with health services. The author draws on his involvement in the ICD revision process, both as a member of the aforementioned WHO Working Group and as one of its critics, to put the case against the GIC proposal, and to recommend an alternative approach for ICD in addressing the needs of gender diverse children.

  2. HPV-Associated Cancers Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What CDC Is Doing Related Links Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home HPV-Associated Cancer Statistics Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  3. Adolescents and substance-related disorders: research agenda to guide decisions on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Thomas J

    2006-09-01

    Since the publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition (DSM-IV), many studies have addressed substance use disorders (SUD) in adolescents. Based on that adolescent literature, this paper suggests further research to help guide decisions about revising for DSM-V the SUD criteria in DSM-IV. The author has reviewed the 'Substance Related Disorders' section of DSM-IV-TR, recalled his experience in helping to draft that section, accessed relevant articles in PubMed and reviewed his own extensive file of literature citations. This paper suggests six questions for adolescent research to help guide the framers of DSM-V's 'Substance Related Disorders' section: (a) DSM-IV did not provide a diagnosis of cannabis withdrawal; should DSM-V continue that position? (b) Should SUD be included or referenced among 'Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence'? (c) Can inter-rater reliability of the substance abuse (SA) criteria be improved with altered example situations, text descriptions or phrasing of the current criteria? (d) Between ages 14 and 18 years is earlier onset of SUD a severity marker that could be incorporated into DSM-V as a predictor of worse course? (e) In DSM-V could a phenotypic descriptor of pathological multi-substance involvement document severity and predict course of SUD? (f) Could clinicians and patients benefit from DSM-V-related postpublication procedures for classifying emerging new drugs into DSM-V's categories? Without substantive changes in SA or substance dependence diagnostic criteria, research may improve the usefulness of those criteria for adolescents.

  4. Statistical Pattern Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Andrew R

    2011-01-01

    Statistical pattern recognition relates to the use of statistical techniques for analysing data measurements in order to extract information and make justified decisions.  It is a very active area of study and research, which has seen many advances in recent years. Applications such as data mining, web searching, multimedia data retrieval, face recognition, and cursive handwriting recognition, all require robust and efficient pattern recognition techniques. This third edition provides an introduction to statistical pattern theory and techniques, with material drawn from a wide range of fields,

  5. Official Statistics and Statistics Education: Bridging the Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Iddo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to challenge official statistics providers and statistics educators to ponder on how to help non-specialist adult users of statistics develop those aspects of statistical literacy that pertain to official statistics. We first document the gap in the literature in terms of the conceptual basis and educational materials needed for such an undertaking. We then review skills and competencies that may help adults to make sense of statistical information in areas of importance to society. Based on this review, we identify six elements related to official statistics about which non-specialist adult users should possess knowledge in order to be considered literate in official statistics: (1 the system of official statistics and its work principles; (2 the nature of statistics about society; (3 indicators; (4 statistical techniques and big ideas; (5 research methods and data sources; and (6 awareness and skills for citizens’ access to statistical reports. Based on this ad hoc typology, we discuss directions that official statistics providers, in cooperation with statistics educators, could take in order to (1 advance the conceptualization of skills needed to understand official statistics, and (2 expand educational activities and services, specifically by developing a collaborative digital textbook and a modular online course, to improve public capacity for understanding of official statistics.

  6. Comparing Relationships among Yield and Its Related Traits in Mycorrhizal and Nonmycorrhizal Inoculated Wheat Cultivars under Different Water Regimes Using Multivariate Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Saed-Moucheshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate statistical techniques were used to compare the relationship between yield and its related traits under noninoculated and inoculated cultivars with mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus intraradices; each one consisted of three wheat cultivars and four water regimes. Results showed that, under inoculation conditions, spike weight per plant and total chlorophyll content of the flag leaf were the most important variables contributing to wheat grain yield variation, while, under noninoculated condition, in addition to two mentioned traits, grain weight per spike and leaf area were also important variables accounting for wheat grain yield variation. Therefore, spike weight per plant and chlorophyll content of flag leaf can be used as selection criteria in breeding programs for both inoculated and noninoculated wheat cultivars under different water regimes, and also grain weight per spike and leaf area can be considered for noninoculated condition. Furthermore, inoculation of wheat cultivars showed higher value in the most measured traits, and the results indicated that inoculation treatment could change the relationship among morphological traits of wheat cultivars under drought stress. Also, it seems that the results of stepwise regression as a selecting method together with principal component and factor analysis are stronger methods to be applied in breeding programs for screening important traits.

  7. The Relative Weight of Statistical and Prosodic Cues in Speech Segmentation: A Matter of Language-(Independency and of Signal Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Fernandes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In an artificial language setting, we investigated the relative weight of statistical cues (transitional probabilities, TPs in comparison to two prosodic cues, Intonational Phrases (IPs, a language-independent cue and lexical stress (a language-dependent cue. The signal quality was also manipulated through white-noise superimposition. Both IPs and TPs were highly resilient to physical degradation of the signal. An overall performance gain was found when these cues were congruent, but when they were incongruent IPs prevailed over TPs (Experiment 1. After ensuring that duration is treated by Portuguese listeners as a correlate of lexical stress (Experiment 2A, the role of lexical stress and TPs in segmentation was evaluated in Experiment 2B. Lexical stress effects only emerged with physically degraded signal, constraining the extraction of TP-words to the ones supported by both TPs and IPs. Speech segmentation does not seem to be the product of one preponderant cue acting as a filter of the outputs of another, lower-weighted cue. Instead, it mainly depends on the listening conditions, and the weighting of the cues according to their role in a particular language.

  8. Some statistical features of the seismic activity related to the recent M8.2 and M7.1 earthquakes in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, L.; Baeza-Blancas, E.; Reyes, I.; Angulo Brown, F.; Rudolf Navarro, A.

    2017-12-01

    By studying the magnitude earthquake catalogs, previous studies have reported evidence that some changes in the spatial and temporal organization of earthquake activity is observedbefore and after of a main-shock. These previous studies have used different approach methods for detecting clustering behavior and distance-events density in order topoint out the asymmetric behavior of before shocks and aftershocks. Here, we present a statistical analysis of the seismic activity related to the M8.2 and M7.1 earthquakes occurredon Sept. 7th and Sept. 19th, respectively. First, we calculated the interevent time and distance for the period Sept. 7th 2016 until Oct. 20th 2017 for each seismic region ( a radius of 150 km centeredat coordinates of the M8.1 and M7.1). Next, we calculated the "velocity" of the walker as the ratio between the interevent distance and interevent time, and similarly, we also constructed the"acceleration". A slider pointer is considered to estimate some statistical features within time windows of size τ for the velocity and acceleration sequences before and after the main shocks. Specifically, we applied the fractal dimension method to detect changes in the correlation (persistence) behavior of events in the period before the main events.Our preliminary results pointed out that the fractal dimension associated to the velocity and acceleration sequences exhibits changes in the persistence behavior before the mainshock, while thescaling dimension values after the main events resemble a more uncorrelated behavior. Moreover, the relationship between the standard deviation of the velocity and the local mean velocity valuefor a given time window-size τ is described by an exponent close to 1.5, and the cumulative distribution of velocity and acceleration are well described by power law functions after the crash and stretched-exponential-like distribution before the main shock. On the other hand, we present an analysis of patterns of seismicquiescence

  9. Stupid statistics!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellinghuisen, Joel

    2008-01-01

    The method of least squares is probably the most powerful data analysis tool available to scientists. Toward a fuller appreciation of that power, this work begins with an elementary review of statistics fundamentals, and then progressively increases in sophistication as the coverage is extended to the theory and practice of linear and nonlinear least squares. The results are illustrated in application to data analysis problems important in the life sciences. The review of fundamentals includes the role of sampling and its connection to probability distributions, the Central Limit Theorem, and the importance of finite variance. Linear least squares are presented using matrix notation, and the significance of the key probability distributions-Gaussian, chi-square, and t-is illustrated with Monte Carlo calculations. The meaning of correlation is discussed, including its role in the propagation of error. When the data themselves are correlated, special methods are needed for the fitting, as they are also when fitting with constraints. Nonlinear fitting gives rise to nonnormal parameter distributions, but the 10% Rule of Thumb suggests that such problems will be insignificant when the parameter is sufficiently well determined. Illustrations include calibration with linear and nonlinear response functions, the dangers inherent in fitting inverted data (e.g., Lineweaver-Burk equation), an analysis of the reliability of the van't Hoff analysis, the problem of correlated data in the Guggenheim method, and the optimization of isothermal titration calorimetry procedures using the variance-covariance matrix for experiment design. The work concludes with illustrations on assessing and presenting results.

  10. Infodemiological data of high-school drop-out related web searches in Canada correlating with real-world statistical data in the period 2004–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Siri

    2016-12-01

    Examining the data broken down by gender, the correlations were higher and statistically significant in males than in females. GT-based data for drop-out resulted best modeled by an ARMA(1,0 model. Considering the cross correlation of Canadian regions, all of them resulted statistically significant at lag 0, apart from for New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador and the Prince Edward island. A number or cross-correlations resulted statistically significant also at lag −1 (namely, Alberta, Manitoba, New Brunswick and Saskatchewan.

  11. Basics of statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller-Kirsten, Harald J W

    2013-01-01

    Statistics links microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, and requires for this reason a large number of microscopic elements like atoms. The results are values of maximum probability or of averaging. This introduction to statistical physics concentrates on the basic principles, and attempts to explain these in simple terms supplemented by numerous examples. These basic principles include the difference between classical and quantum statistics, a priori probabilities as related to degeneracies, the vital aspect of indistinguishability as compared with distinguishability in classical physics, the differences between conserved and non-conserved elements, the different ways of counting arrangements in the three statistics (Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein), the difference between maximization of the number of arrangements of elements, and averaging in the Darwin-Fowler method. Significant applications to solids, radiation and electrons in metals are treated in separate chapters, as well as Bose-Eins...

  12. Quantifying underreporting of law-enforcement-related deaths in United States vital statistics and news-media-based data sources: A capture-recapture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Justin M; Gruskin, Sofia; Coull, Brent A; Krieger, Nancy

    2017-10-01

    Prior research suggests that United States governmental sources documenting the number of law-enforcement-related deaths (i.e., fatalities due to injuries inflicted by law enforcement officers) undercount these incidents. The National Vital Statistics System (NVSS), administered by the federal government and based on state death certificate data, identifies such deaths by assigning them diagnostic codes corresponding to "legal intervention" in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision (ICD-10). Newer, nongovernmental databases track law-enforcement-related deaths by compiling news media reports and provide an opportunity to assess the magnitude and determinants of suspected NVSS underreporting. Our a priori hypotheses were that underreporting by the NVSS would exceed that by the news media sources, and that underreporting rates would be higher for decedents of color versus white, decedents in lower versus higher income counties, decedents killed by non-firearm (e.g., Taser) versus firearm mechanisms, and deaths recorded by a medical examiner versus coroner. We created a new US-wide dataset by matching cases reported in a nongovernmental, news-media-based dataset produced by the newspaper The Guardian, The Counted, to identifiable NVSS mortality records for 2015. We conducted 2 main analyses for this cross-sectional study: (1) an estimate of the total number of deaths and the proportion unreported by each source using capture-recapture analysis and (2) an assessment of correlates of underreporting of law-enforcement-related deaths (demographic characteristics of the decedent, mechanism of death, death investigator type [medical examiner versus coroner], county median income, and county urbanicity) in the NVSS using multilevel logistic regression. We estimated that the total number of law-enforcement-related deaths in 2015 was 1,166 (95% CI: 1,153, 1,184). There were 599 deaths reported in The Counted only, 36 reported in the NVSS

  13. Recent (2001-09) hydrologic history and regionalization studies in Texas-Statistical characterization of storms, floods, and rainfall-runoff relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, William H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of numerous cooperative studies investigating rainfall and streamflow during 1991-2009 with the Texas Department of Transportation and Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) published about 20 reports describing either historical streamflow conditions (hydrologic history) in Texas or the results of studies involving regional rainfall and streamflow statistics (regionalization studies). Both types of studies are widely used in engineering and scientific applications. Long-term rainfall and streamflow records are essential for deriving reliable rainfall and streamflow statistics. Whereas the need for such records is regionwide, rainfall and streamflow records are site-specific. The USGS has pioneered ways to mathematically transfer site-specific rainfall and streamflow information to provide regional statistical models. In addition to publishing reports describing historical hydrologic data at many monitored locations throughout Texas, the USGS has published reports describing regional models for estimating rainfall and streamflow statistics at unmonitored locations. The primary objectives of these regionalization studies were to provide historical perspectives of streamflow conditions in Texas or estimates of specific statistics of rainfall or streamflow. Statistics such as 6-hour, 1-percent annual exceedance rainfall (a large storm) or 2-percent annual exceedance streamflow (a substantial flood) can be estimated for locations lacking sufficient direct observations of rainfall and streamflow data. This fact sheet provides a brief synopsis of 12 recent (2001-09) USGS hydrologic history and regionalization studies in Texas organized thematically and chronologically.

  14. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2001. Production statistics (1992-2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This is the thirty-fifth in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title The Growth of World industry and the next eight editions under the title Yearbook of Industrial Statistics. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. The statistics refer to the ten-year period 1992-2001 for about 200 countries and areas

  15. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2000. Production statistics (1991-2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This is the thirty-third in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title The Growth of World industry and the next eight editions under the title Yearbook of Industrial Statistics. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. Most of the statistics refer to the ten-year period 1991-2000 for about 200 countries and areas

  16. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2002. Production statistics (1993-2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This is the thirty-sixth in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title 'The Growth of World industry' and the next eight editions under the title 'Yearbook of Industrial Statistics'. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. The statistics refer to the ten-year period 1993-2002 for about 200 countries and areas

  17. Statistical mechanics of nonequilibrium liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Denis J; Craig, D P; McWeeny, R

    1990-01-01

    Statistical Mechanics of Nonequilibrium Liquids deals with theoretical rheology. The book discusses nonlinear response of systems and outlines the statistical mechanical theory. In discussing the framework of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, the book explains the derivation of a nonequilibrium analogue of the Gibbsian basis for equilibrium statistical mechanics. The book reviews the linear irreversible thermodynamics, the Liouville equation, and the Irving-Kirkwood procedure. The text then explains the Green-Kubo relations used in linear transport coefficients, the linear response theory,

  18. Statistical origin of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Rabin; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan

    2010-01-01

    Starting from the definition of entropy used in statistical mechanics we show that it is proportional to the gravity action. For a stationary black hole this entropy is expressed as S=E/2T, where T is the Hawking temperature and E is shown to be the Komar energy. This relation is also compatible with the generalized Smarr formula for mass.

  19. Whither Statistics Education Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This year marks the 25th anniversary of the publication of a "National Statement on Mathematics for Australian Schools", which was the first curriculum statement this country had including "Chance and Data" as a significant component. It is hence an opportune time to survey the history of the related statistics education…

  20. 1979 DOE statistical symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardiner, D.A.; Truett, T.

    1980-09-01

    The 1979 DOE Statistical Symposium was the fifth in the series of annual symposia designed to bring together statisticians and other interested parties who are actively engaged in helping to solve the nation's energy problems. The program included presentations of technical papers centered around exploration and disposal of nuclear fuel, general energy-related topics, and health-related issues, and workshops on model evaluation, risk analysis, analysis of large data sets, and resource estimation

  1. 1979 DOE statistical symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardiner, D.A.; Truett T. (comps. and eds.)

    1980-09-01

    The 1979 DOE Statistical Symposium was the fifth in the series of annual symposia designed to bring together statisticians and other interested parties who are actively engaged in helping to solve the nation's energy problems. The program included presentations of technical papers centered around exploration and disposal of nuclear fuel, general energy-related topics, and health-related issues, and workshops on model evaluation, risk analysis, analysis of large data sets, and resource estimation.

  2. Computational statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hoover, WG

    1991-01-01

    Computational Statistical Mechanics describes the use of fast computers to simulate the equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties of gases, liquids, and solids at, and away from equilibrium. The underlying theory is developed from basic principles and illustrated by applying it to the simplest possible examples. Thermodynamics, based on the ideal gas thermometer, is related to Gibb's statistical mechanics through the use of Nosé-Hoover heat reservoirs. These reservoirs use integral feedback to control temperature. The same approach is carried through to the simulation and anal

  3. Fock representations of the superalgebra sl(n+1 vertical bar m), its quantum analogue Uq[sl(n+1 vertical bar m)] and related quantum statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palev, T.D.; Stoilova, N.I.; Jeugt, J. van der

    1999-12-01

    Fock space representations of the Lie superalgebra sl(n + 1 vertical bar m) and of its quantum analogue U q [sl(n + 1 vertical bar m)] are written down. The results are based on a description of these superalgebras via creation and annihilation operators. The properties of the underlying statistics are briefly discussed. (author)

  4. Interpreting the concordance statistic of a logistic regression model: Relation to the variance and odds ratio of a continuous explanatory variable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Austin (Peter); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: When outcomes are binary, the c-statistic (equivalent to the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve) is a standard measure of the predictive accuracy of a logistic regression model. Methods. An analytical expression was derived under the assumption that a

  5. Statistics for Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström, Erik; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Jan Nygaard

    that rarely connect concepts to data and books on econometrics and time series analysis that do not cover specific problems related to option valuation. The book discusses applications of financial derivatives pertaining to risk assessment and elimination. The authors cover various statistical......Statistics for Finance develops students’ professional skills in statistics with applications in finance. Developed from the authors’ courses at the Technical University of Denmark and Lund University, the text bridges the gap between classical, rigorous treatments of financial mathematics...... and mathematical techniques, including linear and nonlinear time series analysis, stochastic calculus models, stochastic differential equations, Itō’s formula, the Black–Scholes model, the generalized method-of-moments, and the Kalman filter. They explain how these tools are used to price financial derivatives...

  6. Statistics for Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström, Erik; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Jan Nygaard

    Statistics for Finance develops students’ professional skills in statistics with applications in finance. Developed from the authors’ courses at the Technical University of Denmark and Lund University, the text bridges the gap between classical, rigorous treatments of financial mathematics...... that rarely connect concepts to data and books on econometrics and time series analysis that do not cover specific problems related to option valuation. The book discusses applications of financial derivatives pertaining to risk assessment and elimination. The authors cover various statistical...... and mathematical techniques, including linear and nonlinear time series analysis, stochastic calculus models, stochastic differential equations, Itō’s formula, the Black–Scholes model, the generalized method-of-moments, and the Kalman filter. They explain how these tools are used to price financial derivatives...

  7. Algebraic generalization of quantum statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoilova, N I; Van der Jeugt, J

    2008-01-01

    Generalized quantum statistics such as para-Bose and para-Fermi statistics are related to the basic classical Lie superalgebras B(0|n) and B n . We give a quite general definition of 'a generalized quantum statistics associated to a Lie superalgebra G'. This definition is closely related to a certain Z-grading of G. The generalized quantum statistics is determined by a set of root vectors (the creation and annihilation operators of the statistics) and the set of algebraic relations for these operators. Then we give a complete classification of all generalized quantum statistics associated to the Lie superalgebras A n , B n , C n , D n , G 2 , F 4 , E 6 , E 7 , E 8 , A(m|n), B(m|n), C(n), D(m|n), G(3), F(4) and D(2; 1; α).

  8. Statistical core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelkers, E.; Heller, A.S.; Farnsworth, D.A.; Kearfott, K.J.

    1978-01-01

    The report describes the statistical analysis of DNBR thermal-hydraulic margin of a 3800 MWt, 205-FA core under design overpower conditions. The analysis used LYNX-generated data at predetermined values of the input variables whose uncertainties were to be statistically combined. LYNX data were used to construct an efficient response surface model in the region of interest; the statistical analysis was accomplished through the evaluation of core reliability; utilizing propagation of the uncertainty distributions of the inputs. The response surface model was implemented in both the analytical error propagation and Monte Carlo Techniques. The basic structural units relating to the acceptance criteria are fuel pins. Therefore, the statistical population of pins with minimum DNBR values smaller than specified values is determined. The specified values are designated relative to the most probable and maximum design DNBR values on the power limiting pin used in present design analysis, so that gains over the present design criteria could be assessed for specified probabilistic acceptance criteria. The results are equivalent to gains ranging from 1.2 to 4.8 percent of rated power dependent on the acceptance criterion. The corresponding acceptance criteria range from 95 percent confidence that no pin will be in DNB to 99.9 percent of the pins, which are expected to avoid DNB

  9. Practical statistics in pain research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyun

    2017-10-01

    Pain is subjective, while statistics related to pain research are objective. This review was written to help researchers involved in pain research make statistical decisions. The main issues are related with the level of scales that are often used in pain research, the choice of statistical methods between parametric or nonparametric statistics, and problems which arise from repeated measurements. In the field of pain research, parametric statistics used to be applied in an erroneous way. This is closely related with the scales of data and repeated measurements. The level of scales includes nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio scales. The level of scales affects the choice of statistics between parametric or non-parametric methods. In the field of pain research, the most frequently used pain assessment scale is the ordinal scale, which would include the visual analogue scale (VAS). There used to be another view, however, which considered the VAS to be an interval or ratio scale, so that the usage of parametric statistics would be accepted practically in some cases. Repeated measurements of the same subjects always complicates statistics. It means that measurements inevitably have correlations between each other, and would preclude the application of one-way ANOVA in which independence between the measurements is necessary. Repeated measures of ANOVA (RMANOVA), however, would permit the comparison between the correlated measurements as long as the condition of sphericity assumption is satisfied. Conclusively, parametric statistical methods should be used only when the assumptions of parametric statistics, such as normality and sphericity, are established.

  10. Worry, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Statistics Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amanda S.

    2013-01-01

    Statistics anxiety is a problem for most graduate students. This study investigates the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and statistics anxiety. Intolerance of uncertainty was significantly related to worry, and worry was significantly related to three types of statistics anxiety. Six types of statistics anxiety were…

  11. Perception in statistical graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderPlas, Susan Ruth

    There has been quite a bit of research on statistical graphics and visualization, generally focused on new types of graphics, new software to create graphics, interactivity, and usability studies. Our ability to interpret and use statistical graphics hinges on the interface between the graph itself and the brain that perceives and interprets it, and there is substantially less research on the interplay between graph, eye, brain, and mind than is sufficient to understand the nature of these relationships. The goal of the work presented here is to further explore the interplay between a static graph, the translation of that graph from paper to mental representation (the journey from eye to brain), and the mental processes that operate on that graph once it is transferred into memory (mind). Understanding the perception of statistical graphics should allow researchers to create more effective graphs which produce fewer distortions and viewer errors while reducing the cognitive load necessary to understand the information presented in the graph. Taken together, these experiments should lay a foundation for exploring the perception of statistical graphics. There has been considerable research into the accuracy of numerical judgments viewers make from graphs, and these studies are useful, but it is more effective to understand how errors in these judgments occur so that the root cause of the error can be addressed directly. Understanding how visual reasoning relates to the ability to make judgments from graphs allows us to tailor graphics to particular target audiences. In addition, understanding the hierarchy of salient features in statistical graphics allows us to clearly communicate the important message from data or statistical models by constructing graphics which are designed specifically for the perceptual system.

  12. MQSA National Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standards Act and Program MQSA Insights MQSA National Statistics Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... but should level off with time. Archived Scorecard Statistics 2018 Scorecard Statistics 2017 Scorecard Statistics 2016 Scorecard ...

  13. Sampling, Probability Models and Statistical Reasoning Statistical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 5. Sampling, Probability Models and Statistical Reasoning Statistical Inference. Mohan Delampady V R Padmawar. General Article Volume 1 Issue 5 May 1996 pp 49-58 ...

  14. Sampling, Probability Models and Statistical Reasoning Statistical

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 5. Sampling, Probability Models and Statistical Reasoning Statistical Inference. Mohan Delampady V R Padmawar. General Article Volume 1 Issue 5 May 1996 pp 49-58 ...

  15. Data on people's interests related to entry into the Chinese market based on Internet activity corresponding to real-world statistical data in the period 2004–2015 in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiren Fan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article describes Internet activities in Japan related to entry into the Chinese market from 2004 to 2015 using data obtained from mining Google Trends. The search volumes were processed and correlated with statistical annual data on the number of Chinese companies founded by investment from Japanese companies. Relative search volumes generated by Google Trends reflect the increase and decrease in the number of Chinese companies founded by Japanese companies in the “real world.” The correlation between relative search volumes generated by Google Trends and foundation of companies in the “real world” in the study period (2004–2015 was statistically significant. Keywords: China, Japan, Google Trends, Data mining

  16. Statistics for dental researchers: descriptive statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Baneshi PhD; Amir Reza Ghassemi DDS; Arash Shahravan DDS, MS

    2012-01-01

    Descriptive statistics is the process of summarizing gathered raw data from a research and creating useful statistics,which help the better understanding of data. According to the types of variables, which consist of qualitative andquantitative variables, some descriptive statistics have been introduced. Frequency percentage is used in qualitativedata, and mean, median, mode, standard deviation, standard error, variance, and range are some of the statistics whichare used in quantitative data....

  17. National Statistical Commission and Indian Official Statistics*

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    existence in July. 2006, is mandated, among its functions, to exercise statistical co-ordination between. Ministries,. Departments and other agencies of the. Central government; ... tween the Directorate General of Commercial Intelligence and. Statistics ... in some states do not play a nodal role in the coordination of statistical ...

  18. National Statistical Commission and Indian Official Statistics*

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Advanced Institute of. Maths, Stats and Com- puter Science, UoH. Campus, Hyderabad. His research interests include theory and practice of sample surveys .... other agencies of the. Central government; and to exercise statistical audit over the statistical activities to ensure quality and integrity of the statistical products.

  19. Frontiers in statistical quality control

    CERN Document Server

    Wilrich, Peter-Theodor

    2004-01-01

    This volume treats the four main categories of Statistical Quality Control: General SQC Methodology, On-line Control including Sampling Inspection and Statistical Process Control, Off-line Control with Data Analysis and Experimental Design, and, fields related to Reliability. Experts with international reputation present their newest contributions.

  20. Long-term radiographic evaluation of risk factors related to implant treatment: suggestion for alternative statistical analysis of marginal bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Masakazu; Hotta, Yasunori; Hoshino, Takahiro; Ito, Koji; Komatsu, Shinichi; Saito, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    Secular change in marginal bone loss (MBL), which is the index adopted for implant success criteria, has often been used to evaluate risk factors. However, the need to revise these criteria has recently been indicated due to rapid developments in implant treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors by analyzing MBL with an alternative statistical method. The analyses were performed on the outcomes of 366 patients with 1,902 implants during an average follow-up period of 84.8 months (with a maximum follow-up of 258 months). Instead of evaluating annual MBL, time was calculated as one of the explanatory variables because the correlation between MBL and time was small (correlation coefficient of 0.09010). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used for exploratory assessment of each factor, and multiple regression analysis was then utilized to identify risk factors. The multiple regression analysis was performed twice, once among all implants and another in which one implant per patient was randomly selected. As a result of multiple regression analysis, smoking habits showed a significant effect on MBL. Age, sex, diabetes mellitus, implant positions, guided bone regeneration, and sinus floor elevation did not affect MBL. IMZ ® implants were associated with significantly higher MBL than were ANKYLOS ® and SPI ® implants. There was no significant difference between Straumann ® and other implants. Our results showed that another statistical process, which eliminated the effect of time rather than comparing annual MBL, could be applied to evaluate MBL because the correlation between MBL and time was small. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Statistical modeling for degradation data

    CERN Document Server

    Lio, Yuhlong; Ng, Hon; Tsai, Tzong-Ru

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the statistical aspects of the analysis of degradation data. In recent years, degradation data analysis has come to play an increasingly important role in different disciplines such as reliability, public health sciences, and finance. For example, information on products’ reliability can be obtained by analyzing degradation data. In addition, statistical modeling and inference techniques have been developed on the basis of different degradation measures. The book brings together experts engaged in statistical modeling and inference, presenting and discussing important recent advances in degradation data analysis and related applications. The topics covered are timely and have considerable potential to impact both statistics and reliability engineering.

  2. Statistics for dental researchers: descriptive statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Baneshi PhD

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Descriptive statistics is the process of summarizing gathered raw data from a research and creating useful statistics,which help the better understanding of data. According to the types of variables, which consist of qualitative andquantitative variables, some descriptive statistics have been introduced. Frequency percentage is used in qualitativedata, and mean, median, mode, standard deviation, standard error, variance, and range are some of the statistics whichare used in quantitative data. In health sciences, the majority of continuous variables follow a normal distribution.skewness and kurtosis are two statistics which help to compare a given distribution with the normal distribution.

  3. Computer intensive statistical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakowitz, S.

    The special session “Computer-Intensive Statistical Methods” was held in morning and afternoon parts at the 1985 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. Calif. Its mission was to provide a forum for hydrologists and statisticians who are active in bringing unconventional, algorithmic-oriented statistical techniques to bear on problems of hydrology. Statistician Emanuel Parzen (Texas A&M University, College Station, Tex.) opened the session by relating recent developments in quantile estimation methods and showing how properties of such methods can be used to advantage to categorize runoff data previously analyzed by I. Rodriguez-Iturbe (Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas, Venezuela). Statistician Eugene Schuster (University of Texas, El Paso) discussed recent developments in nonparametric density estimation which enlarge the framework for convenient incorporation of prior and ancillary information. These extensions were motivated by peak annual flow analysis. Mathematician D. Myers (University of Arizona, Tucson) gave a brief overview of “kriging” and outlined some recently developed methodology.

  4. Statistics of force networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Brian

    2009-03-01

    We study the statistics of contact forces in the force network ensemble, a minimal model of jammed granular media that emphasizes the role of vector force balance. We show that the force probability distribution can be calculated analytically by way of an analogy to equilibrium ensemble methods. In two dimensions the large force tail decays asymptotically as a Gaussian, distinct from earlier predictions, due to the existence of a conserved quantity related to the presence of local vector force balance. We confirm our predictions with highly accurate statistical sampling -- we sample the force distribution over more than 40 decades -- permitting unambiguous confrontation of theory with numerics. We show how the conserved quantity arises naturally within the context of any constant stress ensemble.

  5. General and Statistical Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir-Kheli, Raza

    2012-01-01

    This textbook explains completely the general and statistical thermodynamics. It begins with an introductory statistical mechanics course, deriving all the important formulae meticulously and explicitly, without mathematical short cuts. The main part of the book deals with the careful discussion of the concepts and laws of thermodynamics, van der Waals, Kelvin and Claudius theories, ideal and real gases, thermodynamic potentials, phonons and all the related aspects. To elucidate the concepts introduced and to provide practical problem solving support, numerous carefully worked examples are of great value for students. The text is clearly written and punctuated with many interesting anecdotes. This book is written as main textbook for upper undergraduate students attending a course on thermodynamics.

  6. Measurement and statistics for teachers

    CERN Document Server

    Van Blerkom, Malcolm

    2008-01-01

    Written in a student-friendly style, Measurement and Statistics for Teachers shows teachers how to use measurement and statistics wisely in their classes. Although there is some discussion of theory, emphasis is given to the practical, everyday uses of measurement and statistics. The second part of the text provides more complete coverage of basic descriptive statistics and their use in the classroom than in any text now available.Comprehensive and accessible, Measurement and Statistics for Teachers includes:Short vignettes showing concepts in action Numerous classroom examples Highlighted vocabulary Boxes summarizing related concepts End-of-chapter exercises and problems Six full chapters devoted to the essential topic of Classroom Tests Instruction on how to carry out informal assessments, performance assessments, and portfolio assessments, and how to use and interpret standardized tests A five-chapter section on Descriptive Statistics, giving instructors the option of more thoroughly teaching basic measur...

  7. Statistical Aspects Related to the Search of Spatial and Temporary Patterns of Some Climate and Vegetation Parameters Around the Timberline of Pico de Orizaba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Kuri, L.; Castillo-González, N.; Mora-Domínguez, J.; McKay, C. P.; Navarro-González, R.

    2003-04-01

    Pico de Orizaba (19° N), the tallest mountain in Mexico, has environmental conditions that probably could have occurred in ancient Mars and may also be relevant to the future introduction of life on Mars. Pico de Orizaba has the highest tree line in the world (>4200m). Therefore, our interest to study tree lines at thermal gradients. Since March of 1999 we started to monitor the environmental conditions of the mountain at several sites, above, below and within the tree line of the domineering species P. hartweggi and have been studying the physical and chemical properties of soil as well as those of microbial activity. In particular, soil temperatures at various depths, as well as external temperatures and other measurements such as air humidity, rain events, etc., in addition to tree trunk temperatures, are being recorded hourly since then in an ongoing process to continue for several years. The present is a report of some of the statistical analysis performed on the data, including cross correlations of the resulting time series, in an effort to detect spatial and temporary patterns.

  8. Statistical Mechanics Algorithms and Computations

    CERN Document Server

    Krauth, Werner

    2006-01-01

    This book discusses the computational approach in modern statistical physics, adopting simple language and an attractive format of many illustrations, tables and printed algorithms. The discussion of key subjects in classical and quantum statistical physics will appeal to students, teachers and researchers in physics and related sciences. The focus is on orientation with implementation details kept to a minimum. - ;This book discusses the computational approach in modern statistical physics in a clear and accessible way and demonstrates its close relation to other approaches in theoretical phy

  9. Approaches to statistical analysis of repeated echocardiographic measurements after myocardial infarction and its relation to heart failure : Application of a random-effects model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kam, PJ; Voors, AA; Brouwer, J; van Gilst, WH

    Background: Extensive left ventricular (LV) dilatation after myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with increased heart failure risk. Aims: To investigate whether the power to demonstrate the relation between LV dilatation and heart failure depends on the method applied to predict LV dilatation

  10. Feelings and Performance in the First Year at University: Learning-Related Emotions as Predictors of Achievement Outcomes in Mathematics and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculescu, Alexandra C.; Templelaar, Dirk; Leppink, Jimmie; Dailey-Hebert, Amber; Segers, Mien; Gijselaers, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined the predictive value of four learning-related emotions--Enjoyment, Anxiety, Boredom and Hopelessness for achievement outcomes in the first year of study at university. Method: We used a large sample (N = 2337) of first year university students enrolled over three consecutive academic years in a mathematics and…

  11. Relating Pandora and OMI column-density observations to surface mixing ratio: A statistical analysis of NO2 measurements during the DISCOVER-AQ campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollonige, D. E.; Thompson, A. M.; Herman, J. R.; Abuhassan, N.; Szykman, J.; Long, R.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) campaign was a four part field study designed to analyze variability in atmospheric composition across major urban regions and link surface conditions to column abundances captured by remote sensing observations (ie. ground- and satellite-based). To investigate the ability of column information to represent surface air quality, a summary of comparisons between surface mixing ratio data and O3 and NO2 column abundances are presented for all four deployments of DISCOVER-AQ (Baltimore/ Washington DC, MD [2011]; San Joaquin Valley, CA [2013]; Houston, TX [2013]; and Denver, CO [2014]). Data collected at each location by ground-based Pandora spectrometers and Aura/OMI satellite instrument, and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height measurements, also allow direct comparisons between in situ surface NO2 concentrations and surface estimations from Pandora and OMI columns using Kollonige-Knepp method. If PBL height observations are unavailable for a site location, an AIRS (Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder) boundary layer top product will be used to scale the NO2 column abundances for the surface estimations. A statistical analysis of this method across all campaigns as well as case studies under variable meteorological conditions from each deployment are discussed in detail, including clean and polluted conditions in each region. Results from this analysis are valuable to air quality community in preparation for emission inventory evaluations, exceptional event studies, and the upcoming high-resolution satellite observations (ie. TROPOMI and TEMPO).

  12. Probabilistic human health risk assessment of degradation-related chemical mixtures in heterogeneous aquifers: Risk statistics, hot spots, and preferential channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri, Christopher V.; Fernàndez-Garcia, Daniel; de Barros, Felipe P. J.

    2015-06-01

    The increasing presence of toxic chemicals released in the subsurface has led to a rapid growth of social concerns and the need to develop and employ models that can predict the impact of groundwater contamination on human health risk under uncertainty. Monitored natural attenuation is a common remediation action in many contamination cases. However, natural attenuation can lead to the production of daughter species of distinct toxicity that may pose challenges in pollution management strategies. The actual threat that these contaminants pose to human health depends on the interplay between the complex structure of the geological media and the toxicity of each pollutant byproduct. This work addresses human health risk for chemical mixtures resulting from the sequential degradation of a contaminant (such as a chlorinated solvent) under uncertainty through high-resolution three-dimensional numerical simulations. We systematically investigate the interaction between aquifer heterogeneity, flow connectivity, contaminant injection model, and chemical toxicity in the probabilistic characterization of health risk. We illustrate how chemical-specific travel times control the regime of the expected risk and its corresponding uncertainties. Results indicate conditions where preferential flow paths can favor the reduction of the overall risk of the chemical mixture. The overall human risk response to aquifer connectivity is shown to be nontrivial for multispecies transport. This nontriviality is a result of the interaction between aquifer heterogeneity and chemical toxicity. To quantify the joint effect of connectivity and toxicity in health risk, we propose a toxicity-based Damköhler number. Furthermore, we provide a statistical characterization in terms of low-order moments and the probability density function of the individual and total risks.

  13. [Legal medicine specialists within the framework of acute care : Analysis of legal medicine consultations in relation to the victims' statistics of the state office of criminal investigation in Saxony-Anhalt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliske, G; Heide, S; Lucas, B; Brandstädter, K; Walcher, F; Kropf, S; Lessig, R; Piatek, S

    2017-09-18

    In acute medical care, there are patients who have been injured by the influence of others. The aim of this study was to analyze all cases which were presented to the Institute for Legal Medicine of the University Halle (Saale). The cases where analyzed in relation to the victims' statistics of the state office of criminal investigation in Saxony-Anhalt. The consultations of the Institute for Legal Medicine Halle-Wittenberg for 2012-2015 were evaluated with regard to the age and gender distribution, the reasons for the consultation and time until the request for consultations. These cases were statistically compared to the victims' statistics of the state office of criminal investigation in Saxony-Anhalt 2014-2015. A total of 536 cases (55.6% male and 44.4% female patients) were evaluated. In all, 62.1% of patients were under 18 years of age; 43.5% of all consultations were requested by pediatric (surgery) clinics. The most common reasons for consultation were sexual child abuse or violence against children (50.7%). Compared to the victims' statistics, significantly more children were examined by legal medicine specialists than could have been expected (p < 0.001). In adult patients, the most common causes for consultation were acts of violence (20.4%) and domestic violence (10.1%). Among adults, significantly more women and fewer men were presented than expected (p = 0.001). There were only a small number of consultations of legal medicine specialists in relation to the victims' statistics. Most of them were children and women. The temporal latency between the act of violence and the consultations was one day and more. The latency and the renunciation of the consultation of the legal medicine specialists can lead to loss of evidence.

  14. Statistical clumped isotope signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röckmann, T.; Popa, M. E.; Krol, M. C.; Hofmann, M. E. G.

    2016-01-01

    High precision measurements of molecules containing more than one heavy isotope may provide novel constraints on element cycles in nature. These so-called clumped isotope signatures are reported relative to the random (stochastic) distribution of heavy isotopes over all available isotopocules of a molecule, which is the conventional reference. When multiple indistinguishable atoms of the same element are present in a molecule, this reference is calculated from the bulk (≈average) isotopic composition of the involved atoms. We show here that this referencing convention leads to apparent negative clumped isotope anomalies (anti-clumping) when the indistinguishable atoms originate from isotopically different populations. Such statistical clumped isotope anomalies must occur in any system where two or more indistinguishable atoms of the same element, but with different isotopic composition, combine in a molecule. The size of the anti-clumping signal is closely related to the difference of the initial isotope ratios of the indistinguishable atoms that have combined. Therefore, a measured statistical clumped isotope anomaly, relative to an expected (e.g. thermodynamical) clumped isotope composition, may allow assessment of the heterogeneity of the isotopic pools of atoms that are the substrate for formation of molecules. PMID:27535168

  15. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  16. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumor > Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/ ... the body. It is important to remember that statistics on the survival rates for people with a ...

  17. State transportation statistics 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2009, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Col...

  18. BTS statistical standards manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), like other federal statistical agencies, establishes professional standards to guide the methods and procedures for the collection, processing, storage, and presentation of statistical data. Standards an...

  19. The foundations of statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Savage, Leonard J

    1972-01-01

    Classic analysis of the foundations of statistics and development of personal probability, one of the greatest controversies in modern statistical thought. Revised edition. Calculus, probability, statistics, and Boolean algebra are recommended.

  20. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses Incidence Rates Over Time Cancer Deaths Per Year 5-Year Survival Rate Infographics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Important Facts Each year, the ...

  1. Assessment of the Eutrophication-Related Environmental Parameters in Two Mediterranean Lakes by Integrating Statistical Techniques and Self-Organizing Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterini Hadjisolomou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, Mediterranean freshwater ecosystems, especially lakes, have been under severe pressure due to increasing eutrophication and water quality deterioration. In this article, we compared the effectiveness of different data analysis methods by assessing the contribution of environmental parameters to eutrophication processes. For this purpose, principal components analysis (PCA, cluster analysis, and a self-organizing map (SOM were applied, using water quality data from two transboundary lakes of North Greece. SOM is considered as an advanced and powerful data analysis tool because of its ability to represent complex and nonlinear relationships among multivariate data sets. The results of PCA and cluster analysis agreed with the SOM results, although the latter provided more information because of the visualization abilities regarding the parameters’ relationships. Besides nutrients that were found to be a key factor for controlling chlorophyll-a (Chl-a, water temperature was related positively with algal production, while the Secchi disk depth parameter was found to be highly important and negatively related toeutrophic conditions. In general, the SOM results were more specific and allowed direct associations between the water quality variables. Our work showed that SOMs can be used effectively in limnological studies to produce robust and interpretable results, aiding scientists and managers to cope with environmental problems such as eutrophication.

  2. [The Russian and international standards of age-related allocation of population for medical statistics, medical demographic analysis and risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demin, V F; Paltsev, M A

    2013-01-01

    The actual European standard of age-related allocation of population in action is largely implemented in medical demographic studies of international (WHO etc.) and national organizations. The Rosstat also implements this standard in its demographic yearbooks and other publications. The standard is applied in computing the standardized indicator of population mortality in different countries and territories and also in assessing risk factors. The standard is based on the idea of evaluating mortality with an integrated standard in order to compare between different countries mortality of population, genders and calendar years. The analysis of results of testing calculations of values of standardized indicator of mortality of population of Russia and EU countries applying European standard in action revealed serious shortcomings. For example. unfounded overstating of values of standardized indicator, of mortality for males and its understating for females artificially increases already wide difference in mortality of males and females in the Russian Federation. The calculation on this background of standardized indicator of mortality for particular causes of death results in erroneous values due to neglected concurrence of risks. Because of necessity of improvement of standard a new concept of development of national and international standards is proposed. This concept is based on application of notion of balanced age-related allocation of population and its number values.

  3. Automated statistical experimental design approach for rapid separation of coenzyme Q10 and identification of its biotechnological process related impurities using UHPLC and UHPLC-APCI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talluri, Murali V N Kumar; Kalariya, Pradipbhai D; Dharavath, Shireesha; Shaikh, Naeem; Garg, Prabha; Ramisetti, Nageswara Rao; Ragampeta, Srinivas

    2016-09-01

    A novel ultra high performance liquid chromatography method development strategy was ameliorated by applying quality by design approach. The developed systematic approach was divided into five steps (i) Analytical Target Profile, (ii) Critical Quality Attributes, (iii) Risk Assessments of Critical parameters using design of experiments (screening and optimization phases), (iv) Generation of design space, and (v) Process Capability Analysis (Cp) for robustness study using Monte Carlo simulation. The complete quality-by-design-based method development was made automated and expedited by employing sub-2 μm particles column with an ultra high performance liquid chromatography system. Successful chromatographic separation of the Coenzyme Q10 from its biotechnological process related impurities was achieved on a Waters Acquity phenyl hexyl (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) column with gradient elution of 10 mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.0) and a mixture of acetonitrile/2-propanol (1:1) as the mobile phase. Through this study, fast and organized method development workflow was developed and robustness of the method was also demonstrated. The method was validated for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, and robustness in compliance to the International Conference on Harmonization, Q2 (R1) guidelines. The impurities were identified by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry technique. Further, the in silico toxicity of impurities was analyzed using TOPKAT and DEREK software. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Medicaid Statistical Information System (MSIS) Tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 25 MSIS statistical tables contain national state-by-state data. These tables contain high-level aggregated statistics relating to Medicaid eligibility and...

  5. Generalized quantum statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C.

    1992-01-01

    In the paper, a non-anyonic generalization of quantum statistics is presented, in which Fermi-Dirac statistics (FDS) and Bose-Einstein statistics (BES) appear as two special cases. The new quantum statistics, which is characterized by the dimension of its single particle Fock space, contains three consistent parts, namely the generalized bilinear quantization, the generalized quantum mechanical description and the corresponding statistical mechanics

  6. Statistical theory of signal detection

    CERN Document Server

    Helstrom, Carl Wilhelm; Costrell, L; Kandiah, K

    1968-01-01

    Statistical Theory of Signal Detection, Second Edition provides an elementary introduction to the theory of statistical testing of hypotheses that is related to the detection of signals in radar and communications technology. This book presents a comprehensive survey of digital communication systems. Organized into 11 chapters, this edition begins with an overview of the theory of signal detection and the typical detection problem. This text then examines the goals of the detection system, which are defined through an analogy with the testing of statistical hypotheses. Other chapters consider

  7. Statistical aspects of nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    The statistical properties of energy levels and a statistical approach to transition strengths are discussed in relation to nuclear structure studies at high excitation energies. It is shown that the calculations can be extended to the ground state domain also. The discussion is based on the study of random matrix theory of level density and level spacings, using the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble (GOE) concept. The short range and long range correlations are also studied statistically. The polynomial expansion method is used to obtain excitation strengths. (A.K.)

  8. Sensometrics: Thurstonian and Statistical Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    This thesis is concerned with the development and bridging of Thurstonian and statistical models for sensory discrimination testing as applied in the scientific discipline of sensometrics. In sensory discrimination testing sensory differences between products are detected and quantified by the us...... of generalized linear mixed models, cumulative link models and cumulative link mixed models. The relation between the Wald, likelihood and score statistics is expanded upon using the shape of the (profile) likelihood function as common reference....

  9. [Comment on] Statistical discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Douglas

    In the December 8, 1981, issue of Eos, a news item reported the conclusion of a National Research Council study that sexual discrimination against women with Ph.D.'s exists in the field of geophysics. Basically, the item reported that even when allowances are made for motherhood the percentage of female Ph.D.'s holding high university and corporate positions is significantly lower than the percentage of male Ph.D.'s holding the same types of positions. The sexual discrimination conclusion, based only on these statistics, assumes that there are no basic psychological differences between men and women that might cause different populations in the employment group studied. Therefore, the reasoning goes, after taking into account possible effects from differences related to anatomy, such as women stopping their careers in order to bear and raise children, the statistical distributions of positions held by male and female Ph.D.'s ought to be very similar to one another. Any significant differences between the distributions must be caused primarily by sexual discrimination.

  10. Statistical methods for forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Bovas

    2009-01-01

    The Wiley-Interscience Paperback Series consists of selected books that have been made more accessible to consumers in an effort to increase global appeal and general circulation. With these new unabridged softcover volumes, Wiley hopes to extend the lives of these works by making them available to future generations of statisticians, mathematicians, and scientists."This book, it must be said, lives up to the words on its advertising cover: ''Bridging the gap between introductory, descriptive approaches and highly advanced theoretical treatises, it provides a practical, intermediate level discussion of a variety of forecasting tools, and explains how they relate to one another, both in theory and practice.'' It does just that!"-Journal of the Royal Statistical Society"A well-written work that deals with statistical methods and models that can be used to produce short-term forecasts, this book has wide-ranging applications. It could be used in the context of a study of regression, forecasting, and time series ...

  11. Industrial statistics with Minitab

    CERN Document Server

    Cintas, Pere Grima; Llabres, Xavier Tort-Martorell

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Statistics with MINITAB demonstrates the use of MINITAB as a tool for performing statistical analysis in an industrial context. This book covers introductory industrial statistics, exploring the most commonly used techniques alongside those that serve to give an overview of more complex issues. A plethora of examples in MINITAB are featured along with case studies for each of the statistical techniques presented. Industrial Statistics with MINITAB: Provides comprehensive coverage of user-friendly practical guidance to the essential statistical methods applied in industry.Explores

  12. Statistics For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rumsey, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    The fun and easy way to get down to business with statistics Stymied by statistics? No fear ? this friendly guide offers clear, practical explanations of statistical ideas, techniques, formulas, and calculations, with lots of examples that show you how these concepts apply to your everyday life. Statistics For Dummies shows you how to interpret and critique graphs and charts, determine the odds with probability, guesstimate with confidence using confidence intervals, set up and carry out a hypothesis test, compute statistical formulas, and more.Tracks to a typical first semester statistics cou

  13. Reducing statistics anxiety and enhancing statistics learning achievement: effectiveness of a one-minute strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Chei-Chang; Wang, Yu-Min; Lee, Li-Tze

    2014-08-01

    Statistical knowledge is widely used in academia; however, statistics teachers struggle with the issue of how to reduce students' statistics anxiety and enhance students' statistics learning. This study assesses the effectiveness of a "one-minute paper strategy" in reducing students' statistics-related anxiety and in improving students' statistics-related achievement. Participants were 77 undergraduates from two classes enrolled in applied statistics courses. An experiment was implemented according to a pretest/posttest comparison group design. The quasi-experimental design showed that the one-minute paper strategy significantly reduced students' statistics anxiety and improved students' statistics learning achievement. The strategy was a better instructional tool than the textbook exercise for reducing students' statistics anxiety and improving students' statistics achievement.

  14. National transportation statistics 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    National Transportation Statistics presents statistics on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record, economic performance, the human and natural environment, and national security. This is a large online documen...

  15. National transportation statistics 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record, ...

  16. Mental Illness Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News & Events About Us Home > Health Information Share Statistics Research shows that mental illnesses are common in ... of mental illnesses, such as suicide and disability. Statistics Top ı cs Mental Illness Any Anxiety Disorder ...

  17. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Learn About Blood > Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts ... about American Red Cross Blood Services Facts about blood needs Every two seconds someone in the U.S. ...

  18. CMS Program Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Enterprise Data and Analytics has developed CMS Program Statistics, which includes detailed summary statistics on national health care, Medicare...

  19. Statistics for Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström, Erik; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Jan Nygaard

    Statistics for Finance develops students’ professional skills in statistics with applications in finance. Developed from the authors’ courses at the Technical University of Denmark and Lund University, the text bridges the gap between classical, rigorous treatments of financial mathematics...

  20. Developments in Statistical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Ramesh

    1980-01-01

    The current status of statistics education at the secondary level is reviewed, with particular attention focused on the various instructional programs in England. A description and preliminary evaluation of the Schools Council Project on Statistical Education is included. (MP)

  1. Principles of applied statistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cox, D. R; Donnelly, Christl A

    2011-01-01

    .... David Cox and Christl Donnelly distil decades of scientific experience into usable principles for the successful application of statistics, showing how good statistical strategy shapes every stage of an investigation...

  2. Statistical data analysis handbook

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wall, Francis J

    1986-01-01

    It must be emphasized that this is not a text book on statistics. Instead it is a working tool that presents data analysis in clear, concise terms which can be readily understood even by those without formal training in statistics...

  3. Transforming Graph Data for Statistical Relational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Enron email corpus and demonstrate that it outperforms Link-LDA and several other baselines on the task of protein functional category prediction. 7.4...Wang, X., & Corrada-Emmanuel, A. (2007). Topic and role discovery in social networks with experiments on enron and academic email. In Journal of

  4. Applying contemporary statistical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Rand R

    2003-01-01

    Applying Contemporary Statistical Techniques explains why traditional statistical methods are often inadequate or outdated when applied to modern problems. Wilcox demonstrates how new and more powerful techniques address these problems far more effectively, making these modern robust methods understandable, practical, and easily accessible.* Assumes no previous training in statistics * Explains how and why modern statistical methods provide more accurate results than conventional methods* Covers the latest developments on multiple comparisons * Includes recent advanc

  5. Ethics in Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenard, Christopher; McCarthy, Sally; Mills, Terence

    2014-01-01

    There are many different aspects of statistics. Statistics involves mathematics, computing, and applications to almost every field of endeavour. Each aspect provides an opportunity to spark someone's interest in the subject. In this paper we discuss some ethical aspects of statistics, and describe how an introduction to ethics has been…

  6. Fisher's Contributions to Statistics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Krishnan received his. Ph.D. from the Indian. Statistical Institute. He joined the faculty of lSI in. 1965 and has been with the Institute ever since. He is at present a professor in the Applied. Statistics, Surveys and. Computing Division of the Institute. Krishnan's research interests are in. Statistical Pattern. Recognition ...

  7. Fermi–Dirac Statistics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Dirac statistics, identical and in- distinguishable particles, Fermi gas. ... They obey. Fermi–Dirac statistics. In contrast, those with integer spin such as photons, mesons, 7Li atoms are called bosons and they obey. Bose–Einstein statistics. .... hypothesis (which later was extended as the third law of thermody- namics) was ...

  8. Theoretical physics 8 statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to statistical physics, one of the core components of advanced undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, using methods of probability theory and statistics to solve physical problems. The first part of the book gives a detailed overview on classical statistical physics and introduces all mathematical tools needed. The second part of the book covers topics related to quantized states, gives a thorough introduction to quantum statistics, followed by a concise treatment of quantum gases. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in quantum mechanics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successf...

  9. Nonparametric statistical inference

    CERN Document Server

    Gibbons, Jean Dickinson

    2010-01-01

    Overall, this remains a very fine book suitable for a graduate-level course in nonparametric statistics. I recommend it for all people interested in learning the basic ideas of nonparametric statistical inference.-Eugenia Stoimenova, Journal of Applied Statistics, June 2012… one of the best books available for a graduate (or advanced undergraduate) text for a theory course on nonparametric statistics. … a very well-written and organized book on nonparametric statistics, especially useful and recommended for teachers and graduate students.-Biometrics, 67, September 2011This excellently presente

  10. Statistics & probaility for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rumsey, Deborah J

    2013-01-01

    Two complete eBooks for one low price! Created and compiled by the publisher, this Statistics I and Statistics II bundle brings together two math titles in one, e-only bundle. With this special bundle, you'll get the complete text of the following two titles: Statistics For Dummies, 2nd Edition  Statistics For Dummies shows you how to interpret and critique graphs and charts, determine the odds with probability, guesstimate with confidence using confidence intervals, set up and carry out a hypothesis test, compute statistical formulas, and more. Tra

  11. Statistics for Research

    CERN Document Server

    Dowdy, Shirley; Chilko, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "Statistics for Research has other fine qualities besides superior organization. The examples and the statistical methods are laid out with unusual clarity by the simple device of using special formats for each. The book was written with great care and is extremely user-friendly."-The UMAP Journal Although the goals and procedures of statistical research have changed little since the Second Edition of Statistics for Research was published, the almost universal availability of personal computers and statistical computing application packages have made it possible f

  12. Statistics in a nutshell

    CERN Document Server

    Boslaugh, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Need to learn statistics for your job? Want help passing a statistics course? Statistics in a Nutshell is a clear and concise introduction and reference for anyone new to the subject. Thoroughly revised and expanded, this edition helps you gain a solid understanding of statistics without the numbing complexity of many college texts. Each chapter presents easy-to-follow descriptions, along with graphics, formulas, solved examples, and hands-on exercises. If you want to perform common statistical analyses and learn a wide range of techniques without getting in over your head, this is your book.

  13. Business statistics for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Score higher in your business statistics course? Easy. Business statistics is a common course for business majors and MBA candidates. It examines common data sets and the proper way to use such information when conducting research and producing informational reports such as profit and loss statements, customer satisfaction surveys, and peer comparisons. Business Statistics For Dummies tracks to a typical business statistics course offered at the undergraduate and graduate levels and provides clear, practical explanations of business statistical ideas, techniques, formulas, and calculations, w

  14. Head First Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Wouldn't it be great if there were a statistics book that made histograms, probability distributions, and chi square analysis more enjoyable than going to the dentist? Head First Statistics brings this typically dry subject to life, teaching you everything you want and need to know about statistics through engaging, interactive, and thought-provoking material, full of puzzles, stories, quizzes, visual aids, and real-world examples. Whether you're a student, a professional, or just curious about statistical analysis, Head First's brain-friendly formula helps you get a firm grasp of statistics

  15. Beginning R The Statistical Programming Language

    CERN Document Server

    Gardener, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Conquer the complexities of this open source statistical language R is fast becoming the de facto standard for statistical computing and analysis in science, business, engineering, and related fields. This book examines this complex language using simple statistical examples, showing how R operates in a user-friendly context. Both students and workers in fields that require extensive statistical analysis will find this book helpful as they learn to use R for simple summary statistics, hypothesis testing, creating graphs, regression, and much more. It covers formula notation, complex statistics

  16. National Statistical Commission and Indian Official Statistics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T J Rao1. C. R. Rao Advanced Institute of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science (AIMSCS) University of Hyderabad Campus Central University Post Office, Prof. C. R. Rao Road Hyderabad 500 046, AP, India. Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 23, Issue 2 · Current Issue Volume 23 ...

  17. Baseline Statistics of Linked Statistical Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharnhorst, Andrea; Meroño-Peñuela, Albert; Guéret, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    We are surrounded by an ever increasing ocean of information, everybody will agree to that. We build sophisticated strategies to govern this information: design data models, develop infrastructures for data sharing, building tool for data analysis. Statistical datasets curated by National

  18. Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Time magazine's ""Man of the Century"", Albert Einstein is the founder of modern physics and his theory of relativity is the most important scientific idea of the modern era. In this short book, Einstein explains, using the minimum of mathematical terms, the basic ideas and principles of the theory that has shaped the world we live in today. Unsurpassed by any subsequent books on relativity, this remains the most popular and useful exposition of Einstein's immense contribution to human knowledge.With a new foreword by Derek Raine.

  19. Conversion factors and oil statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbuz, Sohbet

    2004-01-01

    World oil statistics, in scope and accuracy, are often far from perfect. They can easily lead to misguided conclusions regarding the state of market fundamentals. Without proper attention directed at statistic caveats, the ensuing interpretation of oil market data opens the door to unnecessary volatility, and can distort perception of market fundamentals. Among the numerous caveats associated with the compilation of oil statistics, conversion factors, used to produce aggregated data, play a significant role. Interestingly enough, little attention is paid to conversion factors, i.e. to the relation between different units of measurement for oil. Additionally, the underlying information regarding the choice of a specific factor when trying to produce measurements of aggregated data remains scant. The aim of this paper is to shed some light on the impact of conversion factors for two commonly encountered issues, mass to volume equivalencies (barrels to tonnes) and for broad energy measures encountered in world oil statistics. This paper will seek to demonstrate how inappropriate and misused conversion factors can yield wildly varying results and ultimately distort oil statistics. Examples will show that while discrepancies in commonly used conversion factors may seem trivial, their impact on the assessment of a world oil balance is far from negligible. A unified and harmonised convention for conversion factors is necessary to achieve accurate comparisons and aggregate oil statistics for the benefit of both end-users and policy makers

  20. Statistical Physics An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshioka, Daijiro

    2007-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive presentation of the basics of statistical physics. The first part explains the essence of statistical physics and how it provides a bridge between microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, allowing one to derive quantities such as entropy. Here the author avoids going into details such as Liouville’s theorem or the ergodic theorem, which are difficult for beginners and unnecessary for the actual application of the statistical mechanics. In the second part, statistical mechanics is applied to various systems which, although they look different, share the same mathematical structure. In this way readers can deepen their understanding of statistical physics. The book also features applications to quantum dynamics, thermodynamics, the Ising model and the statistical dynamics of free spins.

  1. The statistical stability phenomenon

    CERN Document Server

    Gorban, Igor I

    2017-01-01

    This monograph investigates violations of statistical stability of physical events, variables, and processes and develops a new physical-mathematical theory taking into consideration such violations – the theory of hyper-random phenomena. There are five parts. The first describes the phenomenon of statistical stability and its features, and develops methods for detecting violations of statistical stability, in particular when data is limited. The second part presents several examples of real processes of different physical nature and demonstrates the violation of statistical stability over broad observation intervals. The third part outlines the mathematical foundations of the theory of hyper-random phenomena, while the fourth develops the foundations of the mathematical analysis of divergent and many-valued functions. The fifth part contains theoretical and experimental studies of statistical laws where there is violation of statistical stability. The monograph should be of particular interest to engineers...

  2. Statistical Methods in Translational Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shein-Chung Chow

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on strategies and statistical considerations for assessment of translation in language (e.g. translation of case report forms in multinational clinical trials, information (e.g. translation of basic discoveries to the clinic and technology (e.g. translation of Chinese diagnostic techniques to well-established clinical study endpoints in pharmaceutical/clinical research and development. However, most of our efforts will be directed to statistical considerations for translation in information. Translational medicine has been defined as bench-to-bedside research, where a basic laboratory discovery becomes applicable to the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of a specific disease, and is brought forth by either a physician—scientist who works at the interface between the research laboratory and patient care, or by a team of basic and clinical science investigators. Statistics plays an important role in translational medicine to ensure that the translational process is accurate and reliable with certain statistical assurance. Statistical inference for the applicability of an animal model to a human model is also discussed. Strategies for selection of clinical study endpoints (e.g. absolute changes, relative changes, or responder-defined, based on either absolute or relative change are reviewed.

  3. Applied statistics for economists

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This book is an undergraduate text that introduces students to commonly-used statistical methods in economics. Using examples based on contemporary economic issues and readily-available data, it not only explains the mechanics of the various methods, it also guides students to connect statistical results to detailed economic interpretations. Because the goal is for students to be able to apply the statistical methods presented, online sources for economic data and directions for performing each task in Excel are also included.

  4. Introduction to Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Nielen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Always wondered why research papers often present rather complicated statistical analyses? Or wondered how to properly analyse the results of a pragmatic trial from your own practice? This talk will give an overview of basic statistical principles and focus on the why of statistics, rather than on the how.This is a podcast of Mirjam's talk at the Veterinary Evidence Today conference, Edinburgh November 2, 2016. 

  5. Equilibrium statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, E Atlee

    2000-01-01

    Ideal as an elementary introduction to equilibrium statistical mechanics, this volume covers both classical and quantum methodology for open and closed systems. Introductory chapters familiarize readers with probability and microscopic models of systems, while additional chapters describe the general derivation of the fundamental statistical mechanics relationships. The final chapter contains 16 sections, each dealing with a different application, ordered according to complexity, from classical through degenerate quantum statistical mechanics. Key features include an elementary introduction t

  6. Optimization techniques in statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rustagi, Jagdish S

    1994-01-01

    Statistics help guide us to optimal decisions under uncertainty. A large variety of statistical problems are essentially solutions to optimization problems. The mathematical techniques of optimization are fundamentalto statistical theory and practice. In this book, Jagdish Rustagi provides full-spectrum coverage of these methods, ranging from classical optimization and Lagrange multipliers, to numerical techniques using gradients or direct search, to linear, nonlinear, and dynamic programming using the Kuhn-Tucker conditions or the Pontryagin maximal principle. Variational methods and optimiza

  7. Equilibrium statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, J E

    1968-01-01

    The International Encyclopedia of Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics, Volume 1: Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics covers the fundamental principles and the development of theoretical aspects of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Statistical mechanical is the study of the connection between the macroscopic behavior of bulk matter and the microscopic properties of its constituent atoms and molecules. This book contains eight chapters, and begins with a presentation of the master equation used for the calculation of the fundamental thermodynamic functions. The succeeding chapters highlight t

  8. Contributions to statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Mahalanobis, P C

    1965-01-01

    Contributions to Statistics focuses on the processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in statistics. The book is presented to Professor P. C. Mahalanobis on the occasion of his 70th birthday. The selection first offers information on the recovery of ancillary information and combinatorial properties of partially balanced designs and association schemes. Discussions focus on combinatorial applications of the algebra of association matrices, sample size analogy, association matrices and the algebra of association schemes, and conceptual statistical experiments. The book then examines latt

  9. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  10. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  11. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  12. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  13. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  14. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  15. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  16. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  17. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  18. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  19. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  20. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  1. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  2. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  4. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  5. Fundamental statistical theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demopoulos, W.

    1976-01-01

    Einstein argued that since quantum mechanics is not a fundamental theory it cannot be regarded as in any sense final. The pure statistical states of the quantum theory are not dispersion-free. In this sense, the theory is significantly statistical. The problem investigated in this paper is to determine under what conditions is a significalty statistical theory correctly regarded as fundamental. The solution developed in this paper is that a statistical theory is fundamental only if it is complete; moreover the quantum theory is complete. (B.R.H.)

  6. Plague Maps and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthcare Professionals Clinicians Public Health Officials Veterinarians Prevention History of Plague Resources FAQ Maps and Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Plague in the United States ...

  7. Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis) Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mouth, throat, and esophagus Vaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis Treatment Statistics Healthcare Professionals More Resources Candida auris General Information ...

  8. Understanding Computational Bayesian Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Bolstad, William M

    2011-01-01

    A hands-on introduction to computational statistics from a Bayesian point of view Providing a solid grounding in statistics while uniquely covering the topics from a Bayesian perspective, Understanding Computational Bayesian Statistics successfully guides readers through this new, cutting-edge approach. With its hands-on treatment of the topic, the book shows how samples can be drawn from the posterior distribution when the formula giving its shape is all that is known, and how Bayesian inferences can be based on these samples from the posterior. These ideas are illustrated on common statistic

  9. 100 statistical tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kanji, Gopal K

    2006-01-01

    This expanded and updated Third Edition of Gopal K. Kanji's best-selling resource on statistical tests covers all the most commonly used tests with information on how to calculate and interpret results with simple datasets. Each entry begins with a short summary statement about the test's purpose, and contains details of the test objective, the limitations (or assumptions) involved, a brief outline of the method, a worked example, and the numerical calculation. 100 Statistical Tests, Third Edition is the one indispensable guide for users of statistical materials and consumers of statistical information at all levels and across all disciplines.

  10. Statistics in a Nutshell

    CERN Document Server

    Boslaugh, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Need to learn statistics as part of your job, or want some help passing a statistics course? Statistics in a Nutshell is a clear and concise introduction and reference that's perfect for anyone with no previous background in the subject. This book gives you a solid understanding of statistics without being too simple, yet without the numbing complexity of most college texts. You get a firm grasp of the fundamentals and a hands-on understanding of how to apply them before moving on to the more advanced material that follows. Each chapter presents you with easy-to-follow descriptions illustrat

  11. Statistics is Easy

    CERN Document Server

    Shasha, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Statistics is the activity of inferring results about a population given a sample. Historically, statistics books assume an underlying distribution to the data (typically, the normal distribution) and derive results under that assumption. Unfortunately, in real life, one cannot normally be sure of the underlying distribution. For that reason, this book presents a distribution-independent approach to statistics based on a simple computational counting idea called resampling. This book explains the basic concepts of resampling, then systematically presents the standard statistical measures along

  12. Determination of neutron resonance parameters of Neptunium 237 between 0 and 500 eV. The covariance matrices of statistical and of systematic origin, relating the resonance parameters, are also given

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepretre, A.; Herault, N.; Brusegan, A.; Noguere, G.; Siegler, P.

    2002-12-01

    This report is a follow up of the report CEA DAPNIA/SPHN-99-04T of Vincent Gressier. In the frame of a collaboration between the 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA)' and the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurement (IRMM, Geel, Belgique), the resonance parameters of neptunium 237 have been determined in the energy interval between 0 and 500 eV. These parameters have been obtained by using the Refit code in analysing simultaneously three transmission experiments. The covariance matrix of statistical origin is provided. A new method, based on various sensitivity studies is proposed for determining also the covariance matrix of systematic origin, relating the resonance parameters. From an experimental viewpoint, the study indicated that, with a large probability, the background spectrum has structure. A two dimensional profiler for the neutron density has been proved feasible. Such a profiler could, among others, demonstrate the existence of the structured background. (authors)

  13. Statistical Inference for Fractional Diffusion Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, B L S Prakasa

    2010-01-01

    Statistical Inference for Fractional Diffusion Processes looks at statistical inference for stochastic processes modeled by stochastic differential equations driven by fractional Brownian motion. Other related processes, such as sequential inference, nonparametric and non parametric inference and parametric estimation are also discussed. The book will deal with Fractional Diffusion Processes (FDP) in relation to statistical influence for stochastic processes. The books main focus is on parametric and non parametric inference problems for fractional diffusion processes when a complete path of t

  14. Molecular Dynamics study of transport properties (self-diffusion, shear viscosity, thermal conductivity) in CMAS liquids at elevated temperature and pressure: Relations between coordination statistics, activation energy and activation volume. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, F. J.; Martin, B.; Creamer, J. B.; Nevins, D.; Cutler, I.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Tikunoff, D.

    2010-12-01

    Empirical Potential Molecular Dynamics (EPMD) simulations have been carried out for molten MgSiO3, Mg2SiO4, CaMgSi2O6, CaAl2Si2O8 and 1-bar eutectic liquid in the binary system CaMgSi2O6-CaAl2Si2O8 using a Coulomb-Born-Mayer-van der Waals pair potential form and the potential parameters from Matsui (1996, GRL 23:395) for the system CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2. Simulations were performed in the microcanonical ensemble (NEV) with 8000 atoms, a 1 fs time step, and simulation durations up to 2 ns. Computations were carried out every 500 K over a temperature range of 2500 - 5000 K along 10-20 isochores for each composition to insure good coverage in P-T space. During run T and P fluctuations, giving the uncertainty of state point coordinates was typically ± 30 K and ± 0.5 GPa, respectively. Coordination statistics are determined by counting nearest neighbor configurations up to a cutoff defined by the first minima of the pair correlation function. A complete set of coordination statistics was collected at each state point for each composition. At each state point self-diffusivity of each atom was determined from the Einstein relation between Mean Square Displacement and time. Shear viscosity was computed for a subset of state points using Green-Kubo linear response theory, by studying the autocorrelated regressions of spontaneous fluctuations of appropriate components of the stress tensor. Thermodynamic models (and EOS) for each liquid previously developed from these simulations based on combining the Rosenfeld-Tarazona (1998, Mol Phys 95:141) potential energy-temperature scaling law with the Universal EOS (1986, J Phys C, 19:L467) enable self-consistent computation of liquid sound speeds and isochoric heat capacity used to develop phonon thermal conductivity values at high T and P. Self-diffusivity, shear viscosity and phonon thermal conductivity values from the MD simulations vary systematically with composition, temperature and pressure. These systematic relations correlate

  15. Research and development statistics 2001

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    This publication provides recent basic statistics on the resources devoted to R&D in OECD countries. The statistical series are presented for the last seven years for which data are available and cover expenditure by source of funds and type of costs; personnel by occupation and/or level of qualification; both at the national level by performance sector, for enterprises by industry, and for higher education by field of science. The publication also provides information on the output of science and technology (S&T) activities relating to the technology balance of payments.

  16. Testing statistical hypotheses of equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Wellek, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Equivalence testing has grown significantly in importance over the last two decades, especially as its relevance to a variety of applications has become understood. Yet published work on the general methodology remains scattered in specialists' journals, and for the most part, it focuses on the relatively narrow topic of bioequivalence assessment.With a far broader perspective, Testing Statistical Hypotheses of Equivalence provides the first comprehensive treatment of statistical equivalence testing. The author addresses a spectrum of specific, two-sided equivalence testing problems, from the

  17. Statistical methods in spatial genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillot, Gilles; Leblois, Raphael; Coulon, Aurelie

    2009-01-01

    The joint analysis of spatial and genetic data is rapidly becoming the norm in population genetics. More and more studies explicitly describe and quantify the spatial organization of genetic variation and try to relate it to underlying ecological processes. As it has become increasingly difficult...... to keep abreast with the latest methodological developments, we review the statistical toolbox available to analyse population genetic data in a spatially explicit framework. We mostly focus on statistical concepts but also discuss practical aspects of the analytical methods, highlighting not only...

  18. Energy statistics yearbook 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Energy Statistics Yearbook 2000 is a comprehensive collection of international energy statistics prepared by the United Nations Statistics Division. It is the forty-third in a series of annual compilations which commenced under the title World Energy Supplies in Selected Years, 1929-1950. It updates the statistical series shown in the previous issue. Supplementary series of monthly and quarterly data on production of energy may be found in the Monthly Bulletin of Statistics. The principal objective of the Yearbook is to provide a global framework of comparable data on long-term trends in the supply of mainly commercial primary and secondary forms of energy. Data for each type of fuel and aggregate data for the total mix of commercial fuels are shown for individual countries and areas and are summarized into regional and world totals. The data are compiled primarily from the annual energy questionnaire distributed by the United Nations Statistics Division and supplemented by official national statistical publications. Where official data are not available or are inconsistent, estimates are made by the Statistics Division based on governmental, professional or commercial materials. Estimates include, but are not limited to, extrapolated data based on partial year information, use of annual trends, trade data based on partner country reports, breakdowns of aggregated data as well as analysis of current energy events and activities

  19. Energy statistics yearbook 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Energy Statistics Yearbook 2001 is a comprehensive collection of international energy statistics prepared by the United Nations Statistics Division. It is the forty-fifth in a series of annual compilations which commenced under the title World Energy Supplies in Selected Years, 1929-1950. It updates the statistical series shown in the previous issue. Supplementary series of monthly and quarterly data on production of energy may be found in the Monthly Bulletin of Statistics. The principal objective of the Yearbook is to provide a global framework of comparable data on long-term trends in the supply of mainly commercial primary and secondary forms of energy. Data for each type of fuel and aggregate data for the total mix of commercial fuels are shown for individual countries and areas and are summarized into regional and world totals. The data are compiled primarily from the annual energy questionnaire distributed by the United Nations Statistics Division and supplemented by official national statistical publications. Where official data are not available or are inconsistent, estimates are made by the Statistics Division based on governmental, professional or commercial materials. Estimates include, but are not limited to, extrapolated data based on partial year information, use of annual trends, trade data based on partner country reports, breakdowns of aggregated data as well as analysis of current energy events and activities

  20. Thiele. Pioneer in statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt

    This book studies the brilliant Danish 19th Century astronomer, T.N. Thiele who made important contributions to statistics, actuarial science, astronomy and mathematics. The most important of these contributions in statistics are translated into English for the first time, and the text includes c...

  1. Applied Statistics with SPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizingh, Eelko K. R. E.

    2007-01-01

    Accessibly written and easy to use, "Applied Statistics Using SPSS" is an all-in-one self-study guide to SPSS and do-it-yourself guide to statistics. What is unique about Eelko Huizingh's approach is that this book is based around the needs of undergraduate students embarking on their own research project, and its self-help style is designed to…

  2. Cancer Statistics Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    This tool allows users to animate cancer trends over time by cancer site and cause of death, race, and sex. Provides access to incidence, mortality, and survival. Select the type of statistic, variables, format, and then extract the statistics in a delimited format for further analyses.

  3. Principles of medical statistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feinstein, Alvan R

    2002-01-01

    ... or limited attention. They are then offered a simple, superficial account of the most common doctrines and applications of statistical theory. The "get-it-over-withquickly" approach has been encouraged and often necessitated by the short time given to statistics in modern biomedical education. The curriculum is supposed to provide fundament...

  4. Statistics 101 for Radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvari, Arash; Halpern, Elkan F; Samir, Anthony E

    2015-10-01

    Diagnostic tests have wide clinical applications, including screening, diagnosis, measuring treatment effect, and determining prognosis. Interpreting diagnostic test results requires an understanding of key statistical concepts used to evaluate test efficacy. This review explains descriptive statistics and discusses probability, including mutually exclusive and independent events and conditional probability. In the inferential statistics section, a statistical perspective on study design is provided, together with an explanation of how to select appropriate statistical tests. Key concepts in recruiting study samples are discussed, including representativeness and random sampling. Variable types are defined, including predictor, outcome, and covariate variables, and the relationship of these variables to one another. In the hypothesis testing section, we explain how to determine if observed differences between groups are likely to be due to chance. We explain type I and II errors, statistical significance, and study power, followed by an explanation of effect sizes and how confidence intervals can be used to generalize observed effect sizes to the larger population. Statistical tests are explained in four categories: t tests and analysis of variance, proportion analysis tests, nonparametric tests, and regression techniques. We discuss sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, receiver operating characteristic analysis, and likelihood ratios. Measures of reliability and agreement, including κ statistics, intraclass correlation coefficients, and Bland-Altman graphs and analysis, are introduced. © RSNA, 2015.

  5. Statistical Engine Knock Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stotsky, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    A new statistical concept of the knock control of a spark ignition automotive engine is proposed . The control aim is associated with the statistical hy pothesis test which compares the threshold value to the average value of the max imal amplitud e of the knock sensor signal at a given freq uency...

  6. Practical statistics simply explained

    CERN Document Server

    Langley, Dr Russell A

    1971-01-01

    For those who need to know statistics but shy away from math, this book teaches how to extract truth and draw valid conclusions from numerical data using logic and the philosophy of statistics rather than complex formulae. Lucid discussion of averages and scatter, investigation design, more. Problems with solutions.

  7. Thiele. Pioneer in statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt

    This book studies the brilliant Danish 19th Century astronomer, T.N. Thiele who made important contributions to statistics, actuarial science, astronomy and mathematics. The most important of these contributions in statistics are translated into English for the first time, and the text includes...

  8. Energy statistics yearbook 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Energy Statistics Yearbook 2002 is a comprehensive collection of international energy statistics prepared by the United Nations Statistics Division. It is the forty-sixth in a series of annual compilations which commenced under the title World Energy Supplies in Selected Years, 1929-1950. It updates the statistical series shown in the previous issue. Supplementary series of monthly and quarterly data on production of energy may be found in the Monthly Bulletin of Statistics. The principal objective of the Yearbook is to provide a global framework of comparable data on long-term trends in the supply of mainly commercial primary and secondary forms of energy. Data for each type of fuel and aggregate data for the total mix of commercial fuels are shown for individual countries and areas and are summarized into regional and world totals. The data are compiled primarily from the annual energy questionnaire distributed by the United Nations Statistics Division and supplemented by official national statistical publications. Where official data are not available or are inconsistent, estimates are made by the Statistics Division based on governmental, professional or commercial materials. Estimates include, but are not limited to, extrapolated data based on partial year information, use of annual trends, trade data based on partner country reports, breakdowns of aggregated data as well as analysis of current energy events and activities

  9. Enhancing statistical literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogers, M.J.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413392252; Drijvers, P.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074302922

    2017-01-01

    Current secondary school statistics curricula focus on procedural knowledge and pay too little attention to statistical reasoning. As a result, students are not able to apply their knowledge to practice. In addition, education often targets the average student, which may lead to gifted students

  10. Water Quality Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Ted; Andersen, Lyle; Robison-Cox, Jim; Jones, Clain

    2004-01-01

    Water quality experiments, especially the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality, offer an ideal context for connecting statistics and science. In the STAR program for secondary students and teachers, water quality experiments were also used as a context for teaching statistics. In this article, we trace one activity that uses…

  11. Bayesian statistical inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno De Finetti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work was translated into English and published in the volume: Bruno De Finetti, Induction and Probability, Biblioteca di Statistica, eds. P. Monari, D. Cocchi, Clueb, Bologna, 1993.Bayesian statistical Inference is one of the last fundamental philosophical papers in which we can find the essential De Finetti's approach to the statistical inference.

  12. Practical statistics for educators

    CERN Document Server

    Ravid, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Practical Statistics for Educators, Fifth Edition, is a clear and easy-to-follow text written specifically for education students in introductory statistics courses and in action research courses. It is also a valuable resource and guidebook for educational practitioners who wish to study their own settings.

  13. Introduction to Bayesian statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Bolstad, William M

    2017-01-01

    There is a strong upsurge in the use of Bayesian methods in applied statistical analysis, yet most introductory statistics texts only present frequentist methods. Bayesian statistics has many important advantages that students should learn about if they are going into fields where statistics will be used. In this Third Edition, four newly-added chapters address topics that reflect the rapid advances in the field of Bayesian staistics. The author continues to provide a Bayesian treatment of introductory statistical topics, such as scientific data gathering, discrete random variables, robust Bayesian methods, and Bayesian approaches to inferenfe cfor discrete random variables, bionomial proprotion, Poisson, normal mean, and simple linear regression. In addition, newly-developing topics in the field are presented in four new chapters: Bayesian inference with unknown mean and variance; Bayesian inference for Multivariate Normal mean vector; Bayesian inference for Multiple Linear RegressionModel; and Computati...

  14. Understanding advanced statistical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Westfall, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Probability, Statistics, and ScienceReality, Nature, Science, and ModelsStatistical Processes: Nature, Design and Measurement, and DataModelsDeterministic ModelsVariabilityParametersPurely Probabilistic Statistical ModelsStatistical Models with Both Deterministic and Probabilistic ComponentsStatistical InferenceGood and Bad ModelsUses of Probability ModelsRandom Variables and Their Probability DistributionsIntroductionTypes of Random Variables: Nominal, Ordinal, and ContinuousDiscrete Probability Distribution FunctionsContinuous Probability Distribution FunctionsSome Calculus-Derivatives and Least SquaresMore Calculus-Integrals and Cumulative Distribution FunctionsProbability Calculation and SimulationIntroductionAnalytic Calculations, Discrete and Continuous CasesSimulation-Based ApproximationGenerating Random NumbersIdentifying DistributionsIntroductionIdentifying Distributions from Theory AloneUsing Data: Estimating Distributions via the HistogramQuantiles: Theoretical and Data-Based Estimate...

  15. Statistical Plasma Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ichimaru, Setsuo

    2004-01-01

    Plasma physics is an integral part of statistical physics, complete with its own basic theories. Designed as a two-volume set, Statistical Plasma Physics is intended for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate courses on plasma and statistical physics, and as such, its presentation is self-contained and should be read without difficulty by those with backgrounds in classical mechanics, electricity and magnetism, quantum mechanics, and statistics. Major topics include: plasma phenomena in nature, kinetic equations, plasmas and dielectric media, electromagnetic properties of Vlasov plasmas in thermodynamic equilibria, transient processes, and instabilities. Statistical Plasma Physics, Volume II, treats subjects in the field of condensed plasma physics, with applications to condensed matter physics, atomic physics, nuclear physics, and astrophysics. The aim of this book is to elucidate a number of basic topics in physics of dense plasmas that interface with condensed matter physics, atomic physics, nuclear...

  16. Applied multivariate statistics with R

    CERN Document Server

    Zelterman, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This book brings the power of multivariate statistics to graduate-level practitioners, making these analytical methods accessible without lengthy mathematical derivations. Using the open source, shareware program R, Professor Zelterman demonstrates the process and outcomes for a wide array of multivariate statistical applications. Chapters cover graphical displays, linear algebra, univariate, bivariate and multivariate normal distributions, factor methods, linear regression, discrimination and classification, clustering, time series models, and additional methods. Zelterman uses practical examples from diverse disciplines to welcome readers from a variety of academic specialties. Those with backgrounds in statistics will learn new methods while they review more familiar topics. Chapters include exercises, real data sets, and R implementations. The data are interesting, real-world topics, particularly from health and biology-related contexts. As an example of the approach, the text examines a sample from the B...

  17. A conceptual guide to statistics using SPSS

    CERN Document Server

    Berkman, Elliot T

    2011-01-01

    Bridging an understanding of Statistics and SPSS. This unique text helps students develop a conceptual understanding of a variety of statistical tests by linking the ideas learned in a statistics class from a traditional statistics textbook with the computational steps and output from SPSS. Each chapter begins with a student-friendly explanation of the concept behind each statistical test and how the test relates to that concept. The authors then walk through the steps to compute the test in SPSS and the output, clearly linking how the SPSS procedure and output connect back to the conceptual u

  18. Equivalent statistics and data interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory

    2017-08-01

    Recent reform efforts in psychological science have led to a plethora of choices for scientists to analyze their data. A scientist making an inference about their data must now decide whether to report a p value, summarize the data with a standardized effect size and its confidence interval, report a Bayes Factor, or use other model comparison methods. To make good choices among these options, it is necessary for researchers to understand the characteristics of the various statistics used by the different analysis frameworks. Toward that end, this paper makes two contributions. First, it shows that for the case of a two-sample t test with known sample sizes, many different summary statistics are mathematically equivalent in the sense that they are based on the very same information in the data set. When the sample sizes are known, the p value provides as much information about a data set as the confidence interval of Cohen's d or a JZS Bayes factor. Second, this equivalence means that different analysis methods differ only in their interpretation of the empirical data. At first glance, it might seem that mathematical equivalence of the statistics suggests that it does not matter much which statistic is reported, but the opposite is true because the appropriateness of a reported statistic is relative to the inference it promotes. Accordingly, scientists should choose an analysis method appropriate for their scientific investigation. A direct comparison of the different inferential frameworks provides some guidance for scientists to make good choices and improve scientific practice.

  19. Statistical Properties of Online Auctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Alireza; Schadschneider, Andreas

    We characterize the statistical properties of a large number of online auctions run on eBay. Both stationary and dynamic properties, like distributions of prices, number of bids etc., as well as relations between these quantities are studied. The analysis of the data reveals surprisingly simple distributions and relations, typically of power-law form. Based on these findings we introduce a simple method to identify suspicious auctions that could be influenced by a form of fraud known as shill bidding. Furthermore the influence of bidding strategies is discussed. The results indicate that the observed behavior is related to a mixture of agents using a variety of strategies.

  20. Statistical mechanics in JINR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonchev, N.; Shumovskij, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    The history of investigations, conducted at the JINR in the field of statistical mechanics, beginning with the fundamental works by Bogolyubov N.N. on superconductivity microscopic theory is presented. Ideas, introduced in these works and methods developed in them, have largely determined the ways for developing statistical mechanics in the JINR and Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov variational principle has become an important method of the modern nucleus theory. A brief review of the main achievements, connected with the development of statistical mechanics methods and their application in different fields of physical science is given

  1. Statistics a complete introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Statistics: A Complete Introduction is the most comprehensive yet easy-to-use introduction to using Statistics. Written by a leading expert, this book will help you if you are studying for an important exam or essay, or if you simply want to improve your knowledge. The book covers all the key areas of Statistics including graphs, data interpretation, spreadsheets, regression, correlation and probability. Everything you will need is here in this one book. Each chapter includes not only an explanation of the knowledge and skills you need, but also worked examples and test questions.

  2. AP statistics crash course

    CERN Document Server

    D'Alessio, Michael

    2012-01-01

    AP Statistics Crash Course - Gets You a Higher Advanced Placement Score in Less Time Crash Course is perfect for the time-crunched student, the last-minute studier, or anyone who wants a refresher on the subject. AP Statistics Crash Course gives you: Targeted, Focused Review - Study Only What You Need to Know Crash Course is based on an in-depth analysis of the AP Statistics course description outline and actual Advanced Placement test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exam, so you can make the most of your valuable study time. Our easy-to-read format covers: exploring da

  3. Evolutionary Statistical Procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Baragona, Roberto; Poli, Irene

    2011-01-01

    This proposed text appears to be a good introduction to evolutionary computation for use in applied statistics research. The authors draw from a vast base of knowledge about the current literature in both the design of evolutionary algorithms and statistical techniques. Modern statistical research is on the threshold of solving increasingly complex problems in high dimensions, and the generalization of its methodology to parameters whose estimators do not follow mathematically simple distributions is underway. Many of these challenges involve optimizing functions for which analytic solutions a

  4. Statistical physics; Physique statistique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, L.; Zitoun, R. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1992-12-31

    The basis of statistical physics is exposed. The statistical models of Maxwell-Boltzmann, of Bose-Einstein and of Fermi-Dirac and their particular application fields are presented. The statistical theory is applied in different ranges of physics: gas characteristics, paramagnetism, crystal thermal properties and solid electronic properties. A whole chapter is dedicated to helium and its characteristics such as superfluidity, another deals with superconductivity. Superconductivity is presented both experimentally and theoretically. Meissner effect and Josephson effect are described and the framework of BCS theory is drawn. (A.C.)

  5. The nature of statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Wallis, W Allen

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on everyday applications as well as those of scientific research, this classic of modern statistical methods requires little to no mathematical background. Readers develop basic skills for evaluating and using statistical data. Lively, relevant examples include applications to business, government, social and physical sciences, genetics, medicine, and public health. ""W. Allen Wallis and Harry V. Roberts have made statistics fascinating."" - The New York Times ""The authors have set out with considerable success, to write a text which would be of interest and value to the student who,

  6. Statistical deception at work

    CERN Document Server

    Mauro, John

    2013-01-01

    Written to reveal statistical deceptions often thrust upon unsuspecting journalists, this book views the use of numbers from a public perspective. Illustrating how the statistical naivete of journalists often nourishes quantitative misinformation, the author's intent is to make journalists more critical appraisers of numerical data so that in reporting them they do not deceive the public. The book frequently uses actual reported examples of misused statistical data reported by mass media and describes how journalists can avoid being taken in by them. Because reports of survey findings seldom g

  7. Methods of statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Akhiezer, Aleksandr I

    1981-01-01

    Methods of Statistical Physics is an exposition of the tools of statistical mechanics, which evaluates the kinetic equations of classical and quantized systems. The book also analyzes the equations of macroscopic physics, such as the equations of hydrodynamics for normal and superfluid liquids and macroscopic electrodynamics. The text gives particular attention to the study of quantum systems. This study begins with a discussion of problems of quantum statistics with a detailed description of the basics of quantum mechanics along with the theory of measurement. An analysis of the asymptotic be

  8. Statistical Group Comparison

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Tim Futing

    2011-01-01

    An incomparably useful examination of statistical methods for comparisonThe nature of doing science, be it natural or social, inevitably calls for comparison. Statistical methods are at the heart of such comparison, for they not only help us gain understanding of the world around us but often define how our research is to be carried out. The need to compare between groups is best exemplified by experiments, which have clearly defined statistical methods. However, true experiments are not always possible. What complicates the matter more is a great deal of diversity in factors that are not inde

  9. From creation and annihilation operators to statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyuelos, M.

    2018-01-01

    A procedure to derive the partition function of non-interacting particles with exotic or intermediate statistics is presented. The partition function is directly related to the associated creation and annihilation operators that obey some specific commutation or anti-commutation relations. The cases of Gentile statistics, quons, Polychronakos statistics, and ewkons are considered. Ewkons statistics was recently derived from the assumption of free diffusion in energy space (Hoyuelos and Sisterna, 2016); an ideal gas of ewkons has negative pressure, a feature that makes them suitable for the description of dark energy.

  10. Statistical measures of unsustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, Robert U.

    1996-01-01

    Statistical measures are needed to reveal at a glance how far (or near) various countries are to meeting the conditions of long-run sustainability, and how conditions are changing on a year-to-year basis (i.e., whether sustainability is being approached or not). The scheme proposed in this paper presents numerical comparisons of energy and materials use in the real world vis a vis an ideal case where all of the identifiable criteria for sustainability are satisfied. Apart from population stabilization, five general but quantifiable criteria for sustainability are suggested, including (1) stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, (2) stabilization of acidity (pH) in rainfall, (3) reduction of dissipative uses, and wastes, of heavy metals to natural mobilization rates, or lower, (4) elimination of agriculture based on pumping 'fossil' water from non-renewable aquifers and (5) elimination of loss of arable land because of salination or erosion. Other criteria, such as preservation of biodiversity and socio-economic equity between countries and generations might be added to the list. They introduce more difficult measurement problems, however, which are not considered further in the paper. Having fixed the list of criteria, the next step is to identify measures that either go to zero or unity, as the system approaches more and more closely to sustainability, at least in the limited sense defined above. Various types of measures of sustainability/unsustainability can be developed, viz. (1) measures of relative dependence of the economy on non-renewable sources of energy and materials, (2) measures of the productivity of energy and materials consumed by the economic system and (3) measures of dissipative loss, especially of toxic and hazardous substances. Specific examples of each type are discussed

  11. Statistical downscaling of river flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisseuil, Clement; Vrac, Mathieu; Lek, Sovan; Wade, Andrew J.

    2010-05-01

    SummaryAn extensive statistical 'downscaling' study is done to relate large-scale climate information from a general circulation model (GCM) to local-scale river flows in SW France for 51 gauging stations ranging from nival (snow-dominated) to pluvial (rainfall-dominated) river-systems. This study helps to select the appropriate statistical method at a given spatial and temporal scale to downscale hydrology for future climate change impact assessment of hydrological resources. The four proposed statistical downscaling models use large-scale predictors (derived from climate model outputs or reanalysis data) that characterize precipitation and evaporation processes in the hydrological cycle to estimate summary flow statistics. The four statistical models used are generalized linear (GLM) and additive (GAM) models, aggregated boosted trees (ABT) and multi-layer perceptron neural networks (ANN). These four models were each applied at two different spatial scales, namely at that of a single flow-gauging station (local downscaling) and that of a group of flow-gauging stations having the same hydrological behaviour (regional downscaling). For each statistical model and each spatial resolution, three temporal resolutions were considered, namely the daily mean flows, the summary statistics of fortnightly flows and a daily 'integrated approach'. The results show that flow sensitivity to atmospheric factors is significantly different between nival and pluvial hydrological systems which are mainly influenced, respectively, by shortwave solar radiations and atmospheric temperature. The non-linear models (i.e. GAM, ABT and ANN) performed better than the linear GLM when simulating fortnightly flow percentiles. The aggregated boosted trees method showed higher and less variable R2 values to downscale the hydrological variability in both nival and pluvial regimes. Based on GCM cnrm-cm3 and scenarios A2 and A1B, future relative changes of fortnightly median flows were projected

  12. Infant Statistical Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Kirkham, Natasha Z.

    2017-01-01

    Perception involves making sense of a dynamic, multimodal environment. In the absence of mechanisms capable of exploiting the statistical patterns in the natural world, infants would face an insurmountable computational problem. Infant statistical learning mechanisms facilitate the detection of structure. These abilities allow the infant to compute across elements in their environmental input, extracting patterns for further processing and subsequent learning. In this selective review, we summarize findings that show that statistical learning is both a broad and flexible mechanism (supporting learning from different modalities across many different content areas) and input specific (shifting computations depending on the type of input and goal of learning). We suggest that statistical learning not only provides a framework for studying language development and object knowledge in constrained laboratory settings, but also allows researchers to tackle real-world problems, such as multilingualism, the role of ever-changing learning environments, and differential developmental trajectories. PMID:28793812

  13. School Violence: Data & Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs Press Room Social Media Publications Injury Center School Violence: Data & Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The first step in preventing school violence is to understand the extent and nature ...

  14. Medicaid Drug Claims Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicaid Drug Claims Statistics CD is a useful tool that conveniently breaks up Medicaid claim counts and separates them by quarter and includes an annual count.

  15. CMS Statistics Reference Booklet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The annual CMS Statistics reference booklet provides a quick reference for summary information about health expenditures and the Medicare and Medicaid health...

  16. Illinois travel statistics, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 Illinois Travel Statistics publication is assembled to provide detailed traffic : information to the different users of traffic data. While most users of traffic data at this level : of detail are within the Illinois Department of Transporta...

  17. Illinois travel statistics, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Illinois Travel Statistics publication is assembled to provide detailed traffic : information to the different users of traffic data. While most users of traffic data at this level : of detail are within the Illinois Department of Transporta...

  18. Illinois travel statistics, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 Illinois Travel Statistics publication is assembled to provide detailed traffic : information to the different users of traffic data. While most users of traffic data at this level : of detail are within the Illinois Department of Transporta...

  19. Statistics: a Bayesian perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berry, Donald A

    1996-01-01

    ...: it is the only introductory textbook based on Bayesian ideas, it combines concepts and methods, it presents statistics as a means of integrating data into the significant process, it develops ideas...

  20. Information theory and statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Kullback, Solomon

    1968-01-01

    Highly useful text studies logarithmic measures of information and their application to testing statistical hypotheses. Includes numerous worked examples and problems. References. Glossary. Appendix. 1968 2nd, revised edition.

  1. Statistical Measures of Marksmanship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Richard

    2001-01-01

    .... This report describes objective statistical procedures to measure both rifle marksmanship accuracy, the proximity of an array of shots to the center of mass of a target, and marksmanship precision...

  2. Statistical mechanics of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Kita, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical, step-by-step comprehensive explanation of superconductivity for undergraduate and graduate students who have completed elementary courses on thermodynamics and quantum mechanics. To this end, it adopts the unique approach of starting with the statistical mechanics of quantum ideal gases and successively adding and clarifying elements and techniques indispensible for understanding it. They include the spin-statistics theorem, second quantization, density matrices, the Bloch–De Dominicis theorem, the variational principle in statistical mechanics, attractive interaction, and bound states. Ample examples of their usage are also provided in terms of topics from advanced statistical mechanics such as two-particle correlations of quantum ideal gases, derivation of the Hartree–Fock equations, and Landau’s Fermi-liquid theory, among others. With these preliminaries, the fundamental mean-field equations of superconductivity are derived with maximum mathematical clarity based on ...

  3. CDC WONDER: Cancer Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The United States Cancer Statistics (USCS) online databases in WONDER provide cancer incidence and mortality data for the United States for the years since 1999, by...

  4. Statistical theory of heat

    CERN Document Server

    Scheck, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Scheck’s textbook starts with a concise introduction to classical thermodynamics, including geometrical aspects. Then a short introduction to probabilities and statistics lays the basis for the statistical interpretation of thermodynamics. Phase transitions, discrete models and the stability of matter are explained in great detail. Thermodynamics has a special role in theoretical physics. Due to the general approach of thermodynamics the field has a bridging function between several areas like the theory of condensed matter, elementary particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. The classical thermodynamics describes predominantly averaged properties of matter, reaching from few particle systems and state of matter to stellar objects. Statistical Thermodynamics covers the same fields, but explores them in greater depth and unifies classical statistical mechanics with quantum theory of multiple particle systems. The content is presented as two tracks: the fast track for master students, providing the essen...

  5. Statistics For Neuroscientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbakrishna D.K

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The role statistical methods play in medicine in the interpretation of empirical data is well recognized by researchers. With modern computing facilities and software packages there is little need for familiarity with the computational details of statistical calculations. However, for the researcher to understand whether these calculations are valid and appropriate it is necessary that the user is aware of the rudiments of the statistical methodology. Also, it needs to be emphasized that no amount of advanced analysis can be a substitute for a properly planned and executed study. An attempt is made in this communication to discuss some of the theoretical issues that are important for the valid analysis and interpretation of precious date that are gathered. The article summarises some of the basic statistical concepts followed by illustrations from live data generated from various research projects from the department of Neurology of this Institute.

  6. Elements of statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nash, Leonard K

    2006-01-01

    Encompassing essentially all aspects of statistical mechanics that appear in undergraduate texts, this concise, elementary treatment shows how an atomic-molecular perspective yields new insights into macroscopic thermodynamics. 1974 edition.

  7. Ehrlichiosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tick Diseases transmitted by ticks Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United ...

  8. Anaplasmosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tick Diseases transmitted by ticks Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United ...

  9. Boating Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  10. Probability and Statistical Inference

    OpenAIRE

    Prosper, Harrison B.

    2006-01-01

    These lectures introduce key concepts in probability and statistical inference at a level suitable for graduate students in particle physics. Our goal is to paint as vivid a picture as possible of the concepts covered.

  11. Statistical Engine Knock Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stotsky, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    A new statistical concept of the knock control of a spark ignition automotive engine is proposed . The control aim is associated with the statistical hy pothesis test which compares the threshold value to the average value of the max imal amplitud e of the knock sensor signal at a given freq uency...... which includ es generation of the amplitud e signals, a threshold value d etermination and a knock sound mod el is d eveloped for evaluation of the control concept....

  12. Business statistics I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Louise

    2014-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Business Statistics I includes descriptive statistics, introduction to probability, probability distributions, sampling and sampling distributions, interval estimation, and hypothesis t

  13. Statistical mechanics rigorous results

    CERN Document Server

    Ruelle, David

    1999-01-01

    This classic book marks the beginning of an era of vigorous mathematical progress in equilibrium statistical mechanics. Its treatment of the infinite system limit has not been superseded, and the discussion of thermodynamic functions and states remains basic for more recent work. The conceptual foundation provided by the Rigorous Results remains invaluable for the study of the spectacular developments of statistical mechanics in the second half of the 20th century.

  14. Introductory statistical inference

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Nitis

    2014-01-01

    This gracefully organized text reveals the rigorous theory of probability and statistical inference in the style of a tutorial, using worked examples, exercises, figures, tables, and computer simulations to develop and illustrate concepts. Drills and boxed summaries emphasize and reinforce important ideas and special techniques.Beginning with a review of the basic concepts and methods in probability theory, moments, and moment generating functions, the author moves to more intricate topics. Introductory Statistical Inference studies multivariate random variables, exponential families of dist

  15. Multilevel statistical models

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Harvey

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a clear introduction to this important area of statistics. The author provides a wide of coverage of different kinds of multilevel models, and how to interpret different statistical methodologies and algorithms applied to such models. This 4th edition reflects the growth and interest in this area and is updated to include new chapters on multilevel models with mixed response types, smoothing and multilevel data, models with correlated random effects and modeling with variance.

  16. European environmental statistics handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, O.; Foster, A. [comps.] [Manchester Business School, Manchester (United Kingdom). Library and Information Service

    1993-12-31

    This book is a compilation of statistical materials on environmental pollution drawn from governmental and private sources. It is divided into ten chapters: air, water and land - monitoring statistics; cities, regions and nations; costs, budgets and expenditures - costs of pollution and its control, including air pollution; effects; general industry and government data; laws and regulations; politics and opinion - including media coverage; pollutants and wastes; pollution control industry; and tools, methods and solutions. 750 tabs.

  17. Breakthroughs in statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Norman

    This is author-approved bcc: This is the third volume of a collection of seminal papers in the statistical sciences written during the past 110 years. These papers have each had an outstanding influence on the development of statistical theory and practice over the last century. Each paper is preceded by an introduction written by an authority in the field providing background information and assessing its influence. Volume III concerntrates on articles from the 1980's while including some earlier articles not included in Volume I and II. Samuel Kotz is Professor of Statistics in the College of Business and Management at the University of Maryland. Norman L. Johnson is Professor Emeritus of Statistics at the University of North Carolina. Also available: Breakthroughs in Statistics Volume I: Foundations and Basic Theory Samuel Kotz and Norman L. Johnson, Editors 1993. 631 pp. Softcover. ISBN 0-387-94037-5 Breakthroughs in Statistics Volume II: Methodology and Distribution Samuel Kotz and Norman L. Johnson, Edi...

  18. Learning Statistical Patterns in Relational Data Using Probabilistic Relational Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koller, Daphne

    2005-01-01

    .... This effort focused on developing undirected probabilistic models for representing and learning graph patterns, learning patterns involving links between objects, learning discriminative models...

  19. Statistical properties of convex clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Kean Ming; Witten, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, we study the statistical properties of convex clustering. We establish that convex clustering is closely related to single linkage hierarchical clustering and $k$-means clustering. In addition, we derive the range of the tuning parameter for convex clustering that yields a non-trivial solution. We also provide an unbiased estimator of the degrees of freedom, and provide a finite sample bound for the prediction error for convex clustering. We compare convex clustering to so...

  20. UN Data- Environmental Statistics: Waste

    Data.gov (United States)

    World Wide Human Geography Data Working Group — The Environment Statistics Database contains selected water and waste statistics by country. Statistics on water and waste are based on official statistics supplied...

  1. UN Data: Environment Statistics: Waste

    Data.gov (United States)

    World Wide Human Geography Data Working Group — The Environment Statistics Database contains selected water and waste statistics by country. Statistics on water and waste are based on official statistics supplied...

  2. Statistical and thermal physics with computer applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    This textbook carefully develops the main ideas and techniques of statistical and thermal physics and is intended for upper-level undergraduate courses. The authors each have more than thirty years' experience in teaching, curriculum development, and research in statistical and computational physics. Statistical and Thermal Physics begins with a qualitative discussion of the relation between the macroscopic and microscopic worlds and incorporates computer simulations throughout the book to provide concrete examples of important conceptual ideas. Unlike many contemporary texts on the

  3. On statistical acceleration convergence of double sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipan Hazarika

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the notion of statistical acceleration convergence of double sequences in Pringsheim's sense has been introduced. We prove the decompostion theorems for  statistical acceleration convergence of double sequences and some theorems related to that concept have been established using the four dimensional matrix transformations. We provided some examples, where the results of acceleration convergence fails to hold for the statistical cases.

  4. Statistical assessment of numerous Monte Carlo tallies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiedrowski, Brian C.; Solomon, Clell J.

    2011-01-01

    Four tests are developed to assess the statistical reliability of collections of tallies that number in thousands or greater. To this end, the relative-variance density function is developed and its moments are studied using simplified, non-transport models. The statistical tests are performed upon the results of MCNP calculations of three different transport test problems and appear to show that the tests are appropriate indicators of global statistical quality. (author)

  5. Intramolecular Energy Relaxation and Statistical Rate Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Okitsugu, KAJIMOTO; Department of Chemistry, Kyoto University

    1994-01-01

    Statistical rate theory is essentially based on the state counting without any restrictions other than the energy and the angular momentum conservation. In this work, two kinds of restrictions are introduced into the statistical theory. The first restriction is related to the intramolecular energy flow within the reacting molecular system. The excess energy of reaction is made distributed with some bias favoring a specific degree of freedom. That is, the statistical weight of each product sta...

  6. Multivariate statistical analysis of heavy metals pollution in industrial area and its comparison with relatively less polluted area: a case study from the City of Peshawar and district Dir Lower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, F Akbar; Ishaq, M; Ihsanullah, I; Asim, S M

    2010-04-15

    Multivariate and univariate statistical techniques i.e., cluster analysis PCA, regression and correlation analysis, one way ANOVA, were applied to the metal data of effluents soil and ground water to point out the contribution of different industries towards the metals pollution, their source identification and distribution. The samples were collected from different industries and different downstream points of the main effluents stream and from the relatively less polluted area considered as control area. The samples were analyzed for metal concentration levels by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The metal concentration data in the three media of the polluted area were compared with background data and control data as well as with the WHO safe limits. The results showed that soil has high metals concentration compared to effluents and water. The data also showed elevated levels of Mn and Pb in water that are 8.268 and 2.971 mg/L, respectively. Principal component analysis along with regression analysis showed that the elevated levels of metals in the effluents contaminate adjacent soil and ultimately the ground water. The other elements Co, Cd, Ni and Cu were also found to have correlation in the three media. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Exotic statistics on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imbo, T.D.; March-Russel, J.

    1990-01-01

    We investigate the allowed spectrum of statistics for n identical spinless particles on an arbitrary closed two-manifold M, by using a powerful topological approach to the study of quantum kinematics. On a surface of genus g≥1 statistics other than Bose or Fermi can only be obtained by utilizing multi-component state vectors transforming as an irreducible unitary representation of the fundamental group of the n-particle configuration space. These multi-component (or nonscalar) quantizations allow the possibility of fractional statistics, as well as other exotic, nonfractional statistics some of whose properties we discuss. On an orientable surface of genus g≥0 only anyons with rational statistical parameter θ/π=p/q are allowed, and their number is restricted to be sq-g+1 (selement ofZ). For nonorientable surfaces only θ=0, π are allowed. Finally, we briefly comment on systems of spinning particles and make a comparison with the results for solitons in the O(3)-invariant nonlinear sigma model with space manifold M. (orig.)

  8. Conformity and statistical tolerancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Laurent; Pillet, Maurice

    2018-02-01

    Statistical tolerancing was first proposed by Shewhart (Economic Control of Quality of Manufactured Product, (1931) reprinted 1980 by ASQC), in spite of this long history, its use remains moderate. One of the probable reasons for this low utilization is undoubtedly the difficulty for designers to anticipate the risks of this approach. The arithmetic tolerance (worst case) allows a simple interpretation: conformity is defined by the presence of the characteristic in an interval. Statistical tolerancing is more complex in its definition. An interval is not sufficient to define the conformance. To justify the statistical tolerancing formula used by designers, a tolerance interval should be interpreted as the interval where most of the parts produced should probably be located. This tolerance is justified by considering a conformity criterion of the parts guaranteeing low offsets on the latter characteristics. Unlike traditional arithmetic tolerancing, statistical tolerancing requires a sustained exchange of information between design and manufacture to be used safely. This paper proposes a formal definition of the conformity, which we apply successively to the quadratic and arithmetic tolerancing. We introduce a concept of concavity, which helps us to demonstrate the link between tolerancing approach and conformity. We use this concept to demonstrate the various acceptable propositions of statistical tolerancing (in the space decentring, dispersion).

  9. Intuitive introductory statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Douglas A

    2017-01-01

    This textbook is designed to give an engaging introduction to statistics and the art of data analysis. The unique scope includes, but also goes beyond, classical methodology associated with the normal distribution. What if the normal model is not valid for a particular data set? This cutting-edge approach provides the alternatives. It is an introduction to the world and possibilities of statistics that uses exercises, computer analyses, and simulations throughout the core lessons. These elementary statistical methods are intuitive. Counting and ranking features prominently in the text. Nonparametric methods, for instance, are often based on counts and ranks and are very easy to integrate into an introductory course. The ease of computation with advanced calculators and statistical software, both of which factor into this text, allows important techniques to be introduced earlier in the study of statistics. This book's novel scope also includes measuring symmetry with Walsh averages, finding a nonp...

  10. 1992 Energy statistics Yearbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The principal objective of the Yearbook is to provide a global framework of comparable data on long-term trends in the supply of mainly commercial primary and secondary forms of energy. Data for each type of fuel and aggregate data for the total mix of commercial fuels are shown for individual countries and areas and are summarized into regional and world totals. The data are compiled primarily from annual questionnaires distributed by the United Nations Statistical Division and supplemented by official national statistical publications. Where official data are not available or are inconsistent, estimates are made by the Statistical Division based on governmental, professional or commercial materials. Estimates include, but are not limited to, extrapolated data based on partial year information, use of annual trends, trade data based on partner country reports, breakdowns of aggregated data as well as analysis of current energy events and activities

  11. Philosophy of statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Forster, Malcolm R

    2011-01-01

    Statisticians and philosophers of science have many common interests but restricted communication with each other. This volume aims to remedy these shortcomings. It provides state-of-the-art research in the area of philosophy of statistics by encouraging numerous experts to communicate with one another without feeling "restricted” by their disciplines or thinking "piecemeal” in their treatment of issues. A second goal of this book is to present work in the field without bias toward any particular statistical paradigm. Broadly speaking, the essays in this Handbook are concerned with problems of induction, statistics and probability. For centuries, foundational problems like induction have been among philosophers' favorite topics; recently, however, non-philosophers have increasingly taken a keen interest in these issues. This volume accordingly contains papers by both philosophers and non-philosophers, including scholars from nine academic disciplines.

  12. Statistics and social critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Desrosières

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the history of the uses of statistics as a tool for socialcritique. Whereas nowadays they are very often conceived as being in the hands of the powerful, there are many historical cases when they were, on the contrary, used to oppose the authority. The author first illustrates the theory of Ted Porter according to which quantification might be a “tool of weakness”. He then addresses the fact that statistics were used in the context of labour and on living conditions, thus being a resource for the lower class of society (and presenting the theory of statistics of Pelloutier, an anarchist activist. Finally comes the question of the conditions of success of these counterpropositions, discussed on the examples of the new random experiments in public policies, and of the measure of the 1% of the richest persons

  13. Per Object statistical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    This RS code is to do Object-by-Object analysis of each Object's sub-objects, e.g. statistical analysis of an object's individual image data pixels. Statistics, such as percentiles (so-called "quartiles") are derived by the process, but the return of that can only be a Scene Variable, not an Object...... an analysis of the values of the object's pixels in MS-Excel. The shell of the proceedure could also be used for purposes other than just the derivation of Object - Sub-object statistics, e.g. rule-based assigment processes....... Variable. This procedure was developed in order to be able to export objects as ESRI shape data with the 90-percentile of the Hue of each object's pixels as an item in the shape attribute table. This procedure uses a sub-level single pixel chessboard segmentation, loops for each of the objects...

  14. Energy statistics manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Detailed, complete, timely and reliable statistics are essential to monitor the energy situation at a country level as well as at an international level. Energy statistics on supply, trade, stocks, transformation and demand are indeed the basis for any sound energy policy decision. For instance, the market of oil -- which is the largest traded commodity worldwide -- needs to be closely monitored in order for all market players to know at any time what is produced, traded, stocked and consumed and by whom. In view of the role and importance of energy in world development, one would expect that basic energy information to be readily available and reliable. This is not always the case and one can even observe a decline in the quality, coverage and timeliness of energy statistics over the last few years.

  15. Statistical inferences in phylogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Beaumont, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    can randomly lead to multiple different genealogies. Likewise, the same gene trees can arise under different demographic models. This problem has led to the emergence of many statistical methods for making phylogeographic inferences. A popular phylogeographic approach based on nested clade analysis...... is challenged by the fact that a certain amount of the interpretation of the data is left to the subjective choices of the user, and it has been argued that the method performs poorly in simulation studies. More rigorous statistical methods based on coalescence theory have been developed. However, these methods...... may also be challenged by computational problems or poor model choice. In this review, we will describe the development of statistical methods in phylogeographic analysis, and discuss some of the challenges facing these methods....

  16. Multivariate Statistical Process Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat

    2013-01-01

    As sensor and computer technology continues to improve, it becomes a normal occurrence that we confront with high dimensional data sets. As in many areas of industrial statistics, this brings forth various challenges in statistical process control (SPC) and monitoring for which the aim...... is to identify “out-of-control” state of a process using control charts in order to reduce the excessive variation caused by so-called assignable causes. In practice, the most common method of monitoring multivariate data is through a statistic akin to the Hotelling’s T2. For high dimensional data with excessive...... in conjunction with image data are plagued with various challenges beyond the usual ones encountered in current applications. In this presentation we will introduce the basic ideas of SPC and the multivariate control charts commonly used in industry. We will further discuss the challenges the practitioners...

  17. Probability and Bayesian statistics

    CERN Document Server

    1987-01-01

    This book contains selected and refereed contributions to the "Inter­ national Symposium on Probability and Bayesian Statistics" which was orga­ nized to celebrate the 80th birthday of Professor Bruno de Finetti at his birthplace Innsbruck in Austria. Since Professor de Finetti died in 1985 the symposium was dedicated to the memory of Bruno de Finetti and took place at Igls near Innsbruck from 23 to 26 September 1986. Some of the pa­ pers are published especially by the relationship to Bruno de Finetti's scientific work. The evolution of stochastics shows growing importance of probability as coherent assessment of numerical values as degrees of believe in certain events. This is the basis for Bayesian inference in the sense of modern statistics. The contributions in this volume cover a broad spectrum ranging from foundations of probability across psychological aspects of formulating sub­ jective probability statements, abstract measure theoretical considerations, contributions to theoretical statistics an...

  18. READING STATISTICS AND RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Yavuz Akbulut

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The book demonstrates the best and most conservative ways to decipher and critique research reports particularly for social science researchers. In addition, new editions of the book are always better organized, effectively structured and meticulously updated in line with the developments in the field of research statistics. Even the most trivial issues are revisited and updated in new editions. For instance, purchaser of the previous editions might check the interpretation of skewness and kurtosis indices in the third edition (p. 34 and in the fifth edition (p.29 to see how the author revisits every single detail. Theory and practice always go hand in hand in all editions of the book. Re-reading previous editions (e.g. third edition before reading the fifth edition gives the impression that the author never stops ameliorating his instructional text writing methods. In brief, “Reading Statistics and Research” is among the best sources showing research consumers how to understand and critically assess the statistical information and research results contained in technical research reports. In this respect, the review written by Mirko Savić in Panoeconomicus (2008, 2, pp. 249-252 will help the readers to get a more detailed overview of each chapters. I cordially urge the beginning researchers to pick a highlighter to conduct a detailed reading with the book. A thorough reading of the source will make the researchers quite selective in appreciating the harmony between the data analysis, results and discussion sections of typical journal articles. If interested, beginning researchers might begin with this book to grasp the basics of research statistics, and prop up their critical research reading skills with some statistics package applications through the help of Dr. Andy Field’s book, Discovering Statistics using SPSS (second edition published by Sage in 2005.

  19. Diffeomorphic Statistical Deformation Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Sass; Hansen, Mads/Fogtman; Larsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a new method for constructing diffeomorphic statistical deformation models in arbitrary dimensional images with a nonlinear generative model and a linear parameter space. Our deformation model is a modified version of the diffeomorphic model introduced by Cootes et al....... The modifications ensure that no boundary restriction has to be enforced on the parameter space to prevent folds or tears in the deformation field. For straightforward statistical analysis, principal component analysis and sparse methods, we assume that the parameters for a class of deformations lie on a linear...

  20. Statistics As Principled Argument

    CERN Document Server

    Abelson, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    In this illuminating volume, Robert P. Abelson delves into the too-often dismissed problems of interpreting quantitative data and then presenting them in the context of a coherent story about one's research. Unlike too many books on statistics, this is a remarkably engaging read, filled with fascinating real-life (and real-research) examples rather than with recipes for analysis. It will be of true interest and lasting value to beginning graduate students and seasoned researchers alike. The focus of the book is that the purpose of statistics is to organize a useful argument from quantitative

  1. Radiation counting statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, M. Y.; Jee, K. Y.; Park, K. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-08-01

    This report is intended to describe the statistical methods necessary to design and conduct radiation counting experiments and evaluate the data from the experiments. The methods are described for the evaluation of the stability of a counting system and the estimation of the precision of counting data by application of probability distribution models. The methods for the determination of the uncertainty of the results calculated from the number of counts, as well as various statistical methods for the reduction of counting error are also described. 11 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  2. Bayesian statistics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian Statistics is the school of thought that combines prior beliefs with the likelihood of a hypothesis to arrive at posterior beliefs. The first edition of Peter Lee’s book appeared in 1989, but the subject has moved ever onwards, with increasing emphasis on Monte Carlo based techniques. This new fourth edition looks at recent techniques such as variational methods, Bayesian importance sampling, approximate Bayesian computation and Reversible Jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (RJMCMC), providing a concise account of the way in which the Bayesian approach to statistics develops as wel

  3. Statistics for business

    CERN Document Server

    Waller, Derek L

    2008-01-01

    Statistical analysis is essential to business decision-making and management, but the underlying theory of data collection, organization and analysis is one of the most challenging topics for business students and practitioners. This user-friendly text and CD-ROM package will help you to develop strong skills in presenting and interpreting statistical information in a business or management environment. Based entirely on using Microsoft Excel rather than more complicated applications, it includes a clear guide to using Excel with the key functions employed in the book, a glossary of terms and

  4. Environmental accounting and statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartelmus, P.L.P.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of sustainable development is to integrate environmental concerns with mainstream socio-economic policies. Integrated policies need to be supported by integrated data. Environmental accounting achieves this integration by incorporating environmental costs and benefits into conventional national accounts. Modified accounting aggregates can thus be used in defining and measuring environmentally sound and sustainable economic growth. Further development objectives need to be assessed by more comprehensive, though necessarily less integrative, systems of environmental statistics and indicators. Integrative frameworks for the different statistical systems in the fields of economy, environment and population would facilitate the provision of comparable data for the analysis of integrated development. (author). 19 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Applied nonparametric statistical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Sprent, Peter

    2007-01-01

    While preserving the clear, accessible style of previous editions, Applied Nonparametric Statistical Methods, Fourth Edition reflects the latest developments in computer-intensive methods that deal with intractable analytical problems and unwieldy data sets. Reorganized and with additional material, this edition begins with a brief summary of some relevant general statistical concepts and an introduction to basic ideas of nonparametric or distribution-free methods. Designed experiments, including those with factorial treatment structures, are now the focus of an entire chapter. The text also e

  6. Elementary Statistics Tables

    CERN Document Server

    Neave, Henry R

    2012-01-01

    This book, designed for students taking a basic introductory course in statistical analysis, is far more than just a book of tables. Each table is accompanied by a careful but concise explanation and useful worked examples. Requiring little mathematical background, Elementary Statistics Tables is thus not just a reference book but a positive and user-friendly teaching and learning aid. The new edition contains a new and comprehensive "teach-yourself" section on a simple but powerful approach, now well-known in parts of industry but less so in academia, to analysing and interpreting process dat

  7. Radiation counting statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, M. Y.; Jee, K. Y.; Park, K. K.; Park, Y. J.; Kim, W. H.

    1999-08-01

    This report is intended to describe the statistical methods necessary to design and conduct radiation counting experiments and evaluate the data from the experiment. The methods are described for the evaluation of the stability of a counting system and the estimation of the precision of counting data by application of probability distribution models. The methods for the determination of the uncertainty of the results calculated from the number of counts, as well as various statistical methods for the reduction of counting error are also described. (Author). 11 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

  8. Statistics II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Emil G

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Statistics II discusses sampling theory, statistical inference, independent and dependent variables, correlation theory, experimental design, count data, chi-square test, and time se

  9. Statistical Convergence of Double Sequences of Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Çolak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We intend to make a new approach and introduce the concepts of statistical convergence of order and strongly -Cesàro summability of order for double sequences of complex or real numbers. Also, some relations between the statistical convergence of order and strong -Cesàro summability of order are given.

  10. Statistics of Local Extremes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Bierbooms, W.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2003-01-01

    . A theoretical expression for the probability density function associated with local extremes of a stochasticprocess is presented. The expression is basically based on the lower four statistical moments and a bandwidth parameter. The theoretical expression is subsequently verified by comparison with simulated...

  11. Statistical learning and prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Guy; Ullén, Fredrik

    2012-12-01

    Human behavior is guided by evolutionarily shaped brain mechanisms that make statistical predictions based on limited information. Such mechanisms are important for facilitating interpersonal relationships, avoiding dangers, and seizing opportunities in social interaction. We thus suggest that it is essential for analyses of prejudice and prejudice reduction to take the predictive accuracy and adaptivity of the studied prejudices into account.

  12. Beyond quantum microcanonical statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresch, Barbara; Moro, Giorgio J.

    2011-01-01

    Descriptions of molecular systems usually refer to two distinct theoretical frameworks. On the one hand the quantum pure state, i.e., the wavefunction, of an isolated system is determined to calculate molecular properties and their time evolution according to the unitary Schroedinger equation. On the other hand a mixed state, i.e., a statistical density matrix, is the standard formalism to account for thermal equilibrium, as postulated in the microcanonical quantum statistics. In the present paper an alternative treatment relying on a statistical analysis of the possible wavefunctions of an isolated system is presented. In analogy with the classical ergodic theory, the time evolution of the wavefunction determines the probability distribution in the phase space pertaining to an isolated system. However, this alone cannot account for a well defined thermodynamical description of the system in the macroscopic limit, unless a suitable probability distribution for the quantum constants of motion is introduced. We present a workable formalism assuring the emergence of typical values of thermodynamic functions, such as the internal energy and the entropy, in the large size limit of the system. This allows the identification of macroscopic properties independently of the specific realization of the quantum state. A description of material systems in agreement with equilibrium thermodynamics is then derived without constraints on the physical constituents and interactions of the system. Furthermore, the canonical statistics is recovered in all generality for the reduced density matrix of a subsystem.

  13. Swiss electricity statistics 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The Swiss Department of Energy has published electricity statistics for 1982. This report presents them in tabular form. The tables are classified under the following headings: important reference numbers, Swiss electricity review, production of electrical energy, use of electrical energy, load diagrams and coping with user requirements, import and export of energy 1982, possible building of power stations before 1989, finance, appendix

  14. Simple Statistics: - Summarized!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Statistics are an essential tool for making proper judgement decisions. It is concerned with probability distribution models, testing of hypotheses, significance tests and other means of determining the correctness of deductions and the most likely outcome of decisions. Measures of central tendency include the mean, median and mode. A second…

  15. Minnesota forest statistics, 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Miles; Chung M. Chen

    1992-01-01

    The fifth inventory of Minnesota's forests reports 51.0 million acres of land, of which 16.7 million acres are forested. This bulletin presents statistical highlights and contains detailed tables of forest area, as well as timber volume, growth, removals, mortality, and ownership.

  16. The Bayesian Score Statistic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleibergen, F.R.; Kleijn, R.; Paap, R.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a novel Bayesian test under a (noninformative) Jeffreys'priorspecification. We check whether the fixed scalar value of the so-calledBayesian Score Statistic (BSS) under the null hypothesis is aplausiblerealization from its known and standardized distribution under thealternative. Unlike

  17. SAPS, Crime statistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    perverse incentive' to under record violent crime, particularly the various forms of assault.6 In effect this has rendered the SAPS statistics for inter-personal. * Gould and Burger are senior researchers in the Crime and Justice Programme of the ISS ...

  18. Bolivia; Statistical Annex

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides statistical data of macroeconomic flows, national accounts, production, and employment, combined public sector, financial sector, and external sector. They are listed as follows: gross domestic product by expenditure, mining reserves and production, investment in petroleum exploration, consumer prices, public sector employment, operations of the central government, monetary surveys, selected interest rates, open market bills, balance of payments, exports by principal produ...

  19. Indiana forest statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith; Mark F. Golitz

    1988-01-01

    The third inventory of Indiana's timber resource shows that timberland area in Indiana climbed from 3.9 to 4.3 million acres between 1967 and 1986, an increase of more than 10%. During the same period growing-stock volume increased 43%. Highlights and statistics are presented on area, volume, growth, mortality, and removals.

  20. Fermi–Dirac Statistics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 1. Fermi–Dirac Statistics. Subhash Chaturvedi Shyamal Biswas. General ... School of Physics University of Hyderabad C R Rao Road, Gachibowli Hyderabad 500 046, India. University of Hyderabad C R Rao Road, Gachibowli Hyderabad 500 ...

  1. Search Databases and Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Jan C; Munk, Stephanie; Jensen, Lars J

    2016-01-01

    searches. Additionally, careful filtering and use of appropriate statistical tests on the output datasets affects the quality of all downstream analyses and interpretation of the data. Our considerations and general practices on these aspects of phosphoproteomics data processing are presented here....

  2. The Pleasures of Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Mosteller, Frederick; Hoaglin, David C; Tanur, Judith M

    2010-01-01

    Includes chapter-length insider accounts of work on the pre-election polls of 1948, statistical aspects of the Kinsey report on sexual behavior in the human male, mathematical learning theory, authorship of the disputed Federalist papers, safety of anesthetics, and an examination of the Coleman report on equality of educational opportunity

  3. Elementary statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kittel, C

    1965-01-01

    This book is intended to help physics students attain a modest working knowledge of several areas of statistical mechanics, including stochastic processes and transport theory. The areas discussed are among those forming a useful part of the intellectual background of a physicist.

  4. Statistics for Learning Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Abigail Sheena

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the knowledge and skills that biology students may need to help them understand statistics/mathematics as it applies to genetics. The data are based on analyses of current representative genetics texts, practicing genetics professors' perspectives, and more directly, students' perceptions of, and performance in, doing…

  5. Fisher's Contributions to Statistics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    research workers of various disciplines in designing their studies and in analysing data thereof. He is also called upon to advise organisations like the ... such visual aids. It is believed that this situation helped him develop a keen geometrical sense. Fisher's contributions to statistics have also given rise to a number of bitter ...

  6. Topics in Statistical Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    type of garden cress called nasturtium. The response is weight of the plant in milligrams (mg) after three weeks of growth, and the predictor is the...7 (1):1–26, 1979. B. Efron. The bootstrap and markov-chain monte carlo. Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics, 21(6):1052–1062, 2011. B. Efron and

  7. Air Carrier Traffic Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report contains airline operating statistics for large certificated air carriers based on data reported to U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) by carriers that hold a certificate issued under Section 401 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 a...

  8. Statistically Valid Planting Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. B. Briscoe

    1961-01-01

    More than 100 million tree seedlings are planted each year in Latin America, and at least ten time'that many should be planted Rational control and development of a program of such magnitude require establishing and interpreting carefully planned trial plantings which will yield statistically valid answers to real and important questions. Unfortunately, many...

  9. Geometric statistical inference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periwal, Vipul

    1999-01-01

    A reparametrization-covariant formulation of the inverse problem of probability is explicitly solved for finite sample sizes. The inferred distribution is explicitly continuous for finite sample size. A geometric solution of the statistical inference problem in higher dimensions is outlined

  10. On quantum statistical inference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, O.E.; Gill, R.D.; Jupp, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments in the mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics have brought the theory closer to that of classical probability and statistics. On the other hand, the unique character of quantum physics sets many of the questions addressed apart from those met classically in stochastics.

  11. Statistical Hadronization and Holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechi, Jacopo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider some issues about the statistical model of the hadronization in a holographic approach. We introduce a Rindler like horizon in the bulk and we understand the string breaking as a tunneling event under this horizon. We calculate the hadron spectrum and we get a thermal, a...

  12. Classical statistical theory for chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, A.F.; Parks, E.K.

    1976-01-01

    A trajectory approach is used to derive cross section expressions for the reactive and dissociative products of an A + BC collision in the statistical approximation. The formalism is sufficiently general to accommodate any definition of the strong coupling region. The theory is shown to satisfy time reversal symmetry. The role of canonical variables in statistical theories and the nature of the statistical approximation on a trajectory level are clarified. Problems of implementation are discussed for a variety of strong coupling regions and quantum statistical theories are reviewed in relation to the present classical formalism

  13. Statistical thermodynamics of nonequilibrium processes

    CERN Document Server

    Keizer, Joel

    1987-01-01

    The structure of the theory ofthermodynamics has changed enormously since its inception in the middle of the nineteenth century. Shortly after Thomson and Clausius enunciated their versions of the Second Law, Clausius, Maxwell, and Boltzmann began actively pursuing the molecular basis of thermo­ dynamics, work that culminated in the Boltzmann equation and the theory of transport processes in dilute gases. Much later, Onsager undertook the elucidation of the symmetry oftransport coefficients and, thereby, established himself as the father of the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Com­ bining the statistical ideas of Gibbs and Langevin with the phenomenological transport equations, Onsager and others went on to develop a consistent statistical theory of irreversible processes. The power of that theory is in its ability to relate measurable quantities, such as transport coefficients and thermodynamic derivatives, to the results of experimental measurements. As powerful as that theory is, it is linear and...

  14. Análisis de la actividad en línea del estudiante y su relación con el aprendizaje de estadística / Analysis of students’ online activity and its relation with statistics learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAnally-Salas, Lewis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Se presentan los resultados de una investigación que tuvo el propósito de explorar las relaciones entre la actividad realizada por el alumno con materiales en línea de apoyo a Estadística y las calificaciones obtenidas en esta materia. Esta investigación se asocia a uno de los objetivos del proyecto “Innovación en la enseñanza de Estadística mediante el uso de objetos de aprendizaje y constructivismo” del cual se derivó el trabajo doctoral del primer autor. La investigación se realizó con 54 estudiantes (dos grupos del segundo semestre de la Facultad de Ciencias Administrativas y Sociales (UABC quienes tuvieron como requisito acreditar la materia de Estadística.En la etapa inicial, se les aplicó una encuesta sobre aspectos socio-económicos. Durante la intervención, se obtuvo una serie de registros de actividad (hits generados por el ambiente Moodle. Finalmente, cada maestro proporcionó un listado de calificaciones parciales. Se aplicó la técnica de análisis de conglomerados (k-medias considerando la actividad en el sitio web y las calificaciones en la materia. Para cuatro conglomerados obtenidos, se detecta una tendencia hacia la obtención de mejores calificaciones parciales en los dos conglomerados con valores medios mayores para la variable actividad (hits. Lo anterior sugiere que mediante apoyos pedagógicos en línea es posible crear mejores condiciones para el aprendizaje. Los participantes expresaron su preferencia hacia un uso moderado de la tecnología en cursos. Finalmente, se destaca la importancia de la utilización de los registros de actividad en la Web para detectar problemas académicos en etapas tempranas y así evitar problemas de reprobación o de deserción.Abstract:This paper presents the results of an investigation that had the intention to explore the relations between the online activity level achieved by the students with Statistics supporting materials and the obtained exam marks in this

  15. Frontiers in statistical quality control 11

    CERN Document Server

    Schmid, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The main focus of this edited volume is on three major areas of statistical quality control: statistical process control (SPC), acceptance sampling and design of experiments. The majority of the papers deal with statistical process control, while acceptance sampling and design of experiments are also treated to a lesser extent. The book is organized into four thematic parts, with Part I addressing statistical process control. Part II is devoted to acceptance sampling. Part III covers the design of experiments, while Part IV discusses related fields. The twenty-three papers in this volume stem from The 11th International Workshop on Intelligent Statistical Quality Control, which was held in Sydney, Australia from August 20 to August 23, 2013. The event was hosted by Professor Ross Sparks, CSIRO Mathematics, Informatics and Statistics, North Ryde, Australia and was jointly organized by Professors S. Knoth, W. Schmid and Ross Sparks. The papers presented here were carefully selected and reviewed by the scientifi...

  16. International Conference on Robust Statistics 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Ayanendranath; Filzmoser, Peter; Mukherjee, Diganta

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a collection of recent contributions and emerging ideas in the areas of robust statistics presented at the International Conference on Robust Statistics 2015 (ICORS 2015) held in Kolkata during 12–16 January, 2015. The book explores the applicability of robust methods in other non-traditional areas which includes the use of new techniques such as skew and mixture of skew distributions, scaled Bregman divergences, and multilevel functional data methods; application areas being circular data models and prediction of mortality and life expectancy. The contributions are of both theoretical as well as applied in nature. Robust statistics is a relatively young branch of statistical sciences that is rapidly emerging as the bedrock of statistical analysis in the 21st century due to its flexible nature and wide scope. Robust statistics supports the application of parametric and other inference techniques over a broader domain than the strictly interpreted model scenarios employed in classical statis...

  17. Software Used to Generate Cancer Statistics - SEER Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videos that highlight topics and trends in cancer statistics and definitions of statistical terms. Also software tools for analyzing and reporting cancer statistics, which are used to compile SEER's annual reports.

  18. Statistical theory and inference

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, David J

    2014-01-01

    This text is for  a one semester graduate course in statistical theory and covers minimal and complete sufficient statistics, maximum likelihood estimators, method of moments, bias and mean square error, uniform minimum variance estimators and the Cramer-Rao lower bound, an introduction to large sample theory, likelihood ratio tests and uniformly most powerful  tests and the Neyman Pearson Lemma. A major goal of this text is to make these topics much more accessible to students by using the theory of exponential families. Exponential families, indicator functions and the support of the distribution are used throughout the text to simplify the theory. More than 50 ``brand name" distributions are used to illustrate the theory with many examples of exponential families, maximum likelihood estimators and uniformly minimum variance unbiased estimators. There are many homework problems with over 30 pages of solutions.

  19. Classical and statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Hanna A

    2016-01-01

    This is a text book of thermodynamics for the student who seeks thorough training in science or engineering. Systematic and thorough treatment of the fundamental principles rather than presenting the large mass of facts has been stressed. The book includes some of the historical and humanistic background of thermodynamics, but without affecting the continuity of the analytical treatment. For a clearer and more profound understanding of thermodynamics this book is highly recommended. In this respect, the author believes that a sound grounding in classical thermodynamics is an essential prerequisite for the understanding of statistical thermodynamics. Such a book comprising the two wide branches of thermodynamics is in fact unprecedented. Being a written work dealing systematically with the two main branches of thermodynamics, namely classical thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics, together with some important indexes under only one cover, this treatise is so eminently useful.

  20. Applied statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Klaus

    1991-01-01

    The book guides the reader from the foundations of statisti- cal thermodynamics including the theory of intermolecular forces to modern computer-aided applications in chemical en- gineering and physical chemistry. The approach is new. The foundations of quantum and statistical mechanics are presen- ted in a simple way and their applications to the prediction of fluid phase behavior of real systems are demonstrated. A particular effort is made to introduce the reader to expli- cit formulations of intermolecular interaction models and to show how these models influence the properties of fluid sy- stems. The established methods of statistical mechanics - computer simulation, perturbation theory, and numerical in- tegration - are discussed in a style appropriate for newcom- ers and are extensively applied. Numerous worked examples illustrate how practical calculations should be carried out.

  1. Visuanimation in statistics

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2015-04-14

    This paper explores the use of visualization through animations, coined visuanimation, in the field of statistics. In particular, it illustrates the embedding of animations in the paper itself and the storage of larger movies in the online supplemental material. We present results from statistics research projects using a variety of visuanimations, ranging from exploratory data analysis of image data sets to spatio-temporal extreme event modelling; these include a multiscale analysis of classification methods, the study of the effects of a simulated explosive volcanic eruption and an emulation of climate model output. This paper serves as an illustration of visuanimation for future publications in Stat. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Fermions from classical statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2010-01-01

    We describe fermions in terms of a classical statistical ensemble. The states τ of this ensemble are characterized by a sequence of values one or zero or a corresponding set of two-level observables. Every classical probability distribution can be associated to a quantum state for fermions. If the time evolution of the classical probabilities p τ amounts to a rotation of the wave function q τ (t)=±√(p τ (t)), we infer the unitary time evolution of a quantum system of fermions according to a Schroedinger equation. We establish how such classical statistical ensembles can be mapped to Grassmann functional integrals. Quantum field theories for fermions arise for a suitable time evolution of classical probabilities for generalized Ising models.

  3. Understanding Students' Experiences of Statistics in a Service Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sue

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we explore issues surrounding university students' experiences of statistics drawing on data related to learning statistics as a compulsory component of psychology. Over 250 students completed a written survey which included questions on their attitudes to learning statistics and their conceptions of statistics. Results indicated…

  4. Asymptotics in Quantum Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    Observations or measurements taken of a quantum system (a small number of fundamental particles) are inherently random. If the state of the system depends on unknown parameters, then the distribution of the outcome depends on these parameters too, and statistical inference problems result. Often one has a choice of what measurement to take, corresponding to different experimental set-ups or settings of measurement apparatus. This leads to a design problem--which measurement is best for a give...

  5. Information in statistical physics

    OpenAIRE

    Balian, R.

    2005-01-01

    We review with a tutorial scope the information theory foundations of quantum statistical physics. Only a small proportion of the variables that characterize a system at the microscopic scale can be controlled, for both practical and theoretical reasons, and a probabilistic description involving the observers is required. The criterion of maximum von Neumann entropy is then used for making reasonable inferences. It means that no spurious information is introduced besides the known data. Its o...

  6. 2002 energy statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report has 12 chapters. The first chapter includes world energy reserves, the second chapter is about world primary energy production and consumption condition. Other chapters include; world energy prices, energy reserves in Turkey, Turkey primary energy production and consumption condition, Turkey energy balance tables, Turkey primary energy reserves production, consumption, imports and exports conditions, sectoral energy consumptions, Turkey secondary electricity plants, Turkey energy investments, Turkey energy prices.This report gives world and Turkey statistics on energy

  7. Statistics I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Emil G

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Statistics I covers include frequency distributions, numerical methods of describing data, measures of variability, parameters of distributions, probability theory, and distributions.

  8. READING STATISTICS AND RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Reviewed by Yavuz Akbulut

    2008-01-01

    The book demonstrates the best and most conservative ways to decipher and critique research reports particularly for social science researchers. In addition, new editions of the book are always better organized, effectively structured and meticulously updated in line with the developments in the field of research statistics. Even the most trivial issues are revisited and updated in new editions. For instance, purchaser of the previous editions might check the interpretation of skewness and ku...

  9. R for statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Cornillon, Pierre-Andre; Husson, Francois; Jegou, Nicolas; Josse, Julie; Kloareg, Maela; Matzner-Lober, Eric; Rouviere, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    An Overview of RMain ConceptsInstalling RWork SessionHelpR ObjectsFunctionsPackagesExercisesPreparing DataReading Data from FileExporting ResultsManipulating VariablesManipulating IndividualsConcatenating Data TablesCross-TabulationExercisesR GraphicsConventional Graphical FunctionsGraphical Functions with latticeExercisesMaking Programs with RControl FlowsPredefined FunctionsCreating a FunctionExercisesStatistical MethodsIntroduction to the Statistical MethodsA Quick Start with RInstalling ROpening and Closing RThe Command PromptAttribution, Objects, and FunctionSelectionOther Rcmdr PackageImporting (or Inputting) DataGraphsStatistical AnalysisHypothesis TestConfidence Intervals for a MeanChi-Square Test of IndependenceComparison of Two MeansTesting Conformity of a ProportionComparing Several ProportionsThe Power of a TestRegressionSimple Linear RegressionMultiple Linear RegressionPartial Least Squares (PLS) RegressionAnalysis of Variance and CovarianceOne-Way Analysis of VarianceMulti-Way Analysis of Varian...

  10. Statistical and theoretical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Significant accomplishments include the creation of field designs to detect population impacts, new census procedures for small mammals, and methods for designing studies to determine where and how much of a contaminant is extent over certain landscapes. A book describing these statistical methods is currently being written and will apply to a variety of environmental contaminants, including radionuclides. PNL scientists also have devised an analytical method for predicting the success of field eexperiments on wild populations. Two highlights of current research are the discoveries that population of free-roaming horse herds can double in four years and that grizzly bear populations may be substantially smaller than once thought. As stray horses become a public nuisance at DOE and other large Federal sites, it is important to determine their number. Similar statistical theory can be readily applied to other situations where wild animals are a problem of concern to other government agencies. Another book, on statistical aspects of radionuclide studies, is written specifically for researchers in radioecology

  11. Statistics for lawyers

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Michael O

    2015-01-01

    This classic text, first published in 1990, is designed to introduce law students, law teachers, practitioners, and judges to the basic ideas of mathematical probability and statistics as they have been applied in the law. The third edition includes over twenty new sections, including the addition of timely topics, like New York City police stops, exonerations in death-sentence cases, projecting airline costs, and new material on various statistical techniques such as the randomized response survey technique, rare-events meta-analysis, competing risks, and negative binomial regression. The book consists of sections of exposition followed by real-world cases and case studies in which statistical data have played a role. The reader is asked to apply the theory to the facts, to calculate results (a hand calculator is sufficient), and to explore legal issues raised by quantitative findings. The authors' calculations and comments are given in the back of the book. As with previous editions, the cases and case stu...

  12. Testing statistical hypotheses

    CERN Document Server

    Lehmann, E L

    2005-01-01

    The third edition of Testing Statistical Hypotheses updates and expands upon the classic graduate text, emphasizing optimality theory for hypothesis testing and confidence sets. The principal additions include a rigorous treatment of large sample optimality, together with the requisite tools. In addition, an introduction to the theory of resampling methods such as the bootstrap is developed. The sections on multiple testing and goodness of fit testing are expanded. The text is suitable for Ph.D. students in statistics and includes over 300 new problems out of a total of more than 760. E.L. Lehmann is Professor of Statistics Emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the recipient of honorary degrees from the University of Leiden, The Netherlands and the University of Chicago. He is the author of Elements of Large-Sample Theory and (with George Casella) he is also the author of Theory of Point Estimat...

  13. [Statistical analysis on andrological patients. I. Frequencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebe, K H; Schirren, C

    1980-01-01

    According a collective of 1619 andrological patients of the year 1975 some statistical data were given: age distribution, frequencies, frequency of sexual intercourse, anticonception and relation to age, coitus frequency and relation to age, impotence and relation to age, previous andrological treatment.

  14. Statistical mechanics of economics I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusmartsev, F.V.

    2011-01-01

    We show that statistical mechanics is useful in the description of financial crisis and economics. Taking a large amount of instant snapshots of a market over an interval of time we construct their ensembles and study their statistical interference. This results in a probability description of the market and gives capital, money, income, wealth and debt distributions, which in the most cases takes the form of the Bose-Einstein distribution. In addition, statistical mechanics provides the main market equations and laws which govern the correlations between the amount of money, debt, product, prices and number of retailers. We applied the found relations to a study of the evolution of the economics in USA between the years 1996 to 2008 and observe that over that time the income of a major population is well described by the Bose-Einstein distribution which parameters are different for each year. Each financial crisis corresponds to a peak in the absolute activity coefficient. The analysis correctly indicates the past crises and predicts the future one.

  15. National Center for Health Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Search the CDC National Center for Health Statistics Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Survey of Family Growth Vital Records National Vital Statistics System National Death Index Vital Statistics Rapid Release ...

  16. An Introduction to Statistical Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive, flexible text is used in both one- and two-semester courses to review introductory through intermediate statistics. Instructors select the topics that are most appropriate for their course. Its conceptual approach helps students more easily understand the concepts and interpret SPSS and research results. Key concepts are simply stated and occasionally reintroduced and related to one another for reinforcement. Numerous examples demonstrate their relevance. This edition features more explanation to increase understanding of the concepts. Only crucial equations are included. I

  17. The Role of Previous Experience and Attitudes toward Statistics in Statistics Assessment Outcomes among Undergraduate Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Martin; McCorry, Noleen K.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that students' cognitions about statistics are related to their performance in statistics assessments. The purpose of this research is to examine the nature of the relationships between undergraduate psychology students' previous experiences of maths, statistics and computing; their attitudes toward statistics;…

  18. Beginning statistics with data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mosteller, Frederick; Rourke, Robert EK

    2013-01-01

    This introduction to the world of statistics covers exploratory data analysis, methods for collecting data, formal statistical inference, and techniques of regression and analysis of variance. 1983 edition.

  19. Heroin: Statistics and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain ... the need for prevention and treatment. ( January 2018 ) View all related publications Related Policy Briefs Treating Opioid ...

  20. Statistical Inference at Work: Statistical Process Control as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Arthur; Kent, Phillip; Derry, Jan; Noss, Richard; Hoyles, Celia

    2008-01-01

    To characterise statistical inference in the workplace this paper compares a prototypical type of statistical inference at work, statistical process control (SPC), with a type of statistical inference that is better known in educational settings, hypothesis testing. Although there are some similarities between the reasoning structure involved in…

  1. Who Needs Statistics? | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    You may know the feeling. You have collected a lot of new data on an important experiment. Now you are faced with multiple groups of data, a sea of numbers, and a deadline for submitting your paper to a peer-reviewed journal. And you are not sure which data are relevant, or even the best way to present them. The statisticians at Data Management Services (DMS) know how to help. This small group of experts provides a wide array of statistical and mathematical consulting services to the scientific community at NCI at Frederick and NCI-Bethesda.

  2. Statistical mechanics of learning

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The effort to build machines that are able to learn and undertake tasks such as datamining, image processing and pattern recognition has led to the development of artificial neural networks in which learning from examples may be described and understood. The contribution to this subject made over the past decade by researchers applying the techniques of statistical mechanics is the subject of this book. The authors provide a coherent account of various important concepts and techniques that are currently only found scattered in papers, supplement this with background material in mathematics and physics, and include many examples and exercises.

  3. Nanotechnology and statistical inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesely, Sara; Vesely, Leonardo; Vesely, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    We discuss some problems that arise when applying statistical inference to data with the aim of disclosing new func-tionalities. A predictive model analyzes the data taken from experiments on a specific material to assess the likelihood that another product, with similar structure and properties, will exhibit the same functionality. It doesn't have much predictive power if vari-ability occurs as a consequence of a specific, non-linear behavior. We exemplify our discussion on some experiments with biased dice.

  4. Statistics in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Manteiga, Wenceslao

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The discipline of biostatistics is nowadays a fundamental scientific component of biomedical, public health and health services research. Traditional and emerging areas of application include clinical trials research, observational studies, physiology, imaging, and genomics. The present article reviews the current situation of biostatistics, considering the statistical methods traditionally used in biomedical research, as well as the ongoing development of new methods in response to the new problems arising in medicine. Clearly, the successful application of statistics in biomedical research requires appropriate training of biostatisticians. This training should aim to give due consideration to emerging new areas of statistics, while at the same time retaining full coverage of the fundamentals of statistical theory and methodology. In addition, it is important that students of biostatistics receive formal training in relevant biomedical disciplines, such as epidemiology, clinical trials, molecular biology, genetics, and neuroscience.La Bioestadística es hoy en día una componente científica fundamental de la investigación en Biomedicina, salud pública y servicios de salud. Las áreas tradicionales y emergentes de aplicación incluyen ensayos clínicos, estudios observacionales, fisología, imágenes, y genómica. Este artículo repasa la situación actual de la Bioestadística, considerando los métodos estadísticos usados tradicionalmente en investigación biomédica, así como los recientes desarrollos de nuevos métodos, para dar respuesta a los nuevos problemas que surgen en Medicina. Obviamente, la aplicación fructífera de la estadística en investigación biomédica exige una formación adecuada de los bioestadísticos, formación que debería tener en cuenta las áreas emergentes en estadística, cubriendo al mismo tiempo los fundamentos de la teoría estadística y su metodología. Es importante, además, que los estudiantes de

  5. Statistical fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Monin, A S

    2007-01-01

    ""If ever a field needed a definitive book, it is the study of turbulence; if ever a book on turbulence could be called definitive, it is this book."" - ScienceWritten by two of Russia's most eminent and productive scientists in turbulence, oceanography, and atmospheric physics, this two-volume survey is renowned for its clarity as well as its comprehensive treatment. The first volume begins with an outline of laminar and turbulent flow. The remainder of the book treats a variety of aspects of turbulence: its statistical and Lagrangian descriptions, shear flows near surfaces and free turbulenc

  6. Key World Energy Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997. This new edition responds to the enormously positive reaction to the book since then. Key World Energy Statistics produced by the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts. It exists in different formats to suit our readers' requirements.

  7. Nonparametric statistical inference

    CERN Document Server

    Gibbons, Jean Dickinson

    2014-01-01

    Thoroughly revised and reorganized, the fourth edition presents in-depth coverage of the theory and methods of the most widely used nonparametric procedures in statistical analysis and offers example applications appropriate for all areas of the social, behavioral, and life sciences. The book presents new material on the quantiles, the calculation of exact and simulated power, multiple comparisons, additional goodness-of-fit tests, methods of analysis of count data, and modern computer applications using MINITAB, SAS, and STATXACT. It includes tabular guides for simplified applications of tests and finding P values and confidence interval estimates.

  8. Functional and Operatorial Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Dabo-niang, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of statistical problems and methods involve infinite-dimensional aspects. This is due to the progress of technologies which allow us to store more and more information while modern instruments are able to collect data much more effectively due to their increasingly sophisticated design. This evolution directly concerns statisticians, who have to propose new methodologies while taking into account such high-dimensional data (e.g. continuous processes, functional data, etc.). The numerous applications (micro-arrays, paleo- ecological data, radar waveforms, spectrometric curv

  9. Statistics of extragalactic supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maza, J.; van den Bergh, S.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that supernovae of Type II are concentrated in spiral arms whereas those of Type I show no preference for spiral-arm regions. Rediscussion of available supernova statistics suggests that Tammann may have overestimated the dependence of supernova frequency on galaxy inclination. A study of the distribution of supernovae in elliptical galaxies indicates that the supernova rate per unit luminosity may be highest among (metal-poor) stars in the halos of E galaxies. All galaxies in which supernovae are known to have occurred have been classified on the DDO system

  10. On quantum statistical inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Gill, Richard D.; Jupp, Peter E.

    Recent developments in the mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics have brought the theory closer to that of classical probability and statistics. On the other hand, the unique character of quantum physics sets many of the questions addressed apart from those met classically in stochastics....... Furthermore, concurrent advances in experimental techniques and in the theory of quantum computation have led to a strong interest in questions of quantum information, in particular in the sense of the amount of information about unknown parameters in given observational data or accessible through various...

  11. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  12. Swiss energy statistics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2003 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  13. Swiss energy statistics 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiss Federal Office of Energy, Berne

    2003-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2002 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  14. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  15. Intermetallics structures, properties, and statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Steurer, Walter

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this book is clearly on the statistics, topology, and geometry of crystal structures and crystal structure types. This allows one to uncover important structural relationships and to illustrate the relative simplicity of most of the general structural building principles. It also allows one to show that a large variety of actual structures can be related to a rather small number of aristotypes. It is important that this book is readable and beneficial in the one way or another for everyone interested in intermetallic phases, from graduate students to experts in solid-state chemistry/physics/materials science. For that purpose it avoids using an enigmatic abstract terminology for the classification of structures. The focus on the statistical analysis of structures and structure types should be seen as an attempt to draw the background of the big picture of intermetallics, and to point to the white spots in it, which could be worthwhile exploring. This book was not planned as a textbook; rather, it...

  16. Uncertainty the soul of modeling, probability & statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Briggs, William

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a philosophical approach to probability and probabilistic thinking, considering the underpinnings of probabilistic reasoning and modeling, which effectively underlie everything in data science. The ultimate goal is to call into question many standard tenets and lay the philosophical and probabilistic groundwork and infrastructure for statistical modeling. It is the first book devoted to the philosophy of data aimed at working scientists and calls for a new consideration in the practice of probability and statistics to eliminate what has been referred to as the "Cult of Statistical Significance". The book explains the philosophy of these ideas and not the mathematics, though there are a handful of mathematical examples. The topics are logically laid out, starting with basic philosophy as related to probability, statistics, and science, and stepping through the key probabilistic ideas and concepts, and ending with statistical models. Its jargon-free approach asserts that standard methods, suc...

  17. Experimental Mathematics and Computational Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2009-04-30

    The field of statistics has long been noted for techniques to detect patterns and regularities in numerical data. In this article we explore connections between statistics and the emerging field of 'experimental mathematics'. These includes both applications of experimental mathematics in statistics, as well as statistical methods applied to computational mathematics.

  18. Youth Sports Safety Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hemecourt P, Collins C, Comstock RD. Assessment and management of sport-related concussions in United States high schools. Am ... KE, Xu L, McGuire LC, Coronado VG. Nonfatal sports and recreation related traumatic brain injuries ... NT. Diagnosis and management of exercise-induced asthma. Physician Sportsmed. 1996;24( ...

  19. Petroleum 2006. Statistical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    This document gathers in 5 parts, the main existing statistical data about petroleum industry in France and in the rest of the world, together with an insight on other energy sources: 1 - petroleum in the French economy (petroleum and other energies, petroleum and transports, petroleum and energy in the industry, the residential and tertiary sectors, environment: 42 pages); 2 - the French petroleum industry (exploration, production, foreign trade, transports, refining, storage, petrochemistry: 66 pages); 3 - the French market of petroleum products (evolution of sales by product and detail by region for the past year: 38 pages); 4 - prices and taxes of petroleum products (world prices and rates for crude and refined products, evolution of fret rates, retail prices and French taxes: 28 pages); 5 - petroleum in the world (world energy production and consumption, detailed petroleum activity by main areas and for the main countries: 112 pages). (J.S.)

  20. Statistics of Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Davison, Anthony C.

    2015-04-10

    Statistics of extremes concerns inference for rare events. Often the events have never yet been observed, and their probabilities must therefore be estimated by extrapolation of tail models fitted to available data. Because data concerning the event of interest may be very limited, efficient methods of inference play an important role. This article reviews this domain, emphasizing current research topics. We first sketch the classical theory of extremes for maxima and threshold exceedances of stationary series. We then review multivariate theory, distinguishing asymptotic independence and dependence models, followed by a description of models for spatial and spatiotemporal extreme events. Finally, we discuss inference and describe two applications. Animations illustrate some of the main ideas. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.