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Sample records for in-111 wbc uptake

  1. Pediatric uses of In-111 WBC imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuels, L.D.; Goodgold, H.M.; Hendershott, L.

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of In-111 WBC imaging in pediatrics the authors have examined the records of children seen in the laboratory. During the past 4 years they have performed 45 pediatric In-111 WBC studies, half within 1984 alone, in 40 children aged one month to 20 years. In children under one year old they have labelled WBC from 5-10 cc. of the child's blood. They have preferred to transfuse infants after withdrawal of the blood for labelling rather than label donor blood. In twelve children (30%) there was diagnostic localization of labelled WBCs. Five children had equivocal results while three had distinct but false positive localization. The confusing effect of skin lesions of chicken pox and of lymphadenopathy was apparent in six patients. Thirteen children had normal studies. Overall this study of utilization of In-111 WBC in pediatrics suggests best utilization in colitis and abdominal and pelvic infections and in osteomyelitis, especially in distinguishing osteomyelitis from bone infarcts in sickle cell disease. There appears to be lesser utility in patients with palpable adenopathy or superficial infection. Although In-111 WBC imaging may provide clear evidence for active pneumonitis in cases where a chest x-ray is equivocal, such as cytomegalovirus infection, vague localization in bases of lungs, mediastimum or heart is a relatively common finding without known clinical significance

  2. Different cell moieties and white blood cell (WBC) integrity in In-111 labeled WBC preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, G.B.; Feiglin, D.H.I.; McMahon, J.T.; Go, R.T.; O'Donnell, J.K.; MacIntyre, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Indium-111 labeled white blood cells (WBC) have become very popular in detecting inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this paper is to determine the distribution of different types of cells in WBC preparation for In-111 oxine labeling, and also to assess the histological integrity of WBC's after labeling with In-111 oxine. Forty to fifty cc of blood was collected from each patient and WBC's were separated by sedimentation and centrifugation. After labeling with In-111 oxine, an aliquot of the WBC sample was used for cell counting and a second aliquot was used for electron microscopic (EM) examination. The different cell moieties were counted, and the mean and standard deviation of twelve determinations calculated. Cells were prepared by the standard technique for electron microscopic examination and images of the cells were obtained at different magnifications (X8,000-25,000). The EM images revealed that although minimal cytoplasmic vacuolization occurred in the WBC's due to the labeling process, the overall histological integrity of the cells remained intact. The relative labeling efficiency of WBC's is greater than those of RBC's and platelets (J Nuc) Med 25:p98, 1984) and, therefore, even a comparatively low population of WBC's gives optimal imaging due to their increased tracer uptake

  3. In-111 WBC imaging in musculoskeletal sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.; Ouzounian, T.J.; Webber, M.M.; Amstutz, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy and utility of the In-111 labeled WBC imaging in a series of patients who were suspected of having musculoskeletal sepsis. The labeling of the WBCs was patterned after a method previously described, in which the WBCs are labeled with In-111 oxine in plasma. The WBCs from 100 ml of blood are separated and incubated with In-111 oxine complex, and then 500 μCi. of the labeled cells were reinjected into the patient. Images of the areas in question were obtained at 24 hrs. In some instances, 48 hour images were also obtained. Images were interpreted using consistent criteria. Forty imaging procedures were done on 39 patients. These included 39 total joint protheses, and 17 other images to evaluate possible osteomyelitis, septic arthritis or deep abscesses. Of these studies, 15 were positive, and 42 negative. The findings were then correlated with operative culture and pathology in 21, aspiration cultures and gram stains in 14, and with clinical findings in the remaining 21. This correlation showed 41 true negatives, 12 true positives, 1 false negative, and 2 false positives. The sensitivity was 92.9% and the specificity was 95.2%l. The false negative occurred in a patient on chronic suppressive antibiotic therapy for an infected total hip replacement. The false positive images occurred in a patient with active rheumatoid arthritis and in a patient imaged one month post operative placement of the prosthesis. These images were very useful in several septic patients who had many possible sites of infection. The authors conclude that In-III imaging is an accurate and useful non-invasive method of evaluating musculoskeletal sepsis

  4. An accurate test for acute appendicitis: In-111 WBC imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, D.A.; Weber, P.M.; Kang, I.Y.; dosRemedios, L.V.; Jasko, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    The decision to operate when acute appendicitis (APPY) is suspected is often difficult. Surgeons accept up to a 20% false positive rate to avoid any delay that may result in appendiceal rupture and peritonitis. The authors have successfully improved early diagnostic accuracy by using abdominal imaging beginning 2 hours after injecting In-111 labeled WBC. Patients with clear-cut (APPY) had laparotomy and were not studied. Those who were to be observed in the ER for possible (APPY) had their leukocytes harvested, labeled with In-111 oxine, and reinjected. Abnormal localized activity in the right lower quadrant (RLQ) imaged at 2 hours was graded relative to bone marrow activity (8M): 0, 1+ BM. When available the surgical specimen was imaged for In-111 activity. Of 31 patients studied there were 13 with positive scans for (APPY) all surgically confirmed. There were 4 additional abnormal studies all demonstrating known diagnostic patterns, 2 of pertonitis and 2 of colitis. There were 14 negative studies in 8 of whom the clinical course was benign; the remaining 6 had laparotomy with 3 having (APPY) and 3 not. Thus there were no false positives and 3 false negatives. One case negative at 2 hours had appendiceal activity later. The 3 cases with 3+ activity all had apendiceal abscesses. This new application of In-111 oxine WBC imaging is safe, simple, sensitive and specific. It shortens the time to surgical intervention and should reduce the surgical false positive rate

  5. Distinction of infected and non-infected post-surgical incisions with In-111-WBC scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Nabi, H.; Hinkle, G.H.; Olsen, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    To determine if In-111-WBCs scintigraphy can distinguish between healing and infection in post-surgical wounds, a prospective study was performed in patients with 3-14 day old surgical incisions. Eighteen patients (11 males and 7 females) were scanned 24 hrs after injection of 0.5 mCi of In-111 labeled autologous leukocytes. The scan findings were correlated with blood and/wound cultures results and diagnosis at time of discharge. Incisional uptake of In-111-WBCs was noted in 9 patients with infected surgical wounds and was absent in those 9 patients with non-infected surgical wounds. The results of the authors' study show that In-111-WBCs do not accumulate in non-infected surgical incisions. This confirms their previous findings in rats. The high specificity of In-111 leukocytes imaging makes it a valuable study in the evaluation of post-operative patients with suspected surgical wound infections. In-111 WBCs scintigraphy can distinguish between normal healing and infection at the site of recent (3-14 days) surgical incisions

  6. Studies on the hepatic uptake of In-111 labeled monoclonal antibodies and the method to reduce the hepatic uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinuya, Seigo

    1990-01-01

    Prolonged retention of In-111 labeled monoclonal antibody (In-111 MoAb) in the liver poses problems in radioimmunoscintigraphy. Therefore, subcellular kinetics of In-111 MoAb was investigated. In a study with In-111 225.28S in normal SD rats, the supernatant was found to be a predominant fraction of In-111 radioactivity (61% at 3 hr), with the activity decreasing with time to 21% at 72 hr; however, activity of the mitochondrial fraction was found to increase from 11% to 44%. High performance liquid chromatography for the supernatant revealed that In-111 activity at the earlier time was mainly eluted with the intact IgG peak, and that the major peak activity was thereafter reduced with associated activity peaks found in smaller moistly fractions. Such a sequential distribution change of In-111 225.28S was not found when labeled with I-125. A study with In-111 ZCE025 in mice bearing human colon cancer revealed that activity of the supernatant fraction decreased with time, but the lysosomal activity increased from 14% to 29%, as found in the experiment using normal rats. In tumors, the subcellular distribution of In-111 radioactivity almost remained unchanged throughout the study. The lysosomal fraction was not a predominant fraction of In-111 radioactivity in tumors. When 4 mg of ferric ion (Fe) was administered 48 hr before the injection of In-111 ZCE025, liver uptake of In-111 decreased as compared with the non-Fe group, but tumor uptake was unchanged. Intrahepatic lysosomal radioactivity was smaller in the Fe group than the non-Fe group. These results indicated the involvement of lysosomes in hepatic retention of In-111 MoAb. Once taken up by the liver, the MoAb was metabolized in the supernatant and In-111 ion was transchelated from DTPA onto the lysosomal substances resulting in prolonged retention in the liver. The lysosome in the liver could be saturated by Fe, resulting in a decrease of hepatic uptake without a decrease of tumor uptake. (N.K.) 53 refs

  7. In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in patients with suspected inflammation after failed antibiotic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasu, Reiko; Akagi, Kiyoshi; Murata, Takashi; Uokawa, Kyousuke; Isoda, Hiroyoshi; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Itagaki, Yasushi

    1998-01-01

    In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigrapy (In-111 WBC scan) was performed in 16 patients with inflammation suspected on the basis of laboratory findings, symptoms, and diagnostic imaging, but who had failed antibiotic therapy. In-111 WBC scans revealed an abnormal focus of radiotracer activity (positive scans) in five of 16 patients. No correlation was found between the peripheral WBC count and accumulation of In-111 WBC. Inflammatory disease suspected on the basis of the CRP level should be considered when In-111 WBC scanning results in negative findings. Our results indicated that In-111 WBC scanning has low sensitivity after antibiotic therapy. Selection of patients on the basis of persistent elevation of CRP may be valuable. (author)

  8. Indium 111 WBC scan in local and systemic fungal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haseman, M.K.; Blake, K.; McDougall, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    We describe two patients-one with a systemic fungal infection and one with a localized form-who had strikingly abnormal indium 111 leukocyte (WBC) scans. The patient with systemic disease had an abnormal WBC scan before lesions became clinically apparent

  9. In-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in suspected orthopedic prosthesis infection: comparison with other imaging modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnuson, J.E.; Brown, M.L.; Hauser, M.F.; Berquist, T.H.; Fitzgerald, R.H. Jr.; Klee, G.G.

    1988-01-01

    When infection of prosthetic orthopedic implants is suspected, optimal management requires accurate confirmation or exclusion of infection. The authors retrospectively studied 98 patients with possible infection who underwent scanning with indium-111-labeled white blood cells (WBCs) and subsequently underwent surgery within 14 days. At surgery, 50 patients had infections, as determined by means of culture or histologic results. The diagnostic accuracy of In-111 scanning was compared with that of plain radiography, arthrography, three-phase bone scanning, and various clinical and laboratory findings classically associated with infection. Positive findings on In-111 WBC scans and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rates were found to be the most predictive variables in the diagnosis of septic prostheses (P less than or equal to .001 and P less than or equal to .002, respectively). Likelihood ratio analysis more clearly demonstrated the superiority of In-111 WBC scanning, with positive and negative scans yielding likelihood ratios of 5.0 and 0.16, respectively

  10. Effect of different doses of aerobic exercise on total white blood cell (WBC and WBC subfraction number in postmenopausal women: results from DREW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M Johannsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated total white blood cell (WBC count is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and death. Aerobic exercise is associated with lower total WBC, neutrophil, and monocyte counts. However, no studies have evaluated the effect of the amount of aerobic exercise (dose on total WBC and WBC subfraction counts. PURPOSE: To examine the effects of 3 different doses of aerobic exercise on changes in total WBC and WBC subfraction counts and independent effects of changes in fitness, adiposity, markers of inflammation (IL-6, TNF-α, C-reactive protein, fasting glucose metabolism, and adiponectin. METHODS: Data from 390 sedentary, overweight/obese postmenopausal women from the DREW study were used in these analyses. Women were randomized to a non-exercise control group or one of 3 exercise groups: energy expenditure of 4, 8, or 12 kcal kg(-1⋅week(-1 (KKW for 6 months at an intensity of 50% VO2peak. RESULTS: A dose-dependent decrease in total WBC counts (trend P = 0.002 was observed with a significant decrease in the 12KKW group (-163.1±140.0 cells/µL; mean±95%CI compared with the control (138.6±144.7 cells/µL. A similar response was seen in the neutrophil subfraction (trend P = 0.001 with a significant decrease in the 12KKW group (-152.6±115.1 cells/µL compared with both the control and 4KKW groups (96.4±119.0 and 21.9±95.3 cells/µL, respectively and in the 8KKW group (-102.4±125.0 cells/µL compared with the control. When divided into high/low baseline WBC categories (median split, a dose-dependent decrease in both total WBCs (P = 0.003 and neutrophils (P<0.001 was observed in women with high baseline WBC counts. The effects of exercise dose on total WBC and neutrophil counts persisted after accounting for significant independent effects of change in waist circumference and IL-6. CONCLUSION: Aerobic exercise training reduces total WBC and neutrophil counts, in a dose-dependent manner, in

  11. Bico 2: second national intercomparison campaign of WBC centres working in Italy; Bico 2: la seconda campagna MIDIA di interconfronto dei WBC operanti in Italia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, C.M.; Battisti, P.; Tarroni, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche `Ezio Clementel`, Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1998-12-31

    During the period November 1994 - May 1995 the coordinating group of WBC centres working in Italy organised the 2. national intercalibration and intercomparison campaign. A BOMAB phantom was used filled with four radionuclides gel solution with gamma energy emissions ranging between 100 keV and 2 MeV. 17 out of 21 Italian WBC centres took part in the campaign. Through the intercalibration, organised according to internationally accepted methodologies, each WBC centre could check its own calibration procedures. many intermediate data, collected for the methodologies and measurement procedures intercomparison, permitted analyses and comparison of uncertainly causes in a WBC measurement of the internal contamination. A proposal of MDA definition and assessment procedure resulted from the intercomparison campaign. [Italiano] Il Coordinamento dei Centri WBC operanti in Italia ha organizzato la seconda campagna di intercalibrazione ed interconfronto nazionale basata sulle misure di un fantoccio BOMAB riempito con una soluzione radioattiva gelificata contenente 4 radionuclidi con emissioni gamma nell`intervallo energetico compreso fra 100 keV e 2 MeV. Alla campagna, che si e` svolta fra novembre 1994 e maggio 1995, hanno partecipato 17 dei 21 Centri WBC censiti in Italia. L`intercalibrazione e` stata organizzata secondo criteri ormai consolidati in campo internazionale ed ha permesso ad ognuno dei partecipanti di verificare le proprie procedure di calibrazione. Per l`interconfronto delle procedure e dei metodi di misura impiegati e` stata raccolta una serie di dati intermedi che hanno consentito di analizzare e confrontare le fonti di incertezza insite nella misura di contaminazione interna nell`uomo tramite WBC. Cio` ha infine reso possibile una proposta di definizione e di procedura di determinazione del valore della minima attivita` rivelabile (MDA) in accordo con le piu` recenti tendenze in campo internazionale.

  12. 99Tcm stannous WBC study in childhood inflammatory bowel disease- what benefit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howman-Giles, R.; Porn, U.; Peacock, K.; O'Loughlin, E.; Uren, R.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasingly recognised in the paediatric population. Management requires early diagnosis with determination of disease localisation and intensity. The 99 Tc m labelled white blood cell (WBC) study has been used for IBD in adults but little data is available in children. The most common agent used is 99 Tc m HMPAO however, this is time consuming and expensive. The use of 99 Tc m sulphur colloid labelled WBC is an easy, reliable technique. 70 patients aged 2-19 years (mean 12.7) were studied. Planar and SPECT imaging was performed at one and three hours. 38 patients with proven IBD had positive WBC. Of 32 with negative WBC, five had IBD, however, three were on treatment with steroids. 18 patients had barium radiography (BR): nine (50%) were positive for IBD whereas 18 (100%) were positive on WBC. Comparison with endoscopy showed good correlation of areas involved in 45%, 18% had different areas and 36% had more areas defined on endoscopy. In the latter group 14% had positive endoscopy in the stomach and duodenum, which are area not visualised on WBC studies. The WBC has a sensitivity of 95%, specificity of 100% and accuracy of 93%. For BR the sensitivity was 53%, specificity 100% and accuracy 63%. Conclusion: WBC is a good screening investigation for IBD prior to having other invasive investigations. This study would suggest that the barium radiographic study does not offer additional benefits over the WBC and endoscopy in determining the initial diagnosis and extent of the disease. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  13. Bone remodelling biomarkers after whole body cryotherapy (WBC) in elite rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliera, Emanuela; Dogliotti, Giada; Melegati, Gianluca; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano M; Cabitza, Paolo; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) consists of a brief exposure to extreme cold air (-110°C) in a controlled chamber and it is applied in sports medicine to improve recovery from musculoskeletal trauma. The aim of this study is to better define the beneficial effect of WCB on the musculoskeletal system of athletes, in particular on bone remodelling. Remodelling osteoimmunological biomarkers OPG, RANKL and RANK were measured after WBC treatment in 10 male rugby players randomly selected from the Italian National team. OPG levels were increased significantly, supporting the view that WBC induces an osteogenic effect. Further studies evaluating the effect of WBC on bone metabolism are desirable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bico 2: second national intercomparison campaign of WBC centres working in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellani, C.M.; Battisti, P.; Tarroni, G.

    1998-01-01

    During the period November 1994 - May 1995 the coordinating group of WBC centres working in Italy organised the 2. national intercalibration and intercomparison campaign. A BOMAB phantom was used filled with four radionuclides gel solution with gamma energy emissions ranging between 100 keV and 2 MeV. 17 out of 21 Italian WBC centres took part in the campaign. Through the intercalibration, organised according to internationally accepted methodologies, each WBC centre could check its own calibration procedures. many intermediate data, collected for the methodologies and measurement procedures intercomparison, permitted analyses and comparison of uncertainly causes in a WBC measurement of the internal contamination. A proposal of MDA definition and assessment procedure resulted from the intercomparison campaign [it

  15. Comparison of cryopreservation bags for hematopoietic progenitor cells using a WBC-enriched product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra-Tiekstra, Margriet J; Hazelaar, Sandra; Gkoumassi, Effimia; Weggemans, Margienus; de Wildt-Eggen, Janny

    2015-04-01

    Hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) are stored in cryopreservation bags that are resistant to liquid nitrogen. Since Cryocyte bags of Baxter (B-bags) are no longer available, an alternative bag was sought. Also, the influence of freezing volume was studied. Miltenyi Biotec (MB)- and MacoPharma (MP)-bags passed the integrity tests without failure. Comparing MB- and MP-bags with B-bags, no difference in WBC recovery or viability was found when using a WBC-enriched product as a "dummy" HPC product. Further, a freezing volume of 30 mL resulted in better WBC recovery and viability than 60 mL. Additonal studies using real HPC might be necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A new method for evaluating worst- and best-case (WBC) economic consequences of technological development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1996-01-01

    This paper is addressing the problem of evaluating economic worst- and best-care (WBC) consequences of technological development in industrial companies faking into account uncertainties and lack of exact cost and market information. In the theoretical part of the paper, the mathematical concepts...

  17. A methodology to develop computational phantoms with adjustable posture for WBC calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Fonseca, T. C.; Bogaerts, R.; Hunt, John; Vanhavere, F.

    2014-11-01

    A Whole Body Counter (WBC) is a facility to routinely assess the internal contamination of exposed workers, especially in the case of radiation release accidents. The calibration of the counting device is usually done by using anthropomorphic physical phantoms representing the human body. Due to such a challenge of constructing representative physical phantoms a virtual calibration has been introduced. The use of computational phantoms and the Monte Carlo method to simulate radiation transport have been demonstrated to be a worthy alternative. In this study we introduce a methodology developed for the creation of realistic computational voxel phantoms with adjustable posture for WBC calibration. The methodology makes use of different software packages to enable the creation and modification of computational voxel phantoms. This allows voxel phantoms to be developed on demand for the calibration of different WBC configurations. This in turn helps to study the major source of uncertainty associated with the in vivo measurement routine which is the difference between the calibration phantoms and the real persons being counted. The use of realistic computational phantoms also helps the optimization of the counting measurement. Open source codes such as MakeHuman and Blender software packages have been used for the creation and modelling of 3D humanoid characters based on polygonal mesh surfaces. Also, a home-made software was developed whose goal is to convert the binary 3D voxel grid into a MCNPX input file. This paper summarizes the development of a library of phantoms of the human body that uses two basic phantoms called MaMP and FeMP (Male and Female Mesh Phantoms) to create a set of male and female phantoms that vary both in height and in weight. Two sets of MaMP and FeMP phantoms were developed and used for efficiency calibration of two different WBC set-ups: the Doel NPP WBC laboratory and AGM laboratory of SCK-CEN in Mol, Belgium.

  18. A methodology to develop computational phantoms with adjustable posture for WBC calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, T C Ferreira; Vanhavere, F; Bogaerts, R; Hunt, John

    2014-01-01

    A Whole Body Counter (WBC) is a facility to routinely assess the internal contamination of exposed workers, especially in the case of radiation release accidents. The calibration of the counting device is usually done by using anthropomorphic physical phantoms representing the human body. Due to such a challenge of constructing representative physical phantoms a virtual calibration has been introduced. The use of computational phantoms and the Monte Carlo method to simulate radiation transport have been demonstrated to be a worthy alternative. In this study we introduce a methodology developed for the creation of realistic computational voxel phantoms with adjustable posture for WBC calibration. The methodology makes use of different software packages to enable the creation and modification of computational voxel phantoms. This allows voxel phantoms to be developed on demand for the calibration of different WBC configurations. This in turn helps to study the major source of uncertainty associated with the in vivo measurement routine which is the difference between the calibration phantoms and the real persons being counted. The use of realistic computational phantoms also helps the optimization of the counting measurement. Open source codes such as MakeHuman and Blender software packages have been used for the creation and modelling of 3D humanoid characters based on polygonal mesh surfaces. Also, a home-made software was developed whose goal is to convert the binary 3D voxel grid into a MCNPX input file. This paper summarizes the development of a library of phantoms of the human body that uses two basic phantoms called MaMP and FeMP (Male and Female Mesh Phantoms) to create a set of male and female phantoms that vary both in height and in weight. Two sets of MaMP and FeMP phantoms were developed and used for efficiency calibration of two different WBC set-ups: the Doel NPP WBC laboratory and AGM laboratory of SCK-CEN in Mol, Belgium. (paper)

  19. Thyroid Dose Estimation Using WBC and I-131 Concentration in Working Area of Radioisotope Production at Normal Operation; Perkiraan Dosis Thyroid Melalui Pengukuran WBC dan Perhitungan dengan Konsentrasi I-131 Di Daerah Kerja Pada Operasi Normal Produksi Radioisotop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedjasari, R S; Lubis, E [Radioactive-Waste Management Technology Centre, National Atomic Energy Agency of Indonesia(Indonesia)

    1996-07-01

    Thyroid dose estimation at Radioisotope Production Centre workers using WBC and calculation based on I-131 concentration in working area has been done. The aim of this research is to get the relation between WBC result and calculation using I-131 concentration in working area. The result indicates differences in a range of 3,2% to 53,2%. These differences caused of parameters which influence the calculation are not accurate. These results also indicate that dose estimation using WBC is relatively batter and more accurate but need to have certain information about time of intake.

  20. Kinetics and biodistribution of In-111 platelets in patients with bone marrow transplants, refractory to platelet transfusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civelek, C.; Braine, H.; Scheffel, U.; Drew, H.; Koester, A.; LaFrance, N.; Kasecamp, W.; Wagner, H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics and biodistribution of HLA identical In-111 labeled platelets was studied in 10 leukemic patients with bone marrow transplants refractory to HLA matched platelet transfusions. Platelet survival time was short (x-bar +- SEM =1.64 +- 0.83 days). The mean recovery (extrapolated to zero time) was 29.9%, ranging from 14.2 to 63.0%. The deposition of the In-111 platelets in the liver and spleen was quantified by the geometric mean method using anterior and posterior imaging. In 3 patients liver uptake was significantly increased. The highest hepatic accumulation of In-111 occurred 2 hrs after injection (x-bar=76 +- 6% dose (SEM); at 48 hrs 62% of the dose remained in the liver. In 7 patients the spleen was the organ with the highest labeled platelet deposition. The splenic uptake of In-111 platelets in this group correlated with the spleen size (r=+0.95). At 30 min after injection 75+-6% of the dose was found in the spleen. Splenic activity decreased to 62% after 48 hrs. At the same time, In-111 liver accumulation increased from 14 to 31%. This finding suggests that In-111 may be released from the spleen and subsequently sequestered by the liver. Two patients with high splenic uptake underwent splenectomy after the In-111 platelet study. Both benefited from splenectomy in terms of platelet survival after transfusion

  1. Kinetics and biodistribution of In-111 platelets in patients with bone marrow transplants, refractory to platelet transfusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Civelek, C.; Braine, H.; Scheffel, U.; Drew, H.; Koester, A.; LaFrance, N.; Kasecamp, W.; Wagner, H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics and biodistribution of HLA identical In-111 labeled platelets was studied in 10 leukemic patients with bone marrow transplants refractory to HLA matched platelet transfusions. Platelet survival time was short (x-bar +- SEM =1.64 +- 0.83 days). The mean recovery (extrapolated to zero time) was 29.9%, ranging from 14.2 to 63.0%. The deposition of the In-111 platelets in the liver and spleen was quantified by the geometric mean method using anterior and posterior imaging. In 3 patients liver uptake was significantly increased. The highest hepatic accumulation of In-111 occurred 2 hrs after injection (x-bar=76 +- 6% dose (SEM); at 48 hrs 62% of the dose remained in the liver. In 7 patients the spleen was the organ with the highest labeled platelet deposition. The splenic uptake of In-111 platelets in this group correlated with the spleen size (r=+0.95). At 30 min after injection 75+-6% of the dose was found in the spleen. Splenic activity decreased to 62% after 48 hrs. At the same time, In-111 liver accumulation increased from 14 to 31%. This finding suggests that In-111 may be released from the spleen and subsequently sequestered by the liver. Two patients with high splenic uptake underwent splenectomy after the In-111 platelet study. Both benefited from splenectomy in terms of platelet survival after transfusion.

  2. In-111-labeled leukocytes in the diagnosis of rejection and cytomegalovirus infection in renal transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forstrom, L.A.; Loken, M.K.; Cook, A.; Chandler, R.; McCullough, J.

    1981-01-01

    Indium-111-labeled (In-111) leukocytes have been shown to be useful in the localization of inflammatory processes, including renal transplant rejection. Using previously reported labeling methods, 63 studies with this agent have been performed in 53 renal transplant patients. Indications for study included suspected rejection or cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Studies were performed in 33 men and 20 women, with ages ranging from 6 to 68 years. Autologous cells were normally used for labeling, although leukocytes obtained from ABO-compatible donors were used in three subjects. Rectilinear scanner and/or scintillation camera images were obtained at 24 hours after intravenous administration of 0.1 to 0.6 mCi of In-111-leukocytes. There was abnormal uptake of In-111-leukocytes in the transplanted kidney in 11 of 15 cases of rejection. In three additional cases of increased transplant uptake, CMV infection was present in two. Abnormal lung uptake was present in 13 of 14 patients with CMV infection. In four additional cases, increased lung uptake was associated with other pulmonary inflammatory disease. Increased lung activity was not seen in patients with uncomplicated transplant rejection. These results suggest that In-111-leukocyte imaging may be useful in the differential diagnosis of rejection versus CMV infection in renal transplant patients

  3. In-111-labeled leukocytes in the diagnosis of rejection and cytomegalovirus infection in renal transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forstrom, L.A.; Loken, M.K.; Cook, A.; Chandler, R.; McCullough, J.

    1981-01-01

    Indium-111-labelled (In-111) leukocytes have been shown to be useful in the localization of inflammatory processes, including renal transplant rejection. Using previously reported labelling methods, 63 studies with this agent have been performed in 53 renal transplant patients. Indications for study included suspected rejection or cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Studies were performed in 33 men and 20 women, with ages ranging from 6 to 68 years. Autologous cells were normally used for labeling, although leukocytes obtained from ABO-compatible donors were used in three subjects. Rectilinear scanner and/or scintillation camera images were obtained at 24 hours after intravenous administration of 0.1 to 0.6 mCi of In-111 leukocytes. There was abnormal uptake of In-111-leukocytes in the transplanted kidney in 11 of 15 cases of rejection. In three additional cases of increased transplant uptake, CMV infection was present in two. Abnormal lung uptake was present in 13 of 14 patients with CMV infection. In four additional cases, increased lung uptake was associated with other pulmonary inflammatory disease. Increased lung activity was not seen in patients with uncomplicated transplant rejection. These results suggest that In-111-leukocyte imaging may be useful in the differential diagnosis of rejection versus CMV infection in renal transplant patients

  4. Thrombokinetics with In-111-oxine labelled platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Tatsumi; Yui, Tokuo; Muroi, Shuichi; Matsuda, Shin; Kariyone, Shigeo

    1982-01-01

    Indium-111-oxine has been employed as a redioactive platelet label for thrombosis imaging and thrombokinetic studies in man. To evaluate it's suitability for platelet survival and turnover, thrombokinetic studies were carried out in hematological normal subjects, in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and chronic congestive splenomegaly. For In-111-oxine labelled platelets, platelets were collected by differential centrifugation from 44 ml of whole blood drawn into 6 ml of acid citrate dextrose solution. Platelet suspension was incubated with In-111-oxine, which was extracted before use by the method of Thakur and co-workers. The survival, recovery and turnover of In-111-labeled platelets were 8.6 +- 0.5 days, 63.0 +- 5.4% and 3.9 +- 0.3 x 10 4 / μl/day, respectively, which were similar with those of Cr-51 method. Platelet disappearance curves labelled with In-111 and Cr-51 simultaneously were similar in one case. In patients with ITP, platelet survival shortened in the same degree with Cr-51 method. The two simultaneous labeling studies between In-111 and Cr-51 showed no differences. In the patients with congestive splenomegaly, the same results were obtained. Thrombokinetic studies with In-111-oxine labelled platelets offer the advantages of reduced blood requirements, and the ability to perform external imaging of platelet distribution. (author)

  5. Whole-Body Counter(WBC) and food radiocesium contamination surveys in Namie, Fukushima Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Nomura, Kazuki; Tsushima, Eiki; Kudo, Kohsei; Noto, Yuka; Nishizawa, Yoshiko

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the internal Cs exposure of residents and the Cs present in food products produced in Namie. Whole-body counter (WBC) was used for the measurement of internal exposure per each whole body of examinees. The food products which appeared to be used for consumption, were brought by residents and commercially available food items were excluded. Most of them were wild plants or food items produced by residents. Four years of data from April 2012 to March 2013 (fiscal 2012) and April 2015 to March 2016 (Fiscal 2015) were analyzed and studied. The average radioactivity measured by WBC was approximately 5 Bq for Cs-134, and 20 Bq for Cs-137 and the average committed effective dose was approximately 1 μSv. The average for the residents with detectable radioactivity was 25 μSv, and the human health effects are considered to be extremely low risk. However, the radioactivity of the affected individuals showed a higher value than the theoretical attenuation rate. The majority (83.2%) of individuals exhibiting radioactivity were over 50 years old. The number of food products brought in for detection decreased as the study period progressed, but the number of food products with radioactivity had increased. While the items with a higher detection rate of radioactivity included fruits such as citron and persimmon, shiitake mushrooms exhibited the highest radioactivity. Moreover, the radioactivity of seven items in these 10 items decreased from fiscal 2012 to fiscal 2015. Mushrooms had high radioactivity and were produced over a wide area. We suggest that the elderly try to enjoy life and eat wild plants in moderation while inspecting food products. Therefore, we will continue to work in raising awareness of radiation and its potential presence in food products and thus the continuing necessity of monitoring radioactivity in food in the future.

  6. Whole-Body Counter(WBC and food radiocesium contamination surveys in Namie, Fukushima Prefecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro Hosokawa

    Full Text Available This study examined the internal Cs exposure of residents and the Cs present in food products produced in Namie. Whole-body counter (WBC was used for the measurement of internal exposure per each whole body of examinees.The food products which appeared to be used for consumption, were brought by residents and commercially available food items were excluded. Most of them were wild plants or food items produced by residents. Four years of data from April 2012 to March 2013 (fiscal 2012 and April 2015 to March 2016 (Fiscal 2015 were analyzed and studied.The average radioactivity measured by WBC was approximately 5 Bq for Cs-134, and 20 Bq for Cs-137 and the average committed effective dose was approximately 1 μSv. The average for the residents with detectable radioactivity was 25 μSv, and the human health effects are considered to be extremely low risk. However, the radioactivity of the affected individuals showed a higher value than the theoretical attenuation rate. The majority (83.2% of individuals exhibiting radioactivity were over 50 years old. The number of food products brought in for detection decreased as the study period progressed, but the number of food products with radioactivity had increased. While the items with a higher detection rate of radioactivity included fruits such as citron and persimmon, shiitake mushrooms exhibited the highest radioactivity. Moreover, the radioactivity of seven items in these 10 items decreased from fiscal 2012 to fiscal 2015. Mushrooms had high radioactivity and were produced over a wide area.We suggest that the elderly try to enjoy life and eat wild plants in moderation while inspecting food products. Therefore, we will continue to work in raising awareness of radiation and its potential presence in food products and thus the continuing necessity of monitoring radioactivity in food in the future.

  7. 99mTc-HMPAO WBC-scintigraphy: Are all positive findings in traumatology mandatory for surgical invention?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winker, K.H.; Weller, S.; Reuland, P.; Feine, U.

    1989-01-01

    In 5 case reports of traumatology patients the authors describe a subgroup of patients (IYON = infection yes, operation no) with positive WBC scan and proven infection, which do not need surgical intervention and can be treated by conservative means. (orig.) [de

  8. In-111 BLEDTA: a conjugate of bleomycin with a bifunctional chelating agent for tumor localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, D.A.; Meares, C.F.; DeRiemer, L.H.; Diamanti, C.I.; Goode, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    BLEDTA, a bleomycin A 2 analog containing an EDTA group was labeled in the EDTA group to a specific activity of 70 mCi/mg and used for animal and human studies. KHJJ mouse tumor uptake was higher than the orange Co-57 bleomycin isomer and the tumor/organ ratios were >1 for all organs except the kidney. In 29 biopsy proven cancer patients the scan done 24 hours post I.V. with 1-2 mCi of In-111 BLEDTA was positive in all clinically known sites in 18, and in some clinically known sites in 11. The In-111 BLEDTA clinical results are similar to reported Co-57 bleomycin clinical studies, and the method is proposed as an alternate way to produce a stable biologically active bleomycin labeled with In-111

  9. Study of rotational band in 111Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, S.; Banerjee, P.; Ray, I.; Kshetri, R.; Raut, R.; Goswami, A.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Bhattacharya, S.; Mukherjee, A.; Mukherjee, G.; Basu, S.K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2006-01-01

    The motivation of the present work is to study the negative-parity rotational band in 111 Sn. Study of the lifetimes of the states of the rotational band is expected to provide information on their structures as well as the band termination phenomenon

  10. Safety of growth factor administration for leukapheresis in those with WBC counts greater than 60,000/µl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weihong; Rizzieri, David; Drago, Susan

    2015-02-01

    Peripheral blood stem cell mobilization using growth factors is a common method of stem cell collection for transplantation, however, little is reported concerning safety of continued growth factor delivery in exceptional responders with very high white blood cell (WBC) counts in preparation for pheresis. We performed a retrospective study of the safety of growth factor delivery for leukapheresis in those with WBC counts greater than 60,000/µl. Allogeneic donors received 5 days of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) at a daily dose of 10 or 16 µg/kg. Autologous donors received G-CSF 10 µg/kg/day +/- chemotherapy until peripheral blood CD34(+) count reached 10/µl. Granulocyte donors received 300 µg dose of G-CSF the day prior to donation. Out of 3,037 leukapheresis collections from 1998 to 2005, we identified 303 collections from 204 donors or patients who had a WBC > 60,000/µl. WBC counts were ≥100,000/µl in seven of these subjects. If inadequate stem cell dose was obtained with pheresis with WBC counts this high, patients had growth factor dosing decreased 50% but still received a dose till stem cell collection was completed. Of the 204 subjects, 122 were patients and 82 were donors. These 204 donors/patients had no serious adverse events reported other than the common reports of myalgia, bone pain, and headache associated with administration of growth factors. Pain levels ranged from mild to severe and usually were managed by over the counter analgesics. Continuing ½ the dose of neupogen to complete the pheresis process appears safe in subjects with very high white blood counts. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Scintigraphy with In-111 labeled leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kazuo; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Furudate, Masayori; Saito, Chihoko.

    1987-01-01

    With increasing necessity for In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy (ILLS) as a routine examination, a problem of complicated labeling of leukocytes has arisen. In this study, simplified labeling of leukocytes was examined with respect to its ability to detect abscesses. Simplified labeling method yielded significantly satisfactory results for recovery and labeling rates of leukocytes, as compared with conventional recommended method. Therefore, ILLS by simplified technique was clinically applied in 58 patients with suppurative or non-suppurative diseases who gave informed consent. In an analysis of ILLS for detecting suppurative region, the sensitivity, specificity, and corrected specificity were found to be 81 %, 75 %, and 82 %, respectively. (Namekawa, K.)

  12. Comparative Evaluation of C-Reactive Protein and WBC Count in Fascial Space Infections of Odontogenic Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagul, Ravikiran; Chandan, Sanjay; Sane, Vikrant Dilip; Patil, Sujay; Yadav, Dinesh

    2017-06-01

    To assess efficacy of C-reactive protein levels as monitoring tools for patients with fascial space infections of odontogenic origin. A randomized prospective study was conducted on 20 patients suffering from fascial space infection of odontogenic origin, in the department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Bharati Vidyapeeth dental college and hospital, Pune, Patients between 18 and 60 years of age of both the sexes were selected. All patients were treated and observed by the same surgeon. Patient's venous blood sample was collected pre-operatively and on 2nd and 5th post-operative days for evaluation of WBC count and C-reactive protein (CRP). All patients were encouraged for strict follow-up protocol. Where the results of WBC count and CRP when compared it was seen that the mean values of WBC were normal in 15 cases and abnormal in 5 cases on day 0, day 2 and day 5; whereas the mean values of CRP were abnormal on day 0 and day 2 and were within normal limit on day 5 in all cases. The findings of this prospective analysis indicate that White blood cells and C-reactive protein are effective markers for determining severity of infection, efficacy of treatment regime for patients with fascial space infections of odontogenic origin. Thus the markers also help in making treatment of patients with fascial space infections of odontogenic origin more cost effective and they also help protecting patients from side effects of excess drugs usage. Thus we conclude that CRP should be incorporated as monitoring tools for managing patients with fascial space infections of odontogenic origin.

  13. Kinetics, distribution, and sites of destruction of canine blood platelets with In-111 oxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loetter, M.G.; Badenhorst, P.N.; duP Heyns, A.; Van Reenen, O.R.; Pieters, H.; Minnaar, P.C.

    1980-01-01

    In five normal dogs we have studied the survival, tissue distribution, and fate of autologous platelets labeled with indium-111 oxine. The methods include blood sampling, computer-assisted scintigraphy, and whole-body profile scanning. Mean In-111-platelet recovery in the circulation was 45 +- 22.5 (s.d.) and survival 124.6 +- 10.5 h. Platelet survival curves fitted a linear function best. Initially platelets pooled rapidly in the spleen with a single exponential function, and at zero-time equilibrium (35 +- 4)% of the injected In-111 was located in this organ. Early hepatic uptake was also significant, and constituted (20 +- 4)% of total-body radioactivity. As labeled platelets disappeared from the circulation, In-111 activity in the spleen increased progressively and linearly to reach (59 +- 9)% of the body activity at 120 h. Hepatic radioactivity decreased with time but to a lesser extent than that of the heart. The results indicate that in the dog the major site of destruction of platelets is the spleen, with the liver playing a less important role

  14. The effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa rhizome and curcumin on total and differential WBC and serum oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers in rat model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Farzaneh; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-02-01

    The effects of Curcuma longa ( C. longa ) and curcumin on total and differential WBC count and oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers, in rat model of asthma were evaluated. Total and differential WBC count in the blood, NO 2 , NO 3 , MDA, SOD, CAT and thiol levels in serum were examined in control, asthma, Asthmatic rats treated with C. longa (0.75, 1.50, and 3.00 mg/ml), curcumin (0.15, 0.30, and 0.60 mg/ml), and dexamethasone (1.25 μg/ml) rats. Total and most differential WBC count, NO 2 , NO 3 and MDA were increased but lymphocytes, SOD, CAT and thiol were decreased in asthmatic animals compared to controls ( P longa and curcumin compared to asthmatic group ( P longa and curcumin ( P longa extract and its constituent curcumin in animal model of asthma was observed which suggest a therapeutic potential for the plant and its constituent on asthma.

  15. In-111 oxine autologous labeled platelets in the diagnosis of kidney graft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Comin, J.; Roca, M.; Grino, J.M.; Paradell, C.; Caralps, C.

    1983-01-01

    The usefulness of In-111 oxine labeled autologous platelets in the diagnosis of renal graft rejection was studied. The method is based on imaging of the graft area at 4, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the injection of the labeled cells. The study was done in 31 renal transplant recipients. The control group included four patients with normal renal function without evidence of rejection. No platelet uptake was observed in any of them. The study group included 22 patients with acute rejection which was confirmed histologically in 13. One case of chronic vascular type rejection of the graft tracer uptake was seen. There was a false-positive result due to a perirenal hematoma. In three patients with a non-immunological sudden impairment of renal function, no activity was detected in the graft area. We also evaluated the changes in platelet trapping throughout the study and they seemed to correlate with the response to the antirejection therapy

  16. The effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa rhizome and curcumin on total and differential WBC and serum oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers in rat model of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Shakeri; Mohammad Soukhtanloo; Mohammad Hossein Boskabady

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): The effects of Curcuma longa (C. longa) and curcumin on total and differential WBC count and oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers, in rat model of asthma were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Total and differential WBC count in the blood, NO2, NO3, MDA, SOD, CAT and thiol levels in serum were examined in control, asthma, Asthmatic rats treated with C. longa (0.75, 1.50, and 3.00 mg/ml), curcumin (0.15, 0.30, and 0.60 mg/ml), and dexamethasone (1.25 ?g/ml) rats. Results: Total and mo...

  17. Evaluation of In-111 neutrophils in a model of the adult respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.A.; Solano, S.J.; Bizios, R.; Line, B.R.; Malik, A.B.

    1984-01-01

    Neutrophils (PMNs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the adult respiratory distress syndrome. To further define their role, the authors studied the kinetics of In-111 labeled PMNs in a sheep model of acute pulmonary vascular injury. PMNs isolated by Percoll-plasma gradient centrifugation, and labeled with 500 uCi of In-111-oxine. Following i.v. reinfusion of the labeled PMNs, lung activity was monitored with the labeled PMNs, lung activity was monitored with a gamma camera. After a two hour baseline, pulmonary vascular injury secondary to intravascular coagulation was induced by the i.v. infusion of 100 units/kg of thrombin (n=5). Pulmonary time activity curves demonstrated increases in pulmonary PMN activity averaging 14% over baseline following thrombin infusion. A portion of the uptake was transient, lasting about 20 to 30 min., but PMN activity remained above baseline for the remainder of the study. Following the infusion of gamma thrombin, a form of thrombin unable to cleave fibrinogen, increased PMN uptake was not observed. Inhibition of fibrinolysis with tranaxemic acid, reduced the PMN response to thrombin to less than a 3% increase over baseline (n=2). The findings demonstrate that PMNs are involved in acute pulmonary vascular injury, and suggest a potential role for labeled PMNs in the clinical investigation of the adult respiratory distress syndrome

  18. Evolution of structure and mechanical properties of hard yet fracture resistant W-B-C coatings with varying C/W ratio

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alishahi, M.; Mirzaei, S.; Souček, P.; Zábranský, L.; Buršíková, V.; Stupavska, M.; Peřina, Vratislav; Balázsi, K.; Czigany, Z.; Vašina, P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 340, č. 4 (2018), s. 103-111 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : magnetron sputtering * W-B-C * microstructure * hardness * fracture resistance Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials OBOR OECD: Coating and films Impact factor: 2.589, year: 2016

  19. Increased bone marrow uptake of gallium-67 in patients with fever of unknown origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, L.G.; Jinnouchi, S.; Nagamachi, S.; Ohnishi, T.; Futami, S.; Watanabe, K.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose of the study: we studied the relationships of clinical diagnosis, the effect of blood chemistry and the clinical implication of increased gallium-67 in the bone marrow of patients presenting signs and symptoms of FUO. Materials and Methods: Based on intensity of gallium-67 uptake in bone marrow, patients were classified as follows: Type 1 when there is no evidence or very faint bone marrow uptake in vertebrae, Type 2 when mild to moderate, Type 3 when uptake is severe. The relationships of white blood cell count (WBC), hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit count, serum iron and unsaturated iron biding capacity (UIBC) with the occurrence of increased bone marrow uptake in the different groups were noted. Analysis of variance with Fishers Protected Least Significant Difference was used. A.p. value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The results showed significant differences between Types 1 and 2 and between Type 1 and 3 for WBC counts, serum hemoglobin and serum hematocrit level. Serum iron concentration and UIBC however, did not show any significant differences. Conclusion: Significant changes in WBC count, Hb concentration and Hct count in FUO patients were accompanied by varying intensity of gallium-67 uptake in the bone marrow. (author)

  20. Improvement of the WBC calibration of the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the CDTN/CNEN using MCNPX code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra P, F.; Heeren de O, A. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Melo, B. M.; Lacerda, M. A. S.; Da Silva, T. A.; Ferreira F, T. C., E-mail: tcff01@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Programa de Pos Graduacao / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    The Plan of Radiological Protection licensed by the National Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN in Brazil includes the risks of assessment of internal and external exposure by implementing a program of individual monitoring which is responsible of controlling exposures and ensuring the maintenance of radiation safety. The Laboratory of Internal Dosimetry of the Center for Development of Nuclear Technology - LID/CDTN is responsible for routine monitoring of internal contamination of the Individuals Occupationally Exposed (IOEs). These are, the IOEs involved in handling {sup 18}F produced by the Unit for Research and Production of Radiopharmaceuticals sources; as well a monitoring of the entire body of workers from the Research Reactor TRIGA IPR-R1/CDTN or whenever there is any risk of accidental incorporation. The determination of photon emitting radionuclides from the human body requires calibration techniques of the counting geometries, in order to obtain a curve of efficiency. The calibration process normally makes use of physical phantoms containing certified activities of the radionuclides of interest. The objective of this project is the calibration of the WBC facility of the LID/CDTN using the BOMAB physical phantom and Monte Carlo simulations. Three steps were needed to complete the calibration process. First, the BOMAB was filled with a KCl solution and several measurements of the gamma ray energy (1.46 MeV) emitted by {sup 40}K were done. Second, simulations using MCNPX code were performed to calculate the counting efficiency (Ce) for the BOMAB model phantom and compared with the measurements Ce results. Third and last step, the modeled BOMAB phantom was used to calculate the Ce covering the energy range of interest. The results showed a good agreement and are within the expected ratio between the measured and simulated results. (Author)

  1. Improvement of the WBC calibration of the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the CDTN/CNEN using MCNPX code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra P, F.; Heeren de O, A.; Melo, B. M.; Lacerda, M. A. S.; Da Silva, T. A.; Ferreira F, T. C.

    2015-10-01

    The Plan of Radiological Protection licensed by the National Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN in Brazil includes the risks of assessment of internal and external exposure by implementing a program of individual monitoring which is responsible of controlling exposures and ensuring the maintenance of radiation safety. The Laboratory of Internal Dosimetry of the Center for Development of Nuclear Technology - LID/CDTN is responsible for routine monitoring of internal contamination of the Individuals Occupationally Exposed (IOEs). These are, the IOEs involved in handling 18 F produced by the Unit for Research and Production of Radiopharmaceuticals sources; as well a monitoring of the entire body of workers from the Research Reactor TRIGA IPR-R1/CDTN or whenever there is any risk of accidental incorporation. The determination of photon emitting radionuclides from the human body requires calibration techniques of the counting geometries, in order to obtain a curve of efficiency. The calibration process normally makes use of physical phantoms containing certified activities of the radionuclides of interest. The objective of this project is the calibration of the WBC facility of the LID/CDTN using the BOMAB physical phantom and Monte Carlo simulations. Three steps were needed to complete the calibration process. First, the BOMAB was filled with a KCl solution and several measurements of the gamma ray energy (1.46 MeV) emitted by 40 K were done. Second, simulations using MCNPX code were performed to calculate the counting efficiency (Ce) for the BOMAB model phantom and compared with the measurements Ce results. Third and last step, the modeled BOMAB phantom was used to calculate the Ce covering the energy range of interest. The results showed a good agreement and are within the expected ratio between the measured and simulated results. (Author)

  2. In-111 platelet scintigraphy for detection of lower-extremity deep venous thrombophlebitis: Are 4-hour delayed images sufficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabold, J.E.; Conrad, G.R.; Ponto, J.A.; Kimball, D.A.; Frey, E.E.; Coughlan, J.D.; Ahmed, F.; Jensen, K.C.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-one nonheparinized patients suspected of having lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis underwent 4- and 24-hour In-111-labeled platelet scintigraphy (PS) and lower-extremity contrast venography (CV). Eleven of the 21 patients (52%) had one or more intraluminal filling defects on CV, indicating active thrombophlebitis. In seven of these 11 patients (64%) In-PS was abnormal at 4 hours, and in ten (91%) at 24 hours. All patients with abnormal studies at 4 hours showed greater uptake of more abnormal sites at 24 hours. Of the ten patients with CV-negative studies, two had abnormal bilateral lower pelvis/upper thigh uptake in In-PS at 24 hours. These two In-PS studies were considered to be false positive. Twenty-four-hour In-PS images are necessary if 4-hour images show faint focal uptake of asymmetric blood pool activity, or are normal

  3. Diagnostic imaging of lung cancer with In-111-MDEGD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Susumu; Hayashi, Hideo; Maeda, Tomio

    1987-01-01

    Indium-111-mono DTPA-ethyleneglycol Ga deuterporphyrin (In-111-MDEGD) is a new tumor imaging agent in lung cancer. The agent has been studied with golden hamsters bearing adenocarcinoma, C57 black mice bearing Lewis lung adenocarcinoma, and nude mice bearing human lung adenocarcinoma xerografts. It has been revealed that the tumor-to-lung, tumor-to-kidney, and tumor-to-blood ratios are higher for In-111-MDEGD than for Ga-67 citrate widely used in imaging tumors, and that the agent is not accumulated in inflammatory lesions. The results were encouraging enough to start clinical diagnostic trials in lung cancer. In this paper, an overview of In-111-MDEGD, along with its preliminary data, is given. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. In-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in postoperative joint infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Yoji; Uetani, Masataka; Aziz, A.; Hayashi, Kuniaki

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the role of In-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in the patients with suspected postoperative joint infection, 41 scintigraphic examinations were performed in 24 patients. Scintigrams were interpreted by the degree of accumulation of labeled leukocytes, and were classified into 3 groups: positive, intermediate, and negative. In the cases of positive leukocyte scans, definite diagnosis of infection was made in all cases except one. In the cases of negative scans, there was no evidence of infection. In 13 cases, leukocyte scintigrams were interpreted in conjunction with bone scintigrams. Definite diagnosis of infection was made in all of the cases with positive combined leukocyte/bone scan, and there was no evidence of infection in cases with negative combined leukocyte/bone scan. This study demonstrates that In-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy is a useful method in diagnosis of postoperative joint infection, and accuracy of the examination improves when combined with bone scintigraphy. (author)

  5. Leucocytes labelled with In-111-oxine in acute inflammatory processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, R.; Lomena, F.; Fernandez, R.M.; Del Rio, L.; Piera, C.; Vida, F.; Setoain, J.

    1982-01-01

    We used autologous leucocytes labelled with In-111-Oxine to diagnose inflammatory processes, located or scattered, in 60 patients. In 46 there was suspected located infection focus. Gammagraphy was abnormal in 38 cases (83%), 28 abdominally located (87%), 5 thorax located (71%) and 5 of several locations. In other 14 cases there was clinic suspicion of infection without located septic focus. In 5 of them gammagraphy was interpreted as positive but only in 3 patients it was found abdominal located abscess. The two other cases are considered as false positive ones. In the 9 remaining, with negative gammagraphy there was no clinic confirmation nor other diagnostic methods of abscess existence. In this paper we checked high sensitivity of leucocytes In-111-Oxine to diagnose and locate infectious focuses. In our casuistry there was only a false negative and two false positive ones

  6. Relative quantification of indium-111 pentetreotide and gallium-68 DOTATOC uptake in the thyroid gland and association with thyroid pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincke, Thomas; Singer, Joerg; Kluge, Regine; Sabri, Osama; Paschke, Ralf

    2009-04-01

    Recent data suggest that increased somatostatin receptor (SSTR) expression is detectable in several thyroid diseases. This raises the question as to the specificity and pathophysiologic relevance of these findings. Therefore, we systematically evaluated Indium-111 (In-111) pentetreotide scintigraphies and Gallium-68 (Ga-68) DOTA-Phe(1)-Tyr(3)-Octreotide (DOTATOC) positron emission tomography (PET) scans for thyroid radiotracer uptake. Relative binding of In-111 pentetreotide in the thyroid was measured by region of interest (ROI) technique in 4-hour and 24-hour post-injection (p.i.) planar images of 73 patients undergoing In-111 pentetreotide scintigraphy. Ga-68 DOTATOC PET scans of 77 patients were analyzed by ROI technique applied to coronal slices of 1 cm (0.39 inch) thickness with highest uptake in the thyroid region. A basal indium In-111 and Ga-68 DOTATOC uptake was found in normal thyroid glands. Hot nodules, disseminated thyroid autonomy, and most cases of active Hashimoto's disease as well as goiters and nodular thyroids showed increased In-111 pentetreotide and/or Ga-68 DOTATOC uptake. Higher relative In-111 pentetreotide uptake in the 24-hour p.i. images as compared to the 4-hour p.i. images except for patients after thyroidectomy indicates specific receptor binding in the thyroid. The increased In-111 pentetreotide and Ga-68 DOTATOC uptake in active Hashimoto's disease is most likely related to the lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid. However, the physiologic or pathophysiologic relevance of the increased In-111 pentetreotide and Ga-68 DOTATOC uptake in normal thyroid glands, hot and cold nodules, and goiters and nodular thyroids remain to be determined.

  7. Qualification of viable myocardium in the infarcted area by dual isotope In-111 antimyosin Fab and thallium SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Isao; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kouhei; Kumita, Shin-ichirou; Oka, Hisatsugu; Haze, Kazuo; Nonoki, Hiroshi

    1991-01-01

    Dual isotope In-111 antimyosin (AM) Fab and thallium SPECT imaging was performed in 33 patients with acute myocardial infarction. Thirteen patients in whom coronary reperfusion could successfully be achieved at the acute stage had higher AM uptake parameters, including AM SCORE, AM AREA, and SCORE/AREA, and the maximum CPK value than the other 20 patients. Left ventricular ejection fraction had a stronger correlation with AM AREA than with AM SCORE (0.601 vs 0.387). Overlap phenomenon was seen in 18 patients (55%). In 28 patients followed up with coronary arteriography, 10 patients had a ≥75% coronary stenosis in the infarct-related vessel; 5 of these 10 had ischemic events. In 13 patients undergoing subsequent thallium-201 scintigraphy at rest, 6 (46%) were found to have marked reduction of perfusion defect (the improved group). Regarding thallium-201 DEFECT SCORE early after the onset of myocardial infarction, there was no significant difference between the aforementioned improved group (15±5) and the non-improved group (17±7). However, In-111 AM uptake in the infarct area was smaller in the improved group than the non-improved group, which means that the infarcted area did not become necrotic early after the onset of myocardial infarction. This may have been responsible for the improvement of perfusion defect in cases of myocardial infarction. (N.K.)

  8. Distribution of In-111 in granulocyte and other cellular elements of blood (CEB) in human In-111-labeled mixed white cell (MWC) and platelet preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Chowdhury, S.; Brown, M.L.; Wahner, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    A large number of platelets (PLT), red blood cells (RBC) are present along with granulocyte (GC) in In-111 in CEB was determined by Ficoll-Hypaque gradient (FHG) centrifugation of In-111-MWC and PLT preparation as a quality control procedure. MWC were separated by sedimentation with hydroxyethyl starch; PLT by differential centrifugation. MWC and PLT were labeled with In-111-oxine in saline, ACD-saline or with In-111-tropolone in 0.5 ml of ACD-plasma. 0.3-0.5 ml of labeled cell suspended in plasma was layered on 3 ml FHG of two densities (1.119 and 1.077 gm/ml) and spun in a clear polystyrene tube at 1800 G for 30 min. Four layers (plasma, PLT, GC, and RBC) were separated, and In-111 radioactivity in each fraction was determined with a gamma counter. Simultaneously cell types in MWC and PLT preparations were determined by Coulter counter and differential counting. Most of In-111 in In-MWC is associated with the PLT and RBC, GC/lymphocyte ratio is 6/4. GC has higher extraction efficiency than RBC and PLT. PLT preparation is pure and (96 +- 3)% of In-111 is bound to PLT, (4 +- 3)% to RBC and (0.2 +- 0.1)% to GC; PLT preparation contains PLT (97 +- 3)%, RBC (4 +- 3)% and GC (0.2 +- 0.1)%

  9. Precise fusion of MRI and dual energy 111In WBC/99mTc HDP SPECT/CT in the diabetic foot using companion CT: an example of SPECT/MRI imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knešaurek, K.; Heiba, S.; Kolker, D.; Vatti, S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to correctly fuse MRI and SPECT 111 In WBC and 99m Tc HDP images using companion CT images. The fused images could be used to assess proper surgical approach in treatment of the diabetic foot. Nine patients who had dual energy 111 In WBC/ 99 m Tc HDP SPECT/CT and MRI studies within a week were investigated in an ongoing project. A GE Infinia SPECT/CT camera and Siemens MAGNETOM 1.5T MR system were used in this study. First, the MRI and corresponding CT images were coregistrated using a transformation based on normalized mutual information. The transformation was saved and used for MRI and 111 In WBC/ 99 m Tc HDP SPECT fusion. A Jaszczak phantom study was also performed in order to estimate accuracy of MRI/ SPECT fusion. The Jaszczak phantom study with 3.7 MBq 111 In hot sphere showed that MRI/SPECT alignment using the approach described above produced registration with 0.7±0.4 mm accuracy in all three dimensions (3D). The nine clinical cases were visually evaluated and showed 1-2 mm 3D fusion accuracy. MRI provides almost perfect anatomy of soft tissue and bony structures but it may exaggerate the extent of infection. 111 In WBC/ 99 m Tc HDP SPECT imaging is more accurate for infection detection but lacks anatomical reference. Combination of these images proved an essential adjunct to diagnosis. A clinical utility of the approach is illustrated in two clinical examples. In conclusion, the CT in dual energy 111 In WBC/ 99 m Tc HDP SPECT/CT studies can be used to accurately fuse and compare 111 In WBC/ 99 m Tc HDP SPECT and MRI images of the diabetic foot. This can significantly help in conservative treatment planning and limb salvage procedures in treatment of diabetic foot infections.

  10. Evaluation of In-111 DTPA-paclitaxel scintigraphy to predict response on murine tumors to paclitaxel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Tomio; Li, C.; Yang, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    Our goal was to determine whether scintigraphy with 111 In-DTPA-paclitaxel could predict the response to chemotherapy with paclitaxel. Ovarian carcinoma (OCA 1), mammary carcinoma (MCA-4), fibrosarcoma (FSA) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC VII) were inoculated into the thighs of female C3Hf/Kam mice. Mice bearing 8 mm tumors were treated with paclitaxel (40 mg/kg). The growth delay, which was defined as the time in days for tumors in the treated groups to grow from 8 to 12 mm in diameter minus the time in days for tumors in the untreated control group to reach the same size, was measured to determine the effect of paclitaxel on the tumors. Sequential scintigraphy in mice bearing 10 to 14 mm tumors was conducted at 5, 30, 60, 120, 240 min and 24 hrs postinjection of 111 In-DTPA-paclitaxel (3.7 MBq) or 111 In-DTPA as a control tracer. The tumor uptakes (% injection dose/pixel) were determined. The growth delay of OCA 1, MCA-4, FSA and SCC VII tumors was 13.6, 4.0, -0.02 and -0.28 days, respectively. In other words, OCA 1 and MCA-4 were paclitaxel-sensitive tumors, whereas FSA and SCC VII were paclitaxel-resistant tumors. The tumor uptakes at 24 hrs postinjection of In-111 DTPA paclitaxel of OCA 1, MCA-4, FSA and SCC VII were 1.0 x 10 -3 , 1.6 x 10 -3 , 2.2 x 10 -3 and 9.0 x 10 -3 % injection dose/pixel, respectively. There was no correlation between the response to chemotherapy with paclitaxel and the tumor uptakes of 111 In-DTPA-paclitaxel. Scintigraphy with 111 In-DTPA-paclitaxel could not predict the response to paclitaxel chemotherapy. Although there was significant accumulation of the paclitaxel in the tumor cells, additional mechanisms must be operative for the agent to be effective against the neoplasm. 111 In-DTPA-paclitaxel activity is apparently different from that of paclitaxel with Cremophor. (author)

  11. Quantitative Assessment of Myocardial Infarction by In-111 Antimyosin Antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Kyung Han; Choi, Yoon Ho; Chung, June Key; Park, Young Bae; Koh, Chang Soon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Dae Hyuk [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-03-15

    Infarct size is a major determinant of prognosis after acute myocardial infarction. Up to date, however, clinically available tests to estimate this size have not been sufficiently accurate. Twelve lead electrocardiogram and wall motion abnormality measurement are not quantitative, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) measurement is inaccurate in the presence of reperfusion or right ventricular infarction. Methods have been developed to localize and size acute myocardial infarcts with agents that are selectively sequestered in areas of myocardial damage, but previously used agents have lacked sufficient specificity. Antibodies that bind specifically only to damaged myocardial cells may resolve this problem and provide an accurate method for noninvasively measuring infarct size. We determined the accuracy with which infarcted myocardial mass can be measured using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and radiolabeled antimyosin antibodies. Seven patients with acute myocardial infarction and one stable angina patient were injected with 2 mCi of Indium-111 labeled antimyosin antibodies. Planar image and SPECT was performed 24 hours later. None of the patients had history of prior infarcts, and none had undergone reperfusion techniques prior to the study, which was done within 4 days of the attack. Planar image showed all infarct patients to have positive uptakes in the cardiac region. The location of this uptake correlated to the infarct site as indicated by electrocardiography in most of the cases. The angina patient, however, showed no such abnormal uptake. Infarct size was determined from transverse slices of the SPECT image using a 45% threshold value obtained from a phantom study. Measured infarct size ranged from 40 to 192 gr. There was significant correlation between the infarct size measured by SPECT and that estimated from serial measurements of CPK (r=0.73, p<0,05). These date suggest that acute myocardial infarct size can be accurately measured

  12. Evaluation of possible hip prosthesis infection with In-111 leukocyte scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noto, R.B.; Alavi, A.; Star, A.M.; Cuckler, J.M.; Eisenberg, B.

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate the utility of In-111 leukocyte scintigraphy in patients with possible hip prosthesis infection, the authors retrospectively reviewed 44 such scans without clinical history. The results of In-111 leukocyte scans were compared with intraoperative cultures obtained at the time of prosthesis revision in 34 patients, with hip aspirates and/or clinical follow-up obtained in the remaining ten patients. This comparison yielded a 71% sensitivity, 78% specificity, and 77% overall accuracy. They conclude that In-111 leukocyte scans can be helpful in the evaluation of suspected hip prosthesis infection, but they are not as accurate as has been previously reported elsewhere

  13. Rapid, high-efficiency labeling of leukocytes with In-111 after hemolytic removal of erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karesh, S.M.; Henkin, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    During the labeling of leukocytes with Indium-111, conventional methodology involves separation and washing to remove red cells. This technique results in the loss of a significant number of leukocytes. Citrated whole blood of ten normal volunteers was studied for an alternate labeling method following sedimentation for 30 to 45 minutes and low speed centrifugation of the leukocyte-rich plasma. The average labeling for these ten volunteers by Indium-111 was 90% versus 60% by the older technique. Viability as measured by the trypan blue exclusion test was greater than 95%, WBC losses were essentially zero, and no WBC clumping was observed. Eighteen patients referred for leukocyte imaging were studied by this method. In this patient population, there was 91% labeling with viability greater than 95% and no evidence of clumping. Less than 5% RBC's were noted in any lot. Indium-111 WBC activity 20 minutes post injection averaged 79% of whole blood activity. This modification results in decreased losses of white cells, reduces preparation time to less than 2 hours, and significantly improves the labeling efficiency of the final product. Liver/spleen ratios and image quality were unchanged from the original method

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... for a thyroid scan is 30 minutes or less. Thyroid Uptake You will be given radioactive iodine ( ... for each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will I experience during ...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... uptake measurements are obtained at different times. For example, you may have uptake measurements at four to ... medicine procedures can be time consuming. It can take several hours to days for the radiotracer to ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special ... is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose and determine ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of ... potential to identify disease in its earliest stages as well as a patient’s immediate response to therapeutic ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... known as a thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. ... eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. Jewelry and other metallic accessories should be left ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) ... of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... for a thyroid scan is 30 minutes or less. Thyroid Uptake You will be given radioactive iodine (I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake will begin several hours to 24 hours later. Often, two separate uptake ...

  1. Diagnosis of acute inflammatory conditions in children and adolescents using In-111 oxine white blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gainey, M.A.; McDougall, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    In-111 oxine labeled white cells were used to diagnose acute inflammatory conditions in 42 children and adolescents, aged 6 weeks to 19 years. In 43 scans where a clinical correlation could be made, the test had a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 94%. There were no adverse reactions. For children the dose of In-111 recommended is 10-12 mu Ci/kg body weight to a maximum of 500 mu Ci

  2. 99mTc-HMPAO Labelled WBC Scan in Experimental Abscess by Labelling Autologous Leukocytes with In-House-Synthesized HMPAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Soo; Shin, Hyung Sik; Ahn, Curie; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Choi, Kang Won; Koh, Chang Soon; Jung, Jae Min; Chung, Eun Ju

    1991-01-01

    With HMPAO we have synthesized in our laboratory, we labelled 99m Tc to canine leukocytes. Experimental abscess made by subcutaneous injection with Staphylococcus aureus was imaged with these 99m Tc labelled leukocytes. Labelling efficiency of HMPAO with 99m Tc was 66.2% ± 14.6% (N=9). Labelling efficiency of leukocytes with 99m Tc-HMPAO was 54% ± 7.79 (N=7). Cell bound radio activity in 99m Tc-HMPAO labelled leukocytes was around 80%. when these cells were incubated in plasma in vitro at 37 .deg. C for 5 hours. In vivo cell bound activity was over 80% at 24 hours after injection. One day and four days after inoculation, uptake at the inflammatory focus was found with 99m Tc labelled leukocytes. Uptake showed up in 4 hour image, and the uptake at the lesion was most prominent in 24 hour image. These findings show that in-house-synthesized HMPAO could be used for labelling leukocytes with 99m Tc, and that 99m Tc-HMPAO-labelled leukocytes were so stable and viable that inflammatory focus could be visualized with these 99m Tc-labelled leukocytes.

  3. Thyroid uptake test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    The uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid gland is altered by the iodine content of diet or drugs. American diet has a high iodine content because each slice of the white bread contains nearly 150μg of iodine due to the bleaching process employed in the production of the bread. This carrier content of iodine reduces the uptake so much, that the normal American uptakes are usually three to four times lower than the uptakes in the developing countries. The other drawback of the thyroid uptake test is that it is affected by the iodine containing drugs. Anti-diarrhoea medications are quire common in the developing countries and many of them contain iodine moiety. Without a reliable drug history, a low thyroid uptake value may lead to a misleading conclusion

  4. Quantitative evaluation of endothelial cell attachment to vascular graft materials using In-111 Oxine label

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H.M.; Kesler, K.A.; Stinson, J.; Mock, B.; Arnold, M.

    1985-05-01

    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were harvested, cultured and labeled with In-111 oxine using a modification of the technique described by Sharefkin et al. Average cell labeling efficiency was 42%. Two graft materials, polytetrafluoroethylene (Gortex) and polyester elastomer (Hytrel), with and without pretreatment with human fibronectin (FN) were incubated with the labeled cells. Quantitation of In-111 activity was done 3 times: at inoculation, after incubation (attachment) and after 1 hr of in vitro perfusion (retention). The average attachment ranged from 53% to 99.5%. The In-111 activity attached ranged from 10 to 20 ..mu..Ci per graft. A gamma camera with medium energy collimator and two pulse height analyzers for 173 and 247 keV photons with 20% window and an on-line computer was used. Images were obtained in 1.5 zoom mode. The count rate response to a In-111 point source up to 150 ..mu..Ci was linear. The results indicate Hytrel permits better endothelial cell attachment than Gortex and FN coating enhances the strength of attachment to both graft materials. The authors conclude that In-111 Oxine labeling is a reliable method for quantitatively evaluating endothelial cell attachment to vascular graft materials.

  5. Detection of acute synthetic vascular graft infection with IN-111 labeled leukocyte imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazraki, N.; Dries, D.; Lawrence, P.; Murphy, K.; Kercher, J.; Datz, F.; Christian, P.; Taylor, A.

    1985-01-01

    Synthetic vascular graft infection is characterized by late diagnosis due to indolent and nonspecific symptoms. Reported data on accuracy of In-111 labeled leukocyte imaging to identify vascular graft infection is sparse and conflicting. The purpose of this animal study was to clarify the accuracy of detection of early graft infection using a mixed population of In-111 labeled leukocytes. Twelve mongrel dogs received dacron aortic interposition grafts. Seven grafts were contaminated at surgery by topical ATCC S. aureus, 10/sup 8/ organisms per ml. Six control animals received no graft contamination Mixed population In-111 homologous leukocyte labeling was performed followed by imaging at 24 and 48 hours following intravenous injection of 250 μCi In-111 leukocytes. Scans were done on Day 2 post-surgery. Infected dogs were sacrificed following Indium imaging; control dogs were rescanned at 3 weeks postop and sacrificed thereafter. Autopsy results were correlated with scans, yielding sensitivity 71%, specificity 100%, accuracy 85% for In-111 leukocyte imaging to detect early graft infection. False positive leukocyte imaging in the early postop period was not a problem. At autopsy all 5 dogs with infected grafts and positive scans had gross pus. The 2 dogs with false negative scans showed no gross pus at autopsy; cultures were positive for S. aureus in all 7 dogs. Scans at 2 days and 3 weeks post-surgery were true negatives in all 6 control dogs. These data suggest a high level of clinical reliability of leukocyte imaging for early graft infection detection

  6. Detection of pulmonary metastases in a patient with synovial cell sarcoma using In-111 labeled monoclonal antibody 19-24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, J.E.; Blend, M.J.; Bekerman, C.; Das Gupta, T.K.; Greager, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    A 35-year-old man was diagnosed in 1984 as having a synovial cell sarcoma of his right wrist without evidence of metastatic spread. The patient underwent regional hyperthermic chemoperfusion, wide-field excision, post-operative radiation therapy and systemic adjuvant chemotherapy. In 1986 and in 1987, because of new lesions found on chest radiographs, the patient underwent bilateral staging thoracotomies with resection of pulmonary metastases, followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Later in 1987, a chest radiograph showed a large left hilar mass and multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules. Computerized tomography of the chest demonstrated a left hilar mass and two nodules in the right lower lung, raising the possibility of recurrent pulmonary metastatic cancer. As a diagnostic procedure, In-111 labeled monoclonal antibody (Mab) 19-24, produced against a human malignant fibrous histiocytoma, was infused intravenously, and 48-hour images revealed focal areas of increased uptake corresponding to the lesions seen on CT. At surgery, the lesions were confirmed to be synovial cell sarcoma. Imaging with Mabs specific for sarcoma may be particularly useful in sarcoma patients in whom there is clinical uncertainty regarding the nature of pulmonary lesions. In this case, the Mab was useful in distinguishing tumor deposits from postsurgical scarring and helped to guide subsequent surgery and treatment

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. ...

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ...

  9. In-111-oxine-labeled negative liposomes in tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatal, J.F.; Guihard, D.; Bardy, A.; Pasqualini, R.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of In-111-oxine-labelled liposomes in C 57 Bl 6 mice bearing a Lewis lung tumor and the variations contingent on modification of certain parameters have been studied. The distribution has been compared with that of Ga-67 citrate which is known for its affinity for lung tumors. In conclusion, it may be said that In-111-labeled negatively charged liposomes handled in oxygen-free conditions and having a size smaller than 80 nm make it possible to visualize a murine tumor as well, and even better, than does Ga-67 citrate

  10. In-111-labeled leukocyte imaging: false-positive study due to acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, M.F.; Rudd, T.G.

    1983-01-01

    A case is reported in which In-111-labeled leukocytes accumulated in the left colon on a 24-hr delayed image. This was found to be secondary to an upper gastrointestinal bleed in progress at the time of injection of the radiolabeled leukocytes

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... information about your thyroid’s size, shape, position and function that is often unattainable using other imaging procedures. ... thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... which are encased in metal and plastic and most often shaped like a box, attached to a ... will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake procedures are painless. ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is ... thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses ...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential ... or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... Actual scanning time for each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will ... diagnostic procedures have been used for more than five decades, and there are no known long-term ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer top ... Scan and Uptake Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... When radiotracer is taken by mouth, in either liquid or capsule form, it is typically swallowed up ... radioactive iodine (I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of thyroid function, but does ... they offer the potential to identify disease in its earliest stages as well as a patient’s immediate ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. Jewelry ... small hand-held device resembling a microphone that can detect and measure the amount of the radiotracer ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake ... you otherwise, you may resume your normal activities after your nuclear medicine scan. If any special instructions ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is ... computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... its radioactivity over time. It may also pass out of your body through your urine or stool ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... procedures within the last two months that used iodine-based contrast material. Your doctor will instruct you ... a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a ...

  5. 111In antimyosin uptake in skeletal muscle: case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberini, J.L.; Bourguet, P.

    1999-01-01

    We report an observation of skeletal muscle uptake on antimyosin imaging. Aim of this imaging was to identify recent myocardial infarction in a patient resuscitated after cardio-version. Planar anterior and Left Anterior Oblique (45 deg. and 70 deg.) views centered on the thorax were performed 48 hours after injection of In-111 antimyosin. This uptake could be explained by a muscle necrosis, induced by the electroshock. Similar cases were reported with Tc-99m pyrophosphate. It must be remind on one hand the importance to perform several incidences for planar images and SPET and on the other hand the potential utility of antimyosin antibody imaging in skeletal muscle disorders. (authors)

  6. Thyroid uptake software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Dolores; Arista, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    The DETEC-PC software was developed as a complement to a measurement system (hardware) able to perform Iodine Thyroid Uptake studies. The software was designed according to the principles of Object oriented programming using C++ language. The software automatically fixes spectrometric measurement parameters and besides patient measurement also performs statistical analysis of a batch of samples. It possesses a PARADOX database with all information of measured patients and a help system with the system options and medical concepts related to the thyroid uptake study

  7. High-temperature method of rapid separation of In-111 from irradiated silver targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazgaj, Z.; Kolaczkowski, A.; Mikulski, J.; Novgorodov, A.F.; Zielinski, A.; Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna

    1990-01-01

    A high-temperature method of separation of In-111 from α-particle activated silver targets was developed. The separation is carried out under reduced pressure, in the atmosphere of HCl and H 2 O vapours. Indium-111, adsorbed on a quartz collector, is washed out quantitatively with 0.1 N HCl. The contaminant, Cd-109 (product of decay of In-109), is removed from the preparation by means of ion-exchange chromatography. 4 tabs., 6 refs. (author)

  8. In-111 platelets used in evaluation of emboli and thrombi in patients with cerebrovascular accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuecuek, N.O.; Aras, G.; Ibis, E.; Soylu, A.; Tascilar, N.; Yuecemen, N.; Mutluer, N.

    2000-01-01

    Studies with In-111 platelets were conducted to evaluate pulmonary embolus, deep vein thrombus and cardiac thrombus. This study aimed to evaluate active thrombi and possible new emboli in patients with cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in the first 24 hours by using autologous In-111 platelets. Twenty-five patients were included in the study. Carotid artery thrombi observed in 10 patients with this technique were confirmed by Doppler ultrasonography. Intracranial thrombi appearing in 3 cases were verified by X-ray computed tomography (CT). Scintigraphy of 8 patients who showed findings suggesting CVA in CT revealed no abnormal accumulation. This was attributed to the possibility that they were small in size, deep in location and/or were also quite aged. Abnormal accumulations observed in the lungs of 3 patients and in the mediastinum and pelvis in one patient were verified by other radiological methods. In-111 platelet study was found to be useful in patients with CVA to evaluate the active thrombi and possible emboli in the early period before clinical symptoms appeared. (author)

  9. Colorectal carcinoma metastases: Detection with In-111-labeled monoclonal antibody CCR 086

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Nabi, H.H.; Levine, G.; Lamki, L.M.; Murray, J.L.; Tauxe, W.N.; Shah, A.N.; Patt, Y.Z.; Doerr, R.J.; Klein, H.A.; Gona, J.

    1990-01-01

    A phase I/II clinical trial with indium-111-labeled antimucin murine monoclonal antibody (MoAb) CCR 086 was conducted. Seventeen patients with histologically proved colorectal carcinoma and known metastatic disease underwent external scintigraphy after administration of 5.5 mCi (203.5 MBq) of In-111 CCR 086 at doses of 5 and 20 mg. Of 25 known lesions, 17 were detected (sensitivity, 68%). The smallest detected lesion in the lung was 1 cm and in the liver was 1.5 cm. The serum half-life of In-111-labeled CCR 086 MoAb was approximately 64 hours. The formation of human antimouse antibody (HAMA) was detected in the serum of four of five patients who received 20 mg of MoAb. No HAMAs were detected in four patients receiving 5 mg of MoAb. No side effects were encountered. Because of effective detection of liver and lung metastases with lower doses (5-20 mg) of CCR 086 conjugated with In-111, further investigations are warranted to assess clinical and therapeutic potentials of CCR 086 in the management of colorectal cancer

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at which the body ...

  12. Radioactive uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, O

    1986-01-01

    The fundamentals of radionuclide uptake by plants, both by leaves and roots are presented. Iodine, cesium, strontium and ruthenium are considered and a table of the measured concentrations in several agricultural plants shortly after the Chernobyl accident is presented. Another table gives the Cs and Sr transfer factors soil plants for some plants. By using them estimates of future burden can be obtained.

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ... of a typical probe counter used for thyroid uptake exams. The patient sits with the camera directed at the neck for five minutes, and then the leg for ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ... of a typical probe counter used for thyroid uptake exams. The patient sits with the camera directed at the neck for five minutes, and then the leg for ...

  15. Use of a new In-111-labeled solid meal for confirmation of the lag phase of gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, A.H.; Knight, L.S.; Siegel, J.A.; Scopinaro, F.; Perri, J.A.; Krevsky, B.; Fisher, R.S.; Malmud, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    It has been argued that the appearance of a lag phase in Tc-99m (140 keV) anterior gastric emptying (GE) studies may be artifactual. Since gastric emptying with In-111 (247 keV) is less dependent on attenuation, we have developed a new In-111 meal. Two eggs are mixed with In-111 oxine, cooked thoroughly, and eaten between two pieces of toast. In vitro stability was studied by incubating the In-111 egg in human gastric juice at 37 0 C for 3 hours (97.0% +- 0.6% was bound). In five normal volunteers the mean t1/2 for gastric emptying was 87 +- 12 minutes. This was not significantly different from the Tc-99m normal value (77 +- 10 minutes) we have measured. A lag phase for the In-111-containing egg was present in each case (mean, 40 +- 8 minutes). The authors conclude that an In-111 meal can confirm the presence of a physiologic lag phase

  16. 100 cases of normal earlobe and vein blood hemoglobin and WBC determination comparison%100例正常人耳垂血与静脉血血红蛋白及白细胞测定的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝云波

    2016-01-01

    Objective To normal earlobe blood and venous blood hemoglobin and WBC to compare the results of determination. Method Research object for the normal adults, 100 cases (conscription examination), the earlobe blood parts of blood and venous blood two parts, the determination of hemoglobin and WBC level. Results The 100 cases of Hb and white blood cells are higher than that of venous blood, earlobe blood Hb were higher than in venous blood of Hb, the difference between the two have 3 cases not more than 10 g (3%), 97% of Hb the difference between the two parts of 10 g/L ~ 60 g/L (31 g) on average, 95% difference within the 25 g ~ 60 g, 26.5 g to 26.5 g. Using two blood test method of the same parts as WBC determination results comparison, the earlobe blood leukocytes were higher than that of venous blood leukocytes, 98% of them significantly better than the earlobe blood of venous blood leukocyte number (differential value of 8.6 x 109 / L ~ 6.3 x 109 / L (8600 ~ 6300), the mean difference of 3.8 x 109 / L ~ 4.8 x 109 / L (3800 ~4800), only 2% of the people the earlobe blood leukocytes was slightly higher than that of venous blood, difference of 0.6 x 109 / L ~ 1.2 x 109 / L (600 ~ 1200). Conclusions Blood test result difference is big, the two parts should arouse our attention.%目的:对正常人耳垂血与静脉血血红蛋白及白细胞测定的结果进行比较。方法研究对象为正常成人100例(征兵体检),采血部位为耳垂血与静脉血两部位,测定血红蛋白与白细胞水平。结果经测定100例 Hb 及白细胞均高于静脉血,耳垂血 Hb 均高于静脉血的 Hb,两者之差有3例不超过10g(3%),有97%的人 Hb 两部位之差为10g/L ~60g/L(平均31g),95%差数在25g ~60g以内,平均26.5g ~30.4g。用同一种检验方法对两种采血部位做的白细胞测定结果比较,耳垂血白细胞均高于静脉血的白细胞,其中98%的人耳垂血明显高于静脉

  17. Experimental study of the 2p-2h band in 111Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, S.; Banerjee, P.; Ray, I.; Kshetri, R.; Raut, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Saha-Sarkar, M.; Goswami, A.; Basu, S. K.

    2008-01-01

    The ΔI=2 intruder band in 111 Sn, built upon the 4074.3 keV state, was studied. The states were populated in the 100 Mo( 20 Ne, α5n) reaction at a beam energy of 136 MeV. Mean lifetimes of five states up to 8737.2 keV (spin 43/2 - ) have been measured for the first time using the Doppler shift attenuation method. In addition, an upper limit of mean lifetime has been estimated for the 9860.0 keV (spin 47/2 - ) state. The B(E2) values, derived from the present lifetime results, indicate a quadrupole deformation of β 2 =0.28±0.02 for the 31/2 - state and decrease progressively with spin, suggesting a reduction in collectivity. The dynamic moment of inertia for the band also decreases continuously up to the highest observed frequencies. These results, along with the predictions of a total Routhian surface calculation, suggest that the ΔI=2 band in 111 Sn undergoes a change of shape from collective prolate to triaxial with increase in spin and possibly terminates in a noncollective oblate state at a high spin

  18. In-111-oxine red cells for imaging of intermittent G.I. bleeding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, C.S.; Angulo, M.C.; Salk, R.D.; Essex, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    Sequential daily abdominal imaging was performed for up to 7 days in 11 patients with intermittent G.I. bleeding after the intravenous administration of lmCi autologous In-111-oxine labeled RBC's. The bleeding sites were identified in 3 patients. The causes were colon carcinoma, diverticulitis, and eroding distal aortic aneutysm. In addition to the imaging information, the authors have obtained preliminary biodistribution and kinetic data on the In-RBC's. Distribution to liver, spleen, and bone marrow was approximately 40%, 40%, and 20%, respectively. (This does not include the quantity of In-111 in the blood pool, which is very high initially and declines with time.) The survival of circulating In-RBC's is described by the equation: Surviving fraction=0.26e/sup -0.0021t/+0.74e/sup -0.00083t/ The halflives of the fast and slow components (x-bar+-x-bar) are 33.4 +- 1.6 hours and 35.0 +- 1.25 days, respectively. The In-oxine label is less stable than Cr-51 but more stable than Tc-99m. At 24 hours, Cr-RBC/In-RBC survival is 1.11 and Cr-RBC/Tc-RBC survival is 1.23. This imaging procedure is quite useful in selected patients

  19. Receptor scintigraphy using the Tc-99M-labelled somatostatin analogue EDDA-TRYCINE-HYNIC-TOC: clinical results in different tumor types and comparison with In-111 DOTATOC during Y-90 DOTATOC radioreceptor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, R.P.; Schmuecking, M.; Fischer, S.; Przetak, C.; Niesen, A.; Maecke, H.R.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate Tc-99m EDDA-TRYCINE-HYNIC-TOC in patients with somatostatin receptor positive tumours (staging, pre-therapeutic dosimetry for radioreceptor therapy and restaging after therapy) in comparison with In-111 DOTATOC. Material and Methods: The Tc-99m labelled somatostatin analogue was synthesized by an optimized procedure in our pharmaceutical laboratory using lyophilized kits (radiochemical purity by HPLC, TLC > 95%, product stability in vitro 4 to 6h). So far, 58 patients (60 examinations) were studied after injection of 580-890 MBq (median 673 MBq) EDDA-TRYCINE-HYNIC-TOC. The histologically proven tumours were neuroendocrine neoplasias, renal carcinomas, bronchial carcinoma, mesothelioma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma. The imaging protocol consisted of whole-body scans and planar images of the tumor region (15 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 24 h p.i.) and additionally SPECT-images (1 h und 4 h p.i.). For semi-quantitative assessment, individual regions of interest (ROI) were drawn in order to generate time-activity curves and to calculate tumour-to-tissue/background ratios which were compared by visual grading (scala 0 to 3+). Furthermore, pharmacokinetic analyses were carried out (radioactivity kinetics in plasma and urine). In some selected patients, image fusion of whole-body scans was performed with CT and/or MRT and/or PET using a NUD software and a HERMES computer. Results: 10 out of 58 patients showed an intense tracer accumulation in the SSTR-positive tumours (visual 3+, tumour/background ratio >2,5). In these patients, radioreceptor therapy was carried out using Y-90 DOTATOC (simultaneous injection von 150 MBq In-111 DOTATOC). All pretherapeutic scans with the Tc-99m labelled ligand (4 h p.i.) showed a similar overall pattern of biodistribution and tumour uptake in comparison to the therapy scans with In-111 / Y-90 DOTATOC (24 h p.i.). The Tc-99m EDDA-TRYCINE-HYNIC-TOC scans (incl. SPECT) offered superior imaging properties with earlier tumour

  20. Receptor imaging with a new Tc-99m labelled somatostatin analogue (Tc-99m EDDA-TRYCINE-HYNIC-TOC): first clinical results and comparison with In-111 Dotatoc during radioreceptor therapy with Y-90 Dotatoc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, R.P.; Schmuecking, M.; Fischer, S.; Przetak, C.; Niesen, A.; Maecke, H.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: To evaluate Tc-99m EDDA-TRYCINE-HYNIC-TOC (TET-H-TOC) in patients with somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-positive tumors (staging, pretherapeutic indication for radioreceptor therapy and restaging after therapy) in comparison with In-111 DOTATOC. The Tc-99m labelled somatostatin analogue was synthesized by an optimized procedure in our pharmaceutical lab using lyophilized kits (radiochemical purity by HPLC, TLC > 95 %, product stability in vitro 4 to 6 h). So far, 46 patients (53 examinations) were studied after injection of 580-890 MBq (median 673 MBq) TET-H-TOC. The histologically proven tumors were endocrine neoplasias, renal carcinomas, bronchial carcinoma, mesothelioma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma. The imaging protocol consisted of whole-body scans and planar images of the tumor region (15 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 24 h p.i.) and additionally SPECT-images (1 h and 4 h p.i.). For semi-quantitative assessment, individual regions of interest (ROI) were drawn in order to generate time-activity curves and to calculate tumor-to-tissue/background ratios which were compared by visual grading (scale 0 to 3+). Furthermore, pharmacokinetic analyses were carried out (radioactivity kinetics in plasma and urine). In some selected patients, image fusion of the whole-body scans was performed with CT and/or MRT and/or PET using a HERMES computer. 7 out of 46 patients showed an intense tracer accumulation in the SSTR-positive tumors (visual 3+, tumor / background ratio >2,5). In these patients, radioreceptor therapy was carried out using Y-90 DOTATOC (simultaneous injection of 150 MBq In-111 DOTATOC). All pretherapeutic scans with the Tc-99m labelled ligand (4 h p.i.) showed a similar overall pattern of biodistribution and tumor uptake in comparison to the therapy scans with In-111 / Y-90 DOTATOC 24 h p.i. The Tc-99m EDDA-HYNIC-TOC scans (incl. SPECT) offered superior imaging properties with earlier tumor visualization (all lesions were detected 1 h p.i.) as compared

  1. Exosomes: Mechanisms of Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J. McKelvey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are 30–100 nm microvesicles which contain complex cellular signals of RNA, protein and lipids. Because of this, exosomes are implicated as having limitless therapeutic potential for the treatment of cancer, pregnancy complications, infections, and autoimmune diseases. To date we know a considerable amount about exosome biogenesis and secretion, but there is a paucity of data regarding the uptake of exosomes by immune and non-immune cell types (e.g., cancer cells and the internal signalling pathways by which these exosomes elicit a cellular response. Answering these questions is of paramount importance.

  2. Exosomes: Mechanisms of Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J. McKelvey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are 30–100 nm microvesicles which contain complex cellular signals of RNA, protein and lipids. Because of this, exosomes are implicated as having limitless therapeutic potential for the treatment of cancer, pregnancy complications, infections, and autoimmune diseases. To date we know a considerable amount about exosome biogenesis and secretion, but there is a paucity of data regarding the uptake of exosomes by immune and non- immune cell types (e.g., cancer cells and the internal signalling pathways by which these exosomes elicit a cellular response. Answering these questions is of para‐ mount importance.

  3. Thyroid Uptake Measurement System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Duc Tuan; Nguyen Thi Bao My; Nguyen Van Sy

    2007-01-01

    The NED-UP.M7 is a complete thyroid uptake and analysis system specifically designed for nuclear medicine. Capable of performing a full range of studies this system provides fast, accurate results for Uptake Studies. The heart of the NED-UP.M7 is a microprocessor-controlled 2048 channel Compact Multi-Channel Analyzer, coupled to a 2 inch x 2 inch NaI(Tl) detector with a USB personal computer interface. The system offers simple, straight-forward operation using pre-programmed isotopes, and menudriven prompts to guide the user step by step through each procedure. The pre-programmed radionuclides include I-123, I-125, I-131, Tc-99m and Cs-137. The user-defined radionuclides also allow for isotope identification while the printer provides hard copy printouts for patient and department record keeping. The included software program running on PC (Windows XP-based) is a user friendly program with menudriven and graphic interface for easy controlling the system and managing measurement results of patient on Excel standard form. (author)

  4. WBC Associates with Readmission Following Cystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Andrew G; Li, Tianyu; Ito, Timothy; Mannion, Jason; Dziemianowicz, Mark; Waingankar, Nikhil; Haseebuddin, Mohammed; Chen, David Y T; Greenberg, Richard E; Viterbo, Rosalia; Kutikov, Alexander; Uzzo, Robert G; Smaldone, Marc C; Abbosh, Philip H

    2017-04-27

    Background: Radical cystectomy is associated with perioperative complication rates exceeding 50% in some series. Readmission rates are increasingly used as a surgical quality metric. White blood cell count is a crude surrogate for physiologic processes which may reflect postoperative complications leading to readmission. Objective: We assessed the association between final white blood cell count at discharge and risk of readmission following radical cystectomy. Methods: Records on 477 patients undergoing radical cystectomy from 2006-2013 were reviewed. Final white blood cell count was defined as the last documented value during index admission. Univariate analysis was performed using Fisher's exact, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and Spearman's coefficient tests where appropriate. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to test the associations between final white blood cell count and readmission. Results: 34% of patients were readmitted within 90 days of surgery. Amongst this cohort, a cutoff final white blood cell count of 9000/mm 3 was identified, with a significantly higher proportion of patients with values >9000/mm 3 experiencing readmission than those with values≤9000/mm 3 (42% vs 28%, p  = 0.004). Other perioperative variables associated with an increased readmission rate included initial hospital length of stay≤10 days, and receipt of a continent diversion. Following adjustment, final white blood cell count >9000/mm 3 was associated with increased risk of readmission (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.23-3.53, p  = 0.006). Conclusions: Final white blood cell count is associated with hospital readmission following radical cystectomy. This metric may provide important guidance in discharge algorithms.

  5. WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pp 1003-1008. Harmening D. Clinical Hematology and Fundamentals of Hemostasis, Fifth Edition, F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, 2009, Pp 305-328. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 21st ed. McPherson R, Pincus ...

  6. Experimental study of ΔI=1 bands in 111In

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, P.; Pradhan, M. K.; Ganguly, S.; Sharma, H. P.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2011-01-01

    The two ΔI=1 bands in 111 In, built upon the 3461.0 and 4931.8 keV states, have been studied. The bands were populated in the reaction 100 Mo( 19 F, α4nγ) at a beam energy of 105 MeV. Mean lifetimes of nine states, four in the first and five in the second band, have been determined for the first time from Doppler shift attenuation data. The deduced B(M1) rates and their behavior as a function of level spin support the interpretation of these bands within the framework of the shears mechanism. The geometrical model of Machiavelli et al. has been used to derive the effective gyromagnetic ratios for the two bands.

  7. Experimental study of ΔI=1 bands in In111

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, P.; Ganguly, S.; Pradhan, M. K.; Sharma, H. P.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2011-02-01

    The two ΔI=1 bands in In111, built upon the 3461.0 and 4931.8 keV states, have been studied. The bands were populated in the reaction Mo100(F19,α4nγ) at a beam energy of 105 MeV. Mean lifetimes of nine states, four in the first and five in the second band, have been determined for the first time from Doppler shift attenuation data. The deduced B(M1) rates and their behavior as a function of level spin support the interpretation of these bands within the framework of the shears mechanism. The geometrical model of Machiavelli has been used to derive the effective gyromagnetic ratios for the two bands.

  8. In vivo crossmatching with Tc-99m-RBC's and In-111-oxine-RBC's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, C.S.; Myhre, B.A.; Angulo, M.C.; Salk, R.D.; Essex, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    In vitro crossmatching techniques are often inadequate for patients who have received multiple prior transfusions. These patients usually have multiple antibodies to minor blood groups, not all of which are necessarily important to vivo. It becomes increasingly difficult to obtain appropriate units for transfusion, and often units are used with hopes that a minor group antibody will not be significantly active in vivo. If a transfusion reaction occurs, the unit is stopped. The authors have developed and successfully tested a method whereby 1.5 to 3c of potential donor RBC's are labeled with 25-50 μCi of Tc-99m using the BNL kits. After injection, samples are drawn at 10, 20, 60, and 120 minutes and the RBC survival is measured. If it is desirable to test 2 units simultaneously, the authors use 400 μCi Tc-99m to label an RBC aliquot of one unit and 25 μCi In-111-oxine to label the other; both labeled aliquots are injected together. The method is simple and reliable. In addition to assessing compatibility, the authors may also estimate the % viability of transfused, compatible RBC's by starting with 400 μCi of Tc-99m and multiplying % survival at 24 hours by 1.2. For 24 hr. survival measurements of IN-111-oxine-RBC's, 25 μCi is adequate and no multiplication factor is necessary. The authors have performed 13 in vivo crossmatches, 4 of which were double, in 6 patients. One documented mild transfusion reaction occurred. There were no false positive or false negative results

  9. Radioiodine uptake measurements in thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadireshn, A.; Kapur, S.C.; Samuel, J.R.; Mahajan, M.K.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation of thyroid function can be carried out by measuring the uptake of orally administered radioactive iodine. The results of the thyroid uptake measurements for the period 1982-1987 in Christian Medical College, Ludhiana are presented here. About 3000 patients were screened during the analysis period. (author)

  10. Aquaporins and root water uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water is one of the most critical resources limiting plant growth and crop productivity, and root water uptake is an important aspect of plant physiology governing plant water use and stress tolerance. Pathways of root water uptake are complex and are affected by root structure and physiological res...

  11. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greger, Maria

    2004-04-01

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate

  12. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany

    2004-04-01

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate.

  13. Cadmium uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghiri, F.

    1973-01-01

    Absorption of /sup 115m/Cd by soybean (Gylcine max l.) plants via foliar and root systems and translocation into the seed was determined. The uptake of /sup 115m/Cd by soybeans via the root system was more efficient than that of the foliar placement. Growth and Cd concentrations of soybean and wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) tops were influenced by soil-applied Cd. In both crops, the Cd concentration of plant tops increased while yield decreased with increasing levels of applied Cd. Cadmium toxicitiy began to occur in both crops at the lowest level of soil applied Cd (2.5 ppM). With soybean plants, Cd toxicity symptoms resembled fe chlorosis. For wheat plants there were no visual symptoms other than the studied growth. The relative concentration of Cd found in several vegetable crops varied depending on the plant species. The relative Cd concentration in descending order for various vegetables was lettuce (Lactuca sativa l.) > radish top (Raphanus sativus l.) > celery stalk (Apium graveolens l.) > celery leaves greater than or equal to green pepper (Capsicum frutescens l.) > radish roots.

  14. Complementary role of CT and In-111 leukocyte scans in the diagnosis of infected hematoma and thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E.E.; Pjura, G.A.; Floyd, W.; Raval, B.; Sandler, C.; Gobuty, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    Patients with traumatic hematomas or those with indwelling catheters who subsequently develop fever and sepsis without clinical localizing signs to indicate an inflammatory focus can present a diagnostic dilemma. Early diagnosis of an infected hematoma or thrombus is important to optimal management. CT can provide, exquisite delineation of anatomy identifying and localizing a post-traumatic fluid collection but cannot reliably distinguish hematoma from abscess in all cases. A thrombus at a catheter tip may be too small to be resolved; when identified, the question of infection again remains. In-111 leukocyte scanning provides a method for identifying or ruling out infection in these situations. The authors performed In-111 leukocyte scans on 15 patients with indwelling catheters. Five of these patients were febrile with positive blood cultures. In-111 leukocyte scans showed positive findings in 8 patients: 5 showed surgically confirmed infected hematomas in the abdomen (3 in the pelvis, 1 in a kidney, 1 in the splenic bed), and 3 showed infected thrombosis in catheter tips. The authors conclude that CT scanning and In-111 leukocyte scanning play complementary roles in the evaluation of traumatic hematomas and thrombosis, the former providing precise anatomic delineation and the latter providing evidence of inflammation

  15. In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in a case of multifocal candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palestro, C.J.; Vega, A.; Kim, C.K.; Goldsmith, S.J. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The value of indium-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy for the diagnosis of infection in the general population is well documented; there is less information available on its role in the evaluation of the immunocompromised patient. In this study, leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 31-year-old immunocompromised woman who had a possible intra-abdominal abscess. No abscess was detected, but intense oral, esophageal, gastric, and vaginal uptake was observed. Candida infection was histologically confirmed at all four sites.

  16. In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in a case of multifocal candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestro, C.J.; Vega, A.; Kim, C.K.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    The value of indium-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy for the diagnosis of infection in the general population is well documented; there is less information available on its role in the evaluation of the immunocompromised patient. In this study, leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 31-year-old immunocompromised woman who had a possible intra-abdominal abscess. No abscess was detected, but intense oral, esophageal, gastric, and vaginal uptake was observed. Candida infection was histologically confirmed at all four sites

  17. Technetium uptake by Sinapis Alba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.; Ter Meer-Bekk, Ch.

    1986-01-01

    Transfer factors for pertechnetate uptake was determined for Sinapis Alba cultured hydroponically. For the freshly harvested, undried plants transfer factors were found between 13 and 40 depending on the growth period. (author)

  18. Diselenolane-mediated cellular uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuard, Nicolas; Poblador-Bahamonde, Amalia I; Zong, Lili; Bartolami, Eline; Hildebrandt, Jana; Weigand, Wolfgang; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan

    2018-02-21

    The emerging power of thiol-mediated uptake with strained disulfides called for a move from sulfur to selenium. We report that according to results with fluorescent model substrates, cellular uptake with 1,2-diselenolanes exceeds uptake with 1,2-dithiolanes and epidithiodiketopiperazines with regard to efficiency as well as intracellular localization. The diselenide analog of lipoic acid performs best. This 1,2-diselenolane delivers fluorophores efficiently to the cytosol of HeLa Kyoto cells, without detectable endosomal capture as with 1,2-dithiolanes or dominant escape into the nucleus as with epidithiodiketopiperazines. Diselenolane-mediated cytosolic delivery is non-toxic (MTT assay), sensitive to temperature but insensitive to inhibitors of endocytosis (chlorpromazine, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, wortmannin, cytochalasin B) and conventional thiol-mediated uptake (Ellman's reagent), and to serum. Selenophilicity, the extreme CSeSeC dihedral angle of 0° and the high but different acidity of primary and secondary selenols might all contribute to uptake. Thiol-exchange affinity chromatography is introduced as operational mimic of thiol-mediated uptake that provides, in combination with rate enhancement of DTT oxidation, direct experimental evidence for existence and nature of the involved selenosulfides.

  19. Cellular basis for accumulation of In-111-labeled leukocytes and platelets in rejecting cardiac allografts: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, T.S.T.; Oluwole, S.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Wolff, M.; Kuromoto, N.; Satake, K.; Hardy, M.A.; Alderson, P.O.

    1982-01-01

    Biodistribution and imaging studies in rats showed that In-111-labeled leukocytes and platelets accumulate progressively with time after transplantation in cardiac allografts undergoing rejection, but do not accumulate in normal syngeneic heart grafts. Maximum heart allograft-to-blood ratios of 9:1 were obtained, and allograft-to-native heart ratios of 17:1. Microscopic studies of the rejecting cardiac allografts showed that histologic findings paralleled the cellular changes predicted by the radionuclide studies. Intravenously administered Ga-67 citrate and Tc-99m sulfur colloid failed to show significant accumulation in rejecting grafts. The findings suggest that cellular rejection, rather than nonspecific inflammatory changes, is the primary basis for accumulation of In-111 leukocytes and platelets in rejecting cardiac allografts

  20. Root uptake of transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    The uptake of elements by plant roots is one of the important pathways of entry of many elements into the food chain of man. Data are cited showing plutonium concentration ratios, plant/soil, ranging from 10 -10 to 10 -3 . Concentration ratios for americium range from 10 -7 to 10 +1 . Limited experiments with curium and neptunium indicate that root uptake of curium is similar to that of americium and that plant uptake of neptunium is substantially larger than that of curium and americium. The extreme ranges of concentration ratios cited for plutonium and americium are due to a number of causes. Experimental conditions such as very intensive cropping will lead to abnormally high concentration ratios. In some experiments, addition of chelating agents markedly increased plant root uptake of transuranic elements. Particle size and composition of the source material influenced uptake of the transuranics by plants. Translocation within the plant, and soil factors such as pH and organic matter content, all affect concentration ratios

  1. Lactate, Glucose and Oxygen Uptake in Human Brain During Recovery from Maximal Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kojiro, I.; Schmalbruch, I.K.; Quistorff, B.

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal muscle, brain lactate uptake, brain oxygen uptake, energy metabolism, brain glucose uptake......Skeletal muscle, brain lactate uptake, brain oxygen uptake, energy metabolism, brain glucose uptake...

  2. Hg uptake in ureteral obstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgrez, J.P.; Bourguignon, M.; Raynaud, C.; CEA, 91 - Orsay

    1976-01-01

    In the presence of a total obstruction the results obtained with the Hg uptake test, as indeed with other functional tests, inform on the value of the kidney function at the time but have no prognostic value where repair possibilities are concerned. Some preliminary results seem to show however that very soon after the obstacle is removed, by the 10th or 15th day perhaps, quantitative functional tests may once more be used to evaluate the functional prognosis. This would mean that by waiting about two weeks after the disappearance of a total obstruction the Hg uptake test may again be used in all confidence. In order to check this deduction, which is based on slender evidence but which nevertheless has important practical implications, the measurement of the Hg uptake rate during the days following removal of the obstacle appears essential. In long-standing partial obstructions the Hg uptake rate gives an accurate assessment of the functional balance and helps considerably in the choice of therapy [fr

  3. Cellular uptake of metallated cobalamins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Mai Thanh Quynh; Stürup, Stefan; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2016-01-01

    Cellular uptake of vitamin B12-cisplatin conjugates was estimated via detection of their metal constituents (Co, Pt, and Re) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Vitamin B12 (cyano-cob(iii)alamin) and aquo-cob(iii)alamin [Cbl-OH2](+), which differ in the β-axial ligands (CN...

  4. Tumor uptake of radioruthenium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Richards, P.; Meinken, G.E.; Larson, S.M.; Grunbaum, Z.

    1980-01-01

    The use of ruthenium-97 as a scintigraphic agent, particularly for tumor localization, is investigated. The tumor uptake of ruthenium chloride and ruthenium-labelled transferrin is evaluated and their application as tumor-imagine agents is compared to gallium-67 citrate

  5. Octreotide Uptake in Parathyroid Adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan Karaçavuş

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The patient with a history of bone pain and muscle weakness, was thought to have oncogenic osteomalacia as a result of biochemical investigations and directed to Nuclear Medicine Department for a whole-body bone scintigraphy and 111In-octreotide scintigraphy. There was no focal pathologic tracer uptake, but generalized marked increase in skeletal uptake on bone scintigraphy. Octreotide scintigraphy showed accumulation of octreotide in the region of the left lobe of the thyroid gland in the neck. Thereafter, parathyroid scintigraphy was performed with technetium-99m labeled metroxy-isobutyl-isonitryl (99mTc-MIB and MIBI scan demonstrated radiotracer uptake at the same location with octreotide scintigraphy. The patient underwent left inferior parathyroidectomy and histopathology confirmed a parathyroid adenoma. Somatostatin receptor positive parathyroid adenoma may show octreotide uptake. Octreotide scintigraphy may be promising and indicate a possibility of using somatostatin analogues for the medical treatment of somatostatin receptor positive parathyroid tumors. (MIRT 2012;21:77-79

  6. Ocean carbon uptake and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilbrook, Bronte

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The ocean contains about 95% of the carbon in the atmosphere, ocean and land biosphere system, and is of fundamental importance in regulating atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In the 1990s an international research effort involving Australia was established to determine the uptake and storage of anthropogenic C02 for all major ocean basins. The research showed that about 118 of the 244 + 20 billion tons of the anthropogenic carbon emitted through fossil fuel burning and cement production has been stored in the ocean since preindustrial times, thus helping reduce the rate of increase in atmospheric C02. The research also showed the terrestrial biosphere has been a small net source of C02 (39 ± 28 billion tons carbon) to the atmosphere over the same period. About 60% of the total ocean inventory of the anthropogenic C02 was found in the Southern Hemisphere, with most in the 30 0 S to 50 0 S latitude band. This mid-latitude band is where surface waters are subducted as Mode and Intermediate waters, which is a major pathway controlling ocean C02 uptake. High storage (23% of the total) also occurs in the North Atlantic, associated with deep water formation in that basin. The ocean uptake and storage is expected to increase in the coming decades as atmospheric C02 concentrations rise. However, a number of feedback mechanisms associated with surface warming, changes in circulation, and biological effects are likely to impact on the uptake capacity. The accumulation or storage-of the C02 in the ocean is also the major driver of ocean acidification with potential to disrupt marine ecosystems. This talk will describe the current understanding of the ocean C02 uptake and storage and a new international research strategy to detect how the ocean uptake and storage will evolve on interannual through decadal scales. Understanding the ocean response to increasing atmospheric C02 will be a key element in managing future C02 increases and establishing

  7. FDG uptake in the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, M. J.; Cho, H. J.; Cho, E. H.; Kim, T. S.; Kang, W. J.; Lee, J. D.

    2007-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate histopathologic features of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) to predict FDG uptake on PET. 153 patients(102 men; mean age, 55 y) were diagnosed with AGC by surgery were included in this study. PET images were evaluated by visual and semi-quantitative analysis of FDG uptake in primary tumors. Primary tumors size were measured and divided according to Borrmann classification. Tumor histology was classified under WHO classification, depth of invasion and Iymphovascular invasion. The tumors were also grouped by high cellular(cellularity = 50%) and low cellular group (<50%). Microscopic growth type was based on Lauren classification. Stromal fibrosis degree and inflammatory cell infiltration amount was graded as low(none∼mild), or high(moderate∼severe). Lymph node metastases was assessed in all patients. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate differences in SUV as to histopathologic factors. Of the 153 patients, 21 patients(14%) had primary tumor invisible on initial whole body images. After water ingestion, the tumors became visible in 15 of the 21 patients due to disappearance of physiologic stomach uptake. Polypoid or ulcerofungating tumors, high cellularity, intestinal growth pattern, and larger tumors significantly predicted increased tumor SUVs. Well or moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma tended to show high cellularity and intestinal growth pattern. Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma had diverse spectrum of histopathology. Signet ring cell carcinomas were mostly ulceroinfiltrative or diffusely infiltrative in macroscopic type and diffuse in microscopic tumor growth. Mucinous adenocarcinomas were mostly low in cellularity. FDG uptake patterns are useful in representing histopathologic characteristics of the entire tumor in gastric cancers. The degree of FDG uptake depends on tumor size, macroscopic type, cellularity, and microscopic growth pattern and it shows no association with well known important prognostic

  8. Concentration of In-111-oxine-labeled autologous leukocytes in noninfected and nonrejecting renal allografts: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, B.D.; Isitman, A.T.; Kaufman, H.M.; Rao, S.A.; Knobel, J.; Hellman, R.S.; Zielonka, J.S.; Pelc, L.

    1984-01-01

    Autologous leukocytes labeled with In-111 oxine (ILL) concentrated in the renal allografts of eight patients for whom transplant rejection, infection, or acute tubular necrosis (ATN) could be excluded. All patients had good-to-adequate renal function at the time of ILL scintigraphy, and none developed rejection or renal transplant failure during a 1-mo follow-up period. It is concluded that normally functioning renal allografts without evidence of rejection, infection, or ATN often will concentrate ILL. When a baseline study is not available for comparison, this phenomenon limits the value of ILL scintigraphy as a diagnostic test for transplant rejection or infection

  9. Arsenic uptake in bacterial calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catelani, Tiziano; Perito, Brunella; Bellucci, Francesco; Lee, Sang Soo; Fenter, Paul; Newville, Matthew; Rimondi, Valentina; Pratesi, Giovanni; Costagliola, Pilario

    2018-02-01

    Bio-mediated processes for arsenic (As) uptake in calcite were investigated by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) coupled with X-ray Fluorescence measurements. The environmental bacterial strain Bacillus licheniformis BD5, sampled at the Bullicame Hot Springs (Viterbo, Central Italy), was used to synthesize calcite from As-enriched growth media. Both liquid and solid cultures were applied to simulate planktonic and biofilm community environments, respectively. Bacterial calcite samples cultured in liquid media had an As enrichment factor (Kd) 50 times higher than that from solid media. The XRD analysis revealed an elongation of the crystal lattice along the c axis (by 0.03 Å) for biogenic calcite, which likely resulted from the substitution of larger arsenate for carbonate in the crystal. The XAS data also showed a clear difference in the oxidation state of sorbed As between bacterial and abiotic calcite. Abiotic chemical processes yielded predominantly As(V) uptake whereas bacterial precipitation processes led to the uptake of both As(III) and As(V). The presence of As(III) in bacterial calcite is proposed to result from subsequent reduction of arsenate to arsenite by bacterial activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental observation of the incorporation of As(III) in the calcite crystal lattice, revealing a critical role of biochemical processes for the As cycling in nature.

  10. Arsenic uptake in bacterial calcite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catelani, Tiziano; Perito, Brunella; Bellucci, Francesco; Lee, Sang Soo; Fenter, Paul; Newville, Matthew G.; Rimondi, Valentina; Pratesi, Giovanni; Costagliola, Pilario

    2018-02-01

    Bio-mediated processes for arsenic (As) uptake in calcite were investigated by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Xray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) coupled with X-ray Fluorescence measurements. The environmental bacterial strain Bacillus licheniformis BD5, sampled at the Bullicame Hot Springs (Viterbo, Central Italy), was used to synthesize calcite from As-enriched growth media. Both liquid and solid cultures were applied to simulate planktonic and biofilm community environments, respectively. Bacterial calcite samples cultured in liquid media had an As enrichment factor (Kd) 50 times higher than that from solid media. The XRD analysis revealed an elongation of the crystal lattice along the c axis (by 0.03Å) for biogenic calcite, which likely resulted from the substitution of larger arsenate for carbonate in the crystal. The XAS data also showed a clear difference in the oxidation state of sorbed As between bacterial and abiotic calcite. Abiotic chemical processes yielded predominantly As(V) uptake whereas bacterial precipitation processes led to the uptake of both As(III) and As(V). The presence of As(III) in bacterial calcite is proposed to result from subsequent reduction of arsenate to arsenite by bacterial activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental observation of the incorporation of As(III) in the calcite crystal lattice, revealing a critical role of biochemical processes for the As cycling in nature.

  11. The Value of PCT, WBC and hs-CRP Tests in the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Children with Pneumonia%小儿肺炎中PCT、WBC、hs-CRP检测对疾病诊断及预后判断价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏兰兰; 李敬

    2017-01-01

    目的 分析小儿肺炎中PCT、WBC、hs-CRP检测对疾病诊断及预后的判断价值.方法 选取2015年5月至2016年4月在本院住院治疗的肺炎患儿120例作为观察组,健康儿童65例作为对照组.检测治疗前后患儿及健康儿童血清PCT、WBC、hs-CRP的变化.结果 治疗前,细菌感染组WBC数量(15.5±3.4)×109/L、hs-CRP水平(19.8±2.6) mg/L和PCT水平(21.9±2.1)ng/mL均明显高于非细菌感染组(6.8 ±2.3)×109/L、(4.5±2.3)mg/L、(4.7±1.8) ng/mL和健康对照组(8.1 ±1.4)×109/L、(3.5±1.2) mg/L、(1.8±0.5) ng/mL,且差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).而非细菌感染组和健康对照组的WBC、hs-CRP和PCT结果差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);治疗后,细菌感染组WBC数量(7.3±1.4)×109/L、hs-CRP水平(5.1 ± 1.2) mg/L和PCT水平(2.3 ± 1.2) ng/mL均明显低于治疗前,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);WBC、hs-CRP、PCT联合检测的灵敏性95.2%、特异性93.0%、准确度93.3%显著高于WBC、hs-CRP、PCT单独检测,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 在小儿肺炎治疗过程中,动态监测患儿血清的WBC、hs-CRP、PCT的变化,并结合临床,有助于诊疗和判断患儿疾病愈后的情况,具有显著的临床意义,值得推广应用.%Objective To estimate the value of PCT,WBC and hs-CRP tests in the diagnosis and prognosis of children with pneumonia.Methods 120 cases with pneumonia in children were selected from May 2015 to April 2016 in our hospital as the observation group,65 cases of healthy children as the control group.Changes of serum PCT,WBC and hs-CRP tests in children and healthy children before and after treatment were mearued.Results Before treatment,bacterial infection group have WBC count (15.5 ± 3.4) × 109/L,hs-CRP levels (19.8±2.6) mg/L and PCT level (21.9 ±2.1) ng/mL,which were significantly higher than those in non bacterial infection group (6.8 ±2.3) × 109/L,(4.5 ±2.3) mg/L,(4.7 ± 1.8) ng/mL and healthy control group (+ 8.1

  12. Plant uptake of dual-labeled organic N biased by inorganic C uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jim; Sauheitl, Leopold; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    glycine or CO2-3 , but found no differences in uptake rates between these C-sources. The uptake of inorganic C to the shoot tissue was higher for maize grown in full light compared to shading, which indicates a passive uptake of inorganic C with water. We conclude that uptake of inorganic C produced...

  13. DNA Uptake by Transformable Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacks, Sanford A.

    1999-03-31

    The various processes of DNA uptake by cells can be categorized as: viral DNA entry, conjugation, or transformation. Within each category, a variety of mechanisms have been found. However, considerable similarities occur among the different mechanisms of conjugation and, especially, transformation. All of these natural mechanisms of DNA transfer are quite elaborate and involve multiple protein components, as the case may be, of the virus, the donor cell, and the recipient cell. The mechanisms of viral infection and conjugation will be discussed mainly with respect to their relevance to transformation.

  14. DNA UPTAKE BY TRANSFORMABLE BACTERIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LACKS,S.A.

    1999-09-07

    The various processes of DNA uptake by cells can be categorized as: viral DNA entry, conjugation, or transformation. Within each category, a variety of mechanisms have been found. However, considerable similarities occur among the different mechanisms of conjugation and, especially, transformation. All of these natural mechanisms of DNA transfer are quite elaborate and involve multiple protein components, as the case may be, of the virus, the donor cell, and the recipient cell. The mechanisms of viral infection and conjugation will be discussed mainly with respect to their relevance to transformation.

  15. Tracking of In-111-labeled human umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC) in a rat model of cerebral ischemia using SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbab, Ali S; Chopp, Michael; Thiffault, Christine; Navia, Bradford; Victor, Stephen J; Hong, Klaudyne; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Quan; Varma, Nadimpalli RS; Iskander, ASM

    2012-01-01

    In order to increase understanding of how infused cells work, it becomes important to track their initial movement, localization, and engraftment efficiency following transplantation. However, the available in vivo cell tracking techniques are suboptimal. The study objective was to determine the biodistribution of intravenously administered Indium-111 (In-111) oxine labeled human umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC) in a rat model of transient middle cerebral occlusion (tMCAo) using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Rats received 3 million In-111 labeled hUTC (i.v.) 48 hrs after tMCAo. Following the administration of either hUTC or equivalent dose of In-111-oxine (18.5 MBq), animals underwent SPECT imaging on days 0, 1, and 3. Radioactivity in various organs as well as in the stroke area and contralateral hemisphere was determined, decay corrected and normalized to the total (whole body including head) radioactivity on day 0. Immunohistochemical analysis was also performed to confirm the beneficial effects of hUTC on vascular and synaptic density, and apoptosis. Most of the radioactivity (43.36±23.07% on day 0) trafficked to the lungs immediately following IV administration of In-111 labeled hUTC (day 0) and decreased drastically to 8.81±7.75 and 4.01±4.52% on days 1 and 3 post-injection, respectively. In contrast, radioactivity measured in the lung of animals that received In-111-oxine alone remained relatively unchanged from day 0 to day 1 (18.38±5.45% at day 0 to 12.59±5.94%) and decreased to 8.34±4.25% on day 3. Significantly higher radioactivity was observed in stroke areas of animals that received In-111 labeled hUTC indicating the presence of cells at the site of injury representing approximately 1% of total administered dose. In addition, there was significant increase in vascular and synaptophysin immunoreactivity in stroke areas of rats that received In-111 labeled hUTC. The present studies showed the tracking of In-111 labeled h

  16. Ocean uptake of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Tsung-Hung; Takahashi, Taro

    1993-01-01

    Factors controlling the capacity of the ocean for taking up anthropogenic C0 2 include carbon chemistry, distribution of alkalinity, pCO 2 and total concentration of dissolved C0 2 , sea-air pCO 2 difference, gas exchange rate across the sea-air interface, biological carbon pump, ocean water circulation and mixing, and dissolution of carbonate in deep sea sediments. A general review of these processes is given and models of ocean-atmosphere system based on our understanding of these regulating processes axe used to estimate the magnitude of C0 2 uptake by the ocean. We conclude that the ocean can absorb up to 35% of the fossil fuel emission. Direct measurements show that 55% Of C0 2 from fossil fuel burning remains in the atmosphere. The remaining 10% is not accounted for by atmospheric increases and ocean uptake. In addition, it is estimated that an amount equivalent to 30% of recent annual fossil fuel emissions is released into the atmosphere as a result of deforestation and farming. To balance global carbon budget, a sizable carbon sink besides the ocean is needed. Storage of carbon in terrestrial biosphere as a result of C0 2 fertilization is a potential candidate for such missing carbon sinks

  17. Increased muscle glucose uptake during contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, Henrik; Richter, Erik

    1984-01-01

    We reinvestigated the prevailing concept that muscle contractions only elicit increased muscle glucose uptake in the presence of a so-called "permissive" concentration of insulin (Berger et al., Biochem. J. 146: 231-238, 1975; Vranic and Berger, Diabetes 28: 147-163, 1979). Hindquarters from rats...... in severe ketoacidosis were perfused with a perfusate containing insulin antiserum. After 60 min perfusion, electrical stimulation increased glucose uptake of the contracting muscles fivefold. Also, subsequent contractions increased glucose uptake in hindquarters from nondiabetic rats perfused for 1.5 h......-methylglucose uptake increased during contractions and glucose uptake was negative at rest and zero during contractions. An increase in muscle transport and uptake of glucose during contractions does not require the presence of insulin. Furthermore, glucose transport in contracting muscle may only increase if glycogen...

  18. Cell uptake survey of pegylated nanographene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, M; Portolés, M T; Marques, P A A P; Feito, M J; Matesanz, M C; Ramírez-Santillán, C; Gonçalves, G; Cruz, S M A; Nieto, A; Vallet-Regi, M

    2012-11-23

    Graphene and more specifically, nanographene oxide (GO) has been proposed as a highly efficient antitumoral therapy agent. Nevertheless, its cell uptake kinetics, its influence in different types of cells and the possibility of controlling cellular internalization timing, is still a field that remains unexplored. Herein, different cell types have been cultured in vitro for several incubation periods in the presence of 0.075 mg ml(-1) pegylated GO solutions. GO uptake kinetics revealed differences in the agent's uptake amount and speed as a function of the type of cell involved. Osteoblast-like cells GO uptake is higher and faster without resulting in greater cell membrane damage. Moreover, the dependence on the commonly used PEG nature (number of branches) also influences the viability and cell uptake speed. These facts play an important role in the future definition of timing parameters and selective cell uptake control in order to achieve an effective therapy.

  19. Cell uptake survey of pegylated nanographene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, M; Nieto, A; Vallet-Regi, M; Portolés, M T; Feito, M J; Matesanz, M C; Ramírez-Santillán, C; Marques, P A A P; Gonçalves, G; Cruz, S M A

    2012-01-01

    Graphene and more specifically, nanographene oxide (GO) has been proposed as a highly efficient antitumoral therapy agent. Nevertheless, its cell uptake kinetics, its influence in different types of cells and the possibility of controlling cellular internalization timing, is still a field that remains unexplored. Herein, different cell types have been cultured in vitro for several incubation periods in the presence of 0.075 mg ml −1 pegylated GO solutions. GO uptake kinetics revealed differences in the agent’s uptake amount and speed as a function of the type of cell involved. Osteoblast-like cells GO uptake is higher and faster without resulting in greater cell membrane damage. Moreover, the dependence on the commonly used PEG nature (number of branches) also influences the viability and cell uptake speed. These facts play an important role in the future definition of timing parameters and selective cell uptake control in order to achieve an effective therapy. (paper)

  20. Gastric gallium-67 uptake in gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, E.L.; Tisdale, P.L.; Zielonka, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Even though Ga-67 imaging has been used widely in the diagnosis of malignant as well as inflammatory lesions, its uptake in the stomach has been reported in the literature mainly in gastric lymphoma and carcinoma. As shown in this case, intense gastric uptake of the radionuclide may be seen in common gastritis without malignancy. Perhaps the benign gastric uptake of Ga-67 deserves more emphasis

  1. Radioiodine uptake by plants from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabova, T.

    1976-01-01

    The uptake and accumulation of radioiodine by wheat, maize and peas from various types of soil have been studied. The uptake depends on the type of soil, on its content of organic matter and on the amount of fertilizer. Radioiodine is mainly accumulated in the roots. Accumulation in above-ground plant parts decreases in the following order: wheat, maize, peas. Uptake was highest from humus and clay soils and lowest from black and meadow soils. Application of chloride fertilizer or carrier iodine lead to an increase of radioiodine uptake in the whole plant. (author)

  2. Physiological FDG uptake in the palatine tonsils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabe, Joji; Okamura, Terue; Shakudo, Miyuki

    2001-01-01

    In clinical F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) studies of the head and neck region, remarkable symmetric tonsillar FDG uptake is sometimes observed. We determined the incidence and degree of tonsillar FDG uptake and investigated the significance of tonsillar FDG uptake. Between June 1998 and August 1998, we obtained informed consent from 17 patients who were scheduled to undergo a FDG-PET study for their own disease (11 men and 6 women; aged 22 to 77 yr) and who did not have head and neck disease to perform FDG-PET scanning of the head and neck region in addition to their target organs. The incidence and degree of tonsillar FDG uptake were determined. Remarkable tonsillar FDG uptake was found in 9 patients. The SUVs of these FDG uptakes ranged from 2.48 to 6.75, with a mean of 4.29±1.20 (SD). Tonsillar FDG uptakes in the remaining 8 patients were not remarkable, and their SUVs ranged from 1.93 to 3.31, with a mean of 2.46±0.45. Head and neck disease does not appear to have been responsible for the increase in tonsillar FDG uptake. Differences among tonsillar FDG uptake in these 17 patients without head and neck disease appear to reflect differences in activity of ''physiological'' inflammation of the palatine tonsils. (author)

  3. Radioiodine uptake in inactive pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakheet, S.M.; Powe, J.; Al Suhaibani, H.; Hammami, M.M.; Bazarbashi, M.

    1999-01-01

    Radioiodine may accumulate at sites of inflammation or infection. We have seen such accumulation in six thyroid cancer patients with a history of previously treated pulmonary tuberculosis. We also review the causes of false-positive radioiodine uptake in lung infection/inflammation. Eight foci of radioiodine uptake were seen on six iodine-123 diagnostic scans. In three foci, the uptake was focal and indistinguishable from thyroid cancer pulmonary metastases from thyroid cancer. In the remaining foci, the uptake appeared nonsegmental, linear or lobar, suggesting a false-positive finding. The uptake was unchanged, variable in appearance or non-persistent on follow-up scans and less extensive than the fibrocystic changes seen on chest radiographs. In the two patients studied, thyroid hormone level did not affect the radioiodine lung uptake and there was congruent gallium-67 uptake. None of the patients had any evidence of thyroid cancer recurrence or of reactivation of tuberculosis and only two patients had chronic intermittent chest symptoms. Severe bronchiectasis, active tuberculosis, acute bronchitis, respiratory bronchiolitis, rheumatoid arthritis-associated lung disease and fungal infection such as Allescheria boydii and aspergillosis can lead to different patterns of radioiodine chest uptake mimicking pulmonary metastases. Pulmonary scarring secondary to tuberculosis may predispose to localized radioiodine accumulation even in the absence of clinically evident active infection. False-positive radioiodine uptake due to pulmonary infection/inflammation should be considered in thyroid cancer patients prior to the diagnosis of pulmonary metastases. (orig.)

  4. Comparative analysis of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP three-phase bone scan with SPECT/CT and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labeled WBC SPECT/CT in the differential diagnosis of clinically suspicious post-traumatic osteomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIm, Chan Woo; Lee, Soo Jin; Kim, Ji Young; Hwang, Kyu Tae; Choi, Yun Young [Hanyang University Medical CenterSeoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    To identify differences between three-phase bone scan and SPECT/CT (TBS) and WBC SPECT/CT (WS) and compare diagnostic accuracies of each modality in patients with suspicious post-traumatic osteomyelitis (OM). Twenty-one patients with suspicious post-traumatic OM were enrolled. All patients performed TBS and WS within 1 week. Foci of MDP and WBC accumulation were divided into three categories: bone (OM), soft tissue (soft tissue inflammation; STI), negative for inflammation (NI). Confirmative diagnosis was made upon operative pathology or long-term clinical follow-up. Of 21 patients, four OM, eight STI, nine NI were finally diagnosed. TBS diagnosis was correct in three of four positive cases and nine of 17 negative cases. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) of TBS were 75 %, 52.9 %, 57.1 %, 27.3 %, 90 %. WS diagnosis was correct in two of four positive cases and 17 of 17 negative cases. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV, NPV were 50 %, 100 %, 81.0 %, 100 %, 89.5 %. Twelve of 21 cases showed agreement between TBS and WS. TBS misdiagnosed nine cases (six STI and two NI as eight OM; one OM as one STI), while WS misdiagnosed four cases (two OM as two STI; two STI as two NI). Combining results from TBS and WS led to better diagnostic accuracy (91.7 %) than either TBS or WS alone. TBS and WS showed moderate agreement in assessment of clinically suspected post-traumatic OM. WS better evaluated inflammation than TBS. WS tended to underestimate inflammation whereas TBS tended to overestimate inflammation. Combining TBS and WS enhanced diagnostic accuracy.

  5. Normal cerebral FDG uptake during childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, Kevin; Howman-Giles, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Current understanding of cerebral FDG uptake during childhood originates from a small number of studies in patients with neurological abnormalities. Our aim was to describe cerebral FDG uptake in a dataset of FDG PET scans in children more likely to represent a normal population. We reviewed cerebral FDG PET scans in children up to 16 years of age with suspected/proven extracranial malignancies and the following exclusions: central nervous system metastases, previous malignancies, previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy, development of cerebral metastases during therapy, neurological conditions, taking antiepileptic medication or medications likely to interfere with cerebral metabolism, and general anaesthesia within 24 h. White matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and the cerebellar cortex were analysed using regional SUV max , and the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum were analysed using a regional relative uptake analysis in comparison to maximal cortical uptake. Scans from 30 patients (age range 11 months to 16 years, mean age 10 years 5 months) were included. All regions showed increasing SUV max with age. The parietal, occipital, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobes showed lower rates of increasing FDG uptake causing changing patterns of regional FDG uptake during childhood. The cortical regions showing the most intense uptake in early childhood were the parietal and occipital lobes. At approximately 7 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the frontal lobes and at approximately 10 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the thalamus. Relative FDG uptake in the brain has not reached an adult pattern by 1 year of age, but continues to change up to 16 years of age. The changing pattern is due to different regional rates of increasing cortical FDG uptake, which is less rapid in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes than in the frontal lobes. (orig.)

  6. Normal cerebral FDG uptake during childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, Kevin [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Howman-Giles, Robert [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Disciplines of Imaging and Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2014-04-15

    Current understanding of cerebral FDG uptake during childhood originates from a small number of studies in patients with neurological abnormalities. Our aim was to describe cerebral FDG uptake in a dataset of FDG PET scans in children more likely to represent a normal population. We reviewed cerebral FDG PET scans in children up to 16 years of age with suspected/proven extracranial malignancies and the following exclusions: central nervous system metastases, previous malignancies, previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy, development of cerebral metastases during therapy, neurological conditions, taking antiepileptic medication or medications likely to interfere with cerebral metabolism, and general anaesthesia within 24 h. White matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and the cerebellar cortex were analysed using regional SUV{sub max}, and the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum were analysed using a regional relative uptake analysis in comparison to maximal cortical uptake. Scans from 30 patients (age range 11 months to 16 years, mean age 10 years 5 months) were included. All regions showed increasing SUV{sub max} with age. The parietal, occipital, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobes showed lower rates of increasing FDG uptake causing changing patterns of regional FDG uptake during childhood. The cortical regions showing the most intense uptake in early childhood were the parietal and occipital lobes. At approximately 7 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the frontal lobes and at approximately 10 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the thalamus. Relative FDG uptake in the brain has not reached an adult pattern by 1 year of age, but continues to change up to 16 years of age. The changing pattern is due to different regional rates of increasing cortical FDG uptake, which is less rapid in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes than in the frontal lobes. (orig.)

  7. Uptake of organic nitrogen by plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgny Nasholm; Knut Kielland; Ulrika. Ganeteg

    2009-01-01

    Languishing for many years in the shadow of plant inorganic nitrogen (N) nutrition research, studies of organic N uptake have attracted increased attention during the last decade. The capacity of plants to acquire organic N, demonstrated in laboratory and field settings, has thereby been well established. Even so, the ecological significance of organic N uptake for...

  8. Gallium 67 uptake in thymic rebound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, R.; Sabio, H.; Teates, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    We have reported a case of localized thymic enlargement and uptake of gallium 67 in a child who had received antineoplastic chemotherapy. The enlarged thymus showed normal histology, a picture consistent with thymic rebound after nonspecific stress. This case further demonstrates the need to consider thymic rebound as a cause of gallium 67 uptake in children with neoplastic diseases

  9. Uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jiemin; Chen Ziyuan; Tang Shirong; Guangzhou Univ., Guangzhou; Ding Bingyang

    2005-01-01

    The review covers results at home and abroad in terms of uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes, and suggests pteridophytes' significance in phytoremediation; the mechanisms related to uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes and some methods and means used for research on the mechanism are also introduced; the authors' viewpoints on future development trends are presented in this paper. (authors)

  10. Nitrogen uptake kinetics of freshly isolated zooxanthellae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.; Wafar, S.; Rajkumar, R.

    that for nitrate [2.8 nmol. ( mu chl-a)./1h/1] and urea [0.37 nmol. ( mu chl-a)./1h/1]. Half-saturation constants for uptake of the three nitrogen compounds were in the range of 10-15 mu mol.l/1. Generally, uptake of any one nitrogen substrate appears to be inhibit...

  11. Radio-active iodine uptake in vitiligo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V.; Shankar, V.; Chaudhary, S.; Bhatia, K.K.; Mehta, L.K.; Arora, D.R. (Medical College and Hospital, Rohtak-124001 (India))

    1990-01-01

    Vitiligo and thyroid disease are commonly associated disorders. Twenty-two clinically euthyroid vitiligo patients were studied for functional assessment of thyroid by radioactive iodine uptake assay. Half of them showed abnormal uptake values at 24 hours. Of these patients, 90% had lower values indicating a tendency towards developing hypothyroid state. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction in vitiligo appears to be an adaptive change. (author).

  12. Radio-active iodine uptake in vitiligo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.; Shankar, V.; Chaudhary, S.; Bhatia, K.K.; Mehta, L.K.; Arora, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Vitiligo and thyroid disease are commonly associated disorders. Twenty-two clinically euthyroid vitiligo patients were studied for functional assessment of thyroid by radioactive iodine uptake assay. Half of them showed abnormal uptake values at 24 hours. Of these patients, 90% had lower values indicating a tendency towards developing hypothyroid state. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction in vitiligo appears to be an adaptive change. (author)

  13. Uptake and transport of chromium in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, V.; D'souza, T.J.; Mistry, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    The uptake of chromium, an important soil and water pollutant, by five different plant species was examined in nutrient culture experiments using chromium-51 as a tracer. The concentration in aerial tissues of both trivalent and hexavalent forms of chromium was the greatest in peas followed by beans, tomato and the cereals over identical uptake periods. The uptake of 51 Cr 3+ was, in general, greater than 51 CrO 4 2- . Studies with bean plants indicated that shoot uptake of both forms of chromium decreased with increasing pH and salt concentration of the external solution. Concentrations of 10 -4 M and 10 -5 M DNP inhibited 51 Cr uptake by bean shoots. (author)

  14. Insulin resistance and maximal oxygen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibaek, Marie; Vestergaard, Henrik; Burchardt, Hans

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes, coronary atherosclerosis, and physical fitness all correlate with insulin resistance, but the relative importance of each component is unknown. HYPOTHESIS: This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between insulin resistance, maximal oxygen uptake......, and the presence of either diabetes or ischemic heart disease. METHODS: The study population comprised 33 patients with and without diabetes and ischemic heart disease. Insulin resistance was measured by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp; maximal oxygen uptake was measured during a bicycle exercise test. RESULTS......: There was a strong correlation between maximal oxygen uptake and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (r = 0.7, p = 0.001), and maximal oxygen uptake was the only factor of importance for determining insulin sensitivity in a model, which also included the presence of diabetes and ischemic heart disease. CONCLUSION...

  15. Isotopic transit in the cerebrospinal fluid value of In111 and results of its use in the study of malformations of the occipito-cervical region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, J.L.; Comoy, J.; Robert, G.; Mathieu, E.; Galle, P.; Caron, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    In-111 DTPA has been used in more than 200 studies of isotopic transit in the cerebrospinal fluid since the beginning of 1973. The results obtained with this isotope in 15 cases of malformation of the occipito-cervical region, scanned after lumbar and intra-ventricular injection, represent an example of its usefulness [fr

  16. Determination of maximum physiologic thyroid uptake and correlation with 24-hour RAI uptake value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duldulao, M.; Obaldo, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: In hyperthyroid patients, thyroid uptake values are overestimated, sometimes approaching or exceeding 100%. This is physiologically and mathematically impossible. This study was undertaken to determine the maximum physiologic thyroid uptake value through a proposed simple method using a gamma camera. Methodology: Twenty-two patients (17 females and 5 males), with ages ranging from 19-61 y/o (mean age ± SD; 41 ± 12), with 24-hour uptake value of >50%, clinically hyperthyroid and referred for subsequent radioactive iodine therapy were studied. The computed maximum physiologic thyroid uptake was compared with the 24-hour uptake using the paired Student t-test and evaluated using linear regression analysis. Results: The computed physiologic uptake correlated poorly with the 24-hour uptake value. However, in the male subgroup, there was no statistically significant difference between the two (p=0.77). Linear regression analysis gives the following relationship: physiologic uptake (%) = 77.76 - 0.284 (24-hour RAI uptake value). Conclusion: Provided that proper regions of interest are applied with correct attenuation and background subtraction, determination of physiologic thyroid uptake may be obtained using the proposed method. This simple method may be useful prior to I-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism especially when a single uptake determination is performed. (author)

  17. Electric field dependence of the spin relaxation anisotropy in (111) GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balocchi, A; Amand, T; Renucci, P; Duong, Q H; Marie, X; Wang, G; Liu, B L

    2013-01-01

    Time-resolved optical spectroscopy experiments in (111)-oriented GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells (QWs) show a strong electric field dependence of the conduction electron spin relaxation anisotropy. This results from the interplay between the Dresselhaus and Rashba spin splitting in this system with C 3v symmetry. By varying the electric field applied perpendicular to the QW plane from 20 to 50 kV cm −1 the anisotropy of the spin relaxation time parallel (τ s ∥ ) and perpendicular (τ s ⊥ ) to the growth axis can be first canceled and eventually inversed with respect to the one usually observed in III–V zinc-blende QW (τ s ⊥ = 2τ s ∥ ). This dependence stems from the nonlinear contributions of the k-dependent conduction band spin splitting terms which begin to play the dominant spin relaxing role while the linear Dresselhaus terms are compensated by the Rashba ones through the applied bias. A spin density matrix model for the conduction band spin splitting including both linear and cubic terms of the Dresselhaus Hamiltonian is used which allows a quantitative description of the measured electric field dependence of the spin relaxation anisotropy. The existence of an isotropic point where the spin relaxation tensor reduces to a scalar is predicted and confirmed experimentally. The spin splitting compensation electric field and collision processes type in the QW can be likewise directly extracted from the model without complementary measurements. (paper)

  18. Quantitative evaluation of indium-111 (In-111) octreotide pituitary activity: Comparison in patient with and without pituitary tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, P.; Waxman, A.; Nguyen, K. [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Indium 111 Octreotide is known to detect pituitary tumors. Variable low level pituitary activity has been reported in pts. with no demonstrable pituitary tumors. To our knowledge, there have been no studies which quantitatively categorize pituitary activity with respect to distinguishing normal subject from pts. with pituitary tumors. 13 pts. with proven, treated acromegaly were included, as well as 15 pts. with no history of pituitary disorder. Both groups underwent SPECT In-111 scintigraphy 24 hours post-injection Average count per pixel ratios were obtained for the pituitary/calvarium (P/C) and pituitary/brain (P/B) regions. 10 pts. with acromegaly underwent growth hormone (GH) measurements 2 hours post-glucose load. Statistical correlation between growth hormone levels using P/C and P/B ratios were obtained. P/C ratios, as well as P/B ratios demonstrated high correlation with serum GH levels correlation coefficient(r)= .717 for P/C p<0.05, and correlation coefficient(r) = 0.828 for P/B ratios p<0.005. P/C ratios and P/B ratios for controls correlated closely with the upper level of normal predicted by P/C or P/B ratios as a function of serum growth hormone found in patients with acromegaly. Somatostatin receptor SPECT scintigraphy of the pituitary and appropriate quantitation can predict patients with growth hormone secreting tumors.

  19. Uptake of benzyladenine by excised watermelon cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampugnani, M G; Fantelli, R; Longo, G P; Longo, C P; Rossi, G

    1981-07-01

    The uptake of 8-[(14)C]N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) was studied in excised watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) cotyledons 24 hours after the start of imbibition. The passive nature of this uptake is suggested by the following evidence: (a) no sign of saturation on increasing external concentration of BA; (b) no decrease in uptake under conditions that inhibit ATP synthesis; (c) no change in amount of radioactivity absorbed when cotyledons are frozen and thawed before the uptake test. About two-thirds of the radioactivity taken up is released after 12 hours of washing. If the washing is performed at 2 C very little radioactivity is released.There seems to be a correlation between the level of radioactivity (i.e. of BA + derivatives) present in the cotyledons and the magnitude of hormonal responses that are observed four days after uptake. This relationship holds regardless of whether a given level of radioactivity has been reached after a short period of uptake or after a long period of uptake followed by washing.

  20. Radioisotopic Studies of Brain Uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldendorf, W. H.

    1970-01-01

    Measurements of the uptake of radioactive substances in the brain tissues after their administration by injection or inhalation provide an a traumatic approach to the study of blood flow and metabolic processes in the brain. This paper reviews the anatomical,physiological and physical problems arising in the measurement of radioactivity in the brain. The factors governing the passage of various classes of substances through the brain capillaries and their transport through the brain tissues are first considered. The physical problems arising in the measurement of radioactivity in the brain are then discussed. The main difficulties in such measurements is shown to arise from the contribution to the observed counting rate from radioactivity in the scalp and skull. This contribution can be minimized by the use of special collimators designed to view only a part of the brain but to include in their field of view a minimum of non-neural tissue. A further possibility arises with radioisotopes such as 113 In m which emit characteristic X radiation as well as y radiation since the contribution of the former to the total observed counting rate is almost entirely due to radioactivity in the superficial tissues whereas that of the latter is due to radioactivity in the superficial tissues and the brain. By recording the counting rates in appropriate channels of the photon spectrum it is thus possible to correct the results for radioactivity in the scalp and skull. With radioisotopes such as 75 Sc which emit two or more photons in cascade, coincidence counting techniques offer still a further possibility to minimize the contribution from radioactivity in the superficial tissues. Various potential applications of these techniques are described. (author)

  1. P-32 uptake in lentic algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strange, J.R.; Williamson, G.D.; Fletcher, D.J.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the Flat Creek Embayment of Lake Sidney Lanier near Gainesville, Georgia revealed three genera of algae, Chlorococcum, Fragillaria and Nostoc, to be prominent in this eutrophic region of the lake. The algae was grown in phosphate-rich media and subsequently labelled with P-32. All species incorporated luxury amounts of phosphorus as determined by the uptake of P-32. The results indicate that the P-32 uptake is proportional to the surface-per-volume ratio. The higher surface-per-volume ratio resulted in greater uptake of P-32

  2. Hydrogen uptake by Azolla-Anabaena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruschel, A.P.; Freitas, J.R. de; Silva, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrogen uptake in the Azolla-Anabaena system is studied. Tritium is used as tracer. Plants are incubated under different atmosphere composition: a) Air + 3 H 2 ; b) Air + CO 2 + 3 H 2 + CO; c) Air + 3 H 2 + CO; d) Air + CO 2 + 3 H 2 + CO to study the pathway of absorbed hydrogen in the Azolla - Anabaena system. Azolla-Anabaena showed greater hydrogen uptake under argonium atmosphere than under air. Carbon monoxide decreased hydrogen uptake. There are evidences of recycling of the hydrogen evolved through notrogenease. (Author) [pt

  3. Uptake of cadmium from hydroponic solutions by willows ( Salix spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salix integra 'Weishanhu') and Yizhibi (S. integra 'Yizhibi') were chosen as model plants to evaluate their potential for uptake of cadmium from hydroponic culture and relative uptake mechanism. Cadmium uptake showed a linear increase in the ...

  4. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Adam John; Richter, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise results from a coordinated increase in rates of glucose delivery (higher capillary perfusion), surface membrane glucose transport, and intracellular substrate flux through glycolysis. The mechanism behind the movement of GLUT4...

  5. Mechanisms of DNA uptake by cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacks, S.A.

    1977-01-01

    Three categories of cellular uptake of DNA can be distinguished. First, in the highly transformable bacteria, such as Diplococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Bacillus subtilis, elaborate mechanisms of DNA transport have evolved, presumably for the purpose of genetic exchange. These mechanisms can introduce substantial amounts of DNA into the cell. Second, methods have been devised for the forced introduction of DNA by manipulation of bacterial cells under nonphysiological conditions. By such means small but significant amounts of DNA have been introduced into various bacteria, including Escherichia coli. Third, mammalian cells are able to take up biologically active DNA. This has been most clearly demonstrated with viral DNA, although the mechanism of uptake is not well understood. The intention, here, is to survey current understanding of the various mechanisms of DNA uptake. A review of experience with the bacterial systems may throw some light on the mammalian system and lead to suggestions for enhancing DNA uptake by mammalian cells.

  6. Gallium-67 uptake in meningeal sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, J.G.; Hicks, B.H.; Maisey, M.N.

    1986-01-01

    A case of sarcoidosis limited to the central nervous system is described in which the diagnosis was suggested by high Ga-67 uptake in the cranial and spinal meninges. The diagnosis was confirmed by meningeal biopsy. Treatment with oral corticosteroids resulted in clinical improvement and marked reduction in Ga-67 uptake in the meninges. This is the first reported case of the central nervous system sarcoid diagnosed by Ga-67 imaging

  7. Urological indications of Hg uptake in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, A.

    1976-01-01

    The circumstances motivating the mercury bichloride uptake study of the kidney are specified: choice between excision and conservation surgery; estimation of the benefits of conservation surgical operations on the kidney or its excretion passage; estimation of the degree of compensative kidney hypertrophy in unilateral diseases or after nephrectomy. The urinary disorders for which mercury bichloride uptake is particularly suitable are also listed: acquires and congenital bilateral diseases of the excretion passage; hydronephrosis; complex lithiases [fr

  8. Citrate and succinate uptake by potato mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, D.W.; Laties, G.G.

    1979-01-01

    Potato mitochondria, in the absence of respiration, have a very low capacity for uptake by exchange with endogenous anions, taking up only 2.4 nanomoles citrate and 2.0 nanomoles succinate per milligram protein. Maximum citrate uptake of over 17 nanomoles per milligram protein occurs in the presence of inorganic phosphate, a dicarboxylic acid, and an external energy source (NADH), conditions where net anion accumulation proceeds, mediated by the interlinking of the inorganic phosphate, dicarboxylate, and tricarboxylate carriers. Maximum succinate uptake in the absence of respiratory inhibitors requires only added inorganic phosphate. Compounds which inhibit respiration (antimycin), the exchange carriers (mersalyl and benzylmalonate), or the establishment of the membrane proton motive force (uncouplers) reduce substrate accumulation. A potent inhibitor of the citrate carrier in animal mitochondria, 1,2,3-benzenetricarboxylic acid, does not inhibit citrate uptake in potato mitochondria. Citrate uptake is reduced by concurrent ADP phosphorylation and this reduction is sensitive to oligomycin. The initiation of state 3 after a 3-minute substrate state results in a reduction of the steady-state of citrate uptake by approximately 50%. Accumulation of succinate initially is inhibited by increasing sucrose concentration in the reaction medium from 50 to 400 millimolar. Limited substrate uptake is one of the factors responsible for the often observed depressed initial state 3 respiration rates in many mitochondrial preparations. Since nonlimiting levels of substrate in the matrix cannot be attained by energy-independent exchange, a dependence on respiration for adequate uptake results. Substrate limitation therefore occurs in the matrix for the period of time needed for energy-dependent accumulation of nonlimiting levels

  9. The uptake of radionuclides by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawse, P.A.; Turner, G.S.

    1982-02-01

    A review of the literature, since 1970, on the research into the uptake of radionuclides by plants, with references to earlier soil and plant studies on the fate of nuclear weapons fallout. Experimental data on the uptake of plutonium isotopes, americium 241, cesium 137, radium 226, curium 244 and neptunium 237 and details of the chemical form of the radionuclide, soil type and plant growth period are tabulated. (U.K.)

  10. Increased bone radiotracer uptake in renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Graaf, P.; Schicht, I.M.; de Graeff, J.; te Velde, J.; Kleiverda, K.; Pauwels, E.K.J.

    1982-04-01

    Bone radiotracer uptake in renal osteodystrophy was investigated in 35 dialysis patients by correlating the results of quantitative bone scintigraphy with those of biochemical and bone morphometric studies. There were highly significant correlations (P < 0.001) between the total skeletal activity and the biochemical (iPTH and alkaline phosphatase), and histologic parameters of hyperparathyroidism. These clinical results strongly suggest that increased bone turnover i.e. hyperparathyroidism, rather than osteomalacia is the major cause of increased skeletal uptake in renal osteodystrophy.

  11. Platinum uptake from chloride solutions using biosorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Hakan Morcali

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Present work investigates platinum uptake from synthetically prepared, dilute platinum-bearing solutions using biomass residues, i.e. pistachio nut shell and rice husk, which are abundant in Turkey, and provides a comparison between these two biosorbents. Effects of the different uptake parameters, sorbent dosage, contact time, temperature and pH of solution on platinum uptake (% were studied in detail on a batch sorption. Before the pistachio nut shell was activated, platinum uptake (% was poor compared to the rice husk. However, after the pistachio nut shell was activated at 1000 °C under an argon atmosphere, the platinum uptake (% increased two-fold. The pistachio nut shell (original and activated and rice husk were shown to be better than commercially available activated carbon in terms of adsorption capacity. These two sorbents have also been characterized by FTIR and SEM. Adsorption equilibrium data best complied with the Langmuir isotherm model. Maximum adsorption capacities, Qmax, at 25 °C were found to be 38.31 and 42.02 mg.g- 1for the activated pistachio nut shell and rice husk, respectively. Thermodynamic calculations using the measured ∆H°, ∆S° and ∆G° values indicate that the uptake process was spontaneous and endothermic. The experimental data were shown to be fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  12. Dependence of FDG uptake on tumor microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugachev, Andrei; Ruan, Shutian; Carlin, Sean; Larson, Steven M.; Campa, Jose; Ling, C. Clifton; Humm, John L.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the factors affecting the 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) uptake in tumors at a microscopic level, by correlating it with tumor hypoxia, cellular proliferation, and blood perfusion. Methods and Materials: Nude mice bearing Dunning prostate tumors (R3327-AT) were injected with 18 F-FDG and pimonidazole, bromodeoxyuridine, and, 1 min before sacrifice, with Hoechst 33342. Selected tumor sections were imaged by phosphor plate autoradiography, while adjacent sections were used to obtain the images of the spatial distribution of Hoechst 33342, pimonidazole, and bromodeoxyuridine. The images were co-registered and analyzed on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Results: Statistical analysis of the data obtained from these tumors demonstrated that 18 F-FDG uptake was positively correlated with pimonidazole staining intensity in each data set studied. Correlation of FDG uptake with bromodeoxyuridine staining intensity was always negative. In addition, FDG uptake was always negatively correlated with the staining intensity of Hoechst 33342. Conclusions: For the Dunning prostate tumors studied, FDG uptake was always positively correlated with hypoxia and negatively correlated with both cellular proliferation and blood flow. Therefore, for the tumor model studied, higher FDG uptake is indicative of tumor hypoxia, but neither blood flow nor cellular proliferation

  13. Uranium uptake of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luu Viet Hung; Maslov, O.D.; Trinh Thi Thu My; Phung Khac Nam Ho; Dang Duc Nhan

    2010-01-01

    Uranium uptake of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) from Eutric Fluvisols (AK), Albic Acrisols (BG), Dystric Fluvisols (HP) and Ferralic Acrisols (TC) in northern Vietnam is assessed. The soils were mixed with aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate to make soils contaminated with uranium at 0, 50, 100, 250 mg/kg before planting the grass. The efficiency of uranium uptake by the grass was assessed based on the soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF U , kg·kg -1 ). It was found that the TF U values are dependent upon the soils properties. CEC facilitates the uptake and the increased soil pH could reduce the uptake and translocation of uranium in the plant. Organic matter content, as well as iron and potassium, inhibits the uranium uptake of the grass. It was revealed that the lower fertile soil, the higher uranium uptake. The translocation of uranium in root for all the soil types studied is almost higher than that in its shoot. It seems that vetiver grass could potentially be used for the purpose of phytoremediation of soils contaminated with uranium

  14. Plutonium uptake by marine phytoplankton in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, N.S.; Olson, B.L.; Bowen, V.T.

    1980-01-01

    At environmentally realistic atom concentrations 237 Pu tracer was used to examine Pu uptake by unialgla cultures of Thalassiosira pseudonana (live and dead), Thalassiosira sp., and Platymonas sp., as well as by glass particles. Live or dead cells and glass particles accumulated Pu at similar rates, indicating that initial uptake was a passive phenomenon. Uptake was strongly affected by the nature of particle surfaces, but much less by composition of the media. Cells from rapidly growing cultures took up more Pu, than did those from late log or senescent cultures. Acid-washed glass took up more Pu, faster, than did unwashed glass. Cells accumulated more Pu from uv-treated seawater than from seawater untreated or enriched with f/50-level EDTA or f/50 vitamins; from complete f/50 medium uptake was even less, as with f/50 trace metals + EDTA. After a shot uptake Pu was 25% removable in tracer-free media, but after 3 days of uptake none was removable in seawater or exometabolite media, and only 15% in f/50-level EDTA. The data support the hypothesis that Pu in marine environments associates with suspended particles that could act as vertical vectors for this element

  15. Unsuspected osteomyelitis in diabetic foot ulcers. Diagnosis and monitoring by leukocyte scanning with indium in 111 oxyquinoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, L.G.; Waller, J.; Palestro, C.J.; Schwartz, M.; Klein, M.J.; Hermann, G.; Harrington, E.; Harrington, M.; Roman, S.H.; Stagnaro-Green, A.

    1991-01-01

    The prevalence of osteomyelitis in diabetic foot ulcers is unknown. Early diagnosis of this infection is critical, as prompt antibiotic treatment decreases the rate of amputation. The authors therefore assessed the prevalence of osteomyelitis in 35 diabetic patients with 41 foot ulcers. They compared results of roentgenograms, leukocyte scans with indium In 111 oxyquinoline, and bone scans with the diagnostic criterion standards of bone histologic and culture findings. Leukocyte scans were repeated at 2- to 3-week intervals during antibiotic treatment. Consecutive samples were obtained from 54 diabetic patients. Thirty-five patients with 41 foot ulcers were included. As determined by bone biopsy and culture, osteomyelitis was found to underlie 28 (68%) of 41 diabetic foot ulcers. Only nine (32%) of the 28 cases were diagnosed clinically by the referring physician. Underscoring the clinically silent nature of osteomyelitis in these ulcers, 19 (68%) of 28 occurred in outpatients, 19 (68%) of 28 occurred in ulcers not exposing bone, and 18 (64%) of 28 had no evidence of inflammation on physical examination. All patients with ulcers that exposed bone had osteomyelitis. Of the imaging tests, the leukocyte scan had the highest sensitivity, 89%. In patients with osteomyelitis, the leukocyte scan image intensity decreased by 16 to 34 days of antibiotic treatment and normalized by 36 to 54 days. The majority of diabetic foot ulcers have an underlying osteomyelitis that is clinically unsuspected. Leukocyte scans are highly sensitive for diagnosing osteomyelitis in diabetic foot ulcers and may be useful for monitoring the efficacy of antibiotic treatment. The recommend that diabetic patients with foot ulcers that expose bone should be treated for osteomyelitis

  16. Selenium Uptake and Volatilization by Marine Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxem, Katja E.; Vriens, Bas; Wagner, Bettina; Behra, Renata; Winkel, Lenny H. E.

    2015-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace nutrient for humans. An estimated one half to one billion people worldwide suffer from Se deficiency, which is due to low concentrations and bioavailability of Se in soils where crops are grown. It has been hypothesized that more than half of the atmospheric Se deposition to soils is derived from the marine system, where microorganisms methylate and volatilize Se. Based on model results from the late 1980s, the atmospheric flux of these biogenic volatile Se compounds is around 9 Gt/year, with two thirds coming from the marine biosphere. Algae, fungi, and bacteria are known to methylate Se. Although algal Se uptake, metabolism, and methylation influence the speciation and bioavailability of Se in the oceans, these processes have not been quantified under environmentally relevant conditions and are likely to differ among organisms. Therefore, we are investigating the uptake and methylation of the two main inorganic Se species (selenate and selenite) by three globally relevant microalgae: Phaeocystis globosa, the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi, and the diatom Thalassiosira oceanica. Selenium uptake and methylation were quantified in a batch experiment, where parallel gas-tight microcosms in a climate chamber were coupled to a gas-trapping system. For E. huxleyi, selenite uptake was strongly dependent on aqueous phosphate concentrations, which agrees with prior evidence that selenite uptake by phosphate transporters is a significant Se source for marine algae. Selenate uptake was much lower than selenite uptake. The most important volatile Se compounds produced were dimethyl selenide, dimethyl diselenide, and dimethyl selenyl sulfide. Production rates of volatile Se species were larger with increasing intracellular Se concentration and in the decline phase of the alga. Similar experiments are being carried out with P. globosa and T. oceanica. Our results indicate that marine algae are important for the global cycling of Se

  17. Austrian WBC intercomparison by means of a BOMAB phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, C.M.; Battisti, P.; Tarroni [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Edelmeier, R. [Bundesamt fuer Eich- und Vermessungswesen, Wien (Austria)

    1998-07-01

    The paper discusses the results obtained in the intercomparison between the Austrian Institute for Legal Metrology and the ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) Institute for Radiation Protection, which gave a BOMAB phantom. Values related to potassium content and MBA (minimum detectable activity) for each identified nuclide are also discussed. [Italian] L'Istituto Austriaco di Metrologia Legale ha organizzato l'interconfronto usando un fantoccio gelificato di tipo BOMAB fornito dall'Istituto di Radioprotezione dell'ENEA nel periodo marzo-giugno 1996. Vengono riportati i risultati ottenuti relativi al contenuto di potassio e all'attivita' minima rilevabile (MDA) per ogni nuclide identificato.

  18. Indium-111 WBC detection of emphysematous gastritis in pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruana, V.; Swayne, L.C.; Salaki, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    We present a case of emphysematous gastritis initially detected with 111In oxine-labeled white blood cell scintigraphy and subsequently confirmed by computed tomography. Early aggressive antibiotic and supportive therapy resulted in a successful clinical outcome

  19. Techniques for measuring red cell, platelet, and WBC survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, K.; Freeman, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Blood cell survival studies yield valuable information concerning production and destruction of cells circulating in the bloodstream. Methodologies for the measurement of red cell survival include nonisotopic methods such as differential agglutination and hemolysis. The isotopic label may be radioactive or, if not, will require availability of a mass spectrograph. These methods fall into two categories, one where red cells of all ages are labeled ( 51 Cr, DFP32, etc.) and those employing a cohort label of newly formed cells ( 14 C glycine, 75 Se methionine, etc.). Interpretation of results for methodology employed and mechanism of destruction, random or by senescence, are discussed. A similar approach is presented for platelet and leukocyte survival studies. The inherent difficulties and complications of sequestration, storage, and margination of these cells are emphasized and discussed. 38 references

  20. 21 CFR 862.1715 - Triiodothyronine uptake test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Triiodothyronine uptake test system. 862.1715... Systems § 862.1715 Triiodothyronine uptake test system. (a) Identification. A triiodothyronine uptake test... plasma. Measurements of triiodothyronine uptake are used in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid...

  1. Increased muscle glucose uptake after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, Henrik

    1985-01-01

    responsiveness of glucose uptake was noted only in controls. Analysis of intracellular glucose-6-phosphate, glucose, glycogen synthesis, and glucose transport suggested that the exercise effect on responsiveness might be due to enhancement of glucose disposal. After electrical stimulation of diabetic...... of glucose. At maximal insulin concentrations, the enhancing effect of exercise on glucose uptake may involve enhancement of glucose disposal, an effect that is probably less in muscle from diabetic rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)......It has recently been shown that insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis is increased after a single exercise session. The present study was designed to determine whether insulin is necessary during exercise for development of these changes found after exercise...

  2. Tritium uptake kinetics in crayfish (Orconectes immunis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, P.H.

    1985-06-01

    Uptake of tritiated water (HTO) by Orconectes immunis was investigated under laboratory conditions. Tritium uptake in the tissue-free water fraction (TFWT) was described using an exponential model. When steady-state was reached, the ratio of TFWT to HTO was approximately 0.9. Uptake of tritium in the organically-bound fraction (OBT) proceeded slowly, and had not reached steady-state after 117 days of culture. Although steady-state was never reached, the maximum observed ration of OBT to TFWT in whole animals was approximately 0.6. However, this ratio exceeded unity in the exoskeleton. Specific activity ratios of OBT between crayfish and lettuce (food source) were less than or at unity for various test conditions

  3. Heavy metal uptake of Geosiphon pyriforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheloske, Stefan E-mail: stefan.scheloske@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Maetz, Mischa; Schuessler, Arthur

    2001-07-01

    Geosiphon pyriforme represents the only known endosymbiosis between a fungus, belonging to the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Therefore we use Geosiphon as a model system for the widespread AM symbiosis and try to answer some basic questions regarding heavy metal uptake or resistance of AM fungi. We present quantitative micro-PIXE measurements of a set of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Tl, Pb) taken up by Geosiphon-cells. The uptake is studied as a function of the metal concentration in the nutrient solution and of the time Geosiphon spent in the heavy metal enriched medium. The measured heavy metal concentrations range from several ppm to some hundred ppm. Also the influence of the heavy metal uptake on the nutrition transfer of other elements will be discussed.

  4. Uranium uptake by hydroponically cultivated crop plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soudek, Petr; Petrova, Sarka [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Benesova, Dagmar [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Environment Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Dvorakova, Marcela [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vanek, Tomas, E-mail: vanek@ueb.cas.cz [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2011-06-15

    Hydroponicaly cultivated plants were grown on medium containing uranium. The appropriate concentrations of uranium for the experiments were selected on the basis of a standard ecotoxicity test. The most sensitive plant species was determined to be Lactuca sativa with an EC{sub 50} value about 0.1 mM. Cucumis sativa represented the most resistant plant to uranium (EC{sub 50} = 0.71 mM). Therefore, we used the uranium in a concentration range from 0.1 to 1 mM. Twenty different plant species were tested in hydroponic solution supplemented by 0.1 mM or 0.5 mM uranium concentration. The uranium accumulation of these plants varied from 0.16 mg/g DW to 0.011 mg/g DW. The highest uranium uptake was determined for Zea mays and the lowest for Arabidopsis thaliana. The amount of accumulated uranium was strongly influenced by uranium concentration in the cultivation medium. Autoradiography showed that uranium is mainly localized in the root system of the plants tested. Additional experiments demonstrated the possibility of influencing the uranium uptake from the cultivation medium by amendments. Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba up to 2.8 times or 1.9 times, respectively. Phosphate deficiency increased uranium uptake up to 4.5 times or 3.9 times, respectively, by Brassica oleracea and S. alba. In the case of deficiency of iron or presence of cadmium ions we did not find any increase in uranium accumulation. - Highlights: > The uranium accumulation in twenty different plant species varied from 0.160 to 0.011 mg/g DW. > Uranium is mainly localized in the root system. > Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba. > The phosphates deficiency increase the uranium uptake.

  5. Uranium uptake by hydroponically cultivated crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soudek, Petr; Petrova, Sarka; Benesova, Dagmar; Dvorakova, Marcela; Vanek, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Hydroponicaly cultivated plants were grown on medium containing uranium. The appropriate concentrations of uranium for the experiments were selected on the basis of a standard ecotoxicity test. The most sensitive plant species was determined to be Lactuca sativa with an EC 50 value about 0.1 mM. Cucumis sativa represented the most resistant plant to uranium (EC 50 = 0.71 mM). Therefore, we used the uranium in a concentration range from 0.1 to 1 mM. Twenty different plant species were tested in hydroponic solution supplemented by 0.1 mM or 0.5 mM uranium concentration. The uranium accumulation of these plants varied from 0.16 mg/g DW to 0.011 mg/g DW. The highest uranium uptake was determined for Zea mays and the lowest for Arabidopsis thaliana. The amount of accumulated uranium was strongly influenced by uranium concentration in the cultivation medium. Autoradiography showed that uranium is mainly localized in the root system of the plants tested. Additional experiments demonstrated the possibility of influencing the uranium uptake from the cultivation medium by amendments. Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba up to 2.8 times or 1.9 times, respectively. Phosphate deficiency increased uranium uptake up to 4.5 times or 3.9 times, respectively, by Brassica oleracea and S. alba. In the case of deficiency of iron or presence of cadmium ions we did not find any increase in uranium accumulation. - Highlights: → The uranium accumulation in twenty different plant species varied from 0.160 to 0.011 mg/g DW. → Uranium is mainly localized in the root system. → Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba. → The phosphates deficiency increase the uranium uptake.

  6. Pigmentation, anesthesia, behavioral factors, and salicylate uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P J; Issing, W; Brennan, J F; Sasaki, C T

    1988-02-01

    In four experiments, 54 pigmented rats were used to examine the time course of sodium salicylate uptake in serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and perilymph. Subjects were tested under sodium pentobarbital anesthesia or while conscious. Compared with previously reported data from albino rats, pigmented subjects generally showed increased salicylate uptake. Moreover, the data suggested two different, time-dependent clearance mechanisms in conscious animals not observed in anesthetized rats. Daily injections of salicylate did not produce an accumulation of salicylate in serum. Systematically higher levels of salicylate were observed in perilymph compared with cerebrospinal fluid. Behavioral procedures, including water deprivation and conditioned suppression of ongoing drinking levels, had no effect on salicylate levels.

  7. Physiological and tumoral uptake of 68Ga-DOTATATE. Standardized uptake values and challenges in interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuyumcu, Serkan; Oezkan, Zeynep Goezde; Sanli, Yasemin; Yilmaz, Ebru; Mudun, Ayse; Adalet, Isik; Unal, Seher

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the range of standardized uptake value (SUV) max of 68Ga-DOTA-tyr3-octreotate (DOTATATE) in normal organs and tumoral lesions and establish uptake unrelated to neuroendocrine tumors (NET). One hundred and twenty patients (57 men, 63 women), who underwent 68 Ga-DOTATATE positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging in our institution were analyzed. Patients were indicated for 68 Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT imaging to detect primary tumor or metastasis of suspected or previously known NET, to determine somatostatin receptor (SSTR) positivity and to detect occult source of ectopic Cushing syndrome. Normal range of uptake was calculated for the organs that were proven to have no pathology by either conventional radiological imaging or clinical follow-up, using SUV max as a semiquantitative measure. Uptake and tumor to background (T/B) ratios of tumoral lesions in liver, pancreas, bone, brain and lymph nodes were calculated. Uptakes due to lesions unrelated to NET were also documented. Significant uptake was found in spleen, kidneys, adrenal glands, liver and pituitary gland with mean SUV max of 24.67, 14.30, 13.73, 9.12 and 9.74 respectively. Uptake was measured separately for the pancreatic head and body separately, however, besides a slightly heterogeneous uptake; the difference was not statistically significant. Uptake in the tumoral lesions had high (T/B) ratios with mean SUV max of 28.72, 25.21, 18.28, 34.73 and 12.59 for liver, pancreas, bone, brain and lymph nodes, respectively. Incidental benign tumoral lesions were detected in 3 patients (2.5%) which were meningioma and fibrous dysplasia demonstrating significant and breast fibroadenoma demonstrating mild 68 Ga-DOTATATE uptake. Non-neoplastic processes were detected in 4 patients (14.1%), including postsurgical inflammation, reactive lymph nodes, arthritis and demonstrated faint to mild 68 Ga-DOTATATE uptake, with the exception of significant uptake in accessory spleen. 68 Ga

  8. Chromium Uptake Efficiency of Spinacea olaracea from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the uptake of chromium by Spinacea olaracea and its accumulation in roots and shoots of plants grown in pots at various concentrations of chromium (30, 60, 90,120,150 mg/l). The results revealed that the levels of chromium accumulation in roots and shoots were higher at minimum ...

  9. Uptake of carnitine by red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campa, M.; Borum, P.

    1986-01-01

    A significant amount of blood carnitine (70% of cord blood and 40% of blood from healthy adults) is partitioned into the red blood cell compartment of whole blood. Data indicate that the plasma compartment and the red blood cell compartment of whole blood represent different metabolic pools of carnitine. There are no data to indicate that red blood cells synthesize carnitine, but our understanding of the uptake of carnitine by red blood cells is negligible. Red blood cells were obtained from healthy adults, washed twice with normal saline, and used for uptake experiments. When the cells were incubated at 37 0 C in the presence of 14 C-carnitine, radioactivity was found both in the soluble cytosolic and membrane fractions of the cells following lysis. The uptake was dependent upon the time of incubation, temperature of incubation, and carnitine concentration in the incubation medium. Washed red blood cell membranes incubated with 14 C-carnitine showed specific binding of radioactivity. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that red blood cells have an uptake mechanism for L-carnitine

  10. Plant uptake of radionuclides and rhizosphere factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arie, Tsutomu; Gouthu, S.; Ambe, Shizuko; Yamaguchi, Isamu [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Hirata, Hiroaki

    1999-03-01

    Influence of soil factors such as nuclide availability, pH, organic carbon, cation exchange capacity (CEC), exchangeable cations (Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, and K{sup +}), phosphate absorption coefficient (PAC), physical composition of soil (coarse sand, fine sand, silt, and clay), soil texture, and rhizosphere microbes on uptake of radionuclides by plants are studied. (author)

  11. BLOOD CHEMISTRY AND PLATELET SEROTONIN UPTAKE AS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate the blood chemistry and platelet serotonin uptake as alternative method of determining HIV disease stage in HIV/AIDS patients. Whole blood was taken from subjects at the Human Virology of the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research. Subjects were judged suitable for ...

  12. Nitrogen uptake and translocation by Chara

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, C.P.; Escher, M.; Portielje, R.; Klein, de J.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The potential for above-ground and below-ground uptake and subsequent internal translocation of ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) by the macroalga Chara spp. was investigated. In a two compartment experimental set-up separating above-ground and below-ground algal parts, the charophytes were exposed

  13. Routes and mechanisms of extracellular vesicle uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ann Mulcahy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs are small vesicles released by donor cells that can be taken up by recipient cells. Despite their discovery decades ago, it has only recently become apparent that EVs play an important role in cell-to-cell communication. EVs can carry a range of nucleic acids and proteins which can have a significant impact on the phenotype of the recipient. For this phenotypic effect to occur, EVs need to fuse with target cell membranes, either directly with the plasma membrane or with the endosomal membrane after endocytic uptake. EVs are of therapeutic interest because they are deregulated in diseases such as cancer and they could be harnessed to deliver drugs to target cells. It is therefore important to understand the molecular mechanisms by which EVs are taken up into cells. This comprehensive review summarizes current knowledge of EV uptake mechanisms. Cells appear to take up EVs by a variety of endocytic pathways, including clathrin-dependent endocytosis, and clathrin-independent pathways such as caveolin-mediated uptake, macropinocytosis, phagocytosis, and lipid raft–mediated internalization. Indeed, it seems likely that a heterogeneous population of EVs may gain entry into a cell via more than one route. The uptake mechanism used by a given EV may depend on proteins and glycoproteins found on the surface of both the vesicle and the target cell. Further research is needed to understand the precise rules that underpin EV entry into cells.

  14. Perception, acceptance and uptake of Human papillomavirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parental approval and readiness for HPV vaccine uptake were found to be significantly associated (p =0.000). Since knowledge about Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination is quite low, there is need to increase awareness about the Vaccination among female adolescents and their mothers. Also, peer educators in schools ...

  15. Plant uptake of radionuclides and rhizosphere factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arie, Tsutomu; Gouthu, S.; Ambe, Shizuko; Yamaguchi, Isamu; Hirata, Hiroaki

    1999-01-01

    Influence of soil factors such as nuclide availability, pH, organic carbon, cation exchange capacity (CEC), exchangeable cations (Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , and K + ), phosphate absorption coefficient (PAC), physical composition of soil (coarse sand, fine sand, silt, and clay), soil texture, and rhizosphere microbes on uptake of radionuclides by plants are studied. (author)

  16. Microbial uptake of uranium, cesium, and radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.; McWhirter, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of diverse microbial species to concentrate uranium, cesium, and radium was examined. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a mixed culture of denitrifying bacteria accumulated uranium to 10 to 15% of the dry cell weight. Only a fraction of the cells in a given population had visible uranium deposits in electron micrographs. While metabolism was not required for uranium uptake, mechanistic differences in the metal uptake process were indicated. Uranium accumulated slowly (hours) on the surface of S. cerevisiae and was subject to environmental factors (i.e., temperature, pH, interfering cations and anions). In contrast, P. aeruginosa and the mixed culture of denitrifying bacteria accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense, apparently random, intracellular deposits. This very rapid accumulation has prevented us from determining whether the uptake rate during the transient between the initial and equilibrium distribution of uranium is affected by environmental conditions. However, the final equilibrium distributions are not affected by those conditions which affect uptake by S. cerevisiae. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several microbial species tested. The potential utility of microorganisms for the removal and concentration of these metals from nuclear processing wastes and several bioreactor designs for contacting microorganisms with contaminated waste streams will be discussed.

  17. Quantitative clinical uptake measurements using conjugate counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathrop, K.A.; Bartlett, R.D.; Chen, C.T.; Chou, J.S.; Faulhaber, P.F.; Harper, P.V.; Stark, V.J.

    1986-01-01

    While the use of conjugate counting for determination of organ uptake in human subjects has been extensively described, in the present study the determination of the organ uptake of ortho-iodohippurate presented several opportunities for validation of the in vivo counting data. Ortho-iodohippurate is distributed in the extracellular space, is largely extracted on each pass through the kidneys, and is not significantly deiodinated in vivo. Thus, the kidney uptake rate should be proportional to the blood level, the appearance rate of activity in the bladder is equal to the disappearance rate from the kidneys, and direct measurement of activity in the urine after voiding provides an internal standard for imaging measurements of bladder activity. Since the activity levels in the kidneys, bladder, and remainder of the body changed fairly rapidly, especially in the first 20 to 30 minutes following injection, posterior images of the trunk including kidneys and bladder were obtained continuously using a gamma camera fitted with a diverging collimator for 30 minutes and then at intervals for several hours. Simultaneous conjugate counting determinations were made using a whole body scanning system previously described at these meetings. Imaging data corrected for decay and adjacent background were fitted by least squares methods to curves representing a sum of exponentials, and the curves were normalized to the conjugate uptake measurements. The uptake curves of the kidneys and bladder matched well with the direct measurements of the urinary excretion. Data were collected in 16 normal subjects, and the estimated absorbed dose was calculated for the kidneys, the bladder and the remainder of the body for seven radioisotopes of iodine. 4 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  18. Multimodality Molecular Imaging of [18F]-Fluorinated Carboplatin Derivative Encapsulated in [111In]-Labeled Liposomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Narottam

    -(5-fluoro-pentyl)-2-methyl malonic acid as the labeling agent to coordinate with the cisplatin aqua complex. It was then used to treat various cell lines and compared with cisplatin and carboplatin at different concentrations ranging from 0.001 microM to 100 microM for 72 hrs and 96 hrs. IC50 values calculated from cell viability indicated that 19F-FCP is a more potent drug than Carboplatin. Manual radiosynthesis and characterization of [18F]-FCP was performed using [18F]-2-(5-fluoro-pentyl)-2-methyl malonic acid with coordination with cisplatin aqua complex. Automated radiosynthesis of [18F]-FCP was optimized using the manual synthetic procedures and using them as macros for the radiosynthesizer. [18F]-FCP was evaluated in vivo with detailed biodistribution studies and PET imaging in normal and KB 3-1 and KB 8-5 tumor xenograft bearing nude mice. The biodistribution studies and PET imaging of [18F]-FCP showed major uptake in kidneys which attributes to the renal clearance of radiotracer. In vivo plasma and urine stability demonstrated intact [18F]-FCP. [ 111In]-Labeled Liposomes was synthesized and physiochemical properties were assessed with DLS. [111In]-Labeled Liposome was evaluated in vivo with detailed pharmacokinetic studies and SPECT imaging. The biodistribution and ROI analysis from SPECT imaging showed the spleen and liver uptake of [111In]-Labeled Liposome and subsequent clearance of activity with time. [18F]-FCP encapsulated [111In]-Labeled Liposome was developed and physiochemical properties were characterized with DLS. [18F]-FCP encapsulated [111In]-Labeled Liposome was used for in vivo dual tracer PET and SPECT imaging from the same nanoconstruct in KB 3-1 (sensitive) and COLO 205 (resistant) tumor xenograft bearing nude mice. PET imaging of [18F]-FCP in KB 3-1 (sensitive) and COLO 205 (resistant) tumor xenograft bearing nude mice was performed. Naked [18F]-FCP and [18F]-FCP encapsulated [ 111In]-Labeled Liposome showed different pharmacokinetic profiles. PET

  19. SU-G-IeP4-12: Performance of In-111 Coincident Gamma-Ray Counting: A Monte Carlo Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahlka, R; Kappadath, S; Mawlawi, O [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The decay of In-111 results in a non-isotropic gamma-ray cascade, which is normally imaged using a gamma camera. Creating images with a gamma camera using coincident gamma-rays from In-111 has not been previously studied. Our objective was to explore the feasibility of imaging this cascade as coincidence events and to determine the optimal timing resolution and source activity using Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: GEANT4 was used to simulate the decay of the In-111 nucleus and to model the gamma camera. Each photon emission was assigned a timestamp, and the time delay and angular separation for the second gamma-ray in the cascade was consistent with the known intermediate state half-life of 85ns. The gamma-rays are transported through a model of a Siemens dual head Symbia “S” gamma camera with a 5/8-inch thick crystal and medium energy collimators. A true coincident event was defined as a single 171keV gamma-ray followed by a single 245keV gamma-ray within a specified time window (or vice versa). Several source activities (ranging from 10uCi to 5mCi) with and without incorporation of background counts were then simulated. Each simulation was analyzed using varying time windows to assess random events. The noise equivalent count rate (NECR) was computed based on the number of true and random counts for each combination of activity and time window. No scatter events were assumed since sources were simulated in air. Results: As expected, increasing the timing window increased the total number of observed coincidences albeit at the expense of true coincidences. A timing window range of 200–500ns maximizes the NECR at clinically-used source activities. The background rate did not significantly alter the maximum NECR. Conclusion: This work suggests coincident measurements of In-111 gamma-ray decay can be performed with commercial gamma cameras at clinically-relevant activities. Work is ongoing to assess useful clinical applications.

  20. Activity measurements of the radionuclide {sup 111}In for the LNE-LNHB, France in the ongoing comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.In-111

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S. [Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), Pavillon de Breteuil, 92 - Sevres (France); Verdeau, E.; Amiot, M.N. [Laboratoire national de metrologie et d' essais-Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2010-10-15

    In 2006, the Laboratoire national de metrologie et d'essais - Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB) submitted a sample of known activity of {sup 111}In to the International Reference System (SIR). The value of the activity submitted was about 14 MBq. This provides a new result for France in the matrix of degrees of equivalence in the key comparison database that enables them to maintain their degrees of equivalence for this radionuclide. The key comparison reference value has been re-evaluated and the comparison, identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.In-111, now contains five valid results. (authors)

  1. Measuring the serotonin uptake site using [3H]paroxetine--a new serotonin uptake inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleiter, C.H.; Nutt, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that may be involved in ethanol preference and dependence. It is possible to label the serotonin uptake site in brain using the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine, but this also binds to other sites. We have used the new high-affinity uptake blocker paroxetine to define binding to this site and report it to have advantages over imipramine as a ligand

  2. Carbonation and CO2 uptake of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Keun-Hyeok; Seo, Eun-A; Tae, Sung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a reliable procedure to assess the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) uptake of concrete by carbonation during the service life of a structure and by the recycling of concrete after demolition. To generalize the amount of absorbable CO 2 per unit volume of concrete, the molar concentration of carbonatable constituents in hardened cement paste was simplified as a function of the unit content of cement, and the degree of hydration of the cement paste was formulated as a function of the water-to-cement ratio. The contribution of the relative humidity, type of finishing material for the concrete surface, and the substitution level of supplementary cementitious materials to the CO 2 diffusion coefficient in concrete was reflected using various correction factors. The following parameters varying with the recycling scenario were also considered: the carbonatable surface area of concrete crusher-runs and underground phenomena of the decreased CO 2 diffusion coefficient and increased CO 2 concentration. Based on the developed procedure, a case study was conducted for an apartment building with a principal wall system and an office building with a Rahmen system, with the aim of examining the CO 2 uptake of each structural element under different exposure environments during the service life and recycling of the building. As input data necessary for the case study, data collected from actual surveys conducted in 2012 in South Korea were used, which included data on the surrounding environments, lifecycle inventory database, life expectancy of structures, and recycling activity scenario. Ultimately, the CO 2 uptake of concrete during a 100-year lifecycle (life expectancy of 40 years and recycling span of 60 years) was estimated to be 15.5%–17% of the CO 2 emissions from concrete production, which roughly corresponds to 18%–21% of the CO 2 emissions from the production of ordinary Portland cement. - Highlights: • CO 2 uptake assessment approach owing to the

  3. Uptake of myocardial imaging agents by rejected hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsland, J.; Carr, E.A.; Carroll, M.; Wright, J.W.; Feldman, M.J.; Massucci, J.; Bhayana, J.N.; Gona, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate, Gallium 67 and Thallium 201 uptakes were measured in heterotopically transplanted rat hearts. Five days after transplantation, Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate, and Gallium 67 uptakes were significantly higher in allogeneic grafts than in syngeneic grafts. At an early stage of rejection (three days after transplantation), only Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate uptake in the left ventricle of allogeneic grafts showed a significant difference (p less than 0.04). At five days, Thallium 201 uptake was significantly lower in allo- than syngeneic grafts. There was a positive correlation between radionuclide uptake and histologic degree of rejection for Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate and Gallium 67 while Thallium 201 uptake correlated negatively. Analysis of variance revealed that hearts with no or minimal rejection had statistically different uptakes than hearts with mild to moderate rejection. These results suggest that uptake of imaging agents might be useful in the diagnosis of rejection of the transplanted heart

  4. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake at the surgical margin after hepatic resection: Patterns of uptake and differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peungjesada, Silanath [University New Mexico, Department of Radiology, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aloia, Thomas A. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Surgical Oncology, Unit 444, Houston, TX (United States); Fox, Patricia [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Biostatistics, Unit 1411, Houston, TX (United States); Chasen, Beth [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Unit 1483, Houston, TX (United States); Shin, Sooyoung; Loyer, Evelyne M. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Houston, TX (United States); Baiomy, Ali [Cairo University, National Cancer Center, Cairo (Egypt)

    2015-08-15

    To evaluate the patterns of {sup 18}F-FDG uptake at the surgical margin after hepatectomy to identify features that may differentiate benign and malignant uptake. Patients who had undergone a PET/CT after hepatectomy were identified. Delay between resection and PET/CT, presence of uptake at the surgical margin, pattern of uptake, and maximal standardized value were recorded. The PET/CT findings were correlated with contrast-enhanced CT or MRI. There were 26 patients with increased 18F-FDG uptake; uptake was diffuse in seven and focal in 19. Diffuse uptake was due to inflammation in all cases. Focal uptake was due to recurrence in 12 and inflammation in seven cases. Defining a focal pattern only as a positive for malignancy yielded 100 % sensitivity, 87 % specificity, 37 % false positive rate. As expected, SUV{sub max} was significantly higher for recurrence than inflammation, but did overlap. Contrast-enhanced CT allowed differentiation between malignant and benign uptake in all cases. F-FDG uptake after hepatectomy does not equate to recurrence and yields a high false positive rate. Diffuse uptake did not require additional evaluation in our sample. Focal uptake, however, may be due to recurrence; differentiating benign and malignant nodular uptake relies on optimal contrast-enhanced CT or MRI. (orig.)

  5. Uptake of mineral elements by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ven Babu, P.

    2008-01-01

    Scientific investigations into the mineral nutrition of plants, date back to the late 17th century and vast amount of literature has accumulated since then, encompassing the occurrence of mineral elements, their interaction in soil and within plants, kinetics of their uptake, role in metabolism, toxicity to plants and animals and so on. Despite great advances made in the fields of plant physiology, plant biochemistry and genetic engineering and application of sophisticated analytical and biochemical techniques, many aspects of nutrient uptake by plants, their movement within roots and the long distance transport to shoots remain yet to be fully answered and a combination of hypothesis and assumptions are taken into account, for understanding the phenomena. This write up deals with the subject in a brief and narrative manner, so as to enable the reader to get an insight into the field

  6. Inorganic phosphate uptake in unicellular eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Claudia F; Dos-Santos, André L A; Meyer-Fernandes, José R

    2014-07-01

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is an essential nutrient for all organisms. The route of Pi utilization begins with Pi transport across the plasma membrane. Here, we analyzed the gene sequences and compared the biochemical profiles, including kinetic and modulator parameters, of Pi transporters in unicellular eukaryotes. The objective of this review is to evaluate the recent findings regarding Pi uptake mechanisms in microorganisms, such as the fungi Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the parasite protozoans Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Leishmania infantum and Plasmodium falciparum. Pi uptake is the key step of Pi homeostasis and in the subsequent signaling event in eukaryotic microorganisms. Biochemical and structural studies are important for clarifying mechanisms of Pi homeostasis, as well as Pi sensor and downstream pathways, and raise possibilities for future studies in this field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of counting system dead time on thyroid uptake measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpkin, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Equations are derived and the results of numerical calculations shown that illustrate the effect of counting system dead time on measured thyroid uptake of radioiodine. It is predicted that the observed uptake is higher than the true uptake due to system dead time. This is shown for both paralyzing and nonparalyzing dead time. The effect of increasing the administered activity is shown to increase the measured uptake, in a manner predicted by the paralyzable and nonparalyzable dead time models

  8. Evaluation of the absorbed dose during studies of the renal function due to I123 / I131 (hippuran) and In111 (DTPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, M.; Castillo, C.; Sarachaga, R.; Rojas, R.; Zelada, L.; Melendez, J.; Gomez, M.; Diaz, E.

    2014-08-01

    Using the methodology MIRD and representation Cristy-Eckerman for kidneys, bladder, and whole body as organs of the bio-kinetics of I 123 / I 131 (hippuran) and the In 111 (D PTA), the absorbed dose for studies of the renal function of adults due to the I 123 is 0,0071 mGy/MBq where 88.16% corresponds to its auto-dose and 11,96% to the organs of their bio-kinetics; while for the I 131 their dose is 0,032 mGy/MBq where 95,03% corresponds to its auto-dose and 4,97% to the organs of their bio-kinetics. For the In 111 their dose is 0,0168 mGy/MBq where 71,68% corresponds to their auto-dose and 28,32% to the organs of their bio-kinetics. In all the cases the dosimetric contributions of the organs of the bio-kinetics (whole body and urinary bladder) are very significant, and this fundamentally is due to the photons of the whole body. (Author)

  9. Astaxanthin uptake in domestic dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimino Stefan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the uptake and transport of astaxanthin is lacking in most species. We studied the uptake of astaxanthin by plasma, lipoproteins and leukocytes in domestic dogs and cats. Methods Mature female Beagle dogs (18 to 19 mo old; 11 to 14 kg BW were dosed orally with 0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, 10 or 40 mg astaxanthin and blood taken at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h post-administration (n = 8/treatment. Similarly, mature domestic short hair cats (12 mo old; 3 to 3.5 kg body weight were fed a single dose of 0, 0.02, 0.08, 0.4, 2, 5, or 10 mg astaxanthin and blood taken (n = 8/treatment at the same interval. Results Both dogs and cats showed similar biokinetic profiles. Maximal astaxanthin concentration in plasma was approximately 0.14 μmol/L in both species, and was observed at 6 h post-dosing. The plasma astaxanthin elimination half-life was 9 to 18 h. Astaxanthin was still detectable by 24 h in both species. In a subsequent study, dogs and cats were fed similar doses of astaxanthin daily for 15 to 16 d and astaxanthin uptake by plasma, lipoproteins, and leukocytes studied. In both species, plasma astaxanthin concentrations generally continued to increase through d 15 or 16 of supplementation. The astaxanthin was mainly associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL. In blood leukocytes, approximately half of the total astaxanthin was found in the mitochondria, with significant amounts also associated with the microsomes and nuclei. Conclusion Dogs and cats absorb astaxanthin from the diet. In the blood, the astaxanthin is mainly associated with HDL, and is taken up by blood leukocytes, where it is distributed to all subcellular organelles. Certain aspects of the biokinetic uptake of astaxanthin in dogs and cats are similar to that in humans.

  10. Uranium uptake by hydroponically cultivated crop plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Petrová, Šárka; Benešová, Dagmar; Dvořáková, Marcela; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 6 (2011), s. 598-604 ISSN 0265-931X R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09082; GA MŠk 2B06187; GA MŠk 2B08058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Uranium * Uptake * Sinapis alba Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 1.339, year: 2011

  11. Can tumor uptake Tc-99m MDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.S.F.; Zeng, Z.J.; Yao, Y.M.; Shi, S.M.P.; Shi, S.Z.Y.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To study a distribution of Tc-99m MDP in mice bearing tumor cell lines. Methods: The uptake of Tc-99m MDP was analyzed in seven human tumor cell lines (SPC-A1 adenocarcinoma of lung cancer, P37 Breast cancer, T24 Bladder cancer, SKOV2 Ovary carcinoma, Hela-229 Cervical carcinoma, Osteosarcoma, A375 Melanoma) and one mouse lung cancer cell line (Lewis). They were transplanted into 13, 4, 5, 5, 4, 5 athymic mice, 6 SCID nude mice and 4 C57 black mice, respectively. Approximately 10(7) cells of each cell line were injected subcutaneously into a right chest of mouse. After 5∼6 weeks, the Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy were determined 5-6 hours after i.v. injection of 74MBq in 0.05ml every mouse. Result: Biodistribution and tumor uptake MDP was different in the various cell types investigated. Region of interests (RIOs) placed on a small part of the tumor and horizontal copied to left chest or spine of mice in Tc-99m MDP imaging and the average count ratio (tumor to background ratio: T/B, tumor to spine ratio: T/NT) in each ROI was calculated. 13 nude mice bearing the adenocarcinoma (SPC-A1) were sacrificed and biodistribution was determined after Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy. Results were expressed as % injected dose/gram (%ID/g), mean±SD. T-ulcer=ulcer of tumor, T-round=surrounding of tumor, T-center=the center of tumor, Thor-sp=thoracic spine, Lum-ver=lumbar vertebra, LN=lymph node. Conclusions: Tumor can uptake Tc-99m MDP including adenocarcinoma. Higher uptake rate in the center tissue of tumor is than other part of tumor. It maybe connected with necrosis or fibrosis of tumor

  12. Lipoprotein lipase: genetics, lipid uptake, and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Martin; Eckel, Robert H; Goldberg, Ira J

    2002-12-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) regulates the plasma levels of triglyceride and HDL. Three aspects are reviewed. 1) Clinical implications of human LPL gene variations: common mutations and their effects on plasma lipids and coronary heart disease are discussed. 2) LPL actions in the nervous system, liver, and heart: the discussion focuses on LPL and tissue lipid uptake. 3) LPL gene regulation: the LPL promoter and its regulatory elements are described.

  13. Zirconium intermetallics and hydrogen uptake during corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.

    1987-04-01

    The routes by which hydrogen can enter zirconium alloys containing second phase particles during corrosion are discussed. Both direct diffusion through the bulk of the oxide film, and migration through second phase particles that intersect the surface are considered. An examination of results for hydrogen uptake by zirconium alloys during the early stages of oxidation, when the oxide film is still coherent, suggests that for Zr, Zr-1%Cu and Zr-1%Fe the hydrogen enters by diffusing through the bulk ZrO 2 film, whereas for the Zircaloys the primary migration route may be through the intermetallics. The steps in the latter process are discussed and the evidence available on the properties of the intermetallics collated. A comparison of these data with results for hydrogen uptake by two series of ternary alloys (Zr-1%Nb - 1%X, Zr-1%Cu - 1%X) suggests that high hydrogen uptakes often correlate with intermetallics with high hydrogen solubilities and vice versa. The properties of Zr(Fe/Cr) 2+x intermetallics are examined in an attempt to understand the behaviour of the Zircaloys, and it is concluded that present data establishing composition and unit cell dimensions for such intermetallic particles are not of sufficient accuracy to permit a correlation

  14. Role of polyhydroxybutyrate in mitochondrial calcium uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithen, Matthew; Elustondo, Pia A.; Winkfein, Robert; Zakharian, Eleonora; Abramov, Andrey Y.; Pavlov, Evgeny

    2013-01-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a biological polymer which belongs to the class of polyesters and is ubiquitously present in all living organisms. Mammalian mitochondrial membranes contain PHB consisting of up to 120 hydroxybutyrate residues. Roles played by PHB in mammalian mitochondria remain obscure. It was previously demonstrated that PHB of the size similar to one found in mitochondria mediates calcium transport in lipid bilayer membranes. We hypothesized that the presence of PHB in mitochondrial membrane might play a significant role in mitochondrial calcium transport. To test this, we investigated how the induction of PHB hydrolysis affects mitochondrial calcium transport. Mitochondrial PHB was altered enzymatically by targeted expression of bacterial PHB hydrolyzing enzyme (PhaZ7) in mitochondria of mammalian cultured cells. The expression of PhaZ7 induced changes in mitochondrial metabolism resulting in decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 but not in U87 and HeLa cells. Furthermore, it significantly inhibited mitochondrial calcium uptake in intact HepG2, U87 and HeLa cells stimulated by the ATP or by the application of increased concentrations of calcium to the digitonin permeabilized cells. Calcium uptake in PhaZ7 expressing cells was restored by mimicking calcium uniporter properties with natural electrogenic calcium ionophore - ferutinin. We propose that PHB is a previously unrecognized important component of the mitochondrial calcium uptake system. PMID:23702223

  15. Arsenic Uptake and Translocation in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nannan; Wang, Jingchao; Song, Won-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a highly toxic metalloid that is classified as a non-threshold class-1 carcinogen. Millions of people worldwide suffer from As toxicity due to the intake of As-contaminated drinking water and food. Reducing the As concentration in drinking water and food is thus of critical importance. Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with As and the reduction of As contamination in food depend on a detailed understanding of As uptake and transport in plants. As transporters play essential roles in As uptake, translocation and accumulation in plant cells. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of As transport in plants, with an emphasis on As uptake, mechanisms of As resistance and the long-distance translocation of As, especially the accumulation of As in grains through phloem-mediated transport. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Determinants in the uptake of the human papillomavirus vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Casadevante, Victoria Fernández; Cuesta, Julita Gil; Cantarero Arevalo, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    of HPVV uptake in Europe. Methods: We performed a systematic Pubmed, Scopus, and Science Direct search to find articles published from HPVV availability in European countries until April 2014. No age restriction was applied. We included all studies assessing factors associated with HPVV uptake. Uptake...

  17. Capturing Individual Uptake: Toward a Disruptive Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Heather

    2015-01-01

    This article presents and illustrates a qualitative research methodology for studies of uptake. It does so by articulating a theoretical framework for qualitative investigations of uptake and detailing a research study designed to invoke and capture students' uptakes in a first-year writing classroom. The research design sought to make uptake…

  18. Radiolabeling as a tool to study uptake pathways in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schymura, Stefan; Hildebrand, Heike; Franke, Karsten [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Reactive Transport; Fricke, T. [Vita34 BioPlanta, Leipzig (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    The identification of major uptake pathways in plants is an important factor when evaluation the fate of manufactured nanoparticles in the environment and the associated risks. Using different radiolabeling techniques we were able to show a predominantly particulate uptake for CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) in contrast to a possible uptake in the form of ionic cerium.

  19. CONSEXPO 3.0, consumer exposure and uptake models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen MP van; LBM

    2001-01-01

    The report provides a modelling approach to consumer exposure to chemicals, based on mathematical contact, exposure and uptake models. For each route of exposure, a number of exposure and uptake models are included. A general framework joins the exposure and uptake models selected by the user. By

  20. 21 CFR 868.1730 - Oxygen uptake computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxygen uptake computer. 868.1730 Section 868.1730...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1730 Oxygen uptake computer. (a) Identification. An oxygen uptake computer is a device intended to compute the amount of oxygen consumed by a...

  1. Menadione inhibits MIBG uptake in two neuroendocrine cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.; Tytgat, G. A.; van den Brug, M.; van Kuilenburg, A. B.; Voûte, P. A.; van Gennip, A. H.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we report on our studies of the effect of menadione on the uptake of MIBG in the neuroendocrine cell lines PC12 and SK-N-SH. Menadione inhibits the uptake of MIBG in both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of MIBG uptake is most pronounced in the PC12 cell line.

  2. Heavy metals and their radionuclides uptake by Bacillus Licheniformis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.A.; Ahmed, M.M.; Abo-state, M.A.M.; Sarhan, M.; Faroqe, M.

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis is a gram positive spore forming bacterium. Different concentrations of cobalt affected the ability of Co uptake and growth of Bacillus licheniformis. As the concentration increased, both the uptake and growth were decreased. Maximum Co uptake was found at ph 7.0, while for growth was ph 8.0. The optimum temperature for uptake and growth was 40 degree C and 20% inoculum size represents the maximum cobalt uptake by Bacillus licheniformis. Also, maximum uptake was recorded after 72 hours, incubation period. As the concentration of cesium was increased till 400 mg/l, the uptake was also increased. The optimum cesium uptake and growth was at ph 8.0. The optimum growth was at 45 degree C while Cs uptake was found at 35 degree C and 15% inoculum size represented the maximum Cs uptake. After 72 hour incubation period, maximum Cs uptake was recorded. Generally, Bacillus licheniformis removed more than 80% of Co and 50% of Cs from the broth medium. Addition of clay to Bacillus licheniformis increased both Co or Cs uptake. Bacillus licheniformis was gamma resistant and 10 KGy reduced the viability by 5.3 log cycles. The irradiated and non-irradiated cultures can grow on 500 or 700 mg Co or Cs. Bacillus licheniformis removed 99.32% of the Co radionuclides and 99.28% of Cs radionuclides

  3. Modelling water uptake efficiency of root systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Daniel; Tron, Stefania; Schröder, Natalie; Bodner, Gernot; Javaux, Mathieu; Vanderborght, Jan; Vereecken, Harry; Schnepf, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Water uptake is crucial for plant productivity. Trait based breeding for more water efficient crops will enable a sustainable agricultural management under specific pedoclimatic conditions, and can increase drought resistance of plants. Mathematical modelling can be used to find suitable root system traits for better water uptake efficiency defined as amount of water taken up per unit of root biomass. This approach requires large simulation times and large number of simulation runs, since we test different root systems under different pedoclimatic conditions. In this work, we model water movement by the 1-dimensional Richards equation with the soil hydraulic properties described according to the van Genuchten model. Climatic conditions serve as the upper boundary condition. The root system grows during the simulation period and water uptake is calculated via a sink term (after Tron et al. 2015). The goal of this work is to compare different free software tools based on different numerical schemes to solve the model. We compare implementations using DUMUX (based on finite volumes), Hydrus 1D (based on finite elements), and a Matlab implementation of Van Dam, J. C., & Feddes 2000 (based on finite differences). We analyse the methods for accuracy, speed and flexibility. Using this model case study, we can clearly show the impact of various root system traits on water uptake efficiency. Furthermore, we can quantify frequent simplifications that are introduced in the modelling step like considering a static root system instead of a growing one, or considering a sink term based on root density instead of considering the full root hydraulic model (Javaux et al. 2008). References Tron, S., Bodner, G., Laio, F., Ridolfi, L., & Leitner, D. (2015). Can diversity in root architecture explain plant water use efficiency? A modeling study. Ecological modelling, 312, 200-210. Van Dam, J. C., & Feddes, R. A. (2000). Numerical simulation of infiltration, evaporation and shallow

  4. Can tumor uptake Tc-99m MDP ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yand Shun, Fang; Yao, Ming; Zeng, Jun; Shi Zhen, Yu; Zhao Lan, Xiang; Dong Qiang, Gang

    2003-01-01

    To explore the mechanism of technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) uptake within tumor through analyze a distribution of Tc-99m MDP in mice bearing tumor cell lines. Methods: The uptake of Tc-99m MDP was analyzed in seven human tumor cell lines ( SPC-A1 adenocarcinoma of lung cancer, Bcap-37 Breast cancer, T-24 Bladder cancer, SKOV3 Ovary carcinoma, Hela-229 Cervical carcinoma, SCI-OS Osteosarcoma, SCI-375 Melanoma) and mouse Lewis lung cancer cell line. They were transplanted into athymic mice, SCID nude mice and C57BL/6 mice, respectively. Approximately 10(6) cells of each cell line were injected subcutaneously into a right chest of mouse. After 4 and 5 weeks, the Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy were determined 6 hours after tail vein injection of 74MBq in 0.05ml every mouse. Result: Biodistribution and tumor uptake MDP was different in the various cell types investigated. According to the Region Ratio program of Siemens Power Macintosh 9500 Computer System, region of interests (RIOs) placed on a small part of the tumor and horizontal copied to left background (T/B) and thoracic spine (T/N) of mice in Tc-99m MDP imaging. The average cpm/pixel ratios were calculated by standardized uptake measure (SUM) and determined the tumor-positive value (T/B) greater than or equal to 1.2. T/B of cell lines were sorted from higher to lower as follows: SCI-OS, Lewis, SKOV3, SCI-375, T-24, SPC-A1, Bcap-37, Hela-229. T/N: SCI-OS, SKOV3, T-24, SCI-375, Lewis, SPC-A1, Bcap-37, Hela-229. The biodistribution data of 99Tcm-MDP in SPC-A1 tumor-bearing BALB/c nude mice were given as ID/g and represent the means D (n=13) in 30 hours after injection of Tc-99m MDP. ID/g of major tissue were sorted from higher to lower as follows: thoracic spine, lumbar, ribs, kidneys, the center of tumor, the ulcer of tumor, the surrounding of tumor, lymph node, blood, lungs, heart, liver. Conclusions: Most of tumor can uptake Tc-99m MDP including human adenocarcinoma. The uptake rate in the center tissue of

  5. Uptake of rare earth elements by dryopteris erythrosora (autumn fern)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Takuo; Enomoto, Shuichi

    2001-01-01

    Mechanisms of uptake of rare earth elements (REEs) were investigated, particularly those by REE accumulator species (autumn fern). Rare earth elements are practically insoluble under natural conditions, suggesting some unknown mechanisms in REE accumulator species. In the present investigation, two notable phenomena were observed. (1) Concerning the ionic-radius dependence of REE uptake by leaves, nonaccumulator species showed an extremely high uptake for Y compared with the adjacent-ionic-radius REEs in the multitracer, while accumulator species showed no anomaly. (2) REE uptake by autumn fern was influenced by the addition of chelating chemical reagents in the uptake solution, while no effect was observed for nonaccumulator species. (author)

  6. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake during dynamic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Kiens, Bente; Saltin, Bengt

    1988-01-01

    uptake was not compensated for by increased uptake of free fatty acids but was accompanied by decreases in plasma insulin and increases in plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine. During work with large muscle masses, arterial lactate increased to approximately 6 mM, and net leg lactate release reverted......To study the role of muscle mass in glucoregulation, six subjects worked with the knee extensors of one leg on a specially constructed cycle ergometer. The knee extensors of one leg worked either alone or in combination with the knee extensors of the other leg and/or with the arms. Substrate usage...... to net lactate uptake. Decreased glucose uptake could not be explained by decreased perfusion. It is concluded that thigh muscle glucose uptake is affected by the size of the total muscle mass engaged in exercise. The decrease in thigh glucose uptake, when arm cranking was added and O2 uptake...

  7. Characterization of cadmium uptake in Lactobacillus plantarum and isolation of cadmium and manganese uptake mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Z.; Reiske, H.R.; Wilson, D.B.

    1999-11-01

    Two different Cd{sup 2+} uptake systems were identified in Lactobacillus plantarum. One is a high-affinity, high-velocity Mn{sup 2+} uptake system which also takes up Cd{sup 2+} and is induced by Mn{sup 2+} starvation. The calculated K{sub m} and V{sub max} are 0.26 {mu}M and 3.6 {mu}mol g of dry cell{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Unlike Mn{sup 2+} uptake, which is facilitated by citrate and related tricarboxylic acids, Cd{sup 2+} uptake is weakly inhibited by citrate. Cd{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} are competitive inhibitors of each other, and the affinity of the system for Cd{sup 2+} is higher than that for Mn{sup 2+}. The other Cd{sup 2+} uptake system is expressed in Mn{sup 2+}-sufficient cells, and no K{sub m} can be calculated for it because uptake is nonsaturable. Mn{sup 2+} does not compete for transport through this system, nor does any other tested cation, i.e., Zn{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, or Ni{sup 2+}. Both systems require energy, since uncouplers completely inhibit their activities. Two Mn{sup 2+}-dependent L. plantarum mutants were isolated by chemical mutagenesis and ampicillin enrichment. They required more than 5,000 times as much Mn{sup 2+} for growth as the parental strain. Mn{sup 2+} starvation-induced Cd{sup 2+} uptake in both mutants was less than 5% the wild-type rate. The low level of long-term Mn{sup 2+} or Cd{sup 2+} accumulation by the mutant strains also shows that the mutations eliminate the high-affinity Mn{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} uptake system.

  8. Quantification of nanowire uptake by live cells

    KAUST Repository

    Margineanu, Michael B.

    2015-05-01

    Nanostructures fabricated by different methods have become increasingly important for various applications at the cellular level. In order to understand how these nanostructures “behave” and for studying their internalization kinetics, several attempts have been made at tagging and investigating their interaction with living cells. In this study, magnetic iron nanowires with an iron oxide layer are coated with (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), and subsequently labeled with a fluorogenic pH-dependent dye pHrodo™ Red, covalently bound to the aminosilane surface. Time-lapse live imaging of human colon carcinoma HCT 116 cells interacting with the labeled iron nanowires is performed for 24 hours. As the pHrodo™ Red conjugated nanowires are non-fluorescent outside the cells but fluoresce brightly inside, internalized nanowires are distinguished from non-internalized ones and their behavior inside the cells can be tracked for the respective time length. A machine learning-based computational framework dedicated to automatic analysis of live cell imaging data, Cell Cognition, is adapted and used to classify cells with internalized and non-internalized nanowires and subsequently determine the uptake percentage by cells at different time points. An uptake of 85 % by HCT 116 cells is observed after 24 hours incubation at NW-to-cell ratios of 200. While the approach of using pHrodo™ Red for internalization studies is not novel in the literature, this study reports for the first time the utilization of a machine-learning based time-resolved automatic analysis pipeline for quantification of nanowire uptake by cells. This pipeline has also been used for comparison studies with nickel nanowires coated with APTES and labeled with pHrodo™ Red, and another cell line derived from the cervix carcinoma, HeLa. It has thus the potential to be used for studying the interaction of different types of nanostructures with potentially any live cell types.

  9. Fluorescent Nanoparticle Uptake for Brain Tumor Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Tréhin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate delineation of tumor margins is vital to the successful surgical resection of brain tumors. We have previously developed a multimodal nanoparticle CLIO-Cy5.5, which is detectable by both magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence, to assist in intraoperatively visualizing tumor boundaries. Here we examined the accuracy of tumor margin determination of orthotopic tumors implanted in hosts with differing immune responses to the tumor. Using a nonuser-based signal intensity method applied to fluorescent micrographs of 9L gliosarcoma green fluorescent protein (GFP tumors, mean overestimations of 2 and 24 µm were obtained using Cy5.5 fluorescence, compared to the true tumor margin determined by GFP fluorescence, in nude mice and rats, respectively. To resolve which cells internalized the nanoparticle and to quantitate degree of uptake, tumors were disaggregated and cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Nanoparticle uptake was seen in both CD11b+ cells (representing activated microglia and macrophages and tumor cells in both animal models by both methods. CD11b+ cells were predominantly found at the tumor margin in both hosts, but were more pronounced at the margin in the rat model. Additional metastatic (CT26 colon and primary (Gli36 glioma brain tumor models likewise demonstrated that the nanoparticle was internalized both by tumor cells and by host cells. Together, these observations suggest that fluorescent nanoparticles provide an accurate method of tumor margin estimation based on a combination of tumor cell and host cell uptake for primary and metastatic tumors in animal model systems and offer potential for clinical translation.

  10. Brain docosahexaenoic acid uptake and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, R J Scott; Chouinard-Watkins, Raphaël; Bazinet, Richard P

    2018-02-08

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the most abundant n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in the brain where it serves to regulate several important processes and, in addition, serves as a precursor to bioactive mediators. Given that the capacity of the brain to synthesize DHA locally is appreciably low, the uptake of DHA from circulating lipid pools is essential to maintaining homeostatic levels. Although, several plasma pools have been proposed to supply the brain with DHA, recent evidence suggests non-esterified-DHA and lysophosphatidylcholine-DHA are the primary sources. The uptake of DHA into the brain appears to be regulated by a number of complementary pathways associated with the activation and metabolism of DHA, and may provide mechanisms for enrichment of DHA within the brain. Following entry into the brain, DHA is esterified into and recycled amongst membrane phospholipids contributing the distribution of DHA in brain phospholipids. During neurotransmission and following brain injury, DHA is released from membrane phospholipids and converted to bioactive mediators which regulate signaling pathways important to synaptogenesis, cell survival, and neuroinflammation, and may be relevant to treating neurological diseases. In the present review, we provide a comprehensive overview of brain DHA metabolism, encompassing many of the pathways and key enzymatic regulators governing brain DHA uptake and metabolism. In addition, we focus on the release of non-esterified DHA and subsequent production of bioactive mediators and the evidence of their proposed activity within the brain. We also provide a brief review of the evidence from post-mortem brain analyses investigating DHA levels in the context of neurological disease and mood disorder, highlighting the current disparities within the field. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Iodide uptake by negatively charged clay interlayers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Andrew; Kruichak, Jessica; Mills, Melissa; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-01-01

    Understanding iodide interactions with clay minerals is critical to quantifying risk associated with nuclear waste disposal. Current thought assumes that iodide does not interact directly with clay minerals due to electrical repulsion between the iodide and the negatively charged clay layers. However, a growing body of work indicates a weak interaction between iodide and clays. The goal of this contribution is to report a conceptual model for iodide interaction with clays by considering clay mineral structures and emergent behaviors of chemical species in confined spaces. To approach the problem, a suite of clay minerals was used with varying degrees of isomorphic substitution, chemical composition, and mineral structure. Iodide uptake experiments were completed with each of these minerals in a range of swamping electrolyte identities (NaCl, NaBr, KCl) and concentrations. Iodide uptake behaviors form distinct trends with cation exchange capacity and mineral structure. These trends change substantially with electrolyte composition and concentration, but do not appear to be affected by solution pH. The experimental results suggest that iodide may directly interact with clays by forming ion-pairs (e.g., NaI (aq) ) which may concentrate within the interlayer space as well as the thin areas surrounding the clay particle where water behavior is more structured relative to bulk water. Ion pairing and iodide concentration in these zones is probably driven by the reduced dielectric constant of water in confined space and by the relatively high polarizability of the iodide species. - Highlights: • Iodide sorption experiments were completed with a diverse array of clay minerals. • Iodide uptake trended with CEC and swamping electrolyte identity and concentration. • Results can be explained by considering the formation of ion pairs in clay interlayers

  12. Interventions for increasing uptake in screening programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Droste, Sigrid

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Opportunities for the early detection of disease are not sufficiently being taken advantage of. Specific interventions could increase the uptake of prevention programmes. A comprehensive analysis of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these interventions with reference to Germany is still needed. Objectives: This report aimed to describe and assess interventions to increase uptake in primary and secondary prevention and to explore the assessment of their cost-effectiveness. Methods: 29 scientific databases were systematically searched in a wide strategy. Additional references were located from bibliographies. All published systematic reviews and primary studies were assessed for inclusion without language restrictions. Teams of two reviewers identified the literature, extracted data and assessed the quality of the publications independently. Results: Four HTA reports and 22 systematic reviews were identified for the medical evaluation covering a variety of interventions. The economic evaluation was based on two HTA-reports, one meta-analysis and 15 studies. The evidence was consistent for the effectiveness of invitations and reminders aimed at users, and for prompts aimed at health care professionals. These interventions were the most commonly analysed. (Financial Incentives for users and professionals were identified in a small number of studies. Limited evidence was available for cost-effectiveness showing incremental costs for follow-up reminders and invitations by telephone. Evidence for ethical, social and legal aspects pointed to needs in vulnerable populations. Discussion: The material was heterogeneous regarding interventions used, study populations and settings. The majority of references originated from the United States and focused on secondary prevention. Approaching all target groups by invitations and reminders was recommended to increase uptake in prevention programmes in general. Conclusions: Further research

  13. Supercritical CO2 uptake by nonswelling phyllosilicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiamin; Tokunaga, Tetsu K; Ashby, Paul D; Kim, Yongman; Voltolini, Marco; Gilbert, Benjamin; DePaolo, Donald J

    2018-01-30

    Interactions between supercritical (sc) CO 2 and minerals are important when CO 2 is injected into geologic formations for storage and as working fluids for enhanced oil recovery, hydraulic fracturing, and geothermal energy extraction. It has previously been shown that at the elevated pressures and temperatures of the deep subsurface, scCO 2 alters smectites (typical swelling phyllosilicates). However, less is known about the effects of scCO 2 on nonswelling phyllosilicates (illite and muscovite), despite the fact that the latter are the dominant clay minerals in deep subsurface shales and mudstones. Our studies conducted by using single crystals, combining reaction (incubation with scCO 2 ), visualization [atomic force microscopy (AFM)], and quantifications (AFM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and off-gassing measurements) revealed unexpectedly high CO 2 uptake that far exceeded its macroscopic surface area. Results from different methods collectively suggest that CO 2 partially entered the muscovite interlayers, although the pathways remain to be determined. We hypothesize that preferential dissolution at weaker surface defects and frayed edges allows CO 2 to enter the interlayers under elevated pressure and temperature, rather than by diffusing solely from edges deeply into interlayers. This unexpected uptake of CO 2 , can increase CO 2 storage capacity by up to ∼30% relative to the capacity associated with residual trapping in a 0.2-porosity sandstone reservoir containing up to 18 mass % of illite/muscovite. This excess CO 2 uptake constitutes a previously unrecognized potential trapping mechanism. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  14. Nitrogen uptake and assimilation by corn roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneyama, Tadakatsu; Akiyama, Yoko; Kumazawa, Kikuo

    1977-01-01

    The site of nitrogen uptake in the apical root zone of corn was experimentally investigated. Two experiments were performed. The one is to see the assimilation of nitrate and ammonium and the effects of low temperature on it. The 4-day-old roots were treated with 15 N-labelled inorganic nitrogen of 20 ppm N in 5 x 10 -4 M CaSO 4 solution at 30 deg. C and 0 deg. C. The other is to see the nitrogen uptake at apical root zone and the utilization of newly absorbed nitrogen at the root top. The 4-day-old roots were transferred into 5 x 10 -4 M CaSO 4 solution containing 15 N-labelled ammonium nitrate of 40 ppm N. As a result, the effect of low temperature on the nitrogen uptake appeared to be more drastic in the case of nitrate than ammonium. The 15 N content of amino acids indicates that ammonium is assimilated into amino acids even at 0 deg. C, but nitrate is not. The ammonium nitrogen seemed to be absorbed at both cell dividing and elongating zones. On the other hand, nitrate nitrogen seemed to be strongly absorbed at cell elongating zone. The nitrogen in the apical part may be supplied not only by direct absorption but also by translocation from the basal part. The clear difference was found in the utilization of nitrate and ammonium nitrogen at the root top when the root was elongating. This may be due to the difference of assimilation products of inorganic nitrogen. Newly absorbed ammonium nitrogen is more utilizable for the growth of root top than nitrate nitrogen. (Iwakiri, K.)

  15. Explaining variation in Down's syndrome screening uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crombag, Neeltje M T H; Vellinga, Ynke E; Kluijfhout, Sandra A

    2014-01-01

    ), in an attempt to explain the observed variation in national uptake rates. METHODS: We used a mixed methods approach with an embedded design: a) documentary analysis and b) expert stakeholder analysis. National central statistical offices and legal documents were studied first to gain insight in demographic....... RESULTS: There were many similarities in the demographics, healthcare systems, government abortion legislation and Down's syndrome screening policy across the studied countries. However, the additional cost for Down's syndrome screening over and above standard antenatal care in the Netherlands...

  16. Lactate uptake against a concentration gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Carl-Henrik; Nielsen, Troels Halfeld; Nielsen, Hans Boye

    2014-01-01

    The recently published article by Jalloh et al (Jalloh I, Helmy A, Shannon RJ, Gallagher CN, Menon D, Carpenter K, Hutchinson P. Lactate uptake by the injured human brain - evidence from an arterio-venous gradient and cerebral microdialysis study. J Neurotrauma. 2013 Aug 22. [Epub ahead of print......]) concludes that lactate may be transported across the blood brain barrier into the brain against a concentration gradient. Unfortunately the authors have misinterpreted the concept of analytical imprecision and their conclusion is based on analytical artifact. As the topic of lactate transport into the brain...

  17. Fractional laser-assisted drug uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banzhaf, Christina A; Thaysen-Petersen, Daniel; Bay, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Ablative fractional laser (AFXL) is acknowledged to increase uptake of topically applied agents in skin. AFXL channels gradually close over time, which may impair this capability. The time frame for applying a drug after AFXL exposure remains to be established. The aim...... in laser-exposed and non-laser-exposed skin at 24-48 hours. CONCLUSIONS: The time frame to maintain enhanced drug delivery sustained for several hours after AFXL exposure, corresponding to channel morphology and loss of skin integrity. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:348-354, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  18. New concepts for dynamic plant uptake models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rein, Arno; Legind, Charlotte Nielsen; Trapp, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Models for the prediction of chemical uptake into plants are widely applied tools for human and wildlife exposure assessment, pesticide design and for environmental biotechnology such as phytoremediation. Steady-state considerations are often applied, because they are simple and have a small data...... need. However, often the emission pattern is non-steady. Examples are pesticide spraying, or the application of manure and sewage sludge on agricultural fields. In these scenarios, steady-state solutions are not valid, and dynamic simulation is required. We compared different approaches for dynamic...

  19. Sudden increase in atmospheric concentration reveals strong coupling between shoot carbon uptake and root nutrient uptake in young walnut trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaire, M.; Sigogne, M.; Beaujard, F.; Frak, E.; Adam, B.; Le Roux, X.

    2005-01-01

    Short-term effects of a sudden increase in carbon dioxide concentration on nutrient uptake by roots during vegetative growth was studied in young walnut trees. Rates of carbon dioxide uptake and water loss by individual trees were determined by a branch bag method from three days before and six days after carbon dioxide concentration was increased. Nutrient uptake rates were measured concurrently by a hydroponic recirculating nutrient solution system. Carbon dioxide uptake rates increased greatly with increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide; nutrient uptake rates were proportional to carbon dioxide uptake rates, except for the phosphorus ion. Daily water loss rates were only slightly affected by elevated carbon dioxide. Overall, it was concluded that in the presence of non-limiting supplies of water and nutrients, root nutrient uptake and shoot carbon assimilation are strongly coupled in the short term in young walnut trees despite the important carbon and nutrient storage capacities od woody species. 45 refs., 7 figs

  20. Observation of the in-plane spin-dephasing anisotropy in [111]-grown GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Chunbo; Li, Junbin; Yu, Ying; Ni, Haiqiao; Niu, Zhichuan; Zhang, Xinhui

    2014-01-01

    The electron density and temperature dependent in-plane spin-dephasing anisotropy in [111]-grown GaAs quantum well (QW) has been investigated by time-resolved magneto-Kerr rotation technique. Due to the specific symmetry of [111]-grown quantum well, the in-plane Rashba and linear Dresselhaus effective spin-orbit magnetic field is parallel to each other for electron wave vectors in all directions. However, an obvious in-plane spin-dephasing anisotropy comparing [2 ¯ 11] with [01 ¯ 1] crystalline orientations has been observed and discussed in this work. Our results demonstrate the innegligible spin dephasing channel through inhomogeneous broadening induced by the out-of-plane non-linear Dresselhaus field, which arises naturally from the C 3 symmetry of [111]-grown GaAs QW

  1. Iodide uptake by negatively charged clay interlayers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew; Kruichak, Jessica; Mills, Melissa; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-09-01

    Understanding iodide interactions with clay minerals is critical to quantifying risk associated with nuclear waste disposal. Current thought assumes that iodide does not interact directly with clay minerals due to electrical repulsion between the iodide and the negatively charged clay layers. However, a growing body of work indicates a weak interaction between iodide and clays. The goal of this contribution is to report a conceptual model for iodide interaction with clays by considering clay mineral structures and emergent behaviors of chemical species in confined spaces. To approach the problem, a suite of clay minerals was used with varying degrees of isomorphic substitution, chemical composition, and mineral structure. Iodide uptake experiments were completed with each of these minerals in a range of swamping electrolyte identities (NaCl, NaBr, KCl) and concentrations. Iodide uptake behaviors form distinct trends with cation exchange capacity and mineral structure. These trends change substantially with electrolyte composition and concentration, but do not appear to be affected by solution pH. The experimental results suggest that iodide may directly interact with clays by forming ion-pairs (e.g., NaI(aq)) which may concentrate within the interlayer space as well as the thin areas surrounding the clay particle where water behavior is more structured relative to bulk water. Ion pairing and iodide concentration in these zones is probably driven by the reduced dielectric constant of water in confined space and by the relatively high polarizability of the iodide species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Uptake of Radionuclide Metals by SPME Fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert Ray, R; Keisha Martin, K; Donna Beals, D

    2006-08-01

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) and fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE and FD residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ( 239/240 Pu, 238 U, 237 Np, 85 Sr, 133 Ba, 137 Cs, 60 Co and 226 Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE and FD residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE and FD residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection

  3. Uptake and partitioning of zinc in Lemnaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahive, Elma; O'Callaghan, Michael J A; Jansen, Marcel A K; O'Halloran, John

    2011-11-01

    Macrophytes provide food and shelter for aquatic invertebrates and fish, while also acting as reservoirs for nutrients and trace elements. Zinc accumulation has been reported for various Lemnaceae species. However, comparative accumulation across species and the link between zinc accumulation and toxicity are poorly understood. Morphological distribution and cellular storage, in either bound or soluble form, are important for zinc tolerance. This study shows differences in the uptake and accumulation of zinc by three duckweed species. Landoltia punctata and Lemna minor generally accumulated more zinc than Lemna gibba. L. minor, but not L. gibba or L. punctata, accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in roots compared to fronds when exposed to high levels of zinc. The proportion of zinc stored in the bound form relative to the soluble-form was higher in L. minor. L. punctata accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in fronds compared to roots and increased the proportion of zinc it stored in the soluble form, when exposed to high zinc levels. L. gibba is the only species that significantly accumulated zinc at low concentrations, and was zinc-sensitive. Overall, internal zinc concentrations showed no consistent correlation with toxic effect. We conclude that relationships between zinc toxicity and uptake and accumulation are species specific reflecting, among others, zinc distribution and storage. Differences in zinc distribution and storage are also likely to have implications for zinc bioavailability and trophic mobility.

  4. Moessbauer investigation of iron uptake in wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, K., E-mail: kkriszti@bolyai.elte.hu [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry (Hungary); Kuzmann, E. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry, Chemical Research Center (Hungary); Fodor, F.; Cseh, E. [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Department of Plant Physiology (Hungary); Homonnay, Z.; Vertes, A. [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry (Hungary)

    2008-07-15

    Iron uptake and distribution in wheat roots were studied with {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. Plants were grown both in iron sufficient and in iron deficient nutrient solutions. Moessbauer spectra of the frozen iron sufficient roots exhibited three iron(III) components with the typical average Moessbauer parameters of {delta} = 0.50 mm s{sup -1}, {Delta} = 0.43 mm s{sup -1}, {delta} = 0.50 mm s{sup -1}, {Delta} = 0.75 mm s{sup -1} and {delta} = 0.50 mm s{sup -1}, {Delta} = 1.20 mm s{sup -1} at 80 K. These doublets are very similar to those obtained earlier for cucumber [0], which allows us to suppose that iron is stored in a very similar way in different plants. No ferrous iron could be identified in any case, not even in the iron deficient roots, which confirms the mechanism proposed for iron uptake in the graminaceous plants.

  5. Uptake of thallium-201 in enlarged thyroid glands. Concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuchi, M.; Kido, A.; Hyodo, K.; Tachibana, K.; Onoue, K.; Morita, T.; Nagai, K.

    1979-01-01

    We have investigated the thyroid uptake of Tl-201 in 37 patients with various types of goiter, and in six with normal thyroids. Significant thallium uptake was found in all cases in which there was thyroid enlargement, including Graves' disease, toxic thyroid nodule, primary hypothyroidism, simple goiter, Hashimoto's disease, thyroid carcinoma, and thyroid adenoma. If goiter was absent, however, there was no demonstrable uptake - e.g., in secondary hypothyroidism, subacute thyroiditis, and the normal controls. Thallium uptake did not correlate with thyroid function tests such as BMR, T 3 -RU, T 3 , T 4 , TSH, antithyroid antibodies, or the 24-hr I-131 uptake. In 23 patients with diffuse goiter, on the other hand, maximum Tl-201 uptake correlated well with thyroid weight: r = 0.836 (p < 0.001); y = 0.02 x + 0.06

  6. Factors influencing physiological FDG uptake in the intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Seiei; Takahashi, Wakoh; Takagi, Shigeharu; Fujii, Hirofumi; Ide, Michiru; Shohtsu, Akira

    1998-01-01

    The intestine is a well-known site of physiological 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) accumulation in positron emission tomography (PET). To identify factors influencing physiological FDG uptake in the intestine, the intensity of FDG uptake was evaluated in a total of 1,068 healthy adults. Non-attenuation-corrected whole-body PET images were obtained for all subjects and visually evaluated. Subjects were then classified into two groups according to the intensity of intestinal FDG uptake. Sex, age, presence or absence of constipation, and serum glucose, hemoglobin A 1 c, and free fatty acid levels were compared between the two groups. High intestinal FDG uptake was observed at an overall rate of 11.0%. Sex (female), age, and bowel condition (constipation) were found to affect intestinal FDG uptake. The factors we identified lead to further questions the relationship between intestinal motility and glucose uptake that warrant further study. (author)

  7. Radiocolloid Uptake in the Pancreas Islet Cell Tumor: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, W. J.; Chung, S. K.; Yeon, S. K.; Shinn, K. S.; Bahk, Y. W. [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-03-15

    Colloid uptake in various hepatic conditions such as focal nodular hyperplasia, regenerating nodular in the cirrhotic liver, hamartoma, hemangioma and rarely hepatoma has been documented. Extrahepatic tumors may show colloid uptake and they include splenic hemangioma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, breast carcinoma and Kaposi's sarcoma. The mechanism of colloid uptake in those lesions is associated with phagocytic activity in or around the tumors. We report a pancreas islet cell tumor that showed colloid uptake on {sup 99m}Tc-phytate liver scan without histologic evidence of phagocytosis by tumor cells or infiltration of phagocytes in the tumor. Microscopically the tumor was highly vascular and showed diffuse hemorrhage throughout the tumor. We postulated that extravasation of the colloid into the tumor interstitium caused nonspecific colloid uptake in this tumor. It is expected that hemorrhagic tumor may show nonspecific colloid uptake without phagocytosis in or about the lesion.

  8. Radiocolloid Uptake in the Pancreas Islet Cell Tumor: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W. J.; Chung, S. K.; Yeon, S. K.; Shinn, K. S.; Bahk, Y. W.

    1994-01-01

    Colloid uptake in various hepatic conditions such as focal nodular hyperplasia, regenerating nodular in the cirrhotic liver, hamartoma, hemangioma and rarely hepatoma has been documented. Extrahepatic tumors may show colloid uptake and they include splenic hemangioma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, breast carcinoma and Kaposi's sarcoma. The mechanism of colloid uptake in those lesions is associated with phagocytic activity in or around the tumors. We report a pancreas islet cell tumor that showed colloid uptake on 99m Tc-phytate liver scan without histologic evidence of phagocytosis by tumor cells or infiltration of phagocytes in the tumor. Microscopically the tumor was highly vascular and showed diffuse hemorrhage throughout the tumor. We postulated that extravasation of the colloid into the tumor interstitium caused nonspecific colloid uptake in this tumor. It is expected that hemorrhagic tumor may show nonspecific colloid uptake without phagocytosis in or about the lesion.

  9. Uptake of thallium-201 in enlarged thyroid glands. Concise communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuchi, M.; Kido, A.; Hyodo, K.; Tachibana, K.; Onoue, K.; Morita, T.; Nagai, K.

    1979-08-01

    We have investigated the thyroid uptake of Tl-201 in 37 patients with various types of goiter, and in six with normal thyroids. Significant thallium uptake was found in all cases in which there was thyroid enlargement, including Graves' disease, toxic thyroid nodule, primary hypothyroidism, simple goiter, Hashimoto's disease, thyroid carcinoma, and thyroid adenoma. If goiter was absent, however, there was no demonstrable uptake - e.g., in secondary hypothyroidism, subacute thyroiditis, and the normal controls. Thallium uptake did not correlate with thyroid function tests such as BMR, T/sub 3/-RU, T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/, TSH, antithyroid antibodies, or the 24-hr I-131 uptake. In 23 patients with diffuse goiter, on the other hand, maximum Tl-201 uptake correlated well with thyroid weight: r = 0.836 (p < 0.001); y = 0.02 x + 0.06.

  10. Uptake of proline by the scutellum of germinating barley grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeisaenen, E.; Sopanen, T.

    1986-01-01

    Scutella separated from germinating grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Himalaya) took up 1 millimolar L-[ 14 C]proline at an initial rate of about 6.5 micromoles gram -1 fresh weight hour -1 (pH 5, 30 0 C). The uptake had a pH optimum at 5. The bulk of the uptake (93%) was via carrier-mediated active transport. All of the 19 L-amino acids tested at 10 millimolar concentration inhibited the mediated uptake of 1 millimolar proline, the inhibitions varying from 18 to 76%. By studying how large a fraction of the mediated uptake was inhibitable by asparagine, alanine, glutamine, and leucine, the mediated uptake was shown to be due to three components. Two of these are most probably attributable to the two nonspecific uptake systems proposed earlier to act in the uptake of glutamine and leucine. The third component was not inhibited by glutamine, asparagine, or alanine, but was inhibited by unlabeled proline and leucine. The uptake by this system was apparently carrier-mediated active transport. D-Proline inhibited this system as strongly as L-proline. Nine of the 16 L-amino tested at 50 millimolar concentrations did not inhibit the uptake of 1 millimolar proline by this system. Valine, leucine, isoleucine, and the basic amino acids were inhibitory, but in spite of this, they did not appear to be taken up by this system. It seems therefore that in addition to two nonspecific amino acid uptake systems the scutella have an uptake system which is specific for proline. It is likely that this proline-specific system accounts for the bulk of proline uptake in a germinating grain

  11. Hepatic uptake of technetium-99m diphosphonate in thalassemia major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, H.M.; Smith, R.

    1986-01-01

    Two cases of thalassemia major are presented in which bone scintigraphy demonstrated diffuse hepatic uptake of Tc-99m diphosphonate. Although abnormal splenic and renal uptake of Tc-99m phosphates has been reported in patients with thalassemia major, hepatic uptake has not been reported previously. This scintigraphic finding is presumably due to increased iron deposition in the liver, resulting from increased iron turnover and retention in these patients and from multiple previous blood transfusions

  12. Experimental increase in brain HIPDM uptake by hypercapnia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karatzas, N.D.; Sfakianakis, G.N.; Pappas, D.; Duncan, R.; Heal, A.; Serafini, A.; Kung, H.F.

    1988-01-01

    The 30-min brain uptake of [ 125 I]HIPDM was measured in conscious rats--normocapnic (n = 8), hypercapnic (n = 12), and hyperoxic (n = 6). A mean 41.2% higher uptake was found in the brains of hypercapnic animals (p less than 0.01). In the three groups of rats, brain HIPDM uptake had a negative correlation with body weight (p less than 0.001) and a positive correlation with arterial pCO 2 (p less than 0.01), when adjusted for body weight. These results indicate that HIPDM uptake with hypercapnia may be used as a provocative test to measure cerebral blood flow reserves

  13. Short-term uptake of heavy metals by periphyton algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vymazal, J.

    1984-12-31

    The utilization of periphyton for the removal of heavy metals from enriched small streams has been examined. By means of short-term batch laboratory experiments the courses of metal uptake have been studied. For uptake study naturally growing periphyton community and periphytic filamentous algae Cladophora glomerata and Oedogonium rivulare have been used. Uptakes of nine heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn) have been determined during four hours exposure. In addition the influence of humic substances on heavy metals uptake has been determined. Uptake of all metals increased during four hours exposure but not in the same way. Some metals were removed continuously (Ni, Cr, Fe and Mn), other metals were removed more rapidly during the first hour or first two hours of exposure and then only slight removal continued (Cu, Pb, Cd, Co). Uptake of Zn was rather unambiguous. Results of these experiments suggest that the course of uptake for individual metals could be similar for most periphyton algae. It was established that humic substances significantly reduce heavy metals uptake. The highest decrease of uptake was observed in Cu, Cr, Co and Cd. The results of model experiments are being tested in a pilot scale with respect to the demands of engineering practice. (J.R.)

  14. Decreased cisplatin uptake by resistant L1210 leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hromas, R.A.; North, J.A.; Burns, C.P.

    1987-01-01

    Cisplatin resistance remains poorly understood compared to other forms of anti-neoplastic drug resistance. In this report radiolabelled cisplatin and rapid separation techniques were used to compare drug uptake by L1210 leukemia cells that are sensitive (K25) or resistant (SCR9) to cisplatin. Uptake of cisplatin by both cell lines was linear without saturation kinetics up to 100 μM. The resistant ZCR9 cells had 36-60% reduced drug uptake as compared to its sensitive parent line, K25. In contrast, there was no difference in the rate of efflux. We conclude that a decreased rate of uptake is one possible mechanism of cellular cisplatin resistance. (Author)

  15. The Uptake by Plants of Diethylstilboestrol and of Its Glucuronide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregers Hansen, B.

    1964-01-01

    The uptake of diethylstilboestrol and its glucuronide by plants could, under certain circumstances, present a potential health hazard. The relative uptake of the two compounds has therefore been studied in rye grass, red clover, mushrooms, and maize in pot and water culture experiments. It is con......The uptake of diethylstilboestrol and its glucuronide by plants could, under certain circumstances, present a potential health hazard. The relative uptake of the two compounds has therefore been studied in rye grass, red clover, mushrooms, and maize in pot and water culture experiments...

  16. Ficus Deltoidea Enhance Glucose Uptake Activity in Cultured Muscle Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainah Adam; Shafii Khamis; Amin Ismail; Muhajir Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Ficus deltoidea or locally known as Mas cotek is one of the common medicinal plants used in Malaysia. Our previous studies showed that this plant have blood glucose lowering effect. Glucose uptake into muscle and adipocytes cells is one of the known mechanisms of blood glucose lowering effect. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of Ficus deltoidea on glucose uptake activity into muscle cells. The cells were incubated with Ficus deltoidea extracts either alone or combination with insulin. Amount of glucose uptake by L6 myotubes was determined using glucose tracer, 2-deoxy-(1- 3 H 1 )-glucose. The results showed that Ficus deltoidea extracts at particular doses enhanced basal or insulin-mediated glucose uptake into muscle cells significantly. Hot aqueous extract enhanced glucose uptake at the low concentration (10 μg/ ml) whereas methanolic extract enhanced glucose uptake at low and high concentrations. Methanolic extract also mimicked insulin activity during enhancing glucose uptake into L^ muscle cells. Glucose uptake activity of Ficus deltoidea could be attributed by the phenolic compound presence in the plant. This study had shown that Ficus deltoidea has the ability to enhance glucose uptake into muscle cells which is partly contributed the antidiabetic activity of this plant. (author)

  17. Uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel, J.W.; Vetter, R.J.; Christian, J.E.; Kessler, W.V.; McFee, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    The uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn (Zea mays) treated at various time intervals after planting and sampled at various times after treatment were measured. Cadmium was found to accumulate in all parts sampled. As shown in field studies, stems and leaves generally concentrated more cadmium than did husks, cobs, kernels, silks, or tassels. Samples of stems and leaves from corn treated 23 days after planting and sampled 5 days later exhibited higher concentrations of cadmium than samples taken 25, 45, 65, or 85 days after treatment. Concentrations generally decreased with time. Greenhouse studies showed that corn exposed to cadmium for the longest period of time accumulated the greatest total cadmium. The highest cadmium concentrations were found in the base or lowest leaves sampled 45 days after planting; this suggests a useful technique for quick screening corn crops for cadmium pollution

  18. Cytocompatibility and uptake of halloysite clay nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergaro, Viviana; Abdullayev, Elshad; Lvov, Yuri M; Zeitoun, Andre; Cingolani, Roberto; Rinaldi, Ross; Leporatti, Stefano

    2010-03-08

    Halloysite is aluminosilicate clay with hollow tubular structure of 50 nm external diameter and 15 nm diameter lumen. Halloysite biocompatibility study is important for its potential applications in polymer composites, bone implants, controlled drug delivery, and for protective coating (e.g., anticorrosion or antimolding). Halloysite nanotubes were added to different cell cultures for toxicity tests. Its fluorescence functionalization by aminopropyltriethosilane (APTES) and with fluorescently labeled polyelectrolyte layers allowed following halloysite uptake by the cells with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Quantitative Trypan blue and MTT measurements performed with two neoplastic cell lines model systems as a function of the nanotubes concentration and incubation time indicate that halloysite exhibits a high level of biocompatibility and very low cytotoxicity, rendering it a good candidate for household materials and medicine. A combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and scanning force microscopy (SFM) imaging techniques have been employed to elucidate the structure of halloysite nanotubes.

  19. Uptake of atmospheric tritium by market foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Y.; Tanaka-Miyamoto, K.; Iwakura, T.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper uptake of tritium by market foods from tritiated water vapor in the air is investigated using cereals and beans purchased in Deep River, Canada. The concentrations of tissue free water tritium (TFWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT) range from 12 to 79% and from 10 to 38% respectively, of that estimated for atmospheric water vapor of the sampling month. The specific activity ratios of OBT to TFWT were constant for cereals, but variable for beans. The elevated OBT was shown to be the result of isotopic exchange of labile hydrogen by the fact that washing the foods with tritium free-water reduced their tritium contents to levels characteristic of their production sites

  20. The uptake of radionuclides from the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffens, W.; Fuehr, F.; Mittelstaedt, W.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive materials, fission products of fuels used and corrosion nuclides are transferred in small amounts through waste gases and waste liquids of nuclear plants to the environment. They are deposited on plants and soil, are subjected there to nuclide-specific distribution patterns, can be enriched in the soil over years, are taken up from plants via the roots and hence get into the food chains and contribute to the radiation burden to man. The annual radiation burden via food absorption is determined by calculation models. These models take into account the uptake of radionuclides via the plant roots by nuclide-specific transfer factors. Close-to-practice tests with representative soils of the Federal Republic of Germany enable the fluctuation of these transfer factors to be determined and hence contribute to the conservative assessment of the ingestion burden via the soil/plant transfer for the operation of nuclear power plants or reprocessing plants. (orig.) [de

  1. Actinide uptake by transferrin and ferritin metalloproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Auwer, C.; Llorens, I.; Moisy, Ph.; Vidaud, C.; Goudard, F.; Barbot, C.; Solari, P.L.; Funke, H.

    2005-01-01

    In order to better understand the mechanisms of actinide uptake by specific biomolecules, it is essential to explore the intramolecular interactions between the cation and the protein binding site. Although this has long been done for widely investigated transition metals, very few studies have been devoted to complexation mechanisms of actinides by active chelation sites of metalloproteins. In this field, X-ray absorption spectroscopy has been extensively used as a structural and electronic metal cation probe. The two examples that are presented here are related to two metalloproteins in charge of iron transport and storage in eukaryote cells: transferrin and ferritin. U(VI)O 2 2+ , Np(IV) and Pu(IV) have been selected because of their possible role as contaminant from the geosphere. (orig.)

  2. Uptake of the Influenza Vaccination in Pregnancy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crosby, DA

    2016-09-01

    Influenza is caused by a highly infectious RNA virus, which usually occurs in a seasonal pattern with epidemics in the winter months. The objective of this study was to determine the uptake of the influenza vaccine in a pregnant population and ascertain the reasons why some women did not receive it. A prospective cohort study was conducted over a two-week period in January 2016 in the National Maternity Hospital Dublin, a tertiary referral maternity hospital delivering over 9000 infants per year. There were 504 women studied over the 2-week period. Overall, 197(39.1%) women received the vaccine at a mean gestational age 20.9 weeks (SD 7.0). Given the increased rates of influenza in the community and the associated implications for mother and infant, it is important that pregnant women are educated regarding the risks of influenza in pregnancy and encourage this cohort to be vaccinated.

  3. Analysis of diffuse gallium lung uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Masahumi; Sui, Osamu; Mukaijo, Toshihumi; Tokuyama, Noritami; Tanouchi, Miki; Kitsukawa, Kaoru

    1989-01-01

    Diffuse lung uptake of Ga-67 was observed on scintigrams in 56 patients. It was considered attributable to drugs in 21 patients. Only 7 patients complained of fever, cough, and dyspnea, 5 of whom spontaneously recovered without any treatment. This seemed to reflect clinically reversible cases, as well as to support the usefulness of Ga-67 scintigraphy in early detection of drug-induced pneumonitis. In one patient that died of acute pneumonitis, only a small amount of cyclophosphamide (3,400 mg) had been administered. Drug dosage seemed to be unrelated to the prognosis of drug-induced pneumonitis. Seventeen patients underwent Ga-67 scintigraphy within one month after the completion of chemotherapy. The most frequently given dosage of cyclophosphamide was 2,000 mg or less. In early detecting drug-induced pneumonitis, the optimum time of Ga-67 scintigraphy was considered to be the first one month after completion of chemotherapy. (Namekawa, K)

  4. Uptake of small particles by tree canopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belot, Y.; Camus, H.; Gauthier, D.; Caput, C.

    1992-01-01

    Most of the deposition data that are available to assess the radiological consequences of an accident have been acquired for low-growing vegetation and are inadapted to forest areas. Consequently, a programme was undertaken to study the deposition of particles on components of different trees and extrapolate the experimental data so obtained to large-scale canopies. The experiments were performed in a wind tunnel allowing canopy components to be exposed to a flow of suspended fluorescent particles of reasonably uniform size. Emphasis was put on particles in the 0.3-1.2 μm subrange, because most of the radioactive particles sampled at long distance from sources are comprised in this size interval. The uptake rates were determined for bare and leaf bearing twigs of several evergreen species (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris and Quercus ilex), as a function of wind speed and particle size. The deposition rates obtained for the tree components were then used as input to a model that describes the uptake of particles by a large-scale canopy under specified conditions of weather and canopy structure. The model accounts for the diffusion of particles between different strata of the canopy, as well as deposition of particles on the canopy components. It calculates the rates of particle deposition to the horizontal surface of the canopy, and the repartition of the deposited particles within the canopy. Increases in wind speed cause increased deposition, but the effect is less important that it would have been for larger particles. The deposition is relatively insensitive to the size of particles within the subrange considered in this study. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Fatty acid uptake in normal human myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyska, K.; Meyer, W.; Stremmel, W.; Notohamiprodjo, G.; Minami, K.; Machulla, H.J.; Gleichmann, U.; Meyer, H.; Koerfer, R.

    1991-01-01

    Fatty acid binding protein has been found in rat aortic endothelial cell membrane. It has been identified to be a 40-kDa protein that corresponds to a 40-kDa fatty acid binding protein with high affinity for a variety of long chain fatty acids isolated from rat heart myocytes. It is proposed that this endothelial membrane fatty acid binding protein might mediate the myocardial uptake of fatty acids. For evaluation of this hypothesis in vivo, influx kinetics of tracer-labeled fatty acids was examined in 15 normal subjects by scintigraphic techniques. Variation of the plasma fatty acid concentration and plasma perfusion rate has been achieved by modulation of nutrition state and exercise conditions. The clinical results suggest that the myocardial fatty acid influx rate is saturable by increasing fatty acid plasma concentration as well as by increasing plasma flow. For analysis of these data, functional relations describing fatty acid transport from plasma into myocardial tissue in the presence and absence of an unstirred layer were developed. The fitting of these relations to experimental data indicate that the free fatty acid influx into myocardial tissue reveals the criteria of a reaction on a capillary surface in the vicinity of flowing plasma but not of a reaction in extravascular space or in an unstirred layer and that the fatty acid influx into normal myocardium is a saturable process that is characterized by the quantity corresponding to the Michaelis-Menten constant, Km, and the maximal velocity, Vmax, 0.24 ± 0.024 mumol/g and 0.37 ± 0.013 mumol/g(g.min), respectively. These data are compatible with a nondiffusional uptake process mediated by the initial interaction of fatty acids with the 40-kDa membrane fatty acid binding protein of cardiac endothelial cells

  6. Numerical Modeling for the Solute Uptake from Groundwater by Plants-Plant Uptake Package

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sayed, Amr A.

    2006-01-01

    A numerical model is presented to describe solute transport in groundwater coupled to sorption by plant roots, translocation into plant stems, and finally evapotranspiration. The conceptual model takes into account both Root Concentration Factor, RCF, and Transpiration Stream Concentration Factor, TSCF for chemicals which are a function of Kow. A similar technique used to simulate the solute transport in groundwater to simulate sorption and plant uptake is used. The mathematical equation is s...

  7. Uptake of cadmium from hydroponic solutions by willows (Salix spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... which indicated that cadmium uptake across the plasma membrane was ... to cadmium pollution in water-soil-plant systems because .... plants were separated into roots and shoots, blotted dry with paper tissue .... Analysis of the kinetic constants for cadmium uptake ..... proteins (Welch and Norvell, 1999).

  8. Uptake kinetics of arsenic by lettuce cultivars under hydroponics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arsenic (As) uptake ability based on kinetic parameters by two lettuce cultivars; Sijibaiye (SJBY) and Texuanyanlingsun (TXYLS) was investigated in nutrient solution containing eight levels of arsenic (As). Depletion of As from solution was monitored over a period of 24 h at regular time to estimate As uptake kinetics of the ...

  9. Methionine Uptake and Required Radiation Dose to Control Glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iuchi, Toshihiko, E-mail: tiuchi@chiba-cc.jp [Division of Neurological Surgery, Chiba Cancer Center, Chiba (Japan); Hatano, Kazuo [Division of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Bay Advanced Imaging and Radiation Oncology Clinic, Makuhari, Chiba (Japan); Uchino, Yoshio [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Chiba Ryogo Center, Chiba (Japan); Itami, Makiko [Division of Surgical Pathology, Chiba Cancer Center, Chiba (Japan); Hasegawa, Yuzo; Kawasaki, Koichiro; Sakaida, Tsukasa [Division of Neurological Surgery, Chiba Cancer Center, Chiba (Japan); Hara, Ryusuke [Division of Radiation Oncology, Chiba Cancer Center, Chiba (Japan)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively assess the feasibility of radiation therapy planning for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) based on the use of methionine (MET) positron emission tomography (PET), and the correlation among MET uptake, radiation dose, and tumor control. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two patients with GBM who underwent MET-PET prior to radiation therapy were enrolled. MET uptake in 30 regions of interest (ROIs) from 22 GBMs, biologically effective doses (BEDs) for the ROIs and their ratios (MET uptake:BED) were compared in terms of whether the ROIs were controlled for >12 months. Results: MET uptake was significantly correlated with tumor control (odds ratio [OR], 10.0; P=.005); however, there was a higher level of correlation between MET uptake:BED ratio and tumor control (OR, 40.0; P<.0001). These data indicated that the required BEDs for controlling the ROIs could be predicted in terms of MET uptake; BED could be calculated as [34.0 × MET uptake] Gy from the optimal threshold of the MET uptake:BED ratio for tumor control. Conclusions: Target delineation based on MET-PET was demonstrated to be feasible for radiation therapy treatment planning. MET-PET could not only provide precise visualization of infiltrating tumor cells but also predict the required radiation doses to control target regions.

  10. Uptake and depuration of gold nanoparticles in Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjolding, Lars Michael; Kern, Kristina; Hjorth, Rune

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a series of short-term studies (total duration 48 h) of uptake and depuration of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) in neonate Daphnia magna. Gold nanoparticles (Au NP) were used to study the influence of size, stabilizing agent and feeding on uptake and depuration kinetics...

  11. Heavy Metal uptake Potentials of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uptake of heavy metals, silver and cadmium by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a Gram negative bacterium) and Micrococcus luteus (a Gram positive bacterium) was investigated in Cadmium and Silver stock solution using ion selective electrodes. Silver and cadmium uptake by the two organisms was described by Langmuir ...

  12. Heavy metal ion uptake properties of polystyrene-supported ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    concentration on the uptake of metal ions have been studied. The uptake ... employed for the removal of heavy metal pollutants from industrial waste water. ... nitrate, mercuric chloride, cadmium nitrate and potassium dichromate salts. ... polymer resin was determined by reacting 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 ppm of metal.

  13. The effect of environmental parameters on contaminant uptake by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was also no discernable relationship between pH and contaminants uptake by the sampling devices as was expected with non polar, non-ioniseable solutes. The uptake of compounds with lower molar volumes was most susceptible to the presence oh humic materials. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental ...

  14. Further advances in modeling transdermal uptake of SVOCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Glenn; Weschler, Charles J.; Bekö, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    the overall resistance to uptake of SVOCs from air but also allows for more rapid release of SVOCs to sinks like clothing or clean air. We compare the model results to reported experimental uptake of di-ethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), normalized by exposed skin area and the phthalate...

  15. 99mTc-DPD uptake in juvenile arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stender Hansen, E.; Holm, I.E.; Buenger, C.; Knudsen, V.; Noer, I.; Bach Christensen, S.

    1986-01-01

    Unilateral arthritis of the knee was induced in mongrel puppies by intraarticular injections of 1% Carragheenan. Bone metabolism was studied by a scintimetric technique on static 99m Tc-diphosphonate bone scans every 2nd week during the induction of arthritis for 3 months and monthly in a postarthritic phase of another 3 months. Changes in uptake of radionuclide were present after 2 weeks. The induction phase was characterized by a decreased uptake in the calcification layer of the juxta-articular growth plates and a moderately increased epiphyseal uptake. The postarthritic phase was characterized by normalization of growth plate uptake and a marked increase in epiphyseal uptake. Using contact autoradiography, the epiphyseal uptake was seen mainly in a narrow subchondral and subsynovial bone layer, around bone cysts and osteophytes, whereas central epiphyseal bone was osteopenic with decreased uptake of tracer. The study suggests that the early scintigraphic appearance of juvenile non-suppurative arthritis may be an overall decrease in uptake of 99m Tc-diphosphonate due to a depression of growth plate metabolism. (author)

  16. Plant Growth and Phosphorus Uptake of Three Riparian Grass Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian buffers can significantly reduce sediment-bound phosphorus (P) entering surface water, but control of dissolved P inputs is more challenging. Because plant roots remove P from soil solution, it follows that plant uptake will reduce dissolved P losses. We evaluated P uptake of smooth bromegr...

  17. [Increased glucose uptake by seborrheic keratosis on PET scan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merklen-Djafri, C; Truntzer, P; Hassler, S; Cribier, B

    2017-05-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is an examination based upon the uptake of a radioactive tracer by hypermetabolic cells. It is primarily used in tandem with tomodensitometry (PET-TDM) for cancer staging because of its high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of metastases. However, unusually high uptake may occur with benign tumours, including skin tumours. Herein, we report an extremely rare case of pathological uptake levels resulting from seborrhoeic keratosis. A 55-year-old male patient with oesophageal squamous-cell carcinoma was referred to us following the discovery of an area of high marker uptake following PET-TDM and corresponding to a pigmented skin lesion. No other areas of suspect high uptake were seen. The lesion was surgically excised and histological examination indicated seborrhoeic keratosis. The histological appearance was that of standard seborrhoeic keratosis without any notable mitotic activity. PET-TDM is an examination that enables diagnosis of malignancy. However, rare cases have been described of increased marker uptake by benign cutaneous tumours such as histiocytofibroma, pilomatricoma and condyloma. To date, there have only been only very few cases of increased uptake due to seborrhoeic keratosis. This extremely unusual case of increased glucose uptake in PET-TDM due to seborrhoeic keratosis confirms that the hypermetabolic activity detected by this examination is not necessarily synonymous with malignancy and that confirmation by clinical and histological findings is essential. The reasons for increased metabolic activity within such benign tumours are not known. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. SUBSTRATE UPTAKE AND UTILIZATION BY A MARINE ULTRAMICROBACTERIUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHUT, F; JANSEN, M; GOMES, TMP; GOTTSCHAL, JC; HARDER, W; PRINS, RA

    A facultatively oligotrophic ultramicrobacterium (strain RB2256) isolated from an Alaskan fjord by extinction dilution in seawater, was grown in batch culture and under single- and dual-substrate-limitation of alanine and glucose in a chemostat. The nature of the uptake systems, and the uptake

  19. Increased brain fatty acid uptake in metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karmi, Anna; Iozzo, Patricia; Viljanen, Antti

    2010-01-01

    To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it.......To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it....

  20. High radio-isotope uptakes in patients with hypothyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wing, J.; Kalk, W.J.; Ganda, C. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Medicine)

    1982-12-04

    Hypothyroidism is usually associated with a low radio-isotope uptake by the thyriod gland. We report 8 cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with clinical and biochemical hypothyroidism and with borderline high or overtly increased technetium-99m pertechnetate and/or iodine-131 uptakes.

  1. Automatic measurement of the radioactive mercury uptake by the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurowski, S.; Raynaud, C.; CEA, 91 - Orsay

    1976-01-01

    An entirely automatic method to measure the Hg uptake by the kidney is proposed. The following operations are carried out in succession: measurement of extrarenal activity, demarcation of uptake areas, anatomical identification of uptake areas, separation of overlapping organ images and measurement of kidney depth. The first results thus calculated on 30 patients are very close to those obtained with a standard manual method and are highly encouraging. Two important points should be stressed: a broad demarcation of the uptake areas is necessary and an original method, that of standard errors, is useful for the background noise determination and uptake area demarcation. This automatic measurement technique is so designed that it can be applied to other special cases [fr

  2. Is there a strategy I iron uptake mechanism in maize?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suzhen; Zhou, Xiaojin; Chen, Jingtang; Chen, Rumei

    2018-04-03

    Iron is a metal micronutrient that is essential for plant growth and development. Graminaceous and nongraminaceous plants have evolved different mechanisms to mediate Fe uptake. Generally, strategy I is used by nongraminaceous plants like Arabidopsis, while graminaceous plants, such as rice, barley, and maize, are considered to use strategy II Fe uptake. Upon the functional characterization of OsIRT1 and OsIRT2 in rice, it was suggested that rice, as an exceptional graminaceous plant, utilizes both strategy I and strategy II Fe uptake systems. Similarly, ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 were identified as functional zinc and iron transporters in the maize genome, along with the determination of several genes encoding Zn and Fe transporters, raising the possibility that strategy I Fe uptake also occurs in maize. This mini-review integrates previous reports and recent evidence to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms of Fe uptake in maize.

  3. Muscle contraction increases carnitine uptake via translocation of OCTN2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuichi, Yasuro; Sugiura, Tomoko; Kato, Yukio; Takakura, Hisashi; Hanai, Yoshiteru; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Masuda, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Muscle contraction augmented carnitine uptake into rat hindlimb muscles. ► An increase in carnitine uptake was due to an intrinsic clearance, not blood flow. ► Histochemical analysis showed sarcolemmal OCTN2 was emphasized after contraction. ► OCTN2 protein in sarcolemmal fraction was increased in contracting muscles. -- Abstract: Since carnitine plays an important role in fat oxidation, influx of carnitine could be crucial for muscle metabolism. OCTN2 (SLC22A5), a sodium-dependent solute carrier, is assumed to transport carnitine into skeletal muscle cells. Acute regulation of OCTN2 activity in rat hindlimb muscles was investigated in response to electrically induced contractile activity. The tissue uptake clearance (CL uptake ) of L-[ 3 H]carnitine during muscle contraction was examined in vivo using integration plot analysis. The CL uptake of [ 14 C]iodoantipyrine (IAP) was also determined as an index of tissue blood flow. To test the hypothesis that increased carnitine uptake involves the translocation of OCTN2, contraction-induced alteration in the subcellular localization of OCTN2 was examined. The CL uptake of L-[ 3 H]carnitine in the contracting muscles increased 1.4–1.7-fold as compared to that in the contralateral resting muscles (p uptake of [ 14 C]IAP was much higher than that of L-[ 3 H]carnitine, but no association between the increase in carnitine uptake and blood flow was obtained. Co-immunostaining of OCTN2 and dystrophin (a muscle plasma membrane marker) showed an increase in OCTN2 signal in the plasma membrane after muscle contraction. Western blotting showed that the level of sarcolemmal OCTN2 was greater in contracting muscles than in resting muscles (p < 0.05). The present study showed that muscle contraction facilitated carnitine uptake in skeletal muscles, possibly via the contraction-induced translocation of its specific transporter OCTN2 to the plasma membrane.

  4. Uptake of radionuclides caesium and cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukac, P.; Foldesova, M.

    1995-01-01

    By means of chemical treatment ammonium, potassium, sodium and H-form of zeolite were prepared. The chemical modifications of zeolite were carried out with: 2M solution of NaNO 3 , NH 4 NO 3 , KNO 3 ; 0,1M solution of HCl; NaOH solution of different concentration. The method of model radioactive solution was used to find the sorption ability for cesium and cobalt every modified zeolite. The model solution were 0.05M solution of cobalt labelled by 60 Co or cesium labelled by 137 Cs. The highest sorption ability was observed for zeolite modified by NaOH. The influence of pH on uptake of cesium and cobalt by modified zeolite was searched as well. The experimental data (leaching tests, compressive strength measurement and porosity) were measured for the case the Cs and Cs from model water solution and radioactive waste water were up taken on chemically modified zeolite and were subsequently incorporated into cement casts on blast furnace cement slags basis. The leachability was tested in water, in basis solution and in acid solution. The leachability in water and basic solution was negligible, in acid solution it was less than 4% which is inside of value of applied measure method. The compressive strength, porosity and leaching experiment are hopefully and show good mechanical stability and good retention of observed radionuclides in samples exposed in leaching solutions. (J.K.)

  5. Lysimeter study of vegetative uptake from saltstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1990-06-08

    At the Savannah River Site, liquid, low-level nuclear waste will be disposed of by incorporating the waste in concrete, a wasteform called saltstone. Saltstone monoliths will then be buried in the earth. To study the potential uptake of radionuclides by trees and other plants growing in the soil in the area containing buried saltstone, a lysimeter study has been in progress since 1984. Thirty two lysimeters were designed, constructed, and filled with soil. Saltstone samples, containing the liquid, low-level supernate from the tank 50 in-tank precipitation demonstration, were buried in some of the lysimeters. Other lysimeters, not containing saltstone, were used as controls. Crops, grass, and trees were planted in the lysimeters and sampled periodically to determine radionuclide concentrations. Water samples were also collected from the lysimeter sumps and analyzed for radionuclide content. This report documents the results of vegetative and lysimeter sump water measurements from the beginning of the project in November of 1984 through September of 1989. 6 refs., 22 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. New nitrogen uptake strategy: specialized snow roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onipchenko, Vladimir G; Makarov, Mikhail I; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Ivanov, Viktor B; Akhmetzhanova, Assem A; Tekeev, Dzhamal K; Ermak, Anton A; Salpagarova, Fatima S; Kozhevnikova, Anna D; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2009-08-01

    The evolution of plants has yielded a wealth of adaptations for the acquisition of key mineral nutrients. These include the structure, physiology and positioning of root systems. We report the discovery of specialized snow roots as a plant strategy to cope with the very short season for nutrient uptake and growth in alpine snow-beds, i.e. patches in the landscape that remain snow-covered well into the summer. We provide anatomical, chemical and experimental (15)N isotope tracking evidence that the Caucasian snow-bed plant Corydalis conorhiza forms extensive networks of specialized above-ground roots, which grow against gravity to acquire nitrogen directly from within snow packs. Snow roots capture nitrogen that would otherwise partly run off down-slope over a frozen surface, thereby helping to nourish these alpine ecosystems. Climate warming is changing and will change mountain snow regimes, while large-scale anthropogenic N deposition has increased snow N contents. These global changes are likely to impact on the distribution, abundance and functional significance of snow roots.

  7. Uptake of radionuclides caesium and cobalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukac, P; Foldesova, M [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    By means of chemical treatment ammonium, potassium, sodium and H-form of zeolite were prepared. The chemical modifications of zeolite were carried out with: 2M solution of NaNO{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}, KNO{sub 3}; 0,1M solution of HCl; NaOH solution of different concentration. The method of model radioactive solution was used to find the sorption ability for cesium and cobalt every modified zeolite. The model solution were 0.05M solution of cobalt labelled by {sup 60}Co or cesium labelled by {sup 137}Cs. The highest sorption ability was observed for zeolite modified by NaOH. The influence of pH on uptake of cesium and cobalt by modified zeolite was searched as well. The experimental data (leaching tests, compressive strength measurement and porosity) were measured for the case the Cs and Cs from model water solution and radioactive waste water were up taken on chemically modified zeolite and were subsequently incorporated into cement casts on blast furnace cement slags basis. The leachability was tested in water, in basis solution and in acid solution. The leachability in water and basic solution was negligible, in acid solution it was less than 4% which is inside of value of applied measure method. The compressive strength, porosity and leaching experiment are hopefully and show good mechanical stability and good retention of observed radionuclides in samples exposed in leaching solutions. (J.K.).

  8. Pegylated silica nanoparticles: cytotoxicity and macrophage uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorani, Giulia; Marin, Riccardo; Canton, Patrizia; Pinto, Marcella; Conti, Giamaica; Fracasso, Giulio; Riello, Pietro

    2017-08-01

    Here, we present a thorough study of pegylated silica nanoparticle (SNP) interaction with different biological environments. The SNPs have a mean diameter of about 40 nm and are coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) of different molecular weights. The physicochemical characterization of SNPs allowed the confirmation of the binding of PEG chains to the silica surface, the reproducibility of the synthesis and the narrow size-dispersion. In view of clarifying the SNP interaction with biological environments, we first assessed the SNP reactivity after the incubation with two cell lines (macrophages RAW 264.7 and primary human fibroblasts), observing a reduced toxicity of pegylated SNPs compared to the bare ones. Then, we investigated the effect of the protein adsorption on the SNP surface using the model serum protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). We found that the protein adsorption takes place more heavily on poorly pegylated SNPs, promoting the uptake of the latter by macrophages and leading to an increased mortality of these cells. To better understand this mechanism by means of flow cytometry, the dye Ru(bpy)3Cl2 was incorporated in the SNPs. The overall results highlight the SNP potentialities as a drug delivery system, thanks to the low interactions with the macrophages.

  9. Cellular uptake: lessons from supramolecular organic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Giulio; Bang, Eun-Kyoung; Montenegro, Javier; Matile, Stefan

    2015-07-04

    The objective of this Feature Article is to reflect on the importance of established and emerging principles of supramolecular organic chemistry to address one of the most persistent problems in life sciences. The main topic is dynamic covalent chemistry on cell surfaces, particularly disulfide exchange for thiol-mediated uptake. Examples of boronate and hydrazone exchange are added for contrast, comparison and completion. Of equal importance are the discussions of proximity effects in polyions and counterion hopping, and more recent highlights on ring tension and ion pair-π interactions. These lessons from supramolecular organic chemistry apply to cell-penetrating peptides, particularly the origin of "arginine magic" and the "pyrenebutyrate trick," and the currently emerging complementary "disulfide magic" with cell-penetrating poly(disulfide)s. They further extend to the voltage gating of neuronal potassium channels, gene transfection, and the delivery of siRNA. The collected examples illustrate that the input from conceptually innovative chemistry is essential to address the true challenges in biology beyond incremental progress and random screening.

  10. Explaining variation in the uptake of HPV vaccination in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whynes David K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In England, two national programmes of HPV vaccination for girls have been instituted, a routine programme for 12- and 13-year-olds and a catch-up programme for 17- and 18-year-olds. Uptake rates across the country have been far from uniform, and this research sought to identify factors explaining the variation in uptake by locality. Methods An association between uptake, deprivation and ethnic background had been established in pilot research. The present analysis was conducted at an aggregate, Primary Care Trust (PCT, level for the first year of the programmes. Published measures of HPV vaccination uptake, material deprivation, ethnic composition of PCT populations, primary care quality, and uptake of cervical screening and of other childhood immunisations were collated. Strong evidence of collinearity amongst the explanatory variables required a factor analysis to be undertaken. This provided four independent factors, used thereafter in regression models to explain uptake by PCT. Results The factor analysis revealed that ethnic composition was associated with attitudes towards cervical screening and other childhood vaccinations, whilst material deprivation and quality of primary care were orthogonal. Ethnic composition, early childhood vaccination, cervical screening and primary care quality were found to be influential in predicting uptake in both the routine and the catch-up cohorts, although with a lower degree of confidence in the case of the last two independent variables. Lower primary care quality was significant in explaining a greater fall in vaccination uptake between the first two doses in the catch-up cohort. Greater deprivation was a significant explanatory factor for both uptake and the fall in uptake between doses for the catch-up cohort but not for uptake in the routine cohort. Conclusion These results for uptake of the first year of the national programme using aggregate data corroborate findings from

  11. Inorganic carbon uptake during photosynthesis. II. Uptake by isolated Asparagus mesophyll cells during isotopic disequilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espie, G.S.; Owttrim, G.W.; Colman, B.

    1986-01-01

    The species of inorganic carbon (CO 2 or HCO 3 - ) taken up as a source of substrate for photosynthetic fixation by isolated Asparagus sprengeri mesophyll cells is investigated. Discrimination between CO 2 or HCO 3 - transport, during steady state photosynthesis, is achieved by monitoring the changes (by 14 C fixation) which occur in the specific activity of the intracellular pool of inorganic carbon when the inorganic carbon present in the suspending medium is in a state of isotopic disequilibrium. Quantitative comparisons between theoretical (CO 2 or HCO 3 - transport) and experimental time-courses of 14 C incorporation, over the pH range of 5.2 to 7.5, indicate that the specific activity of extracellular CO 2 , rather than HCO 3 - , is the appropriate predictor of the intracellular specific activity. It is concluded, therefore, that CO 2 is the major source of exogenous inorganic carbon taken up by Asparagus cells. However, at high pH (8.5), a component of net DIC uptake may be attributable to HCO 3 - transport, as the incorporation of 14 C during isotopic disequilibrium exceeds the maximum possible incorporation predicted on the basis of CO 2 uptake alone. The contribution of HCO 3 - to net inorganic carbon uptake (pH 8.5) is variable, ranging from 5 to 16%, but is independent of the extracellular HCO 3 - concentration. The evidence for direct HCO 3 - transport is subject to alternative explanations and must, therefore, be regarded as equivocal. Nonlinear regression analysis of the rate of 14 C incorporation as a function of time indicates the presence of a small extracellular resistance to the diffusion of CO 2 , which is partially alleviated by a high extracellular concentration of HCO 3 -

  12. Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake in Parkinson's disease also decreases at thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Hideaki; Udaka, Fukashi; Oda, Masaya; Tamura, Akiko; Kubori, Tamotsu; Nishinaka, Kazuto; Kameyama, Masakuni

    2005-01-01

    Decreased cardiac metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake was reported in Parkinson's disease and this contributes to the differential diagnosis between Parkinson's disease and other forms of parkinsonism such as multiple system atrophy. However, decreased MIBG uptake of the thyroid has not been demonstrated. The objective of this study was to compare MIBG uptake of the thyroid among Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and controls. Twenty-six patients with Parkinson's disease, 11 patients with multiple system atrophy and 14 controls were examined in this study. Planar images were taken 15 minutes (early images) and 3 hours (late images) after intravenous injection of 111 MBq 123 I-MIBG. MIBG uptake of the thyroid on early images decreased significantly in Parkinson's disease compared to controls (p<0.0001) and multiple system atrophy (p=0.018). MIBG uptake of the thyroid on early images decreased significantly also in multiple system atrophy compared to controls (p=0.027). On late images, thyroid uptake differed significantly only between Parkinson's disease and controls (p=0.010). Our study is the first to demonstrate decreased MIBG uptake of the thyroid in Parkinson's disease. Sympathetic nervous denervation of Parkinson's disease occurred not only in the heart but also in the thyroid. (author)

  13. Notes on the physiology of Hg uptake by the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynaud, C.

    1976-01-01

    The kidney has many functions of which the best known is excretion, and the purpose of most functional exploration methods is to study the excretion capacity. The Hg uptake test explores another function, the uptake of metals and toxic substances. The uptake process involves an active transport through the peritubular membrane and a concentration inside the kidney cell in a bound or insoluble form. Transfer into the tubular lumen, if any, is quantitatively negligible and appears to be due to neither an active nor a passive transfer. This uptake process may be identified in vivo from the shape of the kidney and urine radioactivity curves, even when excretion and uptake are associated, the former curve rising slowly to a plateau while the latter, very low, also appears to reach a plateau. The kidney and urine 197 HgCl 2 radioactivity curves illustrate this process very well. The 197 Hg uptake fraction at the plateau level has been proposed has a kidney function exploration test, this value being related by a highly significant correlation to other quantitative tests such as inuline and PAH clearances, PAH Tm and urine concentration capacity. In rats the 197 HgCl 2 uptake area has been located, by measurements on dissected nephrons, at the pars recta and to a lesser extent the whole of the proximal convolution [fr

  14. Regulation of Dopamine Uptake by Vasoactive Peptides in the Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Rukavina Mikusic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the key role of renal dopamine in tubular sodium handling, we hypothesized that c-type natriuretic peptide (CNP and Ang-(1-7 may regulate renal dopamine availability in tubular cells, contributing to Na+, K+-ATPase inhibition. Present results show that CNP did not affect either 3H-dopamine uptake in renal tissue or Na+, K+-ATPase activity; meanwhile, Ang-(1-7 was able to increase 3H-dopamine uptake and decreased Na+, K+-ATPase activity in renal cortex. Ang-(1-7 and dopamine together decreased further Na+, K+-ATPase activity showing an additive effect on the sodium pump. In addition, hydrocortisone reversed Ang-(1-7-dopamine overinhibition on the enzyme, suggesting that this inhibition is closely related to Ang-(1-7 stimulation on renal dopamine uptake. Both anantin and cANP (4-23-amide did not modify CNP effects on 3H-dopamine uptake by tubular cells. The Mas receptor antagonist, A-779, blocked the increase elicited by Ang-(1-7 on 3H-dopamine uptake. The stimulatory uptake induced by Ang-(1-7 was even more pronounced in the presence of losartan, suggesting an inhibitory effect of Ang-(1-7 on AT1 receptors on 3H-dopamine uptake. By increasing dopamine bioavailability in tubular cells, Ang-(1-7 enhances Na+, K+-ATPase activity inhibition, contributing to its natriuretic and diuretic effects.

  15. Selective uptake of manganese in seawater by hybrid microcapsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzumaki, Takenori; Yan, Wu; Mimura, Hitoshi; Niibori, Yuichi

    2008-01-01

    The selective separation and recovery of low concentrated elements in seawater are very important subjects for the advancement of environmental monitoring. Selective uptake of manganese from seawater was carried out by using two kinds of microcapsules (MCs) including activated carbon (AC) and insoluble tannin (T). The adsorbents, AC and T, having affinity for manganese, were enclosed into MCs (ACMS, TMC) by sol-gel method using matrices of biopolymer (calcium alginate gel polymer, CaALG). The uptake properties and selectivity of Mn 2+ (1 ppm) for MCs were examined by batch method. Relatively large uptake percentages of Mn 2+ above 80% were obtained within 1 h, and the uptake percentage above 80% was kept at pH 3-6. The uptake order was found to be T, AC, CaALG > ACMC, TMC. The uptake of Mn 2+ decreased with increasing Na + ion concentration. This tendency depends on the swelling property of CaALG; it tends to solate in the presence of highly concentrated Na + ions. The manganese ions were adsorbed on CaALG, ACMC and TMC from seawater containing 1,000 ppm Mn 2+ . ACMC and TMC had selectivity to Mn 2+ , and, especially, the matrices of CaALG also had an excellent uptake and selectivity properties. (author)

  16. Uptake mechanism for iodine species to black carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choung, Sungwook; Um, Wooyong; Kim, Minkyung; Kim, Min-Gyu

    2013-09-17

    Natural organic matter (NOM) plays an important role in determining the fate and transport of iodine species such as iodide (I(-)) and iodate (IO3(-)) in groundwater system. Although NOM exists as diverse forms in environments, prior iodine studies have mainly focused on uptake processes of iodide and iodate to humic materials. This study was conducted to determine the iodide and iodate uptake potential for a particulate NOM (i.e., black carbon [BC]). A laboratory-produced BC and commercial humic acid were used for batch experiments to compare their iodine uptake properties. The BC exhibited >100 times greater uptake capability for iodide than iodate at low pH of ~3, while iodide uptake was negligible for the humic acid. The uptake properties of both solids strongly depend on the initial iodine aqueous concentrations. After uptake reaction of iodide to the BC, X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy results indicated that the iodide was converted to electrophilic species, and iodine was covalently bound to carbon atom in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in the BC. The computed distribution coefficients (i.e., Kd values) suggest that the BC materials retard significantly the transport of iodide at low pH in environmental systems containing even a small amount of BC.

  17. Coupling nutrient uptake and energy flow in headwater streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Fellows, Christine [Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland, Australia; Valett, H. Maurice [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Dahm, Cliff [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Thomas, Steve [University of Nebraska

    2006-08-01

    Nutrient cycling and energy flow in ecosystems are tightly linked through the metabolic processes of organisms. Greater uptake of inorganic nutrients is expected to be associated with higher rates of metabolism [gross primary production (GPP) and respiration (R)], due to assimilatory demand of both autotrophs and heterotrophs. However, relationships between uptake and metabolism should vary with the relative contribution of autochthonous and allochthonous sources of organic matter. To investigate the relationship between metabolism and nutrient uptake, we used whole-stream and benthic chamber methods to measure rates of nitrate-nitrogen (NO{sub 3}-N) uptake and metabolism in four headwater streams chosen to span a range of light availability and therefore differing rates of GPP and contributions of autochthonous carbon. We coupled whole-stream metabolism with measures of NO{sub 3}-N uptake conducted repeatedly over the same stream reach during both day and night, as well as incubating benthic sediments under both light and dark conditions. NO{sub 3}-N uptake was generally greater in daylight compared to dark conditions, and although day-night differences in whole-stream uptake were not significant, light-dark differences in benthic chambers were significant at three of the four sites. Estimates of N demand indicated that assimilation by photoautotrophs could account for the majority of NO{sub 3}-N uptake at the two sites with relatively open canopies. Contrary to expectations, photoautotrophs contributed substantially to NO{sub 3}-N uptake even at the two closed-canopy sites, which had low values of GPP/R and relied heavily on allochthonous carbon to fuel R.

  18. Retinal uptake and release of (/sup 3/H)DABA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, B; Ehinger, B [Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    1978-03-01

    The uptake of (/sup 3/H)DABA was studied in rat, guinea-pig and cat retinas in vivo and in rabbit retinas both in vivo and in vitro by autoradiography. (/sup 3/H)DABA was preferentially accumulated by a type of amacrine cell but after brief incubation or shortly after intravitreal injections there was not only a neuronal uptake but also a glial one. In guinea-pigs the glial labelling in vivo was significant also after 4 hr. The glial uptake (rabbits) was found to be saturable and temperature dependent as expected for an active uptake mechanism. The Ksub(m) of DABA uptake was 2.11 x 10/sup -5/ m and Vsub(max) 2.38 x 10/sup -5/ mol/mg/min. GABA competitively inhibited the DABA uptake. The uptake was not statistically significantly influenced by OMEGA-amino acids such as glycine, ..beta..-alanine, ..cap alpha..-alanine or epsilon-aminocaproic acid. The effect of different stimuli on the spontaneous efflux of radioactivity from (/sup 3/H)DABA preloaded rabbit retinas was studied with (/sup 3/H)DABA localized to neurons. Light flashes evoked a small but not statistically significant increased release whereas 40mM-K/sup +/ evoked an immediate and large increase. Unlabelled DABA, GABA and ..beta..-alanine (10/sup -5/M) increased the spontaneous efflux of (/sup 3/H)DABA but not glycine. It is concluded that there is in the retina of rats, guinea-pigs, cats, and rabbits, a glial high affinity uptake mechanism in addition to the neuronal uptake. DABA seems to be transported by the same mechanism as GABA in both systems. The DABA seems to be better retained in neurons than in glia in rats, cats and rabbits, which allows it to be used as a neuronal marker.

  19. Phosphorus deficiency enhances molybdenum uptake by tomato plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuwinkel, H.; Kirkby, E.A.; Le Bot, J.; Marschner, H.

    1992-01-01

    Water culture experiments are described which provide conclusive evidence that Mo uptake by tomato plants is markedly enhanced by P deficiency. In a longterm experiment, which ran for 11 days, in marked contrast to the uptake of other nutrients, a three fold higher Mo uptake rate was observed after only four days of withdrawal of P from the nutrient medium. In contrast to the gradual increase in pH of the nutrient medium of the plants supplied with P, the pH in the medium of the -P plants fell. Throughout the growth of these plants net H+ efflux could be accounted for by excess cation over anion uptake, indicating that organic acid extrusion plays no major role in the observed fall in pH. Further evidence that Mo uptake is enhanced in P deficient tomato plants is provided in short-term nutrient solution experiments (1h and 4h) using radioactive molybdenum (99Mo). Compared with P sufficient plants, the uptake rates of 99Mo by P deficient plants were three to five times higher after 1h and nine to twelve times higher after 4h. Resupplying P during the uptake periods to deficient plants reduced the uptake rate of 99Mo to values similar to those of P sufficient plants. It is concluded that the uptake of molybdate occurs via phosphate binding/ transporting sites at the plasma membrane of root cells. Further support for this conclusion comes from exchange experiments with non-labelled molybdenum, which show a much larger amount of 99Mo exchangeable from the roots of P deficient plants

  20. Muscular Oxygen Uptake Kinetics in Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschate, J; Drescher, U; Baum, K; Eichberg, S; Schiffer, T; Latsch, J; Brixius, K; Hoffmann, U

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary oxygen uptake (V˙O2) kinetics and heart rate kinetics are influenced by age and fitness. Muscular V˙O2 kinetics can be estimated from heart rate and pulmonary V˙O2. In this study the applicability of a test using pseudo-random binary sequences in combination with a model to estimate muscular V˙O2 kinetics was tested. Muscular V˙O2 kinetics were expected to be faster than pulmonary V˙O2 kinetics, slowed in aged subjects and correlated with maximum V˙O2 and heart rate kinetics. 27 elderly subjects (73±3 years; 81.1±8.2 kg; 175±4.7 cm) participated. Cardiorespiratory kinetics were assessed using the maximum of cross-correlation functions, higher maxima implying faster kinetics. Muscular V˙O2 kinetics were faster than pulmonary V˙O2 kinetics (0.31±0.1 vs. 0.29±0.1 s; p=0.004). Heart rate kinetics were not correlated with muscular or pulmonary V˙O2 kinetics or maximum V˙O2. Muscular V˙O2 kinetics correlated with maximum V˙O2 (r=0.35; p=0.033). This suggests, that muscular V˙O2 kinetics are faster than estimates from pulmonary V˙O2 and related to maximum V˙O2 in aged subjects. In the future this experimental approach may help to characterize alterations in muscular V˙O2 under various conditions independent of motivation and maximal effort. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Incidence and characteristics of uterine leiomyomas with FDG uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Inubushi, Masayuki; Kido, Aki; Miyagawa, Masao; Inoue, Takeshi; Shinohara, Katsura; Kajihara, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas sometimes show focal 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake on positron emission tomography (PET) images that may result in a false-positive diagnosis for malignant lesions. This study was conducted to investigate the incidence and characteristics of uterine leiomyomas that showed FDG uptake. We reviewed FDG-PET and pelvic magnetic resonance (MR) images of 477 pre-menopausal (pre-MP, age 42.1±7.3 years) and 880 post-MP (age 59.9±6.8 years) healthy women who underwent these tests as parts of cancer screening. Of 1357, 323 underwent annual cancer screening four times, 97 did three times, 191 did twice, and the rest were screened once. Focal FDG uptake (maximal standardized uptake value >3.0) in the pelvis was localized and characterized on co-registered PET/MR images. Uterine leiomyomas were found in 164 pre-MP and 338 post-MP women. FDG uptake was observed in 18 leiomyomas of 17 of the 164 (10.4%) pre-MP women and in 4 leiomyomas of 4 of the 338 (1.2%) post-MP women. The incidence was significantly higher in pre-MP women than in post-MP women (chi-square, P<0.001). Of the 22, 13 showed signal intensity equal to or higher than that of the myometrium on T2-weighted MR images, which suggested abundant cellularity, whereas the majority of leiomyomas without FDG uptake showed low signal intensity. Of the 13 women, 12 examined more than twice showed substantial changes in the level of FDG uptake in leiomyomas each year with FDG uptake disappearing or newly appearing. These changes were observed frequently in relation with menopause or menstrual phases. Leiomyomas with focal FDG uptake were seen in both pre- and post-MP women with a higher incidence in pre-MP women. Abundant cellularity and hormonal dependency may explain a part of the mechanisms of FDG uptake in leiomyomas. It is important to know that the level of FDG uptake in leiomyomas can change and newly appearing FDG uptake does not necessarily mean malignant transformation. (author)

  2. Uptake of americium-241 by algae and bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesy, Jr, J P; Paine, D [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, S.C. (USA)

    1978-01-01

    The uptake of americium by three algae, Scenedesmus obliguus, Selenastrum capricomutum and Chlorella pyrenosdosa and a bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila was studied. Live and fixed cells of each algal species and live bacterial cells were used. It is shown that algae and bacteria concentrate americium 241 to a high degree which makes them important links in the biomagnification phenomenon which may ultimately lead to a human hazard and be potentially important in recycling Am /sup 241/ in the water column and mobilization from sediments. Chemical fixation of algal cells caused increased uptake which indicated that uptake is by passive diffusion and probably due to chemical alteration of surface binding sites.

  3. Gallium uptake in myositis ossificans. Potential pitfalls in diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzman, L.; Lee, V.W.; Grant, P.

    1987-01-01

    Seven cases of gallium uptake in myositis ossificans are described. Gallium scans are done frequently in paraplegics, quadriplegics, and comatose patients to look for occult infection. It is important to be aware of possible gallium uptake in myositis ossificans, particularly in the extremities, which is frequent in these patients. Gallium uptake may be present prior to any abnormalities seen on plain films or CT scans. It is important to correlate roentgenograms with abnormal gallium scans, particularly in the extremities, to avoid potential pitfalls in diagnosis and prevent unnecessary antibiotic treatment. A bone scan should be obtained whenever possible, particularly when roentgenograms are negative, to confirm the diagnosis

  4. Effect of nutrition peculiarities on 137Cs uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizhnikov, V.A.; Marej, A.N.; Borisov, B.K.; Petukhova, Eh.V.

    1980-01-01

    Reasons for different 137 Cs uptake from diets of the vegetable-animal type are studied. Indexes of accumulation multiplicity for Moscow and the Byelorussian-Ukrainian wooded district are compared. 137 Cs buildup levels in the organism of the USSR and the USA population are presented. The most probable reason for peculiarities in 137 Cs uptake from various types of diet, as well as the reason for the alterations in the uptake of this radionuclide from the diet of the same type, is the non-uniformity of 137 Cs contribution of aerial and nonaerial origin

  5. Thyroid iodine uptake and serum triiodothyronine level in eldery subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradowski, L.; Dolinska, G.; Knapik, Z.; Rynowiecka, M.

    1980-01-01

    Iodine uptake by the thyroid and serum triiodothyronine (T 3 ) level in subjects aged from 65 to 93 years were determined. Low T 3 level and normal uptake of inorganic iodine by the thyroid were found. In the light of these results it is suggested that normal accumulation of inorganic iodine and low production of T 3 are characteristic features of euthyroidism in elderly subjects. It is believed that the function of the thyroid is expressed better by determination of the serum levels of thyroid hormones than determination of the uptake of radioactive iodine. Elaboration of standard normal values which would take into account abnormalities encountered in old age is postulated. (author)

  6. Elevated sacroilac joint uptake ratios in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Smet, A.A.; Mahmood, T.; Robinson, R.G.; Lindsley, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    Sacroiliac joint radiographs and radionuclide sacroiliac joint uptake ratios were obtained on 14 patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus. Elevated joint ratios were found unilaterally in two patients and bilaterally in seven patients when their lupus was active. In patients whose disease became quiescent, the uptake ratios returned to normal. Two patients had persistently elevated ratios with continued clinical and laboratory evidence of active lupus. Mild sacroiliac joint sclerosis and erosions were detected on pelvic radiographs in these same two patients. Elevated quantitative sacroiliac joint uptake ratios may occur as a manifestation of active systemic lupus erythematosus

  7. Quantitative 99mTc diphosphonate uptake measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    There are several different techniques currently in use for quantifying diphosphonate uptake by the skeleton. These can be considered in two main categories: local bone or whole-body uptake measurements. The choice of technique depends on the clinical problem being investigated and also on available equipment an expertise. The wide variety of approaches to diphosphonate quantitation ensures that these measurements can be obtained in almost any nuclear medicine department. This chapter discusses the general factors which may influence diphosphonate uptake measurements and outlines the techniques most relevant to current clinical practice

  8. Uptake of gold nanoparticles in primary human endothelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingberg, Henrik; Oddershede, Lene B.; Löschner, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are relevant in nanomedicine for drug delivery in the vascular system, where endothelial cells are the first point of contact. We investigated the uptake of 80 nm AuNPs in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by flow cytometry, 3D confocal microscopy......–3 or more particles. Pre-treatment with chlorpromazine inhibited the AuNP-uptake in HUVECs, indicating that internalisation occurred mainly by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Cell activation by exposure to tumour necrosis factor or lipopolysaccharide had a slight or no effect on the uptake of Au...

  9. Effect of different biochars on Nitrogen uptake in poplar trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Elizabeth; Tonon, Giustino; Scandellari, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Influence of biochar on soil nitrogen transformation and plant uptake has been reported. This paper presents preliminary results of plant N uptake in poplars by using 15N isotope tracer approach Two types of biochar were applied to two sets of pots containing only sand and each pot received a pre-rooted poplar cutting. Half of the pots were inoculated with commercial mycorrhizal gel and the other half were left without. It is intended to provide information on how biochar, mycorrhiza and root interaction mediate nitrogen uptake and organ allocation.

  10. Ensemble learned vaccination uptake prediction using web search queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Dalum; Lioma, Christina; Mølbak, Kåre

    2016-01-01

    We present a method that uses ensemble learning to combine clinical and web-mined time-series data in order to predict future vaccination uptake. The clinical data is official vaccination registries, and the web data is query frequencies collected from Google Trends. Experiments with official...... vaccine records show that our method predicts vaccination uptake eff?ectively (4.7 Root Mean Squared Error). Whereas performance is best when combining clinical and web data, using solely web data yields comparative performance. To our knowledge, this is the ?first study to predict vaccination uptake...

  11. Barriers to cervical cancer screening uptake among rural women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [5] Among Asian-American women, psychosocial ... poorly-trained personnel were health system-related barriers. In sub-Saharan ... explored the religious and cultural barriers to cervical screening ... perceived barriers to screening uptake.

  12. Modeling the Uptake and Transpiration of TCE Using Phreatophytic Trees

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wise, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    .... The purpose of this research is to develop quantitative concepts for understanding the dynamics of TCE uptake and transpiration by phreatophytic trees over a short rotation woody crop time frame...

  13. Effect of rhamnolipids on the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Lizhong; Zhang Ming

    2008-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of rhamnolipids, a biosurfactant, on the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by ryegrass. Results showed that rhamnolipids could enhance the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass roots. With increasing concentration of rhamnolipids, the PAH content in ryegrass roots initially increased and then decreased, while the PAH content in ryegrass shoots did not change. Batch studies also showed that the sorption of phenanthrene by fresh ryegrass roots was dependent on rhamnolipid concentration and showed the same trends as the uptake experiment. The increase of permeability of ryegrass root cells with the increase of rhamnolipid concentration may lead to the initial enhancement of PAH content in ryegrass roots, and the decrease of PAH adsorption onto the root surface with further increase of rhamnolipids led to the decrease of PAH content in ryegrass roots. - Rhamnolipids, a biosurfactant, can promote the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass, which indicates a potential application of surfactant-enhanced phytoremediation

  14. Awareness and Uptake of Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness and Uptake of Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination and Cervical ... Multistage sampling was used to select 400 female undergraduate students that ... None of the respondents knew that sexual exposure to HPV could result in ...

  15. Nitrogen uptake into unfertilized pasture of the Willem Pretorius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogen uptake into unfertilized pasture of the Willem Pretorius Game Reserve, ... The herbage yield of five main types of grassland in the Willem Pretorius Game Reserve was measured by clipping five 0, 5 m ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  16. Modulation of glucose uptake in adipose tissue by nitric oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    ion-dependent breakdown and trans-nitrosation reactions are ... [McGrowder D, Ragoobirsingh D and Brown P 2006 Modulation of glucose uptake in adipose tissue by nitric oxide-generating ... Briefly, nicotinamide (Sigma Chemical Co.,.

  17. Estimating plant root water uptake using a neural network approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, D M; Shi, H B; Pang, H B

    2010-01-01

    but has not yet been addressed. This paper presents and tests such an approach. The method is based on a neural network model, estimating the water uptake using different types of data that are easy to measure in the field. Sunflower grown in a sandy loam subjected to water stress and salinity was taken......Water uptake by plant roots is an important process in the hydrological cycle, not only for plant growth but also for the role it plays in shaping microbial community and bringing in physical and biochemical changes to soils. The ability of roots to extract water is determined by combined soil...... and plant characteristics, and how to model it has been of interest for many years. Most macroscopic models for water uptake operate at soil profile scale under the assumption that the uptake rate depends on root density and soil moisture. Whilst proved appropriate, these models need spatio-temporal root...

  18. Awareness, knowledge and uptake of preconception care among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness, knowledge and uptake of preconception care among women in ... care to increase the chances of healthy outcomes of pregnancy for both mother and child. ... Descriptive statistics as well as Chi-square analysis was done to show ...

  19. Nitrogen uptake in the northeastern Arabian Sea during winter cooling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, S.; Ramesh, R.; Dwivedi, R.M.; Raman, M.; Sheshshayee, M.S.; DeSouza, W.

    /plain; charset=UTF-8 Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Oceanography Volume 2010, Article ID 819029, 11 pages doi:10.1155/2010/819029 Research Article Nitrogen Uptake in the Northeastern Arabian Sea during Winter Cooling S. Kumar, 1...

  20. Uptake of radionuclides by vegetation at a High Arctic location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdall, M.; Gwynn, J.P.; Moran, C.; O'Dea, J.; Davids, C.; Lind, B.

    2005-01-01

    Radionuclide levels in vegetation from a High Arctic location were studied and compared to in situ soil concentrations. Levels of the anthropogenic radionuclide 137 Cs and the natural radionuclides 40 K, 238 U, 226 Ra and 232 Th are discussed and transfer factor (TF) values and aggregated transfer (Tag) values are calculated for vascular plants. Levels of 137 Cs in vegetation generally followed the order mosses > lichen > vascular plants. The uptake of 137 Cs in vascular plants showed an inverse relationship with the uptake of 40 K, with 137 Cs TF and Tag values generally higher than 40 K TF and Tag values. 40 K activity concentrations in all vegetation showed little correlation to associated soil concentrations, while the uptake of 238 U, 226 Ra and 232 Th by vascular and non-vascular plants was generally low. - Uptake of the anthropogenic radionuclide 137 Cs is highest for moss species

  1. Dermal Uptake of Organic Vapors Commonly Found in Indoor Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W

    2014-01-01

    Transdermal uptake directly from air is a potentially important yet largely overlooked pathway for human exposure to organic vapors indoors. We recently reported (Indoor Air 2012, 22, 356) that transdermal uptake directly from air could be comparable to or larger than intake via inhalation for many......, formaldehyde, and acrolein. Analysis of published experimental data for human subjects for twenty different organic compounds substantiates these model predictions. However, transdermal uptake rates from air have not been measured for the indoor organics that have the largest modeled ratios of dermal......-to-inhalation uptake; for such compounds, the estimates reported here require experimental verification. In accounting for total exposure to indoor organic pollutants and in assessing potential health consequences of such exposures, it is important to consider direct transdermal absorption from air....

  2. Development of 2 multivalent RVF vaccines for improved uptake in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-04-06

    Apr 6, 2018 ... Home · Resources · Publications. Development of 2 multivalent RVF vaccines for improved uptake in cattle and in small ruminants ... concern in recent years, with an increasing number of human cases recorded in Mauritania, ...

  3. Barriers and facilitators to the uptake of voluntary medical male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VMMC) among adolescent boys in KwaZulu–Natal, South Africa. ... Individual cognitive factors facilitating uptake included the belief that VMMC reduced the risk of HIV infection, led to better hygiene and improvement in sexual desirability and ...

  4. Uptake of crude petroleum hydrocarbons by mudflat bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... bacteria exposed to nitrogenous fertilizer plant ... accompanied by a rapid decline in the level of crude petroleum in the amended .... conductivity, turbidity, salinity, dissolved oxygen (fresh sample only) ... Nutrient uptake was.

  5. Effect of rhamnolipids on the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Lizhong [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029 (China)], E-mail: zlz@zju.edu.cn; Zhang Ming [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)], E-mail: zhangming@zju.edu.cn

    2008-11-15

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of rhamnolipids, a biosurfactant, on the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by ryegrass. Results showed that rhamnolipids could enhance the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass roots. With increasing concentration of rhamnolipids, the PAH content in ryegrass roots initially increased and then decreased, while the PAH content in ryegrass shoots did not change. Batch studies also showed that the sorption of phenanthrene by fresh ryegrass roots was dependent on rhamnolipid concentration and showed the same trends as the uptake experiment. The increase of permeability of ryegrass root cells with the increase of rhamnolipid concentration may lead to the initial enhancement of PAH content in ryegrass roots, and the decrease of PAH adsorption onto the root surface with further increase of rhamnolipids led to the decrease of PAH content in ryegrass roots. - Rhamnolipids, a biosurfactant, can promote the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass, which indicates a potential application of surfactant-enhanced phytoremediation.

  6. Uptake of Space Technologies - An Educational Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacai, Hina; Zolotikova, Svetlana; Young, Mandy; Cowsill, Rhys; Wells, Alan; Monks, Paul; Archibald, Alexandra; Smith, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    demonstrated. The results from these workshops and awareness building campaigns will show the end-user 'pull' in the uptake of remote sensing and Earth Observation data to implement successful Local Authority action plans and projects developing innovative solutions to critical Local Authority issues.

  7. The mechanisms of caesium uptake by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, P.; Bowen, H.; Broadley, M.; Hammond, J.; Hampton, C.; Payne, K.

    2004-01-01

    Persistent radioactive isotopes of caesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) in the environment are of concern because they impact on both health and commerce. They enter the terrestrial food chain through plants. Plant roots take up Cs + from the soil solution. To reach the shoot via the xylem, Cs + must cross the plasma membranes of root cells at least twice. This is catalysed by transport proteins. Since Cs is an alkali metal with chemical properties similar to potassium (K), it has been suggested that the same proteins that transport K + also transport Cs + . However, the Cs:K ratio in the shoots of different plant species grown under identical conditions varies widely. Since different transport proteins have contrasting abilities to discriminate between Cs + and K + , this varying Cs:K ratio suggests that a different complement of transport proteins operates in different plant species. In the plasma membrane of root cells inward-rectifying K + channels (KIRCs), outward-rectifying cation channels (KORCs and NORCs), voltage-independent cation channels (VICCs) and voltage-dependent Ca 2+ channels (HACCs and DACCs) are all permeable to Cs + and K + . In addition, the 'high-affinity' K + /H + symporters (KUPs) and 'low affinity' transporters, such as the wheat TaLCT1 protein, may also transport Cs + and K + . The relative abundance and selectivity of these transport proteins in the root plasma membrane will determine the relative fluxes of Cs + and K + to the shoot. Theoretical models describing Cs + fluxes across the plasma membrane of root cells predict that, under natural conditions, VICCs mediate most (30 to 90%) of the Cs + influx, with KUPs mediating the remainder, Cs + influx through KIRCs is negligible, and stelar KORCs load Cs + into the xylem. These predictions are consistent with the identical pharmacology of VICCs and Cs + uptake by plants, which are both partially inhibited by La 3+ , Ba 2+ or Ca 2+ at millimolar concentrations, and the phenotypes of Arabidopsis

  8. Molecular mechanisms of foliar water uptake in a desert tree

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xia; Zhou, Maoxian; Dong, Xicun; Zou, Songbing; Xiao, Honglang; Ma, Xiao-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Water deficits severely affect growth, particularly for the plants in arid and semiarid regions of the world. In addition to precipitation, other subsidiary water, such as dew, fog, clouds and small rain showers, may also be absorbed by leaves in a process known as foliar water uptake. With the severe scarcity of water in desert regions, this process is increasingly becoming a necessity. Studies have reported on physical and physiological processes of foliar water uptake. However, the molecul...

  9. Flavonoid rutin increases thyroid iodide uptake in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frederico Lima Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Thyroid iodide uptake through the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS is not only an essential step for thyroid hormones biosynthesis, but also fundamental for the diagnosis and treatment of different thyroid diseases. However, part of patients with thyroid cancer is refractory to radioiodine therapy, due to reduced ability to uptake iodide, which greatly reduces the chances of survival. Therefore, compounds able to increase thyroid iodide uptake are of great interest. It has been shown that some flavonoids are able to increase iodide uptake and NIS expression in vitro, however, data in vivo are lacking. Flavonoids are polyhydroxyphenolic compounds, found in vegetables present in human diet, and have been shown not only to modulate NIS, but also thyroperoxidase (TPO, the key enzyme in thyroid hormones biosynthesis, besides having antiproliferative effect in thyroid cancer cell lines. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of some flavonoids on thyroid iodide uptake in Wistar rats in vivo. Among the flavonoids tested, rutin was the only one able to increase thyroid iodide uptake, so we decided to evaluate the effect of this flavonoid on some aspects of thyroid hormones synthesis and metabolism. Rutin led to a slight reduction of serum T4 and T3 without changes in serum thyrotropin (TSH, and significantly increased hypothalamic, pituitary and brown adipose tissue type 2 deiodinase and decreased liver type 1 deiodinase activities. Moreover, rutin treatment increased thyroid iodide uptake probably due to the increment of NIS expression, which might be secondary to increased response to TSH, since TSH receptor expression was increased. Thus, rutin might be useful as an adjuvant in radioiodine therapy, since this flavonoid increased thyroid iodide uptake without greatly affecting thyroid function.

  10. Traits affecting early season nitrogen uptake in nine legume species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elana Dayoub

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Legume crops are known to have low soil N uptake early in their life cycle, which can weaken their ability to compete with other species, such as weeds or other crops in intercropping systems. However, there is limited knowledge on the main traits involved in soil N uptake during early growth and for a range of species. The objective of this research was to identify the main traits explaining the variability among legume species in soil N uptake and to study the effect of the soil mineral N supply on the legume strategy for the use of available N sources during early growth. Nine legume species were grown in rhizotrons with or without N supply. Root expansion, shoot and root biomass, nodule establishment, N2 fixation and mineral soil N uptake were measured. A large interspecific variability was observed for all traits affecting soil N uptake. Root lateral expansion and early biomass in relation to seed mass were the major traits influencing soil N uptake regardless of the level of soil N availability. Fenugreek, lentil, alfalfa, and common vetch could be considered weak competitors for soil N due to their low plant biomass and low lateral root expansion. Conversely, peanut, pea, chickpea and soybean had a greater soil N uptake. Faba bean was separated from other species having a higher nodule biomass, a higher N2 fixation and a lower seed reserve depletion. Faba bean was able to simultaneously fix N2 and take up soil N. This work has identified traits of seed mass, shoot and root biomass, root lateral expansion, N2 fixation and seed reserve depletion that allowing classification of legume species regarding their soil N uptake ability during early growth.

  11. Factors affecting 90Sr uptake from the ration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizhnikov, V.A.; Marej, A.N.; Borisov, B.K.; Petukhova, Eh.V.

    1980-01-01

    The dependence of 90 Sr uptake in the human organism on nutrition peculiarities is shown. Strontium-90 polluting vegetable products due to particle sorption from the air is less available for the uptake than 90 Sr resorbed from the soil with vegetation. Therefore, this nuclide is uptaken more completely from milk which containes 90 Sr in a soluble form than from grain and bakery products which are polluted by 90 Sr largely by air

  12. Characterization of iron uptake from hydroxamate siderophores by Chlorella vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allnutt, F.C.T.

    1985-01-01

    Iron uptake by Chlorella vulgaris from ferric-hydroxamate siderophores and the possible production of siderophores by these algae was investigated. No production of siderophores or organic acids was observed. Iron from the two hydroxamate siderophores tested, ferrioximine B (Fe 3+ -DFOB) and ferric-rhodotorulate (Fe 3+ -RA), was taken up at the same rate as iron chelated by citrate or caffeate. Two synthetic chelates, Fe 3+ -EDTA and Fe 3+ -EDDHA, provided iron at a slower rate. Iron uptake was inhibited by 50 μM CCCP or 1 mM vanadate. Cyanide (100 μM KCN) or 25 μM antimycin A failed to demonstrate a link between uptake and respiration. Labeled iron ( 55 Fe) was taken up while labeled ligands ([ 14 C] citrate or RA) were not accumulated. Cation competition from Ni 2+ and Co 2+ observed using Fe 3+ -DFOB and Fe 3+ -RA while iron uptake from Fe 3+ -citrate was stimulated. Iron-stress induced iron uptake from the hydroxamate siderophores. Ferric reduction from the ferric-siderophores was investigated with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and bathophenathroline disulfonate (BPDS). Ferric reduction was induced by iron-stress and inhibited by CCCP. A close correlation between iron uptake and ferric reduction was measured by the EPR method. Ferric reduction measured by the BPDS method was greater than that measure by EPR. BPDS reduction was interpreted to indicate a potential for reduction while EPR measures the physiological rate of reduction. BPDS inhibition of iron uptake and ferricyanide interference with reduction indicate that reduction and uptake occur exposed to the external medium. Presumptive evidence using a binding dose response curve for Fe 3+ -DFOB indicated that a receptor may be involved in this mechanism

  13. Drivers of Phosphorus Uptake by Barley Following Secondary Resource Application

    OpenAIRE

    Brod, Eva; Øgaard, Anne K. Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Haraldsen, Trond; Frossard, Emmanuel; Oberson, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with...

  14. Drivers of phosphorus uptake by barley following secondary resource application

    OpenAIRE

    Eva eBrod; Eva eBrod; Anne Falk Øgaard; Tore eKrogstad; Trond Knapp Haraldsen; Emmanuel eFrossard; Astrid eOberson

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake are still poorly understood. Using radioactive labelling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared wit...

  15. Drivers of Phosphorus Uptake by Barley Following Secondary Resource Application

    OpenAIRE

    Brod, Eva; Øgaard, Anne K. Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Haraldsen, Trond; Frossard, Emmanuel; Oberson, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with...

  16. Extraosseous uptake of 99sup(m)technetium methylene diphosphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sty, J.R.; Kun, L.; Casper, J.; Babbitt, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    A child with a ganglioneuroblastoma and tumor uptake of 99 sup(m)technetium methylene diphosphate ( 99 sup(m)Tc-MDP) is presented. After surgical removal of an encapsulated tumor and radiation therapy, an interval bone scan demonstrated the same presurgical abnormality. Awareness of abnormal uptake of 99 sup(m)Tc-MDP in irradiated renal tissue prevents interpreting radiation nephritis as recurrent tumor. (orig.) [de

  17. Quantification of radionuclide uptake levels for primary bone tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasford Francis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to quantify the level of uptake of administered radionuclide in primary bone tumors for patients undergoing bone scintigraphy. Retrospective study on 48 patient's scintigrams to quantify the uptake levels of administered radiopharmaceuticals was performed in a nuclear medicine unit in Ghana. Patients were administered with activity ranging between 0.555 and 1.110 MBq (15–30 mCi, and scanned on Siemens e.cam SPECT system. Analyses on scintigrams were performed with Image J software by drawing regions of interest (ROIs over identified hot spots (pathologic sites. Nine skeletal parts namely cranium, neck, shoulder, sacrum, sternum, vertebra, femur, ribcage, and knee were considered in the study, which involved 96 identified primary tumors. Radionuclide uptakes were quantified in terms of the estimated counts of activity per patient for identified tumor sites. Average normalized counts of activity (nGMC per patient ranged from 5.2759 ± 0.6590 cts/mm2/MBq in the case of cranium tumors to 72.7569 ± 17.8786 cts/mm2/MBq in the case of ribcage tumors. The differences in uptake levels could be attributed to different mechanisms of Tc-99m MDP uptake in different types of bones, which is directly related to blood flow and degree of osteoblastic activity. The overall normalized count of activity for the 96 identified tumors was estimated to be 23.0350 ± 19.5424 cts/mm2/MBq. The study revealed highest uptake of activity in ribcage and least uptake in cranium. Quantification of radionuclide uptakes in tumors is important and recommended in assessing patient's response to therapy, doses to critical organs and in diagnosing tumors.

  18. The MDP skull uptake test: A new diagnostic tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ell, P.J.; Jarritt, P.H.; Cullum, I.; Lui, D.

    1984-01-01

    An original approach to the measurement of bone turnover is presented. With SPECT, the authors have measured in pgr/ml, the uptake of MDP by the skull in man. The Cleon 710 scanner, ring phantoms and bone biopsies were used for ultimate in vivo/in vitro count recovery correlation and calibration. A normal range for 24 patients was found: 8.5 to 19.5 pgr/ml with a mean of 14. For patients with bony metastases (12), the values were: 22.5 to 50, mean of 30. For 5 patients with osteomalacia, the values were 46 to 68, mean of 62: for 12 patients with hyperparathyroidism, the values were 37 to 48.5, mean of 43. In 3 patients with Pagets disease, the values were 58.5 to 75, with a mean of 65. In 76 patients with metastatic disease to bone, the conventional wholebody bone scan was investigated against the following: 24h wholebody retention of MDP (WBR), skull uptake as described and GFR by Cr-51-DTPA. There is a correlation between GFR and WBR - r=0.67. There is a lesser correlation between GFR and skull uptake - r=0.3. There is no correlation between skull uptake and WBR - r=0.1. The comparison of skull uptake data with normal whole body bone scans leads to a significant proportion of cancer patients with positive skull uptake data. Monostotic disease (especially if metabolic in nature) expresses itself by abnormal skull uptake even if the clinical site of abnormality lies outside the skull. This new technique is ideal as a tool to investigate phosphonate concentration in bone. With it, the authors have shown the effect of specific activity of label on skull uptake, which increases as the specific activity of labelled MDP decreases

  19. Molecular mechanisms of foliar water uptake in a desert tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xia; Zhou, Maoxian; Dong, Xicun; Zou, Songbing; Xiao, Honglang; Ma, Xiao-Fei

    2015-11-12

    Water deficits severely affect growth, particularly for the plants in arid and semiarid regions of the world. In addition to precipitation, other subsidiary water, such as dew, fog, clouds and small rain showers, may also be absorbed by leaves in a process known as foliar water uptake. With the severe scarcity of water in desert regions, this process is increasingly becoming a necessity. Studies have reported on physical and physiological processes of foliar water uptake. However, the molecular mechanisms remain less understood. As major channels for water regulation and transport, aquaporins (AQPs) are involved in this process. However, due to the regulatory complexity and functional diversity of AQPs, their molecular mechanism for foliar water uptake remains unclear. In this study, Tamarix ramosissima, a tree species widely distributed in desert regions, was investigated for gene expression patterns of AQPs and for sap flow velocity. Our results suggest that the foliar water uptake of T. ramosissima occurs in natural fields at night when the humidity is over a threshold of 85 %. The diurnal gene expression pattern of AQPs suggests that most AQP gene expressions display a circadian rhythm, and this could affect both photosynthesis and transpiration. At night, the PIP2-1 gene is also upregulated with increased relative air humidity. This gene expression pattern may allow desert plants to regulate foliar water uptake to adapt to extreme drought. This study suggests a molecular basis of foliar water uptake in desert plants. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  20. Water uptake in barley grain: Physiology; genetics and industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cu, Suong; Collins, Helen M; Betts, Natalie S; March, Timothy J; Janusz, Agnieszka; Stewart, Doug C; Skadhauge, Birgitte; Eglinton, Jason; Kyriacou, Bianca; Little, Alan; Burton, Rachel A; Fincher, Geoffrey B

    2016-01-01

    Water uptake by mature barley grains initiates germination and is the first stage in the malting process. Here we have investigated the effects of starchy endosperm cell wall thickness on water uptake, together with the effects of varying amounts of the wall polysaccharide, (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan. In the latter case, we examined mutant barley lines from a mutant library and transgenic barley lines in which the (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan synthase gene, HvCslF6, was down-regulated by RNA interference. Neither cell wall thickness nor the levels of grain (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan were significantly correlated with water uptake but are likely to influence modification during malting. However, when a barley mapping population was phenotyped for rate of water uptake into grain, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified specific regions of chromosomes 4H, 5H and 7H that accounted for approximately 17%, 18% and 11%, respectively, of the phenotypic variation. These data indicate that variation in water uptake rates by elite malting cultivars of barley is genetically controlled and a number of candidate genes that might control the trait were identified under the QTL. The genomics data raise the possibility that the genetic variation in water uptake rates might be exploited by breeders for the benefit of the malting and brewing industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nanodiamond internalization in cells and the cell uptake mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perevedentseva, E. [National Dong Hwa University, Department of Physics (China); Hong, S.-F.; Huang, K.-J. [National Dong Hwa University, Department of Life Sciences (China); Chiang, I.-T.; Lee, C.-Y. [National Dong Hwa University, Department of Physics (China); Tseng, Y.-T. [National Dong Hwa University, Department of Life Sciences (China); Cheng, C.-L., E-mail: clcheng@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [National Dong Hwa University, Department of Physics (China)

    2013-08-15

    Cell type-dependent penetration of nanodiamond in living cells is one of the important factors for using nanodiamond as cellular markers/labels, for drug delivery as well as for other biomedical applications. In this work, internalization of 100 nm nanodiamonds by A549 lung human adenocarcinoma cell, Beas-2b non-tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cell, and HFL-1 fibroblast-like human fetal lung cell is studied and compared. The penetration of nanodiamond into the cells was observed using confocal fluorescence imaging and Raman imaging methods. Visualization of the nanodiamond in cells allows comparison of the internalization for diamond nanoparticles in cancer A549 cell, non-cancer HFL-1, and Beas-2b cells. The dose-dependent and time-dependent behavior of nanodiamond uptake is observed in both cancer as well as non-cancer cells. The mechanism of nanodiamond uptake by cancer and non-cancer cells is analyzed by blocking different pathways. The uptake of nanodiamond in both cancer and non-cancer cells was found predominantly via clathrin-dependent endocytosis. In spite of observed similarity in the uptake mechanism for cancer and non-cancer cells, the nanodiamond uptake for cancer cell quantitatively exceeds the uptake for non-cancer cells, for the studied cell lines. The observed difference in internalization of nanodiamond by cancer and non-cancer cells is discussed.

  2. Modeling uptake kinetics of cadmium by field-grown lettuce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Weiping [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)], E-mail: chenweip@yahoo.com.cn; Li Lianqing [Institute of Resources, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Chang, Andrew C.; Wu Laosheng [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Kwon, Soon-Ik [Agricultural Environmental and Ecology Division, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Suwon 441-707 (Korea, Republic of); Bottoms, Rick [Desert Research and Extension Center, 1004 East Holton Road, El Centro, CA 92243 (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Cadmium uptake by field grown Romaine lettuce treated with P-fertilizers of different Cd levels was investigated over an entire growing season. Results indicated that the rate of Cd uptake at a given time of the season can be satisfactorily described by the Michaelis-Menten kinetics, that is, plant uptake increases as the Cd concentration in soil solution increases, and it gradually approaches a saturation level. However, the rate constant of the Michaelis-Menten kinetics changes over the growing season. Under a given soil Cd level, the cadmium content in plant tissue decreases exponentially with time. To account for the dynamic nature of Cd uptake, a kinetic model integrating the time factor was developed to simulate Cd plant uptake over the growing season: C{sub Plant} = C{sub Solution} . PUF{sub max} . exp[-b . t], where C{sub Plant} and C{sub Solution} refer to the Cd content in plant tissue and soil solution, respectively, PUF{sub max} and b are kinetic constants. - A kinetic model was developed to evaluate the uptake of Cd under field conditions.

  3. Modeling uptake kinetics of cadmium by field-grown lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Weiping; Li Lianqing; Chang, Andrew C.; Wu Laosheng; Kwon, Soon-Ik; Bottoms, Rick

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium uptake by field grown Romaine lettuce treated with P-fertilizers of different Cd levels was investigated over an entire growing season. Results indicated that the rate of Cd uptake at a given time of the season can be satisfactorily described by the Michaelis-Menten kinetics, that is, plant uptake increases as the Cd concentration in soil solution increases, and it gradually approaches a saturation level. However, the rate constant of the Michaelis-Menten kinetics changes over the growing season. Under a given soil Cd level, the cadmium content in plant tissue decreases exponentially with time. To account for the dynamic nature of Cd uptake, a kinetic model integrating the time factor was developed to simulate Cd plant uptake over the growing season: C Plant = C Solution . PUF max . exp[-b . t], where C Plant and C Solution refer to the Cd content in plant tissue and soil solution, respectively, PUF max and b are kinetic constants. - A kinetic model was developed to evaluate the uptake of Cd under field conditions

  4. Polyamine uptake by the intraerythrocytic malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemand, J; Louw, A I; Birkholtz, L; Kirk, K

    2012-09-01

    Polyamines and the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis are present at high levels in rapidly proliferating cells, including cancer cells and protozoan parasites. Inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis in asexual blood-stage malaria parasites causes cytostatic arrest of parasite development under in vitro conditions, but does not cure infections in vivo. This may be due to replenishment of the parasite's intracellular polyamine pool via salvage of exogenous polyamines from the host. However, the mechanism(s) of polyamine uptake by the intraerythrocytic parasite are not well understood. In this study, the uptake of the polyamines, putrescine and spermidine, into Plasmodium falciparum parasites functionally isolated from their host erythrocyte was investigated using radioisotope flux techniques. Both putrescine and spermidine were taken up into isolated parasites via a temperature-dependent process that showed cross-competition between different polyamines. There was also some inhibition of polyamine uptake by basic amino acids. Inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis led to an increase in the total amount of putrescine and spermidine taken up from the extracellular medium. The uptake of putrescine and spermidine by isolated parasites was independent of extracellular Na(+) but increased with increasing external pH. Uptake also showed a marked dependence on the parasite's membrane potential, decreasing with membrane depolarization and increasing with membrane hyperpolarization. The data are consistent with polyamines being taken up into the parasite via an electrogenic uptake process, energised by the parasite's inwardly negative membrane potential. Copyright © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Monocyte transferrin-iron uptake in hereditary hemochromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizemore, D.J.; Bassett, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Transferrin-iron uptake by peripheral blood monocytes was studied in vitro to test the hypothesis that the relative paucity of mononuclear phagocyte iron loading in hereditary hemochromatosis results from a defect in uptake of iron from transferrin. Monocytes from nine control subjects and 17 patients with hemochromatosis were cultured in the presence of 59Fe-labelled human transferrin. There was no difference in 59Fe uptake between monocytes from control subjects and monocytes from patients with hemochromatosis who had been treated by phlebotomy and who had normal body iron stores. However, 59Fe uptake by monocytes from iron-loaded patients with hemochromatosis was significantly reduced compared with either control subjects or treated hemochromatosis patients. It is likely that this was a secondary effect of iron loading since iron uptake by monocytes from treated hemochromatosis patients was normal. Assuming that monocytes in culture reflect mononuclear phagocyte iron metabolism in vivo, this study suggests that the relative paucity of mononuclear phagocyte iron loading in hemochromatosis is not related to an abnormality in transferrin-iron uptake by these cells

  6. Uptake of SPECT radiopharmaceuticals in neocortical brain cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jong, B.M. de; Royen, E.A. van

    1989-01-01

    The uptake, retention and uptake antagonism of /sup 201/Tl-DDC, /sup 201/Tl-Cl, /sup 123/I-IMP, /sup 99m/Tc-HMPAO and /sup 99m/Tc-O4/sup -/ were compared in rat neocortex cultures. /sup 201/Tl-DDC and /sup 123/I-IP revealed the highest uptake of radioactivity in the cultures. /sup 99m/Tc-HMPAO and /sup 123/I-IMP showed the highest retention of radioactivity within the tissue in washout experiments. Blocking of bioelectric activity by tetrodotoxin did not significantly affect the uptake of the radiopharmaceuticals (RPHA). Inhibition of Na K ATPase by ouabain inhibited the uptake of /sup 201/Tl-Cl (77%) and /sup 201/Tl-DDC (27%). Imipramine showed a significantly stronger inhibitory effect on /sup 123/I-IMP uptake in comparison with the effect on other RPHA. /sup 99m/Tc-O4/sup -/ was not concentrated within the cultured tissue. Under the in vitro conditions used in this study, the various RPHA were characterised by distinct differences in their interaction with cortical brain tissue.

  7. Bacterial uptake of photosynthetic carbon from freshwater phytoplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coveney, M.F.

    1982-01-01

    Microheterotrophic uptake of algal extracellular products was studied in two eutrophic lakes in southern Sweden. Size fractionation was used in H 14 CO 3 uptake experiments to measure 14 C fixation in total particulate, small particulate and dissolved organic fractions. Carbon fixed in algal photosynthesis was recovered as dissolved and small particulate 14 C, representing excretion and bacterial uptake of algal products. Estimated gross extracellular release was low in these eutrophic systems, 1 to 7% of total 14 C uptake per m 2 lake surface. From 28 to 80 % of 14 C released was recovered in the small particulate fraction after ca. 4h incubation.This percentage was uniform within each depth profile, but varied directly with in situ water temperature. Laboratory time-series incubations indicated steady state for the pool of algal extracellular products on one occasion, while increasing pool size was indicated in the remaining two experiments. Uptake of photosynthetic carbon to small particles in situ was 32 to 95% of estimted heterotrophic bacterial production (as dark 14 CO 2 uptake) on four occasions. While excretion apparently was not an important loss of cabon for phytoplankton, it may have represented an important carbon source for planktonic bacteria. (author)

  8. The effect of hydrate promoters on gas uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chun-Gang; Yu, Yi-Song; Ding, Ya-Long; Cai, Jing; Li, Xiao-Sen

    2017-08-16

    Gas hydrate technology is considered as a promising technology in the fields of gas storage and transportation, gas separation and purification, seawater desalination, and phase-change thermal energy storage. However, to date, the technology is still not commercially used mainly due to the low gas hydrate formation rate and the low gas uptake. In this study, the effect of hydrate promoters on gas uptake was systematically studied and analyzed based on hydrate-based CH 4 storage and CO 2 capture from CO 2 /H 2 gas mixture experiments. Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography (GC) were employed to analyze the microstructures and gas compositions. The results indicate that the effect of the hydrate promoter on the gas uptake depends on the physical and chemical properties of the promoter and gas. A strong polar ionic promoter is not helpful towards obtaining the ideal gas uptake because a dense hydrate layer is easily formed at the gas-liquid interface, which hinders gas diffusion from the gas phase to the bulk solution. For a weak polar or non-polar promoter, the gas uptake depends on the dissolution characteristics among the different substances in the system. The lower the mutual solubility among the substances co-existing in the system, the higher the independence among the substances in the system; this is so that each phase has an equal chance to occupy the hydrate cages without or with small interactions, finally leading to a relatively high gas uptake.

  9. Nanodiamond internalization in cells and the cell uptake mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevedentseva, E.; Hong, S.-F.; Huang, K.-J.; Chiang, I.-T.; Lee, C.-Y.; Tseng, Y.-T.; Cheng, C.-L.

    2013-01-01

    Cell type-dependent penetration of nanodiamond in living cells is one of the important factors for using nanodiamond as cellular markers/labels, for drug delivery as well as for other biomedical applications. In this work, internalization of 100 nm nanodiamonds by A549 lung human adenocarcinoma cell, Beas-2b non-tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cell, and HFL-1 fibroblast-like human fetal lung cell is studied and compared. The penetration of nanodiamond into the cells was observed using confocal fluorescence imaging and Raman imaging methods. Visualization of the nanodiamond in cells allows comparison of the internalization for diamond nanoparticles in cancer A549 cell, non-cancer HFL-1, and Beas-2b cells. The dose-dependent and time-dependent behavior of nanodiamond uptake is observed in both cancer as well as non-cancer cells. The mechanism of nanodiamond uptake by cancer and non-cancer cells is analyzed by blocking different pathways. The uptake of nanodiamond in both cancer and non-cancer cells was found predominantly via clathrin-dependent endocytosis. In spite of observed similarity in the uptake mechanism for cancer and non-cancer cells, the nanodiamond uptake for cancer cell quantitatively exceeds the uptake for non-cancer cells, for the studied cell lines. The observed difference in internalization of nanodiamond by cancer and non-cancer cells is discussed

  10. Lung damage and pulmonary uptake of serotonin in intact dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, C.A.; Christensen, C.W.; Rickaby, D.A.; Linehan, J.H.; Johnston, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    The authors examined the influence of glass bead embolization and oleic acid, dextran, and imipramine infusion on the pulmonary uptake of trace doses of [ 3 H]serotonin and the extravascular volume accessible to [ 14 C]antipyrine in anesthetized dogs. Embolization and imipramine decreased serotonin uptake by 53 and 61%, respectively, but no change was observed with oleic acid or dextran infusion. The extravascular volume accessible to the antipyrine was reduced by 77% after embolization and increased by 177 and approximately 44% after oleic acid and dextran infusion, respectively. The results suggest that when the perfused endothelial surface is sufficiently reduced, as with embolization, the uptake of trace doses of serotonin will be depressed. In addition, decreases in serotonin uptake in response to imipramine in this study and in response to certain endothelial toxins in other studies suggest that serotonin uptake can reveal certain kinds of changes in endothelial function. However, the lack of a response to oleic acid-induced damage in the present study suggests that serotonin uptake is not sensitive to all forms of endothelial damage

  11. Muscle contraction increases carnitine uptake via translocation of OCTN2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuichi, Yasuro [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Sugiura, Tomoko; Kato, Yukio [Faculty of Pharmacy, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Takakura, Hisashi [Faculty of Human Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Hanai, Yoshiteru [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Hashimoto, Takeshi [Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu (Japan); Masuda, Kazumi, E-mail: masuda@ed.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Human Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan)

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Muscle contraction augmented carnitine uptake into rat hindlimb muscles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An increase in carnitine uptake was due to an intrinsic clearance, not blood flow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Histochemical analysis showed sarcolemmal OCTN2 was emphasized after contraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OCTN2 protein in sarcolemmal fraction was increased in contracting muscles. -- Abstract: Since carnitine plays an important role in fat oxidation, influx of carnitine could be crucial for muscle metabolism. OCTN2 (SLC22A5), a sodium-dependent solute carrier, is assumed to transport carnitine into skeletal muscle cells. Acute regulation of OCTN2 activity in rat hindlimb muscles was investigated in response to electrically induced contractile activity. The tissue uptake clearance (CL{sub uptake}) of L-[{sup 3}H]carnitine during muscle contraction was examined in vivo using integration plot analysis. The CL{sub uptake} of [{sup 14}C]iodoantipyrine (IAP) was also determined as an index of tissue blood flow. To test the hypothesis that increased carnitine uptake involves the translocation of OCTN2, contraction-induced alteration in the subcellular localization of OCTN2 was examined. The CL{sub uptake} of L-[{sup 3}H]carnitine in the contracting muscles increased 1.4-1.7-fold as compared to that in the contralateral resting muscles (p < 0.05). The CL{sub uptake} of [{sup 14}C]IAP was much higher than that of L-[{sup 3}H]carnitine, but no association between the increase in carnitine uptake and blood flow was obtained. Co-immunostaining of OCTN2 and dystrophin (a muscle plasma membrane marker) showed an increase in OCTN2 signal in the plasma membrane after muscle contraction. Western blotting showed that the level of sarcolemmal OCTN2 was greater in contracting muscles than in resting muscles (p < 0.05). The present study showed that muscle contraction facilitated carnitine uptake in skeletal muscles, possibly

  12. Heterogeneous Uptake of HO2 Radicals onto Atmospheric Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, I. J.; Matthews, P. S.; Brooks, B.; Goddard, A.; Whalley, L. K.; Baeza-Romero, M. T.; Heard, D. E.

    2011-12-01

    The hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxyl (HO2) radicals, together known as HOx, play a vital role in atmospheric chemistry by controlling the oxidative capacity of the troposphere. The atmospheric lifetime and concentrations of many trace reactive species, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), are determined by HOx radical levels. Therefore, the ability to accurately predict atmospheric HOx concentrations from a detailed knowledge of their sources and sinks is a very useful diagnostic tool to assess our current understanding of atmospheric chemistry. Several recent field studies have observed significantly lower concentrations of HO2 radicals than predicted using box models, where HO2 loss onto aerosols was suggested as a possible missing sink [1, 2]. However, the mechanism on HO2 uptake onto aerosols and its impact on ambient HOx levels are currently not well understood. To improve our understanding of this process, we have conducted laboratory experiments to measure HO2 uptake coefficients onto submicron aerosol particles. The FAGE (Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion) technique, a highly sensitive laser induced fluorescence based detection method, was used to monitor HO2 uptake kinetics onto aerosol particles in an aerosol flow tube. The application of the FAGE technique allowed for kinetic experiments to be performed under low HO2 concentrations, i.e. [HO2] atomizing dilute salt solutions or by homogeneous nucleation. HO2 uptake coefficients (γ) have been measured for single-component solid and aqueous inorganic salt and organic aerosol particles with a wide range of hygroscopicities. HO2 uptake coefficients on solid particles were below the detection limit (γ < 0.001), whereas on aqueous aerosols uptake coefficients were somewhat larger (γ = 0.001 - 0.008). HO2 uptake coefficients were highest on aerosols containing metal ions, such as Cu and Fe. Humidity and aerosol pH did not significantly impact the reactive HO2 uptake. Preliminary experiments have also

  13. Tumor grade-related thallium-201 uptake in chondrosarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, G.C.; Demir, Y.; Ozkal, S.

    2010-01-01

    Diagnosis of low-grade chondrosarcoma, especially discrimination between enchondroma and low-grade chondrosarcoma, may be difficult pathologically. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of thallium-201 (Tl-201) scintigraphy in the diagnosis of chondrosarcoma and to investigate whether there was a correlation between Tl-201 uptake and tumor grade. We retrospectively evaluated 121 patients with pathologically proven bone and soft tissue tumors diagnosed between the years 1999 and 2007. All patients were followed by the Bone and Soft Tissue Tumor Working Group in our hospital. Twenty-three patients, mean age 44±15 (range 17-72) years, with a diagnosis of cartilaginous tumors were included. Increased Tl-201 uptake at the lesion sites greater than background was evaluated as malignant tumor. For the pathologic classification, a grading system (grade 1-3) based on the histopathologic findings was used. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine whether there was any correlation between Tl-201 uptake and tumor grade in chondrosarcoma. There were 7 enchondromas and 16 chondrosarcomas. Four of 16 patients with chondrosarcoma had lesions pathologically classified as grade 3, 5 as grade 2, and 7 had grade 1 chondrosarcoma. Increased Tl-201 uptake was observed in all patients with grade 3 chondrosarcoma and 2 patients with grade 2 chondrosarcoma. Of 10 patients with chondrosarcoma, 3 grade 2 chondrosarcomas and 7 grade 1 chondrosarcomas, there was no Tl-201 uptake in the tumor region. A significant correlation was found between Tl-201 uptake and tumor grade in chondrosarcoma (p=0.002, r=0.71). Only a few reports in literature have demonstrated false negative results in low-grade chondrosarcoma. Tl-201 uptake was related to tumor grade in chondrosarcoma. If there is a possibility of chondrosarcoma, Tl-201 scintigraphy should be reported with caution. (author)

  14. Mechanism of Uptake of Trace Elements by Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1965-01-01

    MECHANISM OF UPTAKE OF TRACE ELEMENTS BY PLANTS (EXPERIMENTS WlTH RADIOZINC). Some authors have assumed that the uptake of (essential or non-essential) trace elements by plants is due to active transport, and therefore needs metabolic energy. In our laboratory it has been found that the uptake of zinc (“6”5Zn) by chlorella and barley roots is, in the main, a passive process, and is based largely on ion exchange. In these experiments the Zn system contrasted sharply with actively transporting systems, e. g. the K system, although the extent of accumulation may be similar: (1) decouplers (DNP, azide) or anaerobiosis do not depress the uptake of Zn: (2) plants killed by grinding, freezing or alcohol treatment take up more Zn than living plants: (3) the temperature coefficient of the Zn uptake is small: (4) many ions compete with Zn, i.e. the uptake is unspecific. We have measured - primarily with dead cells, where equilibria are reached easily - the competition of several foreign ions with radiozinc at fixed pH (usually 6). These values have been compared with analogous values obtained with radiozinc (and verified with radiocopper) in respect to cation exchange resins. It is concluded from the sequence of the different ions that the active sites in the cells are mainly carboxyl groups. Probably most of the ‘exchanger’ consists of carbohydrate derivatives in the cell wall, i.e. in the ‘free space’, However, both by Langmuir analysis of the observed ‘uptake isotherm’ and by radiochemical work with partly blocked material, sites with anomalous affinity to Zn have been demonstrated. These may be imidazol groups in the proteins known to bind zinc strongly by complexation. (author)

  15. Nitrite uptake by nitrogen-depleted wheat seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, W A; Johnson, R E; Volk, R J

    1974-01-01

    Intact, 14-day-old nitrogen-depleted wheat (Triticum vulgare cv. Blueboy) seedlings were exposed to solutions of 0.5 mM KNO/sub 2/, 0.05 mM CaSO/sub 4/ and 1 mM sodium 2-(N-morpholino)-ethanesulfonate, pH 6.1. Nitrite uptake was determined from depletion of the ambient solution or from incorporation of /sup 15/N in the tissue. An initial nitrite uptake shoulder was followed by a relatively slow uptake rate which subsequently increased to a substantially greater rate. This accelerated phase was maintained through 24 h. Nitrite accumulated to a slight extent in the root tissues during the first few hours but declined to low values when the accelerated rate was fully developed, indicating an increase in nitrite reductase activity paralleling the increase in nitrite uptake capacity. About 50% of the nitrogen absorbed as nitrite was translocated to the shoots by 9 to 12 h. Development of the accelerated nitrite uptake rate was restricted in excised roots, in intact plants kept in darkness, by 400 ..mu..g puromycin ml/sup -1/ and by 1 mM L-ethionine. When puromycin and L-ethionine were added after the accelerated phase had been initiated, their effects were not as detrimental as when they were added at first exposure to KNO/sub 2/. The two inhibitors restricted translocation more than uptake. The data indicate an involvement of protein synthesis and a requirement for movement of a substance from shoots to roots for maximal development of the accelerated nitrite uptake phase. A requirement for protein synthesis in the transport of soluble organic nitrogen from roots to shoots is also suggested.

  16. Uptake and depuration of pharmaceuticals in aquatic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meredith-Williams, Melanie; Carter, Laura J.; Fussell, Richard; Raffaelli, David; Ashauer, Roman; Boxall, Alistair B.A.

    2012-01-01

    The uptake and depuration of a range of pharmaceuticals in the freshwater shrimp (Gammarus pulex) and the water boatman (Notonecta glauca) was studied. For one compound, studies were also done using the freshwater snail Planobarius corneus. In G. pulex, bioconcentration factors (BCFs) ranged from 4.6 to 185,900 and increased in the order moclobemide < 5-fluoruracil < carbamazepine < diazepam < carvedilol < fluoxetine. In N. glauca BCFs ranged from 0.1 to 1.6 and increased in the order 5-fluorouracil < carbamazepine < moclobemide < diazepam < fluoxetine < carvedilol. For P. corneus, the BCF for carvedilol was 57.3. The differences in degree of uptake across the three organisms may be due to differences in mode of respiration, behaviour and the pH of the test system. BCFs of the pharmaceuticals for each organism were correlated to the pH-corrected liposome–water partition coefficient of the pharmaceuticals. - Highlights: ► One of the first studies exploring the uptake of pharmaceuticals into aquatic invertebrates. ► Data presented on uptake, depuration rates and bioconcentration for a range of pharmaceuticals. ► Uptake is correlated with the pH-corrected liposome–water partition coefficient. ► Findings can be used to better predict impacts of pharmaceuticals on the aquatic environment. - The factors affecting the degree of uptake of pharmaceuticals into aquatic invertebrates were studied. The results indicate that species traits such as respiration and behaviour of the organisms and pH-corrected liposome–water partition coefficients are important factors in determining pharmaceutical uptake.

  17. Physiological FDG uptake in the ovaries after hysterectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Inubushi, Masayuki; Ozawa, Fukujiro; Kido, Aki; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    It is known that focal 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake is physiologically seen in the ovaries and uterus of premenopausal women in correlation with the menstrual cycle, which may cause false-positive diagnoses on the images of FDG positron emission tomography (PET). The objective of this study was to clarify whether women of reproductive age after hysterectomy whose ovaries were preserved, also showed physiological ovarian FDG uptake. We reviewed 26 women after hysterectomy (age 51.1±5.0 years), who underwent annual cancer screening, including FDG-PET and pelvic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, three times. Seven women (age 45.9±5.8 years, range 34-52 years) had at least one ovary, showing changes in its appearance including the size and number of follicles on MR images each year, which suggested that the ovary was functioning. Four of the seven women showed focal FDG uptake (standardized uptake value 4.2±1.1) that corresponded to the normal ovaries on five PET examinations. Another group of 19 women (age 53.1±3.1 years, range 47-59 years) who had small ovaries without changes on MR images each year did not show FDG uptake in the ovaries. Physiological FDG uptake observed in the ovaries of women of reproductive age even after hysterectomy is reasonably common. As it is not easy to determine the hormonal cycle in these women, it is essential to correlate focal FDG uptake in the pelvis with anatomical and morphological findings on MR images to avoid false-positive diagnoses. (author)

  18. Uptake and bioaccumulation of Cry toxins by an aphidophagous predator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, Débora P.; Andow, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Uptake of Cry toxins by insect natural enemies has rarely been considered and bioaccumulation has not yet been demonstrated. Uptake can be demonstrated by the continued presence of Cry toxin after exposure has stopped and gut contents eliminated. Bioaccumulation can be demonstrated by showing uptake and that the concentration of Cry toxin in the natural enemy exceeds that in its food. We exposed larvae of the aphidophagous predator, Harmonia axyridis, to Cry1Ac and Cry1F through uniform and constant tritrophic exposure via an aphid, Myzus persicae, and looked for toxin presence in the pupae. We repeated the experiment using only Cry1F and tested newly emerged adults. Both Cry toxins were detected in pupae, and Cry1F was detected in recently emerged, unfed adults. Cry1Ac was present 2.05 times and Cry1F 3.09 times higher in predator pupae than in the aphid prey. Uptake and bioaccumulation in the third trophic level might increase the persistence of Cry toxins in the food web and mediate new exposure routes to natural enemies. - Highlights: • Uptake and bioaccumulation of two Cry toxins by a larval coccinellid was tested. • Uptake was demonstrated by presence of the toxins in pupae and adults. • Bioaccumulation was shown by higher toxin concentration in pupae than prey. • Cry1Ac was present 2.05× and Cry1F 3.09× higher in predator pupae than prey. • This might increase persistence of Cry toxins in food webs with new exposure routes. - Immatures of the predaceous coccinellid Harmonia axyridis can uptake and bioaccumulate Cry toxins delivered via their aphid prey.

  19. Comparison of conventional, model-based quantitative planar, and quantitative SPECT image processing methods for organ activity estimation using In-111 agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Bin; Frey, Eric C

    2006-01-01

    Accurate quantification of organ radionuclide uptake is important for patient-specific dosimetry. The quantitative accuracy from conventional conjugate view methods is limited by overlap of projections from different organs and background activity, and attenuation and scatter. In this work, we propose and validate a quantitative planar (QPlanar) processing method based on maximum likelihood (ML) estimation of organ activities using 3D organ VOIs and a projector that models the image degrading effects. Both a physical phantom experiment and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) studies were used to evaluate the new method. In these studies, the accuracies and precisions of organ activity estimates for the QPlanar method were compared with those from conventional planar (CPlanar) processing methods with various corrections for scatter, attenuation and organ overlap, and a quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) processing method. Experimental planar and SPECT projections and registered CT data from an RSD Torso phantom were obtained using a GE Millenium VH/Hawkeye system. The MCS data were obtained from the 3D NCAT phantom with organ activity distributions that modelled the uptake of 111 In ibritumomab tiuxetan. The simulations were performed using parameters appropriate for the same system used in the RSD torso phantom experiment. The organ activity estimates obtained from the CPlanar, QPlanar and QSPECT methods from both experiments were compared. From the results of the MCS experiment, even with ideal organ overlap correction and background subtraction, CPlanar methods provided limited quantitative accuracy. The QPlanar method with accurate modelling of the physical factors increased the quantitative accuracy at the cost of requiring estimates of the organ VOIs in 3D. The accuracy of QPlanar approached that of QSPECT, but required much less acquisition and computation time. Similar results were obtained from the physical phantom experiment. We conclude that the QPlanar method, based

  20. Forest Transpiration: Resolving Species-Specific Root Water Uptake Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, T.; Heidbuechel, I.; Simard, S.; Guntner, A.; Weiler, M.; Stewart, R. D.

    2016-12-01

    Transpiration and its spatio-temporal variability are still not fully understood, despite their importance for the global water cycle. This is in part due to our inability to measure transpiration comprehensively. Transpiration is usually either estimated with empirical equations based on climatic variables and crop factors, by measuring sap velocities, estimating sap wood area and scaling up to the forest stand based on a number of assumptions or by measuring the integral signal across a footprint with eddy flux towers. All these methods are focused on the cumulated loss of water to the atmosphere and do not provide information on where this water is coming from. In this study, spatio-temporal variability of root water uptake was investigated in a forest in the northeastern German lowlands. The soils are sandy and the depth of the unsaturated zone ranges from 1 to 30 m. We estimated root water uptake from different soil depths, from 0.1 m down to 2 m, based on diurnal fluctuations in soil moisture content during rain-free days. The 15 field sites cover different topographic positions and forest stands: 4 pure stands of both mature and young beech and pine and 9 mixed stands. The resulting daily data set of root water uptake shows that the forest stands differ in total amounts as well as in uptake depth distributions. Temporal dynamics of signal strength within the profile suggest a locally shifting spatial distribution of uptake that changes with water availability. The relationship of these depth-resolved uptake rates to overall soil water availability varies considerably between tree species. Using the physically-based soil hydrological model HYDRUS we investigated to what extent the observed patterns in uptake can be related to soil physical relationships alone and where tree species-specific aspects come into play. We furthermore used the model to test assumptions and estimate uncertainties of this soil moisture based estimation of plant water uptake. The

  1. Uptake of exogenous spermidine by rat lungs perfused in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rannels, D.E.; Addison, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Uptake of the polyamine spermidine (SPD) from the pulmonary circulation was characterized by using ventilated rat lungs perfused in situ with Krebs-Henseleit-bicarbonate buffer containing 4.5% bovine serum albumin, 5.6 mM glucose, and 20 amino acids at plasma levels. [ 14 C]SPD was accumulated by the lungs in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The pathway of SPD uptake exhibited saturation kinetics with an apparent K/sub m/ in the range of 1 μM and a V/sub max/ of 450-540 pmol/g lung min. SPD uptake was inhibited by the naturally occurring polyamines putrescine and spermine (SPM) and by the inhibitor of polyamine synthesis, methyglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG). Inhibition of SPD uptake by SPM followed competitive kinetics; although MGBG was also a competitive inhibitor of SPD uptake, MGBG was less effective than SPM. These observations indicate that SPD is taken up from the pulmonary circulation by a carrier-mediated pathway that is inhibited by other natural polyamines and by MGBG and exhibits by other natural polyamines and by MGBG and exhibits substrate affinity in the range of plasma SPD concentrations

  2. Uptake of exogenous spermidine by rat lungs perfused in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rannels, D.E.; Addison, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Uptake of the polyamine spermidine (SPD) from the pulmonary circulation was characterized by using ventilated rat lungs perfused in situ with Krebs-Henseleit-bicarbonate buffer containing 4.5% bovine serum albumin, 5.6 mM glucose, and 20 amino acids at plasma levels. (/sup 14/C)SPD was accumulated by the lungs in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The pathway of SPD uptake exhibited saturation kinetics with an apparent K/sub m/ in the range of 1 ..mu..M and a V/sub max/ of 450-540 pmol/g lung min. SPD uptake was inhibited by the naturally occurring polyamines putrescine and spermine (SPM) and by the inhibitor of polyamine synthesis, methyglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG). Inhibition of SPD uptake by SPM followed competitive kinetics; although MGBG was also a competitive inhibitor of SPD uptake, MGBG was less effective than SPM. These observations indicate that SPD is taken up from the pulmonary circulation by a carrier-mediated pathway that is inhibited by other natural polyamines and by MGBG and exhibits by other natural polyamines and by MGBG and exhibits substrate affinity in the range of plasma SPD concentrations.

  3. Stereoselective effects of MDMA on inhibition of monoamine uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, T.D.; Nichols, D.E.; Yim, G.K.W.

    1986-01-01

    The R(-)-isomers of hallucinogenic phenylisopropylamines are most active, whereas the S(+)-enantiomers of amphetamine (AMPH) and methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) are more potent centrally. To determine if MDMA exhibits stereoselective effects at the biochemical level that resemble either those of amphetamine or the potent hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM), the ability of the isomers of MDMA, AMPH and DOM to inhibit uptake of radiolabelled monoamines into synaptosomes was measured. AMPH was more potent than MDMA in inhibiting uptake of 3 H-norepinephrine (NE) into hypothalamic synaptosomes and 3 H-dopamine (DA) into striatal synaptosomes. The S(+)-isomer was more active in each case. MDMA was more potent than AMPH in inhibiting uptake of 3 H-serotonin (5-HT) into hippocampal synaptosomes and exhibited a high degree of stereoselectivity, in favor of the S(+)-isomer. DOM showed only minimal activity in inhibiting uptake of any monoamine (IC 50 > 10 -5 M). These results suggest that MDMA exhibits stereoselective effects similar to those of amphetamine on monoamine uptake inhibition, a parameter that is unrelated to the mechanism of action of the hallucinogen DOM

  4. Use of gamma probe in 131I thyroid uptake studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmento, Andrea Gondim Leitao

    2002-11-01

    Evaluation of thyroid uptake by administration of radioactive iodine is a well-defined procedure to assess patient thyroid function. In general, nuclear medicine institutions use gamma cameras coupled to pinhole collimators to perform uptake studies. With the growing use of intraoperative gamma probes in the radioguided surgical techniques, several institutions are purchasing this new and portable equipment, which can technically be also employed to assess patient's thyroid function, permitting further other applications of gamma cameras. The aim of the study was to compare thyroid uptake trails carried out with both gamma camera and intraoperative gamma probe, in order to evaluate the possible use of gamma probe for this purpose. At first a preliminary study of feasibility was carried out using a neck phantom to verify equipment efficiency with known activities of 131 I. Henceforth, work data from 12 patients undergone studies of thyroid uptakes were evaluated, 24 hours after oral administration of 370 kBq of 131 I. The maximum difference observed between the values obtained with both equipment was 60%, which demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed protocol and made clear that gamma probe can be useful for thyroid uptake studies. (author)

  5. Uptake of uranium from sea water by Synechococcus elongatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horikoshi, Takao; Nakajima, Akira; Sakaguchi, Takashi

    1979-01-01

    Basic features of the uranium uptake by Synechococcus elongatus, and the factors affecting it were examined. Synechococcus elongatus was grown in Roux flasks containing 1 liter of culture solution in light (20,000 lux) and with aeration at 30 deg C. Synechococcus cells in the linear growth phase were collected by centrifugation at 6,000 x g for 5 minutes, washed with sea water, and used for the uranium-uptake experiments. The uptake of uranium from sea water containing 1 ppm of the element was strongly affected by the pH of sea water. The optimum uptake was at pH 5. Presence of carbonate ions markedly inhibited and decarbonation of sea water greatly enhanced the uptake. Absorption of uranium by Synechococcus cells was initially rapid, and reached a plateau within 24 hours. The uranium accumulation capacity of Synechococcus cells was increased by heat treatment, the capacity of scalded cells being about twice as much as that of living cells. Most of the uranium absorbed by Synechococcus was found in the inner space of the cells, and only a small amount was present in the cell walls. (Kaihara, S.)

  6. Uptake of antibiotics by human polymorphonuclear leukocyte cytoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand, W.L.; King-Thompson, N.L.

    1990-01-01

    Enucleated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN cytoplasts), which have no nuclei and only a few granules, retain many of the functions of intact neutrophils. To better define the mechanisms and intracellular sites of antimicrobial agent accumulation in human neutrophils, we studied the antibiotic uptake process in PMN cytoplasts. Entry of eight radiolabeled antibiotics into PMN cytoplasts was determined by means of a velocity gradient centrifugation technique. Uptakes of these antibiotics by cytoplasts were compared with our findings in intact PMN. Penicillin entered both intact PMN and cytoplasts poorly. Metronidazole achieved a concentration in cytoplasts (and PMN) equal to or somewhat less than the extracellular concentration. Chloramphenicol, a lipid-soluble drug, and trimethoprim were concentrated three- to fourfold by cytoplasts. An unusual finding was that trimethroprim, unlike other tested antibiotics, was accumulated by cytoplasts more readily at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. After an initial rapid association with cytoplasts, cell-associated imipenem declined progressively with time. Clindamycin and two macrolide antibiotics (roxithromycin, erythromycin) were concentrated 7- to 14-fold by cytoplasts. This indicates that cytoplasmic granules are not essential for accumulation of these drugs. Adenosine inhibited cytoplast uptake of clindamycin, which enters intact phagocytic cells by the membrane nucleoside transport system. Roxithromycin uptake by cytoplasts was inhibited by phagocytosis, which may reduce the number of cell membrane sites available for the transport of macrolides. These studies have added to our understanding of uptake mechanisms for antibiotics which are highly concentrated in phagocytes

  7. Electron uptake by iron-oxidizing phototrophic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, A; Gardel, EJ; Vidoudez, C; Parra, EA; Girguis, PR

    2014-02-26

    Oxidation-reduction reactions underlie energy generation in nearly all life forms. Although most organisms use soluble oxidants and reductants, some microbes can access solid-phase materials as electron-acceptors or -donors via extracellular electron transfer. Many studies have focused on the reduction of solid-phase oxidants. Far less is known about electron uptake via microbial extracellular electron transfer, and almost nothing is known about the associated mechanisms. Here we show that the iron-oxidizing photoautotroph Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 accepts electrons from a poised electrode, with carbon dioxide as the sole carbon source/electron acceptor. Both electron uptake and ruBisCo form I expression are stimulated by light. Electron uptake also occurs in the dark, uncoupled from photosynthesis. Notably, the pioABC operon, which encodes a protein system essential for photoautotrophic growth by ferrous iron oxidation, influences electron uptake. These data reveal a previously unknown metabolic versatility of photoferrotrophs to use extracellular electron transfer for electron uptake.

  8. MACRO NUTRIENTS UPTAKE OF FORAGE GRASSES AT DIFFERENT SALINITY STRESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kusmiyati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The high concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl in saline soils has negative effects on the growth ofmost plants. The experiment was designed to evaluate macro nutrient uptake (Nitrogen, Phosphorus andPotassium of forage grasses at different NaCl concentrations in growth media. The experiment wasconducted in a greenhouse at Forage Crops Laboratory of Animal Agriculture Faculty, Diponegoro University.Split plot design was used to arrange the experiment. The main plot was forage grasses (Elephant grass(Pennisetum purpureum and King grass (Pennisetum hybrida. The sub plot was NaCl concentrationin growth media (0, 150, and 300 mM. The nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K uptake in shootand root of plant were measured. The result indicated increasing NaCl concentration in growth mediasignificantly decreased the N, P and K uptake in root and shoot of the elephant grass and king grass. Thepercentage reduction percentage of N, P and K uptake at 150 mM and 300 mM were high in elephant grassand king grass. It can be concluded that based on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake, elephantgrass and king grass are not tolerant to strong and very strong saline soil.

  9. Effects of urban stream burial on nitrogen uptake and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanization has resulted in extensive burial and channelization of headwater streams, yet little is known about impacts on stream ecosystem functions critical for reducing downstream nitrogen pollution. To characterize the biogeochemical impact of stream burial, we measured NO3- uptake, using 15N-NO3- isotope tracer releases, and whole stream metabolism, during four seasons in three paired buried and open streams reaches within the Baltimore Ecosystem Study Long-term Ecological Research Network. Stream burial increased NO3- uptake lengths, by a factor of 7.5 (p < 0.01) and decreased nitrate uptake velocity and areal nitrate uptake rate by factors of 8.2 (p = 0.01) and 9.6 (p < 0.001), respectively. Stream burial decreased gross primary productivity by a factor of 9.2 (p < 0.05) and decreased ecosystem respiration by a factor of 4.2 (p = 0.06). From statistical analysis of Excitation Emissions Matrices (EEMs), buried streams were also found to have significantly less labile dissolved organic matter. Furthermore, buried streams had significantly lower transient storage and water temperatures. Overall, differences in NO3- uptake and metabolism were primarily explained by decreased transient storage and light availability in buried streams. We estimate that stream burial increases daily watershed nitrate export by as much as 500% due to decreased in-stream retention and may considerably decrease carbon export via decreased primary production. These results

  10. In vivo hypertensive arterial wall uptake of radiolabeled liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodis, H.N.; Amartey, J.K.; Crawford, D.W.; Wickham, E.; Blankenhorn, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    Using five sham-operated and seven aortic coarctation-induced hypertensive New Zealand White rabbits intravenously injected with neutral small unilamellar vesicles loaded with [111In]nitrilotriacetic acid, we demonstrated in vivo that the normal aortic arterial wall participates in liposome uptake and that this uptake is increased in the hypertensive aortic wall by approximately threefold (p less than or equal to 0.0001). Among the three regions examined, aortic arch, thoracic aorta, and lower abdominal aorta, the difference in uptake between the normotensive and hypertensive arterial walls was significantly different, p less than or equal to 0.05, p less than or equal to 0.0001, and p less than 0.05, respectively. The uptake by the different regions of the hypertensive arterial wall is consistent with the pathological changes present in these areas. Furthermore, the extent of liposome uptake by the aortic wall is strongly correlated with the height of the blood pressure (r = 0.85, p = 0.001, n = 11). We conclude that neutral small unilamellar liposomes can be used to carry agents into the arterial wall in vivo in the study of hypertensive vascular disease and could be especially useful for the delivery of pharmacologically or biologically active agents that would otherwise be inactivated within the circulation or are impermeable to the arterial wall

  11. A dual porosity model of nutrient uptake by root hairs

    KAUST Repository

    Zygalakis, K. C.; Kirk, G. J. D.; Jones, D. L.; Wissuwa, M.; Roose, T.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: • The importance of root hairs in the uptake of sparingly soluble nutrients is understood qualitatively, but not quantitatively, and this limits efforts to breed plants tolerant of nutrient-deficient soils. • Here, we develop a mathematical model of nutrient uptake by root hairs allowing for hair geometry and the details of nutrient transport through soil, including diffusion within and between soil particles. We give illustrative results for phosphate uptake. • Compared with conventional 'single porosity' models, this 'dual porosity' model predicts greater root uptake because more nutrient is available by slow release from within soil particles. Also the effect of soil moisture is less important with the dual porosity model because the effective volume available for diffusion in the soil is larger, and the predicted effects of hair length and density are different. • Consistent with experimental observations, with the dual porosity model, increases in hair length give greater increases in uptake than increases in hair density per unit main root length. The effect of hair density is less in dry soil because the minimum concentration in solution for net influx is reached more rapidly. The effect of hair length is much less sensitive to soil moisture. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. 10B uptake by cells for boron neutron capture synovectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binello, E.; Yanch, J.C.; Shortkroff, S.

    2000-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS) proposes to use the 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction to ablate inflamed synovium (a tissue lining articular joints) in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Boron uptake is an important parameter for treatment design. In this study, a simple method was developed to determine K 2 B 12 H 12 (KBH) uptake in vitro by non-adhering monocytic cells (representative of synovial cells in inflamed joints). Uptake was quantified as a function of incubation time and boron concentration, as well as following washout: no significant difference was found between incubation times tested; average uptake ranged from 55 to 60% of 10 B incubation concentrations varying from 1000 to 5000 ppm: approximately 15% of the 10 B concentration was measured upon re-incubation in boron-free medium. These results agree well with those obtained ex vivo using human arthritic synovium, a significant finding in light of the difficulty typically associated with obtaining such tissue. The full characterization of 10 B uptake for BNCS (with KBH) is discussed. (author)

  13. A dual porosity model of nutrient uptake by root hairs

    KAUST Repository

    Zygalakis, K. C.

    2011-08-09

    Summary: • The importance of root hairs in the uptake of sparingly soluble nutrients is understood qualitatively, but not quantitatively, and this limits efforts to breed plants tolerant of nutrient-deficient soils. • Here, we develop a mathematical model of nutrient uptake by root hairs allowing for hair geometry and the details of nutrient transport through soil, including diffusion within and between soil particles. We give illustrative results for phosphate uptake. • Compared with conventional \\'single porosity\\' models, this \\'dual porosity\\' model predicts greater root uptake because more nutrient is available by slow release from within soil particles. Also the effect of soil moisture is less important with the dual porosity model because the effective volume available for diffusion in the soil is larger, and the predicted effects of hair length and density are different. • Consistent with experimental observations, with the dual porosity model, increases in hair length give greater increases in uptake than increases in hair density per unit main root length. The effect of hair density is less in dry soil because the minimum concentration in solution for net influx is reached more rapidly. The effect of hair length is much less sensitive to soil moisture. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Metallic mercury uptake by catalase Part 1 In Vitro metallic mercury uptake by various kind of animals' erythrocytes and purified human erythrocyte catalase

    OpenAIRE

    劒持,堅志

    1980-01-01

    The uptake of metallic mercury was studied using erythrocytes with different catalase activities taken from various kind of animals. The results were: 1) The uptake of metallic mercury by erythrocytes paralleled the activity of catalase in the erythrocytes with and without hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that the erythrocyte catalase activity is related to the uptake of metallic mercury. 2) The uptake of metallic mercury occurred not only with purified human erythrocyte catalase but also with h...

  15. Uptake of hazardous radionuclides within layered chalcogenide for environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, Pranesh, E-mail: praneshsengupta@gmail.com [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Dudwadkar, N.L. [Fuel Reprocessing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Vishwanadh, B. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Pulhani, V. [Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Rao, Rekha [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Tripathi, S.C. [Fuel Reprocessing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Dey, G.K. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Layered chalcogenide with CdI{sub 2} crystal structure prepared by hydrothermal route. • Exploration of the possibilities for radionuclides’ uptake using layered chalcogenide. • Proposing ‘topotactic ionic substitution’ as major uptake mechanism. -- Abstract: Ensuring environmental protection in and around nuclear facilities is a matter of deep concern. Toward this, layered chalcogenide with CdI{sub 2} crystal structure has been prepared. Structural characterizations of layered chalcogenide suggest ‘topotactic ionic substitution’ as the dominant mechanism behind uptake of different cations within its lattice structure. An equilibration time of 45 min and volume to mass ratio of 30:1 are found to absorb {sup 233}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 85+89}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 241}Am radionuclides to the maximum extents.

  16. Uptake of tritium through foliage in capsicum fruitescens, L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, T.S.; Sadarangani, S.H.; Vaze, P.K.; Soman, S.D.

    1977-01-01

    Tritium uptake and release patterns throuogh foliage in Capsicum fruitescens, L. were investigated using twelve potted plants, under different conditions of exposure and release. The plants studied belonged to two age groups, 3 months and 5 months. The average half residence time for the species was found to be 42.6 min, on the basis of treating the entire group of plants as a single cluster. The individual release rates showed a variation of up to a factor of two, for half residence time values (Tsub(1/2)). The second component was not easily resolvable in most of the cases. Tissue bound tritium showed interesting uptake patterns. The ratios between tissue bound tritium and tissue free water tritium concentrations indicated regular mode of uptake with well defined rate constants in the case of long exposure periods. (author)

  17. Aspirin decreases platelet uptake on Dacron vascular grafts in baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, W.C.; Connolly, R.J.; Callow, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of a single dose of aspirin (5.4-7.4 mg/kg) on platelet uptake on 4-mm Dacron interposition grafts was studied in a baboon model using gamma camera scanning for 111-Indium labeled platelets. In vitro assessment of platelet function after aspirin administration revealed that in the baboon, as in the human, aspirin abolished arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation, prolonged the lag time between exposure to collagen and aggregation, and decreased plasma thromboxane B2 levels. Aspirin also prolonged the template bleeding time. Scans for 111-Indium labeled platelets revealed that pretreatment with a single dose of aspirin decreased platelet uptake on 4-mm Dacron carotid interposition grafts. This decrease in platelet uptake was associated with a significant improvement in 2-hour graft patency and with a trend toward improved 2-week patency

  18. Uptake of trace elements in adult and suckling rat lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabekura, Tomohiro; Ito, Yoshimasa; Minami, Takeshi; Hirunuma, Rieko; Enomoto, Shuichi

    2001-01-01

    The uptake of trace elements in the lens was compared in adult and suckling rat lenses. Multitracers, including 15 trace elements, As, Be, Co, Fe, Mn, Rb, Rh, Ru, Sc, Se, Sr, Y, V, Zn, and Zr, were incubated with the lenses for 4 hr and their concentrations in the lens were measured. A high uptake rate of Zn was observed in the lenses of both adult and suckling rats in comparison with those of the other elements, and the Zn concentration in the lens of suckling rats was higher than that of adult rats. The uptake rate of Sr was higher in adult rats than in suckling rats. On the other contrary, Rb and Se concentrations in the lens were higher in suckling rats than in adult rats. The present study suggests that the different mechanisms depending on development serve to transport trace elements into the lens. (author)

  19. Uptake of chemicals from indoor air: Pathways and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Building occupants are exposed to manufactured chemicals. Exposure in the indoor environment can occur via non-dietary ingestion (e.g. indoor dust), inhalation and dermal absorption including dermal uptake directly from air. The extent of dermal uptake from air has been previously studied...... for volatile organic compounds (VOC). Not much is however known about its role for semivolatile organics (SVOC) and therefore this exposure pathway is often neglected in exposure assessments. Dermal uptake received attention with regards to contact transfer from contaminated surfaces. Recent modeling efforts...... intake from inhalation. Further experiments have been conducted with nicotine and the results are similar. Some of the SVOCs present indoors may have adverse health effects or are categorized as potential endocrine-disrupting compounds. It has been suggested that the health effects of a chemical may...

  20. Uptake of magnetic nanoparticles into cells for cell tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Christiane; Hodenius, Michael; Blendinger, Gitta; Sechi, Antonio; Hieronymus, Thomas; Mueller-Schulte, Detlef; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Zenke, Martin

    2007-01-01

    A challenge for future applications in nanotechnology is the functional integration of nano-sized materials into cellular structures. Here we investigated superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 iron oxide nanoparticles coated with a lipid bilayer for uptake into cells and for targeting subcellular compartments. It was found that magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are effectively taken up into cells and make cells acquire magnetic activity. Biotin-conjugated MNPs were further functionalized by binding of the fluorescent tag streptavidin-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and, following uptake into cells, shown to confer magnetic activity and fluorescence labeling. Such FITC-MNPs were localized in the lysosomal compartment of cells which suggests a receptor-mediated uptake mechanism

  1. Imaging analysis of direct alanine uptake by rice seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nihei, Naoto; Masuda, Sayaka; Rai, Hiroki; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2008-01-01

    We presented alanine, a kind of amino acids, uptake by a rice seedling to study the basic mechanism of the organic fertilizer effectiveness in organic farming. The rice grown in the culture solution containing alanine as a nitrogen source absorbed alanine approximately two times faster than that grown with NH 4 + from analysis of 14 C-alanine images by Imaging Plate method. It was suggested that the active transport ability of the rice seeding was induced in roots by existence of alanine in the rhizosphere. The alanine uptake images of the rice roots were acquired every 5 minutes successively by the real-time autoradiography system we developed. The analysis of the successive images showed that alanine uptake was not uniform throughout the root but especially active at the root tip. (author)

  2. Uptake of {sup 137}Cs by fresh water fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, C.K.; Kwok, Y.H

    2000-02-01

    The uptake and discharge rates of {sup 137}Cs by fresh water fish at different radionuclide concentrations have been studied. A dual compartment model was used to fit the experimental data. The discharge rates have been found to be negligible for the duration of the experiment of 10 days. The uptake rates were independent of radionuclide concentrations for a particular type of fresh water fish and were different for different types of fish. The uptake rates of carp, tilapia and snakehead were 1.58, 1.66 and 2.23, in unit of 10{sup -6} h{sup -1}, respectively. It was also estimated that the consumption of fresh water fish, even if the water were contaminated as much as that in the Chernobyl accident, leads to negligible latent cancer fatality to the Hong Kong population.

  3. Research on the uptake of technetium-labelled dimercaptosuccinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, J.L.; Dumery, J.P.; Meignan, M.; Wirquin, E.; Escaig, F.; Galle, P.

    1976-01-01

    Owing to the relatively strong urinary excretion of DMSA (20 to 25% of the injected dose in 24 hours) its renal uptake values are only truly significant in the absence of a urine retention syndrome which is detected by a previous study with sup(99m)Tc DTPA. In other cases the uptake measurement can be used to judge the functional value of each kidney separately and to estimate loss of functional capacity and compensative hypertrophies. For all the diseases explored the results obtained agree well with those of other functional explorations (creatinine clearance, separate urinary urea concentration). Moreover DMSA gives results similar to those obtained with mercury chloride. Neither its intrarenal metabolism nor its exact intracellular uptake site are yet known. A fuller knowledge of these points should improve the interpretation of the results [fr

  4. Influence of coal properties on mercury uptake from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, J.; Brown, S.D.; Snape, C.E. [Miskolc University, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary). Research Inst. of Applied Chemistry

    1999-10-01

    The uptake of mercury (II) from aqueous solution by a range of coals has been studied and the results have been compared to those for a number of other sorbents, including commercial active carbons and cation-exchange resins. At pH 5 in a buffer medium, the capacities for mercury removal of the low-rank coals and the oxidized bituminous coals investigated are comparable to those of the other sorbents tested. For the lignites investigated, a high content of organic sulfur does not markedly affect the capacity for mercury uptake in relatively neutral and low chloride media, owing to redox reactions being the most likely mechanism involved. However, in highly acidic solutions, the capacities for mercury uptake are considerably greater for the high-sulfur coals investigated than for their low-sulfur counterparts due to chelation being the major sorption process involved. 36 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Uptake of technetium from seawater by red abalone Haliotis rufescens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, R.B.

    1975-01-01

    Technetium accumulation from seawater by the abalone Haliotis rufescens was studied with 95 Tc. Concentration factors, uptake rates, steady state concentrations, and biological half-lives were determined experimentally for whole-body uptake. Whole-body concentration factors ranged from 135 to 205; biological half-life was 60 days. Changes in concentration factors were determined for six tissues during the uptake period. The highest activities were in the order of: digestive gland>gill>kidneys>heart>gonad>columnar muscle. Dead shells accumulated little activity compared to shells of living abalone. Gills and digestive system appear to be the routes of entry. Autoradiography shows that of the muscular tissues the outer edge of the foot and epipodium are the most active and the edible columnar muscle the least active. (author)

  6. Gold nanoparticle cellular uptake, toxicity and radiosensitisation in hypoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Suneil; Coulter, Jonathan A.; Butterworth, Karl T.; Hounsell, Alan R.; McMahon, Stephen J.; Hyland, Wendy B.; Muir, Mark F.; Dickson, Glenn R.; Prise, Kevin M.; Currell, Fred J.; Hirst, David G.; O’Sullivan, Joe M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are novel agents that have been shown to cause radiosensitisation in vitro and in vivo. Tumour hypoxia is associated with radiation resistance and reduced survival in cancer patients. The interaction of GNPs with cells in hypoxia is explored. Materials and methods: GNP uptake, localization, toxicity and radiosensitisation were assessed in vitro under oxic and hypoxic conditions. Results: GNP cellular uptake was significantly lower under hypoxic than oxic conditions. A significant reduction in cell proliferation in hypoxic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells exposed to GNPs was observed. In these cells significant radiosensitisation occurred in normoxia and moderate hypoxia. However, in near anoxia no significant sensitisation occurred. Conclusions: GNP uptake occurred in hypoxic conditions, causing radiosensitisation in moderate, but not extreme hypoxia in a breast cancer cell line. These findings may be important for the development of GNPs for cancer therapy

  7. Interaction and uptake of exosomes by ovarian cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altevogt Peter

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exosomes consist of membrane vesicles that are secreted by several cell types, including tumors and have been found in biological fluids. Exosomes interact with other cells and may serve as vehicles for the transfer of protein and RNA among cells. Methods SKOV3 exosomes were labelled with carboxyfluoresceine diacetate succinimidyl-ester and collected by ultracentrifugation. Uptake of these vesicles, under different conditions, by the same cells from where they originated was monitored by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. Lectin analysis was performed to investigate the glycosylation properties of proteins from exosomes and cellular extracts. Results In this work, the ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cell line has been shown to internalize exosomes from the same cells via several endocytic pathways that were strongly inhibited at 4°C, indicating their energy dependence. Partial colocalization with the endosome marker EEA1 and inhibition by chlorpromazine suggested the involvement of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Furthermore, uptake inhibition in the presence of 5-ethyl-N-isopropyl amiloride, cytochalasin D and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin suggested the involvement of additional endocytic pathways. The uptake required proteins from the exosomes and from the cells since it was inhibited after proteinase K treatments. The exosomes were found to be enriched in specific mannose- and sialic acid-containing glycoproteins. Sialic acid removal caused a small but non-significant increase in uptake. Furthermore, the monosaccharides D-galactose, α-L-fucose, α-D-mannose, D-N-acetylglucosamine and the disaccharide β-lactose reduced exosomes uptake to a comparable extent as the control D-glucose. Conclusions In conclusion, exosomes are internalized by ovarian tumor cells via various endocytic pathways and proteins from exosomes and cells are required for uptake. On the other hand, exosomes are enriched in specific

  8. Interaction and uptake of exosomes by ovarian cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escrevente, Cristina; Keller, Sascha; Altevogt, Peter; Costa, Júlia

    2011-01-01

    Exosomes consist of membrane vesicles that are secreted by several cell types, including tumors and have been found in biological fluids. Exosomes interact with other cells and may serve as vehicles for the transfer of protein and RNA among cells. SKOV3 exosomes were labelled with carboxyfluoresceine diacetate succinimidyl-ester and collected by ultracentrifugation. Uptake of these vesicles, under different conditions, by the same cells from where they originated was monitored by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. Lectin analysis was performed to investigate the glycosylation properties of proteins from exosomes and cellular extracts. In this work, the ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cell line has been shown to internalize exosomes from the same cells via several endocytic pathways that were strongly inhibited at 4°C, indicating their energy dependence. Partial colocalization with the endosome marker EEA1 and inhibition by chlorpromazine suggested the involvement of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Furthermore, uptake inhibition in the presence of 5-ethyl-N-isopropyl amiloride, cytochalasin D and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin suggested the involvement of additional endocytic pathways. The uptake required proteins from the exosomes and from the cells since it was inhibited after proteinase K treatments. The exosomes were found to be enriched in specific mannose- and sialic acid-containing glycoproteins. Sialic acid removal caused a small but non-significant increase in uptake. Furthermore, the monosaccharides D-galactose, α-L-fucose, α-D-mannose, D-N-acetylglucosamine and the disaccharide β-lactose reduced exosomes uptake to a comparable extent as the control D-glucose. In conclusion, exosomes are internalized by ovarian tumor cells via various endocytic pathways and proteins from exosomes and cells are required for uptake. On the other hand, exosomes are enriched in specific glycoproteins that may constitute exosome markers. This work contributes to

  9. Actin-cytoskeleton rearrangement modulates proton-induced uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Dov, Nadav [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, 69978 Tel-Aviv (Israel); Korenstein, Rafi, E-mail: korens@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, 69978 Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2013-04-15

    Recently it has been shown that elevating proton concentration at the cell surface stimulates the formation of membrane invaginations and vesicles accompanied by an enhanced uptake of macromolecules. While the initial induction of inward membrane curvature was rationalized in terms of proton-based increase of charge asymmetry across the membrane, the mechanisms underlying vesicle formation and its scission are still unknown. In light of the critical role of actin in vesicle formation during endocytosis, the present study addresses the involvement of cytoskeletal actin in proton-induced uptake (PIU). The uptake of dextran-FITC is used as a measure for the factual fraction of inward invaginations that undergo scission from the cell's plasma membrane. Our findings show that the rate of PIU in suspended cells is constant, whereas the rate of PIU in adherent cells is gradually increased in time, saturating at the level possessed by suspended cells. This is consistent with pH induced gradual degradation of stress-fibers in adherent cells. Wortmannin and calyculin-A are able to elevate PIU by 25% in adherent cells but not in suspended cells, while cytochalasin-D, rapamycin and latrunculin-A elevate PIU both in adherent and suspended cells. However, extensive actin depolymerization by high concentrations of latrunculin-A is able to inhibit PIU. We conclude that proton-induced membrane vesiculation is restricted by the actin structural resistance to the plasma membrane bending. Nevertheless, a certain degree of cortical actin restructuring is required for the completion of the scission process. - Highlights: ► Acidification of cells' exterior enhances uptake of macromolecules by the cells. ► Disruption of actin stress fibers leads to enhancement of proton induced uptake. ► Extensive depolymerization of cellular actin attenuates proton-induced uptake.

  10. Uptake of mercury vapor by wheat. An assimilation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browne, C.L.; Fang, S.C.

    1978-01-01

    Using a whole-plant chamber and 203 Hg-labeled mercury, a quantitative study was made of the effect of environmental parameters on the uptake, by wheat (Triticum aestivum), of metallic mercury vapor, an atmospheric pollutant. Factors were examined in relation to their influence on components of the gas-assimilation model, U(Hg) = (C/sub A' -- C/sub L')/(r/sub L.Hg/ + r/sub M.Hg/) where U(Hg) is the rate of mercury uptake per unit leaf surface, C/sub A'/ is the ambient mercury vapor concentration, C/sub L'/ is the mercury concentration at immobilization sites within the plant (assumed to be zero), r/sub L.Hg/ is the total leaf resistance to mercury vapor exchange, and r/sub M.Hg/ is a residual term to account for unexplained physical and biochemical resistances to mercury vapor uptake. Essentially all mercury vapor uptake was confined to the leaves. r/sub L.Hg/ was particularly influenced by illumination (0 to 12.8 klux), but unaffected by ambient temperature (17 to 33 0 C) and mercury vapor concentration (0 to 40 μg m -3 ). The principal limitation to mercury vapor uptake was r/sub M.Hg/, which was linearly related to leaf temperature, but unaffected by mercury vapor concentration and illumination, except for apparent high values in darkness. Knowing C/sub A'/ and estimating r/sub L.Hg/ and r/sub M.Hg/ from experimental data, mercury vapor uptake by wheat in light was accurately predicted for several durations of exposure using the above model

  11. 134cs uptake by plants from soil applying different absorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oncsik, M.

    1998-01-01

    A study of isotope uptake by plants using different zeolite clay minerals (montmorillonite, mordenite, clinoptilolite) was started with a view to reducing the rate of isotope uptake by plants by applying additives given to the soil. In pot experiments, the 134 Cs activity of green peas was reduced by 16% in average as compared to the control in the soils enriched with zeolite (mordenite type). Under field conditions, the radioactivity of millet and carrot yields were investigated in soils ameliorated with montmorillonite clay mineral. The radioactive contamination of the yield in soil treated with zeolite was in average 10% lower for millet and 24% for carrot roots as compared to the control

  12. Decreased uptake after fractionated ablative doses of iodine-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hurng-Sheng [Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Department of Surgery, Changhua, Taiwan (Taiwan); Hseu, Huey-Herng [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Medical Education and Research, Taichung (Taiwan); Lin, Wan-Yu; Wang, Shyh-Jen [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung, Taiwan (Taiwan); Liu, Yao-Chi [Department of Surgery, General Surgery, National Defense Medical Center, Taipe (Taiwan)

    2005-02-01

    In an attempt to obviate the necessity for hospitalisation, the ablative dose of {sup 131}I in the treatment of thyroid cancer is divided into two or three fractions at weekly intervals in some hospitals with no special bed for {sup 131}I treatment. Thyroid stunning has been observed in patients receiving a {sup 131}I dose between 74 and 370 MBq (2-10 mCi). However, the influence of {sup 131}I uptake after administration of a higher dose, such as 1,110-1,850 MBq of {sup 131}I, has never been reported. In this study, we evaluated the degree of reduction in {sup 131}I uptake after patients received 1,480 MBq of {sup 131}I and evaluated the clinical value of fractionated ablative doses of {sup 131}I. Thirty-five patients with functional thyroid cancer received a total of 4,440 MBq (120 mCi) of {sup 131}I which was divided into three fractions administered at weekly intervals. In all patients two {sup 131}I whole-body scans were performed. The first scan was performed directly prior to the second dose of {sup 131}I (7 days after the first administration of {sup 131}I), and the second scan was performed 7 days after the second administration of {sup 131}I and directly prior to the third administration. Regions of interest including the neck and lungs were drawn to calculate the uptake of {sup 131}I in the thyroid remnant and possible cervical lymph node and lung metastases. The mean uptake of {sup 131}I was 2.73% 7 days after the first administration, and decreased significantly to 0.26% 7 days after the second administration. The mean decrease was as high as 80.7%. The decrease in {sup 131}I uptake was significant in all patients except the two with lung metastases. In the two patients with lung metastases, no definite evidence of decreased uptake was noted; the uptake of {sup 131}I in the lung metastases even increased on the second {sup 131}I image in one of these patients. After administration of 1,480 MBq of {sup 131}I, the decreased uptake was significant in all

  13. Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Uptake in a Respiratory Outpatients Clinic

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rossiter, A

    2017-02-01

    Influenza is an acute viral respiratory illness that continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality in Ireland. Despite well-established national and international guidelines1 and increased public awareness campaigns, vaccine uptake rates are well below target worldwide2. We performed an audit of influenza vaccine uptake at a Respiratory outpatient clinic in a tertiary referral centre. 54% (n=41) of patients received the annual vaccine, well below the target of 75% set by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC).

  14. Intracellular uptake of 123I-boronophenylalanine-fructose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, K. S.; Choi, T. H.; Choi, C. Y.; Jung, W. S.; Lim, S. J.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, S. M.

    1999-01-01

    Boronophenylalanine (BPA) has been used in malignant glioma or melanoma uptake for BNCT. We labeled BPA with 123 I for in vivo quantitation of BPA in BNCT, and tumor imaging with gamma camera. We investigated the amino acid BPA as a boron delivery agent fro BNCT. As the free amino acid, BPA has a limited solubility at physiological pH, which makes it unsuitable for IV or IP injection. Recent studies of the chemistry of BPA have yielded a method of solubilizing BPA at neutral pH using fructose, a common fruit sugar. The use of BPA-fructose has significantly improved high uptake compared to BPA alone in melanoma

  15. Cerebral ammonia uptake and accumulation during prolonged exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Dalsgaard, Mads K.; Steensberg, Adam

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated whether peripheral ammonia production during prolonged exercise enhances the uptake and subsequent accumulation of ammonia within the brain. Two studies determined the cerebral uptake of ammonia (arterial and jugular venous blood sampling combined with Kety-Schmidt-determined cerebral...... blood flow; n = 5) and the ammonia concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; n = 8) at rest and immediately following prolonged exercise either with or without glucose supplementation. There was a net balance of ammonia across the brain at rest and at 30 min of exercise, whereas 3 h of exercise...... exercise with glucose, and further to 16.1 ± 3.3 µM after the placebo trial (P

  16. Estimation of uptake from censored urine excretion data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, J.W.; Birchall, A.

    1994-01-01

    The estimation of radionuclide uptake often involves consideration of measurements of urine excretion which may include some values reported as below the limit of detection (LOD). Data sets which contain below LOD data as well as positive results are known as censored data sets. A simple method which uses the information contained in censored data to estimate uptake is described. A Monte Carlo technique has been used to investigate the accuracy and the efficiency of the method using simulated data sets with increasing numbers of LOD data points. (author)

  17. A comparison of methods of predicting maximum oxygen uptake.

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, S; Corbett, K; Amjad, A M; Wilson, J; Aitchison, T

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the results from a Cooper walk run test, a multistage shuttle run test, and a submaximal cycle test with the direct measurement of maximum oxygen uptake on a treadmill. Three predictive tests of maximum oxygen uptake--linear extrapolation of heart rate of VO2 collected from a submaximal cycle ergometer test (predicted L/E), the Cooper 12 min walk, run test, and a multi-stage progressive shuttle run test (MST)--were performed by 22 young healthy males (mean...

  18. Uptake study of some radionuclides by Suez Canal bottom sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shinawy, R.M.K.; Abdel Fattah, A.T.; Essa, M.W.A.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical and physical analyses of Suez Canal bottom sediment at its south entrance (Port Taweffek) were carried out. The sediment was separated into its particle size fractions (clay, silt and sand). The different sediment fractions can be arranged with respect to their sorption capacity as follows: clay, natural sediment, sit and sand. The increase of pH results in small increase in the uptake reaching in some cases a maximum value of pH 6 or 8. More significant increase of uptake is observed when the carrier concentration is increased from 10 -6 to 10 -2 M/L

  19. Gallium uptake in tryptophan-related pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.M.; Park, C.H.; Intenzo, C.M.; Patel, R.

    1991-01-01

    We describe a patient who developed fever, fatigue, muscle weakness, dyspnea, skin rash, and eosinophilia after taking high doses of tryptophan for insomnia for two years. A gallium-67 scan revealed diffuse increased uptake in the lung and no abnormal uptake in the muscular distribution. Bronchoscopy and biopsy confirmed inflammatory reactions with infiltration by eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes. CT scan showed an interstitial alveolar pattern without fibrosis. EMG demonstrated diffuse myopathy. Muscle biopsy from the right thigh showed an inflammatory myositis with eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltrations

  20. Silicate reduces cadmium uptake into cells of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greger, Maria; Kabir, Ahmad H.; Landberg, Tommy; Maity, Pooja J.; Lindberg, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a health threat all over the world and high Cd content in wheat causes high Cd intake. Silicon (Si) decreases cadmium content in wheat grains and shoot. This work investigates whether and how silicate (Si) influences cadmium (Cd) uptake at the cellular level in wheat. Wheat seedlings were grown in the presence or absence of Si with or without Cd. Cadmium, Si, and iron (Fe) accumulation in roots and shoots was analysed. Leaf protoplasts from plants grown without Cd were investigated for Cd uptake in the presence or absence of Si using the fluorescent dye, Leadmium Green AM. Roots and shoots of plants subjected to all four treatments were investigated regarding the expression of genes involved in the Cd uptake across the plasma membrane (i.e. LCT1) and efflux of Cd into apoplasm or vacuole from the cytosol (i.e. HMA2). In addition, phytochelatin (PC) content and PC gene (PCS1) expression were analysed. Expression of iron and metal transporter genes (IRT1 and NRAMP1) were also analysed. Results indicated that Si reduced Cd accumulation in plants, especially in shoot. Si reduced Cd transport into the cytoplasm when Si was added both directly during the uptake measurements and to the growth medium. Silicate downregulated LCT1 and HMA2 and upregulated PCS1. In addition, Si enhanced PC formation when Cd was present. The IRT1 gene, which was downregulated by Cd was upregulated by Si in root and shoot facilitating Fe transport in wheat. NRAMP1 was similarly expressed, though the effect was limited to roots. This work is the first to show how Si influences Cd uptake on the cellular level. - Highlights: • Si decreases accumulation and translocation of Cd in plants at tissue level. • This work is the first to show how Si influences Cd uptake. • Si decreases Cd uptake into cell and downregulates heavy metal transporter LCT1. • Si downregulates HMA2 transporter, which regulates Cd transport from root to shoot. • Si increases phytochelatin formation

  1. BPA uptake in rat tissues after partial hepatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slatkin, D.N.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Coderre, J.A.; Fisher, C.D.; Joel, D.D.; Lombardo, D.T.; Micca, P.L.

    1996-12-31

    In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), boron given as boronophenylalanine (BPA) accumulates transiently not only in tumors but also in normal tissues. Average boron concentrations in transplanted 9L gliosarcoma tumors of 20 rats were 2.5 to 3.7 times concentrations found in blood. Although boron levels in a variety of tissues were also higher than blood the concentrations were less than the lowest found in the tumor. Further note than although BPA is a structural analogue of phenylalanine (Phe), the pathway of BPA uptake into regenerating liver may not be linked to Phe uptake mechanisms.

  2. The uptake of 131I by some hydroponically grown crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asprer, G.A.; Lansangan, L.M.; de la Paz, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    Biologically labelled vegetables which include kangkong and sweet potato tops were grown hydroponically in a modified Hoagland-Arnon nutrient solution containing radioiodine with 0.5% non-radioactive Nal solution as the medium. The crops considered in this study are commonly eaten by Filipinos. The concentration of the solution as well as the uptake in the plant system were determined at various time intervals. The extent of radioiodine uptake through air-water-plant pathway is one of the parameters needed for calculating the dose that the general populace could be exposed to, due to radioactivity in the environment. (author)

  3. A two-compartment exposure device for foliar uptake study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Q.; Lin, H.; Zhang, X.L.; Li, Q.L.; Liu, S.Z.; Tao, S.

    2006-01-01

    An airtight two-chamber exposure devise was designed for investigating foliar uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by plants. The upper and the bottom chambers of the device were air-tightly separated by an aluminum foil and the plant aerial tissues and roots were exposed in the two chambers, respectively. The device was tested using maize exposed to several PAH species. Positive correlations between air and aerial tissue concentrations of the exposed PAH species were revealed. PAHs spiking in the culture solution had no influence on the leaf concentrations. -- A two-compartment gastight exposure device was developed for investigation of foliar uptake of PAHs by plants

  4. Uptake and depuration of 131I by the edible periwinkle Littorina littorea: uptake from labelled seaweed (Chondrus crispus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.C.; Vives i Batlle, J.; McDonald, P.; Parker, T.G.

    2005-01-01

    Uptake and depuration experiments of 131 I from labelled seaweed (Chondrus crispus) by the edible periwinkle Littorina littorea have been performed. Radioiodine concentrations in winkles during uptake followed first-order kinetics with an uptake half-time of 1 day, and a calculated equilibrium concentration (C ∞ ) of 21 000 Bq kg -1 resulting in a transfer factor of 0.07 with respect to the labelled seaweed used as food. For depuration, a biphasic sequence with biological half-lives of 1 and 24 days was determined. The results suggest that in general, iodine turnover in periwinkles is slower than observed for other molluscs (monophasic biological half-lives in the order of 2-3 days). Both environmental media, food and seawater, can be significant sources of radioiodine for the winkle

  5. [Long-Term Inhibition of FNA on Aerobic Phosphate Uptake and Variation of Phosphorus Uptake Properties of the Sludge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Juan; Li, Lu; Yu, Xiao-jun; Sun, Lei-jun; Sun, Hong-wei; Chen, Yong-zhi

    2015-10-01

    An alternating anaerobic/oxic ( An/O) sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was employed to investigate the long-term inhibitory effect of free nitrous acid (FNA) on aerobic phosphorus uptake performance and variation of phosphorus uptake properties of the sludge by adding nitrite. The reactor was started up under the condition of 21-23 degrees C. The results showed that FNA had no impact on phosphate release and uptake capacities of the sludge. However, the specific phosphate release/uptake rates was found to be higher. As FNA concentration (measure by HNO2-N) was lower than 0.53 x 10(-3) mg x L(-1), phosphorus removal efficiency of the system was higher than 96.9%. When the FNA concentration was increased to 0.99 x 10(-3) mg x L(-1), 1.46 x 10(-3) mg x L(-1) and 1.94 x 10(-3) mg x L(-1), the phosphorus removal performance deteriorated rapidly. The phosphorus removal efficiency was recovered to 64.42%, 67.33% and 44.14% after 50, 12 and 30 days, respectively, which implied the deterioration of phosphorus removal performance caused by FNA inhibition could be recovered and long-term acclimation could shorten the recovery process. Notably, increasing nitrite consumption appeared during aerobic phase with the concentration of FNA below 1.46 x 10(-3) mg x L(-1). It was also observed that the phosphorus uptake properties of the sludge varied after long-term inhibition. Nitrate and nitrite type anoxic phosphorus uptake capacity was increased by 3.35 and 3.86 times, respectively, suggesting long-term dosing FNA may facilitate the denitrifying of polyphosphate in organisms utilizing nitrite as electron acceptor. Moreover, long-term acclimation favored sludge settling.

  6. Diffuse abdominal gallium-67 citrate uptake in salmonella infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garty, I.; Koren, A.

    1987-01-01

    Two pediatric patients with salmonella infections (one with typhoid fever and the second with salmonella C2 gastroenteritis), had a diffuse abdominal uptake of Ga-67 citrate. The possible explanation for this finding is discussed. Salmonella infection should be included as a cause in the differential diagnosis of diffuse accumulation of Ga-67 citrate

  7. Radiocaesium uptake and cycling in willow short rotation coppice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gommers, A.

    2002-01-01

    The document is an abstract of a PhD thesis. The study investigates the uptake and cycling of radiocaesium in willow short rotation coppice. Different factors influencing the soil-to-wood transfer of radiocaesium were investigated, among others the type of minerals, supply of potassium and soil composition

  8. Nitrogen uptake efficiency of irrigated wheat in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Monem, M.A.S.

    2000-01-01

    Egypt's current wheat production would be impossible without N fertilizers, the consumption of which has increased more than 75% in the last 20 years. The efficiency of uptake of applied N is low, and better management of both fertilizer and irrigation is needed to improve N recovery by crops and reduce losses from the plant/soil system. Field trials were conducted over a 3-year period, on Egypt's three main soil types: old irrigated land of the Nile valley, newly reclaimed sandy and calcareous soils, and salt-affected soil of the north delta. The responses of wheat cultivars to N, and patterns of N uptake and N loss, as affected by irrigation regime, were examined using 15 N. Cultivar Sakha 69 was more responsive to applied N and assimilated N more efficiently than other varieties under different soil types. Nitrogen loss from the sandy soil was as high as 57% whereas average loss in the clay soil was 17%. A higher water table in the salt-affected soil negatively affected N uptake. Irrigation with 75% of the required water for wheat had no effect on yield or N-uptake. (author)

  9. Silver Uptake and Reuse of Biomass by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were carried out on the recovery of bound silver and reuse of Chlorella emersonii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae biomass for further silver uptake after they were placed in contact with 20mg/l silver for 30 minutes to allow for maximum binding. It was found that 0.16M nitric acid gave the best recovery rates of silver.

  10. Inferring foliar water uptake using stable isotopes of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Gregory R; Lehmann, Marco M; Cernusak, Lucas A; Arend, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf T W

    2017-08-01

    A growing number of studies have described the direct absorption of water into leaves, a phenomenon known as foliar water uptake. The resultant increase in the amount of water in the leaf can be important for plant function. Exposing leaves to isotopically enriched or depleted water sources has become a common method for establishing whether or not a plant is capable of carrying out foliar water uptake. However, a careful inspection of our understanding of the fluxes of water isotopes between leaves and the atmosphere under high humidity conditions shows that there can clearly be isotopic exchange between the two pools even in the absence of a change in the mass of water in the leaf. We provide experimental evidence that while leaf water isotope ratios may change following exposure to a fog event using water with a depleted oxygen isotope ratio, leaf mass only changes when leaves are experiencing a water deficit that creates a driving gradient for the uptake of water by the leaf. Studies that rely on stable isotopes of water as a means of studying plant water use, particularly with respect to foliar water uptake, must consider the effects of these isotopic exchange processes.

  11. Leukemia inhibitory factor increases glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Nina; O'Neill, Hayley M; Kleinert, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Members of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) family, IL-6 and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) have been shown to increase glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. However, the metabolic effects of another family member, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), are not well...

  12. Improving the uptake of postharvest innovations by farmers: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The uptake of postharvest innovations by Cameroonian farmers is generally low. In an attempt to improve on the situation a new extension strategy was tested. Multiple participative activities were carried out with members of a rural organisation as a strategy to encourage them to adopt new cassava processing technologies ...

  13. Biodegradation and moisture uptake modified starch-filled Linear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixteen different modified-cassava starch-LLDPE blends containing starch in the range of 10-40% by weight were prepared. Calcium chloride, D-glucose, chloroform and alumina were differently used as modifying agents. The Moisture uptake and biodegradation of each of the composites were investigated. Both of these ...

  14. Dermal uptake of nicotine from air and clothing: Experimental verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Morrison, G.; Weschler, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    several days. Absorbed nicotine was significantly lower after showering in 1 subject but not the other. Differences in the normalized uptakes and in the excretion patterns were observed among the participants. The observed cotinine half-lives suggest that non-smokers exposed to airborne nicotine may...

  15. Hepatitis b vaccination uptake among a cohort of nigerian surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: Transmission of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) from patients to health care personnel (HCP) can occur following occupational exposures. Vaccination is effective in disease prevention. The study aimed to determine the level of uptake of HBV vaccine among a cohort of Nigerian surgical residents.

  16. Gender differentials in ICT uptake rating among research scientists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the challenge to ICT uptake rating among research scientists in the Nigerian Universities of Agriculture through gender inequality. Primary data were used for the study which was generated through the use of questionnaire. The study took a sample of 240 respondents from a population of 1758 from the ...

  17. Knowledge uptake by technical professionals and decision-makers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While significant knowledge appears to be available on developmental water services (a term for service provision, to meet developmental objectives, with an emphasis on poor communities, in which a range of factors other than purely technical factors are addressed), there appears to be insufficient uptake of this ...

  18. ATP storage and uptake by isolated pancreatic zymogen granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haanes, Kristian Agmund; Novak, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    ATP is released from pancreatic acini in response to cholinergic and hormonal stimulation. The same stimuli cause exocytosis of ZG (zymogen granules) and release of digestive enzymes. The aim of the present study was to determine whether ZG stored ATP and to characterize the uptake mechanism for ...

  19. Ammonium and hydroxylamine uptake and accumulation in Nitrosomonas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, I.; Look, C.; Bock, E.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Starved cells of Nitrosomonas europaea and further ammonia oxidizers were able to rapidly accumulate ammonium and hydroxylamine to an internal concentration of about 1 and 0.8 M, respectively. In kinetic studies, the uptake/accumulation rates for ammonium [3.1 mmol (g protein)(-1) min(-1)] and

  20. Gallium-67-citrate uptake in a case of acne vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipper, M.S.; Taylor, A.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    A case of increased Ga-67 uptake in a patient with active acne vulgaris is reported. The scan was requested in a search for metastatic testicular carcinoma or bleomycin pulmonary toxicity. Careful clinical evaluation including physical examination was necessary in order to avoid an erroneous scan interpretation

  1. Zinc uptake in vitro by human retinal pigment epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsome, D.A.; Rothman, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Zinc, an essential trace element, is present in unusually high concentrations in the chorioretinal complex relative to most other tissues. Because little has been known about the interactions between the retinal pigment epithelium and free or protein-associated zinc, we studied 65 Zn uptake by human retinal pigment epithelium in vitro. When monolayers were exposed to differing concentrations from 0 to 30 microM 65 Zn in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium with 5.4 gm/l glucose at 37 degrees C and 4 degrees C, we observed a temperature-dependent saturable accumulation of the radiolabel. With 15 microM 65 Zn, we saw a biphasic pattern of uptake with a rapid first phase and a slower second phase over 120 min. Uptake of 65 Zn was inhibited by iodacetate and cold, and reduced approximately 50% by the addition of 2% albumin to the labelling medium. Neither ouabain nor 2-deoxyglucose inhibited uptake. Cells previously exposed to 65 Zn retained approximately 70% of accumulated 65 Zn 60 min after being changed to radiolabel-free medium. Following removal of cells from the extracellular matrix adherent to the dish bottom, a variable amount of nonspecific binding of 65 Zn to the residual matrix was demonstrated. These observations are consistent with a facilitated type of transport and demonstrate the ability of human retinal pigment epithelium in vitro to accumulate and retain zinc

  2. Cisplatin carbonato complexes. Implications for uptake, antitumor properties, and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centerwall, Corey R; Goodisman, Jerry; Kerwood, Deborah J; Dabrowiak, James C

    2005-09-21

    The reaction of aquated cisplatin with carbonate which is present in culture media and blood is described. The first formed complex is a monochloro monocarbonato species, which upon continued exposure to carbonate slowly forms a biscarbonato complex. The formation of carbonato species under conditions that simulate therapy may have important implications for uptake, antitumor properties, and toxicity of cisplatin.

  3. About methodology to study plant uptake of radionuclides from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuleubaev, B.A.; Ptitskaya, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents methodology for studying particular features of radionuclides uptake by plants from contaminated soil as applied to the use of the former Semipalatinsk tet site territory, which are dependent upon physical-chemical and physical-mechanical properties of soil and biological peculiarities of meadow-pasture vegetation. (author)

  4. A mechanism for the hydrogen uptake process in zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrogen uptake data for thin Zircaloy-2 specimens in steam at 300-400 C have been analysed to show that there is a decrease in the rate of uptake with respect to the rate of oxidation when the terminal solid solubility (TSS) of hydrogen in the metal is exceeded. In order for TSS to be reached during pre-transition oxidation a very thin 0.125 mm Zircaloy sheet was used. The specimens had been pickled initially removing all Zr 2 (Fe/Ni) particles from the initial surfaces, yet the initial hydrogen uptake rates were still much higher than for Zircaloy-4 or a binary Zr/Fe alloy that did not contain phases that dissolve readily during pickling. Cathodic polarisation at room temperature in CuSO 4 solution showed that small cracks or pores formed the cathodic sites in pre-transition oxide films. Some were at pits resulting from the initial dissolution of the Zr 2 (Fe/Ni) phase; others were not; none were at the remaining intermetallics in the original surface. These small cracks are thought to provide the ingress routes for hydrogen. A microscopic steam starvation process at the bottoms of these small cracks or pores, leading to the accumulation of hydrogen adjacent to the oxide/metal interface, and causing breakdown of the passive oxide forming at the bottom of the flaw, is thought to provide the mechanism for the hydrogen uptake process during both pre-transition and post-transition oxidation. (orig.)

  5. Arsenic uptake and phytoremediation potential by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinhua He; Erik Lilleskov

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of soils and water is a global problem because of its impacts on ecosystems and human health. Various approaches have been attempted for As remediation, with limited success. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play vital roles in the uptake of water and essential nutrients, especially phosphorus (P), and hence enhance plant performance and...

  6. Indium-labeled platelet uptake in rejecting renal transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, S.T.; Buckels, J.; Hawker, R.J.; Smith, N.; Barnes, A.D.; McCollum, C.N.

    1983-01-01

    The uptake of 111 In autologous platelets in transplanted kidneys was measured in 16 patients shortly after operation. Each patient was then observed for two years. When transplant radioactivity had increased, despite treatment for acute rejection, the kidney was ultimately lost because of rejection

  7. Uptake of post‑abortion contraception among women who had ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nulliparous women whereas an uptake of 80.9% was seen among parous ... An estimated 123 million couples, mainly in low resource countries, do not use any method of modern contraceptives, despite a desire to space or limit their childbearing. ... This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative ...

  8. Uptake of phenolic compounds from plant foods in human intestinal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gavirangappa Hithamani

    Open-pan boiling reduced the uptake of quercetin from the onion. Among pure phenolic ... vegetable, is a major source of flavonoid in the diet (Galdón et al. 2008). ..... inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic properties of red wine polyphenolic ... quercetin and quercetin-rich red onion extract on skeletal muscle mitochondria ...

  9. Facilitation of phosphorus uptake in maize plants by mycorrhizosphere bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battini, Fabio; Grønlund, Mette; Agnolucci, Monica

    2017-01-01

    availability of soil P. This study investigated whether biofertilizers and bioenhancers, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and their associated bacteria could enhance growth and P uptake in maize. Plants were grown with or without mycorrhizas in compartmented pots with radioactive P tracers and were...

  10. Uptake of isoniazid preventive therapy and its associated factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT) is an effective intervention for prevention of tuberculosis (TB) among HIV positive patients, and its use is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Unfortunately the uptake of IPT in Kenya remains low (33%-40%) with limited knowledge on the factors that affect ...

  11. Uptake and elimination kinetics of heavy metals by earthworm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Earthworm inoculation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil is thought to catalyze the bioremediation. Most bioremediation studies focus on the petroleum hydrocarbon content and not on the heavy metals. Here, the uptake kinetics of heavy metals by earthworm in used engine oil contaminated soil was investigated.

  12. Oxygen uptake rate (OUR) control strategy for improving avermectin B

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glucose metabolism plays a crucial role in the process of avermectin B1a biosynthesis. Controlling glucose feeding based on oxygen uptake rate (OUR) was established to improve the efficiency of avermectin B1a production. The result showed that avermectin B1a production was greatly enhanced by OUR control strategy.

  13. Community vaccine perceptions and its role on vaccination uptake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Underutilization of vaccines still remains a challenge in many regions across the world. Ileje district is one of the districts in Tanzania with consistently low pentavalent vaccine uptake (69%) and with drop out of 15%. We determined the vaccination completion with regard to Oral Polio virus, Measles, Bacillus ...

  14. Phosphate uptake and growth characteristics of transgenic rice with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-03

    Apr 3, 2012 ... In this study, we investigated phosphate uptake pat- terns and growth ... at 50°C OsPT1 and actin amplication, second strand cDNA synthesis for 2 min at .... weight of the stem in wild-type plants increased signifi- cantly under ...

  15. Hepatic metabolism of toluene after gastrointestinal uptake in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Mølhave, Lars; Honoré Hansen, S

    1993-01-01

    The metabolism of toluene and the influence of small doses of ethanol were measured in eight male volunteers after gastrointestinal uptake, the toluene concentration in alveolar air and the urinary excretion of hippuric acid and ortho-cresol being used as the measures of metabolism. During toluene...

  16. Uptake of tritiated lysine by fresh water alga, Scenedesmus obliquus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogate, S.S.; Krishnamoorthy, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    Tritium uptake by fresh water alga. S.obliquus was studied using tritium labelled lysine, and a sequential solvent extraction procedure was used to study the distribution of tritium in different organic constituents of the algal cells. The accumulation of tritium in the algal cells was found to be 3-4 orders of magnitude more than that obtained for tritiated water. (author)

  17. Uptake of uranium from sea water by microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Takashi; Horikoshi, Takao; Nakajima, Akira

    1978-01-01

    The uptake of uranium from aqueous systems especially from sea water by various microalgae was investigated. The freshwater microalgae, Chlorella regularis, Scenedesmus bijuga, Scenedesmus chloreloides, Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlamydomonas angulosa, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, accumulated relatively large amounts of uranium from the solution containing uranium only. The concentration factors of the above mentioned algae were: Chlorella regularis 3930, Chlamydomonas 2330 - 3400, Scenedesmus 803 - 1920. The uptake of uranium from sea water by Chlorella regularis was inhibited markedly by the co-existence of carbonate ions. Chlorella cells could take up a great quantity of uranium from decarbonated sea water. The uptake of uranium was affected by the pH of sea water, and the amount of uranium absorbed was maximum at pH 5. The experiment was carried out to screen marine microalgae which have the ability to accumulate a large amount of uranium from sea water. The uptake of uranium from sea water by marine microalgae of different species turned out to be in the following decreasing order: Synechococcus > Chlamydomonas >> Chlorella > Dunaliella > Platymonas > Calothrix > Porphyridium. The amount of uranium absorbed differed markedly with different species of marine microalgae. (author)

  18. Assaying Cellular Viability Using the Neutral Red Uptake Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Gamze; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera; Rodrigues, Robim M

    2017-01-01

    The neutral red uptake assay is a cell viability assay that allows in vitro quantification of xenobiotic-induced cytotoxicity. The assay relies on the ability of living cells to incorporate and bind neutral red, a weak cationic dye, in lysosomes. As such, cytotoxicity is expressed as a concentration-dependent reduction of the uptake of neutral red after exposure to the xenobiotic under investigation. The neutral red uptake assay is mainly used for hazard assessment in in vitro toxicology applications. This method has also been introduced in regulatory recommendations as part of 3T3-NRU-phototoxicity-assay, which was regulatory accepted in all EU member states in 2000 and in the OECD member states in 2004 as a test guideline (TG 432). The present protocol describes the neutral red uptake assay using the human hepatoma cell line HepG2, which is often employed as an alternative in vitro model for human hepatocytes. As an example, the cytotoxicity of acetaminophen and acetyl salicylic acid is assessed.

  19. Uptake of genetic counselling services by patients with cystic fibrosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common genetic condition, genetic counselling services appear to be underutilised by affected families. The aim of this study was to determine the uptake of genetic counselling and mutation testing for CF by relatives of affected individuals, and the impact of introducing ...

  20. Therapeutic implications of thymic uptake of radioiodine in thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, L.M.; Barrington, S.F.; Kettle, A.G.; O'Doherty, M.J.; Coakley, A.J.; Morrison, I.D.

    1998-01-01

    The management of 38 consecutive patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma in the period 1991-1996, who each received at least one therapy dose of iodine-131, was reviewed, looking in particular at those in whom anterior mediastinal uptake was demonstrated on scans taken 3 and 7 days post-therapy. Such activity was noted in ten patients. On the basis of clinical follow-up, thyroglobulin measurement and radiological and other scintigraphic imaging, in nine of the ten patients the anterior mediastinal activity was attributed to physiological thymic uptake. Of those nine, all were under 50 years of age; seven were considered disease free, one had residual disease in the neck and one had distant metastases. Physiological uptake by the thymus was more prominent on the 7-day scans and in patients with low tumour volumes. For appropriate patient management it is essential to recognise that physiological uptake of 131 I by the thymus in patients under 50 years of age is a potential cause of false-positive therapy scans. (orig.)

  1. Kinetic parameters of silicon uptake by rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Oliveira Martins

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Silicon is considered an important chemical element for rice, because it can improve tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress. However, in many situations no positive effect of silicon was observed, probably due to genetic factors. The objective of this research was to monitor Si uptake kinetics and identify responses of rice cultivars in terms of Si uptake capacity and use. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse of the São Paulo State University (UNESP, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized, factorial design with three replications. that consisted of two rice cultivars and two Si levels. Kinetic parameters (Vmax, Km, and Cmin, root morphology variables, dry matter yield, Si accumulation and levels in shoots and roots, uptake efficiency, utilization efficiency, and root/shoot ratio were evaluated. Higher Si concentrations in the nutrient solution did not increase rice dry matter. The development of the low-affinity silicon uptake system of the rice cultivar 'Caiapó' was better than of 'Maravilha'.

  2. HIV counseling and testing uptake among adults in Amhara region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A secondary data analysis was carried out on Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2005 and 2011 records. In the study 6564 (age 15-49 years) study subjects were included. Spatial data of Amhara region was integrated and analyzed with data mining techniques. HIV testing uptake coverage was much lower (2%) in ...

  3. Nitrogen Uptake in Soils under Different Water Table Depths ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A mathematical model was used to examine the interactions of NH4 + transport to rice roots, as well as to calculate root length densities required to relate N uptake to concentrations of NH4 + in solution around the rooting medium for three water treatments: water table 30 cm below the surface, 15 cm below the surface and ...

  4. Dermal uptake of nicotine from air and clothing: Experimental verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Morrison, Glenn; Weschler, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    Studies suggest that dermal uptake of certain semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) directly from air can be a significant exposure pathway. This has been experimentally confirmed for two phthalates (Weschler et al., 2015). Morrison et al. (2016) showed that clean clothing can impede, while cloth...

  5. Growth and Nutrients Content and Uptake of Garlic ( Allium sativum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal ... Thus, the study was conducted on Andosol and Vertisol soils at Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia, for two consecutive (dry and main rainy) seasons to assess the effect of various rates of compound fertilizers on growth, and nutrient content and uptake of ...

  6. Radioactive iodine uptake: deriving new message from an old test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, R.R.; Magboo, M.L.C.; San Luis, T.O.L.

    1993-01-01

    92 patients with elevated 4 hour RAIU were divided into two groups and analyzed. Group I consisted of 42 patients with rapid iodine trapping and organification (4 hour>24 hour). Group II consisted of 50 patients with progressively increasing RAIU (24 hour>4 hour). Analysis of the clinical manifestations of both groups by using the J. Crooks Scoring System showed that 37 patients (88%) in group I belonged to the toxic group while only 7 (14%) of patients in group II showed clear signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. Independent 2-tailed t-test between the Crooks score of both groups showed significant difference (t=8.42). The uptake pattern of both groups showed significant differences in their uptake levels at p value<0.001. All of the patients in group I received antithyroid regimen while in group II, 26 patients (56%) were given thyroid hormone preparations and only 16 (32%) patients received anti-thyroid drugs. In the final analysis, patterns wherein the 4 hour uptake is higher than the 24 hour uptake are highly associated with hyperthyroidism. Those with sustained elevations of the 4 hour and the 24 hour RAIU should merit good correlation between the clinical and thyroid hormone level before initiating any treatment regimen. (author). 8 refs.; 8 tabs

  7. Coupling of Groundwater Transport and Plant Uptake Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rein, Arno; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Trapp, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    in environmental systems at different scale. Feedback mechanisms between plants and hydrological systems can play an important role, however having received little attention to date. Here, a new model concept for dynamic plant uptake models applying analytical matrix solutions is presented, which can be coupled...

  8. Dynamic plant uptake modelling and mass flux estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rein, Arno; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Trapp, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    in environmental systems at different scales. Feedback mechanisms between plants and hydrological systems can play an important role. However, they have received little attention to date. Here, a new model concept for dynamic plant uptake models applying analytical matrix solutions is presented, which can...

  9. Modelling 137Cs uptake in plants from undisturbed soil monoliths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waegeneers, Nadia; Smolders, Erik; Merckx, Roel

    2005-01-01

    A model predicting 137 Cs uptake in plants was applied on data from artificially contaminated lysimeters. The lysimeter data involve three different crops (beans, ryegrass and lettuce) grown on five different soils between 3 and 5 years after contamination and where soil solution composition was monitored. The mechanistic model predicts plant uptake of 137 Cs from soil solution composition. Predicted K concentrations in the rhizosphere were up to 50-fold below that in the bulk soil solution whereas corresponding 137 Cs concentration gradients were always less pronounced. Predictions of crop 137 Cs content based on rhizosphere soil solution compositions were generally closer to observations than those based on bulk soil solution composition. The model explained 17% (beans) to 91% (lettuce) of the variation in 137 Cs activity concentrations in the plants. The model failed to predict the 137 Cs activity concentration in ryegrass where uptake of the 5-year-old 137 Cs from 3 soils was about 40-fold larger than predicted. The model generally underpredicted crop 137 Cs concentrations at soil solution K concentration below about 1.0 mM. It is concluded that 137 Cs uptake can be predicted from the soil solution composition at adequate K nutrition but that significant uncertainties remain when soil solution K is below 1 mM

  10. Compost amendment, enhanced nutrient uptake and dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trial was conducted to assess the influence of Compost and inorganic fertilizer as well as plant growth stage on growth, nutrient uptake, dry matter accumulation and partitioning in maize crop grown on the battery waste contaminated site. Two types of compost (Mexican Sunflower (MSC) and Cassava peels (CPC) ...

  11. Uptake of post‑abortion contraception among women who had ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Unexpected or unplanned pregnancy poses a major public health challenge in women of reproductive age, especially in low resource countries. Post‑abortion contraception is one of the key methods of reducing maternal mortality globally. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the uptake of ...

  12. Surge ammonium uptake in macroalgae from a coral atoll

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, V.; Wafar, M.V.M.

    of Phycology 36, 680?685. Crossland, C.J., Hatcher, B.G., Smith, S.V., 1991. Role of coral reefs in global ocean production. Coral Reefs 10, 55-64. Danilo, Dy. T., Yap, H.T., 2001. Surge ammonium uptake of the cultured seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty...

  13. Proton pump-driven cutaneous chloride uptake in anuran amphibia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Jørn; Willumsen, Niels J.; Amstrup, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Krogh introduced the concept of active ion uptake across surface epithelia of freshwater animals, and proved independent transports of Na(+) and Cl(-) in anuran skin and fish gill. He suggested that the fluxes of Na(+) and Cl(-) involve exchanges with ions of similar charge. In the so-called Krog...

  14. Ammonia uptake in inactive muscles during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik

    1996-01-01

    The present study examined NH3 (ammonia and ammonium) uptake in resting leg muscle. Six male subjects performed intermittent arm exercise at various intensities in two separate 32-min periods (part I and part II) and in one subsequent 20-min period in which one-legged exercise was also performed ...

  15. Human Papilloma Virus vaccination: knowledge, attitude and uptake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Papilloma Virus vaccination: knowledge, attitude and uptake among female medical and dental students in a tertiary institution in Benin-City, Nigeria. ... Age (p = 0.001), faculty (p = 0.014) and level of study (p = 0.014) was observed to be significant determinants of knowledge. A higher proportion of respondents ...

  16. Natural colloidal P and its contribution to plant P uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Daniela; Degryse, Fien; McLaughlin, Mike J

    2015-03-17

    Phosphorus (P) bioavailability depends on its concentration and speciation in solution. Andisols and Oxisols have very low soil solution concentration of free orthophosphate, as they contain high concentrations of strongly P-sorbing minerals (Al/Fe oxyhydroxides, allophanes). Free orthophosphate is the form of P taken up by plants, but it is not the only P species present in the soil solution. Natural colloidal P (P associated with Al, Fe, and organic matter of sizes ranging from 1 to 1000 nm) constitutes an important fraction of soil solution P in these soils; however, its availability has not been considered. We measured the uptake of P by wheat (Triticum aestivum) from radiolabeled nonfiltered (colloid-containing) and 3-kDa filtered (nearly colloid-free) soil-water extracts from Andisols and Oxisols. In the Andisol extracts, P uptake was up to 5-fold higher from the nonfiltered solutions than the corresponding 3-kDa filtered solutions. In the Oxisol extract, no difference in P uptake between both solutions was observed. Also the diffusional flux of P as measured with the DGT technique was larger in the nonfiltered than in the 3-kDa filtered solutions. Our results suggest that colloidal P from Andisols is not chemically inert and contributes to plant uptake of P.

  17. What Factors Determine the Uptake of A-Level Physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Tim; Bell, John F.

    2013-01-01

    There has been much concern recently in the UK about the decline in the number of students studying physics beyond age 16. To investigate why this might be we used data from a national database of student qualifications and a multilevel modelling technique to investigate which factors had the greatest impact on the uptake of physics at Advanced…

  18. Characteristics of sugar uptake by immature maize embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, S.M.; Jones, R.J.; Brenner, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Characteristics of sugar uptake by immature maize embryos were determined in vitro utilizing a 14 C-sugar solution incubation method. Hexose uptake rates were greater than those for sucrose, however, all showed biphasic kinetics. Glucose and fructose saturable components were evidence at <50 mM and sucrose at <5 mM. Chemical inhibitors (CCCP, DNP, NaCN, and PCMBS) and low temperature reduced sugar uptake. Sucrose influx was pH dependent while glucose was not. Embryos maintained a high sucrose to hexose ratio throughout development. At 25 days after pollination sucrose levels exceeded 200 mM while hexose levels remained below 5 mM. Glucose was rapidly converted to sucrose upon transport into the embryo. These circumstantial data indicate that sugar uptake by immature maize embryos is metabolically dependent and carrier mediated. Furthermore, sucrose transport appears to occur against its concentration gradient involving a H+/sucrose cotransport mechanism, while glucose influx is driven by its concentration gradient and subsequent metabolism

  19. Effect of biosolids application on soil chemical properties and uptake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of biosolids application on soil chemical properties and uptake of some heavy metals by Cercis siliquastrum. ... and municipal solid waste compost (50% CM + 50% MC) at three levels of 0, 2.5 and 5 kg/shrub and three replicates in calcareous sandy loam soil at the botanical garden of Mobarekeh steel company.

  20. Proximal Tubules Have the Capacity to Regulate Uptake of Albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Mark C; Campos-Bilderback, Silvia B; Chowdhury, Mahboob; Flores, Brittany; Lai, Xianyin; Myslinski, Jered; Pandit, Sweekar; Sandoval, Ruben M; Wean, Sarah E; Wei, Yuan; Satlin, Lisa M; Wiggins, Roger C; Witzmann, Frank A; Molitoris, Bruce A

    2016-02-01

    Evidence from multiple studies supports the concept that both glomerular filtration and proximal tubule (PT) reclamation affect urinary albumin excretion rate. To better understand these roles of glomerular filtration and PT uptake, we investigated these processes in two distinct animal models. In a rat model of acute exogenous albumin overload, we quantified glomerular sieving coefficients (GSC) and PT uptake of Texas Red-labeled rat serum albumin using two-photon intravital microscopy. No change in GSC was observed, but a significant decrease in PT albumin uptake was quantified. In a second model, loss of endogenous albumin was induced in rats by podocyte-specific transgenic expression of diphtheria toxin receptor. In these albumin-deficient rats, exposure to diphtheria toxin induced an increase in albumin GSC and albumin filtration, resulting in increased exposure of the PTs to endogenous albumin. In this case, PT albumin reabsorption was markedly increased. Analysis of known albumin receptors and assessment of cortical protein expression in the albumin overload model, conducted to identify potential proteins and pathways affected by acute protein overload, revealed changes in the expression levels of calreticulin, disabled homolog 2, NRF2, angiopoietin-2, and proteins involved in ATP synthesis. Taken together, these results suggest that a regulated PT cell albumin uptake system can respond rapidly to different physiologic conditions to minimize alterations in serum albumin level. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  1. Uptake and Phytoaccumulation of Chromium at Seedling Stage in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The parts of Ricinus communis showed a very good Cr storage capacity followed by Millittia ferruginea and Eucalyptus camaldulensis. The parts accumulate nearly the same amount of Cr in all the species. With regard to the uptake of Cr, Ricinus communis was the most efficient in its accumulation capacity as it was found in ...

  2. Uptake of benzimidazoles by Trichuris suis in vivo in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Friis, Christian; Nejsum, Peter

    2014-01-01

    It is recognized that the clinical efficacy of single dose benzimidazoles (BZs) against the nematode, Trichuris suis of pigs and the closely related Trichuris trichiura in humans is only poor to moderate. Recent in vitro studies have indicated that a low uptake of fenbendazole (FBZ) in T. suis may...

  3. Drivers of prenatal care quality and uptake of supervised delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In spite of the introduction of free maternal healthcare in Ghana, utilization of supervised delivery services continues to be low due partly to poor quality of antenatal care (ANC). Aim: The study sought to identify the determinants of perceived quality of ANC and uptake of skilled delivery services. Subjects and ...

  4. Differences in the Uptake of Peer and Teacher Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegg, Rachael

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine differences in the uptake of peer and teacher feedback after writing students received longitudinal feedback from only one of these sources. It also investigates the types of feedback given by peers and a teacher in order to explain those any differences. Data was collected from 64 Japanese university students in four…

  5. Unexpectedly high uptake of palladium by bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, J. [Research Lab. for Mining Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary); Brown, S.D.; Snape, C.E. [Univ. of Strathclyde, Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The uptake of palladium as a conversion catalyst onto coals of different rank was investigated. Palladium fixation occurs by a different mode to that for alkaline earth and first row transition metals. Therefore, the dispersion of relatively high concentration of palladium by an ion sorption process is even possible for bituminous coals. (orig.)

  6. Antiretroviral treatment uptake in patients with HIV associated TB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Delivery of integrated care for patients with HIV-associated TB is challenging. We assessed the uptake and timing of antiretroviral treatment (ART) among eligible patients attending a primary care service with co-located ART and TB clinics. Methods. In a retrospective cohort study, all HIV-associated TB patients ...

  7. Uptake of DNA by cancer cells without a transfection reagent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Kong

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer cells exhibit elevated levels of glucose uptake and may obtain pre-formed, diet-derived fatty acids from the bloodstream to boost their rapid growth; they may also use nucleic acid from their microenvironment. The study of processing nucleic acid by cancer cells will help improve the understanding of the metabolism of cancer. DNA is commonly packaged into a viral or lipid particle to be transferred into cells; this process is called transfection in laboratory. Cancer cells are known for having gene mutations and the evolving ability of endocytosis. Their uptake of DNAs might be different from normal cells; they may take in DNAs directly from the environment. In this report, we studied the uptake of DNAs in cancer cells without a transfection reagent. Methods A group of DNA fragments were prepared with PCR and labeled with isotope phosphorous-32 to test their uptake by Huh 7 (liver cancer and THLE3 (normal liver cells after incubation overnight by counting radioactivity of the cells’ genomic DNA. Multiple cell lines including breast cancer and lung cancer were tested with the same method. DNA molecules were also labeled with fluorescence to test the location in the cells using a kit of “label it fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH” from Mirus (USA. Results The data demonstrated that hepatocellular carcinoma cells possess the ability to take in large DNA fragments directly without a transfection reagent whereas normal liver cells cannot. Huh7 and MDA-MB231 cells displayed a significantly higher Rhodamine density in the cytoplasmic phagosomes and this suggests that the mechanism of uptake of large DNA by cancer cells is likely endocytosis. The efficacy of uptake is related to the DNA’s size. Some cell lines of lung cancer and breast cancer also showed similar uptake of DNA. Conclusions In the present study, we have revealed the evidence that some cancer cells, but not nontumorigenic cells, can take DNA

  8. Extracellular enzymes facilitate electron uptake in biocorrosion and bioelectrosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutzmann, Jörg S; Sahin, Merve; Spormann, Alfred M

    2015-04-21

    Direct, mediator-free transfer of electrons between a microbial cell and a solid phase in its surrounding environment has been suggested to be a widespread and ecologically significant process. The high rates of microbial electron uptake observed during microbially influenced corrosion of iron [Fe(0)] and during microbial electrosynthesis have been considered support for a direct electron uptake in these microbial processes. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of direct electron uptake are unknown. We investigated the electron uptake characteristics of the Fe(0)-corroding and electromethanogenic archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis and discovered that free, surface-associated redox enzymes, such as hydrogenases and presumably formate dehydrogenases, are sufficient to mediate an apparent direct electron uptake. In genetic and biochemical experiments, we showed that these enzymes, which are released from cells during routine culturing, catalyze the formation of H2 or formate when sorbed to an appropriate redox-active surface. These low-molecular-weight products are rapidly consumed by M. maripaludis cells when present, thereby preventing their accumulation to any appreciable or even detectable level. Rates of H2 and formate formation by cell-free spent culture medium were sufficient to explain the observed rates of methane formation from Fe(0) and cathode-derived electrons by wild-type M. maripaludis as well as by a mutant strain carrying deletions in all catabolic hydrogenases. Our data collectively show that cell-derived free enzymes can mimic direct extracellular electron transfer during Fe(0) corrosion and microbial electrosynthesis and may represent an ecologically important but so far overlooked mechanism in biological electron transfer. The intriguing trait of some microbial organisms to engage in direct electron transfer is thought to be widespread in nature. Consequently, direct uptake of electrons into microbial cells from solid surfaces is assumed

  9. The uptake of HO2 radicals to organic aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Pascale; Krapf, Manuel; Dommen, Josef; George, Ingrid; Whalley, Lisa; Ingham, Trevor; Baeza-Romero, Maria Teresa; Ammann, Markus; Heard, Dwayne

    2014-05-01

    HOx (OH + HO2) radicals are responsible for the majority of the oxidation in the troposphere and control the concentrations of many trace species in the atmosphere. There have been many field studies where the measured HO2 concentrations have been smaller than the concentration predicted by model calculations [1,2]. The difference has often been attributed to HO2 uptake by aerosols. Organics are a major component of aerosols accounting for 10 - 70 % of their mass [3]. However, there have been very few laboratory studies measuring HO2 uptake onto organic aerosols [4]. Uptake coefficients (γ) were measured for a range of aerosols using a Fluorescence Assay By Gas Expansion (FAGE) detector combined with an aerosol flow tube. HO2 was injected into the flow tube using a moveable injector which allowed first order HO2 decays to be measured along the flow tube both with and without aerosols. Laboratory generated aerosols were made using an atomiser or by homogeneous nucleation. Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) were made using the Paul Scherrer Institute smog chamber and also by means of a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) chamber. The total aerosol surface area was then measured using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). Experiments were carried out on aerosols containing glutaric acid, glyoxal, malonic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and squalene. The HO2 uptake coefficients for these species were measured in the range of γ contained elevated levels of transition metal ions. For humic acid the uptake coefficient was highly dependent on humidity and this may be explained by the liquid water content of the aerosols. Measurements were also performed on copper doped aerosols containing different organics. An uptake coefficient of 0.23 ± 0.07 was measured for copper doped ammonium sulphate, however, this was reduced to 0.008 ± 0.009 when EDTA was added in a 1:1 ratio with copper and 0.003 ± 0.004 when oxalic acid was added in a 10:1 ratio with copper. SOA aerosols were

  10. Dialects of the DNA uptake sequence in Neisseriaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan A Frye

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In all sexual organisms, adaptations exist that secure the safe reassortment of homologous alleles and prevent the intrusion of potentially hazardous alien DNA. Some bacteria engage in a simple form of sex known as transformation. In the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis and in related bacterial species, transformation by exogenous DNA is regulated by the presence of a specific DNA Uptake Sequence (DUS, which is present in thousands of copies in the respective genomes. DUS affects transformation by limiting DNA uptake and recombination in favour of homologous DNA. The specific mechanisms of DUS-dependent genetic transformation have remained elusive. Bioinformatic analyses of family Neisseriaceae genomes reveal eight distinct variants of DUS. These variants are here termed DUS dialects, and their effect on interspecies commutation is demonstrated. Each of the DUS dialects is remarkably conserved within each species and is distributed consistent with a robust Neisseriaceae phylogeny based on core genome sequences. The impact of individual single nucleotide transversions in DUS on meningococcal transformation and on DNA binding and uptake is analysed. The results show that a DUS core 5'-CTG-3' is required for transformation and that transversions in this core reduce DNA uptake more than two orders of magnitude although the level of DNA binding remains less affected. Distinct DUS dialects are efficient barriers to interspecies recombination in N. meningitidis, N. elongata, Kingella denitrificans, and Eikenella corrodens, despite the presence of the core sequence. The degree of similarity between the DUS dialect of the recipient species and the donor DNA directly correlates with the level of transformation and DNA binding and uptake. Finally, DUS-dependent transformation is documented in the genera Eikenella and Kingella for the first time. The results presented here advance our understanding of the function and evolution of DUS and genetic

  11. Effects of tetrahydrocannabinol on glucose uptake in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miederer, I; Uebbing, K; Röhrich, J; Maus, S; Bausbacher, N; Krauter, K; Weyer-Elberich, V; Lutz, B; Schreckenberger, M; Urban, R

    2017-05-01

    Δ 9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the psychoactive component of the plant Cannabis sativa and acts as a partial agonist at cannabinoid type 1 and type 2 receptors in the brain. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of THC on the cerebral glucose uptake in the rat brain. 21 male Sprague Dawley rats (12-13 w) were examined and received five different doses of THC ranging from 0.01 to 1 mg/kg. For data acquisition a Focus 120 small animal PET scanner was used and 24.1-28.0 MBq of [ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose were injected. The data were acquired for 70 min and arterial blood samples were collected throughout the scan. THC, THC-OH and THC-COOH were determined at 55 min p.i. Nine volumes of interest were defined, and the cerebral glucose uptake was calculated for each brain region. Low blood THC levels of glucose uptake (6-30 %), particularly in the hypothalamus (p = 0.007), while blood THC levels > 10 ng/ml (injected dose: ≥ 0.05 mg/kg) coincided with a decreased glucose uptake (-2 to -22 %), especially in the cerebellar cortex (p = 0.008). The effective concentration in this region was estimated 2.4 ng/ml. This glucose PET study showed that stimulation of CB1 receptors by THC affects the glucose uptake in the rat brain, whereby the effect of THC is regionally different and dependent on dose - an effect that may be of relevance in behavioural studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dialects of the DNA Uptake Sequence in Neisseriaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Stephan A.; Nilsen, Mariann; Tønjum, Tone; Ambur, Ole Herman

    2013-01-01

    In all sexual organisms, adaptations exist that secure the safe reassortment of homologous alleles and prevent the intrusion of potentially hazardous alien DNA. Some bacteria engage in a simple form of sex known as transformation. In the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis and in related bacterial species, transformation by exogenous DNA is regulated by the presence of a specific DNA Uptake Sequence (DUS), which is present in thousands of copies in the respective genomes. DUS affects transformation by limiting DNA uptake and recombination in favour of homologous DNA. The specific mechanisms of DUS–dependent genetic transformation have remained elusive. Bioinformatic analyses of family Neisseriaceae genomes reveal eight distinct variants of DUS. These variants are here termed DUS dialects, and their effect on interspecies commutation is demonstrated. Each of the DUS dialects is remarkably conserved within each species and is distributed consistent with a robust Neisseriaceae phylogeny based on core genome sequences. The impact of individual single nucleotide transversions in DUS on meningococcal transformation and on DNA binding and uptake is analysed. The results show that a DUS core 5′-CTG-3′ is required for transformation and that transversions in this core reduce DNA uptake more than two orders of magnitude although the level of DNA binding remains less affected. Distinct DUS dialects are efficient barriers to interspecies recombination in N. meningitidis, N. elongata, Kingella denitrificans, and Eikenella corrodens, despite the presence of the core sequence. The degree of similarity between the DUS dialect of the recipient species and the donor DNA directly correlates with the level of transformation and DNA binding and uptake. Finally, DUS–dependent transformation is documented in the genera Eikenella and Kingella for the first time. The results presented here advance our understanding of the function and evolution of DUS and genetic transformation

  13. Spring hydrology determines summer net carbon uptake in northern ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Yonghong; Kimball, John S; Reichle, Rolf H

    2014-01-01

    Increased photosynthetic activity and enhanced seasonal CO 2 exchange of northern ecosystems have been observed from a variety of sources including satellite vegetation indices (such as the normalized difference vegetation index; NDVI) and atmospheric CO 2 measurements. Most of these changes have been attributed to strong warming trends in the northern high latitudes (⩾50° N). Here we analyze the interannual variation of summer net carbon uptake derived from atmospheric CO 2 measurements and satellite NDVI in relation to surface meteorology from regional observational records. We find that increases in spring precipitation and snow pack promote summer net carbon uptake of northern ecosystems independent of air temperature effects. However, satellite NDVI measurements still show an overall benefit of summer photosynthetic activity from regional warming and limited impact of spring precipitation. This discrepancy is attributed to a similar response of photosynthesis and respiration to warming and thus reduced sensitivity of net ecosystem carbon uptake to temperature. Further analysis of boreal tower eddy covariance CO 2 flux measurements indicates that summer net carbon uptake is positively correlated with early growing-season surface soil moisture, which is also strongly affected by spring precipitation and snow pack based on analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals. This is attributed to strong regulation of spring hydrology on soil respiration in relatively wet boreal and arctic ecosystems. These results document the important role of spring hydrology in determining summer net carbon uptake and contrast with prevailing assumptions of dominant cold temperature limitations to high-latitude ecosystems. Our results indicate potentially stronger coupling of boreal/arctic water and carbon cycles with continued regional warming trends. (letters)

  14. Drivers of phosphorus uptake by barley following secondary resource application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eBrod

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake are still poorly understood. Using radioactive labelling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP and an unfertilized control (NoP in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil and pH 6.2 (limed soil. In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥ fish sludge ≥ wood ash ≥ meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare. The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilisation and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers, or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers.

  15. Drivers of Phosphorus Uptake by Barley Following Secondary Resource Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Eva; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Frossard, Emmanuel; Oberson, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP) and an unfertilized control (NoP) in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil) and pH 6.2 (limed soil). In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥fish sludge ≥wood ash ≥meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare). The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilization and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers. PMID:27243015

  16. The uptake of tocopherols by RAW 264.7 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papas Andreas M

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alpha-Tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol are the two major forms of vitamin E in human plasma and the primary lipid soluble antioxidants. The dietary intake of gamma-tocopherol is generally higher than that of alpha-tocopherol. However, alpha-tocopherol plasma levels are about four fold higher than those of gamma-tocopherol. Among other factors, a preferential cellular uptake of gamma-tocopherol over alpha-tocopherol could contribute to the observed higher plasma alpha-tocopherol levels. In this investigation, we studied the uptake and depletion of both alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol (separately and together in cultured RAW 264.7 macrophages. Similar studies were performed with alpha-tocopheryl quinone and gamma-tocopheryl quinone, which are oxidation products of tocopherols. Results RAW 264.7 macrophages showed a greater uptake of gamma-tocopherol compared to alpha-tocopherol (with uptake being defined as the net difference between tocopherol transported into the cells and loss due to catabolism and/or in vitro oxidation. Surprisingly, we also found that the presence of gamma-tocopherol promoted the cellular uptake of alpha-tocopherol. Mass balance considerations suggest that products other than quinone were formed during the incubation of tocopherols with macrophages. Conclusion Our data suggests that gamma-tocopherol could play a significant role in modulating intracellular antioxidant defence mechanisms. Moreover, we found the presence of gamma-tocopherol dramatically influenced the cellular accumulation of alpha-tocopherol, i.e., gamma-tocopherol promoted the accumulation of alpha-tocopherol. If these results could be extrapolated to in vivo conditions they suggest that gamma-tocopherol is selectively taken up by cells and removed from plasma more rapidly than alpha-tocopherol. This could, in part, contribute to the selective maintenance of alpha-tocopherol in plasma compared to gamma-tocopherol.

  17. Influence of colloid particle profile on sentinel lymph node uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Nunez, Eutimio Gustavo [Radiopharmacy Center, Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil)], E-mail: eutimiocu@yahoo.com; Linkowski Faintuch, Bluma; Teodoro, Rodrigo; Pereira Wiecek, Danielle [Radiopharmacy Center, Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Martinelli, Jose Roberto [Center of Materials Science and Technology, Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Gomes da Silva, Natanael; Castanheira, Claudia E. [Radiopharmacy Center, Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Santos de Oliveira Filho, Renato [Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Sao Paulo, SP 04020-041 (Brazil); Pasqualini, Roberto [CIS bio international, Research and Development, Gif sur Yvette, 91192 (France)

    2009-10-15

    Introduction: Particle size of colloids employed for sentinel lymph node (LN) detection is not well studied. This investigation aimed to correlate particle size and distribution of different products with LN uptake. Methods: All agents (colloidal tin, dextran, phytate and colloidal rhenium sulfide) were labeled with {sup 99m}Tc according to manufacturer's instructions. Sizing of particles was carried out on electron micrographs using Image Tool for Windows (Version 2.0). Biodistribution studies in main excretion organs as well as in popliteal LN were performed in male Wistar rats [30 and 90 min post injection (p.i.)]. The injected dose was 0.1 ml (37 MBq) in the footpad of the left posterior limb. Dynamic images (0-15 min p.i.) as well as static ones (30 and 90 min) were acquired in gamma camera. Results: Popliteal LN was clearly reached by all products. Nevertheless, particle size remarkably influenced node uptake. Colloidal rhenium sulfide, with the smallest diameter (5.1x10{sup -3}{+-}3.9x10{sup -3} {mu}m), permitted the best result [2.72{+-}0.64 percent injected dose (%ID) at 90 min]. Phytate displayed small particles (<15 {mu}m) with favorable uptake (1.02{+-}0.14%ID). Dextran (21.4{+-}12.8 {mu}m) and colloidal tin (39.0{+-}8.3 {mu}m) were less effective (0.55{+-}0.14 and 0.06{+-}0.03%ID respectively). Particle distribution also tended to influence results. When asymmetric, it was associated with biphasic uptake which increased over time; conversely, symmetric distribution (colloidal tin) was consistent with a constant pattern. Conclusion: The results are suggesting that particle size and symmetry may interfere with LN radiopharmaceutical uptake.

  18. Localised uptake and extraction of calcium45 in dinoflagellate nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigee, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    The uptake of Ca 45 into cells of the dinoflagellate Glenodinium foliaceum was investigated using insoluble compound light microscope autoradiography. The distribution of silver grains showed marked localisation to the dinocaryotic nucleus, with a random scatter of grains over the surrounding protoplasm (cytoplasm and supernumerary nucleus). Correction of grain counts for lateral sensitisation from the dinocaryotic nucleus indicated an isotope concentration 16 32 times greater in this organelle compared to the rest of the cell. Cells labelled for varying periods of time showed differences in the pattern of Ca 45 uptake throughout the sample populations, but no increase in the mean level of uptake per cell. This would suggest a rapid incorporation of isotope within 1-2 hours, with little subsequent uptake. The presence of high levels of label after processing with both additive (glutaraldehyde, paraformaldehyde) and coagulative (acetic alcohol) fixatives indicated that the retention of Ca 45 in these preparations was not simply a fixation artefact. Although the isotope did not appear to be suitable for (high resolution) electron microscope autoradiography, the intranuclear site of incorporation was demonstrated indirectly using a buffer extraction technique. Prolonged treatment with phosphate buffer resulted in a large scale loss of label from both cytoplasm and dinocaryotic nucleus. The latter appeared to show specific correlation with the loss of (protein) matrix from the chromosomes - as observed under both light and electron microscopy, with no apparent change in either nucleolus or nucleoplasm. This would suggest that incorporated Ca 45 in the nucleus was largely confined to the condensed chromatin, where it was combined with the acidic proteins which make up the bulk of the chromatin matrix. The results obtained in this investigation are related to previous studies involving X-ray microanalysis and uptake of Ni 63 . (Author)

  19. Spring Hydrology Determines Summer Net Carbon Uptake in Northern Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yonghong; Kimball, John; Reichle, Rolf H.

    2014-01-01

    Increased photosynthetic activity and enhanced seasonal CO2 exchange of northern ecosystems have been observed from a variety of sources including satellite vegetation indices (such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) and atmospheric CO2 measurements. Most of these changes have been attributed to strong warming trends in the northern high latitudes (greater than or equal to 50N). Here we analyze the interannual variation of summer net carbon uptake derived from atmospheric CO2 measurements and satellite NDVI in relation to surface meteorology from regional observational records. We find that increases in spring precipitation and snow pack promote summer net carbon uptake of northern ecosystems independent of air temperature effects. However, satellite NDVI measurements still show an overall benefit of summer photosynthetic activity from regional warming and limited impact of spring precipitation. This discrepancy is attributed to a similar response of photosynthesis and respiration to warming and thus reduced sensitivity of net ecosystem carbon uptake to temperature. Further analysis of boreal tower eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements indicates that summer net carbon uptake is positively correlated with early growing-season surface soil moisture, which is also strongly affected by spring precipitation and snow pack based on analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals. This is attributed to strong regulation of spring hydrology on soil respiration in relatively wet boreal and arctic ecosystems. These results document the important role of spring hydrology in determining summer net carbon uptake and contrast with prevailing assumptions of dominant cold temperature limitations to high-latitude ecosystems. Our results indicate potentially stronger coupling of boreal/arctic water and carbon cycles with continued regional warming trends.

  20. Iodine uptake and prostate cancer in the TRAMP mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera-Caltzontzin, Paloma; Delgado, Guadalupe; Aceves, Carmen; Anguiano, Brenda

    2013-11-08

    Iodine supplementation exerts antitumor effects in several types of cancer. Iodide (I⁻) and iodine (I₂) reduce cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP and DU-145). Both chemical species decrease tumor growth in athymic mice xenografted with DU-145 cells. The aim of this study was to analyze the uptake and effects of iodine in a preclinical model of prostate cancer (transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate [TRAMP] mice/SV40-TAG antigens), which develops cancer by 12 wks of age. ¹²⁵I⁻ and ¹²⁵I₂ uptake was analyzed in prostates from wild-type and TRAMP mice of 12 and 24 wks in the presence of perchlorate (inhibitor of the Na⁺/I⁻ symporter [NIS]). NIS expression was quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Mice (6 wks old) were supplemented with 0.125 mg I⁻ plus 0.062 mg I₂/mouse/day for 12 or 24 wks. The weight of the genitourinary tract (GUT), the number of acini with lesions, cell proliferation (levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA] by immunohistochemistry), p53 and p21 expression (by qPCR) and apoptosis (relative amount of nucleosomes by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were evaluated. In both age-groups, normal and tumoral prostates take up both forms of iodine, but only I⁻ uptake was blocked by perchlorate. Iodine supplementation prevented the overexpression of NIS in the TRAMP mice, but had no effect on the GUT weight, cell phenotype, proliferation or apoptosis. In TRAMP mice, iodine increased p53 expression but had no effect on p21 (a p53-dependent gene). Our data corroborate NIS involvement in I⁻ uptake and support the notion that another transporter mediates I₂ uptake. Iodine did not prevent cancer progression. This result could be explained by a strong inactivation of the p53 pathway by TAG antigens.

  1. Quantification of tumour {sup 18}F-FDG uptake: Normalise to blood glucose or scale to liver uptake?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keramida, Georgia [Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton (United Kingdom); Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brighton (United Kingdom); University of Sussex, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton (United Kingdom); Dizdarevic, Sabina; Peters, A.M. [Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton (United Kingdom); Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brighton (United Kingdom); Bush, Janice [Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    To compare normalisation to blood glucose (BG) with scaling to hepatic uptake for quantification of tumour {sup 18}F-FDG uptake using the brain as a surrogate for tumours. Standardised uptake value (SUV) was measured over the liver, cerebellum, basal ganglia, and frontal cortex in 304 patients undergoing {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. The relationship between brain FDG clearance and SUV was theoretically defined. Brain SUV decreased exponentially with BG, with similar constants between cerebellum, basal ganglia, and frontal cortex (0.099-0.119 mmol/l{sup -1}) and similar to values for tumours estimated from the literature. Liver SUV, however, correlated positively with BG. Brain-to-liver SUV ratio therefore showed an inverse correlation with BG, well-fitted with a hyperbolic function (R = 0.83), as theoretically predicted. Brain SUV normalised to BG (nSUV) displayed a nonlinear correlation with BG (R = 0.55); however, as theoretically predicted, brain nSUV/liver SUV showed almost no correlation with BG. Correction of brain SUV using BG raised to an exponential power of 0.099 mmol/l{sup -1} also eliminated the correlation between brain SUV and BG. Brain SUV continues to correlate with BG after normalisation to BG. Likewise, liver SUV is unsuitable as a reference for tumour FDG uptake. Brain SUV divided by liver SUV, however, shows minimal dependence on BG. (orig.)

  2. O2 uptake kinetics during exercise at peak O2 uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, Barry W; Barstow, Thomas J

    2003-11-01

    Compared with moderate- and heavy-intensity exercise, the adjustment of O2 uptake (VO2) to exercise intensities that elicit peak VO2 has received relatively little attention. This study examined the VO2 response of 21 young, healthy subjects (25 +/- 6 yr; mean +/- SD) during cycle ergometer exercise to step transitions in work rate (WR) corresponding to 90, 100, and 110% of the peak WR achieved during a preliminary ramp protocol (15-30 W/min). Gas exchange was measured breath by breath and interpolated to 1-s values. VO2 kinetics were determined by use of a two- or three-component exponential model to isolate the time constant (tau2) as representative of VO2 kinetics and the amplitude (Amp) of the primary fast component independent of the appearance of any VO2 slow component. No difference in VO2 kinetics was observed between WRs (tau90 = 24.7 +/- 9.0; tau100 = 22.8 +/- 6.7; tau110 = 21.5 +/- 9.2 s, where subscripts denote percent of peak WR; P > 0.05); nor in a subgroup of eight subjects was tau2 different from the value for moderate-intensity (exercise (tau2 = 25 +/- 12 s, P > 0.05). As expected, the Amp increased with increasing WRs (Amp90 = 2,089 +/- 548; Amp100 = 2,165 +/- 517; Amp110 = 2,225 +/- 559 ml/min; Amp90 vs. Amp110, P exercise, the gain of the Vo2 response (as deltaVO2/DeltaWR) is reduced for exercise transitions in the severe-intensity domain, but the approach to this gain is well described by a common time constant that is invariant across work intensities. The lower deltaVO2/deltaWR may be due to an insufficient adjustment of the cardiovascular and/or pulmonary systems that determine O2 delivery to the exercising muscles or due to recruitment of motor units with lower oxidative capacity, after the onset of exercise in the severe-intensity domain.

  3. Unmasking the Role of Uptake Transporters for Digoxin Uptake Across the Barriers of the Central Nervous System in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal S Taskar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of uptake transporter (organic anion–transporting polypeptide [Oatp] in the disposition of a P-glycoprotein (P-gp substrate (digoxin at the barriers of central nervous system, namely, the blood-brain barrier (BBB, blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB, and brain-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB, was studied using rat as a preclinical species. In vivo chemical inhibition of P-gp and Oatp was achieved using elacridar and rifampicin, respectively. Our findings show that (1 digoxin had a low brain-to-plasma concentration ratio (B/P (0.07 in rat; (2 in the presence of elacridar, the B/P of digoxin increased by about 12-fold; (3 rifampicin administration alone did not change the digoxin B/P significantly when compared with digoxin B/P alone; (4 rifampicin administration along with elacridar resulted only in 6-fold increase in the B/P of digoxin; (5 similar fold changes and trends were seen with the spinal cord-to-plasma concentration ratio of digoxin, indicating the similarity between BBB and the BSCB; and (6 unlike BBB and BSCB, the presence of rifampicin further increased the cerebrospinal fluid-to-plasma concentration ratio (CSF/P for digoxin, suggesting a differential orientation of the uptake transporters at the BCSFB (CSF to blood compared with the BBB (blood to brain. The observations for digoxin uptake, at least at the BBB and the BSCB, advocate the importance of uptake transporters (Oatps. However, the activity of such uptake transporters became evident only after inhibition of the efflux transporter (P-gp.

  4. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Plant Uptake During Periods with no Photosynthesis Accounts for About Half of Global Annual Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, W. J.; Zhu, Q.; Tang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Uncertainties in current Earth System Model (ESM) predictions of terrestrial carbon-climate feedbacks over the 21st century are as large as, or larger than, any other reported natural system uncertainties. Soil Organic Matter (SOM) decomposition and photosynthesis, the dominant fluxes in this regard, are tightly linked through nutrient availability, and the recent Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project 5 (CMIP5) used for climate change assessment had no credible representations of these constraints. In response, many ESM land models (ESMLMs) have developed dynamic and coupled soil and plant nutrient cycles. Here we quantify terrestrial carbon cycle impacts from well-known observed plant nutrient uptake mechanisms ignored in most current ESMLMs. In particular, we estimate the global role of plant root nutrient competition with microbes and abiotic process at night and during the non-growing season using the ACME land model (ALMv1-ECA-CNP) that explicitly represents these dynamics. We first demonstrate that short-term nutrient uptake dynamics and competition between plants and microbes are accurately predicted by the model compared to 15N and 33P isotopic tracer measurements from more than 20 sites. We then show that global nighttime and non-growing season nitrogen and phosphorus uptake accounts for 46 and 45%, respectively, of annual uptake, with large latitudinal variation. Model experiments show that ignoring these plant uptake periods leads to large positive biases in annual N leaching (globally 58%) and N2O emissions (globally 68%). Biases these large will affect modeled carbon cycle dynamics over time, and lead to predictions of ecosystems that have overly open nutrient cycles and therefore lower capacity to sequester carbon.

  5. Clinical significance of abnormal nonosseous soft tissue uptake of bone tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Bao; Shang Yukun; Li Jiannan; Bai Jing; Cai Liang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical significance of abnormal soft tissue uptake of bone tracer. Methods: Thirty patients with abnormal soft tissue uptake of bone tracer on 99 Tc m -methylene diphosphonic acid (MDP) skeletal imaging were analyzed. Radioactivity of soft tissue accumulated equal to or greater than the ribs were considered as abnormal. The result was compared with pathology, MRI, CT, X-ray, ultrasound, findings for evaluating its clinical significance. Results: In 7 patients with diffuse liver uptake of 99 Tc m -MDP, 6 were massive and 1 nodular liver cancer. In 2 patients with local liver uptake, one was metastatic and the other primary liver cancer. In 5 local lung uptake cases 4 were primary lung cancer and one metastatic. In 5 cases with colonic uptake 1 was schistosomiasis while the other 4 unexplainable. Subcutaneous tissue uptake was observed in 4 patients, symmetrical uptake in 2 patients with metastatic calcification microfoci in multiple myeloma, unsymmetrical uptake in 2 patients with hemangioma and abscess. Pleural uptake in 3 patients all was metastatic cancer. Abdominal uptake in 3 patients was omentum, paravertebral soft tissue metastasis and unknown cause. Breast uptake in one patient was due to breast cancer. Conclusions: There are many causes resulting in abnormal nonosseous soft tissue uptake of 99 Tc m -MDP. The final diagnosis should correlate with clinical data and other examinations. (authors)

  6. Estimation of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine lung uptake in heart and lung diseases. With reference to lung uptake ratio and decrease of lung uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Tanaka, Masao; Yazaki, Yoshikazu; Kitabayashi, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Tomonori; Sekiguchi, Morie; Gomi, Tsutomu; Yano, Kesato; Itoh, Atsuko.

    1997-01-01

    123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy was performed in 64 patients with heart and lung diseases. Distribution of MIBG in the chest was evaluated by planar images, using counts ratios of the heart to the mediastinum (H/M) and the unilateral lung to the mediastinum (Lu/M). Most of patients with heart diseases showed obvious lung uptake of MIBG. The ratios of H/M were 1.75±0.20 in the group without heart failure and 1.55±0.19 in the group with heart failure. The ratios of Lu/M in the right and left lung were 1.56±0.16 and 1.28±0.16 in the group without heart failure. And those were 1.45±0.16 and 1.19±0.15 in the group with heart failure. But 3 patients complicated with chronic pulmonary emphysema and one patient with interstitial pneumonia due to dermatomyositis showed markedly decreased lung uptake. The ratios of Lu/M in the right and left lung of these patients were 1.20, 1.17; 1.17, 1.13; 1.01, 0.97 and 1.27, 0.94, respectively. These results suggest that the lung uptake of MIBG may reflect the state of pulmonary endothelial cell function in clinical situations, considering that it has been demonstrated that MIBG may be useful as a marker of pulmonary endothelial cell function in the isolated rat lung. (author)

  7. Bioavailability and Uptake of Lead by Coffeeweed (Sesbania exaltata Raf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Miller

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb is recognized as one of the most pervasive environmental health concerns in the industrialized world. While there has been a substantial reduction in the use of Pb in gasoline, water pipes, and Pb-based residential paint, residual Pb from their use is still in the environment and constitutes an important source of Pb in the atmosphere, water, and soil. Soil acts as a sink for these anthropogenic sources of Pb, accumulating the deposits over time in the upper 2 - 5 cm of undisturbed soil. Generally, Pb binds strongly to soil particles and renders a significant soil-metal fraction insoluble and largely unavailable for phytoremediation or plant uptake. A major objective of current phytoremediation research, therefore, is to induce desorption of Pb from the soil matrix into solution and increase the propensity for plant uptake. We hypothesized that the bioavailability of Pb for plant uptake can be increased through chelate amendments. To test this hypothesis, we mixed delta top soil and peat (2:1 and added lead nitrate [Pb (NO32] to generate a Pb-contaminated soil concentration of 2000 mg Pb/kg dry soil. After incubating the Pb-spiked soil in a greenhouse for 6 weeks, Sesbania plants were grown in the soil and harvested at 6, 8, and 10 weeks after emergence. Six days before each harvest, a chelating agent, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA was applied to the root zone as an aqueous solution in a 1:1 ratio with the Pb concentration in the soil. Sequential extraction procedures were used to assess selective chemical fractions of Pb in the soil. Our results showed that a higher exchangeable fraction of Pb was available for plant uptake after chelate amendment compared to pre-chelate amendment. We also saw higher root and shoot Pb uptake after chelate amendment compared to pre-chelate amendment, especially at 10 weeks after emergence. Together, these results suggest that chelate amendments can promote the bioavailability of Pb in the soil

  8. Uptake, translocation, and toxicity of gold nanorods in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Shahmansouri, Nastaran

    Nanomaterials are widely used in many different products, such as electronics, cosmetics, industrial goods, biomedical uses, and other material applications. The heavy emission of nanomaterials into the environment has motived increasing concern regarding the effects on ecosystems, food chains, and, human health. Plants can tolerate a certain amount of natural nanomaterials, but large amounts of ENMs released from a variety of industries could be toxic to plants and possibly threaten the ecosystem. Employing phytoremediation as a contamination treatment method may show promise. However a pre-requisite to successful treatment is a better understanding of the behavior and effects of nanomaterials within plant systems. This study is designed to investigate the uptake, translocation, bioavailability, and toxicity of gold nanorods in maize plants. Maize is an important food and feed crop that can be used to understand the potential hazardous effects of nanoparticle uptake and distribution in the food chain. The findings could be an important contribution to the fields of phytoremediation, agri-nanotechnology, and nanoparticle toxicity on plants. In the first experiment, hydroponically grown maize seedlings were exposed to similar doses of commercial non-coated gold nanorods in three sizes, 10x34 nm, 20x75 nm, and 40x96 nm. The three nanorod species were suspended in solutions at concentrations of 350 mg/l, 5.8 mg/l, and 14 mg/l, respectively. Maize plants were exposed to all three solutions resulting in considerably lower transpiration and wet biomass than control plants. Likewise, dry biomass was reduced, but the effect is less pronounced than that of transpiration and wet biomass. The reduced transpiration and water content, which eventually proved fatal to exposed plants, were most likely a result of toxic effect of gold nanorod, which appeared to physically hinder the root system. TEM images proved that maize plants can uptake gold particles and accumulate them in

  9. Thallium uptake and biological behaviour in childhood brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, E.J.; Howman-Giles, R.; Kellie, S.; Uren, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The histopathological grade and radiological appearance of the diverse cerebral neoplasms in childhood frequently poorly reflect their biological behaviour. We examined thallium accumulation prior to treatment (and in several cases, at intervals there after) in 13 children to determine its usefulness as a tumour marker. 23 SPECT studies were acquired 20 minutes after the injection of 1-3 mCi of 201 TI. Thallium index (TI), the ratio of counts in tumour/normal brain, was calculated. No uptake was seen in two patients (pts) with a Grade 1 cerebellar astrocytomas (disease free at 4/12 f/u). Three pts with medulloblastomas were studied. One pt showed intense uptake (Tl =12). His tumour (proliferative antigen stain Ki67 = 50%) recurred early after debulking surgery (Tl +ve prior to CT or MRI changes). The second pt was imaged at relapse Ki67 = 60%) and showed intense uptake, Tl = 17. The third pt showed lower level uptake (Tl = 2), Ki67 = 5%, and is disease-free at 5/12 (as per 201 TI and MRI). One pt with a Grade 1 brainstem glioma showed Tl = 5 and has progressed rapidly despite low grade histology. Four pts with chiasmatic-hypothalamic gliomas have been studied. Although these neoplasms are usually low grade histologically, their growth properties vary greatly. Two pts with Tl 3.5 and have required aggressive treatment for rapid disease progression. One pt with a large pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic chiasm showed Tl = 9.5. Active treatment was not undertaken. One pt with a pineal germ cell tumour showed avid 201 TI uptake (Tl not performed) and has had two normal studies, and is clinically well, since BMT. Avid 201 TI uptake also seen in one pt with cerebral neuroblastoma. (Died at 8/12 after Dx.) Thus, 201 TI accumulates in histologically diverse paediatric neoplasms. The Tl appears to reflect biological behaviour in the limited number of medulloblastoma and optic gliomas pts studied. Whilst promising, further patient studies and longer follow-up is

  10. Hepatic steatosis is associated with increased hepatic FDG uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keramida, Georgia, E-mail: G.Keramida@bsms.ac.uk [Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton Sussex Medical School, Brighton (United Kingdom); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brighton Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton (United Kingdom); Potts, Jon [Department of Medicine, Brighton Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton (United Kingdom); Bush, Janice [Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton Sussex Medical School, Brighton (United Kingdom); Dizdarevic, Sabina; Peters, A. Michael [Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton Sussex Medical School, Brighton (United Kingdom); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brighton Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    Objective: The use of liver as a reference tissue for semi-quantification of tumour FDG uptake may not be valid in hepatic steatosis (HS). Previous studies on the relation between liver FDG uptake and HS have been contradictory probably because they ignored blood glucose (BG). Because hepatocyte and blood FDG concentrations equalize, liver FDG uptake parallels BG, which must therefore be considered when studying hepatic FDG uptake. We therefore re-examined the relation between HS and liver uptake taking BG into account. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 304 patients undergoing routine PET/CT with imaging 60 min post-FDG. Average standard uptake value (SUV{sub ave}), maximum SUV (SUV{sub max}) and CT density (index of HS) were measured in a liver ROI. Blood pool SUV was based on the left ventricular cavity (SUV{sub LV}). Correlations were assessed using least squares fitting of continuous data. Patients were also divided into BG subgroups (<4, 4–5, 5–6, 6–8, 8–10 and 10+ mmol/l). Results: SUV{sub ave}, SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub LV} displayed similar relations with BG. SUV{sub max}/SUV{sub LV}, but not SUV{sub ave}/SUV{sub LV}, correlated significantly with BG. SUV{sub max}, but not SUV{sub ave}, correlated inversely with CT density before and after adjusting for BG. SUV{sub max}/SUV{sub ave} correlated more strongly with CT density than SUV{sub max}. CT density correlated inversely with SUV{sub max}/SUV{sub LV} but positively with SUV{sub ave}/SUV{sub LV}. Conclusions: Hepatic SUV is more influenced by BG than by HS. Its relation with BG renders it unsuitable as a reference tissue. Nevertheless, hepatic fat does correlate positively with liver SUV, although this is seen only with SUV{sub max} because SUV{sub ave} is ‘diluted’ by hepatic fat.

  11. Effect of different iron levels on 65Zn uptake and transport in maize seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathore, V.S.; Sharma, D.; Kandala, J.C.

    1974-01-01

    Uptake and translocation of 65 Zn was studied in two week old maize seedlings at 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 5 ppm iron levels in half-strength Hoagland's solution. Four different zinc levels viz., 0.04, 0.4, 4 and 8 ppm were taken. Total 65 Zn uptake and translocation to shoots at 2, 4, 6 and 12 hours showed that increasing iron levels in the uptake medium reduced Zn-uptake in all combinations and at all uptake hours studied. This antagnnistic effect of iron on zinc uptake was more pronounced at the initial stages and could be partly inhibited by increasing zinc concentration in the uptake medium. Translocation of 65 Zn to shoots increased with increase in uptake time. Increasing iron levels in the medium decreased zinc dislocation to shoots at all zinc levels. (author)

  12. Hysteresis in the relation between moisture uptake and electrical conductivity in neat epoxy

    KAUST Repository

    Lubineau, Gilles; Sulaimani, Anwar Ali; El Yagoubi, Jalal; Mulle, Matthieu; Verdu, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring changes in electrical conductivity is a simple way to assess the water uptake from environmental moisture in polymers. However, the relation between water uptake and changes in conductivity is not fully understood. We monitored changes

  13. Evaluating the Relationship between Equilibrium Passive Sampler Uptake and Aquatic Organism Bioaccumulation,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives. This review evaluates passive sampler uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in water column and interstitial water exposures as a surrogate for organism bioaccumulation. Approach/Activities. Fifty-five studies were found where both passive sampler uptake...

  14. Bicyclists' Uptake of Traffic-Related Air Pollution: Effects of the Urban Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-27

    While bicyclists and other active travelers obtain health benefits from increased physical activity, they also risk uptake of traffic-related air pollution. But pollution uptake by urban bicyclists is not well understood due to a lack of direct measu...

  15. Improving the uptake of systematic reviews: a systematic review of intervention effectiveness and relevance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wallace, John

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the barriers, facilitators and interventions that impact on systematic review uptake. The objective of this study was to identify how uptake of systematic reviews can be improved.

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF CADMIUM UPTAKE BY ROOTS OF DURUM WHEAT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubka Koleva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Root Cd uptake of durum wheat plants (cv. Beloslava was characterized in hydroponics conditions. The uptake experiments have been performed in Cd concentration range of 0 – 2 μM adjusted by both stable Cd and radiolabeled (109Cd tracer. Cd removal from the solution over duration of 1 hour reached 50%. The part of loosely adsorbed Cd ions on root surface accounted for about 20%. Over 30% of absorbed Cd at 0.5 μM Cd treatment was retained in root cell walls. The apparent root Cd accumulation showed concentration-dependant tendency with the highest accumulation value of 7.45 nmol Cd g FW-1.

  17. Implications of Resveratrol on Glucose Uptake and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David León

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol—a polyphenol of natural origin—has been the object of massive research in the past decade because of its potential use in cancer therapy. However, resveratrol has shown an extensive range of cellular targets and effects, which hinders the use of the molecule for medical applications including cancer and type 2 diabetes. Here, we review the latest advances in understanding how resveratrol modulates glucose uptake, regulates cellular metabolism, and how this may be useful to improve current therapies. We discuss challenges and findings regarding the inhibition of glucose uptake by resveratrol and other polyphenols of similar chemical structure. We review alternatives that can be exploited to improve cancer therapies, including the use of other polyphenols, or the combination of resveratrol with other molecules and their impact on glucose homeostasis in cancer and diabetes.

  18. Electrogenic sulfate uptake by crustacean hepatopancreatic basolateral membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattey, M.A.; Gerencser, G.A.; Aheam, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) were isolated from Atlantic lobster (Homarus americanus) hepatopancreas and purified by discontinuous sucrose gradient centrifugation. BLMV prepared in this fashion were osmotically reactive exhibiting linear dependence of vesicular 35 SO 4 -2 uptake to increasing external osmotic pressure with negligible non-specific isotope binding. Under short circuited conditions (valinomycin/K + ) BLMV responded to either a HCO 3 - gradient directed out or equilibrated HCO 3 - (10 mM) by displaying short term accumulation of sulfate above that of equilibrium. Uptake of divalent anion was unaffected by an inwardly directed transmembrane Na + or tetramethylammonium + gradient. 35 SO 4 -2 /HCO 3 - exchange in the presence of valinomycin was stimulated by transient inside positive K + diffusion potentials and inhibited by transient inside negative K + diffusion potentials. The role of electrogenic anion exchange by hepatopancreas BLMV in transcellular sulfate transport is discussed

  19. Quantitation of abnormal Ga-67 uptake in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, J.K.; Golish, J.A.; Cordasco, E.M.; Go, R.T.; Feiglin, D.H.; MacIntyre, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Gallium-67 is useful in differentiating active pneumonitis from the underlying changes of diffuse idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), especially when advanced disease precludes detection of subtle radiographic changes. Diffuse Ga-67 uptake, however, is often difficult to estimate. For 22 patients with IPF, they employed both emission tomography (SPECT) of the thorax and a modified Ga-67 index technique for digital planar images basing lung regions on Tc-99m MAA outlines and background on thigh soft-tissue activity. The degree of abnormal Ga-67 uptake measured by these techniques correlated closely with disease activity by all clinical criteria. Repeat studies for six patients after steroid therapy paralleled clinical response (4+/2-)

  20. OXYGEN UPTAKE KINETICS IN SPORT, EXERCISE AND MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Poole

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the book is to discuss the principal determinants of oxygen uptake dynamics which is essential to developing exercise performance and improving quality of life for patients, especially those with cardio-respiratory diseases. A broad review of the current knowledge about this relatively less studied field is provided by this book. Incidentally, it updates the reader about how a person can use his/her aerobic energy system more effectively in order to fatigue gradually and be able to endure more physical activity. It also discusses the effects of exercise training in speeding up oxygen uptake kinetics, and the effects of ageing and a selection of conditions in slowing oxygen dynamics and declining exercise capacity.