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Sample records for in-111 labeled leukocytes

  1. In-111-labeled leukocytes in the diagnosis of rejection and cytomegalovirus infection in renal transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forstrom, L.A.; Loken, M.K.; Cook, A.; Chandler, R.; McCullough, J.

    1981-01-01

    Indium-111-labeled (In-111) leukocytes have been shown to be useful in the localization of inflammatory processes, including renal transplant rejection. Using previously reported labeling methods, 63 studies with this agent have been performed in 53 renal transplant patients. Indications for study included suspected rejection or cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Studies were performed in 33 men and 20 women, with ages ranging from 6 to 68 years. Autologous cells were normally used for labeling, although leukocytes obtained from ABO-compatible donors were used in three subjects. Rectilinear scanner and/or scintillation camera images were obtained at 24 hours after intravenous administration of 0.1 to 0.6 mCi of In-111-leukocytes. There was abnormal uptake of In-111-leukocytes in the transplanted kidney in 11 of 15 cases of rejection. In three additional cases of increased transplant uptake, CMV infection was present in two. Abnormal lung uptake was present in 13 of 14 patients with CMV infection. In four additional cases, increased lung uptake was associated with other pulmonary inflammatory disease. Increased lung activity was not seen in patients with uncomplicated transplant rejection. These results suggest that In-111-leukocyte imaging may be useful in the differential diagnosis of rejection versus CMV infection in renal transplant patients

  2. In-111-labeled leukocytes in the diagnosis of rejection and cytomegalovirus infection in renal transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forstrom, L.A.; Loken, M.K.; Cook, A.; Chandler, R.; McCullough, J.

    1981-01-01

    Indium-111-labelled (In-111) leukocytes have been shown to be useful in the localization of inflammatory processes, including renal transplant rejection. Using previously reported labelling methods, 63 studies with this agent have been performed in 53 renal transplant patients. Indications for study included suspected rejection or cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Studies were performed in 33 men and 20 women, with ages ranging from 6 to 68 years. Autologous cells were normally used for labeling, although leukocytes obtained from ABO-compatible donors were used in three subjects. Rectilinear scanner and/or scintillation camera images were obtained at 24 hours after intravenous administration of 0.1 to 0.6 mCi of In-111 leukocytes. There was abnormal uptake of In-111-leukocytes in the transplanted kidney in 11 of 15 cases of rejection. In three additional cases of increased transplant uptake, CMV infection was present in two. Abnormal lung uptake was present in 13 of 14 patients with CMV infection. In four additional cases, increased lung uptake was associated with other pulmonary inflammatory disease. Increased lung activity was not seen in patients with uncomplicated transplant rejection. These results suggest that In-111-leukocyte imaging may be useful in the differential diagnosis of rejection versus CMV infection in renal transplant patients

  3. In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in a case of multifocal candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palestro, C.J.; Vega, A.; Kim, C.K.; Goldsmith, S.J. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The value of indium-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy for the diagnosis of infection in the general population is well documented; there is less information available on its role in the evaluation of the immunocompromised patient. In this study, leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 31-year-old immunocompromised woman who had a possible intra-abdominal abscess. No abscess was detected, but intense oral, esophageal, gastric, and vaginal uptake was observed. Candida infection was histologically confirmed at all four sites.

  4. In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in a case of multifocal candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestro, C.J.; Vega, A.; Kim, C.K.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    The value of indium-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy for the diagnosis of infection in the general population is well documented; there is less information available on its role in the evaluation of the immunocompromised patient. In this study, leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 31-year-old immunocompromised woman who had a possible intra-abdominal abscess. No abscess was detected, but intense oral, esophageal, gastric, and vaginal uptake was observed. Candida infection was histologically confirmed at all four sites

  5. Rapid, high-efficiency labeling of leukocytes with In-111 after hemolytic removal of erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karesh, S.M.; Henkin, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    During the labeling of leukocytes with Indium-111, conventional methodology involves separation and washing to remove red cells. This technique results in the loss of a significant number of leukocytes. Citrated whole blood of ten normal volunteers was studied for an alternate labeling method following sedimentation for 30 to 45 minutes and low speed centrifugation of the leukocyte-rich plasma. The average labeling for these ten volunteers by Indium-111 was 90% versus 60% by the older technique. Viability as measured by the trypan blue exclusion test was greater than 95%, WBC losses were essentially zero, and no WBC clumping was observed. Eighteen patients referred for leukocyte imaging were studied by this method. In this patient population, there was 91% labeling with viability greater than 95% and no evidence of clumping. Less than 5% RBC's were noted in any lot. Indium-111 WBC activity 20 minutes post injection averaged 79% of whole blood activity. This modification results in decreased losses of white cells, reduces preparation time to less than 2 hours, and significantly improves the labeling efficiency of the final product. Liver/spleen ratios and image quality were unchanged from the original method

  6. Cellular basis for accumulation of In-111-labeled leukocytes and platelets in rejecting cardiac allografts: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, T.S.T.; Oluwole, S.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Wolff, M.; Kuromoto, N.; Satake, K.; Hardy, M.A.; Alderson, P.O.

    1982-01-01

    Biodistribution and imaging studies in rats showed that In-111-labeled leukocytes and platelets accumulate progressively with time after transplantation in cardiac allografts undergoing rejection, but do not accumulate in normal syngeneic heart grafts. Maximum heart allograft-to-blood ratios of 9:1 were obtained, and allograft-to-native heart ratios of 17:1. Microscopic studies of the rejecting cardiac allografts showed that histologic findings paralleled the cellular changes predicted by the radionuclide studies. Intravenously administered Ga-67 citrate and Tc-99m sulfur colloid failed to show significant accumulation in rejecting grafts. The findings suggest that cellular rejection, rather than nonspecific inflammatory changes, is the primary basis for accumulation of In-111 leukocytes and platelets in rejecting cardiac allografts

  7. Concentration of In-111-oxine-labeled autologous leukocytes in noninfected and nonrejecting renal allografts: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, B.D.; Isitman, A.T.; Kaufman, H.M.; Rao, S.A.; Knobel, J.; Hellman, R.S.; Zielonka, J.S.; Pelc, L.

    1984-01-01

    Autologous leukocytes labeled with In-111 oxine (ILL) concentrated in the renal allografts of eight patients for whom transplant rejection, infection, or acute tubular necrosis (ATN) could be excluded. All patients had good-to-adequate renal function at the time of ILL scintigraphy, and none developed rejection or renal transplant failure during a 1-mo follow-up period. It is concluded that normally functioning renal allografts without evidence of rejection, infection, or ATN often will concentrate ILL. When a baseline study is not available for comparison, this phenomenon limits the value of ILL scintigraphy as a diagnostic test for transplant rejection or infection

  8. In-111-leukocyte scintigraphy for detection of infection associated with peritoneal dialysis catheters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipper, S.L.; Steiner, R.W.; Witztum, K.F.; Basarab, R.M.; Kipper, M.S.; Halpern, S.E.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1984-05-01

    In-111-labeled leukocytes were administered to 13 patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in order to locate catheter-associated infections. Using a marker to indicate the catheter exit site, infections of the catheter tunnel were correctly identified prior to surgery in 4 patients with relapsing peritonitis and infections of the exit site were diagnosed in 5 out of 7 patients. The authors conclude that In-111-leukocyte scintigraphy appears to be accurate in diagnosing peritoneal infections of the dialysis catheter tunnel.

  9. Colonic localization of indium-111 labeled leukocytes in active Behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harre, R.G.; Conrad, G.R.; Seabold, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    A patient with known Behcet's disease demonstrated intense colonic localization of In-111 labeled leukocytes. Gastrointestinal involvement had not been previously manifested, but extensive colonic inflammation was documented by endoscopy. This case illustrates the utility of In-111 labeled leukocyte imaging for detecting active bowel disease in a debilitated patient with documented Behcet's vasculitis

  10. [Comparison of endoscopy, radiology and scintigraphy with Tc-99m-exametazine labeled leukocytes and In-111 labeled human polyclonal immunoglobulin G in the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Ramos, P A; Martín-Comin, J; Muñoz, A; Baliellas, C; Vilar, L; Roca, M; Ramos, M

    1998-09-12

    The 99mTc-exametazine labelled leukocytes (99mTc-WBC) scintigraphy is an established method for the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) diagnosis, but the labelled procedure is a large and laborious process. The 111In-labelled human polyclonal immunoglobulin G (111In-IgG) can be an alternative in the non invasive IBD diagnosis. Thirty-four patients routinely referred for investigation of IBD were studied. The 99mTc-WBC and 111In-IgG were simultaneously injected and images were obtained at 30 min, 3 and 24 h post-injection. The diagnostic was established by histology of endoscopy and/or surgery samples. Images were blindly evaluated by two experienced observers who only knew of the clinical suspicion of IBD. IBD was confirmed in 27 patients (17 with Crohn's disease [CD] and 10 with ulcerative colitis [UC]). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 88.5, 100 and 90.3% respectively for endoscopy, 73.7, 75 and 73.9% for radiology, 59.3, 85.7 and 64.7% for 111In-IgG scan and 96.3, 85.7 and 94.1% for 99mTc-WBC scan. In the diagnosis of CD involvement of small bowel, the 99mTc-WBC scan identified 9/11 patients with confirmed disease, whereas the 111In-IgG scan diagnosed only four of them. In the evaluation of colonic disease, the 99mTc-WBC scan correctly diagnosed 21/22 confirmed patients, being the 111In-IgG scan positive in 13 of them. As far as disease extension concerned, the 99mTc-WBC demonstrated a statistically significance rather number of disease segments than endoscopy, radiology and 111In-IgG scan. The 99mTc-WBC was an effective method in the diagnosis of suspected IBD patients, both in the evaluation of small bowel disease and colonic disease, with slightly best results for colonic disease, whereas the 111In-IgG scan seems to have no utility neither in diagnosis nor in extension evaluation of IBD.

  11. Evaluation of possible hip prosthesis infection with In-111 leukocyte scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noto, R.B.; Alavi, A.; Star, A.M.; Cuckler, J.M.; Eisenberg, B.

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate the utility of In-111 leukocyte scintigraphy in patients with possible hip prosthesis infection, the authors retrospectively reviewed 44 such scans without clinical history. The results of In-111 leukocyte scans were compared with intraoperative cultures obtained at the time of prosthesis revision in 34 patients, with hip aspirates and/or clinical follow-up obtained in the remaining ten patients. This comparison yielded a 71% sensitivity, 78% specificity, and 77% overall accuracy. They conclude that In-111 leukocyte scans can be helpful in the evaluation of suspected hip prosthesis infection, but they are not as accurate as has been previously reported elsewhere

  12. Guidelines for the labelling of leucocytes with In-111-oxine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roca, Manel; de Vries, Erik F. J.; Jamar, Francois; Israel, Ora; Signore, Alberto

    We describe here a protocol for labelling autologous white blood cells with In-111-oxine based on previously published consensus papers and guidelines. This protocol includes quality control and safety procedures and is in accordance with current European Union regulations and International Atomic

  13. Clinical usage of indium-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy and technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate scintigraphy in patients with total hip replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terauchi, Takashi; Uno, Kimiichi; Yuyama, Takuo; Seto, Kazuhiko; Arimizu, Noboru; Suguro, Tohru; Moriya, Hideshige; Uematsu, Sadao.

    1988-01-01

    Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) scintigraphy and In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy were done in 13 patients with total hip replacement in order to determine the presence of prosthetic infection. Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy was done in 11 patients (12 studies). In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was done in 13 patients (14 studies). Tc-99m MDP imaging showed diffuse accumulation of the radionuclide in all of the 3 infected lesions, but focal one in 5 of the 7 noninfected lesions with a specificity of 33.3 %, sensitivity of 100 %, overall accuracy of 50 %. In-111 labeled leukocyte normally accumulates in the spleen, the liver, and the bone marrow. Before insertion of a stemmed prosthesis, the local bone marrows were reamed out in all of our cases. Thus, no radioactive accumulation would be expected in the lesions with prosthesis unless infected. However, if the prosthesis is infected, increased uptake of In-111 would be seen as a result of the accumulation of leukocyte. In-111 labeled leukocyte imaging showed abnormal accumulation of In-111 in all of the 4 infected lesions and no accumulation in all of the 10 noninfected lesions with a specificity of 100 %, sensitivity of 100 %, overall accuracy of 100 %. We conclude that In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy might be useful in evaluating prosthetic infection in a patient with total hip replacement. (author)

  14. Infected knee prosthesis: diagnosis with In-111 leukocyte, Tc-99m sulfur colloid, and Tc-99m MDP imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palestro, C.J.; Swyer, A.J.; Kim, C.K.; Goldsmith, S.J. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Forty-one possible cases of infected total knee prostheses studied with indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-four of the prostheses were studied with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy and 19 with Tc-99m sulfur colloid marrow scintigraphy. Nine prostheses were infected, and 32 were uninfected. The accuracy of combined labeled leukocyte and sulfur colloid marrow imaging (95%) was higher than that of labeled leukocyte scintigraphy alone (78%), bone scintigraphy alone (74%), or combined labeled leukocyte and bone scintigraphy (75%). The authors conclude that combined labeled leukocyte and sulfur colloid imaging is an accurate method for diagnosis of infected knee prostheses. In this series, this technique was superior to labeled leukocyte and bone imaging, alone or in combination.

  15. Leukocyte labeling with isonitrile complexes of Tc-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Abbeele, A.D.; Solorzano, C.; Jones, A.G.; Beardsley, D.S.; Treves, S.; Davison, A.

    1985-01-01

    Leukocyte labelling with Tc-99m may result in a useful method for the detection and localization of active inflammatory processes in patients, particularly in the pediatric population. Previous studies qin this laboratory have shown that hexakis(alkylisonitrile)technetium(I) complexes readily label V79 lung fibroblasts in vitro, and this work is now being extended to isolated human white blood cells (WBC). Two lipophilic water-soluble technetium cations, the t-butyl [Tc-99m(TBI)] and cyclohexyl [Tc-99m(CHI)] analogs, were prepared essentially ligand-free at no-carrier-added levels in aqueous media and introduced in 10% propylene glycol/90% normal saline solution to WBC at room temperature. The cells were isolated from whole blood via sedimentation, centrifugation, and hypotonic hemolysis of the red blood cells. The labeling yield was studied as a function of incubation time (10-45 min), amount of activity (0.35-8.0 mCi), and total WBC (2.5 x 10/sup 7/-1.3 x 10/sup 8/). After 10 min incubation using 10/sup 8/ cells, the initial uptake of Tc-99m(TBI) was 40%, of which 50% remained bound after one saline wash. By contrast, the labeling efficiency with Tc-99m(CHI) was 85%, with 90% of the label still bound after washing. The labeling yield was unrelated to activity levels of incubation time, but was proportional to the number of WBC present. The entire process could be complemented in approximately one hour. The labeling yields with Tc-99m-(CHI) are comparable to those now obtained with the clinically available In-111 oxine

  16. False-positive indium-111 labeled leukocyte scintigram in a patient with a painful hip prosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, N.; Makler, P.T. Jr.; Alavi, A.

    1986-01-01

    A Tronzo hip prosthesis is designed to elicit an inflammatory reaction in order to promote prosthesis stability. A three-phased bone scan and Ga-67 imaging in conjunction with physical examination and laboratory findings failed to demonstrate evidence for osteomyelitis in a patient with a painful hip prosthesis, in whom images obtained with In-111-labeled leukocytes were positive. This observation demonstrated that the interpretation of the latter technique in demonstrating inflammation can cause a false impression of an infectious process

  17. Technique of leukocyte harvesting and labeling: problems and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAfee, J.G.; Subramanian, G.; Gagne, G.

    1984-01-01

    Mixed leukocyte suspensions obtained after gravity sedimentation of red cells and labeled with 111 In lipophilic chelates are now widely used clinically for abscess localization at many medical centers. So far, labeling with 111 In-oxine or tropolone has been more successful than any 99 mTc method. More sophisticated approaches are available for isolation and labeling of specific leukocyte cell types, to study their migration in vivo. The most significant advances in cell harvesting include newer density gradients for isopyknic centrifugation, centrifugal elutriation, and flow cytometry. Unlike current radioactive agents which label many cell types indiscriminately, more selective ligands are being developed which bind to specific cell surface receptors. These will label certain leukocyte populations or subtypes while not reacting with others, thereby avoiding laborious separation techniques. Monoclonal antibodies against leukocyte cell-surface antigens appear particularly promising as agents for selective cell labeling

  18. Abcess detection using radiocolloid-labelled-leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Auvergnat, J.C.; Armengaud, M.; Guiraud, R.; Le Net, R.; Auvergnat, R.

    1975-01-01

    The early detection of infections centres using labelled polynuclear neutrophile (LPN) as vector was investigated. The method was based on one of the physiological properties of this substance, its phagocytotic power towards colloidal sulphur particles labelled with pertechnetate-Tc 99m. The preliminary results of experiments on dogs are reported and confirm that centres of infection can be determined in experimental animals by the use of polynuclear neutrophiles labelled by phagocytosis. It seems that these results are really due to the presence of LPN in situ and not to simple inflammatory hyperhaemia or to an excess of free pertechnetate. The nature of the vector, tracer and lebelling agent, the quality of the results obtained and the harmlessness of the method warrant its clinical application in human beings [fr

  19. Unsuspected osteomyelitis in diabetic foot ulcers. Diagnosis and monitoring by leukocyte scanning with indium in 111 oxyquinoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, L.G.; Waller, J.; Palestro, C.J.; Schwartz, M.; Klein, M.J.; Hermann, G.; Harrington, E.; Harrington, M.; Roman, S.H.; Stagnaro-Green, A.

    1991-01-01

    The prevalence of osteomyelitis in diabetic foot ulcers is unknown. Early diagnosis of this infection is critical, as prompt antibiotic treatment decreases the rate of amputation. The authors therefore assessed the prevalence of osteomyelitis in 35 diabetic patients with 41 foot ulcers. They compared results of roentgenograms, leukocyte scans with indium In 111 oxyquinoline, and bone scans with the diagnostic criterion standards of bone histologic and culture findings. Leukocyte scans were repeated at 2- to 3-week intervals during antibiotic treatment. Consecutive samples were obtained from 54 diabetic patients. Thirty-five patients with 41 foot ulcers were included. As determined by bone biopsy and culture, osteomyelitis was found to underlie 28 (68%) of 41 diabetic foot ulcers. Only nine (32%) of the 28 cases were diagnosed clinically by the referring physician. Underscoring the clinically silent nature of osteomyelitis in these ulcers, 19 (68%) of 28 occurred in outpatients, 19 (68%) of 28 occurred in ulcers not exposing bone, and 18 (64%) of 28 had no evidence of inflammation on physical examination. All patients with ulcers that exposed bone had osteomyelitis. Of the imaging tests, the leukocyte scan had the highest sensitivity, 89%. In patients with osteomyelitis, the leukocyte scan image intensity decreased by 16 to 34 days of antibiotic treatment and normalized by 36 to 54 days. The majority of diabetic foot ulcers have an underlying osteomyelitis that is clinically unsuspected. Leukocyte scans are highly sensitive for diagnosing osteomyelitis in diabetic foot ulcers and may be useful for monitoring the efficacy of antibiotic treatment. The recommend that diabetic patients with foot ulcers that expose bone should be treated for osteomyelitis

  20. Unsuspected osteomyelitis in diabetic foot ulcers. Diagnosis and monitoring by leukocyte scanning with indium in 111 oxyquinoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, L.G.; Waller, J.; Palestro, C.J.; Schwartz, M.; Klein, M.J.; Hermann, G.; Harrington, E.; Harrington, M.; Roman, S.H.; Stagnaro-Green, A. (Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1991-09-04

    The prevalence of osteomyelitis in diabetic foot ulcers is unknown. Early diagnosis of this infection is critical, as prompt antibiotic treatment decreases the rate of amputation. The authors therefore assessed the prevalence of osteomyelitis in 35 diabetic patients with 41 foot ulcers. They compared results of roentgenograms, leukocyte scans with indium In 111 oxyquinoline, and bone scans with the diagnostic criterion standards of bone histologic and culture findings. Leukocyte scans were repeated at 2- to 3-week intervals during antibiotic treatment. Consecutive samples were obtained from 54 diabetic patients. Thirty-five patients with 41 foot ulcers were included. As determined by bone biopsy and culture, osteomyelitis was found to underlie 28 (68%) of 41 diabetic foot ulcers. Only nine (32%) of the 28 cases were diagnosed clinically by the referring physician. Underscoring the clinically silent nature of osteomyelitis in these ulcers, 19 (68%) of 28 occurred in outpatients, 19 (68%) of 28 occurred in ulcers not exposing bone, and 18 (64%) of 28 had no evidence of inflammation on physical examination. All patients with ulcers that exposed bone had osteomyelitis. Of the imaging tests, the leukocyte scan had the highest sensitivity, 89%. In patients with osteomyelitis, the leukocyte scan image intensity decreased by 16 to 34 days of antibiotic treatment and normalized by 36 to 54 days. The majority of diabetic foot ulcers have an underlying osteomyelitis that is clinically unsuspected. Leukocyte scans are highly sensitive for diagnosing osteomyelitis in diabetic foot ulcers and may be useful for monitoring the efficacy of antibiotic treatment. The recommend that diabetic patients with foot ulcers that expose bone should be treated for osteomyelitis.

  1. Scintigraphic demonstration of abscesses with radioactive gallium labeled leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burleson, R.L.; Holman, B.L.; Tow, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    Autologous peripheral blood leukocytes, labeled in vitro with 67 Ga citrate, have been studied in 20 patients as a radioactive carrier for the scintigraphic visualization of septic inflammatory areas. 67 Ga citrate was added to venous whole blood; following incubation, the blood was centrifuged, and the packed cells were reinfused. Scintiscans were obtained four and 24 hours later. The inflammatory process was demonstrated in nine of nine patients with confirmed sepsis. Eleven patients without sepsis had normal scans. There were no false-negative scans and one false-positive scan. The selective accumulation of the gallium labeled leukocytes in areas of septic inflammation was sufficient to allow scintigraphic demonstration of the inflammatory area

  2. Different cell moieties and white blood cell (WBC) integrity in In-111 labeled WBC preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, G.B.; Feiglin, D.H.I.; McMahon, J.T.; Go, R.T.; O'Donnell, J.K.; MacIntyre, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Indium-111 labeled white blood cells (WBC) have become very popular in detecting inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this paper is to determine the distribution of different types of cells in WBC preparation for In-111 oxine labeling, and also to assess the histological integrity of WBC's after labeling with In-111 oxine. Forty to fifty cc of blood was collected from each patient and WBC's were separated by sedimentation and centrifugation. After labeling with In-111 oxine, an aliquot of the WBC sample was used for cell counting and a second aliquot was used for electron microscopic (EM) examination. The different cell moieties were counted, and the mean and standard deviation of twelve determinations calculated. Cells were prepared by the standard technique for electron microscopic examination and images of the cells were obtained at different magnifications (X8,000-25,000). The EM images revealed that although minimal cytoplasmic vacuolization occurred in the WBC's due to the labeling process, the overall histological integrity of the cells remained intact. The relative labeling efficiency of WBC's is greater than those of RBC's and platelets (J Nuc) Med 25:p98, 1984) and, therefore, even a comparatively low population of WBC's gives optimal imaging due to their increased tracer uptake

  3. Distribution of In-111 in granulocyte and other cellular elements of blood (CEB) in human In-111-labeled mixed white cell (MWC) and platelet preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Chowdhury, S.; Brown, M.L.; Wahner, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    A large number of platelets (PLT), red blood cells (RBC) are present along with granulocyte (GC) in In-111 in CEB was determined by Ficoll-Hypaque gradient (FHG) centrifugation of In-111-MWC and PLT preparation as a quality control procedure. MWC were separated by sedimentation with hydroxyethyl starch; PLT by differential centrifugation. MWC and PLT were labeled with In-111-oxine in saline, ACD-saline or with In-111-tropolone in 0.5 ml of ACD-plasma. 0.3-0.5 ml of labeled cell suspended in plasma was layered on 3 ml FHG of two densities (1.119 and 1.077 gm/ml) and spun in a clear polystyrene tube at 1800 G for 30 min. Four layers (plasma, PLT, GC, and RBC) were separated, and In-111 radioactivity in each fraction was determined with a gamma counter. Simultaneously cell types in MWC and PLT preparations were determined by Coulter counter and differential counting. Most of In-111 in In-MWC is associated with the PLT and RBC, GC/lymphocyte ratio is 6/4. GC has higher extraction efficiency than RBC and PLT. PLT preparation is pure and (96 +- 3)% of In-111 is bound to PLT, (4 +- 3)% to RBC and (0.2 +- 0.1)% to GC; PLT preparation contains PLT (97 +- 3)%, RBC (4 +- 3)% and GC (0.2 +- 0.1)%

  4. Role of Gallium and labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in AIDS patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestro, C.J.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    Because AIDS patients frequently present with minimal symptomatology, radionuclide imaging with its ability to survey the entire body, is especially valuable. Gallium-67 citrate, the most commonly performed radionuclide study for localizing infection in these patients, is most useful for detecting opportunistic infections, especially in the thorax. A negative gallium scan, particularly when the chest X-ray is unremarkable, rules strongly against pulmonary disease. A negative gallium scan in a patient with an abnormal chest X-ray and Kaposi's sarcoma, suggests that the patient's respiratory distress is related to the neoplasm. Diffuse pulmonary parenchymal uptake of gallium in the HIV (+) patient is most often associated with PCP. While there are other causes of diffuse pulmonary uptake, the more intense or heterogeneous the uptake, the more likely the patient is to have PCP. Focal pulmonary uptake is usually associated with bacterial pneumonia although PCP may occasionally present in this fashion. Lymph node uptake of gallium is usually associated with Mycob acterium avium complex, tuberculosis, or Iymphoma. When corresponding abnormalities are present on thallium scintigraphy lymphoma is likely. Gallium positive, thallium negative, studies suggest mycobacterial disease. Labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for detecting opportunistic infections probably because of the inflammatory response incited by these organisms. Leukocyte imaging is, however, more sensitive for detecting bacterial pneumonia. In the abdomen, gallium imaging is most useful for identifying lymphadenopathy, while labeled leukocyte imaging is superior for detecting AlDS-associated colitides. In summary, radionuclide studies are valuable diagnostic modalities in AIDS. Their success can be maximized by tailoring the study to the individual's needs

  5. Role of Gallium and labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in AIDS patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palestro, C.J. [Division of nuclear medicine, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, New York (United States); Goldsmith, S.J. [Division of nuclear medicine, New York Hospital, Cornell Medical Center, New York (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Because AIDS patients frequently present with minimal symptomatology, radionuclide imaging with its ability to survey the entire body, is especially valuable. Gallium-67 citrate, the most commonly performed radionuclide study for localizing infection in these patients, is most useful for detecting opportunistic infections, especially in the thorax. A negative gallium scan, particularly when the chest X-ray is unremarkable, rules strongly against pulmonary disease. A negative gallium scan in a patient with an abnormal chest X-ray and Kaposi`s sarcoma, suggests that the patient`s respiratory distress is related to the neoplasm. Diffuse pulmonary parenchymal uptake of gallium in the HIV (+) patient is most often associated with PCP. While there are other causes of diffuse pulmonary uptake, the more intense or heterogeneous the uptake, the more likely the patient is to have PCP. Focal pulmonary uptake is usually associated with bacterial pneumonia although PCP may occasionally present in this fashion. Lymph node uptake of gallium is usually associated with Mycob acterium avium complex, tuberculosis, or Iymphoma. When corresponding abnormalities are present on thallium scintigraphy lymphoma is likely. Gallium positive, thallium negative, studies suggest mycobacterial disease. Labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for detecting opportunistic infections probably because of the inflammatory response incited by these organisms. Leukocyte imaging is, however, more sensitive for detecting bacterial pneumonia. In the abdomen, gallium imaging is most useful for identifying lymphadenopathy, while labeled leukocyte imaging is superior for detecting AlDS-associated colitides. In summary, radionuclide studies are valuable diagnostic modalities in AIDS. Their success can be maximized by tailoring the study to the individual`s needs.

  6. Complementary role of indium-111 labeled leukocyte imaging, ultrasonography and computed tomography in the evaluation of postoperative infection or abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uno, Kimiichi; Imazeki, Keiko; Arimizu, Noboru; Ryu, Takamasa; Isono, Kaichi; Kitakata, Yusuke; Kohen, Hirobumi; Uematsu, Sadao

    1987-09-01

    We report our experiences with the combined use of indium-111 labeled leukocyte imaging (In-III WBC scan.), computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (US) for evaluation of suspected postoperative infection or abscess, and discuss the complementary roles of these modalities. Postoperative abscesses or infections were diagnosed in 9 of 20 patients. All patients were correctly diagnosed by In-111 WBC imaging and 4 patients could not be diagnosed by US because of bowel gas. One false-positive CT examination and another artifact on CT images due to respiratory movements were obtained. The three modalities were found to be complementary: CT and US were efficient imaging methods for diagnosis and treatment of abscess. In-111 WBC imaging could estimate the activity of inflammation.

  7. Colorectal carcinoma metastases: Detection with In-111-labeled monoclonal antibody CCR 086

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Nabi, H.H.; Levine, G.; Lamki, L.M.; Murray, J.L.; Tauxe, W.N.; Shah, A.N.; Patt, Y.Z.; Doerr, R.J.; Klein, H.A.; Gona, J. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, Buffalo, NY (USA))

    1990-07-01

    A phase I/II clinical trial with indium-111-labeled antimucin murine monoclonal antibody (MoAb) CCR 086 was conducted. Seventeen patients with histologically proved colorectal carcinoma and known metastatic disease underwent external scintigraphy after administration of 5.5 mCi (203.5 MBq) of In-111 CCR 086 at doses of 5 and 20 mg. Of 25 known lesions, 17 were detected (sensitivity, 68%). The smallest detected lesion in the lung was 1 cm and in the liver was 1.5 cm. The serum half-life of In-111-labeled CCR 086 MoAb was approximately 64 hours. The formation of human antimouse antibody (HAMA) was detected in the serum of four of five patients who received 20 mg of MoAb. No HAMAs were detected in four patients receiving 5 mg of MoAb. No side effects were encountered. Because of effective detection of liver and lung metastases with lower doses (5-20 mg) of CCR 086 conjugated with In-111, further investigations are warranted to assess clinical and therapeutic potentials of CCR 086 in the management of colorectal cancer.

  8. Colorectal carcinoma metastases: detection with In-111-labeled monoclonal antibody CCR 086.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Nabi, H H; Levine, G; Lamki, L M; Murray, J L; Tauxe, W N; Shah, A N; Patt, Y Z; Doerr, R J; Klein, H A; Gona, J

    1990-07-01

    A phase I/II clinical trial with indium-111-labeled antimucin murine monoclonal antibody (MoAb) CCR 086 was conducted. Seventeen patients with histologically proved colorectal carcinoma and known metastatic disease underwent external scintigraphy after administration of 5.5 mCi (203.5 MBq) of In-111 CCR 086 at doses of 5 and 20 mg. Of 25 known lesions, 17 were detected (sensitivity, 68%). The smallest detected lesion in the lung was 1 cm and in the liver was 1.5 cm. The serum half-life of In-111-labeled CCR 086 MoAb was approximately 64 hours. The formation of human antimouse antibody (HAMA) was detected in the serum of four of five patients who received 20 mg of MoAb. No HAMAs were detected in four patients receiving 5 mg of MoAb. No side effects were encountered. Because of effective detection of liver and lung metastases with lower doses (5-20 mg) of CCR 086 conjugated with In-111, further investigations are warranted to assess clinical and therapeutic potentials of CCR 086 in the management of colorectal cancer.

  9. Colorectal carcinoma metastases: Detection with In-111-labeled monoclonal antibody CCR 086

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Nabi, H.H.; Levine, G.; Lamki, L.M.; Murray, J.L.; Tauxe, W.N.; Shah, A.N.; Patt, Y.Z.; Doerr, R.J.; Klein, H.A.; Gona, J.

    1990-01-01

    A phase I/II clinical trial with indium-111-labeled antimucin murine monoclonal antibody (MoAb) CCR 086 was conducted. Seventeen patients with histologically proved colorectal carcinoma and known metastatic disease underwent external scintigraphy after administration of 5.5 mCi (203.5 MBq) of In-111 CCR 086 at doses of 5 and 20 mg. Of 25 known lesions, 17 were detected (sensitivity, 68%). The smallest detected lesion in the lung was 1 cm and in the liver was 1.5 cm. The serum half-life of In-111-labeled CCR 086 MoAb was approximately 64 hours. The formation of human antimouse antibody (HAMA) was detected in the serum of four of five patients who received 20 mg of MoAb. No HAMAs were detected in four patients receiving 5 mg of MoAb. No side effects were encountered. Because of effective detection of liver and lung metastases with lower doses (5-20 mg) of CCR 086 conjugated with In-111, further investigations are warranted to assess clinical and therapeutic potentials of CCR 086 in the management of colorectal cancer

  10. Leukocyte scintigraphy with 99mTc-exametazime-labeled leukocytes is not useful for follow-up of systemic vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudenherz, A.; Kletter, K.; Deicher, R.; Haas, M.; Hoerl, W.H.; Jilma, B.; Becherer, A.; Dudczak, R.

    2002-01-01

    Background: The prognosis of systemic vasculitis, for instance Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), was greatly improved by the introduction of immunosuppressive treatment. However, relapses are frequent and predictors are scarce. 111 In-leukocytes have been found to indicate unknown manifestations of WG and to predict later relapse. We prospectively investigated the value of 99m Tc-Exametazime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO)-labeled leukocytes with regard to specific patterns and for their usefulness in the follow-up of patients with WG. Methods: The vasculitis group consisted of 8 patients with WG and 2 with idiopathic necrotizing glomerulonephritis (ING). Seven patients with different inflammatory diseases served as controls. Leukocyte labeling with 99m Tc-HMPAO was done using a slightly modified Hammersmith protocol. Cell viability after labeling was verified in vivo by the exclusion of early lung and splenic uptake and in vitro by means of propidium iodide and FACS analysis. Static gamma camera images from the head, chest, abdomen, and pelvis were obtained up to 18 hours after injection of approximately 300 MBq 99m Tc-HMPAO-labeled leukocytes. Scintigrams were analyzed visually; for semiquantitative analysis ROIs were drawn over the nasal region, the right lung, kidneys, and liver. Results: Increased nasal leukocyte accumulation was found in 7/8 patients with WG and in 2/2 patients with ING. Of 2 patients who had a relapse 6 months later, one presented with, and one without nasal uptake. The kidney/liver ratio was higher in controls (0.24 ± 0.07 vs. 0.37 ± 0.11, p 99m Tc-HMPAO leukocyte scintigraphy failed to indicate or exclude a later relapse and is therefore not suitable as a diagnostic tool in the management of patients with systemic vasculitis. (author)

  11. Leukocyte scintigraphy with 99mTc-exametazime-labeled leukocytes is not useful for follow-up of systemic vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becherer, A.; Dudczak, R.; Deicher, R.; Haas, M.; Hoerl, W.H.; Jilma, B.; Staudenherz, A.; Kletter, K.

    2002-01-01

    The prognosis of systemic vasculitis, for instance Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), was greatly improved by the introduction of immunosuppressive treatment. However, relapses are frequent and predictors are scarce. 111 In-leukocytes have been found to indicate unknown manifestations of WG and to predict later relapse. We prospectively investigated the value of 99m Tc-Exametazime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO)-labeled leukocytes with regard to specific patterns and for their usefulness in the follow-up of patients with WG. The vasculitis group consisted of 8 patients with WG and 2 with idiopathic necrotizing glomerulonephritis (ING). Seven patients with different inflammatory diseases served as controls. Leukocyte labeling with 99m Tc-HMPAO was done using a slightly modified Hammersmith protocol. Cell viability after labeling was verified in vivo by the exclusion of early lung and splenic uptake and in vitro by means of propidium iodide and FACS analysis. Static gamma camera images from the head, chest, abdomen, and pelvis were obtained up to 18 hours after injection of approximately 300 MBq 99m Tc-HMPAO-labeled leukocytes. Scintigrams were analyzed visually; for semiquantitative analysis ROls were drawn over the nasal region, the right lung, kidneys, and liver. Increased nasal leukocyte accumulation was found in 7/8 patients with WG and in 2/2 patients with ING. Of 2 patients who had a relapse 6 months later, one presented with, and one without nasal uptake. The kidney/liver ratio was higher in controls (0.24 ± 0.07 vs. 0.37 ± 0.11, p 99m Tc-HMPAO leukocyte scintigraphy failed to indicate or exclude a later relapse and is therefore not suitable as a diagnostic tool in the management of patients with systemic vasculitis. (author)

  12. In-111 oxine autologous labeled platelets in the diagnosis of kidney graft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Comin, J.; Roca, M.; Grino, J.M.; Paradell, C.; Caralps, C.

    1983-01-01

    The usefulness of In-111 oxine labeled autologous platelets in the diagnosis of renal graft rejection was studied. The method is based on imaging of the graft area at 4, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the injection of the labeled cells. The study was done in 31 renal transplant recipients. The control group included four patients with normal renal function without evidence of rejection. No platelet uptake was observed in any of them. The study group included 22 patients with acute rejection which was confirmed histologically in 13. One case of chronic vascular type rejection of the graft tracer uptake was seen. There was a false-positive result due to a perirenal hematoma. In three patients with a non-immunological sudden impairment of renal function, no activity was detected in the graft area. We also evaluated the changes in platelet trapping throughout the study and they seemed to correlate with the response to the antirejection therapy

  13. Detection of a prosthetic aortic valvular abscess with indium-111-labeled leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oates, E.; Sarno, R.C.

    1988-10-01

    An unsuspected annular abscess at the base of a prosthetic aortic valve in a patient with endocarditis was identified by indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy alone. This highly sensitive and specific technique expediently demonstrated the surgically proven inflammatory focus.

  14. Detection of a prosthetic aortic valvular abscess with indium-111-labeled leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oates, E.; Sarno, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    An unsuspected annular abscess at the base of a prosthetic aortic valve in a patient with endocarditis was identified by indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy alone. This highly sensitive and specific technique expediently demonstrated the surgically proven inflammatory focus

  15. Indium-111 labeled leukocytes in the evaluation of suspected abdominal abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, R.E.; Black, R.E.; Welch, D.M.; Maxwell, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    Sixty-eight indium-111-labeled leukocyte imaging studies were performed in 53 patients with suspected abdominal abscesses. Twenty-nine studies gave abnormal results. Nine wound infections were demonstrated, and 14 abscesses were correctly identified. Four studied demonstrated colonic accumulation, one of which remains unexplained, and two accessory spleens were identified. Indium-111 leukocyte imaging is a sensitive and specific study in evaluating patients with suspected abdominal abscess. Differentiation of abscess from other causes of inflammation has not been a problem. The exact role of leukocyte imaging compared with gallium-67 citrate imaging, ultrasound and computerized tomography remains to be determined

  16. Effect of antibiotic therapy on the sensitivity of indium-111-labeled leukocyte scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datz, F.L.; Thorne, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Although 111 In-labeled leukocytes have been shown to be a useful technique for detecting infection, it has been postulated that antibiotic therapy may reduce the sensitivity of the leukocyte scan. Many patients with suspected bacterial infections are placed on antibiotics before a definite site of infection has been identified. Three hundred twelve leukocyte scans on 271 patients were retrospectively reviewed and classified as positive or negative, and as to whether or not they were being treated with antibiotics at the time the leukocyte scan was performed. The overall sensitivity, considering all 312 studies, was 90%. One hundred sixty-nine patient studies were on patients receiving antibiotics; 143 studies were on patients not on antibiotics. The sensitivity of the leukocyte scan was 88.7% in patients on antibiotic therapy; it was 92.1% in those who were not receiving antibiotics. The differences in sensitivity between the two groups were not significantly different (p less than 0.05). We conclude that antibiotic therapy does not affect the sensitivity of the 111 In-labeled leukocyte scan

  17. The complementary role of indium-111 labeled leukocyte imaging, ultrasonography and computed tomography in the evaluation of postoperative infection or abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Kimiichi; Imazeki, Keiko; Arimizu, Noboru; Ryu, Takamasa; Isono, Kaichi; Kitakata, Yusuke; Kohen, Hirobumi; Uematsu, Sadao.

    1987-01-01

    We report our experiences with the combined use of indium-111 labeled leukocyte imaging (In-III WBC scan.), computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (US) for evaluation of suspected postoperative infection or abscess, and discuss the complementary roles of these modalities. Postoperative abscesses or infections were diagnosed in 9 of 20 patients. All patients were correctly diagnosed by In-111 WBC imaging and 4 patients could not be diagnosed by US because of bowel gas. One false-positive CT examination and another artifact on CT images due to respiratory movements were obtained. The three modalities were found to be complementary: CT and US were efficient imaging methods for diagnosis and treatment of abscess. In-111 WBC imaging could estimate the activity of inflammation. (author)

  18. Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in hemodialysis access-site infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestro, C.J.; Vega, A.; Kim, C.K.; Vallabhajosula, S.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Bacterial sepsis, a significant complication of chronic hemodialysis, is generally the result of infection at the vascular access site. We retrospectively reviewed the utility of indium-111-(111In) labeled autologous leukocyte scintigraphy in 26 patients (30 scans) with synthetic vascular grafts, on chronic hemodialysis, in whom hemodialysis access site infection was a diagnostic consideration. Leukocyte scintigraphy correctly identified all fifteen access-site infections; there was one false-positive study, for an overall sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 93%, respectively. Of particular significance is the fact that in nine (60%) of the fifteen access-site infections, physical examination was normal. Our data indicate that 111In-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy is a useful procedure for the diagnosis of hemodialysis access-site infection, and it is especially valuable when physical examination of the access site is normal

  19. Use of 111In-labeled autologous leukocytes to image an abdominal abscess in a horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koblik, P.D.; Lofstedt, J.; Jakowski, R.M.; Johnson, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    Indium 111-labeled autologous leukocytes were used to image an abdominal abscess in a horse with a palpable abdominal mass and history of Streptococcus equi infection. A focal area of radioactivity was identified in the location corresponding to the abscess. Imaging of this focal uptake was optimal 48 hours after injection. Similar scans obtained in 2 clinically normal horses revealed no evidence of focal radioactivity in this region. The cell labeling procedure gave acceptable labeling efficiency (87.5%) but an excessive number of damaged WBC, resulting in persistent lung radioactivity on all images. No adverse effects were noted. Radiation measured in the horse and its excreta were well within acceptable limits

  20. Use of In-labeled autologous leukocytes to image an abdominal abscess in a horse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koblik, P.D.; Lofstedt, J.; Jakowski, R.M.; Johnson, K.L.

    1985-06-15

    Indium 111-labeled autologous leukocytes were used to image an abdominal abscess in a horse with a palpable abdominal mass and history of Streptococcus equi infection. A focal area of radioactivity was identified in the location corresponding to the abscess. Imaging of this focal uptake was optimal 48 hours after injection. Similar scans obtained in 2 clinically normal horses revealed no evidence of focal radioactivity in this region. The cell labeling procedure gave acceptable labeling efficiency (87.5%) but an excessive number of damaged WBC, resulting in persistent lung radioactivity on all images. No adverse effects were noted. Radiation measured in the horse and its excreta were well within acceptable limits.

  1. Size Dependent Biodistribution and SPECT Imaging of In-111-Labeled Polymersomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhuis, Rene P.; Stojanov, Katica; Laverman, Peter; Eilander, Jos; Zuhorn, Inge S.; Rutjes, Floris P. J. T.; van Hest, Jan C. M.

    Polymersomes, self-assembled from the block copolymer polybutadiene-block-poly(ethylene glycol), were prepared with well-defined diameters between 90 and 250 nm. The presence of similar to 1% of diethylene triamine penta acetic acid on the polymersome periphery allowed to chelate radioactive In-111

  2. Correlation of 111In-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy with clinical and laboratory findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Yoshitaka; Kitakata, Yuusuke; Uno, Kimiichi; Minoshima, Satoshi; Arimizu, Noboru.

    1993-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between 111 In-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy and clinical information and laboratory findings in 24 patients with bone infection and 35 patients with abdominal infection. Fifty-nine scintigrams were retrospectively reviewed and classified into positive or negative results. As the laboratory findings, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) at 60 minutes, and peripheral blood leukocyte counts (WBCC) were evaluated. Clinical information such as presence of fever and administration of antibiotics was also compared. No significant relationship between the scintigraphic results and clinical as well as laboratory findings was observed in bone infection patients. CRP levels in positive scintigraphic patients were significantly higher than those in negative scintigraphic patients in the abdominal infection group, otherwise the other indices were not correlated with the scintigraphic results. A few patients with slightly increased CRP (mostly chronic cases) did not show positive scintigrams, suggesting an increased false negative rate of leukocyte scintigraphy in such circumstances. These results suggest that it is inappropriate to determine the application of leukocyte scintigraphy depending on clinical as well as laboratory findings, and leukocyte scintigraphy would yield additional information different from other indices when evaluating inflammatory foci. (author)

  3. Biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of In-111-labeled Stealth{reg_sign} liposomes in patients with solid tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, K.J.; Peters, A.M.; Mohammadtaghi, S. [Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    The use of liposomal doxorubicin yields response rates of up to 70-80% in patients with AIDS-related Kaposi`s sarcoma with favourable alteration of the toxicity profile of the drug. Liposomal delivery of therapy in patients with solid cancers is currently under investigation. Our aim is to determine the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of In-111-labeled Stealth{reg_sign} liposomes (SEQUUS{trademark}) liposomes (SEQUUS{trademark} Pharmaceuticals Inc., Menlo Park, USA) in patients with advanced solid malignant tumours. Ten patients (4 male, 6 female) with a median age of 59 (range 43 - 75) received 100 MBq of In-111-labeled Stealth{reg_sign} liposomes. Four had breast cancer, 3 head and neck tumours, 2 lung and 1 cervical cancer. Blood samples and whole body gamma camera images were obtained at 0.5, 4, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 240 hours after injection and sequential 24 hour urine collections were performed for the first 96 h. SPECT imaging was performed when indicated. High definition images of tumours were obtained in 9 patients (3/4 breast, 3/3 head and neck, 2/2 lung and 1/1 cervix cancers). One patient (breast cancer) had negative images. The median cumulative urinary excretion of In-111 over the first 96 h was 17.8 (range 3.5-21.3) % of the injected dose. The uptake of liposomes in various tissues was estimated from regions of interest on the whole body images. Prominent uptake was seen in the liver (10-15% of injected dose), lungs (4-9%) and spleen (2-8%). Tumour uptake in the first 96 h varied form 0.5-4% of the injected dose. This is approximately 10 fold higher than might be expected from experience with other targeting methods (eg monoclonal antibodies). These data confirm that Stealth liposomes have a prolonged circulation half-life and localise to solid tumour tissue.

  4. Label-free in vivo imaging of human leukocytes using two-photon excited endogenous fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Yan, Bo; Sun, Qiqi; Teh, Seng Khoon; Zhang, Wei; Wen, Zilong; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrate that two-photon excited endogenous fluorescence enables label-free morphological and functional imaging of various human blood cells. Specifically, we achieved distinctive morphological contrast to visualize morphology of important leukocytes, such as polymorphonuclear structure of granulocyte and mononuclear feature of agranulocyte, through the employment of the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence signals. In addition, NADH fluorescence images clearly reveal the morphological transformation process of neutrophils during disease-causing bacterial infection. Our findings also show that time-resolved NADH fluorescence can be potentially used for functional imaging of the phagocytosis of pathogens by leukocytes (neutrophils) in vivo. In particular, we found that free-to-bound NADH ratios measured in infected neutrophils increased significantly, which is consistent with a previous study that the energy consumed in the phagocytosis of neutrophils is mainly generated through the glycolysis pathway that leads to the accumulation of free NADH. Future work will focus on further developing and applying label-free imaging technology to investigate leukocyte-related diseases and disorders.

  5. Determination of phagocytosis of /sup 32/P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulin, A.M.; Paape, M.J.; Weinland, B.T.

    1984-04-01

    A procedure for the measurement of phagocytosis by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) of /sup 32/P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was modified so that a larger number of samples could be compared in a single run, and smaller volumes of sample, PMN, and /sup 32/P-labeled S aureus could be used. Results were highly reproducible, with a coefficient of variation between duplicate determinations of less than or equal to 2%. Lysostaphin was prepared from the supernatant of S staphylolyticus and was compared with a commercially available preparation. Effects of lysostaphin on PMN and influence of incubation media on release of /sup 32/P from /sup 32/P-labeled S aureus by lysostaphin were examined.

  6. Tracking of In-111-labeled human umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC) in a rat model of cerebral ischemia using SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbab, Ali S; Chopp, Michael; Thiffault, Christine; Navia, Bradford; Victor, Stephen J; Hong, Klaudyne; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Quan; Varma, Nadimpalli RS; Iskander, ASM

    2012-01-01

    In order to increase understanding of how infused cells work, it becomes important to track their initial movement, localization, and engraftment efficiency following transplantation. However, the available in vivo cell tracking techniques are suboptimal. The study objective was to determine the biodistribution of intravenously administered Indium-111 (In-111) oxine labeled human umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC) in a rat model of transient middle cerebral occlusion (tMCAo) using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Rats received 3 million In-111 labeled hUTC (i.v.) 48 hrs after tMCAo. Following the administration of either hUTC or equivalent dose of In-111-oxine (18.5 MBq), animals underwent SPECT imaging on days 0, 1, and 3. Radioactivity in various organs as well as in the stroke area and contralateral hemisphere was determined, decay corrected and normalized to the total (whole body including head) radioactivity on day 0. Immunohistochemical analysis was also performed to confirm the beneficial effects of hUTC on vascular and synaptic density, and apoptosis. Most of the radioactivity (43.36±23.07% on day 0) trafficked to the lungs immediately following IV administration of In-111 labeled hUTC (day 0) and decreased drastically to 8.81±7.75 and 4.01±4.52% on days 1 and 3 post-injection, respectively. In contrast, radioactivity measured in the lung of animals that received In-111-oxine alone remained relatively unchanged from day 0 to day 1 (18.38±5.45% at day 0 to 12.59±5.94%) and decreased to 8.34±4.25% on day 3. Significantly higher radioactivity was observed in stroke areas of animals that received In-111 labeled hUTC indicating the presence of cells at the site of injury representing approximately 1% of total administered dose. In addition, there was significant increase in vascular and synaptophysin immunoreactivity in stroke areas of rats that received In-111 labeled hUTC. The present studies showed the tracking of In-111 labeled h

  7. In-111 labeled polyclonal anticollagen antibody (Type I): Detection and kinetics of tissue injury in a murine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoghbi, S.S.; Gottschalk, A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors evaluated type I anticollagen antibody (Ac-Ab-I) for the scintigraphic detection of subclinical crush injury in the rat tail. After cannulating the rat jugular vein to provide ready vascular access, we injected radiolabeled proteins at intervals after the injury. Using In-111-DTA-labeled Ac-Ab-I and sheep immunoglobulin G (IgG) as a control, they found that net uptake ratios (Ac-Ab-I/sheep IgG) from acute, 24 hour, and 48-hour experiments ranged from 1.7 to 2.4, with target uptake scintigraphically visible up to 48 hours after injury. At 72 hours, target uptake diminished. They conclude that imaging of subclinical crush injury in a murine model is feasible, and that significant temporal latitude exists to provide potential flexibility for diagnostic use

  8. Hank's balanced salt solution: an alternative resuspension medium to label autologous leukocytes. Experience in inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Comin, Joseph; Plaza, Pedro; Roca, Manoel [Hospital de Bellvitge (Spain). Servico de Medicina Nuclear]. E-mail: jmartincomin@csub.scs.es; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia

    2002-09-01

    In this work Hank balanced salt solution (HBSS) has been used as resuspension medium, instead of leukocyte poor plasma (LPP) to label autologous white blood cells in 28 patients with suspicion of active inflammatory bowel disease. Labelled cells were reinjected and anterior and caudo-cranial views were obtained at 30 min, 2 h and 6 h p.i. Regions of interest were outlined on liver, spleen, lung, bone marrow (spine), background and lesions and the organ/background activity ratios were calculated in all scans. Patients were classified into 2 groups: Group 1: LPP, 30 patients and Groups 2: HBSS, 28 patients. labelling efficiency was higher in HBSS group (89.0 +- 3.2%) than in the LPP group (6.5 +- 6.3%). Organ/background activity ratios were similar in both groups. Concerning diagnostic accuracy was similar at 30 min and 2 h but the false positive rate increased at 6 h p.i. in the HBSS group. HBSS seems to be a valid alternative as resuspension medium in the labeling of autologous leukocytes but leukocyte poor plasma seem to induce less leukocyte damage. Based on these results, in our center HBSS is the currently used medium to label leukocytes. (author)

  9. Indium-111 oxine-labeled autologous leukocyte scans in the management of colorectal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal, R.F.; Palace, F.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy and usefulness of indium-111 oxine-labeled autologous leukocyte scans in the management of infectious complications of colon and rectal surgery and of inflammatory diseases of the colon have been studied by review of the records of all patients undergoing such scans at Morristown Memorial Hospital during the first six months such scans were performed there. A total of 20 scans was performed on 18 patients. Twelve scans were performed on 11 patients being treated for diseases of the colon and rectum. Of these 12 scans, one was normal, four demonstrated intra-abdominal abscesses, three demonstrated wound infections (two abdominal, one perineal), one was positive for granulomatous colitis, one for pseudomembranous colitis, one for chronic diverticulitis, and one for enterocutaneous fistula. One allergic reaction to the labeled leukocytes occurred. Comparisons with other corroborative localizing diagnostic tests were made. Subsequent treatment was reviewed. Analysis of these cases indicates that the majority of all scans were performed to evaluate complications of colorectal surgery or inflammatory diseases of the colon and that these scans were highly accurate. In all instances where appropriate, delineation of a lesion in the colorectal cases was followed by corrective treatment

  10. 111In-oxine labelled leukocyte scintigraphy in the detection and localization of active inflammation and sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, M.J.; Kalff, V.; Hicks, R.J.; Spicer, W.J.; Spelman, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Indium-111-oxine labelled leukocyte scintigraphy is a diagnostic technique which has recently become available for clinic evaluation within Australia. The technique was used to assess patients with suspected sepsis of inflammation after other commonly used investigations had failed to confirm a diagnosis. Four patient subgroups were evaluated: fever of unknown origin suspected abdominal or postoperative sepsis; suspected active inflammatory bowel disease; and suspected sepsis or inflammation of bones or joints. The course of all patients was followed for at least three months to establish the accuracy of the technique. The leukocyte labelling procedure took 90 min and imaging was carried out typically 3-6, 24 and occasionally 48 h after reinjection of the labelled leukocytes. Only in one patient labelling of leukocytes was unsuccessful. In the remaining 99 studies, the overall sensitivity of leukocyte scintigraphy was 88% (36 of 41 patients with a proved inflammatory or infective disease focus had positive scan findings);and the specificity was 95% (55 of 58 cases with no proved disease focus had normal scan findings). These results support the use of this method in nuclear medicine for the evaluation of suspected acute sepsis (symptoms less than four weeks' duration), of inflammatory bowel disease and of suspected infections involving appendicular bones which contain no active bone marrow. It is also a useful secondary scintigraphic procedure, after gallium-67-citrate scintigraphy, in patients with suspected infective disorders of more than four weeks' duration. 27 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  11. 111 In-labeled leukocytes in the detection of prosthetic vascular graft infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, M.R.; Boyd, C.M.; Read, R.C.; Thompson, B.W.; Barnes, R.W.; Shah, H.R.; Balachandran, S.; Ferris, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Making a clinical diagnosis of infection in prosthetic vascular grafts is difficult but when undiagnosed, this condition has a high mortality rate. Using Indium-111-labeled white-blood cells, 30 scans were performed in 21 patients suspected of having a prosthetic graft infection. The diagnosis of infected graft was confirmed by surgery in all cases, and lack of infection was established by resolution of symptoms with conservative therapy. Twenty-four hour scans of autologous Indium-111 leukocytes were obtained, and correlative CT studies were done in 11 cases. There were 13 infected grafts at surgery (purulent material present), and scans were positive in all (100% sensitivity); of 17 scans, there were 15 true negatives and two false positives (88% specificity). Using the criteria of gas or fluid around the graft, the sensitivity of CT was only 37% in a small subset of these patients. One-half of the cases in which infection was suspected clinically had no infection and had negative scans. Various types of grafts and graft materials were used, and there was no correlation with presence or absence of infection on the basis of the type of graft. Extragraft infection sites were found in five patients. In conclusion, use of Indium-111 leukocytes has been found to be an accurate and valuable diagnostic method for evaluation of suspected prosthetic vascular graft infection, and to have higher diagnostic accuracy than CT

  12. Indium-111 leukocyte localization in infected prosthetic graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purnell, G.L.; Walker, C.W.; Allison, J.W.; Dalrymple, G.V.

    1990-01-01

    Infective endocarditis can be difficult to prove, even in the face of strong clinical suspicion. A case in which standard methods of diagnosis failed to demonstrate endocarditis in a patient with recurrent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and porcine aortic valve is reported. An In-111 labelled leukocyte SPECT study demonstrated uptake in the aortic root and leaflets, and autopsy demonstrated vegetations on the leaflets. In-111 may prove useful in demonstrating endocarditis in patients with prosthetic valve infection

  13. Indium-111 leukocyte localization in infected prosthetic graft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purnell, G.L.; Walker, C.W.; Allison, J.W.; Dalrymple, G.V. (Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Infective endocarditis can be difficult to prove, even in the face of strong clinical suspicion. A case in which standard methods of diagnosis failed to demonstrate endocarditis in a patient with recurrent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and porcine aortic valve is reported. An In-111 labelled leukocyte SPECT study demonstrated uptake in the aortic root and leaflets, and autopsy demonstrated vegetations on the leaflets. In-111 may prove useful in demonstrating endocarditis in patients with prosthetic valve infection.

  14. The effect of varying type and volume of sedimenting agents on leukocyte harvesting and labelling in sickle cell patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, D.; Nunan, T.O.; O' Doherty, M.J. (Guys and Saint Thomas' s Hospital Trust, London (United Kingdom))

    1994-09-01

    Leukocyte labelling in patients with sickle cell anaemia has been reported as difficult if not impossible due to the slow erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in these patients. This study investigated standard sedimentation methods in patients with sickle cell disease (n=16) and compared the results obtained with those following changes in the amount and type of sedimenting agent used. Labelling with either [sup 111]In-oxine or [sup 99]Tc[sup m]-exametazime was attempted in only five patients. Replacement of the commonly used 6% Hetastarch (Hespan) with Dextran or Haemaccel did not improve leukocyte harvesting, even when the proportions used of these agents were increased. In most cases where standard procedures for leukocyte collection did not lead to harvesting of viable samples, it was possible to collect reasonably pure samples by increasing the proportion of Hespan used. It is possible to obtain adequate leukocyte labelling in the majority of sickle cell patients using a minor modification of standard techniques. In this group of patients a ratio of 8 ml of Hespan to 16 ml of blood should be used for cell separation. If this fails then donor cells, anti-granulocyte antibody labelling or HIG should be considered. (author).

  15. Assessment of the accumulation of technetium-99m labelled leukocytes in the treatment of the infections of vascular prosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupka, A.; Kaluza, G.; Skora, J.; Szyber, P.; Rynowiecka, M.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this is to evaluate the accumulation of technetium-99m-labelled leukocytes after change of vascular, dacron and infected prosthetic graft in arterial homo grafts harvested from multiorgan-procurement - with own computer program. In this paper 11 cases of aorto-ilio-femoral graft infection treated by the replacement of infected prosthesis with fresh, bifurcated, arterial homografts is presented. In all patients clinical investigations revealed vascular prosthesis infection with the rupture of vascular anastomoses between the prosthesis' branch and wall of artery that resulted with hemorrhage. The Duplex- Doppler ultrasound and the scintigraphy with use of technetium-labeled leucocytes were used in the diagnostic trial of infection and of the healing process of the arterial homografts.The area of the accumulation of 99m Tc labelled leukocytes was evaluated with own computer programs. Positive clinical effect was obtained in all patients.The regression of infection after in situ replacement of the synthetic prosthesis with homograft was presented with the scintigraphic examination: in these patients the area of leukocytes accumulation decreased from 34±3 cm 2 to 9±2cm 2 . The use of scintigraphy with 99m Tc labelled leukocytes to evaluate the healing process of the arterial homografts in therapy of the prosthetic graft is a the accumulation of leucocytes is facilitation in the monitoring of regression of infection. (author)

  16. The effect of varying type and volume of sedimenting agents on leukocyte harvesting and labelling in sickle cell patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, D.; Nunan, T.O.; O'Doherty, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    Leukocyte labelling in patients with sickle cell anaemia has been reported as difficult if not impossible due to the slow erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in these patients. This study investigated standard sedimentation methods in patients with sickle cell disease (n=16) and compared the results obtained with those following changes in the amount and type of sedimenting agent used. Labelling with either 111 In-oxine or 99 Tc m -exametazime was attempted in only five patients. Replacement of the commonly used 6% Hetastarch (Hespan) with Dextran or Haemaccel did not improve leukocyte harvesting, even when the proportions used of these agents were increased. In most cases where standard procedures for leukocyte collection did not lead to harvesting of viable samples, it was possible to collect reasonably pure samples by increasing the proportion of Hespan used. It is possible to obtain adequate leukocyte labelling in the majority of sickle cell patients using a minor modification of standard techniques. In this group of patients a ratio of 8 ml of Hespan to 16 ml of blood should be used for cell separation. If this fails then donor cells, anti-granulocyte antibody labelling or HIG should be considered. (author)

  17. The effect of ibuprofen on accumulation of indium-111-labeled platelets and leukocytes in experimental myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romson, J.L.; Hook, B.G.; Rigot, V.H.; Schark, M.A.; Swanson, D.P.; Lucchesi, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    To assess the ability of ibuprofen to influence the extent of platelet aggregation and leukocyte infiltration during acute myocardial infarction, autologous indium-111 ( 111 In)-labeled platelets or leukocytes were injected before 60 minutes of left circumflex coronary artery (LCx) occlusion, followed by 24 hours of reperfusion in the canine heart. Myocardial infarct size, as a percent of the area at risk, was reduced in the ibuprofen-treated group (12.5 mg/kg i.v. every 4 hours beginning 30 minutes before LCx occulsion) by 40%, from 48 +/- 4% in control animals to 29 +/- 4% in ibuprofen-treated dogs (p=0.005). Quantification of the platelet-associated 111 In radioactivity in irreversibly injured myocardium indicated that ibuprofen did not alter the accumulation of platelets in infarcted myocardium. In contrast, leukocyte accumulation in infarcted tissue was reduced significantly. In tissue samples with 0.41-0.60 gram infarct, the infarcted/normal ratio of leukocyte radioactivity was 12 +/- 2 in control dogs and 4 +/- 1 in ibuprofen-treated dogs, which represents a 67% reduction in leukocyte accumulation in ibuprofen-treated compared with control dogs. Similar reductions were found in other gram-infarct-weight categories. Although both platelets and leukocytes acumulate in infarcted canine myocardium, ibuprofen may exert its beneficial effect on ischemic myocardium by suppressing the inflammatory response associated with myocardial ischemia and infarction

  18. The effect of ibuprofen on accumulation of 111In-labeled platelets and leukocytes in experimental myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romson, J.L.; Hook, B.G.; Rigot, V.H.; Schork, M.A.; Swanson, D.P.; Lucchesi, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    To assess the ability of ibuprofen to influence the extent of platelet aggregation and leukocyte infiltration during acute myocardial infarction, autologous indium-111 ( 111 In)-labeled platelets or leukocytes were injected before 60 minutes of left circumflex coronary artery (LCx) occlusion, followed by 24 hours of reperfusion in the canine heart. Myocardial infarct size, as a percent of the area at risk, was reduced in the ibuprofen-treated group (12.5 mg/kg i.v. every 4 hours beginning 30 minutes before LCx occlusion) by 40%, from 48 +/- 4% in control animals to 29 +/- 4% in ibuprofen-treated dogs (p . 0.005). Quantification of the platelet-associated 111 In radioactivity in irreversibly injured myocardium indicated that ibuprofen did not alter the accumulation of platelets in infarcted myocardium. In contrast, leukocyte accumulation in infarcted tissue was reduced significantly. In tissue samples with 0.41-0.60 gram infarct, the infarcted/normal ratio of leukocyte radioactivity was 12 +/- 2 in control dogs and 4 +/- 1 in ibuprofen-treated dogs, which represents a 67% reduction in leukocyte accumulation in ibuprofen-treated compared with control dogs. Similar reductions were found in other gram-infarct-weight categories. Although both platelets and leukocytes accumulate in infarcted canine myocardium, ibuprofen may exert its beneficial effect on ischemic myocardium by suppressing the inflammatory response associated with myocardial ischemia and infarction

  19. Evaluation of polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis of adult and neonatal rhesus monkeys using 51-chromium labeling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Yo; Masuda, Kiyokazu; Kobayashi, Yohnosuke

    1987-01-01

    Chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from heparinized venous blood of 8 adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca Mulatta) and 13 rhesus monkey neonates within 48 hours of birth were evaluated by using 51-chromium labeling method. PMNs were prepared by Ficoll-Hypaque gradient and dextran sedimentation procedures and the final 51-chromium uptake was 3.21 ± 1.27 % to original count. PMN chemotaxis was succeeded by using two different chemotaxis filters (Nuclepore filter on top of Millipore filter) with incubation at 37 deg C for 90 min. The mean value of target: non target ratio (CPM in lower filter with chemoattractant/CPM in lower filter without chemoattractant) of 3.56 ± 2.49 from neonates showed no significant difference from that of 4.44 ± 1.24 from adults. Only about 30 % of neonates showed an impaired chemotaxis, but others showed similar chemotactic activity as adults. The results show that the 51-chromium labeling method is useful to assess neutrophil functions in rhesus monkey species and suggest that host defense mechanism of the rhesus monkey may differ from that of human in neonatal period. (author)

  20. Use of a new In-111-labeled solid meal for confirmation of the lag phase of gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, A.H.; Knight, L.S.; Siegel, J.A.; Scopinaro, F.; Perri, J.A.; Krevsky, B.; Fisher, R.S.; Malmud, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    It has been argued that the appearance of a lag phase in Tc-99m (140 keV) anterior gastric emptying (GE) studies may be artifactual. Since gastric emptying with In-111 (247 keV) is less dependent on attenuation, we have developed a new In-111 meal. Two eggs are mixed with In-111 oxine, cooked thoroughly, and eaten between two pieces of toast. In vitro stability was studied by incubating the In-111 egg in human gastric juice at 37 0 C for 3 hours (97.0% +- 0.6% was bound). In five normal volunteers the mean t1/2 for gastric emptying was 87 +- 12 minutes. This was not significantly different from the Tc-99m normal value (77 +- 10 minutes) we have measured. A lag phase for the In-111-containing egg was present in each case (mean, 40 +- 8 minutes). The authors conclude that an In-111 meal can confirm the presence of a physiologic lag phase

  1. Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scan in detection of synthetic vascular graft infection: The effect of antibiotic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, C.J.; Hicklin, O.A.; Payan, J.M.; Gordon, L.

    1991-01-01

    To determine the sensitivity and specificity of the indium-111-( 111 In) labeled leukocyte scan for prosthetic vascular graft infection in patients treated with antibiotic therapy, a retrospective study was performed. Of 41 consecutive 111 In-labeled leukocyte scans performed to evaluate possible vascular graft infection, 23 scans were performed in patients treated with antibiotics. The average duration of antibiotic therapy was 21 days. Twelve positive and 11 negative scans for graft infection were found. By surgical and autopsy correlation of all positive cases, and clinical correlation (of all negative cases), there were 10 true-positive, 11 true-negative, 2 false-positive, and no false-negative scans for graft infections, for an overall sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 85%

  2. Homologous labelling of leukocytes with Tc 99m- dimeric ethylcysteinate (DEC): 'in vitro' and 'in vivo' tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroa, Victoria E.; Ozker, K.

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary tests have been carried out to validate the use of DEC -Tc 99m labelled leukocytes as a more stable substitute for Tc 99m-HMPAO in the diagnosis of infectious and inflammatory diseases. Although in all the patients the infectious focuses have been detected and the results are promissory, further studies with different infections /inflammations are needed to validate the procedure as an alternative routine technique

  3. A simple method for in vivo labelling of infiltrating leukocytes in the mouse retina using indocyanine green dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn A. Sim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a method to label and image myeloid cells infiltrating the mouse retina and choroid in vivo, using a single depot injection of indocyanine green dye (ICG. This was demonstrated using the following ocular models of inflammation and angiogenesis: endotoxin-induced uveitis, experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis and laser-induced choroidal neovascularization model. A near-infrared scanning ophthalmoscope was used for in vivo imaging of the eye, and flow cytometry was used on blood and spleen to assess the number and phenotype of labelled cells. ICG was administered 72 h before the induction of inflammation to ensure clearance from the systemic circulation. We found that in vivo intravenous administration failed to label any leukocytes, whereas depot injection, either intraperitoneal or subcutaneous, was successful in labelling leukocytes infiltrating into the retina. Progression of inflammation in the retina could be traced over a period of 14 days following a single depot injection of ICG. Additionally, bright-field microscopy, spectrophotometry and flow cytometric analysis suggest that the predominant population of cells stained by ICG are circulating myeloid cells. The translation of this approach into clinical practice would enable visualization of immune cells in situ. This will not only provide a greater understanding of pathogenesis, monitoring and assessment of therapy in many human ocular diseases but might also open the ability to image immunity live for neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular disease and systemic immune-mediated disorders.

  4. Cellular basis for accumulation of 111In-labeled leukocytes and platelets in rejecting cardiac allografts: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, T.S.; Oluwole, S.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Wolff, M.; Kuromoto, N.; Satake, K.; Hardy, M.A.; Alderson, P.O.

    1982-01-01

    Biodistribution and imaging studies in rats showed that 111 In-labeled leukocytes and platelets accumulate progressively with time after transplantation in cardiac allografts undergoing rejection, but do not accumulate in normal syngeneic heart grafts. Maximum heart allograft-to-blood ratios of 9:1 were obtained, and allograft-to-native heart ratios of 17:1. Microscopic studies of the rejecting cardiac allografts showed that histologic findings paralleled the cellular changes predicted by the radionuclide studies. Intravenously administered 67 Ga citrate and /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid failed to show significant accumulation in rejecting grafts. The findings suggest that cellular rejection, rather than nonspecific inflammatory changes, is the primary basis for accumulation of 111 In leukocytes and platelets in rejecting cardiac allografts

  5. PET/CT with 18F-FDG- and 18F-FBEM-labeled leukocytes for metabolic activity and leukocyte recruitment monitoring in a mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondue, Benjamin; Sherer, Félicie; Van Simaeys, Gaetan; Doumont, Gilles; Egrise, Dominique; Yakoub, Yousof; Huaux, François; Parmentier, Marc; Rorive, Sandrine; Sauvage, Sébastien; Lacroix, Simon; Vosters, Olivier; De Vuyst, Paul; Goldman, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by a progressive and irreversible respiratory failure. Validated noninvasive methods able to assess disease activity are essential for prognostic purposes as well as for the evaluation of emerging antifibrotic treatments. C57BL/6 mice were used in a murine model of pulmonary fibrosis induced by an intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (control mice were instilled with a saline solution). At different times after instillation, PET/CT with (18)F-FDG- or (18)F-4-fluorobenzamido-N-ethylamino-maleimide ((18)F-FBEM)-labeled leukocytes was performed to assess metabolic activity and leukocyte recruitment, respectively. In bleomycin-treated mice, a higher metabolic activity was measured on (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans from day 7 to day 24 after instillation, with a peak of activity measured at day 14. Of note, lung mean standardized uptake values correlated with bleomycin doses, histologic score of fibrosis, lung hydroxyproline content, and weight loss. Moreover, during the inflammatory phase of the model (day 7), but not the fibrotic phase (day 23), bleomycin-treated mice presented with an enhanced leukocyte recruitment as assessed by (18)F-FBEM-labeled leukocyte PET/CT. Autoradiographic analysis of lung sections and CD45 immunostaining confirm the higher and early recruitment of leukocytes in bleomycin-treated mice, compared with control mice. (18)F-FDG- and (18)F-FBEM-labeled leukocyte PET/CT enable monitoring of metabolic activity and leukocyte recruitment in a mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis. Implications for preclinical evaluation of antifibrotic therapy are expected. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  6. Comparison of indium-labeled-leukocyte imaging with sequential technetium-gallium scanning in the diagnosis of low-grade musculoskeletal sepsis. A prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkel, K.D.; Brown, M.L.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Fitzgerald, R.H. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    We prospectively compared sequential technetium-gallium imaging with indium-labeled-leukocyte imaging in fifty patients with suspected low-grade musculoskeletal sepsis. Adequate images and follow-up examinations were obtained for forty-two patients. The presence or absence of low-grade sepsis was confirmed by histological and bacteriological examinations of tissue specimens taken at surgery in thirty of the forty-two patients. In these thirty patients, the sensitivity of sequential Tc-Ga imaging was 48 per cent, the specificity was 86 per cent, and the accuracy was 57 per cent, whereas the sensitivity of the indium-labeled-leukocyte technique was 83 per cent, the specificity was 86 per cent, and the accuracy was 83 per cent. When the additional twelve patients for whom surgery was deemed unnecessary were considered, the sensitivity of sequential Tc-Ga imaging was 50 per cent, the specificity was 78 per cent, and the accuracy was 62 per cent, as compared with a sensitivity of 83 per cent, a specificity of 94 per cent, and an accuracy of 88 per cent with the indium-labeled-leukocyte method. In patients with a prosthesis the indium-labeled-leukocyte image was 94 per cent accurate, compared with 75 per cent accuracy for sequential Tc-Ga imaging. Statistical analysis of these data demonstrated that the indium-labeled-leukocyte technique was superior to sequential Tc-Ga imaging in detecting areas of low-grade musculoskeletal sepsis

  7. Indium-111-labeled autologous leukocyte imaging and fecal excretion. Comparison with conventional methods of assessment of inflammatory bowel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leddin, D.J.; Paterson, W.G.; DaCosta, L.R.; Dinda, P.K.; Depew, W.T.; Markotich, J.; McKaigney, J.P.; Groll, A.; Beck, I.T.

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the role of 111 In-labeled leukocyte imaging and fecal excretion in the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. We compared these tests to various indices of disease activity in Crohn's disease, to Truelove's grading in ulcerative colitis, and to endoscopy, x-ray, and pathology in both diseases. Eleven controls, 16 patients with Crohn's disease, 13 with ulcerative colitis, and 3 with other types of acute bowel inflammation were studied (positive controls). Indium scanning was performed at 1, 4, and 24 hr. Fourteen of 16 patients with active Crohn's disease had positive scans but in only five was localization accurate. One patient had inactive ulcerative colitis, and the scan was negative. Of 12 patients with active ulcerative colitis, 10 had positive scans but disease localization was accurate in only four. Disease extent was correctly defined in 1 of the 3 Positive Controls. There was no significant difference in the accuracy of scanning at 1, 4, or 24 hr. 111 In fecal excretion was significantly higher in patients with inflammatory bowel disease than in controls, and there was correlation between 111 In fecal excretion and most of the indices of disease activity in Crohn's disease. In ulcerative colitis, 111 In fecal excretion did not correlate with Truelove's grading but reflected colonoscopic assessment of severity. In conclusion, 111 In-labeled leukocyte scanning lacks sensitivity with respect to disease extent, but fecal excretion of 111 In correlates well with disease severity as determined by other methods

  8. Total-hip arthroplasty: Periprosthetic indium-111-labeled leukocyte activity and complementary technetium-99m-sulfur colloid imaging in suspected infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestro, C.J.; Kim, C.K.; Swyer, A.J.; Capozzi, J.D.; Solomon, R.W.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte images of 92 cemented total-hip arthroplasties were correlated with final diagnoses. Prostheses were divided into four zones: head (including acetabulum), trochanter, shaft, and tip. The presence (or absence) and intensity of activity in each zone was noted, and compared to the corresponding contralateral zone. Though present in all 23 infected arthroplasties, periprosthetic activity was also present in 77% of uninfected arthroplasties, and was greater than the contralateral zone 51% of the time. When analyzed by zone, head zone activity was the best criterion for infection (87% sensitivity, 94% specificity, 92% accuracy). Fifty of the arthroplasties were studied with combined labeled leukocyte/sulfur colloid imaging. Using incongruence of images as the criterion for infection, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the study were 100%, 97%, and 98%, respectively. While variable periprosthetic activity makes labeled leukocyte imaging alone unreliable for diagnosing hip arthroplasty infection, the addition of sulfur colloid imaging results in a highly accurate diagnostic procedure

  9. Distinction of infected and non-infected post-surgical incisions with In-111-WBC scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Nabi, H.; Hinkle, G.H.; Olsen, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    To determine if In-111-WBCs scintigraphy can distinguish between healing and infection in post-surgical wounds, a prospective study was performed in patients with 3-14 day old surgical incisions. Eighteen patients (11 males and 7 females) were scanned 24 hrs after injection of 0.5 mCi of In-111 labeled autologous leukocytes. The scan findings were correlated with blood and/wound cultures results and diagnosis at time of discharge. Incisional uptake of In-111-WBCs was noted in 9 patients with infected surgical wounds and was absent in those 9 patients with non-infected surgical wounds. The results of the authors' study show that In-111-WBCs do not accumulate in non-infected surgical incisions. This confirms their previous findings in rats. The high specificity of In-111 leukocytes imaging makes it a valuable study in the evaluation of post-operative patients with suspected surgical wound infections. In-111 WBCs scintigraphy can distinguish between normal healing and infection at the site of recent (3-14 days) surgical incisions

  10. Role of delayed indium-111 labeled leukocyte scan in the management of Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaton, G.D.; Navab, F.; Boyd, C.M.; Diner, W.C.; Texter, E.C. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Comparison of nine patients with Crohn's disease who had a positive delayed (24 hr) 111 indium leukocyte scan and 10 patients with negative scan showed no significant difference between the two groups for the Crohn's disease activity index, sedimentation rate, survival, complications, number of days in hospital, outpatient visits, or readmissions. Despite the apparent lack of statistical significance in Crohn's disease activity index, the scan was positive in nine of 16 patients with a Crohn's disease activity index more than 150, and none of three patients with Crohn's disease activity index less than 150. In the patients studied, there were no false-positive leukocyte scans. In nine of 10 patients with ileocolonic disease, scanning results correctly predicted the proper management. Six patients with positive scan and enteroclysis responded to medical treatment. Four patients had positive enteroclysis and negative scan; of these, three had radiographic features of chronic ileal stricture which was confirmed at operation. The results suggest that a negative delayed indium-111 leukocyte scan may be useful in diagnosis of chronic fibrotic ileal stricture

  11. Multimodality Molecular Imaging of [18F]-Fluorinated Carboplatin Derivative Encapsulated in [111In]-Labeled Liposomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Narottam

    -(5-fluoro-pentyl)-2-methyl malonic acid as the labeling agent to coordinate with the cisplatin aqua complex. It was then used to treat various cell lines and compared with cisplatin and carboplatin at different concentrations ranging from 0.001 microM to 100 microM for 72 hrs and 96 hrs. IC50 values calculated from cell viability indicated that 19F-FCP is a more potent drug than Carboplatin. Manual radiosynthesis and characterization of [18F]-FCP was performed using [18F]-2-(5-fluoro-pentyl)-2-methyl malonic acid with coordination with cisplatin aqua complex. Automated radiosynthesis of [18F]-FCP was optimized using the manual synthetic procedures and using them as macros for the radiosynthesizer. [18F]-FCP was evaluated in vivo with detailed biodistribution studies and PET imaging in normal and KB 3-1 and KB 8-5 tumor xenograft bearing nude mice. The biodistribution studies and PET imaging of [18F]-FCP showed major uptake in kidneys which attributes to the renal clearance of radiotracer. In vivo plasma and urine stability demonstrated intact [18F]-FCP. [ 111In]-Labeled Liposomes was synthesized and physiochemical properties were assessed with DLS. [111In]-Labeled Liposome was evaluated in vivo with detailed pharmacokinetic studies and SPECT imaging. The biodistribution and ROI analysis from SPECT imaging showed the spleen and liver uptake of [111In]-Labeled Liposome and subsequent clearance of activity with time. [18F]-FCP encapsulated [111In]-Labeled Liposome was developed and physiochemical properties were characterized with DLS. [18F]-FCP encapsulated [111In]-Labeled Liposome was used for in vivo dual tracer PET and SPECT imaging from the same nanoconstruct in KB 3-1 (sensitive) and COLO 205 (resistant) tumor xenograft bearing nude mice. PET imaging of [18F]-FCP in KB 3-1 (sensitive) and COLO 205 (resistant) tumor xenograft bearing nude mice was performed. Naked [18F]-FCP and [18F]-FCP encapsulated [ 111In]-Labeled Liposome showed different pharmacokinetic profiles. PET

  12. Stabilization of marked hexametazima with technetium 99-metastables (99mTc) with chloride of cobalt hexahidratado, for the labelling of leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva Palencia, Rosa Maria

    1996-01-01

    Presently study you work with hexametilpropilen amino oxima (HM-PAO), radiopharmaceuticals of labelling leucocytes marking it with technetium 99 recently acquired of the second elution of a generator of molybdenum technetium adding chloride of cobalt hexahidratado in different concentrations, as stabilizing agent in order to settling down if it prolongs the useful life of this expensive radiopharmaceuticals for but of minutes. For it one carries out the determination from the purity radiochemical to the 5,60,120 and 180 minutes after the labelled and the labelling of leukocytes is made with quality control of the cells after the labelling compared against a control

  13. Preparation of [In-111]-labeled-DTPA-bombesin conjugates at high specific activity and stability: Evaluation of labeling parameters and potential stabilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujatti, P.B., E-mail: pujatti.pb@gmail.com [Directory of Radiopharmacy, Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN), Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 - Cidade Universitaria da USP - Butanta, Sao Paulo - SP - Brazil - CEP: 05508-000 (Brazil); Massicano, A.V.F.; Mengatti, J.; Araujo, E.B. de [Directory of Radiopharmacy, Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN), Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 - Cidade Universitaria da USP - Butanta, Sao Paulo - SP - Brazil - CEP: 05508-000 (Brazil)

    2012-05-15

    The aim of the present work was to obtain stabilized high specific activity (HSA) {sup 111}In-labeled bombesin conjugates for preclinical evaluations. Parameters influencing the kinetics of labeling were investigated and the effect of stabilizers on HSA radiopeptides stability at room temperature were systematically categorized applying chromatography techniques. A SA of 174 GBq/{mu}mol was achieved with high radiochemical purity, but the labeled compounds exhibited low stability. The addition of stabilizers avoided their radiolysis and significantly increased their stability. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We aimed to obtain stabilized high specific activity (SA) {sup 111}In-labeled bombesin conjugates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of stabilizers on high SA radiopeptides stability were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum specific activity of 174 GBq/{mu}mol was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The studied stabilizers significantly increased the stability of high SA radiopeptides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These stabilized bombesin conjugates will be applied in preclinical studies.

  14. [Prognostic utility of scintigraphy with 99mTc-HMPAO labelled leukocytes in inflammatory bowel disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, D; Domenech, A; Mora, J; Ballester, R; Roca, M; Jiménez, R I; Verdura, B; Baliellas, C; Guardiola, J; Martín-Comín, J

    2006-01-01

    The inflammatory bowel disease (EII) has a chronic evolution with a frequent relapses. There is no specific diagnosis method to detect the patients with a high risk to relapse. The aim of the work was to analyse the prognostic value of 99mTc-HMPAO leukocyte scintigraphy (LS) performed during an acute attack of EII. 18 patients (mean age 32 +/- 10 years) admitted for an acute attack of EII has been prospectively studied (5 ulcerative colitis [UC] and 13 Cronh's disease [CD]), excluding patient with prior steroids or immunosuppressive therapy during the last year. LS were obtained in basal conditions and following 3 weeks of steroid treatment and the scintigraphic activity index (SAI) has been calculated. Colonoscopy has been done in all patients, and CDAI in CD and Truelove index in UC have been calculated. Patients were followed up for 1 year. In the evolution the therapy requirements as well as the good response to initial treatment have been evaluated. All patients with UC and 4 patients with CD showed a SAI decrease > 50 % and all had a good clinical evolution. Only 2 out of the 9 patients with CD showing a IAG decrease 50 % at 3 weeks of steroid treatment indicates a good clinical evolution.

  15. Effect of Auger electrons internalized as Indium-111 labelled N-MYC phosphorothionate antisense oligonucleotide (In-111-N-MYC-AS) on human neuroblastoma cells: In vitro and in vivo studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, N.; Tanada, S.; Sasaki, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Auger electrons which enter into cells cause biological effects with high-LET short range radiation on the neighborhood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the internalization of In-111-N-myc-AS and suppression of N-MYC in human neuroblastoma cells. Fifteen-mer AS, which was complementary to the region of the mRNA of N-myc beginning with ATG start codon, was derivatized with SCN-Bn-EDTA and labeled with In-111. In-111-N-myc-AS (1.33MBq/nmol) was prepared as naked form and encapsulated in cationic multilamellar liposome (CML). The internalization of In-111-N-myc-AS with or without CML into human neuroblastoma SK-N-DZ cells was determined both in vitro (cell culture) and in vivo (tumor bearing nude mice) studies by Southern blot analysis. Quantity of N-MYC in the tumor cells was also measured by Western blot analysis. In in vitro system 0.69-02pmol of In-111-N-myc-AS (80pmol) with CML was internalized in the cells (5x106) by 12h at 4 deg. C, which increased to 8.05?0.43pmol at 37 deg. C. The internalized naked In-111-N-myc-AS was 0.58?0.01pmol and 0.92?0.03pmol at 4 and 37 0 C, respectively. In vivo study revealed the internalization of In-111-N-myc-AS (8nmol) with CML in tumor cells (5x106) as 6.44?0.71pmol, while none (0pmol) of naked In-111-N-myc-AS was internalized. The effect of Auger electrons was shown by a decrease of N-MYC of the tumor cells by 20.6?2.49% in vitro and 12.9?1.17% in vivo in the case of In-111-N-myc-AS with CML, whereas unlabeled AS with CML or In-111-phosphorothioate sense oligonucleotide did not decrease the quantity of N-MYC of the tumor cells in vitro or in vivo. In conclusion, In-111-N-myc-AS with CML could be internalized into human neuroblastoma cells and suppress the activity of N-myc gene, which may prove useful for targeted Auger electrons radiotherapy. (author)

  16. Effect of Auger electrons internalized as Indium-111-labeled N-MYC phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide (In-111-N-MYC-AS) on human neuroblastoma cells: In-vitro and in-vivo studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Naoyuki; Tanada, Shuju; Sasaki, Yasuhito

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Auger electrons, which enter into cells, cause biological effects with high-LET short-range radiation on the neighborhood. The purpose of this study is to investigate the internalization of In-111-N-myc-AS and suppression of NMYC in human neuroblastoma cells. Fifteen-mer AS, which was complementary to the region of the mRNA of N-myc beginning with ATG start codon, was derivated with SCN-Bn-EDTA and labeled with In-111. In-111-Nmyc-AS (1.33MBq/nmol) was prepared as naked form and encapsulated in cationic multilamellar liposome (CML). The internalization of In-111-N-myc-AS with or without CML into human neuroblastoma SK-N-DZ cells was determined both in vitro (cell culture) and in vivo (tumor bearing nude mice) studies by Southern blot analysis. Quantity of N-MYC in the tumor cells was also measured by Western blot analysis. In in-vitro system 0.69∫0.02pmol of In-111-N-myc-AS (80pmol) with CML was internalized in the cells (5x106) by 12h at 4 deg. C, which increased to 8.05±0.43pmol at 37 deg. C. The internalized naked In-111-N-myc-AS was 0.58±0.01pmol and 0.92±0.03pmol at 4 and 37 deg. C, respectively. In-vivo study revealed the internalization of In-111-N-myc-AS (8nmol) with CML in tumor cells (5x106) as 6.44±0.71pmol, while none (0pmol) of naked In-111-Nmyc-AS was internalized. The effect of Auger electrons was shown by a decrease of N-MYC of the tumor cells by 20.6±2.49% in- vitro and 12.9±1.17% in vivo in the case of In-111-N-myc-AS with CML, whereas unlabeled AS with CML or In-111-phosphorothioate sense oligonucleotide did not decrease the quantity of N-MYC of the tumor cells in- vitro or in- vivo. In-111-N-myc-AS with CML could be internalized into human neuroblastoma cells and suppress the activity of N-myc gene, which may prove useful for targeted Auger electrons radiotherapy. (author)

  17. Imaging experimental myocardial infarction with indium-111-labeled autologous leukocytes: effects of infarct age and residual regional myocardial blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, M.L.; Gottschalk, A.; Zaret, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    The external imaging patterns and the kinetics of infiltration of indium-111 labeled polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) occurring in the course of the inflammatory response associated with myocardial infarction were studied in dogs subjected to closed-chest anterior wall infarction. The effects of infarct age and regional residual myocardial blood flow upon PMN infiltration were investigated and quantified, and the capacity of indium-111 PMNs to image the experimental infarction was evaluated qualitatively. The epicardial accumulation of indium-111 PMNs occurred primarily in infarct zones with residual blood flow of 0.6 times normal and was maximal (14.8 +- 3.8 times normal) in the lowest blood flow zone (< 0.1 times normal). PMN accumulation in the endocardial infarct zones occurred in the regions with blood flow < 0.6 times normal and was maximal (26.8 +- 4.9 times normal) in the lowest blood flow zone. However, contrary to the maximal epicardial infiltration period, which occurred within the first 24 h after infarction, the maximal endocardial infiltration occurred at 72 hours after infarction. In both endocardium and epicardium, PMN uptake was minimal at 120 h after infarction. In vivo cardiac images were abnomal and revealed discrete, anatomically distinct areas of increased myocardial radioactivity uptake in the anterior wall of all dogs studied within 24 to 96 h after infarction. All images obtained 120 h after infarction were negative. Thus, indium-111 PMNs provide a noninvasive means of in vivo imaging of the inflammatory response to myocardial infarction and allow quantification of this response at a tissue level

  18. Receptor scintigraphy using the Tc-99M-labelled somatostatin analogue EDDA-TRYCINE-HYNIC-TOC: clinical results in different tumor types and comparison with In-111 DOTATOC during Y-90 DOTATOC radioreceptor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, R.P.; Schmuecking, M.; Fischer, S.; Przetak, C.; Niesen, A.; Maecke, H.R.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate Tc-99m EDDA-TRYCINE-HYNIC-TOC in patients with somatostatin receptor positive tumours (staging, pre-therapeutic dosimetry for radioreceptor therapy and restaging after therapy) in comparison with In-111 DOTATOC. Material and Methods: The Tc-99m labelled somatostatin analogue was synthesized by an optimized procedure in our pharmaceutical laboratory using lyophilized kits (radiochemical purity by HPLC, TLC > 95%, product stability in vitro 4 to 6h). So far, 58 patients (60 examinations) were studied after injection of 580-890 MBq (median 673 MBq) EDDA-TRYCINE-HYNIC-TOC. The histologically proven tumours were neuroendocrine neoplasias, renal carcinomas, bronchial carcinoma, mesothelioma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma. The imaging protocol consisted of whole-body scans and planar images of the tumor region (15 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 24 h p.i.) and additionally SPECT-images (1 h und 4 h p.i.). For semi-quantitative assessment, individual regions of interest (ROI) were drawn in order to generate time-activity curves and to calculate tumour-to-tissue/background ratios which were compared by visual grading (scala 0 to 3+). Furthermore, pharmacokinetic analyses were carried out (radioactivity kinetics in plasma and urine). In some selected patients, image fusion of whole-body scans was performed with CT and/or MRT and/or PET using a NUD software and a HERMES computer. Results: 10 out of 58 patients showed an intense tracer accumulation in the SSTR-positive tumours (visual 3+, tumour/background ratio >2,5). In these patients, radioreceptor therapy was carried out using Y-90 DOTATOC (simultaneous injection von 150 MBq In-111 DOTATOC). All pretherapeutic scans with the Tc-99m labelled ligand (4 h p.i.) showed a similar overall pattern of biodistribution and tumour uptake in comparison to the therapy scans with In-111 / Y-90 DOTATOC (24 h p.i.). The Tc-99m EDDA-TRYCINE-HYNIC-TOC scans (incl. SPECT) offered superior imaging properties with earlier tumour

  19. Receptor imaging with a new Tc-99m labelled somatostatin analogue (Tc-99m EDDA-TRYCINE-HYNIC-TOC): first clinical results and comparison with In-111 Dotatoc during radioreceptor therapy with Y-90 Dotatoc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, R.P.; Schmuecking, M.; Fischer, S.; Przetak, C.; Niesen, A.; Maecke, H.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: To evaluate Tc-99m EDDA-TRYCINE-HYNIC-TOC (TET-H-TOC) in patients with somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-positive tumors (staging, pretherapeutic indication for radioreceptor therapy and restaging after therapy) in comparison with In-111 DOTATOC. The Tc-99m labelled somatostatin analogue was synthesized by an optimized procedure in our pharmaceutical lab using lyophilized kits (radiochemical purity by HPLC, TLC > 95 %, product stability in vitro 4 to 6 h). So far, 46 patients (53 examinations) were studied after injection of 580-890 MBq (median 673 MBq) TET-H-TOC. The histologically proven tumors were endocrine neoplasias, renal carcinomas, bronchial carcinoma, mesothelioma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma. The imaging protocol consisted of whole-body scans and planar images of the tumor region (15 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 24 h p.i.) and additionally SPECT-images (1 h and 4 h p.i.). For semi-quantitative assessment, individual regions of interest (ROI) were drawn in order to generate time-activity curves and to calculate tumor-to-tissue/background ratios which were compared by visual grading (scale 0 to 3+). Furthermore, pharmacokinetic analyses were carried out (radioactivity kinetics in plasma and urine). In some selected patients, image fusion of the whole-body scans was performed with CT and/or MRT and/or PET using a HERMES computer. 7 out of 46 patients showed an intense tracer accumulation in the SSTR-positive tumors (visual 3+, tumor / background ratio >2,5). In these patients, radioreceptor therapy was carried out using Y-90 DOTATOC (simultaneous injection of 150 MBq In-111 DOTATOC). All pretherapeutic scans with the Tc-99m labelled ligand (4 h p.i.) showed a similar overall pattern of biodistribution and tumor uptake in comparison to the therapy scans with In-111 / Y-90 DOTATOC 24 h p.i. The Tc-99m EDDA-HYNIC-TOC scans (incl. SPECT) offered superior imaging properties with earlier tumor visualization (all lesions were detected 1 h p.i.) as compared

  20. Usefulness of hybrid SPECT/CT for the 99mTc-HMPAO-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in a case of cranial osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bruni

    Full Text Available Cranial osteomyelitis is a potentially fatal lesion. White blood cell scanning (WBC with 99mTc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO has proven highly sensitive and specific in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with suspected osteomyelitis. In this report we show the usefulness of SPECT and transmission CT performed simultaneously using a hybrid imaging device for the functional anatomic mapping of soft tissue and cranial bone infections. 99mTc-HMPAO-labeled leukocytes scintigraphy was performed on an elderly diabetic man with an intracranial mass lesion and with suspected temporal bone infection. Planar scans were acquired 30 min, 4 h, and 24 h after injection. SPECT/CT was obtained 6 h after tracer injection, using a dual-head camera coupled with a low-power X-ray tube. The scintigraphic results were matched with the results of surgery and of clinical follow-up. The planar images alone were true-positives for abscess in this patient. SPECT/CT improves the accuracy of99mTc-HMPAO scintigraphy especially in discriminating between soft-tissue and bone involvement. In fact, SPECT/CT also showed temporal bone osteomyelitis. This result indicates that SPECT/CT performed using a hybrid device can improve imaging with 99mTc-HMPAO-labeled leukocytes in patients with suspected osteomyelitis by providing accurate anatomic localization and precise definition of the extent of infection.

  1. Usefulness of hybrid SPECT/CT for the 99mTc-HMPAO-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in a case of cranial osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruni, Chiara; Padovano, Federico; Travascio, Laura; Schillaci, Orazio; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Cranial osteomyelitis is a potentially fatal lesion. White blood cell scanning (WBC) with 99m Tc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) has proven highly sensitive and specific in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with suspected osteomyelitis. In this report we show the usefulness of SPECT and transmission CT performed simultaneously using a hybrid imaging device for the functional anatomic mapping of soft tissue and cranial bone infections. 99m Tc-HMPAO-labeled leukocytes scintigraphy was performed on an elderly diabetic man with an intracranial mass lesion and with suspected temporal bone infection. Planar scans were acquired 30 min, 4 h, and 24 h after injection. SPECT/CT was obtained 6 h after tracer injection, using a dual-head camera coupled with a low-power X-ray tube. The scintigraphic results were matched with the results of surgery and of clinical follow-up. The planar images alone were true-positives for abscess in this patient. SPECT/CT improves the accuracy of 99m Tc- HMPAO scintigraphy especially in discriminating between soft-tissue and bone involvement. In fact, SPECT/CT also showed temporal bone osteomyelitis. This result indicates that SPECT/CT performed using a hybrid device can improve imaging with 99m Tc-HMPAO-labeled leukocytes in patients with suspected osteomyelitis by providing accurate anatomic localization and precise definition of the extent of infection. (author)

  2. [Gammagraphy with 111In-labelled leukocytes in an acute outbreak of inflammatory intestinal disease. Evaluation of the localization, extension and degree of activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumal, J; Martín-Comín, J; Gasull, M A; Casanovas, T; Roca, M; Uribe, E; Baliellas, C; Ramos, M

    1989-09-30

    We have studied 59 patients suspected of presenting an acute bout of inflammatory bowel disease: 23 had Crohn's disease and 36 had ulcerative colitis. All them underwent scintigraphic examination using 111In labelled leukocytes during the first 72 hours after their admittance and in a period no longer than 30 days, they also underwent barium enema and/or endoscopic study. Scintigraphic examination was more sensitive (100%), specific (100%) and accurate (100%) than endoscopy (72%, 100% and 78%) and barium enema (69%, 80% and 71%) in Crohn's disease. In ulcerative colitis, although endoscopy (100%) was slightly more sensitive than scintigraphy (100% and 94% against 78% and 93%). Reliability of barium enema was always lower to that of scintigraphy. In both conditions, scintigraphic examination detected a higher number of affected segments than barium enema did (40/16 in Crohn's disease and 65/31 in ulcerative colitis). Correlation between the index of scintigraphic activity and Harvey's index of clinical and biologic activity was highly significant (p less than 0.001) in both diseases. We conclude that scintigraphic examination using 111In labelled leukocytes is a reliable examination method for evaluation of localization, extension, and degree of activity of inflammatory bowel disease and that it must be a part of the examination protocol.

  3. Granulocyte-specific monoclonal antibody technetium-99m-BW 250/183 and indium-111 oxine-labelled leukocyte scintigraphy in inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segarra, I.; Roca, M.; Ricart, Y.; Mora, J.; Puchal, R.; Martin-Comin, J. (Hospital de Bella Vista, Barcelona (Spain). Servicio de Medicina Nuclear); Baliellas, C.; Vilar, L. (Hospital de Bella Vista, Barcelona (Spain). Servicio de Gastroenterologia)

    1991-09-01

    Thirty-three patients suspected of suffering from inflammatory bowel disease were studied. Autologous leukocytes were labelled with indium 111 oxine and re-injected simultaneously with 0.3-0.5 mg of {sup 99m}Tc-labelled granulocyte-specific monoclonal antibody BW 250/183. Two scans were obtained, the early scan 3-4 h post-injection (p.i.) and the late scan 18-24 h p.i. Using the endoscopy study as standard, the diagnostic accuracy of both agents was determined. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of {sup 111}In-scans was 88.8%, 100.0% and 93.7% at 4 h and 94.7%, 100.0% and 96.9% and 24 h, respectively. Concerning the results using antibodies, the values were 61.1%, 100.0% and 78.1% at 4 h and 78.9%, 92.8% and 84.8% at 24 h, respectively. Segmental analysis showed concordance in 89.3% and 93.3% of the cases at 4 and 24 h, respectively. Though less sensitive and less accurate than scanning employing indium 111 leukocytes, the BW 250/183 granulocyte-specific scintigraphy can be used for inflammatory bowel disease diagnosis and localization. (orig.).

  4. Usefulness of sup 111 In labeled leukocytes scintigraphy combined with sup 99m Tc phytate liver scintigraphy for diagnosis of hepatic abscess comparing with CT and US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terauchi, Takashi (National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital); Uno, Kimiichi; Ozaki, Masatoki; Arimizu, Noboru

    1992-04-01

    {sup 111}In labelled leukocyte scintigraphy (ILLS) was performed in five patients with hepatic abscess. For the accurate diagnosis of hepatic abscess, ILLS was superimposed on {sup 99m}Tc phytate liver scintigraphy. The results of ILLS were compared with CT and US findings. Four of five patients (80%) showed abnormal accumulation in the liver. The smallest abscess detected was 46 mm x 43 mm. CT scan showed rim enhancement, which was a specific finding for hepatic abscess, in three patients. It was rather difficult to diangose hepatic abscess by US. In two cases without definite rim enhancement on CT, the abscesses were diagnosed as hot spots by ILLS. We conclude that ILLS combined with {sup 99m}Tc liver scintigraphy is useful for the diagnosis of hepatic abscess. (author).

  5. Pediatric uses of In-111 WBC imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuels, L.D.; Goodgold, H.M.; Hendershott, L.

    1985-05-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of In-111 WBC imaging in pediatrics the authors have examined the records of children seen in the laboratory. During the past 4 years they have performed 45 pediatric In-111 WBC studies, half within 1984 alone, in 40 children aged one month to 20 years. In children under one year old they have labelled WBC from 5-10 cc. of the child's blood. They have preferred to transfuse infants after withdrawal of the blood for labelling rather than label donor blood. In twelve children (30%) there was diagnostic localization of labelled WBCs. Five children had equivocal results while three had distinct but false positive localization. The confusing effect of skin lesions of chicken pox and of lymphadenopathy was apparent in six patients. Thirteen children had normal studies. Overall this study of utilization of In-111 WBC in pediatrics suggests best utilization in colitis and abdominal and pelvic infections and in osteomyelitis, especially in distinguishing osteomyelitis from bone infarcts in sickle cell disease. There appears to be lesser utility in patients with palpable adenopathy or superficial infection. Although In-111 WBC imaging may provide clear evidence for active pneumonitis in cases where a chest x-ray is equivocal, such as cytomegalovirus infection, vague localization in bases of lungs, mediastimum or heart is a relatively common finding without known clinical significance.

  6. Pediatric uses of In-111 WBC imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuels, L.D.; Goodgold, H.M.; Hendershott, L.

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of In-111 WBC imaging in pediatrics the authors have examined the records of children seen in the laboratory. During the past 4 years they have performed 45 pediatric In-111 WBC studies, half within 1984 alone, in 40 children aged one month to 20 years. In children under one year old they have labelled WBC from 5-10 cc. of the child's blood. They have preferred to transfuse infants after withdrawal of the blood for labelling rather than label donor blood. In twelve children (30%) there was diagnostic localization of labelled WBCs. Five children had equivocal results while three had distinct but false positive localization. The confusing effect of skin lesions of chicken pox and of lymphadenopathy was apparent in six patients. Thirteen children had normal studies. Overall this study of utilization of In-111 WBC in pediatrics suggests best utilization in colitis and abdominal and pelvic infections and in osteomyelitis, especially in distinguishing osteomyelitis from bone infarcts in sickle cell disease. There appears to be lesser utility in patients with palpable adenopathy or superficial infection. Although In-111 WBC imaging may provide clear evidence for active pneumonitis in cases where a chest x-ray is equivocal, such as cytomegalovirus infection, vague localization in bases of lungs, mediastimum or heart is a relatively common finding without known clinical significance

  7. Evaluation of inflammatory processes in temporomandibular joint employing technetium-99m-labelled autologous leukocytes in an animal model; Avaliacao de processos inflamatorios na articulacao temporomandibular empregando leucocitos autologos marcados com tecnecio-99m em modelo animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasileiro, Claudia Borges [Centro Universitario Newton Paiva, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: claudiabb.prof@newtonpaiva.br; cbbrasileiro@bol.com.br; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Ruckert, Bianca [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia; Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2006-07-15

    Objective: the present study was aimed at identifying temporomandibular joint inflammatory processes employing technetium-99m hexamethyl propylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO)-labeled autonomous leukocytes. Materials and methods: we have utilized an experimental model of arthritis induction in ten adult male New Zealand rabbits by means of ovalbumin intra-articular injection into each left temporomandibular joint. For control purposes, saline solution was injected. After leukocytes radiolabeling with 99mTc-HMPAO and injection into rabbits, scintigraphic images were obtained. Results: a higher 99mTc-HMPAO-leukocytes uptake was observed in left temporomandibular joint in comparison with the contralateral joint. Wilcoxon non-parametric test was applied for statistical analysis. There was a statistically significant difference between counts of radioactivity per minute in the inflamed joint and the contralateral one (p = 0.0073). Conclusion: the method employing 99mTc-HMPAO-labelled autologous leukocytes allows an early and accurate detection of inflammatory processes, contributing to the adoption of a therapeutic conduct for patients before structural alterations have occurred. (author)

  8. Differentiation of MCF-7 tumor cells from leukocytes and fibroblast cells using epithelial cell adhesion molecule targeted multicore surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Isabel; Matthäus, Christian; Csaki, Andrea; Clement, Joachim H.; Cialla-May, Dana; Weber, Karina; Krafft, Christoph; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-05-01

    Identification of tumor and normal cells is a promising application of Raman spectroscopy. The throughput of Raman-assisted cell sorting is limited by low sensitivity. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a well-recognized candidate to increase the intensity of Raman signals of cells. First, different strategies are summarized to detect tumor cells using targeted SERS probes. Then, a protocol is described to prepare multicore-SERS-labels (MSLs) by aggregating gold nanoparticles, coating with a reporter molecule and a thin silver shell to further boost enhancement, encapsulating with a stable silica layer, and functionalizing by epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibodies. Raman, dark field and fluorescence microscopy proved the specific and nonspecific binding of functionalized and nonfunctionalized MSLs to MCF-7 tumor cells, leukocytes from blood, and nontransformed human foreskin fibroblasts. Raman imaging and dark field microscopy indicated no uptake of MSLs, yet binding to the cellular membrane. Viability tests were performed with living tumor cells to demonstrate the low toxicity of MSL-EpCAM. The SERS signatures were detected from cells with exposure times down to 25 ms at 785-nm laser excitation. The prospects of these MSLs in multiplex assays, for enumeration and sorting of circulating tumor cells in microfluidic chips, are discussed.

  9. Radiolabeled leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datz, F.L.; Taylor, A.T.

    1986-01-01

    Leukocytes are a heterogeneous group of nucleated cells that follow similar patterns of differentiation in the bone marrow. Although the various leukocyte cell types perform somewhat different functions, they act as a group to protect the host from hazards of the internal and external environment, such as infection and neoplasia, and they assist in the repair of damaged tissue. Leukocytes spend a small fraction of their life in the peripheral blood, using it only for transportation to sites where they are needed to perform their defensive functions. In adults, the mature types of leukocytes are neutrophils (59 percent of the leukocyte population), lymphocytes (34 percent), monocytes (four percent), eosinophils (three percent), and basophils (0.5 percent). Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils all contain nuclei with finitely granular, evenly distributed chromatin and are collectively called granulocytes. In addition to the main categories of leukocytes listed above, there are subsets of many of these classes of cells; for example, natural killer cells are a subset of lymphocytes

  10. Metabolism of phospholipids by polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsbach, P.; Berg, J.W.O. van den; Bosch, H. van den; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1965-01-01

    By incubating homogenates of polymorphonuclear leukocytes obtained from rabbit-peritoneal exudates with various 32P-labeled phosphoglycerides the following reactions were identified: Lecithin → Lysolecithin and fatty acid (1) Lysolecithin → Glycerylphosphorylcholine and fatty acid (2) Lysolecithin →

  11. In-111 WBC imaging in musculoskeletal sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.; Ouzounian, T.J.; Webber, M.M.; Amstutz, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy and utility of the In-111 labeled WBC imaging in a series of patients who were suspected of having musculoskeletal sepsis. The labeling of the WBCs was patterned after a method previously described, in which the WBCs are labeled with In-111 oxine in plasma. The WBCs from 100 ml of blood are separated and incubated with In-111 oxine complex, and then 500 μCi. of the labeled cells were reinjected into the patient. Images of the areas in question were obtained at 24 hrs. In some instances, 48 hour images were also obtained. Images were interpreted using consistent criteria. Forty imaging procedures were done on 39 patients. These included 39 total joint protheses, and 17 other images to evaluate possible osteomyelitis, septic arthritis or deep abscesses. Of these studies, 15 were positive, and 42 negative. The findings were then correlated with operative culture and pathology in 21, aspiration cultures and gram stains in 14, and with clinical findings in the remaining 21. This correlation showed 41 true negatives, 12 true positives, 1 false negative, and 2 false positives. The sensitivity was 92.9% and the specificity was 95.2%l. The false negative occurred in a patient on chronic suppressive antibiotic therapy for an infected total hip replacement. The false positive images occurred in a patient with active rheumatoid arthritis and in a patient imaged one month post operative placement of the prosthesis. These images were very useful in several septic patients who had many possible sites of infection. The authors conclude that In-III imaging is an accurate and useful non-invasive method of evaluating musculoskeletal sepsis

  12. Scintigraphy of infection and inflammation with autologous leukocytes and murine monoclonal antibodies. Entzuendungsszintigraphie mit autologen Leukozyten und murinen monoklonalen Antikoerpern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, W. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik mit Poliklinik)

    1992-10-01

    Scintigraphy of infection and inflammation with autologous leukocytes (In-111- oxin; Tc-99m-HMPAO) and murine monoclonal antibodies (Tc-99m-anti- NCA-95; BW250/183; I-123-anti-NCA-95; AK-47) has been evaluated in different diseases and revealed comparable results. The use of one of these radiopharmaceuticals is dependant both from the diagnostic accuracy in different diseases and stages of disease and from its ready availability and ease of preparation. Tc-99m- HMPAO should be prefered when autologous leucocytes are labeled, except of differential diagnosis of circumscript inflammatory bowel disease from abdominal abscesses and of chronic osteomyelitis. In these cases In-111-oxin is superior. Immunoscintigraphic techniques are superior regarding the ease of preparation and the unnecessity of handling patients blood. Disadvantageous are the possible human antimouse antibodies, especially regarding the development of human antimouse antibodies. (orig.).

  13. Utility of (11)C-methionine and (11)C-donepezil for imaging of Staphylococcus aureus induced osteomyelitis in a juvenile porcine model: comparison to autologous (111)In-labelled leukocytes, (99m) Tc-DPD, and (18)F-FDG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia; Alstrup, Aage K.O.; Schønheyder, Henrik C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare (11)C-methionine and (11)C-donepezil positron emission tomography (PET) with (111)In-labeled leukocyte and (99m) Tc-DPD (Tc-99m 3,3-diphosphono-1,2-propanedicarboxylic acid) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F...... in the right femoral artery with a porcine strain of Staphylococcus aureus. The sequential scan protocol included Computed Tomography, (11)C-methionine and (11)C-donepezil PET, (99m) Tc-DPD and (111)In-labelled leukocytes scintigraphy, and (18)F-FDG PET. This was followed by necropsy of the pigs and gross......-methionine in 79%, (11)C-donepezil in 58%, and (99m) Tc-DPD in none. Overall, (18)F-FDG PET was superior to (111)In-leukocyte SPECT and (11)C-methionine in marking infectious lesions....

  14. Two-photon excited endogenous fluorescence for label-free in vivo imaging ingestion of disease-causing bacteria by human leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Yan, Bo; Sun, Qiqi; Teh, Seng Khoon; Zhang, Wei; Wen, Zilong; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2013-02-01

    Real time and in vivo monitoring leukocyte behavior provides unique information to understand the physiological and pathological process of infection. In this study, we demonstrate that two-photon excited reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence provides imaging contrast to distinguish granulocyte and agranulocyte. By using spectral and time-resolved NADH fluorescence, we study the immune response of human neutrophils against bacterial infection (Escherichia coli). The two-photon excited NADH fluorescence images clearly review the morphological changes from resting neutrophils (round shape) to activated neutrophils (ruffle shape) during phagocytosis. The free-tobound NADH ratio of neutrophils decreases after ingesting disease-causing pathogen: Escherichia coli. This finding may provide a new optical tool to investigate inflammatory processes by using NADH fluorescence in vivo.

  15. Leukocyte esterase urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003584.htm Leukocyte esterase urine test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Leukocyte esterase is a urine test to look for ...

  16. A brief history of cell labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The term cell labelling is usually used in the context of labelled leukocytes for imaging inflammation and labelled platelets for imaging thrombosis. Erythrocyte labelling for in vitro measurements of red cell life span, in vivo measurements of splenic red cell pooling, radionuclide ventriculography and imaging sites of bleeding has developed rather separately and has a different history. Labelled platelets and leukocytes were originally developed for cell kinetic studies. Since the current-day applications of labelled platelets and leukocytes depend on a clear understanding of cell kinetics, these classical studies are important and relevant to the history of cell labelling

  17. Penetration effects in 111Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannatiempo, A.; Perego, A.; Passeri, A.

    1984-01-01

    Penetration effects in the conversion process of the 7/2 + ->5/2 + , 171 keV and 5/2 + ->1/2 + , 245 keV transitions in 111 Cd have been investigated. The decay of 111 In has been studied to deduce the relative intensity of the K-conversion lines Isub(K)(171)/Isub(K)(245) and the ratio Isub(K)(245)/Isub(L+M...)(245). The values obtained for the penetration parameters of the two transitions are 0 1 (245)<=1.9. (orig.)

  18. RAGE controls leukocyte adhesion in preterm and term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Kirsten; Tschada, Raphaela; Metzger, Marie-Sophie; Braach, Natascha; Kuss, Navina; Hudalla, Hannes; Poeschl, Johannes; Frommhold, David

    2014-11-27

    Insufficient leukocyte recruitment may be one reason for the high incidence of life-threatening infections in preterm infants. Since the receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a known leukocyte adhesion molecule and highly expressed during early development, we asked whether RAGE plays a role for leukocyte recruitment in preterm and term infants. Leukocyte adhesion was analyzed in dynamic flow chamber experiments using isolated leukocytes of cord blood from extremely premature (35 weeks of gestation) and compared to the results of adults. For fluorescent microscopy leukocytes were labeled with rhodamine 6G. In the respective age groups we also measured the plasma concentration of soluble RAGE (sRAGE) by ELISA and Mac-1 and LFA-1 expression on neutrophils by flow cytometry. The adhesive functions of fetal leukocytes significantly increase with gestational age. In all age groups, leukocyte adhesion was crucially dependent on RAGE. In particular, RAGE was equally effective to mediate leukocyte adhesion when compared to ICAM-1. The plasma levels of sRAGE were high in extremely premature infants and decreased with increasing gestational age. In contrast, expression of β2-Integrins Mac-1 and LFA-1 which are known ligands for RAGE and ICAM-1 did not change during fetal development. We conclude that RAGE is a crucial leukocyte adhesion molecule in both preterm and term infants.

  19. Leukocyte scintiscanning for the diagnosis of inflammations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, W.

    1988-01-01

    The value of leukocyte scintiscanning for clinical diagnostics is examined with regard to various areas of indications, and as a method of first examination, or as an alternative to, or additional method to be combined with, the other usual techniques. Leukocyte scintiscanning is indicated as a good first examination method in case of chronic enteritis in a highly active stage, stenosis of the colon, or when abscess is suspected, or infected renal cysts, or infection of angioplasty, osteomyelitis, or in case of fiever of unknown origin and impossible focal diagnosis. It also is applicable for follow-up diagnostics in chronic enteritis, suspected abdominal abscess, prosthetic valvular endocarditis, and infection of hip joint prothesis. The method also may yield additional information in case of renal graft rejection, coronary inflammations, for differential diagnosis of brain tumor or abcess, edematous or antodigestive pancreatitis, and in chronic polyarthritis. For leukocyte labelling, indium-111 and Tc-99m are primarily used. (ECB) [de

  20. Indium 111 autologous tagged leukocytes in the diagnosis of intraperitoneal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascher, N L; Ahrenholz, D H; Simmons, R L; Weiblen, B; Gomez, L; Forstrom, L A; Frick, M P; Henke, C; McCullough, J

    1979-04-01

    We report the results of a new test, indium oxine in 111 scanning, in the diagnosis of postoperative infection. Indium 111 was used to label autologous polymorphonuclear leukocytes, which when reinjected migrate to sites of infection, inflammation, or both. Standard scintigraphy localizes the labeled inflammatory cells at these sites. Sixty-six scans were performed in 43 surgical patients. Thirty-seven scans were categorized as true-positive; 19 scans were categorized as true-negative. Therefore, the accuracy rate was 85%. Two scans (3%) in one patient represented false-positive results. Two scans (3%) were positive for inflammation but there was no infection present; this group was denoted as equivocal. Six scans (9%) were false-negative; false-negative scans are more likely in old lesions with poor blood supply and in areas that overlap regions of normal uptake. The noninvasive nature of the test, high accuracy rate, and ease of administration make it a potentially useful tool in the diagnosis of postoperative infection.

  1. Endothelial signaling in leukocyte transmigration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Leukocyte transendothelial migration is a multistep process coordinated by chemokine receptors, integrins and cell adhesion molecules. The interaction between leukocytes and endothelial cells is accompanied by bidirectional signaling in both cell types, which is initiated following formation of

  2. Leukocyte removal filtration of platelet concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadenvik, H.; Kutti, J.; Lindholm, A.

    1991-01-01

    111 In labelled platelets and gamma camera scintigraphy were used for the study of the platelet loss during leukocyte removal filtration of stored platelets. Two different filters were examined, Imugard IG500 and Pall PL100, and platelet pools containing varying number of platelet concentrates were filtered. It was found that a sizeable amount of the platelets was trapped within the filter. Some of the trapped platelets could be recovered by rinsing the filters with normal saline. The most appropriate rinsing volume to recover lost platelets seemed to match with the ''dead space'' volume within the filter. It is concluded that radiolabelled platelets and gamma camera scintigraphy appears to be an excellent method to investigate the dynamic events of platelet loss during leukocyte removal filtration. This technique should be well applicable for the study of technological advances in filter construction. (author)

  3. Possible pitfalls with clinical imaging of indium-111 leukocytes: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, R.E.; Welch, D.

    1980-01-01

    Indium-111 leukocyte imaging is a reliable procedure for detecting abscesses. Problems such as cell clumping can occur before injection, thus altering the normal distribution. Furthermore, accumulation of the labeled leukocytes in the colon, brain infarcts, and accessory spleens has been observed. Thus, these physiologic and pathologic conditions other than abscesses must be borne in mind to avoid false-positive diagnoses of abscess

  4. Kinetics and biodistribution of In-111 platelets in patients with bone marrow transplants, refractory to platelet transfusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civelek, C.; Braine, H.; Scheffel, U.; Drew, H.; Koester, A.; LaFrance, N.; Kasecamp, W.; Wagner, H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics and biodistribution of HLA identical In-111 labeled platelets was studied in 10 leukemic patients with bone marrow transplants refractory to HLA matched platelet transfusions. Platelet survival time was short (x-bar +- SEM =1.64 +- 0.83 days). The mean recovery (extrapolated to zero time) was 29.9%, ranging from 14.2 to 63.0%. The deposition of the In-111 platelets in the liver and spleen was quantified by the geometric mean method using anterior and posterior imaging. In 3 patients liver uptake was significantly increased. The highest hepatic accumulation of In-111 occurred 2 hrs after injection (x-bar=76 +- 6% dose (SEM); at 48 hrs 62% of the dose remained in the liver. In 7 patients the spleen was the organ with the highest labeled platelet deposition. The splenic uptake of In-111 platelets in this group correlated with the spleen size (r=+0.95). At 30 min after injection 75+-6% of the dose was found in the spleen. Splenic activity decreased to 62% after 48 hrs. At the same time, In-111 liver accumulation increased from 14 to 31%. This finding suggests that In-111 may be released from the spleen and subsequently sequestered by the liver. Two patients with high splenic uptake underwent splenectomy after the In-111 platelet study. Both benefited from splenectomy in terms of platelet survival after transfusion

  5. Diagnosis of osteomyelitis of the foot in diabetic patients: Value of 111In-leukocyte scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larcos, G.; Brown, M.L.; Sutton, R.T. (Section of Nuclear Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (USA))

    1991-09-01

    The noninvasive diagnosis of osteomyelitis of the foot in diabetic patients with currently available radiologic and radionuclide imaging techniques is often difficult. Recently, 111In-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy has been proposed as an attractive alternative. Accordingly, the authors retrospectively reviewed 51 111In-labeled leukocyte scans, 49 technetium-99m bone scans, and 49 plain radiographs obtained in 51 adults with diabetes in whom osteomyelitis of the foot was suspected. The sensitivity and specificity of these techniques were evaluated in all patients, as well as in a subgroup of 11 patients with neuroarthropathy. Results with 111In-labeled leukocyte scans were also examined in subsets of patients with soft-tissue ulcers (n = 35) and those receiving antibiotics during investigation (n = 20). Confirmation or exclusion of osteomyelitis was made surgically in 28 patients and clinically in 23. Fourteen patients had osteomyelitis. Bone scans were most sensitive (93%) but least specific (43%); plain radiographs were most specific (83%) but least sensitive (43%). 111In-labeled leukocyte scans were both sensitive (79%) and specific (78%), and remained useful in patients with neuroarthropathy, soft-tissue ulcers, and antibiotic treatment. Poor spatial resolution contributed to the false-negative and false-positive 111In-labeled leukocyte scans, suggesting that this technique should not be interpreted independent of other tests. 111In-labeled leukocyte scans are a valuable diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of pedal osteomyelitis in diabetic patients.

  6. Diagnosis of osteomyelitis of the foot in diabetic patients: Value of 111In-leukocyte scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larcos, G.; Brown, M.L.; Sutton, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    The noninvasive diagnosis of osteomyelitis of the foot in diabetic patients with currently available radiologic and radionuclide imaging techniques is often difficult. Recently, 111In-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy has been proposed as an attractive alternative. Accordingly, the authors retrospectively reviewed 51 111In-labeled leukocyte scans, 49 technetium-99m bone scans, and 49 plain radiographs obtained in 51 adults with diabetes in whom osteomyelitis of the foot was suspected. The sensitivity and specificity of these techniques were evaluated in all patients, as well as in a subgroup of 11 patients with neuroarthropathy. Results with 111In-labeled leukocyte scans were also examined in subsets of patients with soft-tissue ulcers (n = 35) and those receiving antibiotics during investigation (n = 20). Confirmation or exclusion of osteomyelitis was made surgically in 28 patients and clinically in 23. Fourteen patients had osteomyelitis. Bone scans were most sensitive (93%) but least specific (43%); plain radiographs were most specific (83%) but least sensitive (43%). 111In-labeled leukocyte scans were both sensitive (79%) and specific (78%), and remained useful in patients with neuroarthropathy, soft-tissue ulcers, and antibiotic treatment. Poor spatial resolution contributed to the false-negative and false-positive 111In-labeled leukocyte scans, suggesting that this technique should not be interpreted independent of other tests. 111In-labeled leukocyte scans are a valuable diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of pedal osteomyelitis in diabetic patients

  7. Cryopreservation of Human Mucosal Leukocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M Hughes

    Full Text Available Understanding how leukocytes in the cervicovaginal and colorectal mucosae respond to pathogens, and how medical interventions affect these responses, is important for developing better tools to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. An effective cryopreservation protocol for these cells following their isolation will make studying them more feasible.To find an optimal cryopreservation protocol for mucosal mononuclear leukocytes, we compared cryopreservation media and procedures using human vaginal leukocytes and confirmed our results with endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Specifically, we measured the recovery of viable vaginal T cells and macrophages after cryopreservation with different cryopreservation media and handling procedures. We found several cryopreservation media that led to recoveries above 75%. Limiting the number and volume of washes increased the fraction of cells recovered by 10-15%, possibly due to the small cell numbers in mucosal samples. We confirmed that our cryopreservation protocol also works well for both endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Cryopreserved leukocytes had slightly increased cytokine responses to antigenic stimulation relative to the same cells tested fresh. Additionally, we tested whether it is better to cryopreserve endocervical cells on the cytobrush or in suspension.Leukocytes from cervicovaginal and colorectal tissues can be cryopreserved with good recovery of functional, viable cells using several different cryopreservation media. The number and volume of washes has an experimentally meaningful effect on the percentage of cells recovered. We provide a detailed, step-by-step protocol with best practices for cryopreservation of mucosal leukocytes.

  8. Cryopreservation of Human Mucosal Leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sean M; Shu, Zhiquan; Levy, Claire N; Ferre, April L; Hartig, Heather; Fang, Cifeng; Lentz, Gretchen; Fialkow, Michael; Kirby, Anna C; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M; Veazey, Ronald S; Germann, Anja; von Briesen, Hagen; McElrath, M Juliana; Dezzutti, Charlene S; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Baker, Chris A R; Shacklett, Barbara L; Gao, Dayong; Hladik, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how leukocytes in the cervicovaginal and colorectal mucosae respond to pathogens, and how medical interventions affect these responses, is important for developing better tools to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. An effective cryopreservation protocol for these cells following their isolation will make studying them more feasible. To find an optimal cryopreservation protocol for mucosal mononuclear leukocytes, we compared cryopreservation media and procedures using human vaginal leukocytes and confirmed our results with endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Specifically, we measured the recovery of viable vaginal T cells and macrophages after cryopreservation with different cryopreservation media and handling procedures. We found several cryopreservation media that led to recoveries above 75%. Limiting the number and volume of washes increased the fraction of cells recovered by 10-15%, possibly due to the small cell numbers in mucosal samples. We confirmed that our cryopreservation protocol also works well for both endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Cryopreserved leukocytes had slightly increased cytokine responses to antigenic stimulation relative to the same cells tested fresh. Additionally, we tested whether it is better to cryopreserve endocervical cells on the cytobrush or in suspension. Leukocytes from cervicovaginal and colorectal tissues can be cryopreserved with good recovery of functional, viable cells using several different cryopreservation media. The number and volume of washes has an experimentally meaningful effect on the percentage of cells recovered. We provide a detailed, step-by-step protocol with best practices for cryopreservation of mucosal leukocytes.

  9. Improving diagnosis of appendicitis. Early autologous leukocyte scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaney, A R; Raviola, C A; Weber, P N; McDonald, P T; Navarro, D A; Jasko, I

    1989-10-01

    A prospective nonrandomized study investigating the accuracy and utility of autologous leukocyte scanning in the diagnosis of apendicitis was performed. One hundred patients in whom the clinical diagnosis of appendicitis was uncertain underwent indium 111 oxyquinoline labelling of autologous leukocytes and underwent scanning 2 hours following reinjection. Of 32 patients with proved appendicitis, three scans revealed normal results (false-negative rate, 0.09). Of 68 patients without appendicitis, three scans had positive results (false-positive rate, 0.03; sensitivity, 0.91; specificity, 0.97; predictive value of positive scan, 0.94; predictive value of negative scan, 0.96; and overall accuracy, 0.95). Scan results altered clinical decisions in 19 patients. In 13 cases, the scan produced images consistent with diagnoses other than appendicitis, expediting appropriate management. Early-imaging111 In oxyquinoline autologous leukocyte scanning is a practical and highly accurate adjunct for diagnosing appendicitis.

  10. Imaging of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) with In-111-T101 monoclonal antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasquillo, J.A.; Bunn, P.A.; Keenan, A.M.; Reynolds, J.C.; Schroff, R.W.; Foon, K.A.; Ming-Hsu, S.; Gazdar, A.F.; Mulshine, J.M.; Perentesis, P.

    1985-05-01

    T101 is a murine monoclonal antibody (MoAb), IgC2a, directed against a cell surface pan T-cell antigen present in high concentration in CTCL cells. In-111 labelling was performed with a modification of the Krejcarek method (Hybritech, Inc.). I mg of DTPA conjugated T101 was labeled with 5 mCi, with a mean incorporation of 95%. Immunoreactivity was preserved, mean 88%. In vivo, less than 3.6% of the injected dose was on circulating transferrin. 11 patients (pts) received 2-6h intravenous infusion of 1 mg (5 pts), 10 mg (3 pts), 50 mg (3 pts) of In-111 T101. By 24h all pts showed avid uptake in pathologically or clinically involved nodes and erythroderma including several previously unsuspected nodal regions. Skin plaques were not visualized. In addition, there was localization in liver, spleen and bone marrow. Concentration of In-111 in biopsied nodes was 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03% of the injected dose per gram. Control studies with In-111Cl/sub 3/ or a nonspecific MoAb, 9.2.27, did not concentrate in nodes or skin disease. No dose dependent differences in tumor localization was seen although blood clearance was prolonged for doses less than or equal to 10 mgs of T101. All pts receiving less than or equal to 10 mgs developed transient itching, urticaria and chills. 1 of 8 pts tested had an antimouse immune response. Modulation of the antigen from circulating T-cells, skin and nodes was seen. This study shows the feasibility of imaging CTCL pts with In-111 T101 and suggest a potential for radioimmunotherapy.

  11. Prenatal diagnostic procedure for leukocyte adhesion deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weening, R. S.; Bredius, R. G.; Wolf, H.; van der Schoot, C. E.

    1991-01-01

    Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder which leads to recurrent severe infections due to impaired leukocyte functions. The disorder is caused by an absence or deficiency of leukocyte cell adhesion molecules (LeuCAMs) on the leukocyte membranes. The diagnosis is

  12. Leukocyte scintigraphy compared to intraoperative small bowel enteroscopy and laparotomy findings in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almen, Sven; Granerus, Göran; Ström, Magnus

    2007-01-01

    Background: Leukocyte scintigraphy is a noninvasive investigation to assess inflammation. We evaluated the utility of labeled leukocytes to detect small bowel inflammation and disease complications in Crohn's disease and compared it to whole small bowel enteroscopy and laparotomy findings. Methods......: Scintigraphy with technetium-99m exametazime-labeled leukocytes was prospectively performed in 48 patients with Crohn's disease a few days before laparotomy; 41 also had an intraoperative small bowel enteroscopy. The same procedures were performed in 8 control patients. Independent grading of scans....../or laparotomy (n = 39) the scan was positive in 33. In 8 patients without macroscopic small bowel inflammation, the scan was positive for the small bowel in 3 patients; at histology, 2 of 3 had inflammation. When combining results for patients and controls, the sensitivity of leukocyte scan for macroscopically...

  13. Kidney graft rejection studies with labeled platelets and lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Comin, J.

    1986-01-01

    The usefulness of In-111-labelled platelets and lymphocyte scintigraphy in acute kidney graft rejection is evaluated in 155 patients. Blood cells were labelled with 100-150 uCi of In-111-oxine and reinjected. Subsequently patients were scanned once daily from 2 hours post-reinjection up to a week. The graft/contralateral area activity ratio was calculated in all scans. It is concluded that In-111-labelled platelets scintigraphy is nowadays the method of choice for acute kidney graft rejection diagnosis, especially in patients under cyclosporine immunosuppression. (author)

  14. Phenotyping of Leukocytes and Leukocyte-Derived Extracellular Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugholm, Lotte Hatting; Bæk, Rikke; Søndergaard, Evo Kristina Lindersson; Revenfeld, Anne Louise Schacht; Jørgensen, Malene Møller; Varming, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have a demonstrated involvement in modulating the immune system. It has been proposed that EVs could be used as biomarkers for detection of inflammatory and immunological disorders. Consequently, it is of great interest to investigate EVs in more detail with focus on immunological markers. In this study, five major leukocyte subpopulations and the corresponding leukocyte-derived EVs were phenotyped with focus on selected immunological lineage-specific markers and selected vesicle-related markers. The leukocyte-derived EVs displayed phenotypic differences in the 34 markers investigated. The majority of the lineage-specific markers used for identification of the parent cell types could not be detected on EVs released from monocultures of the associated cell types. In contrast, the vesicular presentation of CD9, CD63, and CD81 correlated to the cell surface expression of these markers, however, with few exceptions. Furthermore, the cellular expression of CD9, CD63, and CD81 varied between leukocytes present in whole blood and cultured leukocytes. In summary, these data demonstrate that the cellular and vesicular presentation of selected lineage-specific and vesicle-related markers may differ, supporting the accumulating observations that sorting of molecular cargo into EVs is tightly controlled.

  15. Effect of human polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes on chromosomal and plasmid DNA of Escherichia coli. Role of acid DNase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenberg-Arska, M.; van Strijp, J.A.; Hoekstra, W.P.; Verhoef, J.

    1984-01-01

    Phagocytosis and killing by polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes are important host resistance factors against invading microorganisms. Evidence showing that killing is rapidly followed by degradation of bacterial components is limited. Therefore, we studied the fate of Escherichia coli DNA following phagocytosis of E. coli by polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes. [ 3 H]Thymidine-labeled, unencapsulated E. coli PC2166 and E. coli 048K1 were incubated in serum, washed, and added to leukocytes. Uptake and killing of the bacteria and degradation of DNA were measured. Although phagocytosis and killing by mononuclear leukocytes was less efficient than that by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, only mononuclear leukocytes were able to degrade E. coli PC2166 DNA. Within 2 h, 60% of the radioactivity added to mononuclear leukocytes was released into the supernate, of which 40% was acid soluble. DNA of E. coli 048K1 was not degraded. To further analyze the capacity of mononuclear leukocytes to degrade E. coli DNA, chromosomal and plasmid DNA was isolated from ingested bacteria and subjected to agarose gel-electrophoresis. Only chromosomal DNA was degraded after phagocytosis. Plasmid DNA of E. coli carrying a gene coding for ampicillin resistance remained intact for a 2-h period after ingestion, and was still able to transform recipient E. coli cells after this period. Although we observed no DNA degradation during phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, lysates of both polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes contained acid-DNase activity with a pH optimum of 4.9. However, the DNase activity of mononuclear leukocytes was 20 times higher than that of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. No difference was observed between DNase activity from polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes from a chronic granulomatous disease patient with DNase activity from control polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes

  16. Receptor cleavage and P-selectin-dependent reduction of leukocyte adhesion in the spontaneously hypertensive rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Angela Y.; Ha, Jessica N.; DeLano, Frank A.; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.

    2012-01-01

    The SHR, a genetic model for hypertension and the metabolic syndrome, has attenuated leukocyte adhesion to the postcapillary endothelium by an unknown mechanism. Based on recent evidence of elevated levels of MMPs in plasma and on microvascular endothelium of the SHR with cleavage of several receptor types, we hypothesize that the reduced leukocyte-endothelial interaction is a result of enhanced proteolytic cleavage of P-selectin on the postcapillary endothelium and PSGL-1 on leukocytes. The attenuated rolling interactions of SHR leukocytes with the endothelium were restored by chronic treatment with a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor (CGS) for 24 weeks. The SHR MMP levels, in plasma and mesentery, as well as the systolic blood pressure, decreased significantly with treatment. In the SHR mesentery, labeling of P-selectin in the postcapillary venules by immunohistochemistry demonstrated, on average, a 31% lower extracellular P-selectin density compared with the normotensive WKY. A significantly lower extracellular PSGL-1 density on the membranes of SHR neutrophils compared with the WKY also supported our hypothesis. In vivo stimulation of the mesenteric postcapillary venules with histamine demonstrated that the SHR had an attenuated response, as measured by leukocyte rolling velocity on the endothelium. The reduced P-selectin and PSGL-1 density, on SHR postcapillary endothelium and on SHR leukocytes, respectively, was restored significantly by chronic MMP inhibition. The impaired ability of SHR leukocytes to reduce rolling velocity upon inflammatory stimulation led to fewer firmly adhered leukocytes to the endothelium as a contributor to immune suppression. PMID:22566571

  17. A revised method of labeling mouse IgG with yttrium-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbab, A.S.; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Araki, Tsutomu

    1996-01-01

    We report the successful labeling of mouse IgG with yttrium-90 (Y-90) using isothiocyanatobenzyl-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (SCN-Bz-EDTA) as a chelating agent and compared the result with labeling by indium-111 (In-111). After conjugating IgG with SCN-Bz-EDTA, a predetermined volume of conjugated IgG was mixed with different volumes of either Y-90 or In-111 acetate and incubated at 37degC. Labeling efficiency was assessed at specific intervals upto 3 hr. After 3 hr, the mixtures were challenged with Na 2 EDTA to evaluate the transchelation of labeled Y-90 or In-111. All mixtures showed labeling efficiency of around 50% with Y-90 and the leveling was fairly preserved even after Na 2 EDTA challenge. However, labeling with In-111 was unsuccessful when conjugated IgG was not separated from the unconjugated form. When separated, however, In-111 showed more than 80% labeling efficiency though labeling with In-111 could not tolerate Na 2 EDTA challenge. In conclusion IgG was efficiently labeled by Y-90 using SCN-Bz-EDTA though labeling with In-111 showed some problems associated with this method. (author)

  18. Imaging leukocytes in vivo with third harmonic generation microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Kun; Chen, Chien-Kuo; Chen, Yu-Shing; Wu, Pei-Chun; Hsieh, Tsung-Yuan; Liu, Han-Wen; Yeh, Chiou-Yueh; Lin, Win-Li; Chia, Jean-San; Liu, Tzu-Ming

    2013-02-01

    Without a labeling, we demonstrated that lipid granules in leukocytes have distinctive third harmonic generation (THG) contrast. Excited by a 1230nm femtosecond laser, THG signals were generated at a significantly higher level in neutrophils than other mononuclear cells, whereas signals in agranular lymphocytes were one order smaller. These characteristic THG features can also be observed in vivo to trace the newly recruited leukocytes following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Furthermore, using video-rate THG microscopy, we also captured images of blood cells in human capillaries. Quite different from red-blood-cells, every now and then, round and granule rich blood cells with strong THG contrast appeared in circulation. The corresponding volume densities in blood, evaluated from their frequencies of appearance and the velocity of circulation, fall within the physiological range of human white blood cell counts. These results suggested that labeling-free THG imaging may provide timely tracing of leukocyte movement and hematology inspection without disturbing the normal cellular or physiological status.

  19. Lymphatic pump treatment mobilizes leukocytes from the gut associated lymphoid tissue into lymph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Lisa M; Bearden, Melissa K; Schander, Artur; Huff, Jamie B; Williams, Arthur; King, Hollis H; Downey, H Fred

    2010-06-01

    Lymphatic pump techniques (LPT) are used clinically by osteopathic practitioners for the treatment of edema and infection; however, the mechanisms by which LPT enhances lymphatic circulation and provides protection during infection are not understood. Rhythmic compressions on the abdomen during LPT compress the abdominal area, including the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), which may facilitate the release of leukocytes from these tissues into the lymphatic circulation. This study is the first to document LPT-induced mobilization of leukocytes from the GALT into the lymphatic circulation. Catheters were inserted into either the thoracic or mesenteric lymph ducts of dogs. To determine if LPT enhanced the release of leukocytes from the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) into lymph, the MLN were fluorescently labeled in situ. Lymph was collected during 4 min pre-LPT, 4 min LPT, and 10 min following cessation of LPT. LPT significantly increased lymph flow and leukocytes in both mesenteric and thoracic duct lymph. LPT had no preferential effect on any specific leukocyte population, since neutrophil, monocyte, CD4+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, IgG+B cell, and IgA+B cell numbers were similarly increased. In addition, LPT significantly increased the mobilization of leukocytes from the MLN into lymph. Lymph flow and leukocyte counts fell following LPT treatment, indicating that the effects of LPT are transient. LPT mobilizes leukocytes from GALT, and these leukocytes are transported by the lymphatic circulation. This enhanced release of leukocytes from GALT may provide scientific rationale for the clinical use of LPT to improve immune function.

  20. Leukocyte trafficking and vascular integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, N.

    2017-01-01

    The endothelial cells that pave the inner lining of blood vessels maintain a tight barrier between the vasculature and the underlying tissues. However, disruptive stressors, such as transmigrating leukocytes and inflammatory mediators challenge blood vessel integrity every day. In this thesis, we

  1. BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF LEUKOCYTE REMOVAL FILTERS DURING BEDSIDE LEUKOCYTE FILTRATION OF RED-CELL CONCENTRATES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GU, YJ; OBSTER, R; DEHAAN, J; HUET, RCGG; VANOEVEREN, W

    1992-01-01

    The biocompatibility of leukocyte removal filters was evaluated in four different types of leukocyte filters made from different materials during bedside leukocyte filtration of red cell concentrates (RCC). Two units of banked RCC were filtrated through each leukocyte filter inserted into the

  2. Imaging Cytometry of Human Leukocytes with Third Harmonic Generation Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Ham; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Hsieh, Chia-Hung; Huang, Shih-Hung; Lin, Jong-Wei; Hsu, Szu-Chun; Wu, Hau-Tieng; Wu, Yao-Ming; Liu, Tzu-Ming

    2016-11-01

    Based on third-harmonic-generation (THG) microscopy and a k-means clustering algorithm, we developed a label-free imaging cytometry method to differentiate and determine the types of human leukocytes. According to the size and average intensity of cells in THG images, in a two-dimensional scatter plot, the neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes in peripheral blood samples from healthy volunteers were clustered into three differentiable groups. Using these features in THG images, we could count the number of each of the three leukocyte types both in vitro and in vivo. The THG imaging-based counting results agreed well with conventional blood count results. In the future, we believe that the combination of this THG microscopy-based imaging cytometry approach with advanced texture analysis of sub-cellular features can differentiate and count more types of blood cells with smaller quantities of blood.

  3. Bacterial metabolism of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte-derived arachidonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrell, T C; Muller, M; Sztelma, K

    1992-05-01

    Evidence for transcellular bacterial metabolism of phagocyte-derived arachidonic acid was sought by exposing human blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes, prelabelled with [3H]arachidonic acid, to opsonized, stationary-phase Pseudomonas aeruginosa (bacteria-to-phagocyte ratio of 50:1) for 90 min at 37 degrees C. Control leukocytes were stimulated with the calcium ionophore A23187 (5 microM) for 5 min. Radiochromatograms of arachidonic acid metabolites, extracted from A23187-stimulated cultures and then separated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, revealed leukotriene B4, its omega-oxidation products, and 5-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid. In contrast, two major metabolite peaks, distinct from known polymorphonuclear leukocyte arachidonic acid products by high-performance liquid chromatography or by thin-layer chromatography, were identified in cultures of P. aeruginosa with [3H]arachidonic acid-labelled polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Respective chromatographic characteristics of these novel products were identical to those of two major metabolite peaks produced by incubation of stationary-phase P. aeruginosa with [3H]arachidonic acid. Production of the metabolites was dependent upon pseudomonal viability. UV spectral data were consistent with a conjugated diene structure. Metabolism of arachidonic acid by P. aeruginosa was not influenced by the presence of catalase, superoxide dismutase, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, or ferrous ions but was inhibited by carbon monoxide, ketoconazole, and 1,2-epoxy-3,3,3-trichloropropane. Our data suggest that pseudomonal metabolism of polymorphonuclear leukocyte-derived arachidonic acid occurs during phagocytosis, probably by enzymatic epoxidation and hydroxylation via an oxygenase. By this means, potential proinflammatory effects of arachidonic acid or its metabolites may be modulated by P. aeruginosa at sites of infection in vivo.

  4. Leukocyte adhesion - a fundamental process in leukocyte physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gahmberg C.G.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte adhesion is of pivotal functional importance. The adhesion involves several different adhesion molecules, the most important of which are the leukocyte ß2-integrins (CD11/CD18, the intercellular adhesion molecules, and the selectins. We and others have extensively studied the specificity and binding sites in the integrins and the intercellular adhesion molecules for their receptors and ligands. The integrins have to become activated to exert their functions but the possible mechanisms of activation remain poorly understood. Importantly, a few novel intercellular adhesion molecules have been recently described, which seem to function only in specific tissues. Furthermore, it is becoming increasingly apparent that changes in integrins and intercellular adhesion molecules are associated with a number of acute and chronic diseases.

  5. Post mortem leukocyte scintigraphy in juvenile pigs with experimentally induced osteomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg; Jensen, Svend Borup

    2017-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that 111In-labeled autologous leukocyte scintigraphy is able to detect osteomyelitis in living juvenile pigs. In animal research studies, it may well be an advantage if the animals could be scanned after euthanasia. Applying traditional scanning of living animals...... for homing to the site of infections as usual while the pigs were alive. In this study, we demonstrate that it is possible to perform SPECT/CT with 111In-labelled autologous leukocytes almost 24 hrs after euthanasia with the same detectability of osteomyelitic lesions as in living pigs (78% versus 79......%). The pigs in this study had exactly the same experimental conditions as the living pigs and were examined in parallel with the living pigs except for euthanasia prior to the leukocyte scan and that no PET/CT scans were performed....

  6. In vivo crossmatching with Tc-99m-RBC's and In-111-oxine-RBC's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, C.S.; Myhre, B.A.; Angulo, M.C.; Salk, R.D.; Essex, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    In vitro crossmatching techniques are often inadequate for patients who have received multiple prior transfusions. These patients usually have multiple antibodies to minor blood groups, not all of which are necessarily important to vivo. It becomes increasingly difficult to obtain appropriate units for transfusion, and often units are used with hopes that a minor group antibody will not be significantly active in vivo. If a transfusion reaction occurs, the unit is stopped. The authors have developed and successfully tested a method whereby 1.5 to 3c of potential donor RBC's are labeled with 25-50 μCi of Tc-99m using the BNL kits. After injection, samples are drawn at 10, 20, 60, and 120 minutes and the RBC survival is measured. If it is desirable to test 2 units simultaneously, the authors use 400 μCi Tc-99m to label an RBC aliquot of one unit and 25 μCi In-111-oxine to label the other; both labeled aliquots are injected together. The method is simple and reliable. In addition to assessing compatibility, the authors may also estimate the % viability of transfused, compatible RBC's by starting with 400 μCi of Tc-99m and multiplying % survival at 24 hours by 1.2. For 24 hr. survival measurements of IN-111-oxine-RBC's, 25 μCi is adequate and no multiplication factor is necessary. The authors have performed 13 in vivo crossmatches, 4 of which were double, in 6 patients. One documented mild transfusion reaction occurred. There were no false positive or false negative results

  7. In-111-oxine red cells for imaging of intermittent G.I. bleeding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, C.S.; Angulo, M.C.; Salk, R.D.; Essex, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    Sequential daily abdominal imaging was performed for up to 7 days in 11 patients with intermittent G.I. bleeding after the intravenous administration of lmCi autologous In-111-oxine labeled RBC's. The bleeding sites were identified in 3 patients. The causes were colon carcinoma, diverticulitis, and eroding distal aortic aneutysm. In addition to the imaging information, the authors have obtained preliminary biodistribution and kinetic data on the In-RBC's. Distribution to liver, spleen, and bone marrow was approximately 40%, 40%, and 20%, respectively. (This does not include the quantity of In-111 in the blood pool, which is very high initially and declines with time.) The survival of circulating In-RBC's is described by the equation: Surviving fraction=0.26e/sup -0.0021t/+0.74e/sup -0.00083t/ The halflives of the fast and slow components (x-bar+-x-bar) are 33.4 +- 1.6 hours and 35.0 +- 1.25 days, respectively. The In-oxine label is less stable than Cr-51 but more stable than Tc-99m. At 24 hours, Cr-RBC/In-RBC survival is 1.11 and Cr-RBC/Tc-RBC survival is 1.23. This imaging procedure is quite useful in selected patients

  8. Leukocyte integrins: role in leukocyte recruitment and as therapeutic targets in inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitroulis, Ioannis; Alexaki, Vasileia I; Kourtzelis, Ioannis; Ziogas, Athanassios; Hajishengallis, George; Chavakis, Triantafyllos

    2015-03-01

    Infection or sterile inflammation triggers site-specific attraction of leukocytes. Leukocyte recruitment is a process comprising several steps orchestrated by adhesion molecules, chemokines, cytokines and endogenous regulatory molecules. Distinct adhesive interactions between endothelial cells and leukocytes and signaling mechanisms contribute to the temporal and spatial fine-tuning of the leukocyte adhesion cascade. Central players in the leukocyte adhesion cascade include the leukocyte adhesion receptors of the β2-integrin family, such as the αLβ2 and αMβ2 integrins, or of the β1-integrin family, such as the α4β1-integrin. Given the central involvement of leukocyte recruitment in different inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, the leukocyte adhesion cascade in general, and leukocyte integrins in particular, represent key therapeutic targets. In this context, the present review focuses on the role of leukocyte integrins in the leukocyte adhesion cascade. Experimental evidence that has implicated leukocyte integrins as targets in animal models of inflammatory disorders, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, psoriasis, inflammatory bone loss and inflammatory bowel disease as well as preclinical and clinical therapeutic applications of antibodies that target leukocyte integrins in various inflammatory disorders are presented. Finally, we review recent findings on endogenous inhibitors that modify leukocyte integrin function, which could emerge as promising therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 3H-histamine release from human leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl Skov, P.; Norn, S.; Weeke, B.

    1979-01-01

    A rapid, simple, and inexpensive method for large scale screening of patients suspected of type I allergy has been developed. The method is based on in vitro incorporation of 3 H-histamine in the leukocytes of the patient, whereafter release of labelled histamine is measured after provocation of the cells with the suspected allergen. The new method was compared with the conventional basophil histamine release technique by in vitro provocation of six asthmatic patients under suspicion of type I allergy against animal dander, house dust, and mite, and an almost identical release of histamine was observed in both assays. (author)

  10. Periovulatory leukocyte infiltration in the rat ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Oliver R; Kim, HeyYoung; El-Amouri, Ismail; Lin, Po-Ching Patrick; Cho, Jongki; Bani-Ahmad, Mohammad; Ko, Chemyong

    2010-09-01

    Ovulation is preceded by intraovarian inflammatory reactions that occur in response to the preovulatory gonadotropin surge. As a main inflammatory event, leukocytes infiltrate the ovary and release proteolytic enzymes that degrade the extracellular matrix weakening the follicular wall, a required step for follicle rupture. This study aimed to quantitatively measure the infiltrating leukocytes, determine their cell types, and localize infiltration sites in the periovulatory rat ovary. Cycling adult and gonadotropin-stimulated immature rats were used as animal models. Ovaries were collected at five different stages of estrous cycle in the adult rats (diestrus, 1700 h; proestrus, 1500 h; proestrus, 2400 h; estrus, 0600 h; and metestrus, 1700 h) and at five different time points after superovulation induction in the immature rats (pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin, 0 h; pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin, 48 h; human chorionic gonadotropin, 6 h; human chorionic gonadotropin, 12 h; and human chorionic gonadotropin, 24 h). The ovaries were either dissociated into a single cell suspension for flow cytometric analysis or fixed for immunohistochemical localization of the leukocytes. Similar numbers of leukocytes were seen throughout the estrous cycle (approximately 500,000/ovary), except proestrus 2400 when 2-fold higher numbers of leukocytes were found (approximately 1.1 million/ovary). A similar trend of periovulatory rise of leukocyte numbers was seen in the superovulation-induced immature rat model, recapitulating a dramatic increase in leukocyte numbers upon gonadotropin stimulation. Both macrophage/granulocytes and lymphocytes were among the infiltrating leukocytes and were localized in the theca and interstitial tissues, where platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 may play roles in the transmigration of leukocytes, because their expressions correlates spatiotemporally with the infiltrating leukocytes. In addition, a

  11. Studying leukocyte recruitment under flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sean A; Jurzinsky, Christophe; Cuvelier, Susan L; Patel, Kamala D

    2013-01-01

    Leukocyte recruitment from the vasculature occurs under conditions of haemodynamic shear stress. The parallel plate flow chamber apparatus is an in vitro system that is widely used to study leukocyte recruitment under shear conditions. The flow chamber is a versatile tool for examining adhesive interactions, as it can be used to study a variety of adhesive substrates, ranging from monolayers of primary cells to isolated adhesion molecules, and a variety of adhesive particles, ranging from leukocytes in whole blood to antibody-coated latex beads. We describe here methods for studying leukocyte recruitment to cytokine-stimulated, transfected or transduced endothelial cells using both whole blood and isolated leukocyte suspensions. These methods enable multiple parameters to be measured, including the total number of recruited leukocytes, the percentage of leukocytes that are rolling or firmly adherent, and the percentage of leukocytes that have transmigrated. Although these methods are described for interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells, they are broadly applicable to the study of interactions between many combinations of adhesive substrates and adhesive particles.

  12. Diagnostic imaging of lung cancer with In-111-MDEGD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Susumu; Hayashi, Hideo; Maeda, Tomio

    1987-01-01

    Indium-111-mono DTPA-ethyleneglycol Ga deuterporphyrin (In-111-MDEGD) is a new tumor imaging agent in lung cancer. The agent has been studied with golden hamsters bearing adenocarcinoma, C57 black mice bearing Lewis lung adenocarcinoma, and nude mice bearing human lung adenocarcinoma xerografts. It has been revealed that the tumor-to-lung, tumor-to-kidney, and tumor-to-blood ratios are higher for In-111-MDEGD than for Ga-67 citrate widely used in imaging tumors, and that the agent is not accumulated in inflammatory lesions. The results were encouraging enough to start clinical diagnostic trials in lung cancer. In this paper, an overview of In-111-MDEGD, along with its preliminary data, is given. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Real-time imaging reveals endothelium-mediated leukocyte retention in LPS-treated lung microvessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Kathirvel; Sahu, Geetaram; Parthasarathi, Kaushik

    2012-01-01

    Endotoxemia, a major feature of sepsis, is a common cause of acute lung injury and initiates rapid accumulation of leukocytes in the lung vasculature. Endothelial mechanisms that underlie this accumulation remain unclear, as current experimental models of endotoxemia are less suitable for targeted activation of the endothelium. Toward elucidating this, we used the isolated blood-perfused rat lung preparation. With a microcatheter inserted through a left atrial cannula, we cleared blood cells from a small lung region and then infused lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into microvessels. After a Ringer’s wash to remove residual LPS, we infused fluorescently-labeled autologous leukocytes and imaged their transit through the treated microvessels. Image analysis revealed that leukocytes infused 90 min after LPS treatment, were retained more in treated venules and capillaries than untreated vessels. Further, pretreatment with either the intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) mAb or polymyxin-B blunted LPS-induced leukocyte retention in both microvessel segments. In addition, retention of leukocytes treated ex vivo with LPS in LPS-treated microvessels was higher compared to retention of untreated leukocytes. In situ immunofluorescence experiments revealed that LPS significantly increased microvessel ICAM-1 expression at 90 min post treatment. Polymyxin pretreatment inhibited this increase. Taken together, the data suggest that LPS increased leukocyte retention in both venules and capillaries and this response was mediated by the increased expression of endothelial ICAM1. Thus, endothelial mechanisms may themselves play a major role in LPS-induced leukocyte retention in lung microvessels. Blunting the endothelial responses may mitigate endotoxin-induced morbidity. PMID:22342350

  14. The role of radiolabeled leukocyte imaging in the management of patients with acute appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipper, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is a clinical challenging surgical disease particularly difficult to diagnosis in women and children. An atypical presentation of acute appendicitis is a major factor leading to delay in diagnosis and unnecessary surgery. Delay in diagnosis is associated with morbidity from perforation, abscess and prolonged hospitalization. The routine use of adjunctive imaging studies has not improved the diagnostic accuracy for acute appendicitis nor has impacted clinical outcome. 99m Tc HMPAO-labeled leukocyte imaging is one diagnostic imaging test that has the potential of altering the clinical management of acute appendicitis. 99m Tc HMPAO-labeled leukocyte imaging is highly sensitive for detecting even small inflammatory processes in the abdomen because of high target to background and early rapid uptake at sites of inflammation. The paper studies the use of 99m Tc HMPAO-labeled leukocyte for diagnosis and management of suspected acute appendicitis in 124 patients with an atypical clinical presentation. Emergent imaging was performed immediately following injection of labeled leukocytes and continued until positive or through 2 hours if negative. The scan correctly and rapidly detected acute appendicitis in 50 of 51 patients with a surgical confirmation for a sensitivity of 98%. The specificity was 82% leading to an overall accuracy of 90%. The high negative predicted value of 98% allowed early discharge from the emergency department. The negative exploratory laparotomy rate wae 4% in this patient population compared to 9% in a similar population of patients who were not scanned. These data have been confirmed now in over 600 patients scanned in that department. The main drawbacks of 99m Tc HMPAO-labeled leukocyte imaging are the requirement of blood handling and a delay in diagnosis because of 2-hours preparation time prior to imaging. There are new radiopharmaceuticals on the horizon which have the potential of replacing 99m Tc HMPAO-labeled leukocyte

  15. The role of radiolabeled leukocyte imaging in the management of patients with acute appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipper, S.L. (Tri-City Medical Center, Oceanside, CA (United States). Nuclear Medicine dept. of Imaging)

    1999-03-01

    Acute appendicitis is a clinical challenging surgical disease particularly difficult to diagnosis in women and children. An atypical presentation of acute appendicitis is a major factor leading to delay in diagnosis and unnecessary surgery. Delay in diagnosis is associated with morbidity from perforation, abscess and prolonged hospitalization. The routine use of adjunctive imaging studies has not improved the diagnostic accuracy for acute appendicitis nor has impacted clinical outcome. [sup 99m]Tc HMPAO-labeled leukocyte imaging is one diagnostic imaging test that has the potential of altering the clinical management of acute appendicitis. [sup 99m]Tc HMPAO-labeled leukocyte imaging is highly sensitive for detecting even small inflammatory processes in the abdomen because of high target to background and early rapid uptake at sites of inflammation. The paper studies the use of[sup 99m]Tc HMPAO-labeled leukocyte for diagnosis and management of suspected acute appendicitis in 124 patients with an atypical clinical presentation. Emergent imaging was performed immediately following injection of labeled leukocytes and continued until positive or through 2 hours if negative. The scan correctly and rapidly detected acute appendicitis in 50 of 51 patients with a surgical confirmation for a sensitivity of 98%. The specificity was 82% leading to an overall accuracy of 90%. The high negative predicted value of 98% allowed early discharge from the emergency department. The negative exploratory laparotomy rate wae 4% in this patient population compared to 9% in a similar population of patients who were not scanned. These data have been confirmed now in over 600 patients scanned in that department. The main drawbacks of [sup 99m]Tc HMPAO-labeled leukocyte imaging are the requirement of blood handling and a delay in diagnosis because of 2-hours preparation time prior to imaging. There are new radiopharmaceuticals on the horizon which have the potential of replacing [sup 99m

  16. Genetics Home Reference: leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 Printable PDF Open All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 is a disorder that ...

  17. Docking onto the endothelium: Trio directs leukocyte extravasation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijssel, J.

    2011-01-01

    Leukocyte extravasation describes the process by which white blood cells (leukocytes) travel across the endothelium lining the vasculature, into the underlying tissue. Effi-cient and tightly controlled leukocyte extravasation is of key importance in physiological processes such as immune

  18. Leukocyte changes in pregnant Yankasa ewes experimentally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pregnancy and trypanosomosis are associated with leukocyte changes. The leukocyte response of pregnant Yankasa ewes during experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection was determined using twenty pregnant ewes. They ewes were divided into 3 groups with 6 ewes in group A, while groups B and C were made up of ...

  19. Monoclonal antibodies against rat leukocyte surface antigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, T. K.; Puklavec, M. J.; Barclay, A. N.; Dijkstra, C. D.

    2001-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have proven to be powerful tools for studying the properties of leukocyte surface antigens and the cells that express them. In the past decades many monoclonal antibodies (mAb) for identifying the different rat leukocyte surface antigens have been described. A list of mAb is

  20. Leukocyte scintiscanning for the diagnosis of inflammations. Leukozytenszintigraphie zur Diagnostik entzuendlicher Erkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, W.

    1988-01-01

    The value of leukocyte scintiscanning for clinical diagnostics is examined with regard to various areas of indications, and as a method of first examination, or as an alternative to, or additional method to be combined with, the other usual techniques. Leukocyte scintiscanning is indicated as a good first examination method in case of chronic enteritis in a highly active stage, stenosis of the colon, or when abscess is suspected, or infected renal cysts, or infection of angioplasty, osteomyelitis, or in case of fiever of unknown origin and impossible focal diagnosis. It also is applicable for follow-up diagnostics in chronic enteritis, suspected abdominal abscess, prosthetic valvular endocarditis, and infection of hip joint prothesis. The method also may yield additional information in case of renal graft rejection, coronary inflammations, for differential diagnosis of brain tumor or abcess, edematous or antodigestive pancreatitis, and in chronic polyarthritis. For leukocyte labelling, indium-111 and Tc-99m are primarily used. (ECB).

  1. Leukocyte nucleus segmentation and nucleus lobe counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yung-Kuan; Tsai, Meng-Hsiun; Huang, Der-Chen; Zheng, Zong-Han; Hung, Kun-Ding

    2010-11-12

    Leukocytes play an important role in the human immune system. The family of leukocytes is comprised of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils. Any infection or acute stress may increase or decrease the number of leukocytes. An increased percentage of neutrophils may be caused by an acute infection, while an increased percentage of lymphocytes can be caused by a chronic bacterial infection. It is important to realize an abnormal variation in the leukocytes. The five types of leukocytes can be distinguished by their cytoplasmic granules, staining properties of the granules, size of cell, the proportion of the nuclear to the cytoplasmic material, and the type of nucleolar lobes. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency.Biomedical technologists can currently recognize abnormal leukocytes using human eyes. However, the quality and efficiency of diagnosis may be compromised due to the limitations of the biomedical technologists' eyesight, strength, and medical knowledge. Therefore, the development of an automatic leukocyte recognition system is feasible and necessary. It is essential to extract the leukocyte region from a blood smear image in order to develop an automatic leukocyte recognition system. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency. The purpose of this paper is to contribute an automatic leukocyte nuclei image segmentation method for such recognition technology. The other goal of this paper is to develop the method of counting the number of lobes in a cell nucleus. The experimental results demonstrated impressive segmentation accuracy

  2. Leukocyte integrins and their ligand interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Young-Min; Lefort, Craig T.; Kim, Minsoo

    2010-01-01

    Although critical for cell adhesion and migration during normal immune-mediated reactions, leukocyte integrins are also involved in the pathogenesis of diverse clinical conditions including autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation. Leukocyte integrins therefore have been targets for anti-adhesive therapies to treat the inflammatory disorders. Recently, the therapeutic potential of integrin antagonists has been demonstrated in psoriasis and multiple sclerosis. However, current therapeutics broadly affect integrin functions and, thus, yield unfavorable side effects. This review discusses the major leukocyte integrins and the anti-adhesion strategies for treating immune diseases. PMID:19184539

  3. Post Mortem Leukocyte Scintigraphy in Juvenile Pigs with Experimentally Induced Osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Afzelius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated that 111In-labeled autologous leukocyte scintigraphy is able to detect osteomyelitis in living juvenile pigs. In animal research studies, it may well be an advantage if the animals could be scanned after euthanasia. Applying traditional scanning of living animals to euthanized animals will render anaesthesia unnecessary and be ideal for obtaining good and reliable scans for the correct interpretation of imaging afterwards, since the animals do not move. The autologous leukocytes of the pigs were collected, marked with 111In, and reinjected into the pigs and allowed for homing to the site of infections as usual while the pigs were alive. In this study, we demonstrate that it is possible to perform SPECT/CT with 111In-labelled autologous leukocytes almost 24 hrs after euthanasia with the same detectability of osteomyelitic lesions as in living pigs (78% versus 79%. The pigs in this study had exactly the same experimental conditions as the living pigs and were examined in parallel with the living pigs except for euthanasia prior to the leukocyte scan and that no PET/CT scans were performed.

  4. Leukocyte Adhesion Molecules in Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kousuke Noda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a systemic disease that causes a number of metabolic and physiologic abnormalities. One of the major microvascular complications of diabetes is diabetic retinopathy (DR, a leading cause of blindness in people over age 50. The mechanisms underlying the development of DR are not fully understood; however, extensive studies have recently implicated chronic, low-grade inflammation in the pathophysiology of DR. During inflammation leukocytes undergo sequential adhesive interactions with endothelial cells to migrate into the inflamed tissues, a process known as the “leukocyte recruitment cascade” which is orchestrated by precise adhesion molecule expression on the cell surface of leukocytes and the endothelium. This paper summarizes the recent clinical and preclinical works on the roles of leukocyte adhesion molecules in DR.

  5. Estimation of malaria parasite density using leukocyte counts as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leukocyte counts and screening for malaria parasites were carried out on 252 apparently healthy blood donors attending a transfusion centre in Ibadan. The leukocyte count range for the donors was 2.5-9.6 x 109 /l; the mean leukocyte count being 4.98 x 109 /l. 193 (76.6%) had leukocyte count less than 6.0 x 109 /l.

  6. A mathematical model for the leukocyte filtration process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruil, A.; Bruil, Anton; Beugeling, T.; Beugeling, Tom; Feijen, Jan

    1995-01-01

    Leukocyte filters are applied clinically to remove leukocytes from blood. In order to optimize leukocyte filters, a mathematical model to describe the leukocyte filtration process was developed by modification of a general theoretical model for depth filtration. The model presented here can be used

  7. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. 864.7660... Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test is a device used to identify the enzyme leukocyte alkaline phosphatase in neutrophilic granulocytes (granular...

  8. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  9. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  10. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated.

  11. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated

  12. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated

  13. 77 FR 59000 - Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ..., Rockville, MD 20852- 1448. Send one self-addressed adhesive label to assist the office in processing your... Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane, Rm. 1061... leukocyte reduction process. The guidance also provides information to assist licensed blood establishments...

  14. The multiple faces of leukocyte interstitial migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lämmermann, Tim; Germain, Ronald N.

    2014-01-01

    Spatiotemporal control of leukocyte dynamics within tissues is critical for successful innate and adaptive immune responses. Homeostatic trafficking and coordinated infiltration into and within sites of inflammation and infection rely on signaling in response to extracellular cues that in turn controls a variety of intracellular protein networks regulating leukocyte motility, migration, chemotaxis, positioning, and cell–cell interaction. In contrast to mesenchymal cells, leukocytes migrate in an amoeboid fashion by rapid cycles of actin polymerization and actomyosin contraction, and their migration in tissues is generally referred to as low adhesive and nonproteolytic. The interplay of actin network expansion, contraction, and adhesion shapes the exact mode of amoeboid migration, and in this review, we explore how leukocyte subsets potentially harness the same basic biomechanical mechanisms in a cell-type-specific manner. Most of our detailed understanding of these processes derives from in vitro migration studies in three-dimensional gels and confined spaces that mimic geometrical aspects of physiological tissues. We summarize these in vitro results and then critically compare them to data from intravital imaging of leukocyte interstitial migration in mouse tissues. We outline the technical challenges of obtaining conclusive mechanistic results from intravital studies, discuss leukocyte migration strategies in vivo, and present examples of mode switching during physiological interstitial migration. These findings are also placed in the context of leukocyte migration defects in primary immunodeficiencies. This overview of both in vitro and in vivo studies highlights recent progress in understanding the molecular and biophysical mechanisms that shape robust leukocyte migration responses in physiologically complex and heterogeneous environments. PMID:24573488

  15. Breast cancer imaging with In-111 human IgM monoclonal antibodies: preliminary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, K P; Dillman, R O; DeNardo, S J; DeNardo, G L; Beauregard, J; Hagan, P L; Amox, D G; Clutter, M L; Burnett, K G; Rulot, C M

    1988-04-01

    Detection of specific tumor sites was studied with scintigraphy and radiolabeled human IgM monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs). Ten patients with metastatic breast cancer received an infusion of one of three indium-111-labeled anti-breast carcinoma MoAbs. The time of infusion ranged from 30 minutes to 2 hours. Three patients received YBB-190 at total doses of 2, 4.25, or 11 mg, four patients received YBM-209 at total doses of 1 mg (n = 1) or 20 mg (n = 3), and three patients each received 22 mg of YBY-088. Imaging was performed immediately after infusion and at 4, 24, 48, 72, 120, and 144 hours. Many presumed sites of metastatic disease were imaged in three of the four patients who received 20 mg of YBM-209 and in two of the three patients who received YBY-088. Tumor was not detected in any of the patients who received YBB-190, in the patient who received a 1-mg dose of YBM-209, or in the patient who received YBY-088 and in whom a biopsy of tumor tissue failed to demonstrate target antigen. The authors conclude that In-111-labeled human IgM MoAbs can target human breast cancer, but antigen expression and antibody dose determine successful immunoscintigraphy.

  16. Current state of the art of blood cell labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.; Meinken, G.E.; Gil, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    An update on some recent developments in the area of blood cell labeling is provided. Specific topics covered include red cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc, platelet labeling using an antiplatelet monoclonal antibody, and the labeling of leukocytes with /sup 99m/Tc. Mechanistic information, where available, is discussed. A critical evaluation of current techniques, their pitfalls as well as advantages, and the problems that remain to be resolved, is presented. The promise shown by recent results using the antibody approach for cell labeling is emphasized. An assessment of the progress made in these areas is presented. 38 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Composition and metabolism of phospholipids of human leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinetti, G V; Cattieu, K

    1982-10-01

    Human mononuclear (MN) and polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes were analyzed for their phospholipid, triglyceride, cholesterol and fatty acid content. The phospholipid/cholesterol ratio was 1.24 for both cells. MN cells contain more phosphatidylcholine (PC), but less phosphatidylserine (PS), Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and sphingomyelin (SPH) than PMN cells when expressed as percent of total phospholipid. When expressed on the basis of lipid content per cell, MN cells contain less PS, PE and SPH but more triglyceride than PMN cells. PMN cells incorporate palmitic, stearic, linoleic and linolenic acids into their phospholipids, triglycerides or cholesterol esters. The incorporation into triglycerides was highest for all fatty acids. Of the phospholipids, the incorporation was highest into PC. Labeled fatty acids also were found in proteins which had been delipidized by exhaustive extraction with organic solvents. These represent tightly or covalently bound fatty acids. The incorporation [3H] palmitic acid into this protein fraction is stimulated by insulin.

  18. Labeling cellular elements of blood with Technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewanjee, M.K.

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to develop new technique of labeling platelets and white cells with Tc-99m radionuclide. The conditions of labeling canine platelets and white cells with the lipid-soluble Tc-99m HMPAO have been optimized. The function of labeled platelets were evaluated by the determination of platelet survival time and recovery and these values were compared with that of In-111 tropolone labeled platelets. We developed the bilateral femoral catheterization model for the evaluation of platelet-thrombosis on control and heparin-bonded catheters in dogs. We are evaluating platelet thrombosis in the hollow-fiber hemodialyzer with Tc-99m and In-111 labeled platelets. We have developed the flow-loop for in vitro studies and are using a pig model for quantitation of platelet-consumption during hemodialysis. We are currently evaluating the new technique of platelet and white cell-labeling with Tc-99m and testing them in animal models of thrombosis and infection (osteo-myelitis). We are also using the Tc-99m HMPAO labeled mixed white cells in the early diagnosis (3-hour post-injection) of acute and chronic infection in patients and comparing the results with that of IN-111 oxine labeled white cells.

  19. Angiotensin receptor-binding molecule in leukocytes in association with the systemic and leukocyte inflammatory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruhara, Kotaro; Wakui, Hiromichi; Azushima, Kengo; Kurotaki, Daisuke; Kawase, Wataru; Uneda, Kazushi; Haku, Sona; Kobayashi, Ryu; Ohki, Kohji; Kinguchi, Sho; Ohsawa, Masato; Minegishi, Shintaro; Ishigami, Tomoaki; Matsuda, Miyuki; Yamashita, Akio; Nakajima, Hideaki; Tamura, Tomohiko; Tsuboi, Nobuo; Yokoo, Takashi; Tamura, Kouichi

    2018-02-01

    The components of the renin-angiotensin system in leukocytes is involved in the pathophysiology of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including hypertension, atherosclerosis and chronic kidney disease. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R)-associated protein (ATRAP) is an AT1R-specific binding protein, and is able to inhibit the pathological activation of AT1R signaling in certain animal models of NCDs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and regulation of ATRAP in leukocytes. Human leukocyte ATRAP mRNA was measured with droplet digital polymerase chain reaction system, and analyzed in relation to the clinical variables. We also examined the leukocyte cytokines mRNA in bone-marrow ATRAP-deficient and wild-type chimeric mice after injection of low-dose lipopolysaccharide. The ATRAP mRNA was abundantly expressed in leukocytes, predominantly granulocytes and monocytes, of healthy subjects. In 86 outpatients with NCDs, leukocyte ATRAP mRNA levels correlated positively with granulocyte and monocyte counts and serum C-reactive protein levels. These positive relationships remained significant even after adjustment. Furthermore, the leukocyte ATRAP mRNA was significantly associated with the interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 mRNA levels in leukocytes of NCDs patients. In addition, the leukocyte interleukin-1β mRNA level was significantly upregulated in bone marrow ATRAP-deficient chimeric mice in comparison to wild-type chimeric mice after injection of lipopolysaccharide. These results suggest that leukocyte ATRAP is an emerging marker capable of reflecting the systemic and leukocyte inflammatory profile, and plays a role as an anti-inflammatory factor in the pathophysiology of NCDs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on their food labels. When a food says "light" ("lite") or "low fat" on the label, it ... on this topic for: Teens Nutrition & Fitness Center Smart Supermarket Shopping Figuring Out Fat and Calories How ...

  1. Imaging Leukocyte Responses in the Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterbusch, Michaela; Kitching, A Richard; Hickey, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    The kidney can be negatively affected by a range of innate and adaptive immune responses, resulting in alterations in the functions of the kidney and, in some cases, progression to renal failure. In many of these responses, infiltration of blood-borne leukocytes into the kidney is central to the response. In addition, a large population of mononuclear phagocytes resident in the kidney can modulate these responses. A great deal of research has investigated both the mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment to the kidney and the actions of immune cells resident within the kidney. Because of the dynamic nature of the processes whereby leukocytes enter sites of inflammation, in vivo imaging has been one of the key approaches used for understanding leukocyte recruitment as it occurs throughout the body, and this is also true for kidney. However, imaging this organ and its complicated microvasculature during different forms of renal pathology presents a unique set of challenges. In this review, we examine the approaches used for intravital imaging of the kidney and summarize the insights gained from these studies regarding the mechanisms of leukocyte entry into the kidney during inflammation and the actions of immune cells within this organ.

  2. Leukocyte transendothelial migration: A local affair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Lilian; Heemskerk, Niels; van Buul, Jaap D.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Inflammation is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens. It serves as a protective response that involves leukocytes, blood vessels and molecular mediators with the purpose to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury and to initiate tissue repair. Inflammation is tightly regulated by the body and is associated with transient crossing of leukocytes through the blood vessel wall, a process called transendothelial migration (TEM) or diapedesis. TEM is a close collaboration between leukocytes on one hand and the endothelium on the other. Limiting vascular leakage during TEM but also when the leukocyte has crossed the endothelium is essential for maintaining vascular homeostasis. Although many details have been uncovered during the recent years, the molecular mechanisms from the vascular part that drive TEM still shows significant gaps in our understanding. This review will focus on the local signals that are induced in the endothelium that regulate leukocyte TEM and simultaneous preservation of endothelial barrier function. PMID:27715453

  3. Recent developments in blood cell labeling research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.; Meinken, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    A number of recent developments in research on blood cell labeling techniques are presented. The discussion relates to three specific areas: (1) a new in vitro method for red blood cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc; (2) a method for labeling leukocytes and platelets with /sup 99m/Tc; and (3) the use of monoclonal antibody technique for platelet labeling. The advantages and the pitfalls of these techniques are examined in the light of available mechanistic information. Problems that remain to be resolved are reviewed. An assessment is made of the progress as well as prospects in blood cell labeling methodology including that using the monoclonal antibody approach. 37 refs., 4 figs

  4. Recent developments in blood cell labeling research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.; Meinken, G.E.

    1988-09-07

    A number of recent developments in research on blood cell labeling techniques are presented. The discussion relates to three specific areas: (1) a new in vitro method for red blood cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc; (2) a method for labeling leukocytes and platelets with /sup 99m/Tc; and (3) the use of monoclonal antibody technique for platelet labeling. The advantages and the pitfalls of these techniques are examined in the light of available mechanistic information. Problems that remain to be resolved are reviewed. An assessment is made of the progress as well as prospects in blood cell labeling methodology including that using the monoclonal antibody approach. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Intravascular leukocyte migration through platelet thrombi: directing leukocytes to sites of vascular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Mehran; Hosseini, Ehteramolsadat

    2015-06-01

    Leukocytes recruitment to thrombi supports an intimate cellular interaction leading to the enhancement of pro-coagulant functions and pro-inflammatory responses at site of vascular injury. Recent observations of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation and its mutual reactions with platelet thrombi adds more clinical interest to the growing body of knowledge in the field of platelet-leukocyte cross-talk. However, having considered thrombus as a barrier between leukocytes and injured endothelium, the full inflammatory roles of these cells during thrombosis is still ill defined. The most recent observation of neutrophils migration into the thrombi is a phenomenon that highlights the inflammatory functions of leukocytes at the site of injury. It has been hypothesised that leukocytes migration might be associated with the conveyance of highly reactive pro-inflammatory and/or pro-coagulant mediators to sites of vascular injury. In addition, the evidence of neutrophils migration into arterial thrombi following traumatic and ischaemia-reperfusion injury highlights the already described role of these cells in atherosclerosis. Regardless of the mechanisms behind leukocyte migration, whether these migrated cells benefit normal homeostasis by their involvement in wound healing and vascular rebuilding or they increase unwilling inflammatory responses, could be of interest for future researches that provide new insight into biological importance of leukocyte recruitment to thrombi.

  6. Use of 99mTc-Mononuclear Leukocyte Scintigraphy in Nosocomial Fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutfilen, B.; Lopes de Souza, S.A.; Martins, F.P.P.; Cardoso, L.R.; Pinheiro Pessoa, M.C.; Fonseca, L.M.B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the overall diagnostic accuracy of mononuclear leukocyte- 99m Tc scintigraphy in the routine detection of infectious lesions and fever of unknown origin (FUO) in inpatients. Material and Methods: The use of mononuclear leukocyte 99m Tc scintigraphy is presented in 87 patients who fulfilled the Durack and Street diagnostic criteria of nosocomial FUO; 66 patients were suspected of having infectious lesions (myocarditis, endocarditis, infected catheters, diabetic foot, and osteomyelitis) and 21 patients presented with unknown causes of FUO. Scans were carried out 1, 3, and 24 h after injection of labeled leukocytes. Results: In three cases (3/27) where scintigraphs were negative, biopsies were positive. There were two (2/87) false-positive scintigrams. We found a 95.8% sensitivity and 92.3% specificity. PPV was 93.8%, PPN 94.7%, and accuracy 94.2%. Conclusion: Mononuclear leukocyte 99m Tc scintigraphy showed high sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values in patients with nosocomial FUO. These results suggest an important role for nuclear medicine in the management of patients with infection/inflammation

  7. Modeling leukocyte-leukocyte non-contact interactions in a lymph node.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Gritti

    Full Text Available The interaction among leukocytes is at the basis of the innate and adaptive immune-response and it is largely ascribed to direct cell-cell contacts. However, the exchange of a number of chemical stimuli (chemokines allows also non-contact interaction during the immunological response. We want here to evaluate the extent of the effect of the non-contact interactions on the observed leukocyte-leukocyte kinematics and their interaction duration. To this aim we adopt a simplified mean field description inspired by the Keller-Segel chemotaxis model, of which we report an analytical solution suited for slowly varying sources of chemokines. Since our focus is on the non-contact interactions, leukocyte-leukocyte contact interactions are simulated only by means of a space dependent friction coefficient of the cells. The analytical solution of the Keller-Segel model is then taken as the basis of numerical simulations of interactions between leukocytes and their duration. The mean field interaction force that we derive has a time-space separable form and depends on the chemotaxis sensitivity parameter as well as on the chemokines diffusion coefficient and their degradation rate. All these parameters affect the distribution of the interaction durations. We draw a successful qualitative comparison between simulated data and sets of experimental data for DC-NK cells interaction duration and other kinematic parameters. Remarkably, the predicted percentage of the leukocyte-leukocyte interactions falls in the experimental range and depends (~25% increase upon the chemotactic parameter indicating a non-negligible direct effect of the non-contact interaction on the leukocyte interactions.

  8. Modeling leukocyte-leukocyte non-contact interactions in a lymph node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Nicola; Caccia, Michele; Sironi, Laura; Collini, Maddalena; D'Alfonso, Laura; Granucci, Francesca; Zanoni, Ivan; Chirico, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The interaction among leukocytes is at the basis of the innate and adaptive immune-response and it is largely ascribed to direct cell-cell contacts. However, the exchange of a number of chemical stimuli (chemokines) allows also non-contact interaction during the immunological response. We want here to evaluate the extent of the effect of the non-contact interactions on the observed leukocyte-leukocyte kinematics and their interaction duration. To this aim we adopt a simplified mean field description inspired by the Keller-Segel chemotaxis model, of which we report an analytical solution suited for slowly varying sources of chemokines. Since our focus is on the non-contact interactions, leukocyte-leukocyte contact interactions are simulated only by means of a space dependent friction coefficient of the cells. The analytical solution of the Keller-Segel model is then taken as the basis of numerical simulations of interactions between leukocytes and their duration. The mean field interaction force that we derive has a time-space separable form and depends on the chemotaxis sensitivity parameter as well as on the chemokines diffusion coefficient and their degradation rate. All these parameters affect the distribution of the interaction durations. We draw a successful qualitative comparison between simulated data and sets of experimental data for DC-NK cells interaction duration and other kinematic parameters. Remarkably, the predicted percentage of the leukocyte-leukocyte interactions falls in the experimental range and depends (~25% increase) upon the chemotactic parameter indicating a non-negligible direct effect of the non-contact interaction on the leukocyte interactions.

  9. Filter Buffy Coats (FBC): a source of peripheral blood leukocytes recovered from leukocyte depletion filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, T P H; Zehnter, I; Hofmann, B; Zaisserer, J; Burkhart, J; Rapp, S; Weinauer, F; Schmitz, J; Illert, W E

    2005-12-20

    In compliance with federal regulations, blood banks routinely use leukocyte depletion filters to eliminate contaminating leukocytes from blood products such as red blood cell and platelet concentrates. We developed and optimized conditions to elute leukocytes adsorbed to these filters; resulting in leukocyte suspensions which we termed Filter Buffy Coats (FBCs). These Filter Buffy Coats can replace standard buffy coats for various research applications. After optimizing both the filter elution medium as well as elution protocols, we compared commonly used leukocyte depletion filters from four different manufacturers. Relative fractions as well as total recoveries of leukocyte subsets, such as lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes, found in Filter Buffy Coats were identified and compared among the filters as well as to standard buffy coats and whole blood. Flow cytometric analysis of Filter Buffy Coats confirmed the presence of T- and B-lymphocytes, NK cells and monocytes. Furthermore, a significant quantity of CD34(+) hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells (HSC/HPC) was detected in Filter Buffy Coats prepared from different filters, thus making FBCs a valuable source for research on HSC/HPC. Colony assays revealed that most of these CD34(+) cells are functional. Using immunomagnetic cell sorting (MACS), we isolated a variety of leukocyte populations from FBC mononuclear cells (Filter-PBMCs) including T lymphocytes (CD4(+), CD8(+), CD3(+)), B lymphocytes (CD19(+)), NK cells (CD56(+)), HSC/HPC (CD34(+), CD133(+)) or dendritic cells (BDCA-4(+)). Functional properties of Filter-PBMCs, as well as of some of these isolated leukocyte populations, were confirmed using standard assays. In summary, Filter Buffy Coats are a valuable and convenient source of different peripheral leukocyte populations and can replace standard buffy coat preparations for research applications.

  10. Appearance of claudin-5+ leukocytes in the central nervous system during neuroinflammation: a novel role for endothelial-derived extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Debayon; Baena, Valentina; Ge, Shujun; Jiang, Xi; Jellison, Evan R; Kiprono, Timothy; Agalliu, Dritan; Pachter, Joel S

    2016-11-16

    Western blotting established the presence of CLN-5 + leukocytes in blood as well, implying these cells are present prior to TEM. Moreover, imaging of inflamed CNS vessels and the associated perivascular cell infiltrates from Tie-2-eGFP-CLN-5 mice with EAE revealed leukocytes bearing the eGFP label, further supporting the hypothesis CLN-5 is transferred from endothelial cells to circulating leukocytes in vivo. Western blotting of BMEC-derived EVs, corresponding in size to both exosomes and microvesicles, and FACS analysis of plasma-derived EVs from Tie-2-eGFP-CLN-5 mice with EAE validated expression of CLN-5 by EVs of endothelial origin. Confocal imaging and FACS further revealed both PKH-67-labeled EVs from cultured BMECs and eGFP-CLN-5 + EVs from plasma of Tie-2-eGFP-CLN-5 mice with EAE can bind to leukocytes. Lastly, serial EM and 3D contour-based surface reconstruction revealed a close association of EV-like structures between the marginating leukocytes and BMECs in situ during EAE. During neuroinflammation, CLN-5 + leukocytes appear in the CNS, and both CLN-5 + leukocytes and CLN-5 + EVs are detected in the blood. As endothelial cells transfer CLN-5 + to leukocytes in vivo, and EVs released from BMEC bind to leukocytes in vitro, EVs may serve as the vehicles to transfer CLN-5 protein at sites of leukocyte:endothelial contact along the BBB. This action may be a prelude to facilitate TEM through the formation of temporary TJ protein bridges between these two cell types.

  11. cAMP signaling in leukocyte transendothelial migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenowicz, Magdalena J.; Fernandez-Borja, Mar; Hordijk, Peter L.

    2007-01-01

    The migration of leukocytes across the vascular endothelium is crucial for immunosurveillance as well as for inflammatory responses. Uncontrolled leukocyte transendothelial migration results in pathologies such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and atherosclerosis. The molecular mechanisms that

  12. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  13. Labeling with indium-111 has detrimental effects on human lymphocytes: concise communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Berge, R. J.; Natarajan, A. T.; Hardeman, M. R.; van Royen, E. A.; Schellekens, P. T.

    1983-01-01

    When lymphocytes from human peripheral blood were labeled with In-111 oxinate, several of their properties appeared to be affected. The spontaneous release of the radionuclide was found to be relatively high. Labeled lymphocytes showed a decreased proliferative capacity, dependent on the dose of the

  14. Palmitoylated transmembrane adaptor proteins in leukocyte signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpánek, Ondřej; Dráber, Peter; Hořejší, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2014), s. 895-902 ISSN 0898-6568 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP302/12/G101 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Leukocyte * Adaptor * Palmitoylation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.315, year: 2014

  15. x ORIGINAL ARTICLE ASSESSMENT OF LEUKOCYTE ESTERASE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    ABSTRACT. This is a prospective study of urinary tract infection in 65 children (38 males and 27 females, M: F ratio 1: 0.7). Urine samples were evaluated by culture, microscopy and leukocyte esterase dipstick test. Positive urine culture, with significant bacteriuria was found in 19(29.2%). Urine microscopy for leukocyturia ...

  16. Modulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes function by incubation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel. *Corresponding author (Fax, 972-4-8542092; Email, erica@rambam.health.gov.il). Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from healthy donors were tested for stimulated release of superoxide anions after being incubated with serum of welders and of a group of unexposed individuals.

  17. Modulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes function by incubation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from healthy donors were tested for stimulated release of superoxide anions after being incubated with serum of welders and of a group of unexposed individuals. These two groups were further subdivided either according to age or to smoking habits. The experiments showed that ...

  18. Modulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes function by incubation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from healthy donors were tested for stimulated release of superoxide anions after being incubated with serum of welders and of a group of unexposed individuals. These two groups were further subdivided either according to age or to smoking habits. The experiments showed that ...

  19. 21 CFR 864.7675 - Leukocyte peroxidase test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leukocyte peroxidase test. 864.7675 Section 864...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7675 Leukocyte peroxidase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte peroxidase test is a device used to distinguish certain...

  20. Susceptibility of different leukocyte cell types to Vaccinia virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Puig Juana M

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccinia virus, the prototype member of the family Poxviridae, was used extensively in the past as the Smallpox vaccine, and is currently considered as a candidate vector for new recombinant vaccines. Vaccinia virus has a wide host range, and is known to infect cultures of a variety of cell lines of mammalian origin. However, little is known about the virus tropism in human leukocyte populations. We report here that various cell types within leukocyte populations have widely different susceptibility to infection with vaccinia virus. Results We have investigated the ability of vaccinia virus to infect human PBLs by using virus recombinants expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP, and monoclonal antibodies specific for PBL subpopulations. Flow cytometry allowed the identification of infected cells within the PBL mixture 1–5 hours after infection. Antibody labeling revealed that different cell populations had very different infection rates. Monocytes showed the highest percentage of infected cells, followed by B lymphocytes and NK cells. In contrast to those cell types, the rate of infection of T lymphocytes was low. Comparison of vaccinia virus strains WR and MVA showed that both strains infected efficiently the monocyte population, although producing different expression levels. Our results suggest that MVA was less efficient than WR in infecting NK cells and B lymphocytes. Overall, both WR and MVA consistently showed a strong preference for the infection of non-T cells. Conclusions When infecting fresh human PBL preparations, vaccinia virus showed a strong bias towards the infection of monocytes, followed by B lymphocytes and NK cells. In contrast, very poor infection of T lymphocytes was detected. These finding may have important implications both in our understanding of poxvirus pathogenesis and in the development of improved smallpox vaccines.

  1. Leukocyte compartments in the mouse lung: distinguishing between marginated, interstitial, and alveolar cells in response to injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, Kathryn E; Cagnina, R Elaine; Wallace, Kori L; Ramos, Susan I; Mehrad, Borna; Linden, Joel

    2012-01-31

    We developed a flow cytometry-based assay to simultaneously quantify multiple leukocyte populations in the marginated vascular, interstitial, and alveolar compartments of the mouse lung. An intravenous injection of a fluorescently labeled anti-CD45 antibody was used to label circulating and marginated vascular leukocytes. Following vascular flushing to remove non-adherent cells and collection of broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, lungs were digested and a second fluorescent anti-CD45 antibody was added ex vivo to identify cells not located in the vascular space. In the naïve mouse lung, we found about 11 million CD45+ leukocytes, of which 87% (9.5 million) were in the vascular marginated compartment, consisting of 17% NK cells, 17% neutrophils, 57% mononuclear myeloid cells (monocytes, macrophage precursors and dendritic cells), and 10% T cells (CD4+, CD8+, and invariant NKT cells). Non-vascular compartments including the interstitial compartment contained 7.7×10(5)cells, consisting of 49% NK cells, 25% dendritic cells, and 16% other mononuclear myeloid cells. The alveolar compartment was overwhelmingly populated by macrophages (5.63×10(5)cells, or 93%). We next studied leukocyte margination and extravasation into the lung following acid injury, a model of gastric aspiration. At 1 h after injury, neutrophils were markedly elevated in the blood while all other circulating leukocytes declined by an average of 79%. At 4 h after injury, there was a peak in the numbers of marginated neutrophils, NK cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and a peak in the number of alveolar NK cells. Most interstitial cells consisted of DCs, neutrophils, and CD4+ T cells, and most alveolar compartment cells consisted of macrophages, neutrophils, and NK cells. At 24 h after injury, there was a decline in the number of all marginated and interstitial leukocytes and a peak in alveolar neutrophils. In sum, we have developed a novel assay to study leukocyte margination and trafficking following

  2. Investigation of light scattering characteristics of individual leukocytes using three-dimensional refractive index maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Kung-Bin; Lin, Yang-Hsien; Lin, Fong-jheng; Hsieh, Chao-Mao; Wu, Shang-Ju

    2017-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) refractive-index (RI) microscopy is an emerging technique suitable for live-cell imaging due to its label-free and fast 3D imaging capabilities. We have developed a common-path system to acquire 3D RI microscopic images of cells with excellent speed and stability. After obtaining 3D RI distributions of individual leukocytes, we used a 3D finite-difference time-domain tool to study light scattering properties. Backscattering spectra of lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils are different from each other. Backscattering spectra of lymphocytes matched well with those of homogeneous spheres as predicted by Mie theory while backscattering spectra of neutrophils are significantly more intense than those of the other two types. This suggests the possibility of classifying the three types of leukocytes based on backscattering.

  3. Cardiopulmonary bypass induces recruitment of bone marrow-derived leukocytes to the lungs in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yukinobu; Hiramatsu, Yuji; Ageyama, Naohide; Sato, Shoko; Kanemoto, Shinya; Sato, Yukio; Sakakibara, Yuzuru

    2014-02-01

    A bone marrow (BM) response induced by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) as a systemic inflammatory reaction has previously been postulated but not clarified. Newly released polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and monocytes from the BM are known to be immature, indicating their greater potential to damage tissue. The present study aimed to examine the kinetics of BM-derived leukocytes associated with CPB in a nonhuman primate model. Normothermic CPB was performed in cynomolgus monkeys for 2 hours through a median sternotomy. Leukocyte precursors were labeled in the BM of the monkeys in vivo by an intravenous injection of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), and their release into the circulation and recruitment to the lungs after operation with or without CPB (control group) were monitored over time by flow cytometry. In normal-state monkeys, the calculated transit time of BrdU-labeled PMNs (PMNBrdU) through the BM was 143.6±4.5 hours and that of monocytes was 100.9±7.6 hours. CPB caused a rapid release of PMNs and monocytes from the BM, shortened their transit through the BM to 92.0±4.1 and 60.3±2.9 hours, respectively, and further induced their increased appearance in the alveolar spaces, with a significant increase in both interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) 24 hours after CPB. CPB accelerated the release of PMNs and monocytes from the BM and their recruitment to the lungs in our monkey model, indicating that this model is relevant for monitoring the kinetics of BM-derived leukocytes in humans. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Microbial infection of an In-111 leucocyte preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, C.; Piers, D.A.; Been, M.H.; Dankert, J.

    1987-01-01

    The sterility testing of radiopharmaceuticals is mostly done afterwards, because waiting for a bacteriologic examination gives a loss of radioactivity. In this short article a positive result of Indium 111 labelled leucocytes is discussed. The authors conclude that the patient already was infected during the blood sampling. The positive result was not caused by uncareful working. 7 refs

  5. Chemokines in the corpus luteum: Implications of leukocyte chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liptak Amy R

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chemokines are small molecular weight peptides responsible for adhesion, activation, and recruitment of leukocytes into tissues. Leukocytes are thought to influence follicular atresia, ovulation, and luteal function. Many studies in recent years have focused attention on the characterization of leukocyte populations within the ovary, the importance of leukocyte-ovarian cell interactions, and more recently, the mechanisms of ovarian leukocyte recruitment. Information about the role of chemokines and leukocyte trafficking (chemotaxis during ovarian function is important to understanding paracrine-autocrine relationships shared between reproductive and immune systems. Recent advances regarding chemokine expression and leukocyte accumulation within the ovulatory follicle and the corpus luteum are the subject of this mini-review.

  6. Clopidogrel affects leukocyte dependent platelet aggregation by P2Y12 expressing leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Philipp; Olivier, Christoph; Halscheid, Christoph; Helbing, Thomas; Bode, Christoph; Moser, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Up to 30% of all patients who are treated with a coronary stent do not respond sufficiently to antiplatelet therapy. This condition results in an increased risk for thrombotic complications such as stent thrombosis and myocardial infarction. The aim of the study was to determine clinical parameters modulating ASA and clopidogrel responsiveness. Patients were enrolled into three groups: (A) Patients with coronary artery disease without recent PCI treated with 100 mg/day ASA (n = 67). (B) Patients who underwent coronary stent implantation taking 100 mg/day ASA and 75 mg/day clopidogrel (n = 87). (C) Patients in whom CAD was excluded by angiography and who were not treated with anti-platelet medication served as controls (n = 32). Platelet aggregation was determined by impedance aggregometry using the Multiplate point of care device. Drug response was differentiated by stimulation of whole blood with arachidonic acid (AA, ASA responsiveness) or adenosine diphosphate (ADP, clopidogrel responsiveness). P2Y(12) receptor expression was determined by RT-PCR. ADP induced platelet aggregation correlated with the leukocyte count (r = 0.61, p leukocytes interact functionally. Clopidogrel treatment abolished the influence of leukocytes on platelets and caused decreased leukocyte activation. We detected the expression of the clopidogrel target P2Y(12) on leukocytes suggesting that clopidogrel may act directly on these cells and not only on platelets. In contrast to ASA responsiveness, clopidogrel response correlated with body mass index (r = 0.34; p = 0.001). In conclusion, (1) leukocytes influence ADP induced platelet aggregation most likely by expression of the P2Y(12) receptor. This interaction is abolished by clopidogrel. Therefore, clopidogrel may act directly on leukocytes via the P2Y(12) receptor. (2) Clopidogrel may be under dosed in obese patients.

  7. Getting Leukocytes to the Site of Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, W. A.

    2013-01-01

    There is no “response” in either the innate or adaptive immune response unless leukocytes cross blood vessels. They do this through the process of diapedesis, in which the leukocyte moves in ameboid fashion through tightly apposed endothelial borders (paracellular transmigration) and in some cases through the endothelial cell itself (transcellular migration). This review summarizes the steps leading up to diapedesis, then focuses on the molecules and mechanisms responsible for transendothelial migration. Surprisingly, many of the same molecules and mechanisms that regulate paracellular migration also control transcellular migration, including a major role for membrane from the recently described lateral border recycling compartment. A hypothesis that integrates the various known mechanisms of transmigration is proposed. PMID:23345459

  8. Leukocyte migration in experimental inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Van Rees

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Emigration of leukocytes from the circulation into tissue by transendothelial migration, is mediated subsequently by adhesion molecules such as selectins, chemokines and integrins. This multistep paradigm, with multiple molecular choices at each step, provides a diversity in signals. The influx of neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes into inflamed tissue is important in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory bowel disease. The importance of each of these groups of adhesion molecules in chronic inflammatory bowel disease, either in human disease or in animal models, will be discussed below. Furthermore, the possibilities of blocking these different steps in the process of leukocyte extravasation in an attempt to prevent further tissue damage, will be taken into account.

  9. Effect of leukocyte hydrolases on bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, D.; Michel, J.; Ferne, M.; Bergner-Rabinowitz, S.; Ginsburg, I.

    1979-01-01

    Leukocyte extracts, trypsin, and lysozyme are all capable of releasing the bulk of the LPS from S. typhi, S. typhimurium, and E. coli. Bacteria which have been killed by heat, ultraviolet irradiation, or by a variety of metabolic inhibitors and antibiotics which affect protein, DNA, RNA, and cell wall synthesis no longer yield soluble LPS following treatment with the releasing agents. On the other hand, bacteria which are resistant to certain of the antibiotics yield nearly the full amount of soluble LPS following treatment, suggesting that certain heatabile endogenous metabolic pathways collaborate with the releasing agents in the release of LPS from the bacteria. It is suggested that some of the beneficial effects of antibiotics on infections with gram-negative bacteria may be the prevention of massive release of endotoxin by leukocyte enzymes in inflammatory sites

  10. Diagnosis of bone infection by complementary role of technetium-99m MDP and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene-amineoxime-leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Zahrani, Abdullah; EI-Saban, Khaled; Al-Sakhri, Hijji

    2012-01-01

    Valuate complementary role of 99m Tc-MDP bone scan and 99m Technetium hexamethylpropylene-amineoxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO) labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in diagnosis of bone infection. Ninety one sites suspected to have bone infection were divided in to two groups: Group I 49 sites with current endo-prothesis; and group II 42 sites with no prosthesis. All patients were subjected to serial images of 99m Tc-HMPAO labeled leukocyte ( 99m Tc-white blood cells (WBCs)), triple phase bone scan ( 99m Tc-MDP) and plain X-ray, in addition to clinical and bacteriological assessment, together with follow-up. Combined imaging with 99m Tc-WBCs and 99m Tc-MDP proved to be effective in early detection of bone infection in the presence or absence of prosthesis

  11. Comparison of technetium-99m-HM-PAO leukocytes with indium-111-oxine leukocytes for localizing intraabdominal sepsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mountford, P.J.; Kettle, A.G.; O' Doherty, M.J.; Coakley, A.J. (Kent and Canterbury Hospital (England))

    1990-03-01

    Technetium-99m-HM-PAO (({sup 99m}Tc)HM-PAO) leukocyte and indium-111-oxine (111In-oxine) leukocyte scanning were carried out simultaneously in 41 patients at 4 hr and 24 hr after reinjection to determine whether the 4-hr {sup 99m}Tc scan could replace the 24-hr {sup 111}In scan for detecting intraabdominal sepsis. Abdominal infection was confirmed in 12 cases. The 4-hr {sup 99}Tc-leukocyte scan, the 4-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scan, and the 24-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scan yielded a sensitivity of 100%, 67%, and 100%, respectively, and a specificity of 62%, 90%, and 86%, respectively. The 24-hr {sup 99m}Tc-leukocyte scan also produced a sensitivity of 100%, but it was falsely positive in all 29 cases without infection due to physiologic bowel uptake. False-positive 4-hr {sup 99m}Tc-leukocyte scans were also produced by physiologic bowel uptake in seven cases all of whom had true-negative 4-hr and 24-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scans. Because of the high incidence of false-positive 4-hr ({sup 99m}Tc)HM-PAO leukocyte scans, it was concluded that they could not replace 24-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scans for detecting intraabdominal sepsis, and that serial {sup 99m}Tc leukocyte scans starting earlier than 4 hr after reinjection must be evaluated.

  12. Pesticide Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  13. Indium-111 leukocyte scintigraphy in Wegener's granulomatosis involving the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morayati, S.J.; Fink-Bennett, D.

    1986-12-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 44-yr-old man to exclude an occult abscess. Four- and twenty-four-hour images of the abdomen revealed splenic photopenia except for a rim of activity medially. A subsequent computed tomography (CT) study demonstrated necrosis or hemorrhage of the spleen except for a medial rim. Exploratory laparotomy demonstrated necrotizing vasculitis with granuloma formation consistent with Wegener's granulomatosis and a rim of viable splenic tissue corresponding to the radionuclide and CT studies.

  14. Blood leukocyte and spleen lymphocyte immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, B.A.; Sothmann, M.; Wehrenberg, W.B. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of chronic physical activity on the immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters. Animals were kept sedentary or allowed to exercise spontaneously on running wheels for eight weeks. Physically active animals averaged 12 kilometers per day. The immune response of spleen lymphocytes whole blood leukocytes was evaluated by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation in response to Concanavalin A or lipopolysaccharide. There was no treatment effect between physically active and sedentary hamster in response of spleen lymphocytes. The immune response of whole blood leukocytes to these mitogens was significantly greater in physically active vs. sedentary hamsters. These results demonstrate that chronic physical activity has the capacity to modulate immunoresponses.

  15. Evaluation of 111In leukocyte whole body scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, I.R.; Baumert, J.E.; Lantieri, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Indium-111 oxine, polymorphonuclear cells isolated and labeled with 111 In were used for studying abscesses and inflammatory conditions. There were 64 total scans done in 59 patients, 32 male and 27 female, aged 3 to 81 years (average, 51). The original clinical diagnosis was abscess in 33 patients. The whole blood cell scan was abnormal in 12 (36%) of these, and a good clinical correlation was obtained in 11 of the 12. In the 21 with a normal scan, 18 had no evidence of abscess, yielding one false-positive and three false-negative interpretations in the abscess group. Thirteen patients had fever of unknown origin, nine had negative scans and no subsequent evidence of abscess, and four had positive scans with good correlation in three. Acute bone and joint infections were positive on scan (4/4), whereas chronic osteomyelitis was negative (0/2). Three patients with acute myocardial infarction and three of four with subacute bacterial endocarditis had normal scans. All three studies in renal transplant rejection showed positive uptake in the pelvic kidneys. Indium-111 white blood cell scans have proved useful to diagnose or exclude a diagnosis of abscess or inflammatory condition infiltrated with polymorphonuclear leukocytes

  16. Evaluation of /sup 111/In leukocyte whole body scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, I.R.; Baumert, J.E.; Lantieri, R.L.

    1979-11-01

    Indium-111 oxine, polymorphonuclear cells isolated and labeled with /sup 111/In were used for studying abscesses and inflammatory conditions. There were 64 total scans done in 59 patients, 32 male and 27 female, aged 3 to 81 years (average, 51). The original clinical diagnosis was abscess in 33 patients. The whole blood cell scan was abnormal in 12 (36%) of these, and a good clinical correlation was obtained in 11 of the 12. In the 21 with a normal scan, 18 had no evidence of abscess, yielding one false-positive and three false-negative interpretations in the abscess group. Thirteen patients had fever of unknown origin, nine had negative scans and no subsequent evidence of abscess, and four had positive scans with good correlation in three. Acute bone and joint infections were positive on scan (4/4), whereas chronic osteomyelitis was negative (0/2). Three patients with acute myocardial infarction and three of four with subacute bacterial endocarditis had normal scans. All three studies in renal transplant rejection showed positive uptake in the pelvic kidneys. Indium-111 white blood cell scans have proved useful to diagnose or exclude a diagnosis of abscess or inflammatory condition infiltrated with polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

  17. Effect of mechanical vs dilute ethanol epithelial removal on keratocyte apoptosis and polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurelik, G; Bilgihan, K; Sezer, C; Akyol, G; Hasanreisoglu, B

    2002-03-01

    To investigate keratocyte apoptosis and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell infiltration to the corneal stroma after mechanical epithelial scraping and chemical de-epithelialization with 18% ethanol solution. Twelve New Zealand Albino rabbits (24 eyes) were randomly divided into three groups. Group A was the control group with no epithelial removal. Group B underwent a 7.5-mm mechanical epithelial removal with a blunt spatula. Group C underwent 7.5-mm chemical de-epithelialization with 18% ethanol-balanced salt solution. Corneas were stained with terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay after 24 h. Only nuclear staining in keratocytes was counted. Polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte densities were also assessed by light microscopy. Mechanical de-epithelialization (group B) and chemical de-epithelialization with 18% ethanol (group C) showed no difference in keratocyte apoptosis compared with the control group. There was also no difference between groups B and C. Group B showed no difference in PMN leukocyte counts compared with the control group. But the number of PMN leukocytes observed in group C was significantly higher than those encountered in the corneas of the control group (P < 0.05) and group B (P < 0.05). Dilute alcohol induces more PMN cell infiltration when compared with mechanical de-epithelialization although there is no difference in the apoptosis rates.

  18. Fluid Stresses on the Membrane of Migrating Leukocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Susan S.; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.

    2007-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that migrating human leukocytes respond to normal physiologic fluid stresses (~1dyn/cm2) by active control of local cytoplasmic extensions (pseudopods). To better understand the governing mechanisms of this response, we determined the fluid stress distributions on individual migrating leukocytes whose shapes were reconstructed with serial confocal microscopy. The flow over adherent leukocytes was computed by solution of the Stokes equation for plasma motion over the c...

  19. [Relationship between leukocyte count and risk of hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Lu; Hao, Yongchen; Liu, Jing; Wang, Wei; Wang, Miao; Qi, Yue; Zhao, Fan; Xie, Wuxiang; Li, Yan; Liu, Jun; Sun, Jiayi; Qin, Lanping; Zhao, Dong

    2015-04-01

    To observe the association between the leukocyte count and blood pressure value and hypertension risk in a Chinese community-based population. A total of 4 188 participants who took part in the baseline examination in 1992 and the follow-up survey in 2007 from the Chinese Multi-Provincial Cohort Study were included in this study. The relationship of leukocyte and blood pressure value and hypertension risk were evaluated by cross-sectional analyses.The prospective association between baseline leukocyte count and blood pressure changes and risk of hypertension were analyzed in 2 954 normotensive individuals at baseline examination.The associations between leukocyte count and blood pressure was evaluated with Spearman's rank correlation analyses and linear regression models,and the associations between leukocyte count and risk of hypertension was evaluated with logistic regression models. (1) The cross-sectional study results showed that the correlation coefficient of leukocyte count and systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure was 0.208 and 0.154 (both P leukocyte count was associated with 1.41 mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa) systolic blood pressure increase (95% CI: 1.20-1.63 mmHg, P leukocyte count was associated with a 15% increased risk of hypertension (OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.12-1.19, P leukocyte count and systolic blood pressure change and diastolic blood pressure change was 0.062 (P = 0.003) and 0.102 (P leukocyte count was associated with 1.03 mmHg systolic blood pressure increase (95% CI: 0.74-1.32 mmHg, P leukocyte count was associated with a 9% increased risk of incident hypertension (OR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.06-1.13, P leukocyte count is associated with increased blood pressure value and hypertension among Chinese community-based population, suggesting that inflammation may participate in the pathogenesis of hypertension.

  20. BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF LEUKOCYTE REMOVAL FILTERS DURING LEUKOCYTE FILTRATION OF CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS PERFUSATE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GU, YJ; OBSTER, R; HAAN, J; HUET, RCGG; EIJGELAAR, A; VANOEVEREN, W

    To evaluate the biocompatibility and the efficacy of leukocyte removal filters, we performed a prospective study by using the cardiopulmonary bypass perfusate taken from the heart-lung machine for 20 patients who underwent cardiac surgery and were randomly divided into four groups according to the

  1. Rapid method for the labeling of albumin microspheres with 113In and 111In: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, P.L.; Krejcarek, G.E.; Taylor, A.; Alazraki, N.

    1978-01-01

    A rapid and simple method for preparing microspheres labeled with In-113m or In-111 is described. The procedure requires 10 min and gives labeling yields approaching 100%. Biodistribution studies in rats, mice, and dogs show the product to be biologically stable, with approximately 90% of the injected dose localized in the lung at 1 hr postinjection. The convenient production of In-113m or In-111 albumin microspheres provides an alternate radiopharmaceutical to complement or substitute for Tc-99m microspheres in lung perfusion imaging and other circulation studies

  2. Diagnosis of cardiac allograft rejection with indium-111 labeled platelets in cyclosporin treated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawwaz, R.A.; Iga, C.; Hardy, M.A.; Alderson, P.O.

    1984-01-01

    Rejection of heart transplants remains difficult to diagnose. Indium-111 (In-111) labeled lymphocytes accumulate in rat cardiac allografts when recipients are treated with Cyclosporin (Cy), even in the absence of clinical rejection. This presumably occurs because of the non-specific 'interstitial infiltration' caused by Cy. This study examines the usefulness of In-111 labeled platelets in differentiating experimental cardiac allograft rejection from Cy-induced tissue changes. The authors initially examined the migration patterns of syngeneic In-111 labeled platelets in groups of Lewis recipients of ACI cardiac allografts treated with IM Cy (10mg/kg) for 6-14 days. In addition, 10 control animals were not immunosuppressed, and 10 were treated with Cy but received Lewis cardiac isografts. Syngeneic In-111 platelets were injected IV into each animal 24 hours prior to sacrifice. Three to five rats from each group were killed at 3 ,7, 14, 21 and 28 days after transplantation and the % ID/gm in the transplanted hearts and native hearts were determined and correlated with histopathology. Untreated Lewis recipients rejected ACI hearts in 6.5 +- 0.4 days while Cy prolonged allograft survival in a variable fashion. In-111 platelet accumulation correlated well with the degree of rejection determined independently by histopathology. No significant In-111 platelet accumulation was detected in non-rejecting cardiac transplants or in native hearts in Cy treated or control animals. The results suggest that In-111 labeled platelets will be an effective agent for diagnosis of cardiac rejection, even in the presence of Cy treatment

  3. Photon Counts Statistics in Leukocyte Cell Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Eduard; van der Greef, Jan; van Wijk, Roeland

    2011-12-01

    In the present experiment ultra-weak photon emission/ chemiluminescence from isolated neutrophils was recorded. It is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the "respiratory burst" process which can be activated by PMA (Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate). Commonly, the reaction is demonstrated utilizing the enhancer luminol. However, with the use of highly sensitive photomultiplier equipment it is also recorded without enhancer. In that case, it can be hypothesized that photon count statistics may assist in understanding the underlying metabolic activity and cooperation of these cells. To study this hypothesis leukocytes were stimulated with PMA and increased photon signals were recorded in the quasi stable period utilizing Fano factor analysis at different window sizes. The Fano factor is defined by the variance over the mean of the number of photon within the observation time. The analysis demonstrated that the Fano factor of true signal and not of the surrogate signals obtained by random shuffling increases when the window size increased. It is concluded that photon count statistics, in particular Fano factor analysis, provides information regarding leukocyte interactions. It opens the perspective to utilize this analytical procedure in (in vivo) inflammation research. However, this needs further validation.

  4. Effect of fatty acids on leukocyte function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pompéia C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids have various effects on immune and inflammatory responses, acting as intracellular and intercellular mediators. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs of the omega-3 family have overall suppressive effects, inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation, antibody and cytokine production, adhesion molecule expression, natural killer cell activity and triggering cell death. The omega-6 PUFAs have both inhibitory and stimulatory effects. The most studied of these is arachidonic acid that can be oxidized to eicosanoids, such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes, all of which are potent mediators of inflammation. Nevertheless, it has been found that many of the effects of PUFA on immune and inflammatory responses are not dependent on eicosanoid generation. Fatty acids have also been found to modulate phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species production, cytokine production and leukocyte migration, also interfering with antigen presentation by macrophages. The importance of fatty acids in immune function has been corroborated by many clinical trials in which patients show improvement when submitted to fatty acid supplementation. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain fatty acid modulation of immune response, such as changes in membrane fluidity and signal transduction pathways, regulation of gene transcription, protein acylation, and calcium release. In this review, evidence is presented to support the proposition that changes in cell metabolism also play an important role in the effect of fatty acids on leukocyte functioning, as fatty acids regulate glucose and glutamine metabolism and mitochondrial depolarization.

  5. Aberrant leukocyte telomere length in Birdshot Uveitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Vazirpanah

    Full Text Available Birdshot Uveitis (BU is an archetypical chronic inflammatory eye disease, with poor visual prognosis, that provides an excellent model for studying chronic inflammation. BU typically affects patients in the fifth decade of life. This suggests that it may represent an age-related chronic inflammatory disease, which has been linked to increased erosion of telomere length of leukocytes.To study this in detail, we exploited a sensitive standardized quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL in 91 genotyped Dutch BU patients and 150 unaffected Dutch controls.Although LTL erosion rates were very similar between BU patients and healthy controls, we observed that BU patients displayed longer LTL, with a median of log (LTL = 4.87 (= 74131 base pair compared to 4.31 (= 20417 base pair in unaffected controls (P<0.0001. The cause underpinning the difference in LTL could not be explained by clinical parameters, immune cell-subtype distribution, nor genetic predisposition based upon the computed weighted genetic risk score of genotyped validated variants in TERC, TERT, NAF1, OBFC1 and RTEL1.These findings suggest that BU is accompanied by significantly longer LTL.

  6. Computerized detection of leukocytes in microscopic leukorrhea images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhong, Ya; Wang, Xiangzhou; Ni, Guangming; Du, Xiaohui; Liu, Juanxiu; Liu, Lin; Liu, Yong

    2017-09-01

    Detection of leukocytes is critical for the routine leukorrhea exam, which is widely used in gynecological examinations. An elevated vaginal leukocyte count in women with bacterial vaginosis is a strong predictor of vaginal or cervical infections. In the routine leukorrhea exam, the counting of leukocytes is primarily performed by manual techniques. However, the viewing and counting of leukocytes from multiple high-power viewing fields on a glass slide under a microscope leads to subjectivity, low efficiency, and low accuracy. To date, many biological cells in stool, blood, and breast cancer have been studied to realize computerized detection; however, the detection of leukocytes in microscopic leukorrhea images has not been studied. Thus, there is an increasing need for computerized detection of leukocytes. There are two key processes in the computerized detection of leukocytes in digital image processing. One is segmentation; the other is intelligent classification. In this paper, we propose a combined ensemble to detect leukocytes in the microscopic leukorrhea image. After image segmentation and selecting likely leukocyte subimages, we obtain the leukocyte candidates. Then, for intelligent classification, we adopt two methods: feature extraction and classification by a support vector machine (SVM); applying a modified convolutional neural network (CNN) to the larger subimages. If different methods classify a candidate in the same category, the process is finished. If not, the outputs of the methods are provided to a classifier to further classify the candidate. After acquiring leukocyte candidates, we attempted three methods to perform classification. The first approach using features and SVM achieved 88% sensitivity, 97% specificity, and 92.5% accuracy. The second method using CNN achieved 95% sensitivity, 84% specificity, and 89.5% accuracy. Then, in the combination approach, we achieved 92% sensitivity, 95% specificity, and 93.5% accuracy. Finally, the images

  7. Basic study of platelet labeling with 111In-oxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yui, Tokuo; Uchida, Tatsumi; Matsuda, Shin; Muroi, Shuichi; Tanaka, Tetsugoro

    1981-01-01

    Indium-111-oxine has recently been suggested as a new isotopic labeling agent of platelets. In this paper, the results on the investigation of in vitro labeling of human platelets with In-111-oxine and those of platelet kinetics in rats are presented. Based on the findings of those studies, the protocol of human platelet labeling with In-111-oxine for clinical use was established. All operations should be carried out with sterile techniques at 20 - 25 0 C. 1) Forty four ml venous blood is drawn into a 50 ml polystyrene syringe containing 6 ml ACD-A. 2) The blood is transferred to a 50 ml tube and centrifuged at 300 g for 15 min. 3) Supernatant platelet rich plasma (PRP) is transferred to other 50 ml tube. Then, the pH is adjusted to 6.5 by addition of 1 ml ACD-A per 20 ml PRP. 4) Platelets are sedimented by centrifuging at 1,500 g for 15 min and resuspended in 3 ml ACD-A-saline solution (pH 6.5). 5) Three hundreds μCi of In-111-oxine is added to the platelet suspension. The mixture is incubated for 20 min at room temperature. 6) About 15 ml of the platelet poor autologous plasma (PPP) is added into the incubated mixture, followed by the sedimentation of labeled platelets (1,500 g, 15 min). 7) The labeled platelets are suspended in 10 ml PPP and the contaminating red cells are sedimented by centrifuging at 200 g for 5 min. 8) One hundred and fifty μCi of labeled platelet suspension is injected to the patient intravenously. The labeling efficiency in this method was 62 +- 5% (mean +- 1S.D., n = 6). (author)

  8. File list: DNS.Bld.10.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. Recent insights into endothelial control of leukocyte extravasation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    In the process of leukocyte migration from the circulation across the vascular wall, the crosstalk with endothelial cells that line the blood vessels is essential. It is now firmly established that in endothelial cells important signaling events are initiated upon leukocyte adhesion that impinge on

  7. Leukocyte adhesion and polarization: Role of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Dion D; Fernandez-Borja, Mar

    2015-01-01

    Leukocyte traffic out of the blood stream is crucial for an adequate immune response. Leukocyte extravasation is critically dependent on the binding of leukocyte integrins to their endothelial counterreceptors. This interaction enables the firm adhesion of leukocytes to the luminal side of the vascular wall and allows for leukocyte polarization, crawling and diapedesis. Leukocyte adhesion, polarization and migration requires the orchestrated regulation of integrin adhesion/de-adhesion dynamics and actin cytoskeleton rearrangements. Adhesion strength depends on conformational changes of integrin molecules (affinity) as well as the number of integrin molecules engaged at adhesion sites (valency). These two processes can be independently regulated and several molecules modulate either one or both processes. Cholesterol-rich membrane domains (lipid rafts) participate in integrin regulation and play an important role in leukocyte adhesion, polarization and motility. In particular, lipid raft-resident glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) have been reported to regulate leukocyte adhesion, polarization and motility in both integrin-dependent and independent manners. Here, we present our recent discovery concerning the novel role of the GPI-AP prion protein (PrP) in the regulation of β1 integrin-mediated monocyte adhesion, migration and shape polarization in the context of existing literature on GPI-AP-dependent regulation of integrins.

  8. Leukocyte Profile in HIV Positive Adults in Owerri, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leukocyte Profile in HIV Positive Adults in Owerri, Nigeria. USB Anyaehie, RO Nneli, P Amadi, ED Nwodobo. Abstract. Leukocyte profile of 102 HIV positive asymptomatic adults (aged 18 – 56 years) in Owerri was compared with that of 80 HIV-negative adults (aged 22 – 50 years). The goal was to define early indicators of ...

  9. Tenocytes, pro-inflammatory cytokines and leukocytes: a relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sadi, Onays; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula; Kohl, Benjamin; Lohan, Anke; Lemke, Marion; Ertel, Wolfgang; John, Thilo

    2012-01-01

    Leukocyte derived pro-inflammatory mediators could be involved in tendon healing and scar formation. Hence, the effect of autologous leukocytes (PBMCs, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and neutrophils) on primary rabbit Achilles tenocytes gene expression was tested in insert assisted co-cultures.

  10. Asymmetric membrane filters for the removal of leukocytes from blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruil, A.; Bruil, A.; van Aken, W.G.; Beugeling, T.; Beugeling, T.; Feijen, Jan; Steneker, I.; Huisman, J.G.; Prins, H.K.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a study on the mechanisms of leukocyte filtration, the influence of pore size distribution on filter efficiency was investigated. Conventional leukocyte filters are not suitable for model studies, as these filters are composed of tightly packed synthetic fibers, with a poorly defined

  11. The effects of stress on the enzymes of peripheral leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leise, E. M.; Gray, I.

    1973-01-01

    Previous work showed an early response of rabbit and human leukocyte enzymes to the stress of bacterial infection. Since these represented a mixed population of leukocytes and since polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) increased in these preparations, it was necessary to establish whether the observed increase in lactate dehydrenase (LDH) and protein was the result of an increase in any one particular cell type or in all cells. The need for the development of a simple reproducible method for the differential separation of peripheral leukocytes for the furtherance of our own studies was apparent. It was also becoming increasingly apparent that morphologically similar cells, such as small lymphocytes (L) and macrophages, were capable of different biological functions. A dextran gradient centrifugation method was developed which has provided an easily reproducible technique for separating L from PMN. During the course of this work, in which over 250 rabbits were examined, the pattern of daily leukocyte protein and enzyme variation became increasingly more apparent. This information could have some impact on future work with leukocyte enzymes, by our group and by other workers. The differences in normal protein and enzyme levels maintained by some individuals, and some inbred strains, were evaluated and reported separately. It has been shown that one type of leukocyte may react more to a given stress than other leukocytes.

  12. Leukocytes Crossing the Endothelium: A Matter of Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Ilse; Daniel, Anna E.; Kroon, Jeffrey; van Buul, Jaap D.

    2016-01-01

    Leukocytes cross the endothelial vessel wall in a process called transendothelial migration (TEM). The purpose of leukocyte TEM is to clear the causing agents of inflammation in underlying tissues, for example, bacteria and viruses. During TEM, endothelial cells initiate signals that attract and

  13. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...

  14. Emotionel Labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Nanna Sofie Garnov; Pedersen, Mette Kofoed; de Wit, Liv Kantsø; Ørndorf, Siri; Dissing, Celina Kyrn

    2017-01-01

    This project arises from the ideas of social constructionist theorist Kenneth J. Gergen and his presentation of Emotional Labeling as presented in his work The saturated self: Dilemmas of identity in contemporary life (1991). And on that note we are examining how emotions are being dealt with in a Danish kindergarten. We investigate what might influence the issue of emotions being taught has on children’s emotional development in everyday life. In order to do so we have conducted observations...

  15. Leukocyte diversity in resolving and nonresolving mechanisms of cardiac remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourki, Bochra; Halade, Ganesh

    2017-10-01

    In response to myocardial infarction (MI), time-dependent leukocyte infiltration is critical to program the acute inflammatory response. Post-MI leukocyte density, residence time in the infarcted area, and exit from the infarcted injury predict resolving or nonresolving inflammation. Overactive or unresolved inflammation is the primary determinant in heart failure pathology post-MI. Here, our review describes supporting evidence that the acute inflammatory response also guides the generation of healing and regenerative mediators after cardiac damage. Time-dependent leukocyte density and diversity and the magnitude of myocardial injury is responsible for the resolving and nonresolving pathway in myocardial healing. Post MI, the diversity of leukocytes, such as neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes, has been explored that regulate the clearance of deceased cardiomyocytes by using the classic and reparative pathways. Among the innovative factors and intermediates that have been recognized as essential in acute the self-healing and clearance mechanism, we highlight specialized proresolving mediators as the emerging factor for post-MI reparative mechanisms-translational leukocyte modifiers, such as aging, the source of leukocytes, and the milieu around the leukocytes. In the clinical setting, it is possible that leukocyte diversity is more prominent as a result of risk factors, such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Pharmacologic agents are critical modifiers of leukocyte diversity in healing mechanisms that may impair or stimulate the clearance mechanism. Future research is needed, with a focused approach to understand the molecular targets, cellular effectors, and receptors. A clear understanding of resolving and nonresolving inflammation in myocardial healing will help to develop novel targets with major emphasis on the resolution of inflammation in heart failure pathology.-Tourki, B., Halade, G. Leukocyte diversity in resolving and nonresolving mechanisms

  16. Classification of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) supertypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Mingjun; Claesson, Mogens H

    2014-01-01

    Identification of new antigenic peptides, derived from infectious agents or cancer cells, which bind to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II molecules, is of importance for the development of new effective vaccines capable of activating the cellular arm of the immune response. However......, the barrier to the development of peptide-based vaccines with maximum population coverage is that the restricting HLA genes are extremely polymorphic resulting in a vast diversity of peptide-binding HLA specificities and a low population coverage for any given peptide-HLA specificity. One way to reduce...... this complexity is to group thousands of different HLA molecules into several so-called HLA supertypes: a classification that refers to a group of HLA alleles with largely overlapping peptide binding specificities. In this chapter, we focus on the state-of-the-art classification of HLA supertypes including HLA...

  17. Leukocyte telomere dynamics in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Troels; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2013-01-01

    of the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. We measured LTL by Southern blots of the terminal restriction fragment length (TRFL) in 476 individuals (73-94 years) in a cross-sectional evaluation and in a subset of this cohort comprising 80 individuals (73-81 years at baseline) who were followed.......010). For the TRFL distribution, which captures telomeres of all lengths in the DNA sample, we observed significant shifts with age toward shorter telomeres. Based on the measurement error of the TRFLs, we computed that in the longitudinal evaluation 10.6 % of individuals would manifest LTL elongation over 10 years......, assuming a 340 bp attrition during this period. This was not significantly different from the empirical observation of 7.5 % of individuals showing LTL elongation. We conclude that accumulation of ultra-short telomeres in leukocytes of the elderly reflects a shift toward shorter telomeres in the entire...

  18. Association of leukocyte telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes with endometrial cancer risk in Caucasian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuhui; Zhang, Liren; Zhao, Lina; Wu, Xifeng; Gu, Jian

    2015-11-01

    Telomeres are the protective structure at the ends of each chromosome and play an important role in maintaining genomic integrity. Interindividual variation of telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes has been associated with the risks of developing many human diseases including several cancers. The association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and endometrial cancer risk is still inconsistent. Using a case-control study of endometrial cancer patients (n = 139) and control subjects (n = 139) in a Caucasian population, we assessed the association of relative LTL with the risk of endometrial cancer. We calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using multivariate logistic regression. We also determined the joint effects of LTL with established risk factors of endometrial cancer. The normalized LTL was significantly longer in endometrial cancer cases (median, 0.93; range, 0.19-1.62) than in controls (median, 0.70; range, 0.03-2.14) (P leukocytes is associated with a significantly increased risk of endometrial cancer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Comparison of labels for Carafate in a gastric ulcer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, L.C.; Fisher, R.S.; Malmud, L.S.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate three radiolabels for the drug Carafate (basic aluminum sucrose octasulfate), which, when ingested orally, is believed to coat gastric ulcers and protect them from digestive enzymes to promote healing. In order to study the mode of action and residence time in the stomach using external imaging, a gamma-emitting label which is truly bound to the molecule is needed. Carafate has been radiolabeled with Se-75, In-111 (both chemically incorporated into the molecule) and with Tc-99m-HSA which physically adheres to Carafate. In the presence of stomach acid, Carafate polymerizes; when the labeled Carafates were mixed in vitro with 0.1N HCl, >90% of the radio-activity was associated with the polymer in the case of Se-75 and Tc-99m, but the In-111 label was less stable (25-35% bound to polymer). The three labeled preparations were administered orally to rats with gastric ulcers, and the transit of each was followed by gamma camera imaging. Gamma camera images confirmed radioactivity remaining at the ulcer site after unbound material had emptied from the stomach, and the focal activity persisted for >5 hours. The stomachs were then removed, washed and dissected at 5.5 hours and in vitro measurements of ulcer crater: normal stomach tissue radioactivity ratios averaged 15.4, 6.3, and 5.6 for the Se-75, In-111, and Tc-99m-HSA labels, respectively. Biodistribution studies of oral Se-75-Carafate in rats and pigs indicated that very little is absorbed from the GI tract and the distribution is similar to that of C-14-Carafate. It is concluded that Se-75 is the best marker for Carafate of these three gamma-emitting labels and Se-75-Carafate is suitable for studying the kinetics of the drug Carafate in human subjects

  20. Recovery and assessment of leukocytes from LR Express filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegehaupt, Abby K; Roufs, Ellen K; Hewitt, Cory R; Killian, Marisela L; Gorbatenko, Oxana; Anderson, Cynthia M; Killian, M Scott

    2017-09-01

    Leukocytes, or white blood cells, are used for a variety of investigational purposes and they offer advantages over laboratory-adapted cell lines. Leukocytes that are typically discarded by blood banks during the collection of red blood cells, platelets, and plasma can often be obtained for research use. However, the available leukocytes are frequently contained within a blood filtration device, such as the Terumo LR Express (TLRE) filter. In this study, procedures were evaluated for the ability to elute viable leukocytes from TLRE filters. The recovered leukocytes were assessed for composition, growth, and functionality. The large majority (>70%) of leukocytes were eluted with a single reverse-elution procedure and the recovered cells contained representative populations of the major leukocyte subsets. Purified T cells exhibited diverse T cell receptor repertoires, characteristic growth upon mitogen stimulation, and CD4 + T cells were able to support HIV-1 propagation. Purified monocytes were able to be differentiated into phenotypically characteristic populations of macrophages and dendritic cells. Overall, TLRE filters offer an attractive source of primary human cells for research and possibly clinical purposes. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Leukocyte count and incidence of hospitalizations due to heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Gunnar; Melander, Olle; Hedblad, Bo

    2009-05-01

    Leukocyte concentration in blood is a classical marker of systemic inflammation. Whether high leukocyte counts are associated with incidence of heart failure (HF) is unknown. This population-based study explored whether the leukocyte concentrations were associated with incidence of hospitalizations due to HF. Leukocyte counts were measured in 16 940 men from the general population (mean age 44 years) without history of myocardial infarction or stroke. Incidence of hospitalizations due to HF (primary diagnosis) was monitored over 23 years of follow-up, in relation to quartiles of leukocytes. Subjects with myocardial infarction during follow-up were censored in the main analysis. During the follow-up, 436 men were hospitalized due to HF. Incidence of HF hospitalizations was increased in men with high leukocyte counts. After adjustments for confounding factors, the adjusted hazards ratio (HR, 95% CI) for HF hospitalization was 1.00 (reference), 1.26 (0.93 to 1.7), 1.24 (0.91 to 1.7), and 1.73 (1.3 to 2.3), respectively, for men with leukocytes in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th (highest) quartiles (trend, Pleukocyte counts in middle-aged men were associated with increased long-term incidence of HF hospitalizations.

  2. Increased circulating leukocyte-derived microparticles in ischemic cerebrovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhangping; Tang, Yanyan; Qin, Chao

    2017-06-01

    Circulating leukocyte-derived microparticles act as proinflammatory mediators that reflect vascular inflammation. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that the quantity of leukocyte-derived microparticles is increased in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases, and investigated utility of various phenotypes of leukocyte-derived microparticles as specific biomarkers of vascular inflammation injury. Additionally we focused on identifying leukocyte-derived microparticles that may be correlated with stroke severity in acute ischemic stroke patients. The plasma concentration of leukocyte-derived microparticles obtained by a series of centrifugations of 76 consecutive patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases and 70 age-, sex-, and race-matched healthy controls were determined by flow cytometry. Significantly elevated numbers of leukocyte (CD45+), monocyte (CD14+), lymphocyte (CD4+), granulocyte (CD15+) derived microparticles were found in the plasma samples of patients ischemic cerebrovascular diseases, compared to healthy controls (pcerebrovascular diseases, compared with healthy controls. As proinflammatory mediators, leukocyte-derived microparticles may contribute to vascular inflammatory and the inflammatory process in acute ischemic stroke. Levels of CD14+ microparticles may be a promising biomarker of ischemic severity and outcome of stroke in the clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrophoretic detection of protein p53 in human leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paponov, V.D.; Kupsik, E.G.; Shcheglova, E.G.; Yarullin, N.N.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have found an acid-soluble protein with mol. wt. of about 53 kD in peripheral blood leukocytes of persons with Down's syndrome. It was present in different quantities in all 20 patients tested, but was virtually not discovered in 12 healthy blood donors. This paper determines the possible identity of this protein with protein p53 from mouse ascites carcinoma by comparing their electrophoretic mobilities, because the accuracy of electrophoretic determination of the molecular weight of proteins is not sufficient to identify them. The paper also describes experiments to detect a protein with electrophoretic mobility identical with that of a protein in the leukocytes of patients with Down's syndrome in leukocytes of patients with leukemia. To discover if protein p53 is involved in cell proliferation, the protein composition of leukocytes from healthy blood donors, cultured in the presence and absence of phytohemagglutinin (PHA), was compared. Increased incorporation of H 3-thymidine by leukocytes of patients with Down's syndrome is explained by the presence of a population of immature leukocytes actively synthesizing DNA in the peripheral blood of these patients, and this can also explain the presence of protein p53 in the leukocytes of these patients

  4. Quantitative Assessment of Myocardial Infarction by In-111 Antimyosin Antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Kyung Han; Choi, Yoon Ho; Chung, June Key; Park, Young Bae; Koh, Chang Soon; Moon, Dae Hyuk

    1991-01-01

    Infarct size is a major determinant of prognosis after acute myocardial infarction. Up to date, however, clinically available tests to estimate this size have not been sufficiently accurate. Twelve lead electrocardiogram and wall motion abnormality measurement are not quantitative, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) measurement is inaccurate in the presence of reperfusion or right ventricular infarction. Methods have been developed to localize and size acute myocardial infarcts with agents that are selectively sequestered in areas of myocardial damage, but previously used agents have lacked sufficient specificity. Antibodies that bind specifically only to damaged myocardial cells may resolve this problem and provide an accurate method for noninvasively measuring infarct size. We determined the accuracy with which infarcted myocardial mass can be measured using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and radiolabeled antimyosin antibodies. Seven patients with acute myocardial infarction and one stable angina patient were injected with 2 mCi of Indium-111 labeled antimyosin antibodies. Planar image and SPECT was performed 24 hours later. None of the patients had history of prior infarcts, and none had undergone reperfusion techniques prior to the study, which was done within 4 days of the attack. Planar image showed all infarct patients to have positive uptakes in the cardiac region. The location of this uptake correlated to the infarct site as indicated by electrocardiography in most of the cases. The angina patient, however, showed no such abnormal uptake. Infarct size was determined from transverse slices of the SPECT image using a 45% threshold value obtained from a phantom study. Measured infarct size ranged from 40 to 192 gr. There was significant correlation between the infarct size measured by SPECT and that estimated from serial measurements of CPK (r=0.73, p<0,05). These date suggest that acute myocardial infarct size can be accurately measured

  5. Synthesis of Diethylpropione Derivatives and Their Leukocyte-Increasing Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chung Gang; Sun, Yi Ping; Wang, Guo Ping; Tan, Xiang Duan [Guilin Medical University, Guilin (China)

    2014-09-15

    In search of new antileukopenia agents, twenty dithiolopyrrolone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their leukocyte-increasing activities in normal mice. Among the synthesized compounds 4-23, compounds 5 and 6 showed significant leukocyte-increasing activity ( p < 0.01), and compounds 4, 9 and 16 had a moderate effect ( p < 0.05). Compound 5 also displayed stronger leukocyte-increasing activity than that of the positive recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF). Above all, compound 5 would be a potential antileukopenia agent which deserved further research.

  6. Preclinical Evaluation of a Novel In-111-Labeled Bombesin Homodimer for Improved Imaging of GRPR-Positive Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlucci, G.; Ananias, H. J. K.; Yu, Z.; Hoving, H. D.; Helfrich, W.; Dierckx, R. A. J. O.; Liu, S.; de Jong, I. J.; Elsinga, P. H.

    Rational-designed multimerization of targeting ligands can be used to improve kinetic and thermodynamic properties. Multimeric targeting ligands may be produced by tethering multiple identical or two or more monomeric ligands of different binding specificities. Consequently, multimeric ligands may

  7. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte elastase in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, N; Elena, M; Deulofeu, R; Chamorro, A

    1999-12-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) are involved in the pathogenesis of acute cerebral ischemia and atherosclerosis. Elastase is one of the proteolytic enzymes released by activated PMNL. We evaluated whether plasma levels of elastase-inhibitor complexes (EIC) are related to acute cerebral damage or with extension of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with stroke. Plasma levels of EIC were determined in 44 patients during acute and chronic phases of stroke. We recorded in all patients vascular risk factors, clinical severity on admission, infarct volume, and extension of carotid atherosclerosis using B-mode ultrasound exam. EIC levels were not different between acute and chronic phases of stroke. Eleven patients (25%) had increased values of EIC. On multiple regression analysis diabetes, dislipemia, and coronary disease were predictors of abnormal EIC levels. EIC levels were not related to neurological severity on admission, infarct volume, or carotid atherosclerosis. EIC levels in stroke patients are associated to the presence of vascular risk factors and may reflect cellular inflammatory aspects of chronic vessel disease. However, whether elastase contributes to the development of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with stroke remains unknown.

  8. Association between Snoring and Leukocyte Telomere Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chol; Yun, Chang-Ho; Yoon, Dae Wui; Baik, Inkyung

    2016-04-01

    Data on the association between snoring and telomere length, an indicator of biological aging, are very limited. Moreover, no polysomnography (PSG) studies on this association in a general population have been conducted. Our study aimed to evaluate the association between snoring and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) using PSG and a questionnaire. A cross-sectional PSG study embedded in a population-based cohort from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study was conducted in 2010-2013. During the same period, questionnaire-based interviews, blood collection, and relative LTL assays were conducted. A total of 887 Korean men and women aged 50-79 y with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) snoring during sleep (% time spent snoring) assessed by PSG was inversely associated with LTL even after adjusting for potential risk factors and AHI. In the linear regression association between tertiles of percentage of time spent snoring and log-transformed LTL, coefficient estimates (P value) were -0.076 (snoring status determined using PSG and questionnaire information, both primary snorers and those with mild sleep apnea (5 ≤ AHI snoring may influence telomere attrition independent of sleep apnea. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. Leukocyte Telomere Length in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Holly J; Janson, Susan L; Lee, Kathryn A

    To compare leukocyte telomere length (LTL) by race and describe demographic, health, and psychosocial factors associated with LTL in postmenopausal women. Descriptive study with comparative analyses and correlations. Data were collected at the University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco Clinical and Translational Science Institute. Thirty-nine African American and White postmenopausal women between 58 and 65 years of age (mean age = 61.3 ± 1.83 years). Measures included demographics, blood pressure, anthropometrics, scores on the Perceived Stress Scale and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression, and blood samples for LTL. African American women (n = 14) had greater PSS-10 and CES-D scores, greater blood pressure, and greater body mass index than White women (n = 25; p stress (p = .036) were related to shorter LTL. Findings from this small sample support the association between age and LTL. The association between perceived stress, number of children, and shorter LTL in postmenopausal women requires further research and replication of findings in a larger, more diverse sample. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bayesian data analysis of the dynamics of rolling leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskopp, Mats Leif; Preuss, Roland; Deussen, Andreas; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Dieterich, Peter

    2013-08-01

    The coordinated recruitment of leukocytes to sites of infection and inflammation is a central process of the immune system and proceeds in several steps. Here we focus on the dynamics of rolling leukocytes obtained from in vitro experiments. Trajectories of rolling leukocytes in small flow chambers are acquired with phase contrast microscopy under different levels of fluid shear stress and a variation of protein coatings of the (adhesive) surfaces. Bayesian data analysis of a random walk model including drift is applied to individual trajectories of leukocytes. The analysis allows the estimation of drift velocities and diffusion coefficients within an uncertainty of about 10% and shows a certain homogeneity of the cell groups. Drift velocities of cells saturate in spite of increasing fluid flow. In addition, the analysis reveals some correlated fluctuations of cells' translocations requiring a refinement of the stochastic model.

  11. Leukocyte depletion during cardiac operation : A new approach through the venous bypass circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, YJ; de Vries, AJ; Vos, P; Boonstra, PW; van Oeveren, W

    Background. Leukocyte depletion recently has been introduced for cardiac surgical patients to attenuate leukocyte-mediated inflammation and organ reperfusion injury. We evaluated the feasibility of a new leukocyte depletion method in which systemic leukocyte depletion is achieved through the venous

  12. Platelet-mediated adhesion facilitates leukocyte sequestration in hypoxia-reoxygenated microvessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Senfeng; Cao, Yanting; Zhang, Wenjian; Liu, Honglin; You, Jia; Yin, Yiqing; Lou, Jinning; Li, Chenghui

    2016-03-01

    Leukocyte transendothelial migration and sequestration are two distinct outcomes following leukocyte adhesion to endothelium during ischemia-reperfusion injury, in which platelets may play a pivotal role. In the present study, we established an in vitro hypoxia-reoxygenation model to mimic ischemia-reperfusion injury and found platelet pre-incubation significantly increased leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells after hyoxia-reoxygenation (over 67%). Blockade of endothelial-cell-expressed adhesion molecules inhibited leukocyte direct adhesion to endothelial cells, while platelet-mediated leukocyte adhesion was suppressed by blockade of platelet-expressed adhesion molecules. Further experiments revealed platelets acted as a bridge to mediate leukocyte adhesion, and platelet-mediated adhesion was the predominant pattern in the presence of platelets. However, platelet pre-incubation significantly suppressed leukocyte transendothelial migration after hypoxia-reoxygenation (over 31%), which could be aggravated by blockade of endothelial-cell-expressed adhesion molecules, but alleviated by blockade of platelet- expressed adhesion molecules. This would indicate that platelet-mediated adhesion disrupted leukocyte transendothelial migration. An in vivo mesenteric ischemia-reperfusion model demonstrated leukocyte transfusion alone caused mild leukocyte adhesion to reperfused vessels and subsequent leukocyte infiltration, while simultaneous leukocyte and platelet transfusion led to massive leukocyte adhesion and sequestration within reperfused microvessels. Our studies revealed platelets enhanced leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, but suppressed leukocyte transendothelial migration. Overall, this leads to leukocyte sequestration in hypoxia-reoxygenated microvessels.

  13. Leukodepletion blood filters: filter design and mechanisms of leukocyte removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzik, S

    1993-04-01

    Modern leukocyte removal filters have been developed after years of refinement in design. Current filters are composite filters in which synthetic microfiber material is prepared as a nonwoven web. The filter material may be surface modified to alter surface tension or charge to improve performance. The housing design promotes effective contact of blood with the filter material and decreases shear forces. The exact mechanisms by which these filters remove leukocytes from blood components are uncertain, but likely represent a combination of both physical and biological processes whose contributions to leukocyte removal are interdependent. Small-pore microfiber webs result in barrier phenomena that permit retention of individual cells and increase the total adsorptive area of the filter. Modifications in surface charge can increase or decrease cell attraction to the fibers. Optimum interfacial surface tensions between blood cells, plasma, and filter fibers not only permit effective blood flow through small fiber pores, but also facilitate cell contact with the material. Barrier retention is a common mechanism for all modern leukocyte-removal filters and applies to all leukocyte subtypes. Because barrier retention does not depend on cell viability, it is operative for cells of any age and will retain any nondeformable cell, including whole nuclei from lymphocytes or monocytes. Barrier retention is supplemented by retention by adhesion. RBCs, lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, and platelets differ in their relative adhesiveness to filter fibers. Different adhesive mechanisms are used in filters designed for RBCs compared with filters designed for platelets. Although lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes can adhere directly to filter fibers, the biological mechanisms underlying cell adhesion may differ for these cell types. These differences may depend on expression of cell adhesion molecules. In the case of filtration of fresh RBCs, platelet-leukocyte interaction

  14. Association between diabetes complications and leukocyte counts in Iranian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradi S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sedigheh Moradi1, Scott Reza Jafarian Kerman2, Farzaneh Rohani1, Fereshteh Salari21Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center (Firouzgar, Hemmat Campus, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, 2Scientific Students Research Committee, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranBackground: The long term complications of diabetes can be fatal. They are also renowned for being an economic burden. Previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between inflammatory markers and complications of diabetes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between leukocyte counts and these complications.Methods: The study included 184 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The study was carried out in Iran during 2007 and 2008. Data collected on the subjects were as follows: age, gender, weight, height, blood pressure, smoking history, lipid profile including low density lipoprotein (LDL, high density lipoprotein (HDL, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and leukocyte count, albuminuria, and retinopathy. Furthermore, information on cardiac history for 100 patients was collected. The subjects were split into two groups according to their leukocyte levels: low (≤7000/mm³ and high (>7000/mm³; and then analyzed by Student's t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test as appropriate.Results: The average leukocyte count in these patients was 7594 ± 1965/mm³. Leukocyte count was significantly different in patients with and without retinopathy and albuminuria (P < 0.0001. According to this analysis, a leukocyte count of 6750/mm³ with a sensitivity of 80.2% and a specificity of 56.4%, and a count of 7550/mm³ with a sensitivity of 63.2% and a specificity of 74.6% indicated at least one diabetes complication.Conclusion: An elevated leukocyte count even within the normal range was associated with chronic complications in type 2 diabetes.Keywords: leukocytes, diabetes complications, inflammation

  15. Contribution for labelling study of blood elements with technetium-99 m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutfilen, B.; Boasquevisque, E.M.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

    1992-01-01

    The contribution for labelling study of blood elements (erythrocytes, leukocytes and plasma proteins) with technetium 99 m, from results obtained in the Biomedical Center of Rio de Janeiro University and in the Research Center of National Institute of Cancer is shown. (C.G.C.)

  16. Physiological levels of testosterone kill salmonid leukocytes in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, C.H.; Schreck, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    Adult spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) elaborate high plasma concentrations of testosterone during sexual maturation, and these levels of testosterone have been shown to reduce the salmonid immune response in vitro. Our search for the mechanism of testosterone's immunosuppressive action has led to the characterization of an androgen receptor in salmonid leukocytes. In the present study we examined the specific effects that testosterone had on salmonid leukocytes. Direct counts of viable leukocytes after incubation with and without physiological levels of testosterone demonstrate a significant loss of leukocytes in cultures exposed to testosterone. At least 5 days of contact with testosterone was required to produce significant immunosuppression and addition of a 'conditioned media' (supernatant from proliferating lymphocytes not exposed to testosterone) did not reverse the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone. These data lead us to conclude that testosterone may exert its immunosuppressive effects by direct action on salmonid leukocytes, through the androgen receptor described, and that this action leads to the death of a significant number of these leukocytes.

  17. Effects of radiolabelled monoclonal antibody infusion on blood leukocytes in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gridley, D.S.; Slater, J.M.; Stickney, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of a single infusion of radiolabelled murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) on peripheral blood leukocytes in cancer patients. Eleven patients with disseminated colon cancer, malignant melanoma, or lung adenocarcinoma were infused with 111In-labelled anti-ZCE 025, anti-p97 type 96.5c, or LA 20207 MAb, respectively. Blood samples were obtained before infusion, immediately after infusion (1 hr), and at 4 and 7 days postinfusion. Flow cytometry analysis of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD16+, and CD19+ lymphocytes showed increasing CD4:CD8 ratios in seven patients after infusion. This phenomenon was not restricted to antibody subclass or to type of cancer. Two of the remaining patients exhibited a marked post-infusion increase in CD8+ cells. In all three patients with malignant melanoma, decreasing levels of CD16+ lymphocytes were noted after infusion and natural killer cell cytotoxicity showed fluctuations which paralleled the changes in the CD16+ subpopulation. Oxygen radical production by phagocytic cells was markedly affected in three subjects. These results suggest that a single infusion of radiolabelled murine MAb may alter the balance of critical lymphocyte subpopulations and modulate other leukocyte responses in cancer patients

  18. Neisseria meningitidis and Escherichia coli are protected from leukocyte phagocytosis by binding to erythrocyte complement receptor 1 in human blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekke, O. L.; Hellerud, B. C.; Christiansen, D.

    2011-01-01

    The initial interaction of Gram-negative bacteria with erythrocytes and its implications on leukocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst in human whole blood were examined. Alexa-labeled Escherichia coli, wild-type H44/76 N. meningitidis and the H44/76lpxA lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-deficient mutant...... no effect on these processes since similar results were obtained using an LPS-deficient N. meningitidis mutant. In vivo experiments in a pig model of sepsis showed limited binding of bacteria to erythrocytes, consistent with the facts that erythrocyte CR1 receptors are absent in non...

  19. C-type natriuretic peptide inhibits leukocyte recruitment and platelet-leukocyte interactions via suppression of P-selectin expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotland, Ramona S.; Cohen, Marc; Foster, Paul; Lovell, Matthew; Mathur, Anthony; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Hobbs, Adrian J.

    2005-10-01

    The multifaceted process of immune cell recruitment to sites of tissue injury is key to the development of an inflammatory response and involved in the pathogenesis of numerous cardiovascular disorders. We recently identified C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) as an important endothelium-derived mediator that regulates vascular tone and protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Herein, we investigated whether CNP inhibits leukocyte recruitment and platelet aggregation and thereby exerts a potential antiinflammatory influence on the blood vessel wall. We assessed the effects of CNP on leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in mouse mesenteric postcapillary venules in vivo in animals with high basal leukocyte activation (endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice, eNOS-/-) or under acute inflammatory conditions (induced by interleukin-1 or histamine). CNP suppressed basal leukocyte rolling in eNOS-/- mice in a rapid, reversible, and concentration-dependent manner. These effects of CNP were mimicked by the selective natriuretic peptide receptor-C agonist cANF4-23. CNP also suppressed leukocyte rolling induced by IL-1 or histamine, inhibited platelet-leukocyte interactions, and prevented thrombin-induced platelet aggregation of human blood. Furthermore, analysis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, leukocytes, and platelets revealed that CNP selectively attenuates expression of P-selectin. Thus, CNP is a modulator of acute inflammation in the blood vessel wall characterized by leukocyte and platelet activation. These antiinflammatory effects appear to be mediated, at least in part, via suppression of P-selectin expression. These observations suggest that endothelial CNP might maintain an anti-atherogenic influence on the blood vessel wall and represent a target for therapeutic intervention in inflammatory cardiovascular disorders. endothelium | natriuretic peptide receptor type C | atherosclerosis | thrombosis

  20. Leukocyte-derived microparticles in vascular homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelillo-Scherrer, Anne

    2012-01-20

    Leukocyte-derived microparticles (LMPs) may originate from neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages, and lymphocytes. They express markers from their parental cells and harbor membrane and cytoplasmic proteins as well as bioactive lipids implicated in a variety of mechanisms, maintaining or disrupting vascular homeostasis. When they carry tissue factor or coagulation inhibitors, they participate in hemostasis and pathological thrombosis. Both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory processes can be affected by LMPs, thus ensuring an appropriate inflammatory response. LMPs also play a dual role in the endothelium by either improving the endothelial function or inducing an endothelial dysfunction. LMPs are implicated in all stages of atherosclerosis. They circulate at a high level in the bloodstream of patients with high atherothrombotic risk, such as smokers, diabetics, and subjects with obstructive sleep apnea, where their prolonged contact with the vessel wall may contribute to its overall deterioration. Numbering microparticles, including LMPs, might be useful in predicting cardiovascular events. LMPs modify the endothelial function and promote the recruitment of inflammatory cells in the vascular wall, necessary processes for the progression of the atherosclerotic lesion. In addition, LMPs favor the neovascularization within the vulnerable plaque and, in the ruptured plaque, they take part in coagulation and platelet activation. Finally, LMPs participate in angiogenesis. They might represent a novel therapeutic tool to reset the angiogenic switch in pathologies with altered angiogenesis. Additional studies are needed to further investigate the role of LMPs in cardiovascular diseases. However, large-scale studies are currently difficult to set up because microparticle measurement still requires elaborate techniques which lack standardization.

  1. Figuring Out Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beware of. Using Food Labels for a Well-Balanced Diet Here are some guidelines on using food labels ... food label smarts to create a healthy, well-balanced diet. It might seem complicated at first, but it ...

  2. Understanding Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...

  3. Comparison of autologous 111In-leukocytes, 18F-FDG, 11C-methionine, 11C-PK11195 and 68Ga-citrate for diagnostic nuclear imaging in a juvenile porcine haematogenous Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Lerberg; Afzelius, Pia; Bender, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare (111)In-labeled leukocyte single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to PET with tracers that potentially could improve detection of osteomyelitis. We chose (11)C-methionine, (11......)Ga-citrate in four and (11)C-PK11195 accumulated in only one lesion. Overall, (18)F-FDG PET was superior to (111)In-leukocyte SPECT in marking infectious and proliferative, i.e. hyperplastic, lesions. However, leukocyte SPECT was performed as early scans, approximately 6 h after injection...

  4. Scintigraphic detection of gastric and pancreatic carcinomas with In-111 ZCE 025 monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Nabi, H.H.; Schwartz, A.N.; Wechter, D.G.; Higano, C.S.; Ortman-Nabi, J.A.; Unger, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    We have evaluated the role of In-111 anti-CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) monoclonal antibody ZCE 025 in 8 patients. Three patients had a confirmed diagnosis of gastric carcinoma. Three had a confirmed diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. Two patients had elevated serum levels of CEA with no known primary. Each patient received 5.5 mCi In-111 ZCE 025 infused at doses of 10-80 mg. Planar and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging at 3 and 7 days after infusion detected 9 of 12 known tumor sites and all 5 of the previously identified sites of metastasis. In-111 ZCE 025 MoAb imaging also found 6 previously unsuspected tumor sites and changed the preoperative evaluation in 50% of the patients studied. It changed the clinical management in 2 patients and established the site of primary involvement in 2 others. There were no clinical or biochemical reactions. In-111 ZCE 025 monoclonal antibody scintigraphy is a useful adjunct in the evaluation of patients with either gastric or pancreatic carcinoma. It may have a beneficial impact on the surgical decision making in these patients

  5. Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3 Is an Endogenous Activator of the MMP-9 Secreted by Placental Leukocytes: Implication in Human Labor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Flores-Pliego

    Full Text Available The activity of matrix degrading enzymes plays a leading role in the rupture of the fetal membranes under normal and pathological human labor, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 it is considered a biomarker of this event. To gain further insight into local MMP-9 origin and activation, in this study we analyzed the contribution of human placental leukocytes to MMP-9 secretion and explored the local mechanisms of the pro-enzyme activation.Placental blood leukocytes were obtained from women at term gestation without labor and maintained in culture up to 72 h. MMP-9 activity in the culture supernatants was determined by zymography and using a specific substrate. The presence of a potential pro-MMP-9 activator in the culture supernatants was monitored using a recombinant biotin-labeled human pro-MMP-9. To characterize the endogenous pro-MMP-9 activator, MMP-1, -3, -7 and -9 were measured by multiplex assay in the supernatants, and an inhibition assay of MMP-9 activation was performed using an anti-human MMP-3 and a specific MMP-3 inhibitor. Finally, production of MMP-9 and MMP-3 in placental leukocytes obtained from term pregnancies with and without labor was assessed by immunofluorescence.Placental leukocytes spontaneously secreted pro-MMP-9 after 24 h of culture, increasing significantly at 48 h (P≤0.05, when the active form of MMP-9 was detected. Culture supernatants activated the recombinant pro-MMP-9 showing that placental leukocytes secrete the activator. A significant increase in MMP-3 secretion by placental leukocytes was observed since 48 h in culture (P≤0.05 and up to 72 h (P≤0.001, when concentration reached its maximum value. Specific activity of MMP-9 decreased significantly (P≤0.005 when an anti-MMP-3 antibody or a specific MMP-3 inhibitor were added to the culture media. Placental leukocytes from term labor produced more MMP-9 and MMP-3 compared to term non-labor cells.In this work we confirm that placental leukocytes from

  6. Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) Is an Endogenous Activator of the MMP-9 Secreted by Placental Leukocytes: Implication in Human Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Pliego, Arturo; Espejel-Nuñez, Aurora; Castillo-Castrejon, Marisol; Meraz-Cruz, Noemi; Beltran-Montoya, Jorge; Zaga-Clavellina, Veronica; Nava-Salazar, Sonia; Sanchez-Martinez, Maribel; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Estrada-Gutierrez, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    The activity of matrix degrading enzymes plays a leading role in the rupture of the fetal membranes under normal and pathological human labor, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) it is considered a biomarker of this event. To gain further insight into local MMP-9 origin and activation, in this study we analyzed the contribution of human placental leukocytes to MMP-9 secretion and explored the local mechanisms of the pro-enzyme activation. Placental blood leukocytes were obtained from women at term gestation without labor and maintained in culture up to 72 h. MMP-9 activity in the culture supernatants was determined by zymography and using a specific substrate. The presence of a potential pro-MMP-9 activator in the culture supernatants was monitored using a recombinant biotin-labeled human pro-MMP-9. To characterize the endogenous pro-MMP-9 activator, MMP-1, -3, -7 and -9 were measured by multiplex assay in the supernatants, and an inhibition assay of MMP-9 activation was performed using an anti-human MMP-3 and a specific MMP-3 inhibitor. Finally, production of MMP-9 and MMP-3 in placental leukocytes obtained from term pregnancies with and without labor was assessed by immunofluorescence. Placental leukocytes spontaneously secreted pro-MMP-9 after 24 h of culture, increasing significantly at 48 h (P≤0.05), when the active form of MMP-9 was detected. Culture supernatants activated the recombinant pro-MMP-9 showing that placental leukocytes secrete the activator. A significant increase in MMP-3 secretion by placental leukocytes was observed since 48 h in culture (P≤0.05) and up to 72 h (P≤0.001), when concentration reached its maximum value. Specific activity of MMP-9 decreased significantly (P≤0.005) when an anti-MMP-3 antibody or a specific MMP-3 inhibitor were added to the culture media. Placental leukocytes from term labor produced more MMP-9 and MMP-3 compared to term non-labor cells. In this work we confirm that placental leukocytes from human term

  7. Heparan sulphate as a regulator of leukocyte recruitment in inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Archana V; Katakam, Sampath K; Urbanowitz, Ann-Kathrin; Gotte, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A key event in inflammatory disease is the transendothelial recruitment of leukocytes from the circulation to the site of inflammation. Intense research in the past decades indicates that the polyanionic carbohydrate heparan sulphate (HS) modulates multiple steps in the leukocyte recruitment cascade. Leukocyte recruitment is initiated by endothelial cell activation and presentation of chemokines to rolling leukocytes, which, via integrin activation, results in adhesion and diapedesis through the vessel wall. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) immobilize the chemokines on the luminal endothelial cells, rendering them more robust against mechanical or hydrodynamic perturbations. During inflammation, endothelial HSPGs serve as ligands to L-selectin on leukocytes, transport chemokines in a basolateral to apical direction across the endothelium, and present chemokines at the luminal surface of the endothelium to circulating cells. HSPGs also promote chemokine oligomerization, which influences chemokine receptor signaling. Furthermore, proteoglycans of the syndecan family are involved in modulating integrin-mediated tight adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelium. Creation of a chemokine gradient by a localized chemokine release influences the speed of leukocyte recruitment from the blood to the tissue by attracting crawling neutrophils to optimal sites for transmigration. The directionality of intraluminal crawling is thought to be influenced by both mechanotactic and haptotactic signals, which are modulated by HS-dependent signaling processes. Finally, diapedesis is influenced by HS regarding transendothelial chemokine gradient formation and integrin- CAM interactions, and further enhanced by heparanase-mediated degradation of the endothelial basement membrane. Overall, the multifunctional role of HS in inflammation marks it as a potential target of glycan-centered therapeutic approaches.

  8. Insulin radioreceptor assay on murine splenic leukocytes and peripheral erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, F.; Kahn, R.

    1982-01-01

    Insulin radioreceptor assays were developed using splenic leukocytes and peripheral erythrocytes from individual mice. Splenic leukocytes were prepared using an NH 4 Cl buffer which did not alter insulin binding, but gave much higher yields than density gradient methods. Mouse erythrocytes were isolated from heparinized blood by three passages over a Boyum gradient, and a similar buffer was used to separate cells from free [ 125 I]iodoinsulin at the end of the binding incubation. Insulin binding to both splenic leukocytes and peripheral erythrocytes had typical pH, temperature, and time dependencies, and increased linearly with an increased number of cells. Optimal conditions for the splenic leukocytes (6 x 10 7 /ml) consisted of incubation with [ 125 I]iodoinsulin at 15 C for 2 h in Hepes buffer, pH 8.0. In cells from 20 individual mice, the specific [ 125 I]iodoinsulin binding was 2.6 +/- 0.1% (SEM), and nonspecific binding was 0.3 +/- 0.04% (10.6% of total binding). Erythrocytes (2.8 x 10 9 /ml) were incubated with [ 125 ]iodoinsulin at 15 C for 2 h in Hepes buffer, pH 8.2. In cells from 25 individual mice, the specific [ 125 I]iodoinsulin binding was 4.5 +/- 0.2%, and nonspecific binding was 0.7 +/- 0.03% (13.6% of total binding). In both splenic leukocytes and peripheral erythrocytes, analysis of equilibrium binding data produced curvilinear Scatchard plots with approximately 3500 binding sites/leukocyte and 20 binding sites/erythrocyte. These data demonstrate that adequate numbers of splenic leukocytes and peripheral erythrocytes can be obtained from individual mice to study insulin binding in a precise and reproducible manner

  9. Semen leukocytes and oxidative-dependent DNA damage of spermatozoa in male partners of subfertile couples with no symptoms of genital tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micillo, A; Vassallo, M R C; Cordeschi, G; D'Andrea, S; Necozione, S; Francavilla, F; Francavilla, S; Barbonetti, A

    2016-09-01

    The influence of seminal leukocytes on generation of oxidative damage to sperm DNA was here investigated on male partners of subfertile couples asymptomatic for a genital tract infection. The study included 111 ejaculates from men attending the Andrology Centre at University of L'Aquila. Semen leukocytes subset included round cells expressing pan-leukocyte CD45 antigen, monocyte/macrophage lineage antigen CD14, and activated macrophages HLA-DR antigen. The 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) expression identified spermatozoa with DNA oxidative adducts while terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated fluorescein-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay detected spermatozoa with DNA fragmentation. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry was used for determinations. Main outcome measure was the association of semen leukocyte subpopulations with spermatozoa showing oxidative-related DNA damage and with routine semen parameters. Leukocyte subpopulations were strictly correlated (p spermatozoa. The percentage of 8-OHdG-positive spermatozoa was positively correlated with the percentage of TUNEL-positive spermatozoa (r = 0.48; p spermatozoa independently contributed (β = -0.25, p = 0.008; β = 0.23, p = 0.05, respectively) to the variation in percentage of 8-OHdG-positive spermatozoa after adjusting for age, abstinence time, and smoking. In conclusion, oxidative-dependent DNA damage in spermatozoa was associated to poor semen quality but not to different leukocyte subpopulations in ejaculates of men asymptomatic for a genital tract infection. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  10. Crossing the Vascular Wall: Common and Unique Mechanisms Exploited by Different Leukocyte Subsets during Extravasation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnoor, Michael; Alcaide, Pilar; Voisin, Mathieu-Benoit; van Buul, Jaap D

    2015-01-01

    Leukocyte extravasation is one of the essential and first steps during the initiation of inflammation. Therefore, a better understanding of the key molecules that regulate this process may help to develop novel therapeutics for treatment of inflammation-based diseases such as atherosclerosis or rheumatoid arthritis. The endothelial adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are known as the central mediators of leukocyte adhesion to and transmigration across the endothelium. Engagement of these molecules by their leukocyte integrin receptors initiates the activation of several signaling pathways within both leukocytes and endothelium. Several of such events have been described to occur during transendothelial migration of all leukocyte subsets, whereas other mechanisms are known only for a single leukocyte subset. Here, we summarize current knowledge on regulatory mechanisms of leukocyte extravasation from a leukocyte and endothelial point of view, respectively. Specifically, we will focus on highlighting common and unique mechanisms that specific leukocyte subsets exploit to succeed in crossing endothelial monolayers.

  11. Crossing the Vascular Wall: Common and Unique Mechanisms Exploited by Different Leukocyte Subsets during Extravasation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schnoor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte extravasation is one of the essential and first steps during the initiation of inflammation. Therefore, a better understanding of the key molecules that regulate this process may help to develop novel therapeutics for treatment of inflammation-based diseases such as atherosclerosis or rheumatoid arthritis. The endothelial adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are known as the central mediators of leukocyte adhesion to and transmigration across the endothelium. Engagement of these molecules by their leukocyte integrin receptors initiates the activation of several signaling pathways within both leukocytes and endothelium. Several of such events have been described to occur during transendothelial migration of all leukocyte subsets, whereas other mechanisms are known only for a single leukocyte subset. Here, we summarize current knowledge on regulatory mechanisms of leukocyte extravasation from a leukocyte and endothelial point of view, respectively. Specifically, we will focus on highlighting common and unique mechanisms that specific leukocyte subsets exploit to succeed in crossing endothelial monolayers.

  12. Contour Detection of Leukocyte Cell Nucleus Using Morphological Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyanti, R.; Satrio, G. P.; Ramadhani, Y.; Siswandari, W.

    2017-04-01

    Leukocytes are blood cells that do not contain color pigments. Leukocyte function to the tool body’s defenses. Abnormal forms of leukocytes can be a sign of serious diseases such example is leukemia. Most laboratories still use cell morphology examination to assist the diagnosis of illness associated with white blood cells such example is leukemia because of limited resources, both infrastructure, and human resources as happens in developing nations, such as Indonesia. This examination is less expensive and quicker process. However, morphological review requires the expertise of a specialist clinical pathology were limited. This process is sometimes less valid cause in some cases trying to differentiate morphology blast cells into the type of myoblasts, lymphoblast, monoblast, or erythroblast thus potentially misdiagnosis. The goal of this research is to develop a detection device types of blood cells automatically as lower-priced, easy to use and accurate so that the tool can be distributed across all units in existing health services throughout Indonesia and in particular for remote areas. However, because the variables used in the identification of abnormal leukocytes are very complex, in this paper, we emphasize on the contour detection of leukocyte cell nucleus using the morphological image. The results show that this method is promising for further development.

  13. Flow cytometric method for enumeration and characterization of newly released polymorphonuclear leukocytes from the bone marrow using 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chih-Horng; Whalen, Beth A; Goto, Yukinobu; Hogg, James C; van Eeden, Stephan F

    2005-09-01

    Inflammation accelerates polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) release from the bone marrow, and these PMNs are implicated in inappropriate tissue injury. We have previously developed a method using 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to study PMN kinetics using an immunocytochemical grading system of PMN on cytospin slides. The aim of this study was to develop a flow cytometric method to quantify the number of positively stained PMN and grade the intensity of staining for the transit time calculation of PMN through the marrow. Dividing myeloid progenitors in the marrow of rabbits were labeled with a pulse dosage of intravenous BrdU. BrdU-labeled PMN (PMN(BrdU)) were detected in the circulation using a FITC-conjugated anti-BrdU monoclonal antibody. The PMN(BrdU) were assigned to five groups according to their FITC intensity, and the transit times of PMN at different stages of development in the marrow were calculated. Results were compared using parallel immunocytochemical analysis of the same samples. In control animals, PMN(BrdU) in the circulation peaked at 72 h after BrdU labeling with 36.0% of PMN labeled. In normal rabbits, the transit times of PMN through the mitotic pool (49.5 +/- 4.2 h) and maturation pool (65.5 +/- 3.1 h) correlated well with immunocytochemical analysis and previously published values. Using this method, we demonstrated that exposure to air pollution particles accelerates the release of PMN(BrdU) from the marrow. We conclude that a flow cytometric approach for identifying BrdU-labeled leukocytes provides an objective and accurate method for studying leukocyte kinetics and behavior.

  14. Iodine-125 metaraminol: A new platelet specific labeling agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmomo, Y.; Yokoyama, A.; Kawaii, K.; Horiuchi, K.; Saji, H.; Torizuka, K.

    1984-01-01

    In the search for a platelet specific labeling agent, Metaraminol (MA), which is a sympatomimetic amine used for the treatment of hypotension, cardiogenic shock and well recognized as a drug actively incorporated and accumulated in platelet, attracted the authors' attention. Using the classical chloramine-T iodination method, a high labeling efficiency near 98%, reaching a specific activity up to about 1000 Ci/mmole was obtained. Upon the harvest of platelet, only as platelet rich plasma (PRP), the labeling with this radiopharmaceutical was easily performed by incubation at 37 0 C for 10 min. Labeling efficiency as high as 63.0 +- 3.1% at 24 x 10/sup 8/ cells/ml was obtained. In in-vitro studies, the unaltered state of I-125 MA labeled platelet, with their cellular functions fully retained was demonstrated. Pharmacological study indicated a specific incorporation of I-125 MA by active transport system similar to that of 5-HT, along with passive diffusion. Then the in-vivo study carried out in rabbits with induced thrombi on the femoral artery, showed rather rapid disappearance of the I-125 MA labeled autologous platelet radioactivity, from circulating blood reaching as high thrombus-to-blood activity ratio as 19.8+-4.3 within 30 min post-administration. This new platelet labeling agent, I-125 MA, has many advantages over the use of IN-111 oxine and holds considerable promise for thrombus imaging with single photon emission CT upon the availability of I-123 MA

  15. [Effect of ZL-004 on raising leukocyte count].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hai-Yan; Li, Chun-Gang; Xiao, Lin; Wang, Guo-Ping; Liu, Quan-Hai

    2010-06-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of ZL-004 on normal mouse and mice with leukopenia induced by chemotherapeutic agents. 5-Fluorouracil were administered intraperitoneally to mice to develop leucopenia, and the mice were treated with ZL-004. The number of peripheral leukocytes and the percentage of granulocyte in total WBC were examined. The results are that ZL-004 markedly raise peripheral blood leukocytes in the normal mice and the mice model of leukopenia. So, ZL-004 could protect mice against 5-fluorouracil damage and raise peripheral blood leukocyte. Features of bone marrow smears is myeloproliferative hyperactivity in the mice, particularly the matured granulocytic series were observed. The mechanism of ZL-004 is to act on the mouse bone marrow causing proliferation and differentiation.

  16. Mixed Map Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Löffler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Point feature map labeling is a geometric visualization problem, in which a set of input points must be labeled with a set of disjoint rectangles (the bounding boxes of the label texts. It is predominantly motivated by label placement in maps but it also has other visualization applications. Typically, labeling models either use internal labels, which must touch their feature point, or external (boundary labels, which are placed outside the input image and which are connected to their feature points by crossing-free leader lines. In this paper we study polynomial-time algorithms for maximizing the number of internal labels in a mixed labeling model that combines internal and external labels. The model requires that all leaders are parallel to a given orientation θ ∈ [0, 2π, the value of which influences the geometric properties and hence the running times of our algorithms.

  17. Industrial Robot Label Applicator

    OpenAIRE

    Kukasch, Kai

    2017-01-01

    The thesis deals with a project carried out for developing and setting up a robot label applicator system. The requirement was that RFID tracking labels can be applied on flexible positions, without manual effort and rearrangement, via programming. The purpose of the robot label applicator system is to increase the efficiency in production sites, where the RFID label position can change, depending on product or other reasons. New label positions should be programmed easily with a human-m...

  18. In Vivo Quantitation of Local Anesthetic Suppression of Leukocyte Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddon, D. B.; Lindhe, J.

    1972-01-01

    Using intravital microscopy, topically applied amide-type local anesthetics suppressed the adherence of leukocytes to the venular endothelium within surgical defects in the hamster cheek pouch. The response was reversible with physiologic saline and was localized to venules within the defect. Quantitation in terms of the percent of initially adhering leukocytes remaining in place on the venule wall at each minute following application of lidocaine and physiologic saline, respectively, revealed the suppression to be reliably related to the concentration, viz: 20.0 >10.0 >5.0 >0.0 mg ml of commercially available Xylocaine® (lidocaine) HCl. ImagesFig 1Fig 1 PMID:5049429

  19. High-temperature method of rapid separation of In-111 from irradiated silver targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazgaj, Z.; Kolaczkowski, A.; Mikulski, J.; Novgorodov, A.F.; Zielinski, A.; Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna

    1990-01-01

    A high-temperature method of separation of In-111 from α-particle activated silver targets was developed. The separation is carried out under reduced pressure, in the atmosphere of HCl and H 2 O vapours. Indium-111, adsorbed on a quartz collector, is washed out quantitatively with 0.1 N HCl. The contaminant, Cd-109 (product of decay of In-109), is removed from the preparation by means of ion-exchange chromatography. 4 tabs., 6 refs. (author)

  20. Indium-111 autologous tagged leukocytes in the diagnosis of intraperitoneal sepsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascher, N.L.; Ahrenholz, D.H.; Simmons, R.L.; Weiblen, B.; Gomez, L.; Forstrom, L.A.; Frick, M.P.; Henke, C.; McCullough, J.

    1979-04-01

    The results of a new test using indium oxine in the diagnosis of postoperative infection are reported. Indium-111 was used to label autologous polymorphonuclear leukocytes, which when reinjected migrate to sites of infection and inflammation. Standard scintigraphy localizes the labeled inflammatory cells at these sites. Sixty-six scans were performed in 43 surgical patients. Thirty-seven scans were categorized as true-positive; 19 scans were categorized as true-negative. Therefore, the accuracy rate was 85%. Two scans (3%) in one patient represented false-positive results. Two scans (3%) were positive for inflammation but there was no infection present; this group was denoted as equivocal. Six scans (9%) were false-negative; false-negative scans are more likely in old lesions with poor blood supply and in areas that overlap regions of normal uptake. The noninvasive nature of the test, high accuracy rate, and ease of administration make it a potentially useful tool in the diagnosis of postoperative infection.

  1. Indium-111 autologous tagged leukocytes in the diagnosis of intraperitoneal sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascher, N.L.; Ahrenholz, D.H.; Simmons, R.L.; Weiblen, B.; Gomez, L.; Forstrom, L.A.; Frick, M.P.; Henke, C.; McCullough, J.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a new test using indium oxine in the diagnosis of postoperative infection are reported. Indium-111 was used to label autologous polymorphonuclear leukocytes, which when reinjected migrate to sites of infection and inflammation. Standard scintigraphy localizes the labeled inflammatory cells at these sites. Sixty-six scans were performed in 43 surgical patients. Thirty-seven scans were categorized as true-positive; 19 scans were categorized as true-negative. Therefore, the accuracy rate was 85%. Two scans (3%) in one patient represented false-positive results. Two scans (3%) were positive for inflammation but there was no infection present; this group was denoted as equivocal. Six scans (9%) were false-negative; false-negative scans are more likely in old lesions with poor blood supply and in areas that overlap regions of normal uptake. The noninvasive nature of the test, high accuracy rate, and ease of administration make it a potentially useful tool in the diagnosis of postoperative infection

  2. The Effect of Hemiscorpius lepturus (Scorpionida: Hemiscorpiidae Venom on Leukocytes and the Leukocyte Subgroups in Peripheral Blood of Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Ghafourian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Hemiscorpius lepturus venom on leukocytes and the leukocyte subgroups in peripheral blood of rat.Methods: In this experimental study, sixty N-Mari rats were divided into three groups of 20 rats. Then the rats in each group were divided into four subgroups based on the blood sampling time that was 2, 6, 24 and 48 hours after the venom injection, respectively. The control group did not receive anything, however, the first and the second ex­perimental groups received 0.1 and 0.01mg/kg of venom, subcutaneously. In accordance with a designated four sam­pling times, the blood sampling was carried out in three groups. After RBC lysis, the leukocytes and leukocyte sub­populations were determined and counted using appropriate hematological standard methods.Results: The leukocyte and the neutrophil count at two (P<0.05, six (P<0.01 and 24 (P<0.05 hours after the venom injection showed a significant decline compared with the control group, this decrease was significant at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg until 48 hours after the venom injection (P<0.05. The lymphocyte count showed a significant decline throughout the all hours of the experiment, compared with the control group (P<0.05.Conclusion: Leukocytes are probably affected by the cytotoxicity effect of the H. lepturus venom in a dose-dependent manner. This could be a wakeup call for the medical staff to perform quick and accurate treatment in the least time possible.

  3. Cytoplasmic lipid bodies of human neutrophilic leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, P.F.; Ackerman, S.J.; Nicholson-Weller, A.; Dvorak, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    The morphology and function of cytoplasmic lipid bodies in human neutrophils were evaluated. By transmission electron microscopy, neutrophil lipid bodies were cytoplasmic inclusions, usually several microns in diameter, that occasionally coalesced to attain a diameter up to 7 microM. Neutrophil lipid bodies were not enveloped by membrane but were often surrounded by a more electron-dense shell at their periphery. Normal peripheral blood neutrophils contained an average of approximately one lipid body per cell. Lipid bodies appeared in greater numbers in neutrophils from inflammatory lesions. Perturbation of neutrophils during conventional methods of cell isolation and purification modestly increased lipid body numbers in neutrophils, whereas incubation of neutrophils with 1 microM oleic acid rapidly induced lipid body formation over 30 to 60 minutes. After granulocytes were incubated for 2 hours with 3H-fatty acids, including arachidonic, oleic, and palmitic acids, electron microscopic autoradiography demonstrated that lipid bodies represented the predominant intracellular sites of localization of each of the three 3H-fatty acids. There was lesser labeling noted in the perinuclear cisterna, but not in cell membranes. Virtually all of each of the three 3H-fatty acids incorporated by the neutrophils were esterified into chromatographically resolved classes of neutral lipids or phospholipids. These findings indicate that cytoplasmic lipid bodies are more prominent in neutrophils in vivo engaged in inflammatory responses and that these organelles in human neutrophils function as sites of deposition of esterified, incorporated fatty acids

  4. Roflumilast inhibits leukocyte-platelet interactions and prevents the prothrombotic functions of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totani, L; Amore, C; Di Santo, A; Dell'Elba, G; Piccoli, A; Martelli, N; Tenor, H; Beume, R; Evangelista, V

    2016-01-01

    ESSENTIALS: Thrombosis is a major comorbidity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Roflumilast is a selective phosphodiesterase type-4 (PDE4) inhibitor approved for treatment of severe COPD. PDE4 blockade by roflumilast inhibits prothrombotic functions of neutrophils and monocytes. PDE4 inhibitors may reduce thrombotic risk in COPD as well as in other vascular diseases. Roflumilast, an oral selective phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor, is approved for the treatment of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A recent meta-analysis of trials on COPD revealed that treatment with roflumilast was associated with a significant reduction in the rate of major cardiovascular events. The mechanisms of this effect remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis that roflumilast N-oxide (RNO), the active metabolite of roflumilast, curbs the molecular mechanisms required for leukocyte-platelet (PLT) interactions and prevents the prothrombotic functions of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and monocytes (MNs). Using well-characterized in vitro models, we analysed the effects of RNO on: (i) PMN adhesiveness; (ii) the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs); and (iii) tissue factor expression in MNs. Key biochemical events underlying the inhibitory effects of RNO were defined. In PMNs, RNO prevented phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473, and Src family kinase (SFK)-mediated Pyk2 phosphorylation on Tyr579-580, while inducing protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of C-terminal Src kinase, the major negative regulator of SFKs. Modulation of these signaling pathways by RNO resulted in a significant impairment of PMN adhesion to activated PLTs or human umbilical vein endothelial cells, mainly mediated by inhibition of the adhesive function of Mac-1. Moreover RNO curbed SFK/PI3K-mediated NET release by PMNs adherent on fibrinogen-coated surfaces. In MNs interacting with activated PLTs, RNO curbed PI3K

  5. Leukocyte depletion results in improved lung function and reduced inflammatory response after cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, YJ; Boonstra, PW; vanOeveren, W

    Leukocyte depletion during cardiopulmonary bypass has been demonstrated in animal experiments to improve pulmonary function, Conflicting results have been reported, however, with clinical depletion by arterial line filter of leukocytes at the beginning of cardiopulmonary bypass. In this study, we

  6. Preparation and surface labeling of murine eosinophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, A.W.; Cruise, K.M.; Mitchell, G.F.; Watt, S.M.

    1980-01-01

    Eosinophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes were isolated from the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice infected with the parasite Mesocestoides corti. Approximately 4 x 10 7 eosinophils (purity, 50%) could be harvested from each mouse. A high yield and purity of eosinophils was obtained from the peritoneal cells of infected male BALB/c mice using density centrifugation on a gradient of slightly hypotonic colloidal silica sol (Percoll). After initial irradiation of the mice to lower the lymphocyte contamination, subsequent density gradient (and where nescessary sedimentation velocity) centrifugation yielded 10 8 eosinophils (purity >95%) from six to eight mice. It was also possible to isolate small numbers of eosinophils (2 x 10 4 cells/minute, purity >99%) without irradiating the mice. This could be achieved by separating the density gradient purified peritoneal cells by light-scatter on a Becton-Dickinson cell sorter (FACS II). Analysis of proteins extracted from eosinophils using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate revealed a group of high molecular weight proteins (between 250K and 160K) which were not as distinctive in the neutrophil profile. Surface labeling was performed, before the cell separation, by using 125 I and 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-3α,6α-diphenylglycoluril. Only five 125 I-labeled proteins were detected initially (all with apparent molecular weights >50,000). No 125 I appeared to be associated with actin under the conditions used for surface labeling. Four of the eosinophil surface labeled proteins corresponded to surface labeled proteins on neutrophils, but the major surface component of the eosinophils (MW 79,000) appeared to be smaller than the major neutrophil protein (MW 90,000). (author)

  7. Synthesizing labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, R.E.; Matwiyoff, N.A.; Unkefer, C.J.; Walker, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    A metabolic study is presented of the chemical reactions provided by isotopic labeling and NMR spectroscopy. Synthesis of 13 C-labeled D-glucose, a 6-carbon sugar, involves adding a labeled nitrile group to the 5-carbon sugar D-arabinose by reaction with labeled hydrogen cyanide. The product of this reaction is then reduced and hydrolyzed to a mixture of the labeled sugars. The two sugars are separated by absorption chromotography. The synthesis of 13 C-labeled L-tyrosine, an amino acid, is also presented

  8. Changes In Peripheral Leukocyte And Body Fluids Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the peripheral leukocyte count and the presence of microfilariae in the body fluids of onchocerciasis patients treated with ivermectin. Fifty-three patients over the age 10 years were selected from Ipogun, an onchocerciasis endemic area in Ondo State, Nigeria. Before and after treatment, all patients ...

  9. Assessment Of Leukocyte Esterase Dipstick Test In Diagnosis Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a prospective study of urinary tract infection in 65 children (38 males and 27 females, M: F ratio 1: 0.7). Urine samples were evaluated by culture, microscopy and leukocyte esterase dipstick test. Positive urine culture, with significant bacteriuria was found in 19(29.2%). Urine microscopy for leukocyturia identified ...

  10. Leukocyte profile of adult Nigerian subjects with acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Leukocyte levels are evidently useful in trauma assessment, prognostication and management.1 Leukocytosis is a known physiologic response to trauma 2 but suggested to be absent among Africans origin3. The aim of present study is to investigate the existence of leukocytosis among adult Nigerians who ...

  11. Differential MSC activation leads to distinct mononuclear leukocyte binding mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, Daniel J.; Dicarlo, Bryan; Hetz, Robert A.; Smith, Philippa; Cox, Charles S.; Olson, Scott D.

    2014-04-01

    Advances in the field of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal cell (MSC) biology have demonstrated that MSCs can improve disease outcome when `activated' to exert immunomodulatory effects. However, the precise mechanisms modulating MSC-immune cells interactions remain largely elusive. In here, we activated MSC based on a recent polarization paradigm, in which MSCs can be polarized towards a pro- or anti-inflammatory phenotype depending on the Toll-like receptor stimulated, to dissect the mechanisms through which MSCs physically interact with and modulate leukocytes in this context. Our data show that MSCs activated through the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 pathway increased VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 dependent binding of leukocytes. On the other hand, TLR3 stimulation strongly increases leukocytes affinity to MSC comparatively, through the formation of cable-like hyaluronic acid structures. In addition, TLR4 activation elicited secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators by MSCs, whereas TLR3-activated MSCs displayed a milder pro-inflammatory phenotype, similar to inactivated MSCs. However, the differently activated MSCs maintained their ability to suppress leukocyte activation at similar levels in our in vitro model, and this immunomodulatory property was shown here to be partially mediated by prostaglandin. These results reinforce the concept that alternate activation profiles control MSC responses and may impact the therapeutic use of MSCs.

  12. Leukocyte telomere length dynamics in women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgård, Christine; Benetos, Athanase; Verhulst, Simon

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A longer leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in women than men has been attributed to a slow rate of LTL attrition in women, perhaps due to high estrogen exposure during the premenopausal period. METHODS: To test this premise we performed a longitudinal study (an average follow-up of 12...

  13. Longitudinal Changes in Leukocyte Telomere Length and Mortality in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Laila; Thinggaard, Mikael; Fenger, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) ostensibly shortens with age and has been moderately associated with mortality. In humans, these findings have come almost solely from cross-sectional studies. Only recently has LTL shortening within individuals been analyzed in longitudinal studies. Such studies...

  14. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphism and type 1 diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune multifactorial disease which has a great socio-economic impact. In Morocco, less is known about the contribution of Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles to type 1 diabetes susceptibility. Our study focused on evaluating the distribution of class II ...

  15. Histamine, dithiaden and human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vitro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nosáľ, R.; Drábiková, K.; Jančinová, V.; Číž, Milan; Lojek, Antonín

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 52, Suppl. 1 (2003), s. S19-S20 ISSN 1023-3830 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 198 Grant - others:VEGA SR(SK) 2/1012/21 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : dithiaden * histamine * polymorphonuclear leukocytes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.498, year: 2003

  16. Improved survival of newborns receiving leukocyte transfusions for sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairo, M.S.; Rucker, R.; Bennetts, G.A.; Hicks, D.; Worcester, C.; Amlie, R.; Johnson, S.; Katz, J.

    1984-01-01

    To determine the role of polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte transfusions in neonates with sepsis, 23 consecutive newborns were prospectively randomly selected during an 18-month period in a treatment plan to receive polymorphonuclear leukocyte transfusions with supportive care or supportive care alone. Thirteen neonates received transfusions every 12 hours for a total of five transfusions. Each transfusion consisting of 15 mL/kg of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was subjected to 1,500 rads of radiation. The polymorphonuclear leukocytes were obtained by continuous-flow centrifugation leukapheresis and contained 0.5 to 1.0 X 10(9) granulocytes per 15 mL with less than 10% lymphocytes. Positive findings on blood cultures were obtained in 14/23 patients and seven were randomly selected for each treatment group. Absolute granulocyte counts were less than 1,500/microL in 13 patients but tibial bone marrow examinations revealed that the neutrophil supply pool was depleted in only three patients. The survival was significantly greater in the treatment group compared with the group that did not receive transfusions

  17. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against mink leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, W.S.; Pedersen, Mikael; Gram-Nielsen, S.

    1997-01-01

    Three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated against mink leukocytes. One antibody reacted with all T lymphocytes, one with all monocytes and one had platelet reactivity. Under reducing conditions, the T lymphocyte reactive antibody immunoprecipitated 18 kDa, 23 kDa, 25 kDa and 32-40 kDa pol...

  18. Cytomegalovirus infectivity in whole blood following leukocyte reduction by filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, S M; Shepp, D H; Match, M E; Axelrod, F B; Whitbread, J A

    2001-07-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) may be transmitted by transfusion of whole blood and cellular components processed according to standard processing procedures. A need exists to develop new procedures to remove CMV and other leukocyte-borne viruses from donor blood. Ten patients (AIDS/bone marrow transplants) who were CMV antigenemic (virus subsequently confirmed by isolation), donated 50 mL of venous blood within 24 to 72 hours of the initial antigen detection. Twenty-five-milliliter aliquots of each specimen were passed through Purecell Neo Neonatal Leukocyte Reduction Filters (Pall, East Hills, NY). The remaining 25-mL nonfiltered aliquots, as well as the blood filtrates, were subjected to infectivity endpoint determinations. The Purecell Neo filter effected a 3 to 4 log10 leukocyte reduction. CMV input titers ranged from less than 10 to 7.3 x 10(1) median tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) per milliliter. CMV was not isolated from any postfiltration effluent (i.e., leukocytes, erythrocytes, or plasma). CMV DNA was not detected by nested polymerase chain reaction in 8 of 10 postfiltrate blood specimens. The Purecell Neo filter was efficacious in eliminating or significantly reducing viral (CMV) load in venous blood.

  19. Effects of dexamethasone on leukocytic responses in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of dexamethasone on leukocytic responses of pregnant Yankasa sheep and Sahel does were investigated. In addition to its anti-inflammatory properties, dexamethasone regulates broad variety of immune cell functions and immune mediator expression at the molecular level and has become subject of considerable ...

  20. Activation of peripheral leukocytes in rat pregnancy and experimental preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Schuiling, GA; Linton, EA; Sargent, IL; Redman, CWG

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to search for activation markers of peripheral leukocytes in experimental preeclampsia in the rat. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental preeclampsia was induced in 14-day-pregnant rats by infusion of endotoxin (1.0 mu g/kg body weight). For comparison, rats with normal

  1. CD18 activation epitopes induced by leukocyte activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beals, C. R.; Edwards, A. C.; Gottschalk, R. J.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Staunton, D. E.

    2001-01-01

    The cell surface adhesion molecule LFA-1 coordinates leukocyte trafficking and is a costimulatory molecule for T cell activation. We developed a panel of mAbs that recognize activation epitopes on the CD18 subunit, and show that stimulation of T lymphocytes appears to be accompanied by a

  2. Human leukocyte antigen-A genotype as a predictor of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim of the study: To screen for CMV infection among solid organ transplantation patients using monitoring of CMV phosphoprotein 65 (CMVpp65) antigenemia and to detect if CMV infection and disease were associated with certain human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A locus genotypes among the studied group. Subjects and ...

  3. Leukocytes at the maternal-fetal interface in human pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sindram-Trujillo, Aliana Patricia

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to gain a better understanding of the immunoregulatory mechanisms associated with maternal tolerance of the fetus during pregnancy. The distribution of decidual leukocytes, specifically uterine NK cells and T cells, in the decidua basalis and parietalis were studied in the

  4. Efficient leukocyte segmentation and recognition in peripheral blood image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Syed H; Umar, Arif Iqbal; Naz, Saeeda; Razzak, Muhammad I

    2016-05-18

    Blood cell count, also known as differential count of various types of blood cells, provides valuable information in order to assess variety of diseases like AIDS, leukemia and blood cancer. Manual techniques are still used in diseases diagnosis that is very lingering and tedious process. However, machine based automatic analysis of leukocyte is a powerful tool that could reduce the human errors, improve the accuracy, and minimize the required time for blood cell analysis. However, leukocyte segmentation is a challenging process due to the complexity of the blood cell image; therefore, this task remains unresolved issue in the blood cell segmentation. The aim of this work is to develop an efficient leukocyte cell segmentation and classification system. This paper presents an efficient strategy to segment cell images. This has been achieved by using Wiener filter along with Curvelet transform for image enhancement and noise elimination in order to elude false edges. We have also used combination of entropy filter, thresholding and mathematical morphology for obtaining image segmentation and boundary detection, whereas we have used back-propagation neural network for leukocyte classification into its sub classes. As a result, the generated segmentation results are fruitful in a sense that we have overcome the problem of overlapping cells. We have obtained 100%, 96.15%, 92.30%, 92.30% and 96.15% accuracy for basophil, eosinophil, monocyte, lymphocyte and neutrophil respectively.

  5. Indium-111 leukocyte accumulation in intramuscular injection sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swayne, L.C.; Dolgin, C.; Kabnick, L.S.; Filippone, A.

    1986-01-01

    We report four cases of indium-111 leukocyte concentration in previous intramuscular injection sites. Three patterns were observed: (1) small, discrete, and round; (2) linear; (3) irregular and large. The scintigraphic appearance did not necessarily correlate with the number of injections that the patient had received. (orig.)

  6. Pharmacological opportunities to control inflammatory diseases through inhibition of the leukocyte recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Raphael S; Menezes, Gustavo B; Teixeira, Mauro M; Cunha, Fernando Q

    2016-10-01

    Leukocyte recruitment to tissues is a highly orchestrated process and is one of the pillars of the inflammatory process. The contribution of leukocytes to tissue damage is very clear, suggesting that targeting leukocyte accumulation in tissue to be relevant for the development of novel therapies to treat chronic inflammatory diseases. Here, we review briefly known mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment and suggest potential targets for the development of novel anti-inflammatory therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Leukocyte Populations in Human Preterm and Term Breast Milk Identified by Multicolour Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trend, Stephanie; de Jong, Emma; Lloyd, Megan L.; Kok, Chooi Heen; Richmond, Peter; Doherty, Dorota A.; Simmer, Karen; Kakulas, Foteini; Strunk, Tobias; Currie, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Extremely preterm infants are highly susceptible to bacterial infections but breast milk provides some protection. It is unknown if leukocyte numbers and subsets in milk differ between term and preterm breast milk. This study serially characterised leukocyte populations in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants using multicolour flow cytometry methods for extended differential leukocyte counts in blood. Methods Sixty mothers of extremely preterm (leukocyte subsets analysed using flow cytometry. Results The major CD45+ leukocyte populations circulating in blood were also detectable in breast milk but at different frequencies. Progression of lactation was associated with decreasing CD45+ leukocyte concentration, as well as increases in the relative frequencies of neutrophils and immature granulocytes, and decreases in the relative frequencies of eosinophils, myeloid and B cell precursors, and CD16- monocytes. No differences were observed between preterm and term breast milk in leukocyte concentration, though minor differences between preterm groups in some leukocyte frequencies were observed. Conclusions Flow cytometry is a useful tool to identify and quantify leukocyte subsets in breast milk. The stage of lactation is associated with major changes in milk leukocyte composition in this population. Fresh preterm breast milk is not deficient in leukocytes, but shorter gestation may be associated with minor differences in leukocyte subset frequencies in preterm compared to term breast milk. PMID:26288195

  8. Efficiency and safety of leukocyte filtration during cardiopulmonary bypass for cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, JJJ; de Vries, AJ; Gu, YJ; van Oeveren, W

    Background. Leukocyte filtration of systemic blood during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to reduce post-operative morbidity has not yet been established because of the enormous leukocyte release from the third space. This study was designed to examine the efficiency and safety of leukocyte

  9. Clinical efficacy and biocompatibility of three different leukocyte and fat removal filters during cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, AJ; Vermeijden, WJ; Gu, YJ; Hagenaars, JAM; van Oeveren, W

    Activated leukocytes and fat particles are associated with organ injury after a cardiac surgery. Filters are currently used to remove either leukocytes or fat particles. A novel approach with a filter that combines leukocyte and fat removal might be clinically useful. As it is not known which type

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  2. VARIABILITY OF LEUKOCYTE COUNT AS AN INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE AMONG HYPERTENSIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Hypertension, a globally prevailing non communicable disease has been linked to various pathophysiological mechanisms. The new spotlight is on the inflammatory mechanism, which has been embarked on this study by utilising the White blood cell counts as the predominant marker. The pathogenesis behind this concept is the endothelial alteration which occurs in hypertension, causing increased oxidative stress and release of inflammatory mediators and further causing damage to the vascular walls and may result in sustained hypertension. OBJECTIVE To substantiate the difference in leukocyte count among the hypertensives and normotensives, to assess the variation in the leukocyte count among varied grades of hypertension. METHODS 80 subjects and 40 controls of both sex and age between 20-60 years were taken. Subjects with other chronic medical disorders, pregnancy, menstruation phase, history of infections in past 3 months, obesity, smokers and regular alcoholics were excluded. Three recordings of blood pressure were measured with a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. The differential leukocyte count was estimated with an automated counter. RESULTS Statistical analysis was done using independent sample t-test and one-way ANOVA. Total Leukocyte count (Mean = 8397.50 ± 1666.57 was raised significantly among the hypertensives, with P value <0.001. Comparison was done on the total count with the varied hypertensive years, which was suggestive of increase in total count among the pre hypertensives (systolic pressure and there was linear increase in total count with diastolic pressure though not statistically significant. CONCLUSION The elevation of white blood cell count is suggestive of underlying inflammatory mechanism among the hypertensives. The onset of inflammation could be at the onset of hypertension, as there is rise in total leukocyte count among the pre hypertensives which could also lead to sustained hypertension.

  3. Microchannel acoustophoresis does not impact survival or function of microglia, leukocytes or tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Burguillos

    Full Text Available The use of acoustic forces to manipulate particles or cells at the microfluidic scale (i.e. acoustophoresis, enables non-contact, label-free separation based on intrinsic cell properties such as size, density and compressibility. Acoustophoresis holds great promise as a cell separation technique in several research and clinical areas. However, it has been suggested that the force acting upon cells undergoing acoustophoresis may impact cell viability, proliferation or cell function via subtle phenotypic changes. If this were the case, it would suggest that the acoustophoresis method would be a less useful tool for many cell analysis applications as well as for cell therapy.We investigate, for the first time, several key aspects of cellular changes following acoustophoretic processing. We used two settings of ultrasonic actuation, one that is used for cell sorting (10 Vpp operating voltage and one that is close to the maximum of what the system can generate (20 Vpp. We used microglial cells and assessed cell viability and proliferation, as well as the inflammatory response that is indicative of more subtle changes in cellular phenotype. Furthermore, we adapted a similar methodology to monitor the response of human prostate cancer cells to acoustophoretic processing. Lastly, we analyzed the respiratory properties of human leukocytes and thrombocytes to explore if acoustophoretic processing has adverse effects.BV2 microglia were unaltered after acoustophoretic processing as measured by apoptosis and cell turnover assays as well as inflammatory cytokine response up to 48 h following acoustophoresis. Similarly, we found that acoustophoretic processing neither affected the cell viability of prostate cancer cells nor altered their prostate-specific antigen secretion following androgen receptor activation. Finally, human thrombocytes and leukocytes displayed unaltered mitochondrial respiratory function and integrity after acoustophoretic processing

  4. [Whole blood leukocyte phagocytosis assay for Candida albicans based on flow cytometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhengxin; Chen, Jing; Wang, Xianling; Zhao, Bohua; Hou, Tianwen

    2015-04-01

    To establish a whole blood leukocyte phagocytosis assay for Candida albicans (C.albicans) based on flow cytometry (FCM). C.albicans of mid-logarithmic growth phase was labeled by fluorescence probe carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFDA-SE), and then added into CD45-PC5 pre-stained human whole blood cells at a 10:1 multiplicity of infection (MOI) in 37DegreesCelsius. The cells were incubated for 10, 30 and 60 minutes. Phagocytosis rate of C.albicans by the CD45 positive cells in the blood was determined by FCM. In yeast extract peptone dextrose medium (YPD) and under the conditions of 37DegreesCelsius and 50 mL/L CO2, the logarithmic growth phase of C.albicans SC5314 was from the 5th to 11th hour. C.albicans were well stained by 10 mmol/L CFDA-SE after 30-minute incubation. After 10-, 30- and 60-minute incubation with SC5314 C.albicans with CD45⁺ cells, the phagocytosis rates measured by FCM were (80.1 ± 6.1)%, (83.8 ± 7.7)% and (92.3 ± 11.2)% for the neutrophils, (11.2 ± 3.6)%, (15.8 ± 4.4)% and (27.7 ± 6.8)% for the monocytes and (0.9 ± 0.3)%, (0.8 ± 0.4)% and (5.2 ± 1.6)% for the lymphocytes. The method for measuring whole blood leukocyte phagocytosis of C.albicans based on FCM is successfully established, and 30 minutes are the proper incubation time for the phagocytosis assay.

  5. Altered polymorphonuclear leukocyte Fc gamma R expression contributes to decreased candicidal activity during intraabdominal sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simms, H.H.; D'Amico, R.; Monfils, P.; Burchard, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the effects of untreated intraabdominal sepsis on polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) candicidal activity. Two groups of swine were studied. Group I (n=6) underwent sham laparotomy, group II (n=7) underwent cecal ligation and incision. Untreated intraabdominal sepsis resulted in a progressive decrease in PMN candicidal activity. Concomitant rosetting and phagocytosis assays demonstrated a decrease in both the attachment and phagocytosis of Candida albicans opsonized with both normal and septic swine serum by PMNs in group II. Iodine 125-labeled swine immunoglobulin G (IgG) and fluorescein isothioalanate (FITC)-labeled swine IgG were used to investigate Fc gamma receptor ligand interactions. Scatchard analyses demonstrated a progressive decline in both the binding affinity constant and number of IgG molecules bound per PMN. Stimulation of the oxidative burst markedly reduced 125I-labeled IgG binding in both group I and group II, with a greater decrement being seen in animals with intraabdominal sepsis. Further, in group II, PMN recycling of the Fc gamma receptor to the cell surface after generation of the oxidative burst was reduced by postoperative day 4. Binding of monoclonal antibodies to Fc gamma receptor II, but not Fc gamma receptor I/III markedly reduced intracellular candicidal activity. Immunofluorescence studies revealed a homogeneous pattern of FITC-IgG uptake by nearly all group I PMNs, whereas by postoperative day 8 a substantial number of PMNs from group II failed to internalize the FITC-IgG. These studies suggest that untreated intraabdominal sepsis reduces PMN candicidal activity and that this is due, in part, to altered PMN Fc gamma receptor ligand interactions

  6. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dazomet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures. Find information from the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for products such as Basamid G, manufactured by Amvac.

  7. Soil Fumigant Labels - Chloropicrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company name, and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details on each fumigant. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  8. Semiotic labelled deductive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nossum, R.T. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.

  9. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  10. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  11. Electronic Submission of Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  12. A Label to Regulate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tricoire, Aurélie; Boxenbaum, Eva; Laurent, Brice

    This paper examines the role labelling plays in the government of the contemporary economy.1Drawing on a detailed study of BBC-Effinergy, a French label for sustainable construction, we showhow the adoption and evolution of voluntary labels can be seen as emblematic of a governmentthrough experim...... experiment engaging 4 operations: stimulating market anticipations, focussing politicalconsultations, producing collective expertise and containing the regulatory transcription of the label....

  13. Leukocyte filtration to decrease the number of adherent leukocytes in the cerebral microcirculation after a period of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoja, Hanna; Niemelä, Eija; Anttila, Vesa; Dahlbacka, Sebastian; Mäkelä, Jussi; Kiviluoma, Kai; Laurila, Päivi; Kaakinen, Timo; Juvonen, Tatu

    2006-12-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermic circulatory arrest induce a systemic inflammatory response, including a cascade of leukocyte and endothelial cell activity, during the postischemic reperfusion phase. Accumulation of leukocytes in the brain can lead to neurologic problems after cardiac surgery. The beneficial effects of a leukocyte-depleting filter have been documented, but because of contradictory results the underlying function of the filter remains unclear. Twenty-two juvenile piglets (6 to 8 weeks) were randomly assigned to undergo cardiopulmonary bypass with or without a leukocyte-depleting filter 60 minutes before and 60 minutes after a 75-minute hypothermic circulatory arrest at 18 degrees C. The cerebral vessels were visualized with intravital microscopy through a cranial window placed over the parietal cortex. Rhodamine staining was used to observe adherent and rolling leukocytes in the cerebral postcapillary venules. The animals were electively killed 1 hour after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. There were no significant differences between the study groups regarding hemodynamic data. Numbers of adherent activated leukocytes were lower in the leukocyte filtration group, reaching borderline statistical significance when assessed throughout the experiment (between-groups P = .069) and actual statistical significance when assessed during the rewarming period (between-groups P = .029). The leukocyte-depleting filter succeeded in reducing the number of adherent leukocytes during the reperfusion period in an experimental operation with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Such a filter thus could mitigate cerebral reperfusion injury after cardiac surgery.

  14. Clinical applications of indium-111-acetylacetone-labelled blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgi, P.; Sinn, H.; Wellman, H.; Clorius, J.H.; Becker, W.

    1981-01-01

    A method permitting red-cell labelling with 111 In-acetylacetone was reported in 1974 for evaluating intestinal blood loss, the liver-spleen ratio and the red-cell volume. White blood cells can be tagged similarly. In white-cell labelling, simultaneous red-cell or platelet tagging is avoided. Several procedures (dextran separation and gradient centrifugations) have been combined, to develop a highly selective cell separation. In osteomyelitis it may not be as advantageous to use 67 Ga-citrate, as in inflammatory soft tissue processes. The detection of inflammatory processes with labelled leukocytes could be of great importance for the scintigraphic diagnosis of osteomyelitidies. A group of 97 patients with suspected osteomyelitis have been examined using 111 In-acetylacetone-labelled leukocytes ( 111 In-AAL) immediately following positive routine skeletal scintigraphy. Images obtained 24 h post injection usually were the most satisfactory. In the followup group of 70 patients 21 true positives, 43 true negatives, 21 false negatives and 3 false positives were observed. These findings result in a specificity of 92%, sensitivity of 50% and accuracy of 70% with 111 In-AAL for osteomyelitis. Preliminary investigations using 111 In-acetylacetone-labelled thrombocytes ( 111 In-AAT) were carried out to detect rejection of transplanted kidneys. The platelets were separated by means of additional special density gradient centrifugations but no dextran from 15-20 ml of autologous whole blood. Scans have been obtained 15 min, 2.5 h and 24 h post injection in an initial group of 10 patients. In acute rejection, a high transplant uptake has been detected, whereas patients without acute rejection showed no or only a minimum activity accumulation. Patients with chronic rejection have intermediate uptakes

  15. Distinct patterns of leukocyte recruitment in the pulmonary microvasculature in response to local and systemic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongzhi; Roller, Jonas; Slotta, Jan E; Zhang, Su; Luo, Lingtao; Rahman, Milladur; Syk, Ingvar; Menger, Michael D; Thorlacius, Henrik

    2013-02-15

    The mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment in the pulmonary microvasculature in response to local and systemic inflammation remain elusive. Male C57BL/6 mice received lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intrapulmonary (intratracheally, it) or systemically (intravenously, iv) for 1-18 h. Leukocyte responses in lung were analyzed by use of intravital fluorescence microscopy. Plasma and lung levels of CXC chemokines as well as Mac-1 and F-actin expression in leukocytes and bronchoalveolar leukocytes were quantified. Venular leukocyte rolling was markedly increased in response to local LPS but only marginally after systemic LPS. Leukocyte adhesion in venules was enhanced in both groups although adhesion was higher in mice receiving LPS intratracheally compared with LPS intravenously. Systemic LPS caused more leukocytes trapping in capillaries compared with local LPS. The ratio of adherent leukocytes in venules compared with capillaries was higher in response to local LPS, suggesting that leukocytes were more prone to accumulate in venules in local inflammation and in capillaries in systemic inflammation. Systemic LPS triggered higher F-actin formation and Mac-1 expression in leukocytes compared with local LPS. Local and systemic LPS caused similar increases in CXC chemokines in the lung whereas intravenous endotoxin provoked higher levels of CXC chemokines in the circulation. Interestingly, intratracheal LPS increased recruitment of leukocytes in the alveolar space whereas intravenous LPS was ineffective in promoting leukocyte accumulation in the bronchoalveolar space. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that pulmonary microvascular recruitment of leukocytes differs in local and systemic inflammation, which might be related to premature activation and stiffening of circulating leukocytes in endotoxemia.

  16. Effect of radiographic contrast agents on leukocyte metabolic response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernanz-Schulman, M. [Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanholder, R.; Waterloos, M.A. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Nephrology Section, University Hospital, Gent (Belgium); Hakim, R.; Schulman, G. [Department of Nephrology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2000-06-01

    Barium, at clinical dilutions, causes a significant increase of baseline ''resting state'' phagocytic activity, which in turn leads to significant blunting of subsequent response to phagocytic challenge and adversely affects the response to all bacteria tested. There is no baseline activation of leukocytes by the water-soluble media, although there was some inhibition (rather than activation) of leukocyte metabolic activity. The effect of the water-soluble media in bacteria was more complex (although inhibition is minor compared to barium). Our data demonstrate that barium is a significat activator of phagocytic cells, which results in deactivation of phagocytic response when challenged; these dsata serve to explain the enhanced adverse effect of barium in cased of fecal peritonitis. (orig.)

  17. Role of flexural stiffness of leukocyte microvilli in adhesion dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tai-Hsien; Qi, Dewei

    2018-03-01

    Previous work reported that microvillus deformation has an important influence on dynamics of cell adhesion. However, the existing studies were limited to the extensional deformation of microvilli and did not consider the effects of their bending deformation on cell adhesion. This Rapid Communication investigates the effects of flexural stiffness of microvilli on the rolling process related to adhesion of leukocytes by using a lattice-Boltzmann lattice-spring method (LLM) combined with adhesive dynamics (AD) simulations. The simulation results reveal that the flexural stiffness of microvilli and their bending deformation have a profound effect on rolling velocity and adhesive forces. As the flexural stiffness of the microvilli decreases, their bending angles increase, resulting in an increase in the number of receptor-ligand bonds and adhesive bonding force and a decrease in the rolling velocity of leukocytes. The effects of flexural stiffness on deformation and adhesion represent crucial factors involved in cell adhesion.

  18. Role of total leukocyte in diagnosis of acute appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamran, H.; Naveed, D.; Ahmed, M.

    2008-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is a common surgical emergency. Diagnosis may be difficult with little help from radiological and laboratory investigations. Total leukocyte count is one of the helpful investigations, being evaluated in this study. The patients presenting with right lower quadrant abdominal pain whom were diagnosed as having acute appendicitis and later underwent appendicectomy were included in the study. The preoperative leukocyte count was compared with histo-pathology findings of removed appendix. Sensitivity and specificity of TLC was calculated by standard formulas. The sensitivity and specificity of TLC as calculated in this study is 76.5% and 73.7% respectively while positive predictive value is 92.5%. TLC although not a diagnostic criteria for acute appendicitis but still is helpful investigation in decision making. (author)

  19. Leukocytes: The Double-Edged Sword in Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kryczka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin tissue scar formation and fibrosis are often characterized by the increased production and deposition of extracellular matrix components, accompanied by the accumulation of a vast number of myofibroblasts. Scaring is strongly associated with inflammation and wound healing to regain tissue integrity in response to skin tissue injury. However, increased and uncontrolled inflammation, repetitive injury, and individual predisposition might lead to fibrosis, a severe disorder resulting in the formation of dense and stiff tissue that loses the physical properties and physiological functions of normal tissue. Fibrosis is an extremely complicated and multistage process in which bone marrow-derived leukocytes act as both pro- and antifibrotic agents, and therefore, few, if any, effective therapies are available for the most severe and lethal forms of fibrosis. Herein, we discuss the current knowledge on the multidimensional impact of leukocytes on the induction of fibrosis, focusing on skin fibrosis.

  20. Does human leukocyte elastase degrade intact skin elastin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmelzer, Christian E H; Jung, Michael C; Wohlrab, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    and organs, including the aorta, lung, cartilage, elastic ligaments and skin, and is thus critical for their long-term function. Mature elastin is an insoluble and extremely durable protein that undergoes very little turnover, but sustained exposure to proteases may lead to irreversible and severe damage......This study aimed to investigate the susceptibility of intact fibrillar human elastin to human leukocyte elastase and cathepsin G. Elastin is a vital protein of the extracellular matrix of vertebrates, and provides exceptional properties including elasticity and tensile strength to many tissues...... small tissue samples to test enzymes for their elastolytic potential. This workflow was applied to skin samples from variously aged individuals, and it was found that strong differences exist in the degradability of the elastins investigated. In summary, human leukocyte elastase was unable to degrade...

  1. Inhibition of the mixed leukocyte reaction by alloantisera in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonker, M.; Leeuwen, A. van; Rood, J.J. van

    1977-01-01

    The incidence of MLC(mixed leukocyte culture)-inhibiting antibodies was determined in 42 pregnancy sera. MLC's were carried out between the cells from the serum donor and her husband in the presence of nonimmune AB serum and the test serum. Fifty per cent of the sera reduced the MLC response to less than 40% of the control values. Only four sera had lymphocytotoxic activity. The inhibition was strong against the specific immunizor, less strong against random unrelated cells and weak against cells which were SD(serologically defined)-identical with the serum donor. Absorptions with lymphocytes and platelets were carried out. Lymphocytes removed activity in three of the four sera tested. Platelets removed activity from one serum. It was concluded that both anti-LD(lymphocyte defined) and anti-SD antibodies were able to inhibit the MLR (mixed leukocyte reaction) at the stimulator cell level. (author)

  2. Activation of PAR2 receptors sensitizes primary afferents and causes leukocyte rolling and adherence in the rat knee joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, FA; Schuelert, N; Veldhoen, VE; Hollenberg, MD; McDougall, JJ

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose The PAR2 receptors are involved in chronic arthritis by mechanisms that are as yet unclear. Here, we examined PAR2 activation in the rat knee joint. Experimental Approach PAR2 in rat knee joint dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells at L3-L5, retrogradely labelled with Fluoro-gold (FG) were demonstrated immunohistochemically. Electrophysiological recordings from knee joint nerve fibres in urethane anaesthetized Wistar rats assessed the effects of stimulating joint PAR2 with its activating peptide, 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 (1–100 nmol·100 μL−1, via close intra-arterial injection). Fibre firing rate was recorded during joint rotations before and 15 min after administration of PAR2 activating peptide or control peptide. Leukocyte kinetics in the synovial vasculature upon PAR2 activation were followed by intravital microscopy for 60 min after perfusion of 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 or control peptide. Roles for transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) or neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptors in the PAR2 responses were assessed using the selective antagonists, SB366791 and RP67580 respectively. Key Results PAR2 were expressed in 59 ± 5% of FG-positive DRG cells; 100 nmol 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 increased joint fibre firing rate during normal and noxious rotation, maximal at 3 min (normal; 110 ± 43%, noxious; 90 ± 31%). 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 also significantly increased leukocyte rolling and adhesion over 60 min. All these effects were blocked by pre-treatment with SB366791 and RP67580 (P knee joint via TRPV1- and NK1-dependent mechanisms involving both PAR2-mediated neuronal sensitization and leukocyte trafficking. PMID:22849826

  3. Influence of glucose on the leukocyte response in women athletes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. This study investigated the influence of carbohydrate versus placebo beverage intake on leukocyte and cortisol responses to 90 minutes of running on a treadmill at 70% VO 2max in women. Subjects. Ten moderately trained women athletes (age: 27.6±3.7 yr; VO 2max: 46.6±2.0ml.kg-1.min-1) from the local ...

  4. Neisseria gonorrhoeae suppresses the oxidative burst of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Criss, Alison K.; Seifert, H. Steven

    2008-01-01

    Symptomatic infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gc) results in a potent polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)-driven inflammatory response, but the mechanisms by which Gc withstands PMN attack are poorly defined. Here we report that Gc can suppress the PMN oxidative burst, a central component of the PMN antimicrobial arsenal. Primary human PMNs remained viable after exposure to liquid-grown, exponential-phase, opacity-associated protein (Opa)-negative Gc of strains FA1090 and MS11 but did not g...

  5. Quantitative and qualitative changes in leukocytes of psoriatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahesar, S.M.; Khand, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Psoriasis is a disease concerned with inflammation and scaling of skin. In psoriasis, cells of the skin come on surface quickly before their complete maturation. In psoriatic patients, T-cells produce an abnormally large amount of toxic chemicals and cause inflammation. This study was undertaken to find out values of prognostic significance for worsening of the disease at early stage and to evaluate the changes (quantitative and qualitative) occurring in white blood cells of psoriatic patients. Methods: A total of 158 subjects, 79 psoriatic patients (44 males and 35 females) and same numbers of normal control volunteers were recruited. Total and Differential Leukocyte Counts (TLC and DLC) were determined. Morphological examination was also undertaken. All results of patients were compared with normal control volunteers. Results : In 47.7% male and 54.2% female patients TLC was higher than controls while variation in differential count was observed in 61.3% male and 62.8% female patients. Overall, neutrophils in 45% patients, basophils in 30.3%, eosinophils in 65.8%, and monocytes in 15% of patients were elevated. In 77.2% psoriatic patients, lymphocytes were decreased. In volunteers total and differential leukocyte counts were within normal range. Total leukocyte count in normal males was 5,136 +- 31, and in psoriatic male subjects it was 10,498 +- 43, and it was 5,023 +- 35 against 11,390 +- 31 in normal versus psoriatic females ( p<0.001). Conclusion: Total leukocyte count was elevated in psoriatics while on DLC neutrophils, eosinophils and neutrophils were significantly raised where as lymphocytes were significantly decreased in psoriatic patients. Morphological changes were also noted. (author)

  6. Maternal circulating leukocytes display early chemotactic responsiveness during late gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez-Lopez Nardhy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parturition has been widely described as an immunological response; however, it is unknown how this is triggered. We hypothesized that an early event in parturition is an increased responsiveness of peripheral leukocytes to chemotactic stimuli expressed by reproductive tissues, and this precedes expression of tissue chemotactic activity, uterine activation and the systemic progesterone/estradiol shift. Methods Tissues and blood were collected from pregnant Long-Evans rats on gestational days (GD 17, 20 and 22 (term gestation. We employed a validated Boyden chamber assay, flow cytometry, quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results We found that GD20 maternal peripheral leukocytes migrated more than those from GD17 when these were tested with GD22 uterus and cervix extracts. Leukocytes on GD20 also displayed a significant increase in chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (Ccl2 gene expression and this correlated with an increase in peripheral granulocyte proportions and a decrease in B cell and monocyte proportions. Tissue chemotactic activity and specific chemokines (CCL2, chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 1/CXCL1, and CXCL10 were mostly unchanged from GD17 to GD20 and increased only on GD22. CXCL10 peaked on GD20 in cervical tissues. As expected, prostaglandin F2α receptor and oxytocin receptor gene expression increased dramatically between GD20 and 22. Progesterone concentrations fell and estradiol-17β concentrations increased in peripheral serum, cervical and uterine tissue extracts between GD20 and 22. Conclusion Maternal circulating leukocytes display early chemotactic responsiveness, which leads to their infiltration into the uterus where they may participate in the process of parturition.

  7. Removal of leukocytes from blood by fibre filtration. A comparison study on the performance of two commercially available filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink, H. W.; Veldman, H.; Henrichs, H. J.; Prins, H. K.; Loos, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Two different kinds of filters suitable for the almost complete removal of leukocytes from blood-cell concentrates were tested. The maximal retention of filter I was 1.9-3.4 x 10(9) leukocytes per filter, whereas filter II could retain 3.6 - 7.8 x 10(9) leukocytes per filter before the leukocyte

  8. Biomechanics of the endothelium substrate influences leukocyte transmigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroka, Kimberly; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    2012-02-01

    The effects of shear flow and cytokines on leukocyte transmigration are well understood. However, the effects of substrate stiffness on transmigration remain unexplored. We have developed an in vitro model that allows us to study leukocyte transmigration as a function of varying physiological substrate stiffness. Interestingly, leukocyte transmigration increased with increasing substrate stiffness below the endothelium. intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression, stiffness, cytoskeletal arrangement, morphology, and cell-substrate adhesion could not account for the dependence of transmigration on substrate stiffness. We also explored the role of cell contraction and observed that (1) neutrophil transmigration caused large hole formation in monolayers on stiff substrates. (2) Neutrophil transmigration on soft substrates was increased by decreasing cell-cell adhesion. (3) Inhibition of myosin light chain kinase normalized the effects of substrate stiffness by reducing cell contraction on stiff substrates. These results demonstrate that neutrophil transmigration is regulated by MLCK-mediated generation of gaps at cell borders through substrate stiffness-dependent endothelial cell contraction.

  9. Curcumin modulates leukocyte and platelet adhesion in murine sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachharajani, Vidula; Wang, Si-Wei; Mishra, Nilamadhab; El Gazzar, Mohamed; Yoza, Barbara; McCall, Charles

    2010-08-01

    Circulating cell-endothelial cell interaction in sepsis is a rate-determining factor in organ dysfunction, and interventions targeting this process have a potential therapeutic value. In this project, we examined whether curcumin, an active ingredient of turmeric and an anti-inflammatory agent, could disrupt interactions between circulating blood cells and endothelium and improve survival in a murine model of sepsis. Mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to induce sepsis vs. sham surgery. We studied leukocyte and platelet adhesion in cerebral microcirculation using intravital fluorescent video microscopy technique, blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction using Evans Blue (EB) leakage method, P-selectin expression using dual radiolabeling technique, and survival in mice subjected to Sham, CLP, and CLP with curcumin pre-treatment (CLP + curcumin). Curcumin significantly attenuated leukocyte and platelet adhesion in cerebral microcirculation, EB leakage in the brain tissue, and improved survival in mice with CLP. P-selectin expression in mice with CLP + curcumin was significantly attenuated compared with CLP in various microcirculatory beds, including brain. Reduction in platelet adhesion was predominantly via modulation of endothelium by curcumin. Curcumin pre-treatment modulates leukocyte and platelet adhesion and BBB dysfunction in mice with CLP via P-selectin expression and improves survival in mice with CLP.

  10. Increased oxidative DNA damage in mononuclear leukocytes in vitiligo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannelli, Lisa [Department of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: lisag@pharm.unifi.it; Bellandi, Serena [Department of Dermatological Sciences, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy); Pitozzi, Vanessa [Department of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy); Fabbri, Paolo [Department of Dermatological Sciences, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy); Dolara, Piero [Department of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy); Moretti, Silvia [Department of Dermatological Sciences, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy)

    2004-11-22

    Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary disorder of the skin of unknown aetiology. The autocytotoxic hypothesis suggests that melanocyte impairment could be related to increased oxidative stress. Evidences have been reported that in vitiligo oxidative stress might also be present systemically. We used the comet assay (single cell alkaline gel electrophoresis) to evaluate DNA strand breaks and DNA base oxidation, measured as formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG)-sensitive sites, in peripheral blood cells from patients with active vitiligo and healthy controls. The basal level of oxidative DNA damage in mononuclear leukocytes was increased in vitiligo compared to normal subjects, whereas DNA strand breaks (SBs) were not changed. This alteration was not accompanied by a different capability to respond to in vitro oxidative challenge. No differences in the basal levels of DNA damage in polymorphonuclear leukocytes were found between patients and healthy subjects. Thus, this study supports the hypothesis that in vitiligo a systemic oxidative stress exists, and demonstrates for the first time the presence of oxidative alterations at the nuclear level. The increase in oxidative DNA damage shown in the mononuclear component of peripheral blood leukocytes from vitiligo patients was not particularly severe. However, these findings support an adjuvant role of antioxidant treatment in vitiligo.

  11. Plasmodium vivax: paroxysm-associated lipids mediate leukocyte aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendis Kamini

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paroxysms are recurrent febrile episodes, characteristic of Plasmodium vivax infections, which coincide with the rupture of schizont-infected erythrocytes in the patients' circulation. The present study describes the formation of prominent aggregates of leukocytes in vitro in the presence of parasite and host factors released during paroxysms. Methods Whole blood cells from uninfected malaria-naïve donors were incubated with plasma taken during a paroxysm or normal human plasma as a control and cell smears were observed under the microscope for the presence of leukocyte aggregates. Plasma factors involved in mediating the leukocyte aggregation were identified using immune depletion and reconstitution experiments. Furthermore, biochemical characterization was carried out to determine the chemical nature of the active moieties in plasma present during paroxysms. Results Leukocyte aggregates were seen exclusively when cells were incubated in plasma collected during a paroxysm. Immune depletion and reconstitution experiments revealed that the host cytokines TNF-alpha, GM-CSF, IL-6 and IL-10 and two lipid fractions of paroxysm plasma comprise the necessary and sufficient mediators of this phenomenon. The two lipid components of the paroxysm plasmas speculated to be of putative parasite origin, were a phospholipid-containing fraction and another containing cholesterol and triglycerides. The phospholipid fraction was dependent upon the presence of cytokines for its activity unlike the cholesterol/triglyceride-containing fraction which in the absence of added cytokines was much more active than the phospholipids fraction. The biological activity of the paroxysm plasmas from non-immune patients who presented with acute P. vivax infections was neutralized by immune sera raised against schizont extracts of either P. vivax or Plasmodium falciparum. However, immune sera against P. vivax were more effective than that against P. falciparum

  12. Plasmodium vivax: paroxysm-associated lipids mediate leukocyte aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaweera, Nadira; Wanasekara, Deepani; Chandrasekharan, Vishvanath; Mendis, Kamini; Carter, Richard

    2007-05-22

    Paroxysms are recurrent febrile episodes, characteristic of Plasmodium vivax infections, which coincide with the rupture of schizont-infected erythrocytes in the patients' circulation. The present study describes the formation of prominent aggregates of leukocytes in vitro in the presence of parasite and host factors released during paroxysms. Whole blood cells from uninfected malaria-naïve donors were incubated with plasma taken during a paroxysm or normal human plasma as a control and cell smears were observed under the microscope for the presence of leukocyte aggregates. Plasma factors involved in mediating the leukocyte aggregation were identified using immune depletion and reconstitution experiments. Furthermore, biochemical characterization was carried out to determine the chemical nature of the active moieties in plasma present during paroxysms. Leukocyte aggregates were seen exclusively when cells were incubated in plasma collected during a paroxysm. Immune depletion and reconstitution experiments revealed that the host cytokines TNF-alpha, GM-CSF, IL-6 and IL-10 and two lipid fractions of paroxysm plasma comprise the necessary and sufficient mediators of this phenomenon. The two lipid components of the paroxysm plasmas speculated to be of putative parasite origin, were a phospholipid-containing fraction and another containing cholesterol and triglycerides. The phospholipid fraction was dependent upon the presence of cytokines for its activity unlike the cholesterol/triglyceride-containing fraction which in the absence of added cytokines was much more active than the phospholipids fraction. The biological activity of the paroxysm plasmas from non-immune patients who presented with acute P. vivax infections was neutralized by immune sera raised against schizont extracts of either P. vivax or Plasmodium falciparum. However, immune sera against P. vivax were more effective than that against P. falciparum indicating that the parasite activity involved may be

  13. The CXCR1/2 ligand NAP-2 promotes directed intravascular leukocyte migration through platelet thrombi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Mehran; Kaplan, Zane S.; Alwis, Imala; Schoenwaelder, Simone M.; Ashworth, Katrina J.; Westein, Erik; Hosseini, Ehteramolsadat; Salem, Hatem H.; Slattery, Robyn; McColl, Shaun R.; Hickey, Michael J.; Ruggeri, Zaverio M.; Yuan, Yuping

    2013-01-01

    Thrombosis promotes leukocyte infiltration into inflamed tissues, leading to organ injury in a broad range of diseases; however, the mechanisms by which thrombi guide leukocytes to sites of vascular injury remain ill-defined. Using mouse models of endothelial injury (traumatic or ischemia reperfusion), we demonstrate a distinct process of leukocyte recruitment, termed “directed intravascular migration,” specifically mediated by platelet thrombi. Single adherent platelets and platelet aggregates stimulated leukocyte shape change at sites of endothelial injury; however, only thrombi were capable of inducing directed intravascular leukocyte migration. Leukocyte recruitment and migration induced by platelet thrombi occurred most prominently in veins but could also occur in arteries following ischemia-reperfusion injury. In vitro studies demonstrated a major role for platelet-derived NAP-2 (CXCL-7) and its CXCR1/2 receptor in regulating leukocyte polarization and motility. In vivo studies demonstrated the presence of an NAP-2 chemotactic gradient within the thrombus body. Pharmacologic blockade of CXCR1/2 as well as genetic deletion of NAP-2 markedly reduced leukocyte shape change and intrathrombus migration. These studies define a distinct process of leukocyte migration that is initiated by homotypic adhesive interactions between platelets, leading to the development of an NAP-2 chemotactic gradient within the thrombus body that guides leukocytes to sites of vascular injury. PMID:23550035

  14. The metalloproteinase ADAM8 promotes leukocyte recruitment in vitro and in acute lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreymueller, Daniela; Pruessmeyer, Jessica; Schumacher, Julian; Fellendorf, Sandra; Hess, Franz Martin; Seifert, Anke; Babendreyer, Aaron; Bartsch, Jörg W; Ludwig, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Alveolar leukocyte recruitment is a hallmark of acute lung inflammation and involves transmigration of leukocytes through endothelial and epithelial layers. The disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 8 is expressed on human isolated leukocytic cells and can be further upregulated on cultured endothelial and epithelial cells by proinflammatory cytokines. By shRNA-mediated knockdown we show that leukocytic ADAM8 is required on monocytic THP-1 cells for chemokine-induced chemotaxis as well as transendothelial and transepithelial migration. Furthermore, ADAM8 promotes α L -integrin upregulation and THP-1 cell adhesion to endothelial cells. On endothelial cells ADAM8 enhances transendothelial migration and increases cytokine-induced permeability. On epithelial cells the protease facilitates migration in a wound closure assay but does not affect transepithelial leukocyte migration. Blood leukocytes and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) from ADAM8-deficient mice show suppressed chemotactic response. Intranasal application of LPS to mice is accompanied with ADAM8 upregulation in the lung. In this model of acute lung inflammation ADAM8-deficient mice are protected against leukocyte infiltration. Finally, transfer experiments of BMDM in mice indicate that ADAM8 exerts a promigratory function predominantly on leukocytes. Our study provides in vitro and in vivo evidence that ADAM8 on leukocytes holds a proinflammatory function in acute lung inflammation by promoting alveolar leukocyte recruitment. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Labelling Fashion Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Aspers, P.

    2008-01-01

    The present article discusses how an ethical and environmental labelling system can be implemented in fashion garment markets. Consumers act in markets that provide them with more information than their limited cognitive capacity allows them to handle. Ethical and environmental labelling in markets characterized by change, such as the fashion garment market, makes decision-making even more complicated. The ethical and environmental labelling system proposed here is designed to alleviate firms...

  16. Deuterium labeled cannabinoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driessen, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Complex reactions involving ring opening, ring closure and rearrangements hamper complete understanding of the fragmentation processes in the mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of cannabinoids. Specifically labelled compounds are very powerful tools for obtaining more insight into fragmentation mechanisms and ion structures and therefore the synthesis of specifically deuterated cannabinoids was undertaken. For this, it was necessary to investigate the preparation of cannabinoids, appropriately functionalized for specific introduction of deuterium atom labels. The results of mass spectrometry with these labelled cannabinoids are described. (Auth.)

  17. Interaction between Salmonella typhimurium and phagocytic cells in pigs - Phagocytosis, oxidative burst and killing in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Lind, Peter

    1999-01-01

    with the exhaustion of oxidative burst in non-adherent monocytes were performed by prestimulation with PMA, heat-killed Salmonella or buffer. Prestimulation with PMA led to a strong reduction in oxidative burst induced by living opsonized Salmonella bacteria, whereas prestimulation with heat-killed bacteria gave rise......Interactions between Salmonella typhimurium and peripheral blood leucocytes from healthy, Salmonella-free pigs were investigated in vitro. Both granulocytes and monocytes phagocytized FITC-labelled heat-killed Salmonella bacteria as shown by flow cytometry. Phagocytosis in whole blood and isolated...... leucocytes was measured as acquired fluorescence in the leukocytes and was both time and dose related. Living, serum-opsonized Salmonella bacteria induced a dose-dependent oxidative burst in PMNs and monocytes as measured by luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LC). When opsonized in normal serum...

  18. Effective sample labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.T.; Bryce, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Ground-water samples collected for hazardous-waste and radiological monitoring have come under strict regulatory and quality assurance requirements as a result of laws such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. To comply with these laws, the labeling system used to identify environmental samples had to be upgraded to ensure proper handling and to protect collection personnel from exposure to sample contaminants and sample preservatives. The sample label now used as the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is a complete sample document. In the event other paperwork on a labeled sample were lost, the necessary information could be found on the label

  19. Bar Code Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

  20. The mean filtration pressure of leukocyte suspensions and its relation to the passage of leukocytes through nuclepore filters and capillary networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppihimer, M J; Lipowsky, H H

    1994-12-01

    To quantitatively evaluate the deformability of bulk suspensions of leukocytes (WBCs), account for the variance of individual cell mechanical properties, and deduce the potential for WBC entrapment within the capillary network in response to alterations in cell properties. The transient washout of WBCs initially trapped under low perfusion pressure in 5-microns pores of Nuclepore filters was analyzed for a 0.2-ml bolus of WBCs (derived from hamsters) with equal numbers of filter pores and cells, to characterize the statistical distribution of pressures, Pyield, required to dislodge the cells. Contributions of the variance in WBC diameter, pore diameter, and cremaster muscle capillary diameter to Pyield were estimated with a WBC cortical shell model and an analysis of the probability function of the ratio of WBC to pore diameter, lambda. For normal WBCs, Pyield exhibited a log-normal distribution with mean (Pyield) of 0.59 cmH2O. Incubation of cells in cytochalasin-B reduced (Pyield) almost 50%, whereas phorbol myristate acetate increased (Pyield) twofold. Incubation in N-formyl-methiolnyl-leucyl-phenylalanine had no significant effect on (Pyield), as polymorphonuclear cells became permanently trapped in the filter. The fluorescent dyes acridine orange, acridine red, and tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate increased (Pyield) as much as 10-fold, whereas steady-flow filtration methods showed no alteration. Analysis of the distribution of lambda revealed that due to their smaller pore diameters, in vitro filtration methods may overestimate in vivo values of (Pyield) by almost twofold. The transient filtration of WBC suspensions appears to be much more sensitive to subtle alterations in WBC deformability than steady-flow methods and may provide greater insight into the determinants of capillary perfusion. Estimates of (Pyield) are comparable to those obtained with micropipettes and permit analysis of substantially greater numbers of cells within a sample. Fluorescence

  1. Differences in leukocyte differentiation molecule abundances on domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) neutrophils identified by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highland, Margaret A; Schneider, David A; White, Stephen N; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; Knowles, Donald P; Davis, William C

    2016-06-01

    Although both domestic sheep (DS) and bighorn sheep (BHS) are affected by similar respiratory bacterial pathogens, experimental and field data indicate BHS are more susceptible to pneumonia. Cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for use in flow cytometry (FC) are valuable reagents for interspecies comparative immune system analyses. This study describes cross-reactive mAbs that recognize leukocyte differentiation molecules (LDMs) and major histocompatibility complex antigens on DS and BHS leukocytes. Characterization of multichannel eosinophil autofluorescence in this study permitted cell-type specific gating of granulocytes for evaluating LDMs, specifically on neutrophils, by single-label FC. Evaluation of relative abundances of LDMs by flow cytometry revealed greater CD11a, CD11b, CD18 (β2 integrins) and CD 172a (SIRPα) on DS neutrophils and greater CD14 (lipopolysaccharide receptor) on BHS neutrophils. Greater CD25 (IL-2) was identified on BHS lymphocytes following Concavalin A stimulation. While DS and BHS have similar total peripheral blood leukocyte counts, BHS have proportionately more neutrophils. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Cytoskeletal proteins from human skin fibroblasts, peripheral blood leukocytes, and a lymphoblastoid cell line compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giometti, C.S.; Willard, K.E.; Anderson, N.L.

    1982-01-01

    Differences in proteins between cells grown as suspension cultures and those grown as attached cultures were studied by comparing the proteins of detergent-resistant cytoskeletons prepared from peripheral blood leukocytes and a lymphoblastoid cell line (GM607) (both grown as suspension cultures) and those of human skin fibroblasts (grown as attached cultures) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The major cytoskeletal proteins of the leukocytes were also present in the protein pattern of GM607 cytoskeletons. In contrast, the fibroblast cytoskeletal protein pattern contained four groups of proteins that differed from the patterns of the leukocytes and GM607. In addition, surface labeling of GM607 and human fibroblasts with 125 I demonstrated that substantial amounts of vimentin and actin are exposed at the surface of the attached fibroblasts, but there is little evidence of similar exposure at the surface of the suspension-grown GM607. These results demonstrate some differences in cytoskeletal protein composition between different types of cells could be related to their ability or lack of ability to grow as attached cells in tissue culture

  3. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  4. Leukocyte Populations in Human Preterm and Term Breast Milk Identified by Multicolour Flow Cytometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Trend

    Full Text Available Extremely preterm infants are highly susceptible to bacterial infections but breast milk provides some protection. It is unknown if leukocyte numbers and subsets in milk differ between term and preterm breast milk. This study serially characterised leukocyte populations in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants using multicolour flow cytometry methods for extended differential leukocyte counts in blood.Sixty mothers of extremely preterm (<28 weeks gestational age, very preterm (28-31 wk, and moderately preterm (32-36 wk, as well as term (37-41 wk infants were recruited. Colostrum (d2-5, transitional (d8-12 and mature milk (d26-30 samples were collected, cells isolated, and leukocyte subsets analysed using flow cytometry.The major CD45+ leukocyte populations circulating in blood were also detectable in breast milk but at different frequencies. Progression of lactation was associated with decreasing CD45+ leukocyte concentration, as well as increases in the relative frequencies of neutrophils and immature granulocytes, and decreases in the relative frequencies of eosinophils, myeloid and B cell precursors, and CD16- monocytes. No differences were observed between preterm and term breast milk in leukocyte concentration, though minor differences between preterm groups in some leukocyte frequencies were observed.Flow cytometry is a useful tool to identify and quantify leukocyte subsets in breast milk. The stage of lactation is associated with major changes in milk leukocyte composition in this population. Fresh preterm breast milk is not deficient in leukocytes, but shorter gestation may be associated with minor differences in leukocyte subset frequencies in preterm compared to term breast milk.

  5. Influenza A virus-induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte dysfunction in the pathogenesis of experimental pneumococcal otitis media.

    OpenAIRE

    Abramson, J S; Giebink, G S; Quie, P G

    1982-01-01

    The role of influenza A virus-induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte and eustachian tube dysfunction in the pathogenesis of acute purulent otitis media was studied in chinchillas. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte function, middle ear pressure, and the incidence of pneumococcal otitis media were observed after intranasal inoculation with influenza A virus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or both. Results showed that depressed negative middle ear pressure and polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemiluminescence and...

  6. Radioiodine and its labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, Ana Maria

    1994-01-01

    Chemical characteristics and their nuclear characteristics, types of labelled molecules,labelling procedures, direct labelling with various oxidizing agents, indirect labelling with various conjugates attached to protein molecules, purification and quality control. Iodination damage.Safe handling of labelling procedures with iodine radioisotopes.Bibliography

  7. Leukocyte telomere length variation due to DNA extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Joshua; Marques, Francine Z; Charchar, Fadi J

    2014-12-04

    Telomere length is indicative of biological age. Shorter telomeres have been associated with several disease and health states. There are inconsistencies throughout the literature amongst relative telomere length measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and different extraction methods or kits used. We quantified whole-blood leukocyte telomere length using the telomere to single copy gene (T/S) ratio by qPCR in 20 young (18-25 yrs) men after extracting DNA using three common extraction methods: Lahiri and Nurnberger (high salt) method, PureLink Genomic DNA Mini kit (Life Technologies) and QiaAmp DNA Mini kit (Qiagen). Telomere length differences of DNA extracted from the three extraction methods was assessed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). DNA purity differed between extraction methods used (P=0.01). Telomere length was impacted by the DNA extraction method used (P=0.01). Telomeres extracted using the Lahiri and Nurnberger method (mean T/S ratio: 2.43, range: 1.57-3.02) and PureLink Genomic DNA Mini Kit (mean T/S ratio: 2.57, range: 2.24-2.80) did not differ (P=0.13). Likewise, QiaAmp and Purelink-extracted telomeres were not statistically different (P=0.14). The Lahiri-extracted telomeres, however, were significantly shorter than those extracted using the QiaAmp DNA Mini Kit (mean T/S ratio: 2.71, range: 2.32-3.02; P=0.003). DNA purity was associated with telomere length. There are discrepancies between the length of leukocyte telomeres extracted from the same individuals according to the DNA extraction method used. DNA purity could be responsible for the discrepancy in telomere length but this will require validation studies. We recommend using the same DNA extraction kit when quantifying leukocyte telomere length by qPCR or when comparing different cohorts to avoid erroneous associations between telomere length and traits of interest.

  8. 'Naturemade' -- a new label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2001-01-01

    This short article discusses the introduction of the 'Naturemade' two-level labelling scheme in the Swiss electricity market, which is to help provide transparency in the market for green power and promote the building of facilities for its production. In the form of an interview with the CEO of Swissolar and the president of Greenpeace Switzerland, the pros and contras of these labels are discussed. In particular, the interview partners' opinions on the possible misuse of the less stringent label and the influence of the labels on the construction of new installations for the generation of electricity from renewable sources are presented. The basic principles of the promotional model behind the labels are listed

  9. Leukocytes-depleting filters preferentially remove activated leukocytes and reduce the expression of surface adhesion molecules during the simulated extracorporeal circulation of human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiou, Christos; Sheppard, Stuart; Tang, Augustine; Rengarajan, Arvind; Smith, David; Haw, Marcus; Gibbs, Roz

    2006-01-01

    The effect of leukocyte-depleting filters on the total and activated leukocyte counts and the expression of surface adhesion molecules CD11b, CD18, and CD62L during the in vitro extracorporeal circulation of human blood was studied. A 200 ml blood sample was taken from 10 patients undergoing CABG surgery. The blood was circulated for 60 minutes within an experimental extracorporeal circuit. A leukocyte-depleting filter was attached in five circuits (filtered group). In five other circuits, no filter was used (controls). Total leukocyte counts were determined manually. Activated leukocytes were identified using nitroblue tetrazolium staining. The expression of CD11b, CD18, and CD62L was measured with flow cytometry. At 60 minutes, total leukocyte counts were reduced by 49% from the baseline values in the filtered group and 10% in the control group (p filtered group and increased by 116% in the control group (p filtered group, the expression of CD11b, CD18, and CD612L decreased by 60%, 21%, and 79%, respectively, and in the control group it increased by 24%, 6%, and 28% (p filters preferentially remove activated leukocytes and reduce the expression of CD11b, CD18, and CD62L during the in vitro extracorporeal circulation of human blood.

  10. Production of antibodies which recognize opiate receptors on murine leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, D.J.J.; Bost, K.L.; Blalock, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    An antibody has been developed which recognizes opiate receptors on cells of the immune system. This antibody blocks specific binding of the radiolabeled opiate receptor ligand, /sup 3/H-dihydromorphine, to receptors on murine splenocytes. Additionally, the anti-receptor antibody competes with ..beta..-endorphin, meta-enkephalin, and naloxone for the same binding site on the leukocytes. Moreover, the anti-receptor antibody possesses agonist activity similar to ..beta..-endorphin in suppressing cAMP production by lymphocytes. These results suggest the development of an antibody which recognizes classical opiate receptors on cells of the immune system.

  11. Longitudinal evaluation of leukocyte transcripts in killer whales (Orcinus Orca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitt, Tatjana; Bowen, Lizabeth; Lee, Chia-Shan; Blanchard, Myra; McBain, James; Dold, Christopher; Stott, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Early identification of illness and/or presence of environmental and/or social stressors in free-ranging and domestic cetaceans is a priority for marine mammal health care professionals. Incorporation of leukocyte gene transcript analysis into the diagnostic tool kit has the potential to augment classical diagnostics based upon ease of sample storage and shipment, inducible nature and well-defined roles of transcription and associated downstream actions. Development of biomarkers that could serve to identify “insults” and potentially differentiate disease etiology would be of great diagnostic value. To this end, a modest number of peripheral blood leukocyte gene transcripts were selected for application to a domestic killer whale population with a focus on broad representation of inducible immunologically relevant genes. Normalized leukocyte transcript values, longitudinally acquired from 232 blood samples derived from 26 clinically healthy whales, were not visibly influenced temporally nor by sex or the specific Park in which they resided. Stability in leukocyte transcript number during periods of health enhances their potential use in diagnostics through identification of outliers. Transcript levels of two cytokine genes, IL-4 and IL-17, were highly variable within the group as compared to the other transcripts. IL-4 transcripts were typically absent. Analysis of transcript levels on the other genes of interest, on an individual animal basis, identified more outliers than were visible when analyzed in the context of the entire population. The majority of outliers (9 samples) were low, though elevated transcripts were identified for IL-17 from 2 animals and one each for Cox-2 and IL-10. The low number of outliers was not unexpected as sample selection was intentionally directed towards animals that were clinically healthy at the time of collection. Outliers may reflect animals experiencing subclinical disease that is transient and self-limiting. The

  12. Leukocytes as markers of hemorrhagic stroke inflammatory nature

    OpenAIRE

    Yabluchanskiy, A.

    2012-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke in response to intracerebral hemorrhage is considered an aseptic form of inflammation. With this in mind the dynamics of leukocytes changes in blood and in the hemorrhagic stroke zone as main factors of inflammation are examined. Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 24) underwent surgical procedures and were divided into two groups — control group and a hemorrhagic stroke group — an injection of 2 µL of sterile saline and 2 µL of 0,2U of Collagenase-IV (S) respectively. White blood cel...

  13. Longitudinal evaluation of leukocyte transcripts in killer whales (Orcinus Orca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitt, Tatjana; Bowen, Lizabeth; Lee, Chia-Shan; Blanchard, Myra T; McBain, James; Dold, Christopher; Stott, Jeffrey L

    2016-07-01

    Early identification of illness and/or presence of environmental and/or social stressors in free-ranging and domestic cetaceans is a priority for marine mammal health care professionals. Incorporation of leukocyte gene transcript analysis into the diagnostic tool kit has the potential to augment classical diagnostics based upon ease of sample storage and shipment, inducible nature and well-defined roles of transcription and associated downstream actions. Development of biomarkers that could serve to identify "insults" and potentially differentiate disease etiology would be of great diagnostic value. To this end, a modest number of peripheral blood leukocyte gene transcripts were selected for application to a domestic killer whale population with a focus on broad representation of inducible immunologically relevant genes. Normalized leukocyte transcript values, longitudinally acquired from 232 blood samples derived from 26 clinically healthy whales, were not visibly influenced temporally nor by sex or the specific Park in which they resided. Stability in leukocyte transcript number during periods of health enhances their potential use in diagnostics through identification of outliers. Transcript levels of two cytokine genes, IL-4 and IL-17, were highly variable within the group as compared to the other transcripts. IL-4 transcripts were typically absent. Analysis of transcript levels on the other genes of interest, on an individual animal basis, identified more outliers than were visible when analyzed in the context of the entire population. The majority of outliers (9 samples) were low, though elevated transcripts were identified for IL-17 from 2 animals and one each for Cox-2 and IL-10. The low number of outliers was not unexpected as sample selection was intentionally directed towards animals that were clinically healthy at the time of collection. Outliers may reflect animals experiencing subclinical disease that is transient and self-limiting. The immunologic

  14. Correlation between Leukocyte Numbers and Body Size of Rainbow Trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammad, Rezkar Jaafar; Otani, Maki; Kania, Per Walter

    2016-01-01

    towards an antigen to be initiated even in fry. The number of leukocytes in individual fish at different developmental stages is likely to influence the capacity of the fish to respond simultaneously to several antigens (pathogens and vaccine components). This parameter may therefore be crucial for both...... - 780 g (group IV) were investigated. The number of lymphocytes was generally higher in head kidney compared to blood and spleen but they dominated in all samples (blood, head kidney and spleen) and their numbers increased exponentially with fish size. Percentages of lymphocytes in relation...

  15. Effects of testosterone on blood leukocytes in plasmodium berghei-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, A B; Ibrahim, J B

    1989-01-01

    Gonadectomized male mice aged 5 weeks were given 5 mg testosterone propionate daily for 14 days. The treatment significantly decreased the number of blood leukocytes. The number of all individual types of leukocytes except basophils in vehicle-treated gonadectomized mice was increased. Testosterone-treated mice consistently had a lower number of leukocytes after being infected with Plasmodium berghei than did vehicle-treated mice. The results suggest that testosterone suppresses the production of leukocytes and that testosterone-treated mice become more susceptible to parasite infection.

  16. α4 integrin is a regulator of leukocyte recruitment after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Matthew D; Ambler, William G; Ai, Youxi; Sansing, Lauren H

    2014-08-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is swiftly followed by an inflammatory response. A key component of this response is the recruitment of leukocytes into the brain, which promotes neurological injury in rodent models. However, the mechanisms by which leukocytes transmigrate across the endothelium into the injured brain are unclear. The present study examines leukocyte adhesion molecules (α4 integrin, L-selectin, and αLβ2 integrin) on 4 leukocyte subtypes to determine which are important for leukocyte recruitment after ICH. We used the blood injection mouse model of ICH, whereby 25 μL of blood was injected into the striatum. Flow cytometry was used to quantify leukocyte populations and adhesion molecule expression in brain and blood. An α4 integrin-blocking antibody was administered to evaluate the contribution of α4 integrin in leukocyte migration and neurological injury. α4 integrin was elevated on all leukocyte populations in brain after ICH, whereas L-selectin was unchanged and αLβ2 was increased only on T cells. Antagonism of α4 resulted in decreased leukocyte transmigration and lessened neurobehavioral disability. α4 integrin is an important cell adhesion molecule involved in neuroinflammation after ICH. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Fibrinogen modulates leukocyte recruitment in vivo during the acute inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitorino de Almeida, V; Silva-Herdade, A; Calado, A; Rosário, H S; Saldanha, C

    2015-01-01

    Besides playing an important role in blood hemostases, fibrinogen also regulates leukocyte function in inflammation. Our previous in vitro studies showed that the adhesive behaviour of the neutrophil is modulated by soluble fibrinogen when present at a physiological concentration. This led us to propose that this plasma glycoprotein might further influence leukocyte recruitment in vivo and thus contribute to the inflammatory response. To address this in vivo, leukocyte recruitment was here investigated under acute inflammatory conditions in the absence of soluble fibrinogen in the blood circulation. For such, intravital microscopy on mesentery post-capillary venules was performed on homozygous fibrinogen α chain-deficient mice ((α-/-) mice). Acute inflammatory states were induced by perfusing platelet activating factor (PAF) over the exposed tissue. As control animals, two groups of mice expressing soluble fibrinogen in circulation were used, namely, C57BL/6 wild type animals and heterozygous fibrinogen α chain-deficient mice ((α+/-) mice). Under acute inflammatory conditions, an abnormal pattern of recruitment was observed for leukocytes in homozygous (α-/-) mice in comparison to both control groups. In fact, the former exhibited a significantly decreased number of rolling leukocytes that nevertheless, migrated with increased rolling velocities when compared to leukocytes from control animals. Consistently, homozygous mice further displayed a diminished number of adherent leukocytes than the other groups. Altogether our observations led us to conclude that leukocyte recruitment in homozygous (α-/-) mice is compromised what strongly suggests a role for soluble fibrinogen in leukocyte recruitment in inflammation.

  18. The Prognostic Values of Leukocyte Rho Kinase Activity in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheng-I.; Lin, Yu-Chun; Tsai, Tzu-Hsien; Lin, Hung-Sheng; Liou, Chia-Wei; Chang, Wen-Neng; Lu, Cheng-Hsien; Yuen, Chun-Man; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2014-01-01

    Objective. It has been reported that leukocyte ROCK activity is elevated in patients after ischemic stroke, but it is unclear whether leukocyte ROCK activity is associated with clinical outcomes following acute stroke events. The objective of this study is to investigate if leukocyte ROCK activity can predict the outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Materials and Methods. We enrolled 110 patients of acute ischemic stroke and measured the leukocyte ROCK activity and plasma level of inflammatory cytokines to correlate the clinical outcomes of these patients. Results. The leukocyte ROCK activity at 48 hours after admission in acute ischemic stroke patients was higher as compared to a risk-matched population. The leukocyte ROCK activity significantly correlated with National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) difference between admission and 90 days after stroke event. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates showed lower stroke-free survival during follow-up period in patients with high leukocyte ROCK activity or plasma hsCRP level. Leukocyte ROCK activity independently predicted the recurrent stroke in patients with atherosclerotic stroke. Conclusions. This study shows elevated leukocyte ROCK activity in patients with ischemic stroke as compared to risk-matched subjects and is an independent predictor for recurrent stroke. PMID:24716192

  19. A Leukocyte image fast scanning based on max–min distance clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yapin Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A leukocyte image fast scanning method based on max-min distance clustering is proposed. Because of the lower proportion and uneven distribution of leukocytes in human peripheral blood, there will not be any leukocyte in lager quantity of the captured images if we directly scan the blood smear along an ordinary zigzag scanning routine with high power (100x objective. Due to the larger field of view of low power (10x objective, the captured low power blood smear images can be used to locate leukocytes. All of the located positions make up a specific routine, if we scan the blood smear along this routine with high power objective, there will be definitely leukocytes in almost all of the captured images. Considering the number of captured images is still large and some leukocytes may be redundantly captured twice or more, a leukocyte clustering method based on max–min distance clustering is developed to reduce the total number of captured images as well as the number of redundantly captured leukocytes. This method can improve the scanning efficiency obviously. The experimental results show that the proposed method can shorten scanning time from 8.0–14.0min to 2.5–4.0min while extracting 110 nonredundant individual high power leukocyte images.

  20. Leukocytes Breach Endothelial Barriers by Insertion of Nuclear Lobes and Disassembly of Endothelial Actin Filaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagi Barzilai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The endothelial cytoskeleton is a barrier for leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM. Mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leukocytes generate gaps of similar micron-scale size when squeezing through inflamed endothelial barriers in vitro and in vivo. To elucidate how leukocytes squeeze through these barriers, we co-tracked the endothelial actin filaments and leukocyte nuclei in real time. Nuclear squeezing involved either preexistent or de novo-generated lobes inserted into the leukocyte lamellipodia. Leukocyte nuclei reversibly bent the endothelial actin stress fibers. Surprisingly, formation of both paracellular gaps and transcellular pores by squeezing leukocytes did not require Rho kinase or myosin II-mediated endothelial contractility. Electron-microscopic analysis suggested that nuclear squeezing displaced without condensing the endothelial actin filaments. Blocking endothelial actin turnover abolished leukocyte nuclear squeezing, whereas increasing actin filament density did not. We propose that leukocyte nuclei must disassemble the thin endothelial actin filaments interlaced between endothelial stress fibers in order to complete TEM.

  1. Shorter leukocyte telomere length is associated with higher risk of infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helby, Jens; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Benfield, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    findings indicate that leukocyte telomere length may be a marker of immune competence. Further studies are needed to determine whether risk of infections in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients can be reduced by considering donor leukocyte telomere length when selecting donors....... in the recipients. These findings suggest that leukocyte telomere length could possibly be a marker of immune competence. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that shorter leukocyte telomere length is associated with higher risk of infectious disease hospitalization and infection-related death. Relative peripheral...

  2. Kinetics of reversible-sequestration of leukocytes by the isolated perfused rat lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goliaei, B.

    1980-08-01

    The kinetics and morphology of sequestration and margination of rat leukocytes were studied using an isolated perfused and ventilated rat lung preparation. Whole rat blood, bone marrow suspension, or leukocyte suspensions, were used to perfuse the isolated rat lung. The lung was also perfused with latex particle suspensions and the passage of particles through the lung capillaries was studied. When a leukocyte suspension was perfused through the lung in the single-pass mode, the rate of sequestration decreased as more cells were perfused. In contrast, latex particles of a size comparable to that of leukocytes were totally stopped by the lung. When the leukocyte suspension was recirculated through the lung, cells were rapidly removed from circulation until a steady state was reached, after which no net removal of cells by the lung occurred. These results indicate that leukocytes are reversibly sequestered from circulation. The sequestered cells marginated and attached to the luminal surface of the endothelium of post-capillary venules and veins. A mathematical model was developed based on the assumption that the attachment and detachment of leukocytes to blood vessel walls follows first-order kinetics. The model correctly predicts the following characteristics of the system: (a) the kinetics of the sequestration of leukocytes by the lung; (b) the existence of a steady state when a suspension of leukocytes is recirculated through the lung; and (c) the independence of the fraction of cells remaining in circulation from the starting concentration for all values of starting concentration. (ERB)

  3. Estimation of labeling efficiency in pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Sina; Xu, Feng; Wang, Peiying L; Uh, Jinsoo; Yezhuvath, Uma S; van Osch, Matthias; Lu, Hanzhang

    2010-03-01

    Pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling MRI is a new arterial spin labeling technique that has the potential of combining advantages of continuous arterial spin labeling and pulsed arterial spin labeling. However, unlike continuous arterial spin labeling, the labeling process of pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling is not strictly an adiabatic inversion and the efficiency of labeling may be subject specific. Here, three experiments were performed to study the labeling efficiency in pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling MRI. First, the optimal labeling position was determined empirically to be approximately 84 mm below the anterior commissure-posterior commissure line in order to achieve the highest sensitivity. Second, an experimental method was developed to utilize phase-contrast velocity MRI as a normalization factor and to estimate the labeling efficiency in vivo, which was founded to be 0.86 +/- 0.06 (n = 10, mean +/- standard deviation). Third, we compared the labeling efficiency of pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling MRI under normocapnic and hypercapnic (inhalation of 5% CO(2)) conditions and showed that a higher flow velocity in the feeding arteries resulted in a reduction in the labeling efficiency. In summary, our results suggest that labeling efficiency is a critical parameter in pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling MRI not only in terms of achieving highest sensitivity but also in quantification of absolute cerebral blood flow in milliliters per minute per 100 g. We propose that the labeling efficiency should be estimated using phase-contrast velocity MRI on a subject-specific basis. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Early polymorphonuclear leukocyte accumulation correlates with the development of posttraumatic cerebral edema in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoettle, R.J.; Kochanek, P.M.; Magargee, M.J.; Uhl, M.W.; Nemoto, E.M.

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate the role of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in the development of posttraumatic cerebral edema, we quantitatively assessed the time course and magnitude of PMN accumulation and its relationship to cerebral edema formation after cerebral trauma in 78 rats. 111 In-labeled PMN accumulation was measured in 26 rats in the first 8 h after right hemispheric percussive cerebral trauma or a sham control condition. 51 Cr-labeled erythrocyte accumulation was measured simultaneously in 22 rats to assess the contribution of expansion of blood volume to early posttraumatic PMN accumulation. Edema formation [right-left (R-L) hemispheric difference in percent brain water], R-L hemispheric labeled-PMN accumulation, and blood volume index-adjusted PMN accumulation were measured between 0-2 h and 4-8 h posttrauma. PMN accumulation was elevated markedly in the first 2 h posttrauma compared with values in sham controls (13.45 +/- 2.53 vs -0.03 +/- 0.31, p less than 0.01) but not when adjusted for blood volume index (BVI), suggesting that PMN accumulation in the first 2 h posttrauma was due to expansion of blood volume. Between 4 and 8 h posttrauma, however, both total (2.56 +/- 0.82 vs -0.29 +/- 0.52) and BVI-adjusted (8.78 +/- 3.97 vs -0.48 +/- 0.79) PMN accumulation were elevated (p less than 0.05) compared with sham. Brain edema and total PMN accumulation were significantly correlated at both 2 h and 8 h posttrauma (r2 = 0.77, p less than 0.001, and r2 = 0.69, p less than 0.002, respectively), but a significant correlation between edema and BVI-adjusted PMN accumulation was observed only at 8 h posttrauma (r2 = 0.96, p less than 0.001). These data show that PMN accumulation after traumatic brain injury occurs with an initial phase explained by an increase in blood volume in the first 2 h posttrauma followed by a subsequent acute inflammatory phase

  5. Food Allergies: Understanding Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a few common questions about food label requirements. What foods are labeled? Domestic or imported packaged food is ... allergens found in flavorings, colorings or other additives. What foods aren't labeled? Fresh produce, eggs, fresh meat ...

  6. Soil Fumigant Labels - Methyl Bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search soil fumigant pesticide labels by EPA registration number, product name, or company, and follow the link to The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  7. Prestorage leukocyte filtration may reduce leukocyte-derived bioactive substance accumulation in patients operated for burn trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H; Krarup, Annabel Lee

    1999-01-01

    Adverse effects of perioperative blood transfusion appear to be storage-time-dependent and may be related to extracellular accumulation of bioactive substances in blood products. In this study the clinical effects of leukofiltered and non-filtered blood products in patients undergoing surgery for...... died in group A and 2 in group B; all with a Bull and Fischer index between 1.0 and 2.0. Prestorage leukocyte filtration may reduce transfusion related accumulation of various bioactive substances and the requirement for blood in burn trauma patients....

  8. Peripheral blood and milk leukocytes subsets of lactating Sarda ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Bonelli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Leukocytes subpopulations in blood and milk of lactating Sarda ewes were investigated. Animals characterized by a SSC level <500×103cells/mL and a negative bacteriological examination were sampled in early, mid and late lactation. Milk differential cell count evidenced that macrophage represented the main population (42.8%±3.5 followed by lymphocytes (40.2%±3.4 and neutrophils (8,6%±2.1. Flow cytometry analysis showed that lymphocytes subsets in milk were quite different from blood. High CD8+ and low CD4+ lymphocytes percentages determined a CD4/CD8 ratio inversion in milk compared to blood (0.3%±0.03 vs 1.8%±0.08. CD8+ decreased while, conversely, CD4+ increased in late lactation. γδ T cells were more represented in milk (12.6%±1.3 than in blood (6.8%±0.3 and their proportions appeared similar throughout lactation in both compartments. IL-2 receptor was mainly expressed in milk on T cytotoxic lymphocytes. Data obtained in uninfected mammary glands could allow an early discrimination between physiological and pathological changes occurring in ewe milk. Further phenotypical and functional studies on milk leukocytes subsets might help to understand defense mechanisms of the ovine mammary gland against IMI.

  9. Leukocyte subsets and neutrophil function after short-term spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, R. P.; Sams, C. F.; Mehta, S. K.; Kaur, I.; Jones, M. L.; Feeback, D. L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in leukocyte subpopulations and function after spaceflight have been observed but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not well defined. This study investigated the effects of short-term spaceflight (8-15 days) on circulating leukocyte subsets, stress hormones, immunoglobulin levels, and neutrophil function. At landing, a 1.5-fold increase in neutrophils was observed compared with preflight values; lymphocytes were slightly decreased, whereas the results were variable for monocytes. No significant changes were observed in plasma levels of immunoglobulins, cortisol, or adrenocorticotropic hormone. In contrast, urinary epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol were significantly elevated at landing. Band neutrophils were observed in 9 of 16 astronauts. Neutrophil chemotactic assays showed a 10-fold decrease in the optimal dose response after landing. Neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells was increased both before and after spaceflight. At landing, the expression of MAC-1 was significantly decreased while L-selectin was significantly increased. These functional alterations may be of clinical significance on long-duration space missions.

  10. Leukocyte Telomere Length and Cognitive Function in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Frith

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the specific association between leukocyte telomere length and cognitive function among a national sample of the broader U.S. older adult population. Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were used to identify 1,722 adults, between 60-85 years, with complete data on selected study variables. DNA was extracted from whole blood via the LTL assay, which is administered using quantitative polymerase chain reaction to measure telomere length relative to standard reference DNA (T/S ratio. Average telomere length was recorded, with two to three assays performed to control for individual variability. The DSST (Digit Symbol Substitution Test was used to assess participant executive cognitive functioning tasks of pairing and free recall. Individuals were excluded if they had been diagnosed with coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, heart attack or stroke at the baseline assessment. Leukocyte telomere length was associated with higher cognitive performance, independent of gender, race-ethnicity, physical activity status, body mass index and other covariates. In this sample, there was a strong association between LTL and cognition; for every 1 T/S ratio increase in LTL, there was a corresponding 9.9 unit increase in the DSST (β = 9.9; 95% CI: 5.6-14.2; P [JCBPR 2018; 7(1.000: 14-18

  11. Histopathology of murine toxoplasmosis under treatment with dialyzable leukocyte extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Eugenia Fuentes-Castro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dialyzable leukocyte extracts (DLEs contain molecules smaller than 10 kDa with biological activity in receptor organisms. Primarily, they participate in the regulation of the Th1 immune response, which is essential for the control of several intracellular infections, such as toxoplasmosis. This disease is associated with congenital infection, encephalitis or systemic infections in immunocompromised individuals. The clinical course of this infection fundamentally depends on a well-regulated immune response and timely treatment with the appropriate drugs. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with a leukocyte extract, derived from crocodile lymphoid tissue, on the histopathology and brain parasite load in NIH mice that had been infected with cysts of Toxoplasma gondii (ME-49 strain. METHODS The treatment was applied during the acute and chronic stages of the infection. Histopathological changes were evaluated in the ileum, liver and spleen at one, four and eight weeks after infection and in the brain at week 8. The parasite load was evaluated by counting the cysts of T. gondii found in the brain. FINDINGS Compared to the control mouse group, the mice infected with T. gondii and under treatment with DLE showed less tissue damage, mainly at the intestinal, splenic and hepatic levels. In addition, a greater percentage of survival was observed, and there was a considerable reduction in the parasite load in the brain. CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that DLE derived from crocodile is a potential adjunctive therapy in the conventional treatment of toxoplasmosis.

  12. Early and delayed indium 111 leukocyte imaging in Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navab, F.; Boyd, C.M.; Diner, W.C.; Subramani, R.; Chan, C.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-seven patients with Crohn's disease were studied for the presence and location of activity by both early (4 h) and delayed (18-24 h) indium 111 leukocyte imaging. The results were compared with other parameters of disease activity including Crohn's disease activity index, barium studies, and endoscopy. There was a correlation between early images and Crohn's disease activity index (r = 0.78) and between delayed images and index (r = 0.82). Based upon the corresponding Crohn's disease activity index, the sensitivity of early and delayed imaging was 81.0% and 95.2%, respectively. Specificity of early and delayed imaging was 75.0% and 87.0%, respectively. Presence of activity on the early and delayed imaging agreed with activity on barium studies and colonoscopy in approximately 80% of cases. Correlation of location of disease by leukocyte imaging and x-ray was observed in 58.9% of early scans and 55.0% of delayed scans. Correlation of the location of disease by imaging and endoscopy was observed in 71.4% of early and 75.0% of delayed studies. Because of the possibility of occurrence of false-negative results in early images, delayed imaging should always be included in evaluation of disease activity in patients with Crohn's disease who are suspected of having mild activity. Delayed imaging is not required if the early imaging study clearly shows activity

  13. Radioactive labelled orgotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The preparation and use of radioactively labelled orgotein, i.e. water-soluble protein congeners in pure, injectable form, is described. This radiopharmaceutical is useful in scintigraphy, especially for visualization of the kidneys where the orgotein is rapidly concentrated. Details of the processes for labelling bovine orgotein with sup(99m)Tc, 60 Co, 125 I or 131 I are specified. The pharmaceutical preparation of the labelled orgotein for intravenous and parenteral administration is also described. Examples using either sup(99m)TC or 125 I-orgotein in scintiscanning dogs' kidneys are given. (UK)

  14. Leukocytes from diabetic patients kill retinal endothelial cells: effects of berberine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Pei; Ge, Hongyan; Liu, Haitao; Kern, Timothy S; Du, Lingling; Guan, Linan; Su, Sheng; Liu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence in animals suggests that leukocytes are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. The present study was designed to investigate whether leukocytes from diabetic patients could kill retinal endothelial cells and whether that cytotoxicity could be inhibited in vivo by administration of berberine. Human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) were cocultured (24 h) with leukocytes freshly isolated from nondiabetic and diabetic patients, and leukocyte-mediated death of HRECs was analyzed with flow cytometry. HRECs or leukocytes were incubated with antibodies against intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) or integrin beta-2, or with various concentrations of berberine. The protein expression levels of inflammatory factors were investigated using western blots, and activities of antioxidant enzymes and malondialdehyde content were examined as markers of oxidative stress. In addition, leukocytes were isolated from 28 diabetic patients with retinopathy and nondiabetic patients before and after 1 month in vivo therapy with berberine. The effects of the berberine on leukocyte-mediated killing of endothelial cells was again assessed. Leukocytes from diabetic patients induced more apoptosis of HRECs in a coculture system than did cells from nondiabetic patients, and this killing occurred primarily via direct cell-cell contact. Berberine inhibited the leukocyte-mediated killing of HRECs in vitro, the decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities, the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B, and the increase in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and malondialdehyde content in HRECs cultured in high glucose. Berberine also decreased integrin beta-2 expression of leukocytes in vitro and in vivo. Oral consumption of berberine for 1 month likewise inhibited the diabetes-induced increase in leukocyte-mediated killing of HRECs. Our findings suggest that leukocytes from diabetic patients kill retinal

  15. On Online Labeling with Polynomially Many Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babka, Martin; Bulánek, Jan; Cunat, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    be necessary to change the labels of some items; such changes may be done at any time at unit cost for each change. The goal is to minimize the total cost. An alternative formulation of this problem is the file maintenance problem, in which the items, instead of being labeled, are maintained in sorted order...... in an array of length m, and we pay unit cost for moving an item. For the case m = cn for constant c > 1, there are known algorithms that use at most O(n log(n)2) relabelings in total [9], and it was shown recently that this is asymptotically optimal [1]. For the case of m = θ(nC) for C > 1, algorithms...

  16. Clinical applications of cells labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Blood cells labelled with radionuclides are reviewed and main applications are described. Red blood cell labelling by both random and specific principle. A table with most important clinical uses, 99mTc labelling of RBC are described pre tinning and in vivo reduction of Tc, in vitro labelling and administration of labelled RBC and in vivo modified technique. Labelled leucocytes with several 99mTc-complex radiopharmaceuticals by in vitro technique and specific monoclonal s for white cells(neutrofiles). Labelled platelets for clinical use and research by in vitro technique and in vivo labelling

  17. Labelling and evaluation of new stabilised neurotensin (8-13) analogues for SPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavatte, K.; Terriere, D.; Jeannin, L.

    1998-01-01

    Neurotensin (8-13) analogues were biologically stabilised by replacement of the peptide bond between amino acids 8 and 9 by the reduced ψ(CH 2 -NH) isostere. DTPA analogues for In-111 labelling and 2-bromo-phenyl-acetyl analogues for radioiodination, showed receptor affinities in the low nanomolar range in combination with a biological half live in human plasma up to 275 minutes. Biodistribution studies in male Wistar rats of metabolically stabilised and non-stabilised 111 In-DTPA-NT(8-13) analogues showed a major clearance from the blood through the kidneys. 125 I-labelled Neurotensin (8-13) analogues showed accumulation up to 2.2% of the injected dose per g tissue in the liver which might be an important disadvantage when diagnosis of tumours in the gut is aimed. It is strongly suggested that stabilised neurotensin (8-13) analogues whether labelled with In-111, I-123 and the near future with Tc-99m, may act as new potential peptidergic radiopharmaceuticals for SPET diagnosis of different NT-receptor positive tumours like non-endocrine pancreas carcinoma, small cell lung carcinoma or colon adeno carcinoma. It is enticing to speculate that metabolically stabilised Neurotensin (8-13) analogues labelled with an appropriate isotope might be useful in therapy of different human cancers. (author)

  18. FDA Online Label Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The drug labels and other drug-specific information on this Web site represent the most recent drug listing information companies have submitted to the Food and Drug...

  19. Revision in Reference Ranges of Peripheral Total Leukocyte Count and Differential Leukocyte Percentages Based on a Normal Serum C-Reactive Protein Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zei-Shung Huang

    2007-08-01

    Conclusion: In view of the abundant evidence showing that a higher peripheral total leukocyte count is harmful to health, a down-correction of its upper reference range from the currently used 11.0 × 109/L to the proposed 8.83 × 109/L, based on a normal CRP level, should allow more abnormal health conditions to be identified and promote the usefulness of peripheral leukocyte analysis.

  20. Leukocyte removal efficiency of cell-washed and unwashed whole blood: an in vitro study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinke, M. ten; Weerwind, P.W.; Teerenstra, S.; Feron, JC; Meer, W. van der; Brouwer, René

    2005-01-01

    Leukocyte filtration of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) perfusate after cardiac surgery has evolved as an important technique to prevent effector functions mediated by activated leukocytes. However, little is known about the filtration efficiency. Therefore, an in vitro study was conducted to

  1. Combination of dehydroepiandrosterone and orthovanadate administration reduces intestinal leukocyte recruitment in models of experimental sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Banna, Nadia; Pavlovic, Dragan; Sharawi, Nivin; Bac, Vo Hoai; Jaskulski, Mathis; Balzer, Claudius; Weber, Stefan; Nedeljkov, Vladimir; Lehmann, Christian

    2014-09-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) was shown to improve the immune function and survival in experimental sepsis. This study examined the effect of DHEA on intestinal leukocyte recruitment during experimental sepsis, considering factors of gender (male, female and ovariectomized female animals) and combined treatment using orthovanadate (OV) in two models of sepsis. Male rats underwent colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP) or endotoxemia. DHEA was administered after induction of experimental sepsis. Changes in leukocyte adherence and capillary perfusion (measured as intestinal functional capillary density - FCD) were assessed using intravital microscopy. While DHEA increased baseline leukocyte adherence in control animals, DHEA reduced leukocyte adherence and increased FCD in male animals with CASP. These effects were also observed in DHEA-treated ovariectomized female rats with CASP. Similarly, the administration of DHEA reduced the number of adherent leukocytes to intestinal venules by 30% in the endotoxemia model. The combined treatment of DHEA and OV significantly reduced adherence of leukocytes to intestinal venules and improved FCD. Our results indicate that DHEA is able to reduce intestinal leukocyte recruitment induced by experimental sepsis. Combination of DHEA with OV inhibits leukocyte adherence to intestinal endothelium, similar to what is achieved by the single administration of DHEA but with significantly improved FCD. These findings suggest a potential role for DHEA and OV in clinical sepsis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Leukocyte invasion of the brain after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mracsko, Eva; Javidi, Ehsan; Na, Shin-Young; Kahn, Alexandra; Liesz, Arthur; Veltkamp, Roland

    2014-07-01

    Neuroinflammatory processes contribute to secondary neuronal damage after intracerebral hemorrhage. We aimed to characterize the time course of brain immigration of different leukocyte subsets after striatal injection of either autologous blood or collagenase in mice. Intracerebral hemorrhage was induced by injection of either autologous blood (20 μL) or collagenase (0.03 U) in C57Bl/6J mice. Hematoma volumetry was performed on cryosections. Blood volume was measured by hemoglobin spectrophotometry. Leukocytes were isolated from hemorrhagic hemisphere 1, 3, 5, and 14 days after intracerebral hemorrhage, stained for leukocyte markers, and measured by flow cytometry. Heterologous blood injection from CD45.1 mice was used to investigate the origin of brain-invading leukocytes. Collagenase injection induced a larger hematoma volume but a similar blood content compared with blood injection. Cerebral leukocyte infiltration in the hemorrhagic hemisphere was similar in both models. The majority of leukocytes isolated from the brain originated from the circulation. CD4+ T lymphocytes were the predominant brain leukocyte population in both models. However, cerebral granulocyte counts were higher after collagenase compared with blood injection. Brain infiltration of systemic immune cells is similar in both murine intracerebral hemorrhage models. The pathophysiological impact of invading leukocytes and, in particular, of T cells requires further investigation. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Effect of 30-Gy irradiation in conjunction with leukocyte reduction filter on platelet and transfusion efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojima, Hiromi; Sawada, Umihiko; Horie, Takashi; Itoh, Takeyoshi

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of 30-Gy irradiation in conjunction with leukocyte reduction filter on platelet and transfusion efficiency, we studied platelet recovery, leukocyte reduction rate, content of platelet factor 4 and β-thromboglobulin in platelet products, platelet functions, and positive rates of platelet surface membranes CD42 and CD62, prior to and after treatment. We also evaluated the efficiency of platelet transfusion by estimating post- transfusion (1 and 24 hour) corrected count increment (CCI), and transfusion side effects. Recovery of platelets was 91.8±6.5% and depletion rate of leukocytes was 1.7±1.1 log. There was no significant difference in platelet activation markers or function tests prior to and after the procedure. The mean post-transfusion CCI and 1 and 24 hours were 16,550 (n=114) and 13,310 (n=93), respectively, with 30-Gy irradiation and leukocyte reduction filter. Those treated solely with leukocyte reduction filter were 14,970 (n=114) and 10,880 (n=118), respectively. There was no increase in transfusion side effects after the treatment of platelet concentrate with 30-Gy irradiation combined with leukocyte reduction filter compared with treatment by leukocyte reduction filter alone. These results indicate that treatment with 30 Gy irradiation in conjunction with leukocyte reduction filter is safe and effective in platelet transfusion. (author)

  4. Indium-111 leukocyte scintigraphic detection of myocardial abscess formation in patients with endocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerqueira, M.D.; Jacobson, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    Myocardial abscess formation in patients with bacterial endocarditis in most clinical settings, especially in patients with prosthetic valves, is a primary indicator for surgical valve replacement. We report the detection of myocardial abscesses using 111 In leukocyte scintigraphy in three patients with prosthetic or native valve endocarditis and nondiagnostic echocardiograms. Leukocyte scintigraphy may allow identification of myocardial abscess formation earlier than other imaging modalities

  5. A new cellulose acetate filter to remove leukocytes from buffy-coat-poor red cell concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietersz, R. N.; Dekker, W. J.; Reesink, H. W.

    1989-01-01

    Transfusion of leukocyte-free red cell concentrates (RCC) prevents or delays HLA immunization in multitransfused patients. We investigated a new cellulose acetate filter which was recently introduced to remove leukocytes from buffy-coat-poor RCC. It was found that the filtration time was only 10 min

  6. Is flow cytometry better in counting malaria pigment-containing leukocytes compared to microscopy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hänscheid, Thomas; Frita, Rosangela; Längin, Matthias; Kremsner, Peter G.; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Detection of malaria pigment (or haemozoin; Hz)-containing leukocytes may have prognostic relevance in malaria; however, studies reported conflicting results, with microscopic counts suggestive of being inaccurate and imprecise. METHODS: Numbers of Hz-containing leukocytes from a malaria

  7. The method of selection of leukocytes in images of preparations of peripheral blood and bone marrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharenko, Y. V.; Nikitaev, V. G.; Polyakov, E. V.; Seldyukov, S. O.

    2017-01-01

    Study of the segmentation method on the basis of histogram analysis for the selection of leukocytes in the images of blood and bone marrow in the diagnosis of acute leukemia was conducted in this paper. Method of filtering was offered to eliminate the artifacts, resulting from the selection of leukocytes.

  8. Effect of Camphor on the Behavior of Leukocytes In vitro and In vivo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory of Inflammation, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, State University of Maringá, Maringá, PR, Brazil ... exhibited significant (p < 0.01) reduction on leukocyte migration toward N-formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine fMLP. Topical ... the inhibition of leukocyte migration and antiedematogenic activity.

  9. Pembuatan kulit untuk label

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ign. Sunaryo

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research is aimed to produce leather for label which is needed by market demand ant to disseminate this technology to industries. There were 10 sides of wet salted cow hides for this research. Those hides were divided into 3 groups, each group consisted of 3 sides that were serially tanned by 3%, 4% and 5% and one side for control. Those hides were then mixed and divided into 3 groups, each group consisted of 3 sides and were then tanned by 6%, 8% and 10% of mimosa. The rest one side was tanned by 6% chrome and 8% mimosa for control. One side of label leather was taken from market used for comparison. Organoleptical, physical and chemical leather testing were carried out in IRDLAI laboratory. The result showed that the quality of the label leather from this research were better than label leather from market. Beside this it could be found out the technology of label manufacture which could produce good quality of label leather that were tanned by 5% chrome and re-tanned by 8% of mimosa

  10. Noninvasive detection of coronary thrombi with In-111 platelets: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, S.R.; Lerch, R.A.; Mathias, C.J.; Sobel, B.E.; Welch, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    The need for rapid, definitive identification of coronary thrombosis has been intensified by the advent of thrombolytic therapy and by interest in the role of thrombosis in the etiology of coronary artery disease. To determine whether platelet thrombi can be detected noninvasively with In-111 platelets, a method was developed in which Tc-99m-tagged red blood cells were used to correct for activity within the blood attributable to platelets circulating but not associated with thrombus. In 18 dogs coronary thrombi were induced closed-chest with a copper coil introduced into the coronary artery. Indium-111 platelets and Tc-99m RBCs were administered either before or 1 hr after induction of thrombus, and serial scintigrams obtained. Coronary thrombus was identified readily in the processed scintigrams. In six dogs, thrombolysis was achieved with intracoronary streptokinase. In each case serial scintigraphy demonstrated resolution of the clot. The dual radiotracer technique should permit serial noninvasive delineation of the temporal relationship between platelet deposition and coronary heart disease in patients, and should facilitate the evaluation of interventions designed to prevent platelet aggregation or to lyse existing thrombi

  11. Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil inhibits in vivo and in vitro leukocyte migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira de Melo, Gessilda Alcantara; Grespan, Renata; Fonseca, Jefferson Pitelli; Farinha, Thiago Oliveira; Silva, Expedito Leite; Romero, Adriano Lopes; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar A; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2011-09-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), popularly known as rosemary, is used for food flavoring and in folk medicine as an antispasmodic, analgesic, antirheumatic, diuretic, and antiepileptic agent. Few studies have shown the anti-inflammatory effects of rosemary essential oil (REO). This study evaluated the effects of REO on leukocyte migration through in vivo leukocyte migration and in vitro chemotaxis assay. REO was analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectometry, and the main components identified were camphor (27.59%), 1,8-cineole (15.74%), α-pinene (16.58%), and β-myrcene (10.02%). In rats, administration of REO reduced the number of leukocytes that rolled, adhered, and migrated to the scrotal chamber after carrageenan injection. All doses of REO tested significantly inhibited leukocyte chemotaxis induced by casein. The effects of REO on leukocyte migration highlight an important mechanism of the anti-inflammatory action of rosemary.

  12. Signaling through MyD88 regulates leukocyte recruitment after brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babcock, Alicia A; Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Owens, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    Injury to the CNS provokes an innate inflammatory reaction that engages infiltrating leukocytes with the capacity to repair and/or exacerbate tissue damage. The initial cues that orchestrate leukocyte entry remain poorly defined. We have used flow cytometry to investigate whether MyD88, an adaptor...... protein that transmits signals from TLRs and receptors for IL-1 and IL-18, regulates leukocyte infiltration into the stab-injured entorhinal cortex (EC) and into sites of axonal degeneration in the denervated hippocampus. We have previously established the kinetics of leukocyte entry into the denervated...... hippocampus. We now show that significant leukocyte entry into the EC occurs within 3-12 h of stab injury. Whereas T cells showed small, gradual increases over 8 days, macrophage infiltration was pronounced and peaked within 12-24 h. MyD88 deficiency significantly reduced macrophage and T cell recruitment...

  13. Production of fibrogenic cytokines by interleukin-2-treated peripheral blood leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, E J; Brock, B; Silber, I E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the production of fibrogenic cytokines by interleukin-2 (IL-2)-stimulated peripheral blood leukocytes and to examine their ability to stimulate the production of connective tissue. METHODS: Culture medium from human peripheral blood leukocytes incubated with or without IL-2...... was tested for induction of fibroblast proliferation, collagen synthesis, and expression of cytokine genes. RESULTS: Supernatants from IL-2-treated peripheral blood leukocytes induced six times more fibroblast proliferation than medium from leukocytes cultured without IL-2. The expression of type I....... CONCLUSION: Mediators that induce connective tissue production are secreted by IL-2-treated peripheral blood leukocytes. These cytokines may be responsible, in part, for the stimulation of abdominal adhesions in patients receiving intraperitoneal immunotherapy....

  14. Updates in understanding the role of cyclophilin A in leukocyte chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawar, Farman Ullah; Wu, Junjie; Zhao, Lijuan; Khattak, Muhammad Nasir Khan; Mei, Jie; Lin, Li

    2017-04-01

    Cyclophilin A (CypA), a well-recognized receptor for anti-inflammatory drug cyclosporine A (CsA) is a ubiquitous and multifunctional protein. Beside the diverse intracellular functions, CypA is secreted against inflammatory stimuli, where it activates and attracts leukocytes via CD147 to the stimulus site. Interestingly, it synergizes with other factors to induce leukocyte migration in different animals. However, the silencing and inhibition of CypA or CD147 inhibits leukocytes chemotaxis and inflammation. This review focuses on the advances made in understanding the mechanism of CypA-dependent leukocytes chemotaxis and hence, recognition of this factor as a possible therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  15. Preclinical studies for the gene therapy of leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon Rico, D.

    2015-07-01

    Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Type I (LAD-I) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in ITGB2 gene, encoding for CD18 protein (also known as 2 subunit). This protein binds to different CD11 subunits to form 2 integrins, which are expressed in the leukocyte membrane and allow leukocytes to firmly adhere to the endothelium as a previous step to the extravasation. In LAD-I patients, ITGB2 mutations lead to absent, low or aberrant CD18 expression, which results in absent or low 2 integrin expression on the leukocyte membrane. CD18 deficient leukocytes, especially neutrophils, fail to extravasate from the bloodstream to infected tissues. LAD-I patients suffer from recurrent and severe infections leading normally to death. (Author)

  16. Evaluation of two types of leukocyte removal filters on transfusion dependent thalassaemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, R; Mazeni, N R; Hussin, H

    2000-12-01

    The advent of leukocyte filters has enabled effective removal of leukocytes from certain blood products thus avoiding many adverse effects of blood transfusion. Many different materials have been incorporated into these filters to achieve >95% leukocyte removal. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of leukocyte removal of two different filters, using actual bedside transfusion settings involving patients with transfusion dependent thalassaemia. Fifty-one transfusion events were randomised to use either a polyurethane filter or a non-woven polyester filter. We found that the two filters achieved 98.4% and 96.2% leukocyte removal respectively (p = 0.022). We also found no significant correlation between pre-filtration white blood cell count and the volume transfused with the efficacy of leukodepletion. No untoward events or transfusion reactions were observed during the study.

  17. Comparison of Plasmagel with LeucoPREP-Macrodex methods for separation of leukocytes for virus isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, G L; Proffitt, M R

    1987-10-01

    Plasmagel (Cellular Products, Inc., Buffalo, NY), which can separate both polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and mononuclear cells from other blood components, and LeucoPREP (Becton Dickinson Immunocytometry Systems, Mountain View, CA), which can separate mononuclear cells from other blood components, were used to harvest leukocytes from whole blood for the purpose of virus isolation. Macrodex was combined with the later, in a second step, for recovery of PMN. Of 90 peripheral blood specimens examined, cytomegalovirus was recovered from 10: in six by both methods, in three from Plasmagel prepared cells only, and in one from cells from the LeucoPREP-Macrodex preparation only. Total leukocyte counts, differential counts, and leukocyte viability did not differ significantly for the two methods. Plasmagel provided an efficient, inexpensive means of harvesting leukocytes from whole blood for virus isolation.

  18. Four-part leukocyte differential count based on sheathless microflow cytometer and fluorescent dye assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wendian; Guo, Luke; Kasdan, Harvey; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2013-04-07

    Leukocyte differential count is one of the most frequently ordered clinical tests in hospitals. This paper reports a point-of-care test for the leukocyte count by using a microflow cytometer and a fluorescent dye assay. The dye assay relied on fluorescent detection alone to count leukocytes in blood and to identify leukocyte subtypes. By combining the fluorescent assay with a sheathless microflow design, the proposed method achieved a minimal sample volume by eliminating excessive dilution and sheath flow. In this paper, a four-part leukocyte differential count including lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil and eosinophil was demonstrated, and the whole test consumed only a small amount of blood (5 μL) and reagents (68 μL in total). The merits of minimal sample volume, long reagent shelf life and portable instrument made this method optimal for point-of-care applications.

  19. Filtration of activated granulocytes during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery : A morphologic and immunologic study to characterize the trapped leukocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, JJJ; de Vries, AJ; Gu, YJ; van Oeveren, W

    Cardiopulmonary bypass surgery induces an inflammatory reaction among others by activation of granulocytes. Leukocyte filtration has been shown to reduce the postoperative morbidity mediated by activated granulocytes. However, little is known about the mechanism of filter-leukocyte interaction, This

  20. Pregnancy enhances the sensitivity of glomerular ecto-adenosine triphosphate-diphosphohydrolase to products of activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Bakker, WW; Baller, JFW; Schuiling, GA

    To test the hypothesis that pregnancy enhances the sensitivity of glomerular ecto-adenosine triphosphate-diphosphohydrolase to products of activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes, cryostat-cut kidney sections of pregnant and cycling rats were exposed to activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes and

  1. Elevated leukocyte count as a harbinger of systemic inflammation, disease progression, and poor prognosis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Piotr Paweł; Strzelec, Bartłomiej

    2017-10-24

    Total leukocyte count increases significantly in response to infection, trauma, inflammation, and certain diseases. Factors affecting leukocyte count in healthy adults include sex, hormonal milieu, genetic inheritance, stress level, diet, nutrition, and lifestyle (e.g. tobacco-induced inflammatory changes, chronic psychological stress, etc.). To date, numerous studies have reported that high but normal leukocyte counts at baseline predict increased cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality in older adults. Recent findings suggest that elevated leukocyte count within the normal range, but especially neutrophil and monocyte counts, may be a harbinger of increased systemic inflammation and subclinical disease. Moreover, elderly people who tend to have high but normal leukocyte counts are at greater risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, some other age-related conditions, and they also have increased all-cause mortality. These results indicate that strong and reliable inflammatory markers, such as leukocyte count, may reflect the rate of ageing and therefore can predict long-term survival in the elderly. Remarkably, leukocyte count correlates positively with genuine markers of systemic inflammation like C-reactive protein and interleukin 6. Interestingly, some authors conclude that leukocyte counts have a stronger prognostic ability with regard to total and cardiovascular mortality than total cholesterol or low-density lipoproteins. The fact that these inflammatory markers are clinically useful predictors of long-term survival in the elderly is quite remarkable as these blood parameters are included in routine medical check-ups. Therefore, they can be used as simple and reliable morphological indicators of chronic systemic inflammation, disease progression, and poor prognosis, especially among individuals who are likely to develop age-related conditions. Nevertheless, the pathomechanism that links elevated but normal leukocyte counts to increased

  2. Genetic algorithms for map labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Steven Ferdinand van

    2001-01-01

    Map labeling is the cartographic problem of placing the names of features (for example cities or rivers) on the map. A good labeling has no intersections between labels. Even basic versions of the problem are NP-hard. In addition, realistic map-labeling problems deal with many cartographic

  3. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  4. Human leukocyte antigen-G within the male reproductive system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2015-01-01

    In sexual reproduction in humans, a man has a clear interest in ensuring that the immune system of his female partner accepts the semi-allogenic fetus. Increasing attention has been given to soluble immunomodulatory molecules in the seminal fluid as one mechanism of ensuring this, possibly by “pr...... plasma may even be associated with the chance of pregnancy in couples, where the male partner has reduced semen quality. More studies are needed to verify these preliminary findings....... by “priming” the woman’s immune system before conception and at conception. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of the immunoregulatory and tolerance-inducible human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G in the male reproductive organs. The expression of HLA-G in the blastocyst and by extravillous trophoblast...

  5. Leukocyte apoptosis as a predictor of radiosensitivity in Fanconi anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, Sandra; Leskovac, Andreja; Joksic, Ivana; Filipovic, Jelena; Joksic, Gordana; Vujic, Dragana; Guc-Scekic, Marija

    2013-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare cancer-prone genetic disease characterized by impaired oxygen metabolism and defects in DNA damage repair. Response of FA cells to ionizing radiation has been an issue intensively debated in the literature. To study in vitro radiosensitivity in patients suffering from FA and their parents (heterozygous carriers), we determined radiation-induced leukocyte apoptosis using flow cytometry. As TP53 gene is involved in the control of apoptosis, we studied its status in FA lymphocytes using dual colour fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FA patients and female heterozygous carriers display radiosensitive response to ionizing radiation seen as abnormal elimination of cells via apoptosis. By employment of FISH, the TP53 allele loss in FA lymphocytes was not observed. In diseases related to oxidative stress, determination of radiation-induced apoptosis is the method of choice for testing the radiosensitivity. (author)

  6. Flow cytofluorometric monitoring of leukocyte apoptosis in experimental cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotsmanova, Ekaterina Y.; Kravtsov, Alexander L.; Livanova, Ludmila F.; Kobkova, Irina M.; Kuznetsov, Oleg S.; Shchukovskaya, Tatyana N.; Smirnova, Nina I.; Kutyrev, Vladimir V.

    2003-10-01

    Flow cytofluorometric DNA analysis was applied to determine of the relative contents of proliferative (more then 2C DNA per cell) and apoptotic (less then 2C DNA per cell) leukocytes in blood of adult rabbits, challenged with 10,000 times the 50 % effective dose of Vibrio cholerae virulent strain by the RITARD technique. It has been shown that irreversible increase the percentage of cells carrying DNA in the degradation stage brings to disbalance between the genetically controlled cell proliferation and apoptosis that leads to animal death from the cholera infection. Such fatal changes were not observed in challenging of immunized animals that were not died. Thus received data show that the flow cytofluorometric measurements may be used for detection of transgressions in homeostasis during acute infection diseases, for outlet prognosis of the cholera infection.

  7. Chronic stress, leukocyte subpopulations, and humoral response to latent viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinnon, W.; Weisse, C.S.; Reynolds, C.P.; Bowles, C.A.; Baum, A. (Uniformed Services Univ. of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Psychological stress has been shown to affect immune system status and function, but most studies of this relationship have focused on acute stress and/or laboratory situations. The present study compared total numbers of leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations (determined by flow cytometry) and antibody titers to latent and nonlatent viruses among a group of chronically stressed individuals living near the damaged Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant with those of a demographically comparable control group. Urinary catecholamine and cortisol levels were also examined. Residents of the TMI area exhibited greater numbers of neutrophils, which were positively correlated with epinephrine levels. The TMI group also exhibited fewer B lymphocytes, T-suppressor/cytotoxic lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. Antibody titers to herpes simplex were significantly different across groups as well, whereas titers to nonlatent rubella virus as well as IgG and IgM levels were comparable.

  8. Chronic stress, leukocyte subpopulations, and humoral response to latent viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinnon, W.; Weisse, C.S.; Reynolds, C.P.; Bowles, C.A.; Baum, A.

    1989-01-01

    Psychological stress has been shown to affect immune system status and function, but most studies of this relationship have focused on acute stress and/or laboratory situations. The present study compared total numbers of leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations (determined by flow cytometry) and antibody titers to latent and nonlatent viruses among a group of chronically stressed individuals living near the damaged Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant with those of a demographically comparable control group. Urinary catecholamine and cortisol levels were also examined. Residents of the TMI area exhibited greater numbers of neutrophils, which were positively correlated with epinephrine levels. The TMI group also exhibited fewer B lymphocytes, T-suppressor/cytotoxic lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. Antibody titers to herpes simplex were significantly different across groups as well, whereas titers to nonlatent rubella virus as well as IgG and IgM levels were comparable

  9. Osteomyelitis in leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari Azad, Farahzad; Ardalan, Maryam; H.Rafati, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD-1) is a rare, inherited immunodeficiency that affects one per million people yearly and usually presents with recurrent, indolent bacterial infections of the skin, mouth, and respiratory tract and impaired pus formation and wound healing. A 13-year-old girl...... diagnosed LAD-I at the age of 7 years was brought to the Immunology, Asthma and Allergy Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, because of a draining plaque on the left leg for 2.5 years. She had recurrent skin infections and had been treated with repeated courses of different antibiotic...... combinations, with temporary responses, since 5 years of age. Examination revealed a 7 x 8 cm minimally erythematous hyperpigmented plaque with multiple draining sinuses on the left leg. Tissue culture yielded Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Flow cytometry showed CD18 (18.79%), CD11a (51.59%), CD11b (18.61%) and CD11c...

  10. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G during pregnancy part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mette; Klitkou, Louise; Christiansen, Ole B

    2015-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G is a class Ib molecule with restricted tissue distribution expressed on the extra-villous trophoblast and seems to have immunomodulatory functions during pregnancy. Studies have linked HLA-G polymorphisms to pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia and recurrent...... miscarriage. Levels of soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) in blood plasma from non-pregnant donors seem to be associated with these polymorphisms. In the current study, we have genotyped 246 mothers and their offspring for HLA-G polymorphisms in the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) and measured sHLA-G in maternal blood...... plasma samples from gestational week 20 and at term, as well as in fetal umbilical cord blood samples. This is the first large study simultaneously performing HLA-G genotyping of mother and offspring and measuring sHLA-G in both maternal and umbilical cord blood. The results showed that increasing...

  11. Diterpenoids from Tetraclinis articulata that inhibit various human leukocyte functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero, Alejandro F; Quílez del Moral, José F; Lucas, Rut; Payá, Miguel; Akssira, Mohamed; Akaad, Said; Mellouki, Fouad

    2003-06-01

    Ten new compounds, eight of them pimarane derivatives (1-8), together with a menthane dimer (9) and a totarane diterpenoid (10), were isolated from the leaves and wood of Tetraclinis articulata. The structures of 1-10 were established by using spectroscopic techniques, including 2D NMR spectra. Pimaranes 1-5 were found to possess an unusual cis interannular union of the B and C rings, which, from a biogenetic perspective, could be derived from the hydration of a carbocation at C-8. Compounds 4-6 and a mixture of 7 and 11 modulated different human leukocyte functions at a concentration of 10 microM, mainly the degranulation process measured as myeloperoxidase release and, to a lesser extent, the superoxide production measured by chemiluminescence.

  12. Using milk leukocyte differentials for diagnosis of subclinical bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Lyman, Roberta L; Hockett, Mitchell; Rodriguez, Rudy; Dos Santos, Marcos Veiga; Anderson, Kevin L

    2017-08-01

    This research study aimed to evaluate the use of the milk leukocyte differential (MLD) to: (a) identify quarter milks that are culture-positive; and (b) characterize the milk leukocyte responses to specific groups of pathogens causing subclinical mastitis. The MLD measures the absolute number and relative percentage of inflammatory cells in milk samples. Using the MLD in two dairy herds (170 and 172 lactating cows, respectively), we studied all lactating cows with a most recent monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association somatic cell count (SCC) >200 × 103 cells/ml. Quarter milk samples from 78 cows meeting study criteria were analysed by MLD and aseptically collected milk samples were subjected to microbiological culture (MC). Based upon automated instrument evaluation of the number and percentage of inflammatory cells in milk, samples were designated as either MLD-positive or - negative for subclinicial mastitis. Positive MC were obtained from 102/156 (65·4%) of MLD-positive milk samples, and 28/135 (20·7%) of MLD-negative milk samples were MC-positive. When MC was considered the gold standard for mastitis diagnosis, the calculated diagnostic Se of the MLD was 65·4% (IC95% = 57·4 to 72·8%) and the Sp was 79·3% (IC95% = 71·4 to 85·7%). Quarter milks positive on MC had higher absolute numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages, with higher neutrophils% and lymphocytes% but lower macrophages%. The Log10 (N/L) ratios were the most useful ratio to differentiate specific subclinical mastitis quarters from healthy quarters. Use of the MLD on cows with monthly composite SCC > 200 × 103 cells/ml for screening at quarter level identified quarters more likely to be culture-positive. In conclusion, the MLD can provide an analysis of mammary quarter status more detailed than provided by SCC alone; however, the MLD response to subclinical mastitis was not found useful to specifically identify the causative pathogen.

  13. Evaluation of renal allograft with 99mTc-mononuclear leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, S.A.L.; Oliveira, H.S.; Goncalves, R.T.; Pontes, D.S.; Fonseca, L.B.M.; Gutfilen, B.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Because kidney biopsy is an invasive procedure that carries a small but significant risk of major complications, a noninvasive test that detects rejection before it is clinically apparent is very much needed. The reversibility of acute rejection is related to the promptness with which treatment is begun. Here we show the evaluation of rejection in the first week post-transplant with 99m Tc-mononuclear leukocyte scintigraphy (99mTc-MLS). Materials and Methods: 70 patients submitted to renal transplant at the Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho (HUCFF/UFRJ) underwent 99m Tc-MLS at the 1st and 5th post-transplant days. The labeled cells were administered (444MBq) and scans were carried out 3 and 24h post injection. A region of interest (ROI) was drawn at the allograft image and statistics compared between the 3 and 24h images. Percentages above 15% in the 24h image relating to the 3h image were considered abnormal and suspect of rejection. 25 of the 70 patients rejected the renal allograft in the 1st week post-transplant. Results: 99m Tc-MLS has detected rejection in 20 of the 25 patients. Color Doppler was also carried out in all the patients and has detected 16 rejections. Sensitivity and specificity were 80% and 100% for scintigraphy and 64% and 100% for Ultrasound. 99m Tc-MLS is more sensitive in humoral rejection than color Doppler. The latter is better to identify the vascular rejection. Conclusion: In order to evaluate renal allograft and improve the rejection diagnosis the combination of both techniques should be applied. More studies are now in progress

  14. Improving diagnosis of acute appendicitis with atypical findings by Tc-99m HMPAO leukocyte scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shung-Shung, S.; Kao, A. [China Medical Coll. Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Yu-Chien, S. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan); Inst. of Biomedical Engineering, Coll. of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan); Mei-Due, Y.; Hwei-Chung, W. [Dept. of Surgery, China Medical Coll. Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan)

    2002-02-01

    Aim: Even with careful observation, the overall false-positive rate of laparotomy remains 10-15% when acute appendicitis was suspected. Therefore, the clinical efficacy of Tc-99m HMPAO labeled leukocyte (TC-WBC) scan for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in patients presenting with atypical clinical findings is assessed. Patients and Methods: Eighty patients presenting with acute abdominal pain and possible acute appendicitis but atypical findings were included in this study. After intravenous injection of TC-WBC, serial anterior abdominal/pelvic images at 30, 60, 120 and 240 min with 800 k counts were obtained with a gamma camera. Any abnormal localization of radioactivity in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen, equal to or greater than bone marrow activity, was considered as a positive scan. Results: 36 out of 49 patients showing positive TC-WBC scans received appendectomy. They all proved to have positive pathological findings. Five positive TC-WBC were not related to acute appendicitis, because of other pathological lesions. Eight patients were not operated and clinical follow-up after one month revealed no acute abdominal condition. Three of 31 patients with negative TC-WBC scans received appendectomy. They also presented positive pathological findings. The remaining 28 patients did not receive operations and revealed no evidence of appendicitis after at least one month of follow-up. The overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values for TC-WBC scan to diagnose acute appendicitis were 92, 78, 86, 82, and 90%, respectively. Conclusion: TC-WBC scan provides a rapid and highly accurate method for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in patients with equivocal clinical examination. It proved useful in reducing the false-positive rate of laparotomy and shortens the time necessary for clinical observation. (orig.)

  15. 76 FR 5386 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction... availability of a draft document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Pre- Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole... provides blood establishments with recommendations for pre- storage leukocyte reduction of Whole Blood and...

  16. Enzymatic Activities of Bovine Peripheral Blood Leukocytes and Milk Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils during Intramammary Inflammation Caused by Lipopolysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prin-Mathieu, C.; Le Roux, Y.; Faure, G. C.; Laurent, F.; Béné, M. C.; Moussaoui, F.

    2002-01-01

    Leukocytes are recruited from peripheral blood into milk as part of the inflammatory response to mastitis. However, excessive accumulation of inflammatory cells alters the quality of milk and the proteases produced by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and macrophages may lead to mammary tissue damage. To investigate PMN recruitment and the kinetics of their intracytoplasmic enzymes in inflammation, we generated mastitis in six cows by intramammary infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Clinical signs of acute mastitis were observed in all of the cows, and normal status was resumed by 316 h. Intracytoplasmic elastase, collagenase, and cathepsin activities were measured within live cells by flow cytometry in peripheral blood leukocytes and milk PMNs before and during the inflammatory process (at 10 time points between 4 and 316 h). The proportion of immature PMNs was appreciated by CD33 surface labeling measured in flow cytometry. Leukopenia was observed in the peripheral blood 4 h postinfusion, concomitant to an increase in somatic cell counts in milk. CD33+ PMNs were preferentially recruited from the peripheral blood to milk. Enzymatic activities were detected in PMNs, lymphocytes, and monocytes at levels depending on the cell type, sample nature, and time of collection. Milk PMNs had lower enzymatic activities than peripheral blood PMNs. This study showed that milk PMNs recruited during LPS-induced experimental mastitis have an immature phenotype and significantly lower enzymatic activities than peripheral blood PMNs. This suggests that CD33, an adhesion molecule, may be involved in the egress from blood to milk and that the enzymatic contents of PMNs are partly used during this process. PMID:12093678

  17. Prestorage leukocyte filtration may reduce leukocyte-derived bioactive substance accumulation in patients operated for burn trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H; Krarup, Annabel Lee

    1999-01-01

    for burn trauma are investigated. 24 consecutive patients were randomly selected to receive transfusion with non-filtered blood components (group A, n = 12) or similar products, which were prestorage leukofiltered (group B, n = 12). The burn injury was scored using the Bull and Fischer index of age...... and burn surface area. Histamine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were analysed in plasma or serum collected from all patients 30 min before skin incision, at skin incision and 5, 10 and 30 min and thereafter every...... died in group A and 2 in group B; all with a Bull and Fischer index between 1.0 and 2.0. Prestorage leukocyte filtration may reduce transfusion related accumulation of various bioactive substances and the requirement for blood in burn trauma patients....

  18. Toward improved pregnancy labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Gideon; Sakaguchi, Sachi; Klieger, Chagit; Kazmin, Alex; Osadchy, Alla; Yazdani-Brojeni, Parvaneh; Matok, Ilan

    2010-01-01

    Information about the use of a medication in pregnancy is part of overall drug labelling as prepared by the pharmaceutical company and approved by the regulators. It is aimed at assisting clinicians in prescribing, however, very few drugs are labelled for specific indications in pregnancy, since there is rarely information about the use of a drug in this condition. Recently the FDA has drafted new guidelines for the labeling of drugs in pregnancy and breastfeeding, to replace the A,B,C,D,X system that was used for more than 30 years. Here we document the use of the new system through 3 different medications; each representing a different clinical situation in pregnancy--acute infection, chronic pain, and drug use during labor. Advantages and challenges in the new system are being highlighted.

  19. Synthesis of labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, T.W.

    1977-01-01

    Intermediate compounds labeled with 13 C included methane, sodium cyanide, methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile. A new method for synthesizing 15 N-labeled 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide was developed. Studies were conducted on pathways to oleic-1- 13 C acid and a second pathway investigated was based on carbonation of 8-heptadecynylmagnesium bromide with CO 2 to prepare sterolic acid. Biosynthetic preparations included glucose- 13 C from starch isolated from tobacco leaves following photosynthetic incubation with 13 CO 2 and galactose- 13 C from galactosylglycerol- 13 C from kelp. Research on growth of organisms emphasized photosynthetic growth of algae in which all cellular carbon is labeled. Preliminary experiments were performed to optimize the growth of Escherichia coli on sodium acetate- 13 C

  20. Fluorine-18 labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleijn, J.P. de

    1978-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis deals with the problems involved in the adaption of reactor-produced fluorine-18 to the synthesis of 18 F-labelled organic fluorine compounds. Several 18 F-labelling reagents were prepared and successfully applied. The limitations to the synthetic possibilities of reactor-produced fluoride- 18 become manifest in the last part of the thesis. An application to the synthesis of labelled aliphatic fluoro amino acids has appeared to be unsuccessful as yet, although some other synthetic approaches can be indicated. Seven journal articles (for which see the availability note) are used to compose the four chapters and three appendices. The connecting text gives a survey of known 18 F-compounds and methods for preparing such compounds. (Auth.)

  1. Detection of myocarditis with indium-111-labelled monoclonal antimyosin antibodies. A review; Znaczenie antymiozyn znakowanych indem-111 w diagnostyce zapalenia miesnia sercowego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojnicz, R. [Slaskie Centrum Chorob Serca, Zabrze (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    Indium-111 labelled monoclonal antimyosin antibody (AMA-In111) is a sensitive immunoscintigraphic agent for detecting of myocyte necrosis. Due to some limitations including low specificity for myocarditis (MCI) and a very high cost of the study, this agent should be used in only part of patients with clinically suspected MCI. Non-invasive and invasive (coronary angiography) diagnostic procedures should precede AMA-In111 scintigraphy in these patients. The utility of AMA-In111 scintigraphy seems to be greatest in following clinical conditions characterized by myocyte necrosis: 1. diagnosis of MCI in patients with myocardial infarction demonstrated to have normal coronary arteries by selective angiography, 2. detection and quantification of anthracycline-induced myocardial damage, 3. assessment of myocardial damage in cardiac rejection after one post-transplant year. (author)

  2. Biomolecular immunoreactivity factor in antibody labelling design for potent radiopharmaceutical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    Biomolecular factors' importance in optimum immunoconjugate design when high specific labelling is attempted is discussed. High specific labelling allows a small dose to be administered avoiding saturating antigen binding sites and to compensate for loss of bivalency etc. upon fragmentation. Clinical therapeutic and diagnostic applications result in adverse toxicity and poor scintigraphic resolution from the corrupted distribution upon labelling. DTPA is a strong chelator and forms a tight sequestering cryptate structure of small dimensions with the radioactive metals Tc-99m and In-111. Size severely affects permeability with reticuloendothelial accumulation. Compact scaled radiolabels are advantageous as potent payload moieties for radiotherapy as well as imaging. The antibody binding site requires close surface contact with its epitope to effect the specificity of immunoreaction. Binding site exposure to coupling chemistry can be directed via affinity purification methodology. The globular antibody with an amphiphilic structure presents conformed surface chemistry and is relatively inert requiring excess reaction stoichiometry. Radiolabelled antibodies to calcitonin (a 32 aminoacid polypeptide ectopic lung tumor antigen) in a solid phase immunoreactivity assay demonstrate 48 hours for 90% uptake. Site directed radiolabelling is of interest in preservation of immunoreactivity in protein engineering. 19 refs., 8 figs

  3. A high-throughput microfluidic approach for 1000-fold leukocyte reduction of platelet-rich plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hui; Strachan, Briony C.; Gifford, Sean C.; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S.

    2016-10-01

    Leukocyte reduction of donated blood products substantially reduces the risk of a number of transfusion-related complications. Current ‘leukoreduction’ filters operate by trapping leukocytes within specialized filtration material, while allowing desired blood components to pass through. However, the continuous release of inflammatory cytokines from the retained leukocytes, as well as the potential for platelet activation and clogging, are significant drawbacks of conventional ‘dead end’ filtration. To address these limitations, here we demonstrate our newly-developed ‘controlled incremental filtration’ (CIF) approach to perform high-throughput microfluidic removal of leukocytes from platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in a continuous flow regime. Leukocytes are separated from platelets within the PRP by progressively syphoning clarified PRP away from the concentrated leukocyte flowstream. Filtrate PRP collected from an optimally-designed CIF device typically showed a ~1000-fold (i.e. 99.9%) reduction in leukocyte concentration, while recovering >80% of the original platelets, at volumetric throughputs of ~1 mL/min. These results suggest that the CIF approach will enable users in many fields to now apply the advantages of microfluidic devices to particle separation, even for applications requiring macroscale flowrates.

  4. Fish Oil and Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis: Inhibitory Effect on Leukocyte Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevão-Silva, Camila Fernanda; Ames, Franciele Queiroz; Silva-Comar, Francielli Maria de Souza; Kummer, Raquel; Tronco, Rafael Prizon; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida

    2016-02-01

    Fish oil, a rich source of n-3 fatty acids, has been studied for its beneficial effects in many diseases. Recent studies have shown the robust anti-inflammatory activity of fish oil (FO), when administered orally to rats, in models of acute inflammation. Herein, we investigated if treatment with fish oil preparation (FOP) could interfere with the recruitment of leukocytes into the joint cavity of arthritic rats. We also evaluated the effect of treatment on rolling behavior and leukocyte adhesion in vivo and on leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro. Treatment with FOP (75, 150, and 300 mg/kg) initiated on the day of induction of arthritis (day 0) and maintained for 21 days reduced the total number of leukocytes recruited into the joint cavity, the number of rolling and adhered leukocytes in arthritic rats, and leukocyte migration in response to stimulation with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Together, our data provide evidence that FOP plays an important inhibitory role in the recruitment of leukocytes into the joint cavity of arthritic rats.

  5. Routinely analyzed leukocyte characteristics improve prediction of mortality after coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijsberts, Crystel M; Ellenbroek, Guilielmus Hjm; Ten Berg, Maarten J; Huisman, Albert; van Solinge, Wouter W; Asselbergs, Folkert W; den Ruijter, Hester M; Pasterkamp, Gerard; de Kleijn, Dominique Pv; Hoefer, Imo E

    2016-07-01

    Inflammation and leukocyte infiltration are hallmarks of atherosclerosis. Clinically routine hematology analyzers mostly perform an entire differential blood count by default, irrespective of the requested parameter. We hypothesize that these normally unreported leukocyte characteristics associate with coronary artery disease (CAD) severity and can improve prediction of mortality in coronary angiography patients. We studied coronary angiography patients suspected of CAD (n = 1015) from the Utrecht Coronary Biobank cohort. Leukocyte characteristics were routinely assessed in blood drawn directly prior to angiography using an automated hematology analyzer and extracted from the Utrecht patient oriented database (UPOD) database. Patients were followed up for a median duration of 805 days, during which 65 patients died. We evaluated the association of leukocyte characteristics with synergy between PCI with taxus and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX) score as a measure of CAD severity, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). In order to determine the improvement of risk prediction, we calculated continuous net reclassification improvement (cNRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). Monocyte percentage showed strong independent predictive value for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 1.44 (1.19-1.74), p leukocyte characteristics for all-cause mortality confirmed the improvement in mortality risk prediction. No significantly predictive leukocyte characteristics were found for MACEs. Readily available yet unreported leukocyte characteristics from routine hematology analyzers significantly improved prediction of mortality in coronary angiography patients on top of clinical characteristics. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  6. Identification of a second putative receptor of platelet activating factor on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    Due to multiple molecular species of platelet activating factor (PAF) and the existence of high affinity binding sites in a variety of cells and tissues, possible existence of PAF receptor subtypes has been suggested. This report shows differences between specific PAF receptors on human leukocytes and platelets. Human PMN leukocyte membranes showed high affinity binding sites for PAF with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 4.7 (+/- 1.4) x 10 -10 M. The maximal number (B/sub max/) of receptor sites was estimated to be 3.13 (+/- 1.4) x 10 -13 mol/mg protein. They compared the relative potencies of several PAF agonists and receptor antagonists between human platelet and human leukocyte membranes. One antagonist (Ono-6240) was found to be 8 times less potent at inhibiting the [ 3 H]PAF specific receptor binding to human leukocytes than to human platelets. Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ and K + ions potentiated the [ 3 H]PAF specific binding in both systems. Na + ions inhibited the [ 3 H]PAF specific binding to human platelets but showed no effects in human leukocytes. K + ions decreased the Mg 2+ -potentiated [ 3 H]PAF binding in human leukocytes but showed no effects in human platelets. These results suggest that the PAF specific receptors in human leukocytes are different structurally and possibly functionally from the receptors identified in human platelets

  7. A METHOD OF LEUKOCYTE SEGMENTATION BASED ON S COMPONENT AND B COMPONENT IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YIPING YANG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A leukocyte segmentation method based on S component and B component images is proposed. Threshold segmentation operation is applied to get two binary images in S component and B component images. The samples used in this study are peripheral blood smears. It is easy to find from the two binary images that gray values are the same at every corresponding pixels in the leukocyte cytoplasm region, but opposite in the other regions. The feature shows that "IMAGE AND" operation can be employed on the two binary images to segment the cytoplasm region of leukocyte. By doing "IMAGE XOR" operation between cytoplasm region and nucleus region, the leukocyte segmentation can be retrieved effectively. The segmentation accuracy is evaluated by comparing the segmentation result of the proposed method with the manual segmentation by a hematologist. Experiment results show that the proposed method is of a higher segmentation accuracy and it also performs well when leukocytes overlap with erythrocytes. The average segmentation accuracy of the proposed method reaches 97.7% for segmenting five types of leukocyte. Good segmentation results provide an important foundation for leukocytes automatic recognition.

  8. p,p'-DDE depresses the immune competence of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misumi, Ichiro; Vella, Anthony T.; Leong, Jo-Ann C.; Nakanishi, Teruyuki; Schreck, Carl B.

    2005-01-01

    p,p′-DDE, the main metabolite of DDT, is still detected in aquatic environments throughout the world. Here, the effects and mechanisms by which p,p′-DDE exposure might affect the immune system of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was studied. Isolated salmon splenic and pronephric leukocytes were incubated with different concentrations of p,p′-DDE, and cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and mitogenic responses were measured by flow cytometry and Alamar Blue assay. p,p′-DDE significantly reduced cell viability and proliferation and increased apoptosis. The effect of p,p′-DDE on pronephric leukocytes was more severe than on splenic leukocytes, likely because pronephric leukocytes had a higher proportion of granulocytes, cells that appear more sensitive to p,p′-DDE. The effect of p,p′-DDE on leukocytes appeared to vary between developmental stages or seasonal differences. The mitogenic response of leukocytes of chinook salmon exposed to p,p′-DDE in vivo exhibited a biphasic dose–response relationship. Only leukocytes isolated from salmon treated with 59 ppm p,p′-DDE had a significantly lower percentage of Ig+ blasting cells than controls, although the response was biphasic. These results support the theory that exposure to chemical contaminants could lead to an increase in disease susceptibility and mortality of fish due to immune suppression.

  9. Long-Term Leukocyte Filtration Should Be Avoided during Extracorporeal Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiali; Tao, Kaiyu; Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Chongwei; Gong, Lina; Luo, Nanfu

    2013-01-01

    Filtration during extracorporeal circulation (ECC) not only removes but also activates leukocytes; therefore, long-term leukocyte filtration may cause adverse effects. In the present study, we tested this hypothesis by priming ECC with 300 mL of canine blood and examining filtration effects in 3 groups (n = 6 each) during 60 min ECC. In the control group (Group C) blood was filtrated with an arterial filter for 60 min; in long-term (Group L) and short-term (Group S) groups, blood was filtrated with a leukocyte filter for 60 and 5 min. We found that about 90% of leukocytes were removed after 5 min of filtration in both Groups L and S. Although leukocyte count continued to reduce, mean fluorescent intensities of CD11/CD18, free hemoglobin, and neutrophil elastase increased in Group L and were higher than those in Groups C and S at 60 min. Leukocyte rupture, cytoplasmic leakage, and circulating naked nuclei were also found in Group L. The data support our hypothesis that long-term filtration can induce inflammation and lead to leukocyte destruction. PMID:24453424

  10. Relation between leukocyte count, adiposity, and cardiorespiratory fitness in pubertal adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenório, Thiago Ricardo dos Santos; Farah, Breno Quintella; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Botero, João Paulo; Brito, Daniel Calado; Moura, Patrícia Muniz Mendes Freire de; Prado, Wagner Luiz do

    2014-01-01

    To compare the total and differential leukocyte count in obese and normal-weight adolescents, and to verify their possible relations with cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity indicators. A cross-sectional study conducted with 139 adolescents (107 obese and 32 normal weight) aged between 13 and 18 years. Cardiorespiratory fitness was determined by direct gas analysis during an incremental treadmill test. Total leukocytes and subsets were estimated by flow cytometry. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The t-test for independent samples was used for comparison between groups. The relation between leukocytes, cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity indicators was verified by Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression (adjusted for age and body mass index) tests. Obese adolescents had higher leukocyte (8.12±2.36u/L x 103; p=0.001), neutrophil (4.33±1.86u/L x 103; p=0.002), and monocyte (0.70±0.22u/L x 103; p=0.002) counts compared to the levels of normal weight subjects. After the necessary adjustments, cardiorespiratory fitness had a negative association with leukocytes, neutrophils, and monocytes in boys. Obese adolescents had higher total and differential leucocyte count when compared to normal weight individuals. We also observed a weak positive association between adiposity and total leukocyte, monocyte, and neutrophil counts, and in boys, a negative association between cardiorespiratory fitness and total count of leukocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils.

  11. Reduced basal and stimulated leukocyte adherence in tumor endothelium of experimental pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J; Ryschich, E; Maksan, S M; Werner, J; Gebhard, M M; Herfarth, C; Klar, E

    1999-12-01

    The interaction between immunocompetent cells and tumor endothelium is essential for an effective immunological response. In the present study, we evaluated resting and CD11b/CD18-mediated leukocyte adhesion in tumor vessels of experimental pancreatic cancer and in healthy pancreatic venules in the rat. Solid tumor fragments (1 mm3) were interposed intrapancreatically between inert transparent polymethylmetacrylate plates for intravital microscopy (n = 12) by which tumor microcirculation, leukocyte-tumor-endothelium interaction, and the effect of the chemoattractants N-formyl-methioninleucylphenylalanine (fMLP) and platelet-activating factor (PAF) on leukocyte adherence was investigated. Leukocyte adhesion in pancreatic tumor vessels was significantly reduced compared to healthy pancreatic venules. Both fMLP and PAF dramatically increased leukocyte adherence in normal pancreatic venules. No change in leukocyte adhesion was present in tumor vessels after exposure to these chemotactic substances. Resting and stimulated integrin-dependent leukocyte adhesion is strongly reduced in malignant vessels of experimental pancreatic cancer, which may be an important mechanism to escape immune control.

  12. Detection of murine cytomegalovirus DNA in circulating leukocytes harvested during acute infection of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bale, J.F. Jr.; O'Neil, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The authors used virus assay and in situ hybridization with a cloned fragment of the murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) genome to study MCMV infection of circulating leukocytes harvested from 3-week-old BALB/c, C57BL/6, and C3H mice infected with MCMV intraperitoneally. Infectious virus or MCMV DNA was detected in leukocytes on days 1 through 21 of infection in BALB/c mice and on days 3 through 7 in C57BL/6 mice. On days 5 and 7, MCMV DNA or infectious virus was detected in the leukocytes of 17 (94%) of 18 BALB/c mice and 10 (59%) of 17 C57BL/6 mice. In both strains infection peaked on days 5 and 7, when as many as 0.01 to 0.1% of the circulating leukocytes contained MCMV DNA. In C3H mice, however, infectious virus was rarely recovered from leukocyte fractions and MCMV DNA was detected in the circulating leukocytes of only one animal. Circulating leukocytes may have an important role in the dissemination of CMV infections in susceptible hosts

  13. Environmental Labels and Declarations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendal, Jeppe; Hansen, Lisbeth; Bonou, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Based on the terminology and structure developed by the International Organization for Standardization, a description is given on the types of ecolabels that build on life cycle assessments. Focus is on type I labels that point out products and services with an overall environmental preferability...... of labelling, the use of ecolabels in marketing, and the way ecolabels help build a market for “greener products”. Type III labels—or Environmental Product Declarations—are also briefly described with indicative examples from the building sector, a declaration for office furniture, and an introduction is given...... to the European Commission’s programme for product—and organisational environmental footprints ....

  14. Semantic Role Labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

    2011-01-01

    This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

  15. Cerebral perfusion imaging with albumin microspheres tagged with Tc-99m and In-111 in cases with internal carotid occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etani, H; Kimura, K; Yoneda, S; Tsuda, Y; Isaka, Y; Nakamura, M; Asai, T

    1982-09-01

    Cerebral perfusion imaging with dual-tracer (Tc-99m and In-111) human albumin microspheres (HAM scintigraphy) was performed in 15 cases with unilateral occlusion of the internal carotid artery, for the diagnosis and evaluation of collateral circulation patterns. After injection of Tc-99m microspheres into one common carotid artery and In-111 HAMs into the other, two perfusion images, one for each carotid artery, were clearly differentiated by appropriate pulse-height discrimination. With this method, diagnosis of internal carotid artery occlusion was definitely made in eight patients, suspected in six, and missed in one. The collateral perfusion areas from the contralateral ICA and ipsilateral external carotid artery were well demonstrated by this method, and the scintigraphic results agreed well with the angiographic findings in all cases. Dual-tracer HAM scintigraphy is capable of adding information about collaterals at the capillary level to the anatomic information obtained by angiography.

  16. Optimization of IGF-1R SPECT/CT Imaging Using In-111-Labeled F(ab ')(2) and Fab Fragments of Article the Monoclonal Antibody R1507

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heskamp, S.; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Molkenboer-Kuenen, J.D.M.; Bouwman, W.H.; van der Graaf, W.T.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Boerman, O.C.

    2012-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a potential new target for the treatment of breast cancer. Patients with breast cancer lesions that express IGF-1R may benefit from treatment with anti-IGF-IR antibodies. IGF-1R expression can be visualized using radiolabeled R1507, a monoclonal

  17. An agent-based model of leukocyte transendothelial migration during atherogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhui, Rita; Hayenga, Heather N.

    2017-01-01

    A vast amount of work has been dedicated to the effects of hemodynamics and cytokines on leukocyte adhesion and trans-endothelial migration (TEM) and subsequent accumulation of leukocyte-derived foam cells in the artery wall. However, a comprehensive mechanobiological model to capture these spatiotemporal events and predict the growth and remodeling of an atherosclerotic artery is still lacking. Here, we present a multiscale model of leukocyte TEM and plaque evolution in the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. The approach integrates cellular behaviors via agent-based modeling (ABM) and hemodynamic effects via computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this computational framework, the ABM implements the diffusion kinetics of key biological proteins, namely Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), Tissue Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α), Interlukin-10 (IL-10) and Interlukin-1 beta (IL-1β), to predict chemotactic driven leukocyte migration into and within the artery wall. The ABM also considers wall shear stress (WSS) dependent leukocyte TEM and compensatory arterial remodeling obeying Glagov’s phenomenon. Interestingly, using fully developed steady blood flow does not result in a representative number of leukocyte TEM as compared to pulsatile flow, whereas passing WSS at peak systole of the pulsatile flow waveform does. Moreover, using the model, we have found leukocyte TEM increases monotonically with decreases in luminal volume. At critical plaque shapes the WSS changes rapidly resulting in sudden increases in leukocyte TEM suggesting lumen volumes that will give rise to rapid plaque growth rates if left untreated. Overall this multi-scale and multi-physics approach appropriately captures and integrates the spatiotemporal events occurring at the cellular level in order to predict leukocyte transmigration and plaque evolution. PMID:28542193

  18. Identification and quantification of human microcirculatory leukocytes using handheld video microscopes at the bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uz, Zühre; van Gulik, Thomas M; Aydemirli, Mehtap Derya; Guerci, Philippe; Ince, Yasin; Cuppen, Diede V; Ergin, Bulent; Aksu, Ugur; de Mol, Bas A; Ince, Can

    2018-03-08

    Leukocyte recruitment and adhesion to the endothelium are hallmarks of systemic inflammation that manifest in a wide range of diseases. At present, no method is available to directly measure leukocyte kinetics at the bedside. In this study, we validate a new method to identify and quantify microcirculatory leukocytes observed by handheld vital microscopy (HVM) using space-time diagram (STD) analysis. Video clips (N=59) containing one capillary-post capillary venule (C-PCV) unit where leukocytes could be observed emanating from a capillary into a venule in cardiac surgery patients (N=20) were included. STD analysis and manual counting were used to quantify the number of leukocytes (total, rolling and non-rolling). Pearson's correlation and Bland-Altman analysis were used to determine agreement between the STDs and manual counting. For reproducibility, intra- and inter-observer coefficients of variation (CVs) were assessed. Leukocyte (rolling and non-rolling) and red blood cell velocities were assessed. The STDs and manual counting procedures for the quantification of rolling leukocytes showed good agreement (r=0.8197, P<0.0001), with a Bland-Altman analysis mean difference of -0.0 (-6.56; 6.56). The overall intra-observer CV for the STD method was 1.5%. The overall inter-observer CVs for the STD and the manual method were 5.6% and 9.4%, respectively. The non-rolling velocity was significantly higher than the rolling velocity (812{plus minus}519 µm/s vs 201{plus minus}149 µm/s, P=0.001). The STD results agreed with the manual counting procedure results, had a better reproducibility and could assess the leukocyte velocity. STD analysis using bedside HVM imaging presented a new methodology for quantifying leukocyte kinetics and functions in the microcirculation.

  19. Comparison of two leukocyte reduction filters for whole blood derived platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin-Hee; Choi, Ju Hee; Hur, Mina; Moon, Hee-Won; Park, Chul Min; Yun, Yeo-Min

    2012-08-01

    Leukocyte reduction filters are widely used for platelet transfusion therapy, and effective leukocyte removal is mandatory for transfusion safety. We evaluated both the performance of leukocyte reduction filters for platelets and the effect of filtration on platelet function. A total of 100 pooled products (eight platelet concentrates were randomly pooled for each product) were used in this study: 50 were filtered by BioP-plus (Fresenius Kabi AG, Homburg, Germany) and 50 by PXL-8 (Pall Corporation, East Hills, NY, USA). Leukocyte reduction, platelet recovery, and filtration time were evaluated in each leukocyte reduction filter. Platelet aggregation responses to thrombin receptor activation peptide stimulation were compared in pre- and post-filtration products using impedance aggregometry (Multiplate Analyzer, Dynabyte Medical, Munich, Germany). Leukocyte counts were uniformly less than 8.3×10(5) in all the post-filtration products, except one filtered by the PXL-8. Leukocyte reduction was 99.1% for BioP-plus and 99.7% for PXL-8, and platelet recovery was 84.2% for the BioP-plus and 86.7% for PXL-8. Filtration time of the BioP-plus was significantly shorter than that of PXL-8. Post-filtration platelet aggregation tended to decrease in both filters, showing no difference between them. Both BioP-plus and PXL-8 leukocyte reduction filters for platelets performed well with effective leukocyte reduction and satisfactory platelet recovery. Although platelet function was decreased after filtration procedures, its clinical relevance is uncertain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. House Dust Endotoxin and Peripheral Leukocyte Counts: Results from Two Large Epidemiologic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessler, Michael B; Carnes, Megan U; Salo, Päivi M; Wilkerson, Jesse; Cohn, Richard D; King, Debra; Hoppin, Jane A; Sandler, Dale P; Travlos, Greg; London, Stephanie; Thorne, Peter; Zeldin, Darryl

    2017-05-31

    The peripheral leukocyte count is a biomarker of inflammation and is associated with human all-cause mortality. Although causes of acute leukocytosis are well-described, chronic environmental determinants of leukocyte number are less well understood. We investigated the relationship between house dust endotoxin concentration and peripheral leukocyte counts in human subjects. The endotoxin–leukocyte relationship was evaluated by linear regression in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2006 (n=6,254) and the Agricultural Lung Health Study (ALHS; n=1,708). In the ALHS, we tested for a gene [Toll-like Receptor 4 ( TLR4 ), encoding the endotoxin receptor]-by-environment interaction in the endotoxin–leukocyte relationship using regression models with an interaction term. There is a statistically significant, positive association between endotoxin concentration and total leukocyte number [estimated change, 0.186×10 3 /μL (95% CI: 0.070, 0.301×10 3 /μL) per 10-fold change in endotoxin; p=0.004) in the NHANES. Similar positive associations were found for monocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. Stratified analyses revealed possible effect modification by asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We observed similar associations in the ALHS. For total leukocytes, there was suggestive evidence in the ALHS of a gene-by-environment interaction for minor allele carrier status at the TLR4 haplotype defined by rs4986790 and rs4986791 (interaction p=0.15). This is, to our knowledge, the first report of an association between house dust endotoxin and leukocyte count in a national survey. The finding was replicated in a farming population. Peripheral leukocyte count may be influenced by residential endotoxin exposure in diverse settings. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP661.

  1. Association of obesity with leukocyte count in obese individuals without metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Elena; Diez-Ewald, María; Mosquera, Jesús; Fernández, Erika; Pedreañez, Adriana; Vargas, Renata; Peña, Caterina; Fernández, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation in obesity is associated to insulin resistance (IR), hyperglycemia, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Leukocytes play an important role in obesity associated inflammation. The initial factors that generate the inflammatory events in the obesity remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the association of circulating leukocytes with clinical and biochemical parameters in obese individuals with clinical and biochemical parameters in normal range and with or without IR. Nineteen obese non-diabetic and 9 lean subjects were studied for serum levels of insulin, lipids, glycated hemoglobin, glycemia, for clinical parameters as HOMA-IR, arterial pressure and anthropometric parameters, and for leukocyte counts. Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (N/L) was calculated using the loge of leukocyte counts. Association between leukocytes and studied parameters was determined by Pearson's correlation. Two groups of obese individuals were observed: with high levels of insulin (with IR) and with normal levels (without IR). Positive correlations were observed between leukocyte and lymphocyte counts with body mass index and HOMA-IR and negative correlation with decreased HDL levels. Lymphocytes correlated with increased levels of insulin. Leukocytes and neutrophils correlated positively with increased visceral fat and liver steatosis. These associations were absent in the obese group without IR. N/L ratio did not show correlations with studied parameters. The leukocyte associations were mainly observed in obese individuals with IR. These data may represent initial leukocyte associations with morbidity features and define two different obese individuals that may evolve to the chronic inflammation observed in the obesity. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Meisoindigo, but not its core chemical structure indirubin, inhibits zebrafish interstitial leukocyte chemotactic migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Baixin; Xiong, Xiaoxing; Deng, Xu; Gu, Lijuan; Wang, Qiongyu; Zeng, Zhi; Gao, Xiang; Gao, Qingping; Wang, Yueying

    2017-12-01

    Inflammatory disease is a big threat to human health. Leukocyte chemotactic migration is required for efficient inflammatory response. Inhibition of leukocyte chemotactic migration to the inflammatory site has been shown to provide therapeutic targets for treating inflammatory diseases. Our study was designed to discover effective and safe compounds that can inhibit leukocyte chemotactic migration, thus providing possible novel therapeutic strategy for treating inflammatory diseases. In this study, we used transgenic zebrafish model (Tg:zlyz-EGFP line) to visualize the process of leukocyte chemotactic migration. Then, we used this model to screen the hit compound and evaluate its biological activity on leukocyte chemotactic migration. Furthermore, western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of the hit compound on the AKT or ERK-mediated pathway, which plays an important role in leukocyte chemotactic migration. In this study, using zebrafish-based chemical screening, we identified that the hit compound meisoindigo (25 μM, 50 μM, 75 μM) can significantly inhibit zebrafish leukocyte chemotactic migration in a dose-dependent manner (p = 0.01, p = 0.0006, p migration (p = 0.43). Furthermore, our results unexpectedly showed that indirubin, the core structure of meisoindigo, had no significant effect on zebrafish leukocyte chemotactic migration (p = 0.6001). Additionally, our results revealed that meisoindigo exerts no effect on the Akt or Erk-mediated signalling pathway. Our results suggest that meisoindigo, but not indirubin, is effective for inhibiting leukocyte chemotactic migration, thus providing a potential therapeutic agent for treating inflammatory diseases.

  3. Methods for counting residual leukocytes in leukocyte-depleted plasma-a comparison between a routine hematology instrument, the Nageotte chamber, flow cytometry, and a fluorescent microscopy analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Annika; Ekblom, Kim

    2017-05-01

    Counting very low levels of leukocytes is technically challenging but mandatory for quality control of leukocyte-depleted plasma. Established assays, such as flow cytometry and counting in the Nageotte chamber, are laborious and expensive. The aim of this study was to test two alternative assays, the cerebrospinal fluid program in the routine hematology analyzer ADVIA 2120 and a fluorescence microscopy analyzer, the ADAM-rWBC. Linearity, accuracy, and precision were established for the ADVIA 2120, the ADAM-rWBC analyzer and the Nageotte chamber with flow cytometry as the reference method. Two hundred consecutive leukocyte-depleted donor plasma samples were also tested. The ADAM-rWBC analyzer and the Nageotte chamber fulfilled all quality requirements. Flow cytometry fulfilled the requirements for linearity and precision. The ADVIA 2120 analyzer did not fully reach the quality criteria, and flow cytometry did not reach quality criteria on accuracy. No false-positive results on donor plasma samples were recorded. The ADAM-rWBC is suitable for the purpose of quality control of residual leukocytes in leukocyte-depleted plasma. For the ADVIA 2120, further improvements and studies are needed to reach the quality requirements stated in this study. © 2017 AABB.

  4. [In vitro study of the cytotoxic activity of sipunculid leukocytes towards allogeneic and xenogenic erythrocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiledieu, D; Valembois, P

    1976-07-19

    A cell mediated cytotoxic reaction analogous to that known in Vertebrates is induced in vitro by leukocytes of sipunculid worms (coelomata invertebrates). Xenogenic or allogenic erythrocytes are employed as target cells. A cytotoxic effect always occurs when killer leukocytes react against xenogenic cells. A cytotoxic activity against allogenic erythrocytes occurs in all cases when donors of leukocytes and donors of erythrocytes arise from stations far apart (Roscoff and Arcachon). Between stations near each other (4 miles apart) a cytotoxic effect is noticed only in one case out of three. No reaction is noticed between Sipunculus nudus from the same station.

  5. Phosphatidylcholine Reverses Ethanol-Induced Increase in Transepithelial Endotoxin Permeability and Abolishes Transepithelial Leukocyte Activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitzscherling, Katja; Volynets, Valentina; Parlesak, Alexandr

    2009-01-01

    activation of human leukocytes. For this purpose, we used a model in which intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) were basolaterally cocultivated with mononuclear leukocytes. Cells were challenged apically with endotoxin from Escherichia coli K12 and were incubated with or without the addition of CPBS (1.5 m...... of leukocytes were nearly completely abolished after the apical supplementation of PC with CPBS, but not by CPBS alone. Ethanol up to 66 mM was not able to reverse this effect. A considerable part of the therapeutic and preventive effect of PC supplementation in ALD might result from a reduction of ethanol...

  6. Study of terahertz-radiation-induced DNA damage in human blood leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeluts, A A; Esaulkov, M N; Kosareva, O G; Solyankin, P M; Shkurinov, A P [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gapeyev, A B; Pashovkin, T N [Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Matyunin, S N [Section of Applied Problems at the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nazarov, M M [Institute on Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Shatura, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Cherkasova, O P [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-03-28

    We have carried out the studies aimed at assessing the effect of terahertz radiation on DNA molecules in human blood leukocytes. Genotoxic testing of terahertz radiation was performed in three different oscillation regimes, the blood leukocytes from healthy donors being irradiated for 20 minutes with the mean intensity of 8 – 200 μW cm{sup -2} within the frequency range of 0.1 – 6.5 THz. Using the comet assay it is shown that in the selected regimes such radiation does not induce a direct DNA damage in viable human blood leukocytes. (biophotonics)

  7. Study of terahertz-radiation-induced DNA damage in human blood leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeluts, A. A.; Gapeyev, A. B.; Esaulkov, M. N.; Kosareva, O. G.; Matyunin, S. N.; Nazarov, M. M.; Pashovkin, T. N.; Solyankin, P. M.; Cherkasova, O. P.; Shkurinov, A. P.

    2014-03-01

    We have carried out the studies aimed at assessing the effect of terahertz radiation on DNA molecules in human blood leukocytes. Genotoxic testing of terahertz radiation was performed in three different oscillation regimes, the blood leukocytes from healthy donors being irradiated for 20 minutes with the mean intensity of 8 - 200 μW cm-2 within the frequency range of 0.1 - 6.5 THz. Using the comet assay it is shown that in the selected regimes such radiation does not induce a direct DNA damage in viable human blood leukocytes.

  8. Leukocytes respiratory burst activity as indicator of innate immunity of pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JD Biller-Takahashi

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the assay to quantify the respiratory burst activity of blood leukocytes of pacu as an indicator of the innate immune system, using the reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT to formazan as a measure of the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. In order to assess the accuracy of the assay, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila and sampled one week after challenge. The A. hydrophila infection increased the leukocyte respiratory burst activity. The protocol showed a reliable and easy assay, appropriate to determine the respiratory burst activity of blood leukocytes of pacu, a neotropical fish, in the present experimental conditions.

  9. Succesful labelling schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    to carry out a campaign targeted at this segment. The awareness percentage is already 92 % and 67% of the respondents believe they know the meaning of the scheme. But it stands to reason to study whether the respondents actually know what the labelling scheme stands for or if they just think they do...

  10. Energy labels and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, J.

    2000-01-01

    Improving energy efficiency at the end-use level is increasingly important as Climate Change commitments force policy makers to look for areas where greenhouse gas emissions reduction can be achieved rapidly. Indeed, although much improvement has been mode over the past 25 years, significant potential for improving energy efficiency still exists. Labelling and minimum efficiency standards for appliances and equipment have proven to be one of the most promising policy instruments. Used for many years in some IEA Member countries, they delivered tangible results. They are among the cheapest and least intrusive of policies. Policy makers cannot afford to neglect them. This book examines current and post experiences of countries using labels and standards to improve energy end-use efficiency. It identifies successful policy approaches, focusing on what works best. It also provides insight into the opportunities ahead, including the widespread use of computer chips in appliances, cars and equipment. This book should be of great help not only to administrations planning to introduce labelling schemes, but also to those in the process of strengthening their current programmes. Policy makers in developing countries will also find here all necessary justification for implementing labelling and standards in their economy. 74 refs

  11. Multi-label

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Abdelhamid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Generating multi-label rules in associative classification (AC from single label data sets is considered a challenging task making the number of existing algorithms for this task rare. Current AC algorithms produce only the largest frequency class connected with a rule in the training data set and discard all other classes even though these classes have data representation with the rule’s body. In this paper, we deal with the above problem by proposing an AC algorithm called Enhanced Multi-label Classifiers based Associative Classification (eMCAC. This algorithm discovers rules associated with a set of classes from single label data that other current AC algorithms are unable to induce. Furthermore, eMCAC minimises the number of extracted rules using a classifier building method. The proposed algorithm has been tested on a real world application data set related to website phishing and the results reveal that eMCAC’s accuracy is highly competitive if contrasted with other known AC and classic classification algorithms in data mining. Lastly, the experimental results show that our algorithm is able to derive new rules from the phishing data sets that end-users can exploit in decision making.

  12. Labeling of herbicide femesafen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    She Dongmei; Qu Zhe; Tang Zhichang

    2004-01-01

    5-[2-chroo-4-(trifluoromethyl ) phenoxy]-N-(methyl sulphonyl )-2-niorobenzamide [femesafen] was labeled by six steps. Radio-chemical yield was 19.15%. TLC analysis of the final product showed that the radiochemical purity is not less than 99%. (authors)

  13. Competing Environmental Labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Carolyn; Lyon, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    We study markets in which consumers prefer green products but cannot determine the environmental quality of any given firm's product on their own. A nongovernmental organization (NGO) can establish a voluntary standard and label products that comply with it. Alternatively, industry can create its

  14. Labeling of Cosmetic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Lionetti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The labeling of cosmetic products provides a set of obligations, as reported in the Regulation 1223/2009, which came into force in Europe in July 2013. The indications reported on the label are intended to enable the clear identification of the functionality and proper use of cosmetics, ensure the protection of the consumer from the commercial aspects and, above all, from the safety point of view. Moreover, it should allow quick tracing of the product details and all info of toxicological relevance. However, the misuse of this tool often leads, on one side, to confusion among cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and biocides. On the other side, it gives rise to fanciful interpretations by a huge number of web users, who pretend to be able to judge the quality of a cosmetic product just by reading the ingredients list. This article points out the concrete purpose of cosmetic labels, in order to shed light on the use of certain categories of ‘controversial’ ingredients and on the real quality concepts of cosmetic products. Indeed, when properly interpreted, cosmetic labels represent a good tool for the professional investigation of adverse reactions to cosmetics.

  15. Integrin activation by P-Rex1 is required for selectin-mediated slow leukocyte rolling and intravascular crawling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter, Jan M; Rossaint, Jan; Block, Helena; Welch, Heidi; Zarbock, Alexander

    2013-03-21

    Integrin activation is essential for the function of leukocytes. Impaired integrin activation on leukocytes is the hallmark of the leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome in humans, characterized by impaired leukocyte recruitment and recurrent infections. In inflammation, leukocytes collect different signals during the contact with the microvasculature, which activate signaling pathways leading to integrin activation and leukocyte recruitment. We report the role of P-Rex1, a Rac-specific guanine nucleotide exchanging factor, in integrin activation and leukocyte recruitment. We find that P-Rex1 is required for inducing selectin-mediated lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) extension that corresponds to intermediate affinity and induces slow leukocyte rolling, whereas P-Rex1 is not involved in the induction of the high-affinity conformation of LFA-1 obligatory for leukocyte arrest. Furthermore, we demonstrate that P-Rex1 is involved in Mac-1-dependent intravascular crawling. In vivo, both LFA-1-dependent slow rolling and Mac-1-dependent crawling are defective in P-Rex1(-/-) leukocytes, whereas chemokine-induced arrest and postadhesion strengthening remain intact in P-Rex1-deficient leukocytes. Rac1 is involved in E-selectin-mediated slow rolling and crawling. In vivo, in an ischemia-reperfusion-induced model of acute kidney injury, abolished selectin-mediated integrin activation contributed to decreased neutrophil recruitment and reduced kidney damage in P-Rex1-deficient mice. We conclude that P-Rex1 serves distinct functions in LFA-1 and Mac-1 activation.

  16. Diagnosis of bone infection by complementary role of technetium-99m MDP and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene-amineoxime-leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zahrani, Abdullah; El-Saban, Khaled; Al-Sakhri, Hijji

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Valuate complementary role of 99mTc-MDP bone scan and 99mTechnetium hexamethylpropylene-amineoxime (99mTc-HMPAO) labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in diagnosis of bone infection. Patients and Methods: Ninety one sites suspected to have bone infection were divided in to two groups: Group I 49 sites with current endo-prothesis; and group II 42 sites with no prosthesis. All patients were subjected to serial images of 99mTc-HMPAO labeled leukocyte (99mTc-white blood cells (WBCs)), triple phase bone scan (99mTc-MDP) and plain X-ray, in addition to clinical and bacteriological assessment, together with follow-up. Results: The overall sensitivity (Sn) was found to be 34.9%, 95.4%, and 86% for plain X-ray, 99mTc-MDP, and 99mTc-WBCs respectively. Concerning specificity (Sp) was found to be 47.9%, 45.8%, and 91.7% respectively for the three imaging modalities. 99mTc-WBCs showed better Sn, Sp, and accuracy in group I (95%, 93.1% and 93.9%, respectively) compared to 40%, 41.4%, and 40.8% for plain X-ray and 90%, 62%, and 73.5% respectively for 99mTc-MDP. On the other hand, 99mTc-MDP proved to have best Sn 100% versus 78.3% and 30.4% for 99mTc-WBCs and plain X-ray respectively. Yet, Sp and accuracy was found to best for 99mTc-WBCs (89.5% and 83.3% respectively) compared to 57.9% and 42.9% for plain X-ray and 21.1% and 64.3% for 99mTc-MDP. Conclusion: Combined imaging with 99mTc-WBCs and 99mTc-MDP proved to be effective in early detection of bone infection in the presence or absence of prosthesis. PMID:23919069

  17. Diagnosis of bone infection by complementary role of technetium-99m MDP and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene-amineoxime-leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zahrani, Abdullah; El-Saban, Khaled; Al-Sakhri, Hijji

    2012-07-01

    Valuate complementary role of (99m)Tc-MDP bone scan and (99m)Technetium hexamethylpropylene-amineoxime ((99m)Tc-HMPAO) labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in diagnosis of bone infection. NINETY ONE SITES SUSPECTED TO HAVE BONE INFECTION WERE DIVIDED IN TO TWO GROUPS: Group I 49 sites with current endo-prothesis; and group II 42 sites with no prosthesis. All patients were subjected to serial images of (99m)Tc-HMPAO labeled leukocyte ((99m)Tc-white blood cells (WBCs)), triple phase bone scan ((99m)Tc-MDP) and plain X-ray, in addition to clinical and bacteriological assessment, together with follow-up. The overall sensitivity (Sn) was found to be 34.9%, 95.4%, and 86% for plain X-ray, (99m)Tc-MDP, and (99m)Tc-WBCs respectively. Concerning specificity (Sp) was found to be 47.9%, 45.8%, and 91.7% respectively for the three imaging modalities. (99m)Tc-WBCs showed better Sn, Sp, and accuracy in group I (95%, 93.1% and 93.9%, respectively) compared to 40%, 41.4%, and 40.8% for plain X-ray and 90%, 62%, and 73.5% respectively for (99m)Tc-MDP. On the other hand, (99m)Tc-MDP proved to have best Sn 100% versus 78.3% and 30.4% for (99m)Tc-WBCs and plain X-ray respectively. Yet, Sp and accuracy was found to best for (99m)Tc-WBCs (89.5% and 83.3% respectively) compared to 57.9% and 42.9% for plain X-ray and 21.1% and 64.3% for (99m)Tc-MDP. Combined imaging with (99m)Tc-WBCs and (99m)Tc-MDP proved to be effective in early detection of bone infection in the presence or absence of prosthesis.

  18. Tc-99m-HMPAO-Labeled leukocyte SPECT/CT in pediatrics: detecting Candida albicans tricuspid endocarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calais, Jeremie; Edet-Sanson, Agathe; Gaucher, Stephane; Vera, Pierre; Cloirec, Joseph Le [Henri Becquerel Cancer Center and Rouen Univ. Hospital, Rouen (France)

    2015-12-15

    These results led to performing TEE, which showed tricuspid vegetation. Blood cultures were then positive to Candida albicans. Control blood cultures and TEE performed 6 weeks later after adapted antifungal therapy remained negative. In accordance with the results of Erba and al., this case illustrates the usefulness of late thoracic SPECT-CT acquisition of a WBC scan in a patient with high clinical suspicion of endocarditis and identified risk factors but inconclusive echocardiographic findings.

  19. Tc-99m-HMPAO-Labeled leukocyte SPECT/CT in pediatrics: detecting Candida albicans tricuspid endocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calais, Jeremie; Edet-Sanson, Agathe; Gaucher, Stephane; Vera, Pierre; Cloirec, Joseph Le

    2015-01-01

    These results led to performing TEE, which showed tricuspid vegetation. Blood cultures were then positive to Candida albicans. Control blood cultures and TEE performed 6 weeks later after adapted antifungal therapy remained negative. In accordance with the results of Erba and al., this case illustrates the usefulness of late thoracic SPECT-CT acquisition of a WBC scan in a patient with high clinical suspicion of endocarditis and identified risk factors but inconclusive echocardiographic findings

  20. Affinity-tuning leukocyte integrin for development of safe therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Spencer

    Much attention has been given to the molecular and cellular pathways linking inflammation with cancer and the local tumor environment to identify new target molecules that could lead to improved diagnosis and treatment. Among the many molecular players involved in the complex response, central to the induction of inflammation is intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, which is of particular interest for its highly sensitive and localized expression in response to inflammatory signals. ICAM-1, which has been implicated to play a critical role in tumor progression in various types of cancer, has also been linked to cancer metastases, where ICAM-1 facilitates the spread of metastatic cancer cells to secondary sites. This unique expression profile of ICAM-1 throughout solid tumor microenvironment makes ICAM-1 an intriguing molecular target, which holds great potential as an important diagnostic and therapeutic tool. Herein, we have engineered the ligand binding domain, or the inserted (I) domain of a leukocyte integrin, to exhibit a wide range of monovalent affinities to the natural ligand, ICAM-1. Using the resulting I domain variants, we have created drug and gene delivery nanoparticles, as well as targeted immunotherapeutics that have the ability to bind and migrate to inflammatory sites prevalent in tumors and the associated microenvironment. Through the delivery of diagnostic agents, chemotherapeutics, and immunotherapeutics, the following chapters demonstrate that the affinity enhancements achieved by directed evolution bring the affinity of I domains into the range optimal for numerous applications.

  1. Role of bacteria in leukocyte adhesion deficiency-associated periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajishengallis, George; Moutsopoulos, Niki M

    2016-05-01

    Leukocyte adhesion deficiency Type I (LAD-I)-associated periodontitis is an aggressive form of inflammatory bone loss that has been historically attributed to lack of neutrophil surveillance of the periodontal infection. However, this form of periodontitis has proven unresponsive to antibiotics and/or mechanical removal of the tooth-associated biofilm. Recent studies in LAD-I patients and relevant animal models have shown that the fundamental cause of LAD-I periodontitis involves dysregulation of a granulopoietic cytokine cascade. This cascade includes interleukin IL-23 (IL-23) and IL-17 that drive inflammatory bone loss in LAD-I patients and animal models and, moreover, foster a nutritionally favorable environment for bacterial growth and development of a compositionally unique microbiome. Although the lack of neutrophil surveillance in the periodontal pockets might be expected to lead to uncontrolled bacterial invasion of the underlying connective tissue, microbiological analyses of gingival biopsies from LAD-I patients did not reveal tissue-invasive infection. However, bacterial lipopolysaccharide was shown to translocate into the lesions of LAD-I periodontitis. It is concluded that the bacteria serve as initial triggers for local immunopathology through translocation of bacterial products into the underlying tissues where they unleash the dysregulated IL-23-IL-17 axis. Subsequently, the IL-23/IL-17 inflammatory response sustains and shapes a unique local microbiome which, in turn, can further exacerbate inflammation and bone loss in the susceptible host. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, C.F.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were investigated, using male Long-Evans rats exposed to 1% lead acetate in the drinking water for varying periods of time to achieve blood lead levels ranging from 20-200 μg/dl. Studies of PMN bacterial and fungal killing activity, chemotaxis and phagocytosis demonstrated that: 1) bactericidal activity of PMN from rats exposed to lead was not altered; 2) chemotactic activity remained within normal limits; 3) the phagocytic ability of the PMN also remained unaltered. In addition to these normal findings, one major abnormality was demonstrated: a significant decrease in the ability of PMN from rats exposed to lead to kill Candida albicans. This defect was not related to age or to length of exposure. It could not be produced by addition of lead to the test system in vitro. Further investigation revealed significant decreases in PMN glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase, and myeloperoxidase activities. These data support two possible mechanisms for the abnormal fungicidal activity of PMN from lead-exposed rats: decrease in ability to reduce oxygen to active metabolites, or reduction in myeloperoxidase activity due to diminshed synthesis of the heme moiety required for its function

  3. Automatic detection and classification of leukocytes using convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianwei; Zhang, Minshu; Zhou, Zhenghua; Chu, Jianjun; Cao, Feilong

    2017-08-01

    The detection and classification of white blood cells (WBCs, also known as Leukocytes) is a hot issue because of its important applications in disease diagnosis. Nowadays the morphological analysis of blood cells is operated manually by skilled operators, which results in some drawbacks such as slowness of the analysis, a non-standard accuracy, and the dependence on the operator's skills. Although there have been many papers studying the detection of WBCs or classification of WBCs independently, few papers consider them together. This paper proposes an automatic detection and classification system for WBCs from peripheral blood images. It firstly proposes an algorithm to detect WBCs from the microscope images based on the simple relation of colors R, B and morphological operation. Then a granularity feature (pairwise rotation invariant co-occurrence local binary pattern, PRICoLBP feature) and SVM are applied to classify eosinophil and basophil from other WBCs firstly. Lastly, convolution neural networks are used to extract features in high level from WBCs automatically, and a random forest is applied to these features to recognize the other three kinds of WBCs: neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte. Some detection experiments on Cellavison database and ALL-IDB database show that our proposed detection method has better effect almost than iterative threshold method with less cost time, and some classification experiments show that our proposed classification method has better accuracy almost than some other methods.

  4. Uptake of antibiotics by human polymorphonuclear leukocyte cytoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand, W.L.; King-Thompson, N.L.

    1990-01-01

    Enucleated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN cytoplasts), which have no nuclei and only a few granules, retain many of the functions of intact neutrophils. To better define the mechanisms and intracellular sites of antimicrobial agent accumulation in human neutrophils, we studied the antibiotic uptake process in PMN cytoplasts. Entry of eight radiolabeled antibiotics into PMN cytoplasts was determined by means of a velocity gradient centrifugation technique. Uptakes of these antibiotics by cytoplasts were compared with our findings in intact PMN. Penicillin entered both intact PMN and cytoplasts poorly. Metronidazole achieved a concentration in cytoplasts (and PMN) equal to or somewhat less than the extracellular concentration. Chloramphenicol, a lipid-soluble drug, and trimethoprim were concentrated three- to fourfold by cytoplasts. An unusual finding was that trimethroprim, unlike other tested antibiotics, was accumulated by cytoplasts more readily at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. After an initial rapid association with cytoplasts, cell-associated imipenem declined progressively with time. Clindamycin and two macrolide antibiotics (roxithromycin, erythromycin) were concentrated 7- to 14-fold by cytoplasts. This indicates that cytoplasmic granules are not essential for accumulation of these drugs. Adenosine inhibited cytoplast uptake of clindamycin, which enters intact phagocytic cells by the membrane nucleoside transport system. Roxithromycin uptake by cytoplasts was inhibited by phagocytosis, which may reduce the number of cell membrane sites available for the transport of macrolides. These studies have added to our understanding of uptake mechanisms for antibiotics which are highly concentrated in phagocytes

  5. Swine Leukocyte Antigen Class II Is a Xenoantigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladowski, Joseph M; Reyes, Luz M; Martens, Gregory R; Butler, James R; Wang, Zheng-Yu; Eckhoff, Devin E; Tector, Matthew; Tector, A Joseph

    2018-02-01

    Over 130 000 patients in the United States alone need a lifesaving organ transplant. Genetically modified porcine organs could resolve the donor organ shortage, but human xenoreactive antibodies destroy pig cells and are the major barrier to clinical application of xenotransplantation. The objective of this study was to determine whether waitlisted patients possess preformed antibodies to swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class II, homologs of the class II HLA. Sera from people currently awaiting solid organ transplant were tested for IgG binding to class II SLA proteins when expressed on mammalian cells. Pig fibroblasts were made positive by transfection with the class II transactivator. As a second expression system, transgenes encoding the alpha and beta chains of class II SLA were transfected into human embryonic kidney cells. Human sera containing IgG specific for class II HLA molecules exhibited greater binding to class II SLA positive cells than to SLA negative cells. Sera lacking antibodies against class II HLA showed no change in binding regardless of the presence of class II SLA. These antibodies could recognize either SLA-DR or SLA-DQ complexes. Class II SLA proteins may behave as xenoantigens for people with humoral immunity toward class II HLA molecules.

  6. Characterisation of bovine leukocyte Ig-like receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Hogan

    Full Text Available Leukocyte Immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILR are innate immune receptors involved in regulating both innate and adaptive immune functions. LILR show more interspecies conservation than the closely related Killer Ig-like receptors, and homologues have been identified in rodents, primates, seals and chickens. The murine equivalents, paired Ig-like receptors (PIR, contain two additional immunoglobulin domains, but show strong sequence and functional similarities to human LILR. The bovine genome was recently sequenced, with preliminary annotations indicating that LILR were present in this species. We therefore sought to identify and characterize novel LILR within the Bos taurus genome, compare these phylogenetically with LILR from other species and determine whether they were expressed in vivo. Twenty six potential bovine LILR were initially identified using BLAST and BLAT software. Phylogenetic analysis constructed using the neighbour-joining method, incorporating pairwise deletion and confidence limits estimated from 1000 replicates using bootstrapping, indicated that 16 of these represent novel bovine LILR. Protein structures defined using protein BLAST predict that the bovine LILR family comprises seven putative inhibitory, four activating and five soluble receptors. Preliminary expression analysis was performed by mapping the predicted sequences with raw data from total transcript sequence generated using Genome Analyzer IIx (Illumina to provide evidence that all 16 of these receptors are expressed in vivo. The bovine receptor family appears to contain receptors which resemble the six domain rodent PIR as well as the four domain LILR found in other species.

  7. Characterisation of bovine leukocyte Ig-like receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Louise; Bhuju, Sabin; Jones, Des C; Laing, Ken; Trowsdale, John; Butcher, Philip; Singh, Mahavir; Vordermeier, Martin; Allen, Rachel L

    2012-01-01

    Leukocyte Immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILR) are innate immune receptors involved in regulating both innate and adaptive immune functions. LILR show more interspecies conservation than the closely related Killer Ig-like receptors, and homologues have been identified in rodents, primates, seals and chickens. The murine equivalents, paired Ig-like receptors (PIR), contain two additional immunoglobulin domains, but show strong sequence and functional similarities to human LILR. The bovine genome was recently sequenced, with preliminary annotations indicating that LILR were present in this species. We therefore sought to identify and characterize novel LILR within the Bos taurus genome, compare these phylogenetically with LILR from other species and determine whether they were expressed in vivo. Twenty six potential bovine LILR were initially identified using BLAST and BLAT software. Phylogenetic analysis constructed using the neighbour-joining method, incorporating pairwise deletion and confidence limits estimated from 1000 replicates using bootstrapping, indicated that 16 of these represent novel bovine LILR. Protein structures defined using protein BLAST predict that the bovine LILR family comprises seven putative inhibitory, four activating and five soluble receptors. Preliminary expression analysis was performed by mapping the predicted sequences with raw data from total transcript sequence generated using Genome Analyzer IIx (Illumina) to provide evidence that all 16 of these receptors are expressed in vivo. The bovine receptor family appears to contain receptors which resemble the six domain rodent PIR as well as the four domain LILR found in other species.

  8. Acoustic and photoacoustic microscopy imaging of single leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, Eric M.; Moore, Michael J.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2016-03-01

    An acoustic/photoacoustic microscope was used to create micrometer resolution images of stained cells from a blood smear. Pulse echo ultrasound images were made using a 1000 MHz transducer with 1 μm resolution. Photoacoustic images were made using a fiber coupled 532 nm laser, where energy losses through stimulated Raman scattering enabled output wavelengths from 532 nm to 620 nm. The laser was focused onto the sample using a 20x objective, and the laser spot co-aligned with the 1000 MHz transducer opposite the laser. The blood smear was stained with Wright-Giemsa, a common metachromatic dye that differentially stains the cellular components for visual identification. A neutrophil, lymphocyte and a monocyte were imaged using acoustic and photoacoustic microscopy at two different wavelengths, 532 nm and 600 nm. Unique features in each imaging modality enabled identification of the different cell types. This imaging method provides a new way of imaging stained leukocytes, with applications towards identifying and differentiating cell types, and detecting disease at the single cell level.

  9. Neisseria gonorrhoeae suppresses the oxidative burst of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criss, Alison K; Seifert, H Steven

    2008-11-01

    Symptomatic infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gc) results in a potent polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)-driven inflammatory response, but the mechanisms by which Gc withstands PMN attack are poorly defined. Here we report that Gc can suppress the PMN oxidative burst, a central component of the PMN antimicrobial arsenal. Primary human PMNs remained viable after exposure to liquid-grown, exponential-phase, opacity-associated protein (Opa)-negative Gc of strains FA1090 and MS11 but did not generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), even after bacterial opsonization. Liquid-grown FA1090 Gc expressing OpaB, an Opa protein previously correlated with PMN ROS production, elicited a minor PMN oxidative burst. PMN ROS production in response to Opa(-) and OpaB+ Gc was markedly enhanced if bacteria were agar-grown or if liquid-grown bacteria were heat-killed. Liquid-grown Opa(-) Gc inhibited the PMN oxidative burst elicited by isogenic dead bacteria, formylated peptides or Staphylococcus aureus but did not inhibit PMN ROS production by OpaB+ Gc or phorbol esters. Suppression of the oxidative burst required Gc-PMN contact and bacterial protein synthesis but not phagocytosis. These results suggest that viable Gc directly inhibits PMN signalling pathways required for induction of the oxidative burst, which may contribute to gonococcal pathogenesis during inflammatory stages of gonorrhoeal disease.

  10. Food Security and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Adult Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mazidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL is a biomarker of biologic age. Whether food security status modulates LTL is still unknown. We investigated the association between food security and LTL in participants of the 1999–2002 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. Methods. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to evaluate the association between food security categories and LTL controlling for sex, race, and education and accounting for the survey design and sample weights. Results. We included 10,888 participants with 5228 (48.0% being men. They were aged on average 44.1 years. In all, 2362 (21.7% had less than high school, 2787 (25.6% had achieved high school, while 5705 (52.5% had done more than high school. In sex-, race-, and education-adjusted ANCOVA, average LTL (T/S ratio for participants with high food security versus those with marginal, low, or very low food security was 1.32 versus 1.20 for the age group 25–35 years and 1.26 versus 1.11 for the 35–45 years, (p<0.001. Conclusion. The association between food insecurity and LTL shortening in young adults suggest that some of the future effects of food insecurity on chronic disease risk in this population could be mediated by telomere shortening.

  11. Longer leukocyte telomere length in Costa Rica's Nicoyan Peninsula: A population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehkopf, David H; Dow, William H; Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Lin, Jue; Epel, Elissa S; Blackburn, Elizabeth H

    2013-01-01

    Studies in humans suggest that leukocyte telomere length may act as a marker of biological aging. We investigated whether individuals in the Nicoya region of Costa Rica, known for exceptional longevity, had longer telomere length than those in other parts of the country. After controlling for age, age squared, rurality, rainy season and gender, mean leukocyte telomere length in Nicoya was substantially longer (81 base pairs, pCosta Rica, providing evidence of a biological pathway to which this notable longevity may be related. This relationship remains unchanged (79 base pairs, p<0.05) after statistically controlling for nineteen potential biological, dietary and social and demographic mediators. Thus the difference in mean leukocyte telomere length that characterizes this unique region does not appear to be explainable by traditional behavioral and biological risk factors. More detailed examination of mean leukocyte telomere length by age shows that the regional telomere length difference declines at older ages. PMID:23988653

  12. Purification and partial characterization of the b-type cytochrome from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutter, R.; van Schaik, M. L.; van Zwieten, R.; Wever, R.; Roos, D.; Hamers, M. N.

    1985-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes contain an oxidase system that can be activated to produce superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide. A nonmitochondrial b cytochrome, functioning in the generation of these oxygen species, has been purified to apparent homogeneity from human polymorphonuclear

  13. The potential of the novel leukocyte removal filter in cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is indispensable for cardiac surgery but leads to systemic inflammatory responses and leukocyte activation, possibly due to blood contact with the surface of the CPB unit, surgical, ischemic reperfusion injury, etc. Systemic inflammatory responses during CPB result in increased morbidity and mortality. Activation of leukocytes is an important part of this process and directly contributes to coagulopathy and hemorrhage. This inflammatory response may contribute to the development of postoperative complications, including myocardial dysfunction, respiratory failure, renal and neurologic dysfunction, altered liver function and ultimately, multiple organ failure. Various pharmacologic and mechanical strategies have been developed to minimize the systemic inflammatory response during CPB. For example, leukocyte removal filters were developed in the 1990s for incorporation into the CPB circuit. However, studies of this approach have yielded conflicting findings. The purpose of this was to review the studies of a novel leukocyte removal filter in patients undergoing CPB.

  14. Endothelial CD99 signals through soluble adenylyl cyclase and PKA to regulate leukocyte transendothelial migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Richard L.; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R.; Winger, Ryan C.; Wang, Jing; Arase, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    CD99 is a critical regulator of leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM). How CD99 signals during this process remains unknown. We show that during TEM, endothelial cell (EC) CD99 activates protein kinase A (PKA) via a signaling complex formed with the lysine-rich juxtamembrane cytoplasmic tail of CD99, the A-kinase anchoring protein ezrin, and soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC). PKA then stimulates membrane trafficking from the lateral border recycling compartment to sites of TEM, facilitating the passage of leukocytes across the endothelium. Pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of EC sAC or PKA, like CD99 blockade, arrests neutrophils and monocytes partway through EC junctions, in vitro and in vivo, without affecting leukocyte adhesion or the expression of relevant cellular adhesion molecules. This is the first description of the CD99 signaling pathway in TEM as well as the first demonstration of a role for sAC in leukocyte TEM. PMID:26101266

  15. Reduction in mitochondrial DNA copy number in peripheral leukocytes after onset of Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Hvidberg; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Sørensen, Sven Asger

    2014-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterised by movement disorder, cognitive symptoms and psychiatric symptoms with predominantly adult-onset. The mutant huntingtin protein leads to mitochondrial dysfunction in blood leukocytes. This discovery led...

  16. Human leukocyte mobilization and morphology in nickel contact allergy using a skin chamber technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, A; Bisgaard, H; Christensen, J D

    1981-01-01

    An improved skin chamber technique has been devised and used for quantitative evaluation of the leukocyte mobilization rate (LMR). The method was applied in 10 nickel-hypersensitive patients exposed to nickel sulphate. Each patient served as his own control and for additional control purpose, 5...... healthy individuals without nickel hypersensitivity were studied. The kinetics of the mobilized leukocytes were followed over a 48-hour period. After an initial lag phase of 2-4 hours, maximum migration was observed from the 24th to the 48th hour, with a wide interindividual variability in the number...... of mobilized cells at the time of maximum LMR response. The median cumulative leukocyte count was 1.412 x 10(6) leukocytes/cm2/48 h. In the same period a statistically significant increase in the basophils for all the nickel allergic patients was observed. In 8 out of 10 patients a statistically significant...

  17. Shorter preschool, leukocyte telomere length is associated with obesity at age 9 in Latino children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Thora Wesenberg; Faurholt-Jepsen, D; Mehta, K M

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of leukocyte telomere length as a biomarker for development of childhood obesity in a low-income Latino population. A birth cohort of Latino children (N = 201) in San Francisco (recruited May 2006-May 2007) was followed until age 9...... and assessed annually for obesity and dietary intake. Leukocyte telomere length was measured at 4 and 5 years (n = 102) and assessed as a predictor for obesity at age 9, adjusting for known risk factors. Furthermore, leukocyte telomere length at age 4 and 5 was evaluated as a possible mediator...... of the relationship between excessive sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity at age 9. Shorter leukocyte telomere length in preschoolers was associated with obesity at age 9 (adjusted odds ratio 0.35, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.94) after adjustment for known risk factors. Telomere length mediated 11...

  18. Syntenin-1 and ezrin proteins link activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule to the actin cytoskeleton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tudor, Cicerone; te Riet, J.; Eich, C.; Harkes, R.; Smisdom, N.; Bouhuijzen Wenger, J.; Ameloot, M.; Holt, M.; Kanger, Johannes S.; Figdor, Carl; Cambi, A.; Subramaniam, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) is a type I transmembrane protein member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules. Involved in important pathophysiological processes such as the immune response, cancer metastasis, and neuronal development, ALCAM undergoes both

  19. Dendrimer-induced leukocyte procoagulant activity depends on particle size and surface charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolskaia, Marina A; Patri, Anil K; Potter, Timothy M; Rodriguez, Jamie C; Hall, Jennifer B; McNeil, Scott E

    2012-02-01

    Thrombogenicity associated with the induction of leukocyte procoagulant activity (PCA) is a common complication in sepsis and cancer. Since nanoparticles are increasingly used for drug delivery, their interaction with coagulation systems is an important part of the safety assessment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of nanoparticle physicochemical properties on leukocyte PCA, and to get insight into the mechanism of PCA induction. A total of 12 formulations of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers, varying in size and surface charge, were studied in vitro using recalcification time assay. Irrespective of their size, anionic and neutral dendrimers did not induce leukocyte PCA in vitro. Cationic particles induced PCA in a size- and charge-dependent manner. The mechanism of PCA induction was similar to that of doxorubicin. Cationic dendrimers were also found to exacerbate endotoxin-induced PCA. PAMAM dendrimer-induced leukocyte PCA depends on particle size, charge and density of surface groups.

  20. Chemokine expression by glial cells directs leukocytes to sites of axonal injury in the CNS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babcock, Alicia A; Kuziel, William A; Rivest, Serge

    2003-01-01

    Innate responses in the CNS are critical to first line defense against infection and injury. Leukocytes migrate to inflammatory sites in response to chemokines. We studied leukocyte migration and glial chemokine expression within the denervated hippocampus in response to axonal injury caused...... by entorhinodentate lesions. A population of Mac1/CD11b+ CD45high macrophages (distinct from CD45low microglia) was specifically detected within the lesion-reactive hippocampus by 12 hr after injury. Significant infiltration by CD3+ T cells did not occur in the denervated hippocampus until 24 hr after axotomy...... hr after axotomy, whereas MCP-1/CCL2 was significantly induced before leukocyte infiltration occurred. Neither T cells nor macrophages infiltrated the denervated hippocampus of CCR2-deficient mice, arguing for a critical role for the CCR2 ligand MCP-1/CCL2 in leukocyte migration. Both T cells...