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Sample records for in-111 chloride imaging

  1. Pediatric uses of In-111 WBC imaging

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    Samuels, L.D.; Goodgold, H.M.; Hendershott, L.

    1985-05-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of In-111 WBC imaging in pediatrics the authors have examined the records of children seen in the laboratory. During the past 4 years they have performed 45 pediatric In-111 WBC studies, half within 1984 alone, in 40 children aged one month to 20 years. In children under one year old they have labelled WBC from 5-10 cc. of the child's blood. They have preferred to transfuse infants after withdrawal of the blood for labelling rather than label donor blood. In twelve children (30%) there was diagnostic localization of labelled WBCs. Five children had equivocal results while three had distinct but false positive localization. The confusing effect of skin lesions of chicken pox and of lymphadenopathy was apparent in six patients. Thirteen children had normal studies. Overall this study of utilization of In-111 WBC in pediatrics suggests best utilization in colitis and abdominal and pelvic infections and in osteomyelitis, especially in distinguishing osteomyelitis from bone infarcts in sickle cell disease. There appears to be lesser utility in patients with palpable adenopathy or superficial infection. Although In-111 WBC imaging may provide clear evidence for active pneumonitis in cases where a chest x-ray is equivocal, such as cytomegalovirus infection, vague localization in bases of lungs, mediastimum or heart is a relatively common finding without known clinical significance.

  2. Pediatric uses of In-111 WBC imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuels, L.D.; Goodgold, H.M.; Hendershott, L.

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of In-111 WBC imaging in pediatrics the authors have examined the records of children seen in the laboratory. During the past 4 years they have performed 45 pediatric In-111 WBC studies, half within 1984 alone, in 40 children aged one month to 20 years. In children under one year old they have labelled WBC from 5-10 cc. of the child's blood. They have preferred to transfuse infants after withdrawal of the blood for labelling rather than label donor blood. In twelve children (30%) there was diagnostic localization of labelled WBCs. Five children had equivocal results while three had distinct but false positive localization. The confusing effect of skin lesions of chicken pox and of lymphadenopathy was apparent in six patients. Thirteen children had normal studies. Overall this study of utilization of In-111 WBC in pediatrics suggests best utilization in colitis and abdominal and pelvic infections and in osteomyelitis, especially in distinguishing osteomyelitis from bone infarcts in sickle cell disease. There appears to be lesser utility in patients with palpable adenopathy or superficial infection. Although In-111 WBC imaging may provide clear evidence for active pneumonitis in cases where a chest x-ray is equivocal, such as cytomegalovirus infection, vague localization in bases of lungs, mediastimum or heart is a relatively common finding without known clinical significance

  3. In-111 WBC imaging in musculoskeletal sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.; Ouzounian, T.J.; Webber, M.M.; Amstutz, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy and utility of the In-111 labeled WBC imaging in a series of patients who were suspected of having musculoskeletal sepsis. The labeling of the WBCs was patterned after a method previously described, in which the WBCs are labeled with In-111 oxine in plasma. The WBCs from 100 ml of blood are separated and incubated with In-111 oxine complex, and then 500 μCi. of the labeled cells were reinjected into the patient. Images of the areas in question were obtained at 24 hrs. In some instances, 48 hour images were also obtained. Images were interpreted using consistent criteria. Forty imaging procedures were done on 39 patients. These included 39 total joint protheses, and 17 other images to evaluate possible osteomyelitis, septic arthritis or deep abscesses. Of these studies, 15 were positive, and 42 negative. The findings were then correlated with operative culture and pathology in 21, aspiration cultures and gram stains in 14, and with clinical findings in the remaining 21. This correlation showed 41 true negatives, 12 true positives, 1 false negative, and 2 false positives. The sensitivity was 92.9% and the specificity was 95.2%l. The false negative occurred in a patient on chronic suppressive antibiotic therapy for an infected total hip replacement. The false positive images occurred in a patient with active rheumatoid arthritis and in a patient imaged one month post operative placement of the prosthesis. These images were very useful in several septic patients who had many possible sites of infection. The authors conclude that In-III imaging is an accurate and useful non-invasive method of evaluating musculoskeletal sepsis

  4. Diagnostic imaging of lung cancer with In-111-MDEGD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Susumu; Hayashi, Hideo; Maeda, Tomio

    1987-01-01

    Indium-111-mono DTPA-ethyleneglycol Ga deuterporphyrin (In-111-MDEGD) is a new tumor imaging agent in lung cancer. The agent has been studied with golden hamsters bearing adenocarcinoma, C57 black mice bearing Lewis lung adenocarcinoma, and nude mice bearing human lung adenocarcinoma xerografts. It has been revealed that the tumor-to-lung, tumor-to-kidney, and tumor-to-blood ratios are higher for In-111-MDEGD than for Ga-67 citrate widely used in imaging tumors, and that the agent is not accumulated in inflammatory lesions. The results were encouraging enough to start clinical diagnostic trials in lung cancer. In this paper, an overview of In-111-MDEGD, along with its preliminary data, is given. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. Imaging of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) with In-111-T101 monoclonal antibody

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    Carrasquillo, J.A.; Bunn, P.A.; Keenan, A.M.; Reynolds, J.C.; Schroff, R.W.; Foon, K.A.; Ming-Hsu, S.; Gazdar, A.F.; Mulshine, J.M.; Perentesis, P.

    1985-05-01

    T101 is a murine monoclonal antibody (MoAb), IgC2a, directed against a cell surface pan T-cell antigen present in high concentration in CTCL cells. In-111 labelling was performed with a modification of the Krejcarek method (Hybritech, Inc.). I mg of DTPA conjugated T101 was labeled with 5 mCi, with a mean incorporation of 95%. Immunoreactivity was preserved, mean 88%. In vivo, less than 3.6% of the injected dose was on circulating transferrin. 11 patients (pts) received 2-6h intravenous infusion of 1 mg (5 pts), 10 mg (3 pts), 50 mg (3 pts) of In-111 T101. By 24h all pts showed avid uptake in pathologically or clinically involved nodes and erythroderma including several previously unsuspected nodal regions. Skin plaques were not visualized. In addition, there was localization in liver, spleen and bone marrow. Concentration of In-111 in biopsied nodes was 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03% of the injected dose per gram. Control studies with In-111Cl/sub 3/ or a nonspecific MoAb, 9.2.27, did not concentrate in nodes or skin disease. No dose dependent differences in tumor localization was seen although blood clearance was prolonged for doses less than or equal to 10 mgs of T101. All pts receiving less than or equal to 10 mgs developed transient itching, urticaria and chills. 1 of 8 pts tested had an antimouse immune response. Modulation of the antigen from circulating T-cells, skin and nodes was seen. This study shows the feasibility of imaging CTCL pts with In-111 T101 and suggest a potential for radioimmunotherapy.

  6. In-111-oxine red cells for imaging of intermittent G.I. bleeding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, C.S.; Angulo, M.C.; Salk, R.D.; Essex, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    Sequential daily abdominal imaging was performed for up to 7 days in 11 patients with intermittent G.I. bleeding after the intravenous administration of lmCi autologous In-111-oxine labeled RBC's. The bleeding sites were identified in 3 patients. The causes were colon carcinoma, diverticulitis, and eroding distal aortic aneutysm. In addition to the imaging information, the authors have obtained preliminary biodistribution and kinetic data on the In-RBC's. Distribution to liver, spleen, and bone marrow was approximately 40%, 40%, and 20%, respectively. (This does not include the quantity of In-111 in the blood pool, which is very high initially and declines with time.) The survival of circulating In-RBC's is described by the equation: Surviving fraction=0.26e/sup -0.0021t/+0.74e/sup -0.00083t/ The halflives of the fast and slow components (x-bar+-x-bar) are 33.4 +- 1.6 hours and 35.0 +- 1.25 days, respectively. The In-oxine label is less stable than Cr-51 but more stable than Tc-99m. At 24 hours, Cr-RBC/In-RBC survival is 1.11 and Cr-RBC/Tc-RBC survival is 1.23. This imaging procedure is quite useful in selected patients

  7. Breast cancer imaging with In-111 human IgM monoclonal antibodies: preliminary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, K P; Dillman, R O; DeNardo, S J; DeNardo, G L; Beauregard, J; Hagan, P L; Amox, D G; Clutter, M L; Burnett, K G; Rulot, C M

    1988-04-01

    Detection of specific tumor sites was studied with scintigraphy and radiolabeled human IgM monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs). Ten patients with metastatic breast cancer received an infusion of one of three indium-111-labeled anti-breast carcinoma MoAbs. The time of infusion ranged from 30 minutes to 2 hours. Three patients received YBB-190 at total doses of 2, 4.25, or 11 mg, four patients received YBM-209 at total doses of 1 mg (n = 1) or 20 mg (n = 3), and three patients each received 22 mg of YBY-088. Imaging was performed immediately after infusion and at 4, 24, 48, 72, 120, and 144 hours. Many presumed sites of metastatic disease were imaged in three of the four patients who received 20 mg of YBM-209 and in two of the three patients who received YBY-088. Tumor was not detected in any of the patients who received YBB-190, in the patient who received a 1-mg dose of YBM-209, or in the patient who received YBY-088 and in whom a biopsy of tumor tissue failed to demonstrate target antigen. The authors conclude that In-111-labeled human IgM MoAbs can target human breast cancer, but antigen expression and antibody dose determine successful immunoscintigraphy.

  8. Indium-111 chloride imaging in the detection of infected prostheses

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    Sayle, B.A.; Fawcett, H.D.; Wilkey, D.J.; Cierny, G. III; Mader, J.T.

    1985-07-01

    Thirty-three patients with painful joint prostheses and a suspicion of infection were imaged with (/sup 111/In)chloride. A final diagnosis was established by culture in 19. Of these, 12 were categorized as true positives and three as true negatives. There were two false-positive studies, occurring in patients with knee prostheses. In both, the culture was obtained by aspiration. The sensitivity was 86%, specificity 60%, and accuracy 79%. Seventeen of the proven cases had bone imaging prior to (/sup 111/In)chloride imaging. All 17 static images were positive and were not helpful in differentiating loosening from infection. Using increased uptake on the blood-pool image as a criteria for infection, the sensitivity was 89%, but the specificity was 0. Adding flow studies made little difference in interpreting the blood-pool images. This study shows that (/sup 111/In)chloride imaging is more accurate in evaluating infection in prosthesis than bone imaging.

  9. Cerebral perfusion imaging with albumin microspheres tagged with Tc-99m and In-111 in cases with internal carotid occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etani, H; Kimura, K; Yoneda, S; Tsuda, Y; Isaka, Y; Nakamura, M; Asai, T

    1982-09-01

    Cerebral perfusion imaging with dual-tracer (Tc-99m and In-111) human albumin microspheres (HAM scintigraphy) was performed in 15 cases with unilateral occlusion of the internal carotid artery, for the diagnosis and evaluation of collateral circulation patterns. After injection of Tc-99m microspheres into one common carotid artery and In-111 HAMs into the other, two perfusion images, one for each carotid artery, were clearly differentiated by appropriate pulse-height discrimination. With this method, diagnosis of internal carotid artery occlusion was definitely made in eight patients, suspected in six, and missed in one. The collateral perfusion areas from the contralateral ICA and ipsilateral external carotid artery were well demonstrated by this method, and the scintigraphic results agreed well with the angiographic findings in all cases. Dual-tracer HAM scintigraphy is capable of adding information about collaterals at the capillary level to the anatomic information obtained by angiography.

  10. Size Dependent Biodistribution and SPECT Imaging of In-111-Labeled Polymersomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhuis, Rene P.; Stojanov, Katica; Laverman, Peter; Eilander, Jos; Zuhorn, Inge S.; Rutjes, Floris P. J. T.; van Hest, Jan C. M.

    Polymersomes, self-assembled from the block copolymer polybutadiene-block-poly(ethylene glycol), were prepared with well-defined diameters between 90 and 250 nm. The presence of similar to 1% of diethylene triamine penta acetic acid on the polymersome periphery allowed to chelate radioactive In-111

  11. Usefulness of bone marrow magnetic resonance imaging and indium-111-chloride bone marrow scintigraphy in patients with various hematological diseases

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    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Umekawa, Tsunekazu; Chikayama, Satoshi [Osaka General Hospital of West Japan Railway Compapy (Japan)] [and others

    1995-03-01

    This study investigated the ability of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and indium-111 chloride (In-111) scintigraphy to assess bone marrow in various hematological lesions. The subjects were 7 with aplastic anemia (AA), 4 with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 3 with polycythemia (PC), 3 with essential thrombocythemia (ET), 2 with multiple myeloma (MM), 2 with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), 3 with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), one with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and one with secondary anemia due to chronic inflammation (SA). Bone marrow cellularity was assessed on MR images and both uptake and tissue distribution were assessed on In-111 scintigraphy. Hypo-cellularity was seen in all AA patients, but not seen in any other patient in each group. On the other hand, hyper-cellularity was seen in 3 MDS, one PC, all 3 ET, one ALL, and one SA patients. In the group of MM, the vertebral body was seen as heterogenous signal intensity on MR images. Bone marrow was seen as iso-intensity in one MDS, 2 PC, all 2 MGUS, and all 3 ITP patients. In-111 scintigraphy showed decrease or disappearance of tracer uptake and decreased tissue distribution in all 7 AA, one MDS, one PC, and one ALL patients. Increased tracer uptake and enlarged tissue distribution were seen in one MDS, one PC, and one SA patients. One MDS, one ET, all 2 MM, all 2 MGUS, all 3 ITP patients had tracer uptake and tissue distribution that were equal to those in the normal tissues. Since MR imaging and In-111 scintigraphy provided qualitatively different information, the combination of both modalities would contribute to the understanding of bone marrow condition in hematopoietic diseases. (N.K.).

  12. Characteristic X-ray imaging for palliative therapy using strontium-89 chloride: understanding the mechanism of nuclear medicine imaging of strontium-89 chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owaki, Yoshiki; Inoue, Kazumasa; Narita, Hiroto; Tsuda, Keisuke; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2017-06-01

    Strontium-89 (Sr-89) chloride is a targeted palliative therapy used for painful bone metastasis in which repeated doses can be administered, and its usefulness has been reported in the case of bone metastasis of various primary tumors. However, the effectiveness of the pain relief treatment is only described using a subjective index such as the visual analog scale, which lacks objectivity. Although various attempts at quantifying the effectiveness of Sr-89 chloride therapy have been reported using nuclear medicine imaging for energy peaks around 70-80 keV, the principle of Sr-89 chloride imaging has not been explained. In this study, the principle of nuclear medicine imaging for Sr-89 chloride was evaluated using a fundamental study. Additionally, the optimal collimator for acquiring Sr-89 chloride image data was evaluated. Based on the results, the principle of nuclear medicine imaging for Sr-89 chloride could be explained: the energy peaks were characteristic X-rays produced by interactions between gamma rays (514 keV) emitted from Sr-85, which is included during the manufacturing process of the Sr-89 chloride solution, and the lead collimator used in the imaging. The optimal collimator for generating characteristic X-rays efficiently was identified as a middle-to-high energy collimator.

  13. Tracking of In-111-labeled human umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC) in a rat model of cerebral ischemia using SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbab, Ali S; Chopp, Michael; Thiffault, Christine; Navia, Bradford; Victor, Stephen J; Hong, Klaudyne; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Quan; Varma, Nadimpalli RS; Iskander, ASM

    2012-01-01

    In order to increase understanding of how infused cells work, it becomes important to track their initial movement, localization, and engraftment efficiency following transplantation. However, the available in vivo cell tracking techniques are suboptimal. The study objective was to determine the biodistribution of intravenously administered Indium-111 (In-111) oxine labeled human umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC) in a rat model of transient middle cerebral occlusion (tMCAo) using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Rats received 3 million In-111 labeled hUTC (i.v.) 48 hrs after tMCAo. Following the administration of either hUTC or equivalent dose of In-111-oxine (18.5 MBq), animals underwent SPECT imaging on days 0, 1, and 3. Radioactivity in various organs as well as in the stroke area and contralateral hemisphere was determined, decay corrected and normalized to the total (whole body including head) radioactivity on day 0. Immunohistochemical analysis was also performed to confirm the beneficial effects of hUTC on vascular and synaptic density, and apoptosis. Most of the radioactivity (43.36±23.07% on day 0) trafficked to the lungs immediately following IV administration of In-111 labeled hUTC (day 0) and decreased drastically to 8.81±7.75 and 4.01±4.52% on days 1 and 3 post-injection, respectively. In contrast, radioactivity measured in the lung of animals that received In-111-oxine alone remained relatively unchanged from day 0 to day 1 (18.38±5.45% at day 0 to 12.59±5.94%) and decreased to 8.34±4.25% on day 3. Significantly higher radioactivity was observed in stroke areas of animals that received In-111 labeled hUTC indicating the presence of cells at the site of injury representing approximately 1% of total administered dose. In addition, there was significant increase in vascular and synaptophysin immunoreactivity in stroke areas of rats that received In-111 labeled hUTC. The present studies showed the tracking of In-111 labeled h

  14. The Value of Somatostatin Receptor Imaging with In-111 Octreotide and/or Ga-68 DOTATATE in Localizing Ectopic ACTH Producing Tumors

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    Zeynep Gözde Özkan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate the value of somatostatin receptor imaging (SRI with In-111 octreotide and Ga-68 DOTATATE in localizing ectopic ACTH producing tumors. Methods: Nineteen patients who had In-111 octreotide somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS and/or Ga-68 DOTATATE PET-CT to localize ectopic ACTH producing tumors between the years 2000 and 2012 were included retrospectively in our study. The results of SRI were compared with clinical onset, radiological findings and surgical data of the patients. Results: Sixteen In-111 octreotide SRS and five Ga-68 DOTATATE PET-CT were performed in 19 patients. In eight out of 19 patients, ectopic ACTH secretion site could be detected. In five patients, SRS showed pathologic uptake. In four of these patients, surgery revealed pulmonary carcinoid tumors and in one patient pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. In one patient, Ga-68 DOTATATE PET-CT revealed pathologic uptake in lung nodule which came out to be pulmonary carcinoid tumor. In another patient who had resection of metastases of atypical carcinoid tumor prior to scans, new metastatic foci were detected both with SRS and Ga-68 DOTATATE PET-CT imaging. In one patient, although SRS was negative, CT which was performed three years later showed a lung nodule diagnosed as pulmonary carcinoid tumor. In 11 patients, ectopic ACTH secretion site could not be detected. In 10 of those patients, scintigraphic and radiological imaging did not show any lesions and in one patient, Ga-68 DOTATATE PET-CT was false positive. Conclusion: SRI has a complementary role with radiological imaging in localizing ectopic ACTH secretion sites. PET-CT imaging with Ga-68 peptide conjugates is a promising new modality for this indication.

  15. Infected knee prosthesis: diagnosis with In-111 leukocyte, Tc-99m sulfur colloid, and Tc-99m MDP imaging

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    Palestro, C.J.; Swyer, A.J.; Kim, C.K.; Goldsmith, S.J. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Forty-one possible cases of infected total knee prostheses studied with indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-four of the prostheses were studied with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy and 19 with Tc-99m sulfur colloid marrow scintigraphy. Nine prostheses were infected, and 32 were uninfected. The accuracy of combined labeled leukocyte and sulfur colloid marrow imaging (95%) was higher than that of labeled leukocyte scintigraphy alone (78%), bone scintigraphy alone (74%), or combined labeled leukocyte and bone scintigraphy (75%). The authors conclude that combined labeled leukocyte and sulfur colloid imaging is an accurate method for diagnosis of infected knee prostheses. In this series, this technique was superior to labeled leukocyte and bone imaging, alone or in combination.

  16. Multimodality Molecular Imaging of [18F]-Fluorinated Carboplatin Derivative Encapsulated in [111In]-Labeled Liposomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Narottam

    Platinum based chemotherapy is amongst the mainstream DNA-damaging agents used in clinical cancer therapy today. Agents such as cisplatin, carboplatin are clinically prescribed for the treatment of solid tumors either as single agents, in combination, or as part of multi-modality treatment strategy. Despite the potent anti-tumor activity of these drugs, overall effectiveness is still hampered by inadequate delivery and retention of drug in tumor and unwanted normal tissue toxicity, induced by non-selective accumulation of drug in normal cells and tissues. Utilizing molecular imaging and nanoparticle technologies, this thesis aims to contribute to better understanding of how to improve the profile of platinum based therapy. By developing a novel fluorinated derivative of carboplatin, incorporating a Flourine-18 (18F) moiety as an inherent part of the molecule, quantitative measures of drug concentration in tumors and normal tissues can be directly determined in vivo and within the intact individual environment. A potential impact of this knowledge will be helpful in predicting the overall response of individual patients to the treatment. Specifically, the aim of this project, therefore, is the development of a fluorinated carboplatin drug derivative with an inherent positron emission tomography (PET) imaging capability, so that the accumulation of the drug in the tumor and normal organs can be studied during the course of therapy . A secondary objective of this research is to develop a proof of concept for simultaneous imaging of a PET radiolabeled drug with a SPECT radiolabeled liposomal formulation, enabling thereby bi-modal imaging of drug and delivery vehicle in vivo. The approach is challenging because it involves development in PET radiochemistry, PET and SPECT imaging, drug liposomal encapsulation, and a dual-modal imaging of radiolabeled drug and radiolabeled vehicle. The principal development is the synthesis of fluorinated carboplatin 19F-FCP using 2

  17. Effect of cardiac drugs on imaging studies with thallous chloride Tl 201

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    Waschek, J.; Hinkle, G.; Basmadjian, G.; Allen, E.W.; Ice, R.

    1981-11-01

    The effects of commonly used cardiac drugs on cardiac imaging with thallium-201-labeled thallous chloride were studied. This retrospective study included 62 men ranging in age from 37 to 70 years who had cardiac imaging attempted with thallium during an eight-month period. Seven drugs were being used by at least eight patients each--propranolol, nitroglycerin ointment, isosorbide dinitrate, digoxin, hydrochlorothiazide, potassium chloride, and quinidine. Myocardial-to-background (M/Bk) ratios were calculated for each patient. No drug consistently affected the M/Bk ratios. The lowest M/Bk ratio was found in patients receiving digoxin, but there was no significant difference between the M/Bk ratios for patients taking digoxin (1.38 +/- 0.16) and those not taking digoxin (1.45 +/- 0.10) (0.05 less than p less than 0.10, Student's t test). It is concluded that the drugs studied do not affect cardiac imaging with thallous chloride Tl 201.

  18. Indium-111-chloride and three-phase bone scintigraphy: A comparison for imaging experimental osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskinson, J.J.; Daniel, G.B.; Patton, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the utility of indium-111-chloride ( 111 In-Cl) imaging in detecting osteomyelitis complicating surgical or fracture sites, the proximal tibia of 11 dogs were experimentally infected with Staphylococcus aureus after creation of a cortical defect. The contralateral limb served as a sham-operated control. Animals were serially imaged by radiography, three-phase technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) scintigraphy, and 111 In-Cl scintigraphy. There was a significant difference between infected (1.93) and noninfected (1.32) limb's tibia/femur count density ratios on 24-hr (p = 0.0001) and 72-hr (p = 0.0001) 111 In-Cl images. A smaller difference was found for 99mTc-MDP bone-phase tibia/femur ratios (p = 0.0199). Using receiver operator characteristic analysis of tibia/femur ratios, a sensitivity of 61%, specificity of 88%, and positive (75%) and negative (79%) predictive values were determined for the 24-hr 111 In-Cl images. Indium-111-chloride was superior to 99mTc-MDP in differentiating infected and noninfected operative sites

  19. Receptor imaging with a new Tc-99m labelled somatostatin analogue (Tc-99m EDDA-TRYCINE-HYNIC-TOC): first clinical results and comparison with In-111 Dotatoc during radioreceptor therapy with Y-90 Dotatoc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, R.P.; Schmuecking, M.; Fischer, S.; Przetak, C.; Niesen, A.; Maecke, H.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: To evaluate Tc-99m EDDA-TRYCINE-HYNIC-TOC (TET-H-TOC) in patients with somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-positive tumors (staging, pretherapeutic indication for radioreceptor therapy and restaging after therapy) in comparison with In-111 DOTATOC. The Tc-99m labelled somatostatin analogue was synthesized by an optimized procedure in our pharmaceutical lab using lyophilized kits (radiochemical purity by HPLC, TLC > 95 %, product stability in vitro 4 to 6 h). So far, 46 patients (53 examinations) were studied after injection of 580-890 MBq (median 673 MBq) TET-H-TOC. The histologically proven tumors were endocrine neoplasias, renal carcinomas, bronchial carcinoma, mesothelioma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma. The imaging protocol consisted of whole-body scans and planar images of the tumor region (15 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 24 h p.i.) and additionally SPECT-images (1 h and 4 h p.i.). For semi-quantitative assessment, individual regions of interest (ROI) were drawn in order to generate time-activity curves and to calculate tumor-to-tissue/background ratios which were compared by visual grading (scale 0 to 3+). Furthermore, pharmacokinetic analyses were carried out (radioactivity kinetics in plasma and urine). In some selected patients, image fusion of the whole-body scans was performed with CT and/or MRT and/or PET using a HERMES computer. 7 out of 46 patients showed an intense tracer accumulation in the SSTR-positive tumors (visual 3+, tumor / background ratio >2,5). In these patients, radioreceptor therapy was carried out using Y-90 DOTATOC (simultaneous injection of 150 MBq In-111 DOTATOC). All pretherapeutic scans with the Tc-99m labelled ligand (4 h p.i.) showed a similar overall pattern of biodistribution and tumor uptake in comparison to the therapy scans with In-111 / Y-90 DOTATOC 24 h p.i. The Tc-99m EDDA-HYNIC-TOC scans (incl. SPECT) offered superior imaging properties with earlier tumor visualization (all lesions were detected 1 h p.i.) as compared

  20. Polyvinyl chloride as a multimodal tissue-mimicking material with tuned mechanical and medical imaging properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weisi; Belmont, Barry; Greve, Joan M; Manders, Adam B; Downey, Brian C; Zhang, Xi; Xu, Zhen; Guo, Dongming; Shih, Albert

    2016-10-01

    The mechanical and imaging properties of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) can be adjusted to meet the needs of researchers as a tissue-mimicking material. For instance, the hardness can be adjusted by changing the ratio of softener to PVC polymer, mineral oil can be added for lubrication in needle insertion, and glass beads can be added to scatter acoustic energy similar to biological tissue. Through this research, the authors sought to develop a regression model to design formulations of PVC with targeted mechanical and multimodal medical imaging properties. The design of experiment was conducted by varying three factors-(1) the ratio of softener to PVC polymer, (2) the mass fraction of mineral oil, and (3) the mass fraction of glass beads-and measuring the mechanical properties (elastic modulus, hardness, viscoelastic relaxation time constant, and needle insertion friction force) and the medical imaging properties [speed of sound, acoustic attenuation coefficient, magnetic resonance imaging time constants T 1 and T 2 , and the transmittance of the visible light at wavelengths of 695 nm (T λ695 ) and 532 nm (T λ532 )] on twelve soft PVC samples. A regression model was built to describe the relationship between the mechanical and medical imaging properties and the values of the three composition factors of PVC. The model was validated by testing the properties of a PVC sample with a formulation distinct from the twelve samples. The tested soft PVC had elastic moduli from 6 to 45 kPa, hardnesses from 5 to 50 Shore OOO-S, viscoelastic stress relaxation time constants from 114.1 to 191.9 s, friction forces of 18 gauge needle insertion from 0.005 to 0.086 N/mm, speeds of sound from 1393 to 1407 m/s, acoustic attenuation coefficients from 0.38 to 0.61 (dB/cm)/MHz, T 1 relaxation times from 426.3 to 450.2 ms, T 2 relaxation times from 21.5 to 28.4 ms, T λ695 from 46.8% to 92.6%, and T λ532 from 41.1% to 86.3%. Statistically significant factors of each property were

  1. Degradation of myocardial perfusion SPECT images caused by contaminants in thallous (201Tl) chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staelens, Steven G.; Wit, Tim C. de; Lemahieu, Ignace A.; Beekman, Freek J.

    2008-01-01

    Thallous ( 201 Tl) chloride is a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracer mainly used for assessing perfusion and viability of myocardial tissue. 201 Tl emits X-rays around 72 keV and gammas at 167 keV, and has a half-life of 73 h. Regulations allow an intrinsic contamination up to 3-5%, which is mainly caused by 200 Tl (368 keV; 26 h) and by 202 Tl (439 keV; 12.2 days). Contra-intuitive to the low-level percentages in which these contaminants are present, their impact may be significant because of much higher gamma camera sensitivity for these high-energy photon emissions. Therefore, we investigate the effects of the contaminants in terms of detected fractions of photons in projections and contrast degradation in reconstructed images. Acquisitions of a digital thorax phantom filled with thallous ( 201 Tl) chloride were simulated with a validated Monte Carlo tool, thereby, modelling 1% of contamination by 200 Tl and 202 Tl each. In addition, measurements of a thorax phantom on a dual-headed gamma camera were performed. The product used was contaminated by 0.17% of 200 Tl and 0.24% of 202 Tl at activity reference time (ART). This ART is specified by the manufacturer, thereby, accounting for the difference in half-lives of 201 Tl and its contaminants. These measurements were repeated at different dates associated with various contamination levels. Simulations showed that, with 1% of 200 Tl and 202 Tl, the total contamination in the 72 keV window can rise up to one out of three detected photons. For the 167keV window, the contamination is even more pronounced: more than four out of five detections in this photopeak window originate from contaminants. Measurements indicate that cold lesion contrast in myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging is at maximum close to ART. In addition to a higher noise level, relative contrast decreases 15% 2 days early to ART, which is explained by an increase in 200 Tl contamination. After ART, contrast decreased by 16% when

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of prostate cancer cell lines labled with manganese chloride in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Wenquan; Fan Huishuang; Zhang Xiaoling; Xiang Xianhong; Tang Yubo; Mao Lijuan; Zou Xuenong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the feasibility and security of prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3) labeled with manganese chloride (MnCl 2 ) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vitro. Methods: The PC-3 that purchased from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) were recovered, cultured and amplified. The PC-3 were cultured in F-12 HAM'S medium with different concentrations of MnCl 2 in cell incubator and collected for MRI after 1 hour. The labeled cells were also collected for MRI in different amount and different time after labeling. The labeled cells were incubated with verapamil for 4 hours and the changes of the labeled cellular signal intensities were recorded in different time. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to determine the activities of the labeled cells. Results: The PC-3 labeled with MnCl 2 were high signal intensities on T 1 -weighted MRI. There were statistically significant differences between labeled cells and unlabeled cells (P 2 . The signal intensity obviously decreased after 24 hours and became to normal signal intensity of unlabeled PC-3 after 72 hours. The PC-3 labeled with 1.0 mM MnCl 2 solution showed high signal intensity on T 1 -weighted MRI with the minimum cell amount of 5.0 x 10 5 and lasted to 72 hours after a 4 hours incubation with verapamil. After 4 hours labeling, except the concentration of 0.1 mM, the other concentrations of MnCl 2 (>0.1 mM) had a certain toxicity on PC-3 (P 0.05). Conclusion: The PC-3 could be labeled with MnCl 2 and appears high signal intensity on T 1 -weighted MRI. The PC-3 can be safety labeled with MnCl 2 in concentrations which were equal or less than 1.0 mM, but the duration of Mn +2 in PC-3 is shorter. Calcium channel blocker (verapamil) may be extend the duration of PC-3 labeled with MnCl 2 . (authors)

  3. Penetration effects in 111Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannatiempo, A.; Perego, A.; Passeri, A.

    1984-01-01

    Penetration effects in the conversion process of the 7/2 + ->5/2 + , 171 keV and 5/2 + ->1/2 + , 245 keV transitions in 111 Cd have been investigated. The decay of 111 In has been studied to deduce the relative intensity of the K-conversion lines Isub(K)(171)/Isub(K)(245) and the ratio Isub(K)(245)/Isub(L+M...)(245). The values obtained for the penetration parameters of the two transitions are 0 1 (245)<=1.9. (orig.)

  4. Gadolinium chloride as a contrast agent for imaging wood composite components by magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Chi-Leung So; Andrea Protti; Po-Wah So

    2009-01-01

    Although paramagnetic contrast agents have an established track record in medical uses of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), only recently has a contrast agent been used for enhancing MRI images of solid wood specimens. Expanding on this concept, wood veneers were treated with a gadolinium-based contrast agent and used in a model system comprising three-ply plywood...

  5. Characterization of the thickness and distribution of latex coatings on polyvinylidene chloride beads by backscattered electron imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Clifford S; Beyer, Douglas E

    2015-04-01

    Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) co-polymer resins are commonly formulated with a variety of solid additives for the purpose of processing or stabilization. A homogeneous distribution of these additives during handling and processing is important. The Dow Chemical Company developed a process to incorporate solid materials in latex form onto PVDC resin bead surfaces using a coagulation process. In this context, we present a method to characterize the distribution and thickness of these latex coatings. The difference in backscattered electron signal from the higher mean atomic number PVDC core and lower atomic number latex coating in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging using a range of accelerating voltages was used to characterize latex thickness and distribution across large numbers of beads quickly and easily. Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantitatively estimate latex thickness as a function of brightness in backscatter electron images. This thickness calibration was validated by cross-sectioning using a focused ion-beam SEM. Thicknesses from 100 nm up to about 1.3 µm can be determined using this method.

  6. Statistical study by digitalized image analysis of pitting corrosion of an AISI 304 type stainless steel in chloride environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacome, Isabelle

    1994-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the pitting corrosion of an AISI 304-type stainless steel in chloride environment, a phenomenon which is generally considered as comprising two main steps: pit initiation with local degradation of the passive film, and pit growth. By using a technique of analysis of digitalized images, the process is observed in situ and both steps are monitored. A statistical study of the initiation of all the noticed pits is performed. After a bibliographical survey on the pitting corrosion process, its mechanisms and the influence of different parameters, the author presents the studied material and the experimental methods, reports the investigation of the pitting corrosion process in potentiostatic mode over a wide range of potentials in order to study all the types of pits, discusses the influence of potential on pit initiation and growth, reports the study of the influence of hydrodynamic conditions and of ageing in solution on the different parameters, reports the analysis of passive films by photoelectron spectroscopy, and the study of the influence of an inhibitor (molybdate ions) on both steps of pitting corrosion [fr

  7. Localisation and quantification of benzalkonium chloride in eye tissue by TOF-SIMS imaging and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbenoit, Nicolas; Schmitz-Afonso, Isabelle; Baudouin, Christophe; Laprévote, Olivier; Touboul, David; Brignole-Baudouin, Françoise; Brunelle, Alain

    2013-05-01

    Benzalkonium (BAK) chloride is the most commonly used preservative in eye drops. It is generally composed of benzyldimethyldodecylammonium C12 and benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium C14 and is supposed to increase penetration of active compounds. However, numerous studies have reported its toxic effect to ocular surface especially in long-term treatments like against glaucoma, a sight-threatening disease. Albino rabbits were treated with a hyperosmolar solution and a high concentration of BAK solution for 1 month. Enucleated eyes were cryo-sectioned and analysed by mass spectrometry. Mass spectrometry imaging using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) has been used to characterize the spatial distribution and to determine the relative quantity of BAK at the surface of rabbit eye sections. Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) using a hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap® mass spectrometer was used to obtain relative quantification of BAK at the sample surface. TOF-SIMS images of BAK ions indicated a distribution at the ocular surface and in deeper structures. Didecyldimethylammonium (DDMAC), which is used in hospitals as a substitute for BAK, was also detected and showed an accumulation around the eyes. After extraction with acetonitrile and chromatographic separation using a Gemini C18 column and an original elution gradient, the relative quantities of BAK and DDMAC present in the whole eye section surface were determined. This LC-MS method was validated in terms of limits of quantification, linearity, repeatability and reproducibility and its feasibility was evaluated in surgically obtained human samples. Specimens of iris, lens capsule or trabecular meshwork were found with significant levels of BAK and DDMAC, thus confirming the penetration of BAK in deep ocular structures, with potential deleterious effects induced by this cytotoxic compound. The analytical method developed here could therefore be of primary interest in

  8. Distinction of infected and non-infected post-surgical incisions with In-111-WBC scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Nabi, H.; Hinkle, G.H.; Olsen, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    To determine if In-111-WBCs scintigraphy can distinguish between healing and infection in post-surgical wounds, a prospective study was performed in patients with 3-14 day old surgical incisions. Eighteen patients (11 males and 7 females) were scanned 24 hrs after injection of 0.5 mCi of In-111 labeled autologous leukocytes. The scan findings were correlated with blood and/wound cultures results and diagnosis at time of discharge. Incisional uptake of In-111-WBCs was noted in 9 patients with infected surgical wounds and was absent in those 9 patients with non-infected surgical wounds. The results of the authors' study show that In-111-WBCs do not accumulate in non-infected surgical incisions. This confirms their previous findings in rats. The high specificity of In-111 leukocytes imaging makes it a valuable study in the evaluation of post-operative patients with suspected surgical wound infections. In-111 WBCs scintigraphy can distinguish between normal healing and infection at the site of recent (3-14 days) surgical incisions

  9. Kinetics and biodistribution of In-111 platelets in patients with bone marrow transplants, refractory to platelet transfusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civelek, C.; Braine, H.; Scheffel, U.; Drew, H.; Koester, A.; LaFrance, N.; Kasecamp, W.; Wagner, H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics and biodistribution of HLA identical In-111 labeled platelets was studied in 10 leukemic patients with bone marrow transplants refractory to HLA matched platelet transfusions. Platelet survival time was short (x-bar +- SEM =1.64 +- 0.83 days). The mean recovery (extrapolated to zero time) was 29.9%, ranging from 14.2 to 63.0%. The deposition of the In-111 platelets in the liver and spleen was quantified by the geometric mean method using anterior and posterior imaging. In 3 patients liver uptake was significantly increased. The highest hepatic accumulation of In-111 occurred 2 hrs after injection (x-bar=76 +- 6% dose (SEM); at 48 hrs 62% of the dose remained in the liver. In 7 patients the spleen was the organ with the highest labeled platelet deposition. The splenic uptake of In-111 platelets in this group correlated with the spleen size (r=+0.95). At 30 min after injection 75+-6% of the dose was found in the spleen. Splenic activity decreased to 62% after 48 hrs. At the same time, In-111 liver accumulation increased from 14 to 31%. This finding suggests that In-111 may be released from the spleen and subsequently sequestered by the liver. Two patients with high splenic uptake underwent splenectomy after the In-111 platelet study. Both benefited from splenectomy in terms of platelet survival after transfusion

  10. Chloride Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/chloridebloodtest.html Chloride Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Chloride Blood Test? A chloride blood test measures the amount of ...

  11. In-111-labeled leukocytes in the diagnosis of rejection and cytomegalovirus infection in renal transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forstrom, L.A.; Loken, M.K.; Cook, A.; Chandler, R.; McCullough, J.

    1981-01-01

    Indium-111-labeled (In-111) leukocytes have been shown to be useful in the localization of inflammatory processes, including renal transplant rejection. Using previously reported labeling methods, 63 studies with this agent have been performed in 53 renal transplant patients. Indications for study included suspected rejection or cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Studies were performed in 33 men and 20 women, with ages ranging from 6 to 68 years. Autologous cells were normally used for labeling, although leukocytes obtained from ABO-compatible donors were used in three subjects. Rectilinear scanner and/or scintillation camera images were obtained at 24 hours after intravenous administration of 0.1 to 0.6 mCi of In-111-leukocytes. There was abnormal uptake of In-111-leukocytes in the transplanted kidney in 11 of 15 cases of rejection. In three additional cases of increased transplant uptake, CMV infection was present in two. Abnormal lung uptake was present in 13 of 14 patients with CMV infection. In four additional cases, increased lung uptake was associated with other pulmonary inflammatory disease. Increased lung activity was not seen in patients with uncomplicated transplant rejection. These results suggest that In-111-leukocyte imaging may be useful in the differential diagnosis of rejection versus CMV infection in renal transplant patients

  12. In-111-labeled leukocytes in the diagnosis of rejection and cytomegalovirus infection in renal transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forstrom, L.A.; Loken, M.K.; Cook, A.; Chandler, R.; McCullough, J.

    1981-01-01

    Indium-111-labelled (In-111) leukocytes have been shown to be useful in the localization of inflammatory processes, including renal transplant rejection. Using previously reported labelling methods, 63 studies with this agent have been performed in 53 renal transplant patients. Indications for study included suspected rejection or cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Studies were performed in 33 men and 20 women, with ages ranging from 6 to 68 years. Autologous cells were normally used for labeling, although leukocytes obtained from ABO-compatible donors were used in three subjects. Rectilinear scanner and/or scintillation camera images were obtained at 24 hours after intravenous administration of 0.1 to 0.6 mCi of In-111 leukocytes. There was abnormal uptake of In-111-leukocytes in the transplanted kidney in 11 of 15 cases of rejection. In three additional cases of increased transplant uptake, CMV infection was present in two. Abnormal lung uptake was present in 13 of 14 patients with CMV infection. In four additional cases, increased lung uptake was associated with other pulmonary inflammatory disease. Increased lung activity was not seen in patients with uncomplicated transplant rejection. These results suggest that In-111-leukocyte imaging may be useful in the differential diagnosis of rejection versus CMV infection in renal transplant patients

  13. Scintigraphic detection of gastric and pancreatic carcinomas with In-111 ZCE 025 monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Nabi, H.H.; Schwartz, A.N.; Wechter, D.G.; Higano, C.S.; Ortman-Nabi, J.A.; Unger, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    We have evaluated the role of In-111 anti-CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) monoclonal antibody ZCE 025 in 8 patients. Three patients had a confirmed diagnosis of gastric carcinoma. Three had a confirmed diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. Two patients had elevated serum levels of CEA with no known primary. Each patient received 5.5 mCi In-111 ZCE 025 infused at doses of 10-80 mg. Planar and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging at 3 and 7 days after infusion detected 9 of 12 known tumor sites and all 5 of the previously identified sites of metastasis. In-111 ZCE 025 MoAb imaging also found 6 previously unsuspected tumor sites and changed the preoperative evaluation in 50% of the patients studied. It changed the clinical management in 2 patients and established the site of primary involvement in 2 others. There were no clinical or biochemical reactions. In-111 ZCE 025 monoclonal antibody scintigraphy is a useful adjunct in the evaluation of patients with either gastric or pancreatic carcinoma. It may have a beneficial impact on the surgical decision making in these patients

  14. Calcium Chloride in Neonatal Parenteral Nutrition Solutions with and without Added Cysteine: Compatibility Studies Using Laser and Micro-Flow Imaging Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Robert K.; Christensen, J. Mark; Alshahrani, Sultan M.; Mohamed, Sumeia M.; Clark, Sara M.; Nason, Jeffrey A.; Wu, Ying Xing

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies of compatibility of calcium chloride (CaCl2) and phosphates have not included particle counts in the range specified by the United States Pharmacopeia. Micro-flow imaging techniques have been shown to be comparable to light obscuration when determining particle count and size in pharmaceutical solutions. Objective The purpose of this study was to do compatibility testing for parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions containing CaCl2 using dynamic light scattering and micro-flow imaging techniques. Methods Solutions containing TrophAmine (Braun Medical Inc, Irvine, CA), CaCl2, and sodium phosphate (NaPhos) were compounded with and without cysteine. All solutions contained standard additives to neonatal PN solutions including dextrose, trace metals, and electrolytes. Control solutions contained no calcium or phosphate. Solutions were analyzed for particle size and particle count. Means of Z-average particle size and particle counts of controls were determined. Study solutions were compared to controls and United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Chapter 788 guidelines. The maximum amount of Phos that was compatible in solutions that contained at least 10 mmol/L of Ca in 2.5% amino acids (AA) was determined. Compatibility of these solutions was verified by performing analyses of 5 repeats of these solutions. Microscopic analyses of the repeats were also performed. Results Amounts of CaCl2 and NaPhos that were compatible in solutions containing 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, and 3% AA were determined. The maximum amount of NaPhos that could be added to TrophAmine solutions of > = 2.5% AA containing at least 10 mmol/L of CaCl2 was 7.5 mmol/L. Adding 50 mg/dL of cysteine increased the amount of NaPhos that could be added to solutions containing 10 mmol/L of CaCl2 to 10 mmol/L. Conclusion Calcium chloride can be added to neonatal PN solutions containing NaPhos in concentrations that can potentially provide an intravenous intake of adequate amounts of calcium and phosphorus

  15. Coronary microembolization with normal epicardial coronary arteries and no visible infarcts on nitrobluetetrazolium chloride-stained specimens: Evaluation with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in a swine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hang; Yun, Hong; Zeng, Meng Su [Dept. of Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University and Shanghai Institute of Medical Imaging, Shanghai (China); Ma, Jian Ying; Chen, Zhang Wei; Chang, Shu Fu [Dept. of Cardiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University and Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Shanghai (China)

    2016-02-15

    To assess magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of coronary microembolization in a swine model induced by small-sized microemboli, which may cause microinfarcts invisible to the naked eye. Eleven pigs underwent intracoronary injection of small-sized microspheres (42 µm) and catheter coronary angiography was obtained before and after microembolization. Cardiac MRI and measurement of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) were performed at baseline, 6 hours, and 1 week after microembolization. Postmortem evaluation was performed after completion of the imaging studies. Coronary angiography pre- and post-microembolization revealed normal epicardial coronary arteries. Systolic wall thickening of the microembolized regions decreased significantly from 42.6 ± 2.0% at baseline to 20.3 ± 2.3% at 6 hours and 31.5 ± 2.1% at 1 week after coronary microembolization (p < 0.001 for both). First-pass perfusion defect was visualized at 6 hours but the extent was largely decreased at 1 week. Delayed contrast enhancement MRI (DE-MRI) demonstrated hyperenhancement within the target area at 6 hours but not at 1 week. The microinfarcts on gross specimen stained with nitrobluetetrazolium chloride were invisible to the naked eye and only detectable microscopically. Increased cTnT was observed at 6 hours and 1 week after microembolization. Coronary microembolization induced by a certain load of small-sized microemboli may result in microinfarcts invisible to the naked eye with normal epicardial coronary arteries. MRI features of myocardial impairment secondary to such microembolization include the decline in left ventricular function and myocardial perfusion at cine and first-pass perfusion imaging, and transient hyperenhancement at DE-MRI.

  16. Different cell moieties and white blood cell (WBC) integrity in In-111 labeled WBC preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, G.B.; Feiglin, D.H.I.; McMahon, J.T.; Go, R.T.; O'Donnell, J.K.; MacIntyre, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Indium-111 labeled white blood cells (WBC) have become very popular in detecting inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this paper is to determine the distribution of different types of cells in WBC preparation for In-111 oxine labeling, and also to assess the histological integrity of WBC's after labeling with In-111 oxine. Forty to fifty cc of blood was collected from each patient and WBC's were separated by sedimentation and centrifugation. After labeling with In-111 oxine, an aliquot of the WBC sample was used for cell counting and a second aliquot was used for electron microscopic (EM) examination. The different cell moieties were counted, and the mean and standard deviation of twelve determinations calculated. Cells were prepared by the standard technique for electron microscopic examination and images of the cells were obtained at different magnifications (X8,000-25,000). The EM images revealed that although minimal cytoplasmic vacuolization occurred in the WBC's due to the labeling process, the overall histological integrity of the cells remained intact. The relative labeling efficiency of WBC's is greater than those of RBC's and platelets (J Nuc) Med 25:p98, 1984) and, therefore, even a comparatively low population of WBC's gives optimal imaging due to their increased tracer uptake

  17. A new safety concern for glaucoma treatment demonstrated by mass spectrometry imaging of benzalkonium chloride distribution in the eye, an experimental study in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Brignole-Baudouin

    Full Text Available We investigated in a rabbit model, the eye distribution of topically instilled benzalkonium_(BAK chloride a commonly used preservative in eye drops using mass spectrometry imaging. Three groups of three New Zealand rabbits each were used: a control one without instillation, one receiving 0.01%BAK twice a day for 5 months and one with 0.2%BAK one drop a day for 1 month. After sacrifice, eyes were embedded and frozen in tragacanth gum. Serial cryosections were alternately deposited on glass slides for histological (hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistological controls (CD45, RLA-DR and vimentin for inflammatory cell infiltration as well as vimentin for Müller glial cell activation and ITO or stainless steel plates for MSI experiments using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. The MSI results were confirmed by a round-robin study on several adjacent sections conducted in two different laboratories using different sample preparation methods, mass spectrometers and data analysis softwares. BAK was shown to penetrate healthy eyes even after a short duration and was not only detected on the ocular surface structures, but also in deeper tissues, especially in sensitive areas involved in glaucoma pathophysiology, such as the trabecular meshwork and the optic nerve areas, as confirmed by images with histological stainings. CD45-, RLA-DR- and vimentin-positive cells increased in treated eyes. Vimentin was found only in the inner layer of retina in normal eyes and increased in all retinal layers in treated eyes, confirming an activation response to a cell stress. This ocular toxicological study confirms the presence of BAK preservative in ocular surface structures as well as in deeper structures involved in glaucoma disease. The inflammatory cell infiltration and Müller glial cell activation confirmed the deleterious effect of BAK. Although these results were obtained in animals, they highlight the importance of the safety

  18. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents the state-of-the art: an analytical model which describes chloride profiles in concrete as function of depth...... makes physical sense for the design engineer, i.e. the achieved chloride diffusion coefficients at 1 year and 100 years, D1 and D100 respectively, and the corresponding achieved chloride concentrations at the exposed concrete surface, C1 and C100. Data from field exposure supports the assumption of time...... dependent surface chloride concentrations and the diffusion coefficients. Model parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in marine atmospheric and submerged South Scandinavian environment are suggested in a companion paper based on 10 years field exposure data....

  19. Guidelines for the labelling of leucocytes with In-111-oxine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roca, Manel; de Vries, Erik F. J.; Jamar, Francois; Israel, Ora; Signore, Alberto

    We describe here a protocol for labelling autologous white blood cells with In-111-oxine based on previously published consensus papers and guidelines. This protocol includes quality control and safety procedures and is in accordance with current European Union regulations and International Atomic

  20. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash...... in marine atmospheric and submersed South Scandinavian environment. The design parameters are based on sequential measurements of 86 chloride profiles taken over ten years from 13 different types of concrete. The design parameters provide the input for an analytical model for chloride profiles as function...... of depth and time, when both the surface chloride concentration and the diffusion coefficient are allowed to vary in time. The model is presented in a companion paper....

  1. The management of Frey's syndrome with aluminium chloride hexahydrate antiperspirant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, M. J.; Gunn, A.

    1990-01-01

    Nine patients suffering from gustatory sweating (Frey's syndrome) following parotidectomy have been treated by topical applications of aluminium chloride hexahydrate. Treatment has successfully controlled gustatory sweating using application intervals varying from 1 to 50 days. Images Figure 1 PMID:2301903

  2. Cellular basis for accumulation of In-111-labeled leukocytes and platelets in rejecting cardiac allografts: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, T.S.T.; Oluwole, S.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Wolff, M.; Kuromoto, N.; Satake, K.; Hardy, M.A.; Alderson, P.O.

    1982-01-01

    Biodistribution and imaging studies in rats showed that In-111-labeled leukocytes and platelets accumulate progressively with time after transplantation in cardiac allografts undergoing rejection, but do not accumulate in normal syngeneic heart grafts. Maximum heart allograft-to-blood ratios of 9:1 were obtained, and allograft-to-native heart ratios of 17:1. Microscopic studies of the rejecting cardiac allografts showed that histologic findings paralleled the cellular changes predicted by the radionuclide studies. Intravenously administered Ga-67 citrate and Tc-99m sulfur colloid failed to show significant accumulation in rejecting grafts. The findings suggest that cellular rejection, rather than nonspecific inflammatory changes, is the primary basis for accumulation of In-111 leukocytes and platelets in rejecting cardiac allografts

  3. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations

  4. In-111 oxine autologous labeled platelets in the diagnosis of kidney graft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Comin, J.; Roca, M.; Grino, J.M.; Paradell, C.; Caralps, C.

    1983-01-01

    The usefulness of In-111 oxine labeled autologous platelets in the diagnosis of renal graft rejection was studied. The method is based on imaging of the graft area at 4, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the injection of the labeled cells. The study was done in 31 renal transplant recipients. The control group included four patients with normal renal function without evidence of rejection. No platelet uptake was observed in any of them. The study group included 22 patients with acute rejection which was confirmed histologically in 13. One case of chronic vascular type rejection of the graft tracer uptake was seen. There was a false-positive result due to a perirenal hematoma. In three patients with a non-immunological sudden impairment of renal function, no activity was detected in the graft area. We also evaluated the changes in platelet trapping throughout the study and they seemed to correlate with the response to the antirejection therapy

  5. Biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of In-111-labeled Stealth{reg_sign} liposomes in patients with solid tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, K.J.; Peters, A.M.; Mohammadtaghi, S. [Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    The use of liposomal doxorubicin yields response rates of up to 70-80% in patients with AIDS-related Kaposi`s sarcoma with favourable alteration of the toxicity profile of the drug. Liposomal delivery of therapy in patients with solid cancers is currently under investigation. Our aim is to determine the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of In-111-labeled Stealth{reg_sign} liposomes (SEQUUS{trademark}) liposomes (SEQUUS{trademark} Pharmaceuticals Inc., Menlo Park, USA) in patients with advanced solid malignant tumours. Ten patients (4 male, 6 female) with a median age of 59 (range 43 - 75) received 100 MBq of In-111-labeled Stealth{reg_sign} liposomes. Four had breast cancer, 3 head and neck tumours, 2 lung and 1 cervical cancer. Blood samples and whole body gamma camera images were obtained at 0.5, 4, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 240 hours after injection and sequential 24 hour urine collections were performed for the first 96 h. SPECT imaging was performed when indicated. High definition images of tumours were obtained in 9 patients (3/4 breast, 3/3 head and neck, 2/2 lung and 1/1 cervix cancers). One patient (breast cancer) had negative images. The median cumulative urinary excretion of In-111 over the first 96 h was 17.8 (range 3.5-21.3) % of the injected dose. The uptake of liposomes in various tissues was estimated from regions of interest on the whole body images. Prominent uptake was seen in the liver (10-15% of injected dose), lungs (4-9%) and spleen (2-8%). Tumour uptake in the first 96 h varied form 0.5-4% of the injected dose. This is approximately 10 fold higher than might be expected from experience with other targeting methods (eg monoclonal antibodies). These data confirm that Stealth liposomes have a prolonged circulation half-life and localise to solid tumour tissue.

  6. Lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saathoff, D.J.; Venkatasetty, H.V.

    1982-10-19

    The discharge rate and internal conductivity of electrochemical cell including a lithium anode, and a cathode and an electrolyte including LiAlCl4 and SOC2 is improved by the addition of an amount of a mixture containing AlCl3 and butyl pyridinium chloride.

  7. Strontium-89 Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may harm the fetus.notify any health care professional (especially other doctors) giving you treatment that you will be taking strontium-89 chloride.do not have any vaccinations (e.g., measles or flu shots) without talking to your doctor.

  8. Congenital chloride diarrhea: late presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Al Bishi, Laila; Mustafa,

    2011-01-01

    Laila Al Bishi1, Mustafa Al Toonisi2Pediatric Department, North West Armed Forces Hospital, Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: We report the case of a male infant who presented with diarrhea at 6 months of age. He was failing to thrive, and biochemical investigation revealed hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Diagnosis of congenital chloride diarrhea was suspected and confirmed by the stool chloride result. He was started on high-dose sodium chloride and potassium chloride to...

  9. Distribution of In-111 in granulocyte and other cellular elements of blood (CEB) in human In-111-labeled mixed white cell (MWC) and platelet preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Chowdhury, S.; Brown, M.L.; Wahner, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    A large number of platelets (PLT), red blood cells (RBC) are present along with granulocyte (GC) in In-111 in CEB was determined by Ficoll-Hypaque gradient (FHG) centrifugation of In-111-MWC and PLT preparation as a quality control procedure. MWC were separated by sedimentation with hydroxyethyl starch; PLT by differential centrifugation. MWC and PLT were labeled with In-111-oxine in saline, ACD-saline or with In-111-tropolone in 0.5 ml of ACD-plasma. 0.3-0.5 ml of labeled cell suspended in plasma was layered on 3 ml FHG of two densities (1.119 and 1.077 gm/ml) and spun in a clear polystyrene tube at 1800 G for 30 min. Four layers (plasma, PLT, GC, and RBC) were separated, and In-111 radioactivity in each fraction was determined with a gamma counter. Simultaneously cell types in MWC and PLT preparations were determined by Coulter counter and differential counting. Most of In-111 in In-MWC is associated with the PLT and RBC, GC/lymphocyte ratio is 6/4. GC has higher extraction efficiency than RBC and PLT. PLT preparation is pure and (96 +- 3)% of In-111 is bound to PLT, (4 +- 3)% to RBC and (0.2 +- 0.1)% to GC; PLT preparation contains PLT (97 +- 3)%, RBC (4 +- 3)% and GC (0.2 +- 0.1)%

  10. Congenital chloride diarrhea: late presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Bishi L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Laila Al Bishi1, Mustafa Al Toonisi2Pediatric Department, North West Armed Forces Hospital, Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: We report the case of a male infant who presented with diarrhea at 6 months of age. He was failing to thrive, and biochemical investigation revealed hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Diagnosis of congenital chloride diarrhea was suspected and confirmed by the stool chloride result. He was started on high-dose sodium chloride and potassium chloride to control the electrolyte imbalance. The disease was difficult to control for a year after diagnosis. Late presentation is associated with severe chronic electrolyte disturbances and high-dose replacement therapy.Keywords: congenital chloride diarrhea, hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, high stool chloride

  11. Chloride Transport in Heterogeneous Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.; Holt, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The chloride mass balance (CMB) is a commonly-used method for estimating groundwater recharge. Observations of the vertical distribution of pore-water chloride are related to the groundwater infiltration rates (i.e. recharge rates). In CMB method, the chloride distribution is attributed mainly to the assumption of one dimensional piston flow. In many places, however, the vertical distribution of chloride will be influenced by heterogeneity, leading to horizontal movement of infiltrating waters. The impact of heterogeneity will be particularly important when recharge is locally focused. When recharge is focused in an area, horizontal movement of chloride-bearing waters, coupled with upward movement driven by evapotranspiration, may lead to chloride bulges that could be misinterpreted if the CMB method is used to estimate recharge. We numerically simulate chloride transport and evaluate the validity of the CMB method in highly heterogeneous systems. This simulation is conducted for the unsaturated zone of Ogallala, Antlers, and Gatuna (OAG) formations in Andrews County, Texas. A two dimensional finite element model will show the movement of chloride through heterogeneous systems. We expect to see chloride bulges not only close to the surface but also at depths characterized by horizontal or upward movement. A comparative study of focused recharge estimates in this study with available recharge data will be presented.

  12. Valyl benzyl ester chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Dutkiewicz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound (systematic name: 1-benzyloxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-aminium chloride, C12H18NO2+·Cl−, the ester group is approximately planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.040 (2 Å from the least-squares plane, and makes a dihedral angle of 28.92 (16° with the phenyl ring. The crystal structure is organized by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds which join the two components into a chain along the b axis. Pairs of chains arranged antiparallel are interconnected by further N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming eight-membered rings. Similar packing modes have been observed in a number of amino acid ester halides with a short unit-cell parameter of ca 5.5 Å along the direction in which the chains run.

  13. Chloride on the Move

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo

    2017-01-09

    Chloride (Cl−) is an essential plant nutrient but under saline conditions it can accumulate to toxic levels in leaves; limiting this accumulation improves the salt tolerance of some crops. The rate-limiting step for this process – the transfer of Cl− from root symplast to xylem apoplast, which can antagonize delivery of the macronutrient nitrate (NO3−) to shoots – is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and is multigenic. Until recently the molecular mechanisms underpinning this salt-tolerance trait were poorly defined. We discuss here how recent advances highlight the role of newly identified transport proteins, some that directly transfer Cl− into the xylem, and others that act on endomembranes in ‘gatekeeper’ cell types in the root stele to control root-to-shoot delivery of Cl−.

  14. Evaluation of possible hip prosthesis infection with In-111 leukocyte scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noto, R.B.; Alavi, A.; Star, A.M.; Cuckler, J.M.; Eisenberg, B.

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate the utility of In-111 leukocyte scintigraphy in patients with possible hip prosthesis infection, the authors retrospectively reviewed 44 such scans without clinical history. The results of In-111 leukocyte scans were compared with intraoperative cultures obtained at the time of prosthesis revision in 34 patients, with hip aspirates and/or clinical follow-up obtained in the remaining ten patients. This comparison yielded a 71% sensitivity, 78% specificity, and 77% overall accuracy. They conclude that In-111 leukocyte scans can be helpful in the evaluation of suspected hip prosthesis infection, but they are not as accurate as has been previously reported elsewhere

  15. Bone marrow scintigraphy with 111In-chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburano, Tamio; Ueno, Kyoichi; Sugihara, Masami; Tada, Akira; Tonami, Norihisa

    1977-01-01

    It is assumed that 111 In-chloride is bound to serum transferrin and then transported into reticulocyte in erythropoietic marrow. However, several biochemical differences between radioiron and 111 In have been reported since these years. In present study, clinical usefulness of 111 In-chloride bone marrow scintigraphy was examined especially by comparing 111 In-chloride image with sup(99m)Tc-colloid. Obtained results are as follows: 1) In most cases, both 111 In-chloride and sup(99m)Tc-colloid images showed similar bone marrow distributions. 2) In three out of 7 cases with hypoplastic anemia and two patients with bone marrow irradiation (700-1,000 rad), the central marrow or irradiated marrow showed marked decreased uptake of 111 In, and showed normal uptake of sup(99m)Tc. 3) In two out of 3 cases with chronic myelogenous leucemia, central marrow showed normal uptake of 111 In, and showed decreased uptake of sup(99m)Tc. From the present study, the same dissociation findings as those between radioiron and radiocolloid could be obtained in hypoplastic anemia and bone marrow irradiation. 111 In-chloride would appear to be a useful erythropoietic imaging agent, although further study of exact comparison with radioiron should be necessary. (auth.)

  16. In-111-leukocyte scintigraphy for detection of infection associated with peritoneal dialysis catheters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipper, S.L.; Steiner, R.W.; Witztum, K.F.; Basarab, R.M.; Kipper, M.S.; Halpern, S.E.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1984-05-01

    In-111-labeled leukocytes were administered to 13 patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in order to locate catheter-associated infections. Using a marker to indicate the catheter exit site, infections of the catheter tunnel were correctly identified prior to surgery in 4 patients with relapsing peritonitis and infections of the exit site were diagnosed in 5 out of 7 patients. The authors conclude that In-111-leukocyte scintigraphy appears to be accurate in diagnosing peritoneal infections of the dialysis catheter tunnel.

  17. Bone marrow scintigraphy with 111In-chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujishima, Mamoru; Hiraki, Yoshio; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Kohno, Yoshihiro; Niiya, Harutaka; Aono, Kaname; Yorimitsu, Seiichi; Takahashi, Isao

    1988-01-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy with indium chloride ( 111 In) was performed in fifty-one patients with the hematological diseases. The results of the investigation were that 1) in all patients, as well as in patients with aplastic anemia, no correlation was there between the degree of the indium chloride accumulation and peripheral blood counts, 2) in patients with aplastic anemia and pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) a tendency to reduction in uptake of indium chloride in bone marrow, 3) in patients with these two good correlation between the degree of indium chloride accumulation and histology of the erythroid bone marrow, but in patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) and atypical leukemia no correlation between the two, so it seemed unlikely that indium chloride should reflect the effective production of erythrocytes, 4) four patients with leukemia were studied with indium chloride bone marrow imaging two times to evaluate their responses to chemotherapy, and peripheral expansion was no change or reduced in two patients with acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and one patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who obtained complete remission, but on the other hand, it enlarged in one patient with acute myelocytic leukemia who obtained partial remission, and 5) in two patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia it enlarged up to the ankle joints, which was considerably specific. (author)

  18. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The greener, clean and efficient protocol for the synthesis of acridine diones derivatives has been achieved by reacting aromatic aldehyde, dimedone and amines using methyltrioctylammonium chloride (Aliquate 336) as a catalyst under ultrasonic irradiations.

  19. Dynamic electrochemical measurement of chloride ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, Derk B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes the dynamic measurement of chloride ions using the transition time of a silver silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode. Silver silver chloride electrode is used extensively for potentiometric measurement of chloride ions concentration in electrolyte. In this measurement,

  20. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... hydrochloric acid solution and crystallizing out magnesium chloride hexahydrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  1. Quantitative Assessment of Myocardial Infarction by In-111 Antimyosin Antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Kyung Han; Choi, Yoon Ho; Chung, June Key; Park, Young Bae; Koh, Chang Soon; Moon, Dae Hyuk

    1991-01-01

    Infarct size is a major determinant of prognosis after acute myocardial infarction. Up to date, however, clinically available tests to estimate this size have not been sufficiently accurate. Twelve lead electrocardiogram and wall motion abnormality measurement are not quantitative, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) measurement is inaccurate in the presence of reperfusion or right ventricular infarction. Methods have been developed to localize and size acute myocardial infarcts with agents that are selectively sequestered in areas of myocardial damage, but previously used agents have lacked sufficient specificity. Antibodies that bind specifically only to damaged myocardial cells may resolve this problem and provide an accurate method for noninvasively measuring infarct size. We determined the accuracy with which infarcted myocardial mass can be measured using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and radiolabeled antimyosin antibodies. Seven patients with acute myocardial infarction and one stable angina patient were injected with 2 mCi of Indium-111 labeled antimyosin antibodies. Planar image and SPECT was performed 24 hours later. None of the patients had history of prior infarcts, and none had undergone reperfusion techniques prior to the study, which was done within 4 days of the attack. Planar image showed all infarct patients to have positive uptakes in the cardiac region. The location of this uptake correlated to the infarct site as indicated by electrocardiography in most of the cases. The angina patient, however, showed no such abnormal uptake. Infarct size was determined from transverse slices of the SPECT image using a 45% threshold value obtained from a phantom study. Measured infarct size ranged from 40 to 192 gr. There was significant correlation between the infarct size measured by SPECT and that estimated from serial measurements of CPK (r=0.73, p<0,05). These date suggest that acute myocardial infarct size can be accurately measured

  2. In-111 labeled polyclonal anticollagen antibody (Type I): Detection and kinetics of tissue injury in a murine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoghbi, S.S.; Gottschalk, A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors evaluated type I anticollagen antibody (Ac-Ab-I) for the scintigraphic detection of subclinical crush injury in the rat tail. After cannulating the rat jugular vein to provide ready vascular access, we injected radiolabeled proteins at intervals after the injury. Using In-111-DTA-labeled Ac-Ab-I and sheep immunoglobulin G (IgG) as a control, they found that net uptake ratios (Ac-Ab-I/sheep IgG) from acute, 24 hour, and 48-hour experiments ranged from 1.7 to 2.4, with target uptake scintigraphically visible up to 48 hours after injury. At 72 hours, target uptake diminished. They conclude that imaging of subclinical crush injury in a murine model is feasible, and that significant temporal latitude exists to provide potential flexibility for diagnostic use

  3. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis of acridine diones. BHUPINDER KAUR and HARISH KUMAR. ∗. Department of Chemistry, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Longowal 148 106, India e-mail: choprahk67@gmail.com. MS received 21 May 2012; revised 30 January ...

  4. 1,5-Diaminotetrazolium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qiao Meng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, CH5N6+·Cl−, crystallized with two indepedent 1,5-diaminotetrazolium cations and two independent chloride anions in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, there are a number of N—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions, which generate a three-dimensional network.

  5. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 125; Issue 5. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis of acridine diones ... The greener, clean and efficient protocol for the synthesis of acridine diones derivatives has been achieved by reacting aromatic aldehyde, dimedone and amines ...

  6. Chloride : The queen of electrolytes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berend, Kenrick; van Hulsteijn, Leonard Hendrik; Gans, Rijk O. B.

    Background: Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms and have been documented extensively over the past decade. In contrast, despite the important role of chloride in serum, textbooks in general

  7. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No... will be followed by a potable water rinse of the carcass. [72 FR 67576, Nov. 29, 2007] ...

  8. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  9. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  10. Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Images for the website main pages and all configurations. The upload and access points for the other images are: Website Template RSW images BSCW Images HIRENASD...

  11. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  12. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China Determination On the basis of the record\\1\\ developed in the subject... order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review). By order of the Commission...

  13. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    in continuous application. This study looks at the development of a simple, inexpensive chloride electrode, and evaluates its performance under continuous use, both in the laboratory and in a field test in a monitoring well. The results from the study showed a consistent response to changing chloride...... sensor remained responsive even at low chloride concentrations, where the conductivity electrode was no longer responding to changing chloride levels. With the results, it is believed that the simple chloride sensor could be used for continuous monitoring of groundwater quality....

  14. High-temperature method of rapid separation of In-111 from irradiated silver targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazgaj, Z.; Kolaczkowski, A.; Mikulski, J.; Novgorodov, A.F.; Zielinski, A.; Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna

    1990-01-01

    A high-temperature method of separation of In-111 from α-particle activated silver targets was developed. The separation is carried out under reduced pressure, in the atmosphere of HCl and H 2 O vapours. Indium-111, adsorbed on a quartz collector, is washed out quantitatively with 0.1 N HCl. The contaminant, Cd-109 (product of decay of In-109), is removed from the preparation by means of ion-exchange chromatography. 4 tabs., 6 refs. (author)

  15. Studies on tolonium chloride labeled with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiunn-Liang Lin; Yuanpei University, Hsinchu, Taiwan; Jiunn-Guang Lo; Ren-Shyan Liu; Ai-Yih Wang

    2010-01-01

    Tolonium chloride is a common reagent in the diagnosis of oral premalignant and malignant lesions. This study establishes the optimal preparation of radioiodinated tolonium chloride (RTC) and evaluate its radiochemical and biological characteristics. Instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC), ion exchange chromatography (IC), paper electrophoresis, and the effect of pH on labeling efficiency revealed the chemical characterization of RTC. Biodistribution, blood clearance, urinary excretion, toxic effect, and Lugol's solution effect on the thyroid uptake of RTC revealed RTCs biological characteristics. The optimal labeling condition was pH = 2.96 after 15 h stirring, the labeling efficiency was 60%. After purification by IC, the radiochemical purity of RTC was 94%, and the shelf life of RTC was at least 90 days. In the biodistribution study, the liver was major target organs, approximated 6.11% of injected dose accumulate in per gram of tissue (6.11% ID/g) at 10 min after injection. The tissue-to-blood radioactivity ratio significant (p < 0.05) increased with reaction time. In liver, the tissue-to-blood radioactivity ratio was 2.2 ± 0.51 at 10 min after injection, and increased to 22.4 ± 4.52 at 120 min after injection. The blood clearance study showed a significant decrease in blood radioactivity. The radioactivity in the blood was about 2.76% of the injected dose per milliliter blood at 10 min post-injection, but decreased to 0.12% at 120 min post-injection. Lugol's solution does not affect the thyroid uptake of RTC. Almost all the administered RTC recovered at 60 h after injection, with 79% recovered in feces and 17% recovered in urine. This study shows that RTC is non-toxic, and may be suitable as a liver imaging agent. (author)

  16. Colorectal carcinoma metastases: Detection with In-111-labeled monoclonal antibody CCR 086

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Nabi, H.H.; Levine, G.; Lamki, L.M.; Murray, J.L.; Tauxe, W.N.; Shah, A.N.; Patt, Y.Z.; Doerr, R.J.; Klein, H.A.; Gona, J. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, Buffalo, NY (USA))

    1990-07-01

    A phase I/II clinical trial with indium-111-labeled antimucin murine monoclonal antibody (MoAb) CCR 086 was conducted. Seventeen patients with histologically proved colorectal carcinoma and known metastatic disease underwent external scintigraphy after administration of 5.5 mCi (203.5 MBq) of In-111 CCR 086 at doses of 5 and 20 mg. Of 25 known lesions, 17 were detected (sensitivity, 68%). The smallest detected lesion in the lung was 1 cm and in the liver was 1.5 cm. The serum half-life of In-111-labeled CCR 086 MoAb was approximately 64 hours. The formation of human antimouse antibody (HAMA) was detected in the serum of four of five patients who received 20 mg of MoAb. No HAMAs were detected in four patients receiving 5 mg of MoAb. No side effects were encountered. Because of effective detection of liver and lung metastases with lower doses (5-20 mg) of CCR 086 conjugated with In-111, further investigations are warranted to assess clinical and therapeutic potentials of CCR 086 in the management of colorectal cancer.

  17. Colorectal carcinoma metastases: detection with In-111-labeled monoclonal antibody CCR 086.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Nabi, H H; Levine, G; Lamki, L M; Murray, J L; Tauxe, W N; Shah, A N; Patt, Y Z; Doerr, R J; Klein, H A; Gona, J

    1990-07-01

    A phase I/II clinical trial with indium-111-labeled antimucin murine monoclonal antibody (MoAb) CCR 086 was conducted. Seventeen patients with histologically proved colorectal carcinoma and known metastatic disease underwent external scintigraphy after administration of 5.5 mCi (203.5 MBq) of In-111 CCR 086 at doses of 5 and 20 mg. Of 25 known lesions, 17 were detected (sensitivity, 68%). The smallest detected lesion in the lung was 1 cm and in the liver was 1.5 cm. The serum half-life of In-111-labeled CCR 086 MoAb was approximately 64 hours. The formation of human antimouse antibody (HAMA) was detected in the serum of four of five patients who received 20 mg of MoAb. No HAMAs were detected in four patients receiving 5 mg of MoAb. No side effects were encountered. Because of effective detection of liver and lung metastases with lower doses (5-20 mg) of CCR 086 conjugated with In-111, further investigations are warranted to assess clinical and therapeutic potentials of CCR 086 in the management of colorectal cancer.

  18. Colorectal carcinoma metastases: Detection with In-111-labeled monoclonal antibody CCR 086

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Nabi, H.H.; Levine, G.; Lamki, L.M.; Murray, J.L.; Tauxe, W.N.; Shah, A.N.; Patt, Y.Z.; Doerr, R.J.; Klein, H.A.; Gona, J.

    1990-01-01

    A phase I/II clinical trial with indium-111-labeled antimucin murine monoclonal antibody (MoAb) CCR 086 was conducted. Seventeen patients with histologically proved colorectal carcinoma and known metastatic disease underwent external scintigraphy after administration of 5.5 mCi (203.5 MBq) of In-111 CCR 086 at doses of 5 and 20 mg. Of 25 known lesions, 17 were detected (sensitivity, 68%). The smallest detected lesion in the lung was 1 cm and in the liver was 1.5 cm. The serum half-life of In-111-labeled CCR 086 MoAb was approximately 64 hours. The formation of human antimouse antibody (HAMA) was detected in the serum of four of five patients who received 20 mg of MoAb. No HAMAs were detected in four patients receiving 5 mg of MoAb. No side effects were encountered. Because of effective detection of liver and lung metastases with lower doses (5-20 mg) of CCR 086 conjugated with In-111, further investigations are warranted to assess clinical and therapeutic potentials of CCR 086 in the management of colorectal cancer

  19. Synthesis of Zirconium Lower Chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaviria, Juan P.

    2002-01-01

    This research is accurately related to the Halox concept of research reactor spent fuel element treatment.The aim of this project is to work the conditioning through selected chlorination of the element that make the spent fuel element. This research studied the physical chemistry conditions which produce formation of the lower zirconium chlorides through the reaction between metallic Zr and gaseous ZrCl 4 in a silica reactor.This work focused special attention in the analysis and confrontation of the published results among the different authors in order to reveal coincidences and contradictions.Experimental section consisted in a set of synthesis with different reaction conditions and reactor design. After reaction were analyzed the products on Zr shavings and the deposit growth on wall reactor.The products were strongly dependent of reactor design. It was observed that as the distance between Zr and wall reactor increased greater was tendency to lower chlorides formation.In reactors with small distance the reaction follows other way without formation of lower chlorides.Analysis on deposit growth on reactor showed that may be formed to a mixture of Si x Zr y intermetallics and zirconium oxides.Presence of oxygen in Zr and Zr-Si compounds on wall reactor reveals that there is an interaction between quartz and reactants.This interaction is in gaseous phase because contamination is observed in experiences where Zr was not in contact with reactor.Finally, it was made a global analysis of all experiences and a possible mechanism that interprets reaction ways is proposed

  20. l-Nebiviololinium chloride dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Hänsicke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrochloride salt of chiral l-nebivolol {systematic name: (+−(R,S,S,S-bis[2-(6-fluoro-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran-2-yl-2-hydroxyethyl]ammonium chloride dihydrate}, C22H26F2NO4+·Cl−·2H2O, was obtained by chiral liquid chromatography as a dihydrate. The pyran rings adopt half-chair conformations. Hydrogen bonds between the cation, anions and water molecules contribute to the formation of layers parallel to the ac plane.

  1. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergrift, G.F. III; Krumpelt, M.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1981-10-08

    A process is described for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg..._locations.html. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation...

  3. Renal abnormalities in congenital chloride diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamad, Nadia M.; Al-Eisa, Amal A.

    2004-01-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea CLD is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in the chloride/ bicarbonate exchange in the ileum and colon. It is characterized by watery diarrhea, abdominal distension, hypochloremic hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with high fecal content of chloride >90 mmol/l. We report 3 patients with CLD associated with various renal abnormalities including chronic renal failure secondary to renal hypoplasia, nephrocalcinosis and congenital nephrotic syndrome. (author)

  4. Production of chlorine from chloride salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmann, Charles A.

    1981-01-01

    A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

  5. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...... have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion...

  6. Electrochemical Chloride extraction using external electrodes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical methods for the removal of chloride from concrete have been developed and the methods are primarily designed for situations where corrosion has started due to an increased chloride concentration in the vicinity of the reinforcement. In these methods the reinforcement is used as th......, it is possible to use external electrodes and not use of the reinforcement as cathode thus avoiding side effects....... as the cathode. However, some unwanted side effects can occur, including alkali-silica reaction and in some cases hydrogen embrittlement. It is also suggested also to use electrochemical chloride extraction in a preventive way in constructions where chloride induced corrosion is likely to be a problem after...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE TO VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Vinyl chloride (VC monomer is a wellknown carcinogenic and mutagenic substance causes liver damages, angiosarcoma of the liver, acro – osteolysis, sclerodermalike changes in workers chronically exposed to this gas. There are following VC emitors to the environment: VC production plants, polymerization facilities and planes where polyvinyl products are fabricated. Because of that, the general population is coming into VC contact through polluted air, food and water. VC concentration in all mentioned sites is very low, often not detectable. There was found any health risk for the general population. The VC air concentration in the vicinity to antropogenic emitors is always higher. Such a situation may causes undesirable health effect for residents living in the neighbourhood. Epidemiological studies are performed to detect the adverse VC effect in selected cohorts. Non of the study did not confirmed cases of angiosarcoma among residents living near a vinyl chloride sites. VC production is growing permanently, so VC emission will be higher. Because of that health monitoring of general population and especially of selected groups seems to be necessary in the future.

  8. Electrochemical chloride extraction of a beam polluted by chlorides after 40 years in the sea

    OpenAIRE

    BOUTEILLER, Véronique; LAPLAUD, André; MALOULA, Aurélie; MORELLE, René Stéphane; DUCHESNE, Béatrice; MORIN, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    A beam element, naturally polluted by chlorides after 40 years of a marine tidal exposure, has been treated by electrochemical chloride extraction. The chloride profiles, before and after treatment, show that free chlorides are extrated with an efficiency of 70 % close to the steel, 50 % in the intermediate cover and only 5 % at the concrete surface. From the electrochemical characterizations (before, after, 1, 2 and 17 months after treatment), the steel potential values can, semehow, indicat...

  9. Discovery and Distribution of Chloride-Bearing Deposits in the Ancient Cratered Terrain of Mars From THEMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterloo, M. M.; Anderson, F. S.; Hamilton, V. E.; Glotch, T. D.; Baldridge, A. M.; Christensen, P. R.; Bandfield, J. L.; Tornabene, L. L.

    2007-12-01

    We have identified and mapped a number of spectrally distinct deposits (~250) in mid-infrared data acquired by the 2001 Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). These deposits are interpreted to contain a chloride salt component based on their spectral signatures in THEMIS and Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data. Thermal inertia derived from THEMIS nighttime observations, indicate that the chloride-bearing materials are possibly cemented or indurated. Individually, most chloride-bearing deposits are small in area (floors. Images acquired by the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) indicate geomorphology consistent with formation in an evaporitic environment. HiRISE imagery (at 25.3 cm/pixel) over a large exposure in Terra Sirenum shows the chloride-bearing materials to be light-toned and highly fractured. The fracturing is sub-polygonal and is similar to desiccation cracks in evaporitic environments. Cross cutting relationships indicate that the chloride-bearing materials are older than the surrounding basaltic materials, and commonly appear to have been exposed by erosion. In the HiRISE image we observe additional occurrences of chloride materials within the regional terrain, indicating that the chloride deposits are likely more extensive than what is discernable at THEMIS IR scales. The origin and diagenesis of each chloride deposit is likely complex, however it is probable that water played a role in each instance, either via direct precipitation of ground water or standing water, or via efflorescence from evaporative pumping, volcanic out gassing, or atmospheric-surface interactions. Many chloride salts are extremely hygroscopic and can be further modified by fluctuations in humidity. Identification of a hygroscopic chloride could indicate brine activity subsequent to initial deposition. The identification of another water-related material in the ancient cratered terrain of Mars

  10. Receptor scintigraphy using the Tc-99M-labelled somatostatin analogue EDDA-TRYCINE-HYNIC-TOC: clinical results in different tumor types and comparison with In-111 DOTATOC during Y-90 DOTATOC radioreceptor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, R.P.; Schmuecking, M.; Fischer, S.; Przetak, C.; Niesen, A.; Maecke, H.R.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate Tc-99m EDDA-TRYCINE-HYNIC-TOC in patients with somatostatin receptor positive tumours (staging, pre-therapeutic dosimetry for radioreceptor therapy and restaging after therapy) in comparison with In-111 DOTATOC. Material and Methods: The Tc-99m labelled somatostatin analogue was synthesized by an optimized procedure in our pharmaceutical laboratory using lyophilized kits (radiochemical purity by HPLC, TLC > 95%, product stability in vitro 4 to 6h). So far, 58 patients (60 examinations) were studied after injection of 580-890 MBq (median 673 MBq) EDDA-TRYCINE-HYNIC-TOC. The histologically proven tumours were neuroendocrine neoplasias, renal carcinomas, bronchial carcinoma, mesothelioma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma. The imaging protocol consisted of whole-body scans and planar images of the tumor region (15 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 24 h p.i.) and additionally SPECT-images (1 h und 4 h p.i.). For semi-quantitative assessment, individual regions of interest (ROI) were drawn in order to generate time-activity curves and to calculate tumour-to-tissue/background ratios which were compared by visual grading (scala 0 to 3+). Furthermore, pharmacokinetic analyses were carried out (radioactivity kinetics in plasma and urine). In some selected patients, image fusion of whole-body scans was performed with CT and/or MRT and/or PET using a NUD software and a HERMES computer. Results: 10 out of 58 patients showed an intense tracer accumulation in the SSTR-positive tumours (visual 3+, tumour/background ratio >2,5). In these patients, radioreceptor therapy was carried out using Y-90 DOTATOC (simultaneous injection von 150 MBq In-111 DOTATOC). All pretherapeutic scans with the Tc-99m labelled ligand (4 h p.i.) showed a similar overall pattern of biodistribution and tumour uptake in comparison to the therapy scans with In-111 / Y-90 DOTATOC (24 h p.i.). The Tc-99m EDDA-TRYCINE-HYNIC-TOC scans (incl. SPECT) offered superior imaging properties with earlier tumour

  11. Activation of AMPK inhibits cholera toxin stimulated chloride secretion in human and murine intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailín C Rogers

    Full Text Available Increased intestinal chloride secretion through chloride channels, such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, is one of the major molecular mechanisms underlying enterotoxigenic diarrhea. It has been demonstrated in the past that the intracellular energy sensing kinase, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, can inhibit CFTR opening. We hypothesized that pharmacological activation of AMPK can abrogate the increased chloride flux through CFTR occurring during cholera toxin (CTX mediated diarrhea. Chloride efflux was measured in isolated rat colonic crypts using real-time fluorescence imaging. AICAR and metformin were used to activate AMPK in the presence of the secretagogues CTX or forskolin (FSK. In order to substantiate our findings on the whole tissue level, short-circuit current (SCC was monitored in human and murine colonic mucosa using Ussing chambers. Furthermore, fluid accumulation was measured in excised intestinal loops. CTX and forskolin (FSK significantly increased chloride efflux in isolated colonic crypts. The increase in chloride efflux could be offset by using the AMPK activators AICAR and metformin. In human and mouse mucosal sheets, CTX and FSK increased SCC. AICAR and metformin inhibited the secretagogue induced rise in SCC, thereby confirming the findings made in isolated crypts. Moreover, AICAR decreased CTX stimulated fluid accumulation in excised intestinal segments. The present study suggests that pharmacological activation of AMPK effectively reduces CTX mediated increases in intestinal chloride secretion, which is a key factor for intestinal water accumulation. AMPK activators may therefore represent a supplemental treatment strategy for acute diarrheal illness.

  12. Measurement and Modeling of the Ability of Crack Fillers to Prevent Chloride Ingress into Mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Scott Z; Bentz, Dale P; Davis, Jeffrey M; Hussey, Daniel S; Jacobson, David L; Molloy, John L; Sieber, John R

    2017-09-01

    A common repair procedures applied to damaged concrete is to fill cracks with an organic polymer. This operation is performed to increase the service life of the concrete by removing a preferential pathway for the ingress of water, chlorides, and other deleterious species. To effectively fulfill its mission of preventing chloride ingress, the polymer must not only fully fill the macro-crack, but must also intrude the damage zone surrounding the crack perimeter. Here, the performance of two commonly employed crack fillers, one epoxy, and one methacrylate, are investigated using a combined experimental and computer modeling approach. Neutron tomography and microbeam X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μXRF) measurements are employed on pre-cracked and chloride-exposed specimens to quantify the crack filling and chloride ingress limiting abilities, respectively, of the two polymers. A two-dimensional model of chloride transport is derived from a mass balance and solved by the finite element method. Crack images provided by μXRF are used to generate the input microstructure for the simulations. When chloride binding and a time-dependent mortar diffusivity are both included in the computer model, good agreement with the experimental results is obtained. Both crack fillers significantly reduce chloride ingress during the 21 d period of the present experiments; however, the epoxy itself contains approximately 4 % by mass chlorine. Leaching studies were performed assess the epoxy as a source of deleterious ions for initiating corrosion of the steel reinforcement in concrete structures.

  13. Unsuspected osteomyelitis in diabetic foot ulcers. Diagnosis and monitoring by leukocyte scanning with indium in 111 oxyquinoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, L.G.; Waller, J.; Palestro, C.J.; Schwartz, M.; Klein, M.J.; Hermann, G.; Harrington, E.; Harrington, M.; Roman, S.H.; Stagnaro-Green, A.

    1991-01-01

    The prevalence of osteomyelitis in diabetic foot ulcers is unknown. Early diagnosis of this infection is critical, as prompt antibiotic treatment decreases the rate of amputation. The authors therefore assessed the prevalence of osteomyelitis in 35 diabetic patients with 41 foot ulcers. They compared results of roentgenograms, leukocyte scans with indium In 111 oxyquinoline, and bone scans with the diagnostic criterion standards of bone histologic and culture findings. Leukocyte scans were repeated at 2- to 3-week intervals during antibiotic treatment. Consecutive samples were obtained from 54 diabetic patients. Thirty-five patients with 41 foot ulcers were included. As determined by bone biopsy and culture, osteomyelitis was found to underlie 28 (68%) of 41 diabetic foot ulcers. Only nine (32%) of the 28 cases were diagnosed clinically by the referring physician. Underscoring the clinically silent nature of osteomyelitis in these ulcers, 19 (68%) of 28 occurred in outpatients, 19 (68%) of 28 occurred in ulcers not exposing bone, and 18 (64%) of 28 had no evidence of inflammation on physical examination. All patients with ulcers that exposed bone had osteomyelitis. Of the imaging tests, the leukocyte scan had the highest sensitivity, 89%. In patients with osteomyelitis, the leukocyte scan image intensity decreased by 16 to 34 days of antibiotic treatment and normalized by 36 to 54 days. The majority of diabetic foot ulcers have an underlying osteomyelitis that is clinically unsuspected. Leukocyte scans are highly sensitive for diagnosing osteomyelitis in diabetic foot ulcers and may be useful for monitoring the efficacy of antibiotic treatment. The recommend that diabetic patients with foot ulcers that expose bone should be treated for osteomyelitis

  14. Unsuspected osteomyelitis in diabetic foot ulcers. Diagnosis and monitoring by leukocyte scanning with indium in 111 oxyquinoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, L.G.; Waller, J.; Palestro, C.J.; Schwartz, M.; Klein, M.J.; Hermann, G.; Harrington, E.; Harrington, M.; Roman, S.H.; Stagnaro-Green, A. (Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1991-09-04

    The prevalence of osteomyelitis in diabetic foot ulcers is unknown. Early diagnosis of this infection is critical, as prompt antibiotic treatment decreases the rate of amputation. The authors therefore assessed the prevalence of osteomyelitis in 35 diabetic patients with 41 foot ulcers. They compared results of roentgenograms, leukocyte scans with indium In 111 oxyquinoline, and bone scans with the diagnostic criterion standards of bone histologic and culture findings. Leukocyte scans were repeated at 2- to 3-week intervals during antibiotic treatment. Consecutive samples were obtained from 54 diabetic patients. Thirty-five patients with 41 foot ulcers were included. As determined by bone biopsy and culture, osteomyelitis was found to underlie 28 (68%) of 41 diabetic foot ulcers. Only nine (32%) of the 28 cases were diagnosed clinically by the referring physician. Underscoring the clinically silent nature of osteomyelitis in these ulcers, 19 (68%) of 28 occurred in outpatients, 19 (68%) of 28 occurred in ulcers not exposing bone, and 18 (64%) of 28 had no evidence of inflammation on physical examination. All patients with ulcers that exposed bone had osteomyelitis. Of the imaging tests, the leukocyte scan had the highest sensitivity, 89%. In patients with osteomyelitis, the leukocyte scan image intensity decreased by 16 to 34 days of antibiotic treatment and normalized by 36 to 54 days. The majority of diabetic foot ulcers have an underlying osteomyelitis that is clinically unsuspected. Leukocyte scans are highly sensitive for diagnosing osteomyelitis in diabetic foot ulcers and may be useful for monitoring the efficacy of antibiotic treatment. The recommend that diabetic patients with foot ulcers that expose bone should be treated for osteomyelitis.

  15. Use of a new In-111-labeled solid meal for confirmation of the lag phase of gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, A.H.; Knight, L.S.; Siegel, J.A.; Scopinaro, F.; Perri, J.A.; Krevsky, B.; Fisher, R.S.; Malmud, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    It has been argued that the appearance of a lag phase in Tc-99m (140 keV) anterior gastric emptying (GE) studies may be artifactual. Since gastric emptying with In-111 (247 keV) is less dependent on attenuation, we have developed a new In-111 meal. Two eggs are mixed with In-111 oxine, cooked thoroughly, and eaten between two pieces of toast. In vitro stability was studied by incubating the In-111 egg in human gastric juice at 37 0 C for 3 hours (97.0% +- 0.6% was bound). In five normal volunteers the mean t1/2 for gastric emptying was 87 +- 12 minutes. This was not significantly different from the Tc-99m normal value (77 +- 10 minutes) we have measured. A lag phase for the In-111-containing egg was present in each case (mean, 40 +- 8 minutes). The authors conclude that an In-111 meal can confirm the presence of a physiologic lag phase

  16. Uptake of tridodecylmethylammonium chloride by PVC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Froehling, P.E.; Koenhen, D.M.; Smolders, C.A.; Bantjes, A.

    1977-01-01

    The uptake of tridodecylmethylammonium chloride (TDMAC) by poly(vinyl chloride) has been investigated to provide a more quantitative basis for the preparation of blood-compatible surfaces based on TDMAC-heparin coatings. Sorption isotherms of TDMAC from toluene-cyclohexane and toluene-methanol

  17. Chronopotentiometric chloride sensing using transition time measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, D.B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Detection of chloride ions is crucial to accurately access the concrete structure durability[1]. The existing electrochemical method of chloride ions detection in concrete, potentiometry[1], is not suitable for in-situ measurement due to the long term stability issue of conventional reference

  18. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... No: 2010-8568] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium... determination to conduct a full five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from... antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  19. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature), The measurements...

  20. Synthesis of 14C-dehydrocorydaline chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Rui; Wang Ding

    1988-01-01

    A method for synthesis of 14 C-dehydrocorydaline chloride is described. In the presence of sodium hydroxide, acetonylpalmatine is reacted with 14 C-methyl iodide in sealed glass ampoule to give 14 C-13-methylpalmatine iodide which is then converted to chloride. The radiochemical purity of 14 C-dehydrocorydaline determined by TLC is over 98% and the labelling efficiency is 54%

  1. Toxicokinetics of mercuric chloride and methylmercuric chloride in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J B

    1992-09-01

    Future human exposure to inorganic mercury will probably lead to a few individuals occupationally exposed to high levels and much larger populations exposed to low or very low levels from dental fillings or from food items containing inorganic mercury; human exposure to methylmercury will be relatively low and depending on intake of marine food. Ideally, risk assessment is based on detailed knowledge of relations between external and internal dose, organ levels, and their relation to toxic symptoms. However, human data on these toxicokinetic parameters originate mainly from individuals or smaller populations accidentally exposed for shorter periods to relatively high mercury levels, but with unknown total body burden. Thus, assessment of risk associated with exposure to low levels of mercury will largely depend on data from animal experiments. Previous investigations of the toxicokinetics of mercuric compounds almost exclusively employed parenteral administration of relatively high doses of soluble mercuric salts. However, human exposure is primarily pulmonary or oral and at low doses. The present study validates an experimental model for investigating the toxicokinetics of orally administered mercuric chloride and methylmercuric chloride in mice. Major findings using this model are discussed in relation to previous knowledge. The toxicokinetics of inorganic mercury in mice depend on dose size, administration route, and sex, whereas the mouse strain used is less important. The "true absorption" of a single oral dose of HgCl2 was calculated to be about 20% at two different dose levels. Earlier studies that did not take into account the possible excretion of absorbed mercury and intestinal reabsorption during the experimental period report 7-10% intestinal uptake. The higher excretion rates observed after oral than after intraperitoneal administration of HgCl2 are most likely due to differences in disposition of systemically delivered and retained mercury. After

  2. 111In-chloride thorax scintigraphic study for demonstration of pulmonary edema: Canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih Weijen; Deland, F.H.; Simmons, G.H.; Coupa, J.; Domstad, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    Pulmonary edema induced by injections of oleic acid was demonstrated using 111 In-chloride lung/heart image in five anesthetized dogs. The anesthetized dogs were positioned under a gamma camera interfaced to a computer. After 111 In-chloride IV injections, dynamic data were recorded at 1 frame/min before and after induced pulmonary edema. The computer generated the curve of the lung-to-heart activity ratio; the ratio rose from 0.5-0.6 at baseline to 0.85-1.5 at th end of the study in the dogs. At the end of each study, the removed lungs demonstrated edematous fluid, and a few red blood cells were seen in the alveoli. The results indicating pulmoinary edema exhibited in the 111 In-chloride lung-to-heart ratio obtained froma computerized gamma camera were compatable with the pathological results. Since 111 In-chloride instantly binds to plasma transferrin, an excellent intravascular imaging agent, leakage of this tracer into alveoli indicates loss of membranous wall competence. Pulmonary edema, as in the adult respiratory distress syndrome, is sometimes difficult to diagnose; and this 111 In-chloride lung-to-heart imaging technique may be potentially useful. (orig.)

  3. Effects of platinic chloride on Tetrahymena pyrifromis GL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jytte R.

    1992-01-01

    Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin......Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin...

  4. Visual and confocal microscopic interpretation of patch tests to benzethonium chloride and benzalkonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Bohaty; Chris, Fricker; Salvador, González; Melissa, Gill; Susan, Nedorost

    2012-08-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (Quats), such as benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and benzethonium chloride (BEC), are widely used as antibacterial active ingredients and preservatives in personal care products, disinfectants, and ophthalmic preparations. BAC is known to be a marginal irritant when patch tested at 0.15% aq. Data on BEC are limited. To differentiate irritant from allergic patch test reactions to quaternary ammonium compounds. Eight subjects who were considered likely to react based on history of rash after exposure to disinfectants or a history of prior positive patch test to BAC were recruited, as well as two patients undergoing routine patch testing. BAC (0.15% aq), BAC (0.15% pet), BEC (0.05% aq), BEC (0.15% pet), BEC (0.15% aq), BEC (0.5% aq), sodium lauryl sulfate (2.0%), and deionized water were applied under Finn chambers for 48 h. Four days and 7 days after application, the sites were examined visually and then by in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) which was interpreted by blinded experts. Two patients with definite allergic reactions according to visual patch test reads and RCM were clinically relevant. Cross-reaction between BEC and BAC was demonstrated in one patient. RCM imaging correlated well with clinical scoring and interpretation of patch test reactions in terms of irritancy vs. allergy for BEC and BAC. Relevant allergic reactions to quats occur in humans. Possible cross-reaction was noted to occur between BAC and BEC. RCM appears to be a useful tool in distinguishing between irritancy and sensitization during patch testing to BAC and BEC. Further study of prevalence and best test concentration and vehicle is needed. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    In reinforced concrete structures corrosion is initiated when the chloride concentration around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. If corrosion starts then expensive repairs can be necessary. The estimation of the probability that corrosion has been initiated in a given structure is based...... on measurements of the chloride content obtained from the given structure. In the present paper optimal planning of measurements of the chloride content in reinforced concrete structures is considered. It is shown how optimal experimental plans can be obtained using FORM-analysis. Bayesian statistics are used...

  6. Lithium-thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D.; Bowden, W.; Hamilton, N.; Cubbison, D.; Dey, A. N.

    1981-04-01

    The main objective is to develop, fabricate, test, and deliver safe high rate lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for various U.S. Army applications such as manpack ratios and GLLD Laser Designators. We have devoted our efforts in the following major areas: (1) Optimization of the spirally wound D cell for high rate applications, (2) Development of a 3 inch diameter flat cylindrical cell for the GLLD laser designator application, and (3) Investigation of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2. The rate capability of the spirally wound D cell previously developed by us has been optimized for both the manpack radio (BA5590) battery and GLLD laser designator battery application in this program. A flat cylindrical cell has also been developed for the GLLD laser designator application. It is 3 inches in diameter and 0.9 inch in height with extremely low internal cell impedance that minimizes cell heating and polarization on the GLLD load. Typical cell capacity was found to be 18.0-19.0 Ahr with a few cells delivering up to about 21.0 Ahr on the GLLD test load. Study of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2 using electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques has also been carried out in this program which may be directly relevant to the intrinsic safety of the system.

  7. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  8. Lithium thionyl chloride high rate discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinedinst, K. A.

    1980-04-01

    Improvements in high rate lithium thionyl chloride power technology achieved by varying the electrolyte composition, operating temperature, cathode design, and cathode composition are discussed. Discharge capacities are plotted as a function of current density, cell voltage, and temperature.

  9. Chloride Ingress into Concrete under Water Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou; Sander, Lotte Braad; Grelk, Bent

    2011-01-01

    The chloride ingress into concrete under water pressures of 100 kPa and 800 kPa have been investigated by experiments. The specimens were exposed to a 10% NaCl solution and water mixture. For the concrete having w/c = 0.35 the experimental results show the chloride diffusion coefficient at 800 k......Pa (~8 atm.) is 12 times greater than at 100 kPa (~1 atm.). For w/c = 0.45 and w/c = 0.55 the chloride diffusion coefficients are 7 and 3 times greater. This means that a change in pressure highly influences the chloride ingress into the concrete and thereby the life length models for concrete structures....

  10. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Andreas L.; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata

    2013-01-01

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammoni...

  11. Telomerization of Vinyl Chloride with Chloroform Initiated by Ferrous Chloride-Dimethylacetamide under Ultrasonic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomerization of vinyl chloride with chloroform was investigated using ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide system, and 42.1% yield, more than four times the one reported before, was achieved. The addition of ultrasound further improved the reaction and yield was raised to 51.9% with trace byproducts at highly reduced reaction time and temperature. Ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide under ultrasonic irradiation acts as a very efficient catalyst system for the 1 : 1 telomerization.

  12. In vivo crossmatching with Tc-99m-RBC's and In-111-oxine-RBC's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, C.S.; Myhre, B.A.; Angulo, M.C.; Salk, R.D.; Essex, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    In vitro crossmatching techniques are often inadequate for patients who have received multiple prior transfusions. These patients usually have multiple antibodies to minor blood groups, not all of which are necessarily important to vivo. It becomes increasingly difficult to obtain appropriate units for transfusion, and often units are used with hopes that a minor group antibody will not be significantly active in vivo. If a transfusion reaction occurs, the unit is stopped. The authors have developed and successfully tested a method whereby 1.5 to 3c of potential donor RBC's are labeled with 25-50 μCi of Tc-99m using the BNL kits. After injection, samples are drawn at 10, 20, 60, and 120 minutes and the RBC survival is measured. If it is desirable to test 2 units simultaneously, the authors use 400 μCi Tc-99m to label an RBC aliquot of one unit and 25 μCi In-111-oxine to label the other; both labeled aliquots are injected together. The method is simple and reliable. In addition to assessing compatibility, the authors may also estimate the % viability of transfused, compatible RBC's by starting with 400 μCi of Tc-99m and multiplying % survival at 24 hours by 1.2. For 24 hr. survival measurements of IN-111-oxine-RBC's, 25 μCi is adequate and no multiplication factor is necessary. The authors have performed 13 in vivo crossmatches, 4 of which were double, in 6 patients. One documented mild transfusion reaction occurred. There were no false positive or false negative results

  13. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    OpenAIRE

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method prov...

  14. Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Catherine, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The theme of this month's issue is "Images"--from early paintings and statuary to computer-generated design. Resources on the theme include Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and others. A page of reproducible activities is also provided. Features include photojournalism, inspirational Web sites, art history, pop art, and myths. (AEF)

  15. Nuclear Medicine Imaging of Neuroendocrine Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brabander, Tessa; Kwekkeboom, Dik J.; Feelders, Richard A.; Brouwers, Adrienne H.; Teunissen, Jaap J. M.; Papotti, M; DeHerder, WW

    2015-01-01

    An important role is reserved for nuclear imaging techniques in the imaging of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) with In-111-DTPA-octreotide is currently the most important tracer in the diagnosis, staging and selection for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

  16. Laboratory investigation of electro-chemical chloride extraction from concrete with penetrated chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Hondel, A.W.M. van den

    2002-01-01

    Chloride extraction of concrete is a short-term electrochemical treatment against corrosion of reinforcing steel. The aim is to remove chloride ions from the concrete cover in order to reinstate passive behaviour. Physically sound concrete is left in place. To make this method more predictable and

  17. Congenital Chloride Diarrhea: Diagnosis by Easy-Accessible Chloride Measurement in Feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gils

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the intestinal Cl−/HCO3- exchanger and is clinically characterized by watery, profound diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and metabolic alkalosis. The CCD diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and measurement of high chloride concentration in feces (>90 mmol/L and is confirmed by DNA testing. Untreated CCD is lethal, while long-term clinical outcome improves when treated correctly. Case Presentation. A 27-year-old woman had an emergency caesarian due to pain and discomfort in gestational week 36 + 4. The newborn boy had abdominal distension and yellow fluid per rectum. Therapy with intravenous glucose and sodium chloride decreased his stool frequency and improved his clinical condition. A suspicion of congenital chloride diarrhea was strongly supported using blood gas analyzer to measure an increased chloride concentration in the feces; the diagnosis was confirmed by DNA testing. Discussion. Measurement of chloride in feces using an ordinary blood gas analyzer can serve as a preliminary analysis when congenital chloride diarrhea is suspected. This measurement can be easily performed with a watery feces composition. An easy-accessible chloride measurement available will facilitate the diagnostics and support the initial treatment if CCD is suspected.

  18. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... is into the compressor; by ducting any vinyl chloride between the two seals through a control system... accordance with paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section is to be ducted through a control system from which the... chloride discharged from the slip gauge through a control system from which the concentration of vinyl...

  19. Amine and Titanium (IV Chloride, Boron (III Chloride or Zirconium (IV Chloride-Promoted Baylis-Hillman Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cong Cui

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baylis-Hillman reactions of various aryl aldehydes with methyl vinyl ketone at temperatures below -20oC using Lewis acids such as titanium (IV chloride, boron (III chloride or zirconium (IV chloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of selected amines used as a Lewis bases afford the chlorinated compounds 1 as the major product in very high yields. Acrylonitrile can also undergo the same reaction to give the corresponding chlorinated product in moderate yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. However, if the reaction was carried out at room temperature (ca. 20oC, then the Z-configuration of the elimination product 3, derived from 1, was formed as the major product.

  20. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.

  1. Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellum, C.D.; Fisher, L.M.; Tegtmeyer, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the advantages of the use of excretory urography for diagnosis. According to the authors, excretory urography remains the basic radiologic examination of the urinary tract and is the foundation for the evaluation of suspected urologic disease. Despite development of the newer diagnostic modalities such as isotope scanning, ultrasonography, CT, and magnetic resonsance imaging (MRI), excretory urography has maintained a prominent role in ruorradiology. Some indications have been altered and will continue to change with the newer imaging modalities, but the initial evaluation of suspected urinary tract structural abnormalities; hematuria, pyuria, and calculus disease is best performed with excretory urography. The examination is relatively inexpensive and simple to perform, with few contraindictions. Excretory urography, when properly performed, can provide valuable information about the renal parenchyma, pelvicalyceal system, ureters, and urinary bladder

  2. A radiotracer and autoradiography aided study of chloride diffusion profiles in mortar and cement paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perego, R.C.; Hollander, W. den; Kolar, Z.I.; Manera, M.

    2002-01-01

    One of the problems affecting the durability of concrete structures is the corrosion of the steel bars due to the penetration of chloride ions. In order to predict the durability of these materials it is helpful to evaluate the diffusion of chloride in such structures. This is normally done by sample destruction followed by chemical analysis of the portions of interest. In this study a radiotracer-based method is applied to follow the chloride transport in mortar and cement paste samples. The use of a radioactive chloride isotope offers the possibility of performing non-destructive measurements of the evolving chloride distribution within the samples locally exposed to aqueous sodium chloride solution (3.5 % NaCl). To this end NaCl labeled with radioactive 36 Cl is used. It is a long-lived radioisotope decaying by emitting β - radiation with a maximal energy of 0.7 MeV. Portland, blast furnace and limestone cements are used to cast prisms that, after curing, are sliced in 2.5 mm thick samples. Each sample is covered with wax to prevent contact with air moisture and with the NaCl solution. From one side of the sample the wax layer is removed and the sample is then put in contact with the 36 Cl-labeled NaCl solution. After a given time the samples are taken out of the solution and, after complete removal of the wax layer, placed on a beta particle sensitive film for the autoradiography. The beta radiation emitted by 36 Cl causes blackening of the film that becomes visible after film development. Darker parts of the image indicate higher 36 Cl, i.e. chloride concentration in the layer adjacent to the sample surface. Densitometry, i.e. measurement of the degree of blackening of the film provides quantitative data on the two-dimensional diffusion profile attained. Image processing and automatic data evaluation may speed up the whole measurement procedure. The present method has a number of advantages if compared with the current methods for chloride analysis, namely (i

  3. Efficient cellulose solvent: quaternary ammonium chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostag, Marc; Liebert, Tim; El Seoud, Omar A; Heinze, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Pure quaternary tetraalkylammonium chlorides with one long alkyl chain dissolved in various organic solvents constitute a new class of cellulose solvents. The electrolytes are prepared in high yields and purity by Menshutkin quaternization, an inexpensive and easy synthesis route. The pure molten tetraalkylammonium chlorides dissolve up to 15 wt% of cellulose. Cosolvents, including N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), may be added in large excess, leading to a system of decreased viscosity. Contrary to the well-established solvent DMA/LiCl, cellulose dissolves in DMA/quaternary ammonium chlorides without any pretreatment. Thus, the use of the new solvent avoids some disadvantages of DMA/LiCl and ionic liquids, the most extensively employed solvents for homogeneous cellulose chemistry. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. An automatic molecular dispenser of chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibrandi, Giuseppe; Amendola, Valeria; Bergamaschi, Greta; Dollenz, Riccardo; Fabbrizzi, Luigi; Licchelli, Maurizio; Lo Vecchio, Carmelo

    2013-03-11

    The combined activity of the 1.1.1-cryptand and of a dicopper(II) bistren cryptate complex including chloride makes the Cl(-) ion be continuously and slowly delivered to the solution, without any external intervention. The 1.1.1-cryptand slowly releases OH(-) ions, according to a defined kinetics, and each OH(-) ion displaces a Cl(-) ion from the cryptate. Chloride displacement induces a sharp colour change from bright yellow to aquamarine and can be conveniently monitored spectrophotometrically, even in diluted solutions. The 1.1.1-cryptand is the motor of a molecular dispenser (the dicopper(II) cryptate) delivering chloride ion automatically, from the inside of the solution. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Noninvasive detection of coronary thrombi with In-111 platelets: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, S.R.; Lerch, R.A.; Mathias, C.J.; Sobel, B.E.; Welch, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    The need for rapid, definitive identification of coronary thrombosis has been intensified by the advent of thrombolytic therapy and by interest in the role of thrombosis in the etiology of coronary artery disease. To determine whether platelet thrombi can be detected noninvasively with In-111 platelets, a method was developed in which Tc-99m-tagged red blood cells were used to correct for activity within the blood attributable to platelets circulating but not associated with thrombus. In 18 dogs coronary thrombi were induced closed-chest with a copper coil introduced into the coronary artery. Indium-111 platelets and Tc-99m RBCs were administered either before or 1 hr after induction of thrombus, and serial scintigrams obtained. Coronary thrombus was identified readily in the processed scintigrams. In six dogs, thrombolysis was achieved with intracoronary streptokinase. In each case serial scintigraphy demonstrated resolution of the clot. The dual radiotracer technique should permit serial noninvasive delineation of the temporal relationship between platelet deposition and coronary heart disease in patients, and should facilitate the evaluation of interventions designed to prevent platelet aggregation or to lyse existing thrombi

  6. Performance and mechanism of sludge dewaterability enhanced by potassium ferrate pretreatment and calcium chloride addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential benefits and mechanisms of potassium ferrate pretreatment and calcium chloride addition on sludge dewaterability were investigated in this study. The capillary suction time (CST was used to evaluate sludge dewaterability. Results indicated that potassium ferrate of 0.1 g/g total solids (TS and calcium chloride of 0.4 g/g TS were optimal parameters, and corresponding CST reached 43.7 s. Soluble organics in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS were determined by three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy, which was used to explain the mechanism of sludge dewaterability. The fluorescence intensities of protein-like and humic-like substances in EPS had a negative relationship with the CST. Scanning electron microscopy images indicated that calcium chloride neutralized the surface charge of particles, making the soluble protein-like substances agglomerate and form bigger flocs, consequently enhancing sludge dewaterability.

  7. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  8. Activity blockade and GABAA receptor blockade produce synaptic scaling through chloride accumulation in embryonic spinal motoneurons and interneurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casie Lindsly

    Full Text Available Synaptic scaling represents a process whereby the distribution of a cell's synaptic strengths are altered by a multiplicative scaling factor. Scaling is thought to be a compensatory response that homeostatically controls spiking activity levels in the cell or network. Previously, we observed GABAergic synaptic scaling in embryonic spinal motoneurons following in vivo blockade of either spiking activity or GABAA receptors (GABAARs. We had determined that activity blockade triggered upward GABAergic scaling through chloride accumulation, thus increasing the driving force for these currents. To determine whether chloride accumulation also underlies GABAergic scaling following GABAAR blockade we have developed a new technique. We expressed a genetically encoded chloride-indicator, Clomeleon, in the embryonic chick spinal cord, which provides a non-invasive fast measure of intracellular chloride. Using this technique we now show that chloride accumulation underlies GABAergic scaling following blockade of either spiking activity or the GABAAR. The finding that GABAAR blockade and activity blockade trigger scaling via a common mechanism supports our hypothesis that activity blockade reduces GABAAR activation, which triggers synaptic scaling. In addition, Clomeleon imaging demonstrated the time course and widespread nature of GABAergic scaling through chloride accumulation, as it was also observed in spinal interneurons. This suggests that homeostatic scaling via chloride accumulation is a common feature in many neuronal classes within the embryonic spinal cord and opens the possibility that this process may occur throughout the nervous system at early stages of development.

  9. Hazards of lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Two different topics which only relate in that they are pertinent to lithium thionyl chloride battery safety are discussed. The first topic is a hazards analysis of a system (risk assessment), a formal approach that is used in nuclear engineering, predicting oil spills, etc. It is a formalized approach for obtaining assessment of the degree of risk associated with the use of any particular system. The second topic is a small piece of chemistry related to the explosions that can occur with lithium thionyl chloride systems. After the two topics are presented, a discussion is generated among the Workshop participants.

  10. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammitzbóll, Andreas L; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata; Vegge, Tejs; Quaade, Ulrich J

    2013-04-28

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammonia desorption originating from the adsorbed state is directly observed below the bulk desorption temperature, as confirmed by density functional theory calculations. The desorption enthalpy of the adsorbed state of strontium chloride octa-ammine is determined with both techniques to be around 37-39 kJ∕mol. A simple kinetic model is proposed that accounts for the absorption of ammonia through the adsorbed state.

  11. Chloride Ingress in Concrete with Different Age at Time of First Chloride Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Østergaard; Iskau, Martin Riis; Hasholt, Marianne Tange

    2016-01-01

    Concrete structures cast in spring have longer time to hydrate and are therefore denser and more resistant to chloride ingress when first subjected to deicing salts in winter than structures cast in autumn. Consequently, it is expected that a spring casting will have a longer service life....... This hypothesis is investigated in the present study by testing drilled cores from concrete cast in 2012 and 2013 on the Svendborgsund Bridge. The cores are subject to petrographic examination and mapping of chloride profiles. Moreover, chloride migration coefficients have been measured. The study shows...

  12. Method for preparation of melts of alkali metal chlorides with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salyulev, A.B.; Kudyakov, V.Ya.

    1990-01-01

    A method for production of alkali metal (Cs, Rb, K) chloride melts with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides is suggested. The method consists, in saturation of alkali metal chlorides, preheated to the melting point, by volatile component vapours (titanium tetrachloride, molybdenum or tantalum pentachloride) in proportion, corresponding to the composition reguired. The saturation is realized in an evacuated vessel with two heating areas for 1-1.5 h. After gradual levelling of temperature in both areas the product is rapidly cooled. 1 fig.; 1 tab

  13. Calcium chloride improve ethanol production in recombinant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-08

    Nov 8, 2010 ... significantly improve the ethanol production. This was also clearly ... parameter values over time in Z.M.F-4 under high sugar osmotic stress. Calcium chloride .... These genes were introduced into Z. mobilis ATCC 31821 by the transposition method as described in the literature (Foulongne et al., 1999). The.

  14. Influence of nutrition on trypanosome isometamidium chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty six weaner wistar rats were used to study the effect of protein nutrition on trypanosome isometamidium chloride prophylaxis. Two groups of rats A and B (n = 18 per group) were maintained on 21% and 14.5% crude protein diet respectively for the twenty eight days. Thereafter, group A was sub-divided into groups A1, ...

  15. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect...

  16. Chloride diffusion in partially saturated cementitious material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erik Pram; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2003-01-01

    The paper proposes a combined application of composite theory and Powers' model for microstructural development for the estimation of the diffusion coefficient as a function of the moisture content of a defect-free cementitious material. Measurements of chloride diffusion in mortar samples (440 kg...

  17. Influence of compaction on chloride ingress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlopasa, J.

    2012-01-01

    Experiences from practice show the need for more of an understanding and optimization of the compaction process in order to design a more durable concrete structure. Local variations in compaction are very often the reason for initiation of local damage and initiation of chloride induced corrosion.

  18. Fluid Bed Dehydration of Magnesium Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adham, K.; Lee, C.; O'Keefe, K.

    Molten salt electrolysis of MgCl2 is commonly used for the production of magnesium metal. However, the electrolysis feed must be completely dry with minimum oxygen content. Therefore, complete dehydration of the MgCl2 brine or the hydrated prill is a required process, which is very challenging because of the ease of thermal degradation due to hydrolysis of magnesium chloride.

  19. Chloride migration in concrete with superabsorbent polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) can be used as a means for internal curing of concrete. In the present study, the development of transport properties of concrete with SAP is investigated. The chloride migration coefficient according to NT BUILD 492 is used as a measure of this. Twenty concrete...

  20. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582...

  1. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of chloride doped ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    (HCl) by potentiodynamic method in an electrochemical cell and studied by cyclic voltammetry and FTIR techniques. The FTIR spectra confirmed Cl– ion doping in the ... were not hygroscopic whereas chloride doped polyaniline films were found to be highly hygroscopic. Keywords. Conducting polymer; electrochemical ...

  2. Commercial production of thallium-201 chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, S.V.; Volkova, N.M.; Skokov, V.S.

    1989-01-01

    Thallium-201 chloride pharmaceuticals production practice at the Medradiopreparat factory under USSR Ministry of Public Health is described. The factory is carried out series-produced supplies of the compound prepared according to a new practice from September, 1985. Thallium-201 extraction from cyclotron targets irradiated is carried out by the extraction method

  3. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: April 9, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy...

  4. Binary nucleation of water and sodium chloride

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Tomáš; Maršík, František; Palmer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 4 (2006), 0445091-0445096 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/05/2536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : binary nucleation * sodium chloride * water Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 3.166, year: 2006

  5. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... when using a powered air-purifying respirator having a hood, helmet, or full or half facepiece, or a... release of vinyl chloride; and (ix) A review of this standard at the employee's first training and..., including the following topics: (A) Alcohol intake; (B) Past history of hepatitis; (C) Work history and past...

  6. An improved calcium chloride method preparation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    method, improved from a classical protocol, has made some modifications on the concentration of calcium chloride and competent bacteria solution, rotation speed in centrifugation and centrifugation time. It was found that the optimal transformation efficiency were obtained when the concentration of CaCl2 was 75 mmol/l, ...

  7. Chloride concentration affects soil microbial community

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryndler, Milan; Rohlenová, Jana; Kopecký, Jan; Matucha, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 7 (2008), s. 1401-1408 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/05/0636 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : soil chloride * terminal restriction fragments * soil microorganisms Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.054, year: 2008

  8. Thermal Decomposition of Aluminium Chloride Hexahydrate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Trnka, Otakar; Šolcová, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 17 (2005), s. 6591-6598 ISSN 0888-5885 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/0002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : aluminum chloride hexahydrate * thermal decomposition * reaction kinetics Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.504, year: 2005

  9. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N as 500 nM.

  10. Electrical conduction mechanism of polyvinyl chloride (PVC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The electrical conduction mechanism in polyvinyl chloride (PVC)– polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) blend film has been studied at various temperatures in the range 313 K to 353 K. The results are presented in the form of I–V characteristics. Analysis has been made in the light of Poole–Frenkel, Fowler–Nordheim, ...

  11. Thymic scintigraphy using 201Tl-chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Teruo; Itami, Michimasa; Sawa, Hisashi; Furukawa, Takashi; Harada, Shigeru

    1980-01-01

    Thymic scintigraphy using Thallium-201 Chloride ( 201 TlCl) was performed on 3 cases of thymoma (2 malignant mediastinal thymomas and 1 benign cervical thymoma). All of the 3 cases exhibited high abnormal activities corresponding to the tumor on the scintigram. Thus it is useful to perform the scintigraphy using 201 TlCl for the detection of thymoma. (author)

  12. Bone marrow scintigraphy with 111In-chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Masayasu; Miyamae, Tatsuya

    1977-01-01

    111 In-chloride as a useful bone marrow-scanning agent has been used for various hematological diseases. We also have studied the distribution of indium-111 by scintigraphy in 28 patients with systemic hematopoietic disorders and other: 4 with aplastic anemia, 8 with leucemia, 3 with iron-deficiency anemia, one with pernicious anemia, 2 with myelofibrosis, 3 with multiple myeloma, one with malignant lymphoma, 3 with liver cirrhosis or Banti-syndrome and 3 with seminoma received post operative irradiation. The results of scintigraphy (the image of bone marrow, liver, spleen, kidney and intestine) were compared with bone marrow biopsies, ferrokinetic data and Se.I./TIBC. The bone marrow image was interpreted on a three-point scale: normal distribution of activity (+), abnormal distribution (+-), body back ground level (-). In the cases of iron-deficiency anemia and pernicious anemia with hyperplastic erythroid marrow, regardless of its severe anemia, the scintigrams showed clearly delineated bone marrow images and normal organ distribution of indium. On the other hand, the scan images revealed severe suppressions of bone marrow activity and markedly increased renal activity in some cases of aplastic anemia, acute leucemia and malignant lymphoma with hypoplastic and/or tumour-cell infiltrative marrows. Thus, it may be said that the bone marrow uptake of indium-111 correlates well with the degree of erythroid elements, no correlation with nucleated cell counts, and there is a strong tendency to increased renal activity in the cases of markedly decreased erythropoietic cell counts. (auth.)

  13. Improved electrolyte for lithium-thionyl chloride battery. [Patent application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipman, W.H.; McCartney, J.F.

    1980-12-17

    A lithium, thionyl chloride battery is provided with an electrolyte which makes it safe under a reverse voltage condition. The electrolyte is niobium pentachloride which is dissolved in the thionyl chloride.

  14. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  15. Preclinical Evaluation of a Novel In-111-Labeled Bombesin Homodimer for Improved Imaging of GRPR-Positive Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlucci, G.; Ananias, H. J. K.; Yu, Z.; Hoving, H. D.; Helfrich, W.; Dierckx, R. A. J. O.; Liu, S.; de Jong, I. J.; Elsinga, P. H.

    Rational-designed multimerization of targeting ligands can be used to improve kinetic and thermodynamic properties. Multimeric targeting ligands may be produced by tethering multiple identical or two or more monomeric ligands of different binding specificities. Consequently, multimeric ligands may

  16. Accelerated testing for chloride threshold of reinforcing steel in concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Put, M. van; Peelen, W.H.A.

    2017-01-01

    Testing for the chloride threshold (also called critical chloride content) for corrosion initiation of steel in concrete has been found difficult and, at best, time consuming. Nevertheless, the chloride threshold is an important parameter in service life design of new structures and for evaluation

  17. Potentiometric Determination of Free Chloride in Cement Paste – an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Corrosion of rebar in concrete is commonly associated with, and to a large degree influenced by, the free chloride concentration in the pore water. The amount of chloride in concrete is important because chloride can promote corrosion of steel reinforcement when moisture and oxygen are present. A potentiometric ...

  18. Iron(III) Chloride mediated reduction of Bis(1-isoquinolylcarbonyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    atoms of the ligand and two chloride ions, imparting a rare distorted trigonal bipyramidal N3Cl2 coordination environment. Keywords. Reduction; Ferric chloride; Isoquinoline; Bis(carbonyl)amide. 1. Introduction. Iron(III) chloride has been known to catalyze or assist several kinds of organic reactions.1–3 This includes.

  19. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-17...) § 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid must comply with the following special requirements: (a) The tank car must comply with...

  20. Potentiometric Determination of Free Chloride in Cement Paste – an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cement paste.16 The accuracy and reliability of this analytical technique has been checked against a certified reference material, Merck sodium chloride solution. Confidence levels (CL0.95), of 0.03 and relative standard deviations of 0.2 % for chloride were determined for ordinary Portland cement (OPC) chloride binding ...

  1. Determination of Chloride Content in Cementitious Materials : From Fundamental Aspects to Application of Ag/AgCl Chloride Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pargar, F.; Koleva, D.A.; van Breugel, K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the advantages and drawbacks of available test methods for the determination of chloride content in cementitious materials in general, and the application of Ag/AgCl chloride sensors in particular. The main factors that affect the reliability of a chloride sensor are presented.

  2. Relation between chloride exchange diffusion and a conductive chloride pathway across the isolated skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1978-01-01

    of inhibitors (thiocyanate, furosemide, phloretin, and acetazolamide) also affects chloride exchange diffusion, hyperpolarization current as well as chloride influx during hyperpolarization. Although in some cases, effects on the short circuit current were also observed none of the effects on chloride transport...

  3. Chloride regulates afferent arteriolar contraction in response to depolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Jensen, B L; Skott, O

    1998-01-01

    afferent arterioles. In 70% of vessels examined, K+-induced contraction was abolished by acute substitution of bath chloride. Consecutive addition of Cl- (30, 60, 80, 100, 110, and 117 mmol/L) restored the sensitivity to K+, and half-maximal response was observed at 82 mmol/L chloride. The calcium channel...... antagonist diltiazem (10(-6) mol/L) abolished K+-induced contractions. Bicarbonate did not modify the sensitivity to chloride. Norepinephrine (10(-6) mol/L) induced full contraction in depolarized vessels even in the absence of chloride. Iodide and nitrate were substituted for chloride with no inhibitory...

  4. Effect of cadmium chloride on hepatic lipid peroxidation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H R; Andersen, O

    1988-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride to 8-12 weeks old CBA-mice enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation. A positive correlation between cadmium chloride dose and level of peroxidation was observed in both male and female mice. A sex-related difference in mortality was not observed....... The mortality after an acute toxic dose of cadmium chloride was the same in the three age groups. Pretreatment of mice with several low intraperitoneal doses of cadmium chloride alleviated cadmium induced mortality and lipid peroxidation. The results demonstrate both age dependency and a protective effect...... of metallothionein induction on cadmium chloride induced hepatic lipid peroxidation....

  5. STABILISATION OF SILTY CLAY SOIL USING CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAMADHER T. ABOOD

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to investigate the effect of adding different chloride compounds including (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 on the engineering properties of silty clay soil. Various amounts of salts (2%, 4%, and 8% were added to the soil to study the effect of salts on the compaction characteristics, consistency limits and compressive strength. The main findings of this study were that the increase in the percentage of each of the chloride compounds increased the maximum dry density and decrease the optimum moisture content. The liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index decreased with the increase in salt content. The unconfinedcompressive strength increased as the salt content increased.

  6. Calcium/thionyl chloride battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, T.

    1985-12-01

    This final report documents the development efforts conducted by the Lithium Batteries Group of the Couples Department of Eagle-Picher Industries. The objective of the project was to develop calcium-thionyl chloride cell technology. The original project was divided into two main tasks. Task One was to consist of component optimization and stability studies. Once sufficiently advanced, the ongoing results of Task One were to be integrated with Task Two. Task Two was to consist of demonstration of an optimized primary cell. In July, 1983, the program was redirected. Task Two was split, with effort to be directed toward both the original primary cell and toward a high discharge rate reserve configuration cell. Additional electrolyte salts were to be evaluated as a means of improving the storability of the active calcium-thionyl chloride cell.

  7. An autopsy case of zinc chloride poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Takeshi; Takahashi, Motonori; Watanabe, Seiya; Ebina, Masatomo; Mizu, Daisuke; Ariyoshi, Koichi; Asano, Migiwa; Nagasaki, Yasushi; Ueno, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Ingestion of large amounts of zinc chloride causes corrosive gastroenteritis with vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Some individuals experience shock after ingesting large amounts of zinc chloride, resulting in fatality. Here, we present the results of an administrative autopsy performed on a 70-year-old man who ingested zinc chloride solution and died. After drinking the solution, he developed vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, and called for an ambulance. Except for tachycardia, his vital signs were stable at presentation. However, he developed hypotension and severe metabolic acidosis and died. The patient's blood zinc concentration on arrival was high at 3030μg/dL. Liver cirrhosis with cloudy yellow ascites was observed, however, there were no clear findings of gastrointestinal perforation. The gastric mucosa was gray-brown, with sclerosis present in all gastric wall layers. Zinc staining was strongly positive in all layers. There was almost no postmortem degeneration of the gastric mucosal epithelium, and hypercontracture of the smooth muscle layer was observed. Measurement of the zinc concentration in the organs revealed the highest concentration in the gastric mucosa, followed by the pancreas and spleen. Clinically, corrosive gastroenteritis was the cause of death. However, although autopsy revealed solidification in the esophagus and gastric mucosa, there were no findings in the small or large intestine. Therefore, metabolic acidosis resulting from organ damage was the direct cause of death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiochemical determination of methylmercury chloride Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stary, J.; Prasilova, J.

    1976-01-01

    The isotope exchange between methylmercury species and an excess of inorganic radiomercury in sulphuric acid medium has been used for the simple determination of methylmercury chloride down to 0.01 ppm. The determination is not influenced by the presence of a great excess of other metals, however, chlorides, bromides and iodides interfere in higher concentrations. It has been found that the isotope exchange between CH 3 HgCl and 203 HgCl 4 2- (or 203 HgCl 2 ) in 0.01-3M hydrochloric acid is extremely slow, for the bimolecular reaction the rate constant is lower than 10 -3 mol -1 s -1 at 25 deg C. The isotope exchange rate between methylmercury chloride and mercuric-nitrate 0n on 0.5M sulphuric acid is higher. The isotope exchange is a bimolecular reaction with a rate constant k=0.050+-0.004 mol -1 s -1 at 25 deg C. (T.I.)

  9. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosco, Pablo, E-mail: porosco@unsl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated.

  10. Mechanistic characterization of chloride interferences in electrothermal atomization systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekiro, J.M.; Skogerboe, R.K.; Taylor, Howard E.

    1988-01-01

    A computer-controlled spectrometer with a photodiode array detector has been used for wavelength and temperature resolved characterization of the vapor produced by an electrothermal atomizer. The system has been used to study the chloride matrix interference on the atomic absorption spectrometric determination of manganese and copper. The suppression of manganese and copper atom populations by matrix chlorides such as those of calcium and magnesium is due to the gas-phase formation of an analyte chloride species followed by the diffusion of significant fractions of these species from the atom cell prior to completion of the atomization process. The analyte chloride species cannot be formed when matrix chlorides with metal-chloride bond dissociation energies above those of the analyte chlorides are the principal entitles present. The results indicate that multiple wavelength spectrometry used to obtain temperature-resolved spectra is a viable tool in the mechanistic characterization of interference effects observed with electrothermal atomization systems. ?? 1988 American Chemical Society.

  11. Scientific Basis for Paint Stripping: Elucidated Combinatorial Mechanism of Methylene Chloride and Phenol Based Paint Removers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-22

    FIGURE 14: NEXAFS C K-EDGE SPECTRUM OF MC-EXPOSED, FULLY-FORMULATED MIL-PRF-85285, TOP SURFACE, IN THE HALO -LIKE RING AROUND THE OUTER PERIMETER...SURFACE, IN THE HALO -LIKE RING AROUND THE OUTER PERIMETER OF THE METHYLENE CHLORIDE DROPLET. ... 21 FIGURE 18: BLACK AND WHITE HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGE OF PHOH...Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR) FTIR spectra were recorded on a Thermo Scientific Nicolet 6700 FTIR spectrometer equipped with a Smart Performer ATR

  12. Abnormal chloride homeostasis in the substancia nigra pars reticulata contributes to locomotor deficiency in a model of acute liver injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ling Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Altered chloride homeostasis has been thought to be a risk factor for several brain disorders, while less attention has been paid to its role in liver disease. We aimed to analyze the involvement and possible mechanisms of altered chloride homeostasis of GABAergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr in the motor deficit observed in a model of encephalopathy caused by acute liver failure, by using glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 - green fluorescent protein knock-in transgenic mice. METHODS: Alterations in intracellular chloride concentration in GABAergic neurons within the SNr and changes in the expression of two dominant chloride homeostasis-regulating genes, KCC2 and NKCC1, were evaluated in mice with hypolocomotion due to hepatic encephalopathy (HE. The effects of pharmacological blockade and/or activation of KCC2 and NKCC1 functions with their specific inhibitors and/or activators on the motor activity were assessed. RESULTS: In our mouse model of acute liver injury, chloride imaging indicated an increase in local intracellular chloride concentration in SNr GABAergic neurons. In addition, the mRNA and protein levels of KCC2 were reduced, particularly on neuronal cell membranes; in contrast, NKCC1 expression remained unaffected. Furthermore, blockage of KCC2 reduced motor activity in the normal mice and led to a further deteriorated hypolocomotion in HE mice. Blockade of NKCC1 was not able to normalize motor activity in mice with liver failure. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that altered chloride homeostasis is likely involved in the pathophysiology of hypolocomotion following HE. Drugs aimed at restoring normal chloride homeostasis would be a potential treatment for hepatic failure.

  13. Analysis of lithium/thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mukul

    The lithium/thionyl chloride battery (Li/SOClsb2) has received considerable attention as a primary energy source due to its high energy density, high operating cell voltage, voltage stability over 95% of the discharge, large operating temperature range (-55sp°C to 70sp°C), long storage life, and low cost of materials. In this dissertation, a one-dimensional mathematical model of a spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery has been developed. Mathematical models can be used to tailor a battery design to a specific application, perform accelerated testing, and reduce the amount of experimental data required to yield efficient, yet safe cells. The Model was used in conjunction with the experimental data for parameter estimation and to obtain insights into the fundamental processes occurring in the battery. The diffusion coefficient and the kinetic parameters for the reactions at the anode and the cathode are obtained as a function of temperature by fitting the simulated capacity and average cell voltage to experimental data over a wide range of temperatures (-55 to 49sp°C) and discharge loads (10 to 250 ohms). The experiments were performed on D-sized, cathode-limited, spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride cells at Sandia National Laboratories. The model is also used to study the effect of cathode thickness and current and temperature pulsing on the cell capacity. Thionyl chloride reduction in the porous cathode is accompanied with a volume reduction. The material balance used previously in one-dimensional mathematical models of porous electrodes is invalid when the volume occupied by the reactants and the products is not equal. It is shown here how the material balance has to be modified to either account for the loss in volume, or to account for the inflow of electrolyte from the header into the active pores. The one-dimensional mathematical model of lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery is used to illustrate the effect of this material balance

  14. Relation between chloride exchange diffusion and a conductive chloride pathway across the isolated skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1978-01-01

    Substitution of chloride in the outside bathing medium of the toad skin with bromide, iodide, nitrate and sulphate leads to a reduction in the apparent exchange diffusion of chloride across this tissue, and also to a reduction of the chloride current recorded during hyperpolarization. A series...... of inhibitors (thiocyanate, furosemide, phloretin, and acetazolamide) also affects chloride exchange diffusion, hyperpolarization current as well as chloride influx during hyperpolarization. Although in some cases, effects on the short circuit current were also observed none of the effects on chloride transport....... On the basis of these findings, and the results reported in the previous paper (Hviid Larsen and Kristensen 1977) it is considered probable that the membrane molecules responsible to chloride exchange diffusion under short circuit conditions, are rearranged under the influence of a hyperpolarizing clamping...

  15. Determination of trace amounts of hydrogen chloride and chloride by GC or AAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vierkorn-Rudolph, B.; Baechmann, K.

    1984-02-01

    Two improved analytical methods for the determination of chloride (hydrogen chloride) in the ppb-range are presented. One method combines a derivatization of chloride with 7-oxabicyclo(4.1.0)heptane with gas chromatographic separation and detection. The other one uses a derivatization with phenylmercury nitrate. Reagent and product are separated by extraction with trichloromethane or benzene and the product is determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The detection limit for the gas chromatographic method is 10 ng Cl/sup -//ml or 0.5 ng Cl/sup -/ per sample, for the atomic absorption spectrometric method 0.2 ng Cl/sup -//ml or 0.3 ng Cl/sup -/ per sample.

  16. Crystal structures of salicylideneguanylhydrazinium chloride and its copper(II) and cobalt(III) chloride complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumakov, Yu. M.; Tsapkov, V. I.; Bocelli, G.; Antosyak, B. Ya.; Shova, S. G.; Gulea, A. P.

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structures of salicylideneguanylhydrazinium chloride hydrate hemiethanol solvate (I), salicylideneguanylhydrazinium trichloroaquacuprate(II) (II), and bis(salicylideneguanylhydrazino)cobalt(III) chloride trihydrate (III) are determined using X-ray diffraction. The structures of compounds I, II, and III are solved by direct methods and refined using the least-squares procedure in the anisotropic approximation for the non-hydrogen atoms to the final factors R = 0.0597, 0.0212, and 0.0283, respectively. In the structure of compound I, the monoprotonated molecules and chlorine ions linked by hydrogen bonds form layers aligned parallel to the (010) plane. In the structure of compound II, the salicylaldehyde guanylhydrazone cations and polymer chains consisting of trichloroaquacuprate(II) anions are joined by an extended three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds. In the structure of compound III, the [Co(LH) 2 ] + cations, chloride ions, and molecules of crystallization water are linked together by a similar network

  17. Double ortho-deuteroexchange in benzylmercuric chloride in reaction with deuterium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikanorov, V.A.; Rozenberg, V.I.; Bundel', Yu.G.; Reutov, O.A.

    1988-01-01

    Earlier ortho-selective isotope exchange of hydrogen, directed towards the benzene ring, was detected in benzylmercuric chloride under the influence of deuterium chloride. In the work the authors found that the process in the presence of mercuric chloride additions is not restricted solely to monoexchange but also includes double deuteration of the benzene ring. The discovered reaction, which has demonstrated for the first time the possibility of repeated successive isotope exchange of hydrogen in the course of organometallic transformations, is of theoretical interest as an example of highly selective ortho attack in the aromatic series (which may favor a concerted mechanism). It can be regarded as a new method for the synthesis of difficulty obtainable 2,6-dideutero-substituted benzyl systems

  18. Concentration of In-111-oxine-labeled autologous leukocytes in noninfected and nonrejecting renal allografts: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, B.D.; Isitman, A.T.; Kaufman, H.M.; Rao, S.A.; Knobel, J.; Hellman, R.S.; Zielonka, J.S.; Pelc, L.

    1984-01-01

    Autologous leukocytes labeled with In-111 oxine (ILL) concentrated in the renal allografts of eight patients for whom transplant rejection, infection, or acute tubular necrosis (ATN) could be excluded. All patients had good-to-adequate renal function at the time of ILL scintigraphy, and none developed rejection or renal transplant failure during a 1-mo follow-up period. It is concluded that normally functioning renal allografts without evidence of rejection, infection, or ATN often will concentrate ILL. When a baseline study is not available for comparison, this phenomenon limits the value of ILL scintigraphy as a diagnostic test for transplant rejection or infection

  19. Radiation induced emulsion polymerization of vinylidene chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panajkar, M.S.; Rao, K.N.

    1979-01-01

    Gamma ray induced emulsion polymerization of vinylidene chloride has been carried out and the percent conversion of monomer to polymer and molecular weights of emulsion polymer were measured as a function of time and emulsifier concentration. Rp was found to be dependent on 0.3 power of emulsifier concentration whereas molecular weights increased with conversion and emulsifier concentration. The number of particles N also increased with conversion contrary to Smith Ewart's theory of emulsion polymerization. The results are discussed in the light of existing theories of emulsion polymerization. (author)

  20. N-(2-Benzoylethylpropan-2-aminium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Aydın

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt, C12H18NO+·Cl−, N—H...Cl interactions between the free chloride anions and the organic cations connect the molecules into hydrogen-bond dimers, forming a R22(8 motif. The dimers are linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds into chains extending along [301]. The carbonyl group is co-planar with the phenyl ring [C—C—C=O torsion angle = −3.3 (7°]. The side chain has an E conformation.

  1. Anodization of Copper in Chloride Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-31

    in various media. In chloride-containing solution, seawater for example, the cuprous species CuCI and CuCl2" are major products of copper anodization...assumption was used in these determinations, which rendered only the foot of the voltammetric wave useful for calculating 132, and the formation of CuCI was...time-independent, and refers to steady-state currents at given potentials. In the present case of the formation of CuCI and CuCl2 , we are interested in

  2. Effect of Calcium chloride and Cadmium chloride on the enthalpy of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Enthalpy of mixing of methanol + benzene + mercuric chloride at 303.15 K, Journal of Chemical Engineering Data, Vol.44, pp248- 250. Dharmendira Kumar. M. and Rajendran. M. 1999. Salt effect on enthalpy of mixing of water + methanol at 303.15 K, Fluid Phase. Equilibria, Vol.164, pp. 217-224. Furter.W.F. and Cook.

  3. Congenital chloride diarrhea: a review of twelve Arabian children

    OpenAIRE

    Elrefae, Fawaz; Elhassanien, Ahmed Farag; Alghiaty, Hesham Abdel-Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Fawaz Elrefae,1 Ahmed Farag Elhassanien,2 Hesham Abdel-Aziz Alghiaty3 1Pediatric Gastroenterology, Al-Adan Hospital, Kuwait; 2Faculty of Medicine, Elmansoura University, El Mansoura, El Dakahleya, Egypt; 3Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt Background: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD), a rare autosomal recessive disorder, is characterized by sustained watery diarrhea (due to defect of active Chloride/HCO3 exchange in the ileum and colon) with high fecal chloride. Objective: To spo...

  4. A sensitive membrane-targeted biosensor for monitoring changes in intracellular chloride in neuronal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Spencer D; Suchland, Katherine L; Amara, Susan G; Ingram, Susan L

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of chloride gradients is a major mechanism by which excitability is regulated in neurons. Disruption of these gradients is implicated in various diseases, including cystic fibrosis, neuropathic pain and epilepsy. Relatively few studies have addressed chloride regulation in neuronal processes because probes capable of detecting changes in small compartments over a physiological range are limited. In this study, a palmitoylation sequence was added to a variant of the yellow fluorescent protein previously described as a sensitive chloride indicator (YFPQS) to target the protein to the plasma membrane (mbYFPQS) of cultured midbrain neurons. The reporter partitions to the cytoplasmic face of the cellular membranes, including the plasma membrane throughout the neurons and fluorescence is stable over 30-40 min of repeated excitation showing less than 10% decrease in mbYFPQS fluorescence compared to baseline. The mbYFPQS has similar chloride sensitivity (k(50) =  41 mM) but has a shifted pKa compared to the unpalmitoylated YFPQS variant (cytYFPQS) that remains in the cytoplasm when expressed in midbrain neurons. Changes in mbYFPQS fluorescence were induced by the GABA(A) agonist muscimol and were similar in the soma and processes of the midbrain neurons. Amphetamine also increased mbYFPQS fluorescence in a subpopulation of cultured midbrain neurons that was reversed by the selective dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor, GBR12909, indicating that mbYFPQS is sensitive enough to detect endogenous DAT activity in midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. The mbYFPQS biosensor is a sensitive tool to study modulation of intracellular chloride levels in neuronal processes and is particularly advantageous for simultaneous whole-cell patch clamp and live-cell imaging experiments.

  5. On barium oxide solubility in barium-containing chloride melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V.; Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Bovet, Andrey L.; Korzun, Iraida V. [Ural Federal Univ., Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High Temperature Electrochemistry

    2016-11-01

    Oxide solubility in chloride melts depends on temperature and composition of molten solvent. The solubility of barium oxide in the solvents with barium chloride content is essentially higher than that in molten alkali chlorides. Spectral data demonstrate the existence of oxychloride ionic groupings in such melts. This work presents the results of the BaO solubility in two molten BaCl{sub 2}-NaCl systems with different barium chloride content. The received data together with earlier published results revealed the main regularities of BaO solubility in molten BaO-BaCl{sub 2}-MCl systems.

  6. Local impermeant anions establish the neuronal chloride concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glykys, J; Dzhala, V; Egawa, K

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal intracellular chloride concentration [Cl(-)](i) is an important determinant of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor (GABA(A)R)-mediated inhibition and cytoplasmic volume regulation. Equilibrative cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs) move Cl(-) across the membrane, but accumulat......Neuronal intracellular chloride concentration [Cl(-)](i) is an important determinant of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor (GABA(A)R)-mediated inhibition and cytoplasmic volume regulation. Equilibrative cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs) move Cl(-) across the membrane...... anions determine the homeostatic set point for [Cl(-)], and hence, neuronal volume and the polarity of local GABA(A)R signaling....

  7. Catalytic Conversion of Cellulose to Levulinic Acid by Metal Chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beixiao Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic performance of various metal chlorides in the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid in liquid water at high temperatures was investigated. The effects of reaction parameters on the yield of levulinic acid were also explored. The results showed that alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides were not effective in conversion of cellulose, while transition metal chlorides, especially CrCl3, FeCl3 and CuCl2 and a group IIIA metal chloride (AlCl3, exhibited high catalytic activity. The catalytic performance was correlated with the acidity of the reaction system due to the addition of the metal chlorides, but more dependent on the type of metal chloride. Among those metal chlorides, chromium chloride was found to be exceptionally effective for the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid, affording an optimum yield of 67 mol % after a reaction time of 180 min, at 200 °C, with a catalyst dosage of 0.02 M and substrate concentration of 50 wt %. Chromium metal, most of which was present in its oxide form in the solid sample and only a small part in solution as Cr3+ ion, can be easily separated from the resulting product mixture and recycled. Finally, a plausible reaction scheme for the chromium chloride catalyzed conversion of cellulose in water was proposed.

  8. Trial finds better haemostasis with aluminium chloride during periapical surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Goldrick, Niall; Ross, Carly; Nelson, James

    2017-06-23

    DesignRandomised controlled trial in a university setting.InterventionPatients were randomised to epinephrine impregnated gauze or aluminium chloride for periapical surgery involving a single tooth with a periapical area of aluminium chloride group were analysed. Adequate haemostasis was achieved in 25 (52.1%) of the epinephrine group and 37 (72.5%) of the aluminium chloride group, a statistically significant difference.ConclusionsThe outcome showed better efficacy of haemostasis in the aluminium chloride group than in the gauze impregnated epinephrine group. The analysis of the patients and tooth-dependent variables showed no relationship with the effectiveness of haemostasis.

  9. Durability of cracked fibre reinforced concrete structures exposed to chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Ekman, Tom; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    1999-01-01

    Durability studies are carried out by subjecting FRC-beams to combined mechanical and environmental load. Mechanical load is obtained by exposing beams to 4-point bending until a predefined crack width is reached, using a newly developed test setup. Exposure to a concentrated chloride solution...... is used as environmental load. The chloride penetration is characterized both qualitatively (UV-test) and quantitatively (chloride profile) and by microscopy. The test programme involves three different concrete qualities. Both steel fibres and polypropylene fibres are used in the concrete beams as well...... as main reinforcement. The effect of the cracks, the fibres and the concrete quality on the chloride penetration is studied....

  10. Catalytic conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid by metal chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lincai; Lin, Lu; Zhang, Junhua; Zhuang, Junping; Zhang, Beixiao; Gong, Yan

    2010-08-02

    The catalytic performance of various metal chlorides in the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid in liquid water at high temperatures was investigated. The effects of reaction parameters on the yield of levulinic acid were also explored. The results showed that alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides were not effective in conversion of cellulose, while transition metal chlorides, especially CrCl(3), FeCl(3) and CuCl(2) and a group IIIA metal chloride (AlCl(3)), exhibited high catalytic activity. The catalytic performance was correlated with the acidity of the reaction system due to the addition of the metal chlorides, but more dependent on the type of metal chloride. Among those metal chlorides, chromium chloride was found to be exceptionally effective for the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid, affording an optimum yield of 67 mol % after a reaction time of 180 min, at 200 degrees C, with a catalyst dosage of 0.02 M and substrate concentration of 50 wt %. Chromium metal, most of which was present in its oxide form in the solid sample and only a small part in solution as Cr3+ ion, can be easily separated from the resulting product mixture and recycled. Finally, a plausible reaction scheme for the chromium chloride catalyzed conversion of cellulose in water was proposed.

  11. VOLATILE CHLORIDE PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METAL VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, W.R.

    1959-01-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium, iron, and aluminum from centain shale type ores which contain uranium in minute quantities. The ore is heated wiih a chlorinating agent. such as chlorine, to form a volatilized stream of metal chlorides. The chloride stream is then passed through granular alumina which preferentially absorbs the volatile uranium chloride and from which the uranium may later be recovered. The remaining volatilized chlorides, chiefly those of iron and aluminum, are further treated to recover chlorine gas for recycle, and to recover ferric oxide and aluminum oxide as valuable by-products.

  12. Purification of Food-grade Magnesium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Lianmin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of the varying weights of bischofite dissolved in the distilled water was investigated. The effects of the temperature on the rate of evaporation and the thermal precipitation time on the purity of the crystal products were fully investigated. Two validation tests including magnifying tests and recycling residue were also studied. Our results demonstrate that the contents of NaCl, KCl and CaSO4in the filtrate reached a minimum value after the pretreatment of 350 g bischofite dissolved in 100 mldistilled water. In the crystal products from the second evaporating stage of the validation tests, the contents of MgCl2·6H2O, SO4 and NaCl+KCl are 99%, ≤0.1±0.01%and ≤0.8±0.04%, respectively. The content of magnesium chloride in the solution was increased to a greater extent, and the impurities reduced correspondingly through thedissolution pretreatments of bischofite. This could decrease energy consumption for the impurity removing stage, evaporation and crystallization process, and thus reduce costs for the industrial production of food-grade magnesium chloride

  13. The DELTA 181 lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ralph M.; Brown, Lawrence E.; Leigh, A. P.

    In 1986, the Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) undertook the development of a sensor module for the DELTA 181 spacecraft, a low earth orbit (LEO) mission of less than two months duration. A large lithium thionyl chloride battery was developed as the spacecraft's primary power source, the first known such use for this technology. The exceptionally high energy density of the lithium thionyl chloride cell was the primary driver for its use, resulting in a completed battery with a specific energy density of 120 Wh/lb. Safety requirements became the primary driver shaping all aspects of the power system design and development due to concerns about the potential hazards of this relatively new, high-energy technology. However, the program was completed without incident. The spacecraft was launched on February 8, 1988, from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) with over 60,000 Wh of battery energy. It reentered on April 2, 1988, still operating after 55 days, providing a successful, practical, and visible demonstration of the use of this technology for spacecraft applications.

  14. Fault locator of an allyl chloride plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savković-Stevanović Jelenka B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Process safety analysis, which includes qualitative fault event identification, the relative frequency and event probability functions, as well as consequence analysis, was performed on an allye chloride plant. An event tree for fault diagnosis and cognitive reliability analysis, as well as a troubleshooting system, were developed. Fuzzy inductive reasoning illustrated the advantages compared to crisp inductive reasoning. A qualitative model forecast the future behavior of the system in the case of accident detection and then compared it with the actual measured data. A cognitive model including qualitative and quantitative information by fuzzy logic of the incident scenario was derived as a fault locator for an ally! chloride plant. The obtained results showed the successful application of cognitive dispersion modeling to process safety analysis. A fuzzy inductive reasoner illustrated good performance to discriminate between different types of malfunctions. This fault locator allowed risk analysis and the construction of a fault tolerant system. This study is the first report in the literature showing the cognitive reliability analysis method.

  15. N,N-Dimethyldehydroabietylammonium chloride ethanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Zhi Huang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound {systematic name: 1-[(1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthren-1-yl]-N,N-dimethylmethanaminium chloride ethanol monosolvate}, C22H36N+·Cl−·C2H6O, was synthesized from dehydroabietylamine by N-methylation with formaldehyde/formic acid and transformation into the hydrochloride. The dehydroabietyl moiety exhibits the usual conformation with the two cyclohexane rings in chair and half-chair conformations and a trans-ring junction. The crystal structure is built up from columns of the dehydroabietyl moieties stacked along the a axis. These columns are held together by the chloride ions via N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl interactions, which establish a two-dimensional network parallel to (010. The ethanol solvent molecules are located between the columns and anchored via O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  16. The sodium chloride primary pressure gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, A. L.; Chhabildas, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    The failure of a central force model for sodium chloride is discussed. It is noted that it does not closely satisfy the Cauchy conditions at low temperatures, and that it fails the central force requirement of the Love condition. The available shock data for sodium chloride and its analysis is examined, and two reasons why the Hugoniot transformation pressure is likely to be less than 231 kbar are discussed. The important (but unjustified) theoretical assumptions made in converting Hugoniot to isothermal data is discussed; it is noted that serious error can enter for very large pressures for a given material and that at such high pressures the isothermal data should thus be considered only semiquantitative even if the Hugoniot data itself is accurate. An alternate method of estimating the isothermal transformation pressure from the Hugoniot transformation pressure is used. This method is based on the temperature derivative of the transformation pressure. On this basis it is concluded that an upper bound for the isothermal transformation of NaCl (to a CsCl-type structure) at room temperature is 257 kbar; it is noted that the actual value may be considerably less than this.

  17. Different Methods for Conditioning Chloride Salt Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, G.; Fedeli, C.; Capone, M.; Marzo, G.A.; Mariani, M.; Da Ros, M.; Giacobbo, F.; Macerata, E.; Giola, M.

    2015-01-01

    Three different methods have been used to condition chloride salt wastes coming from pyro-processes. Two of them allow to synthesise sodalite, a naturally occurring mineral containing chlorine: the former, starting from Zeolite 4A, which transforms the zeolite into sodalite; the latter, which starts from kaolinite, giving sodalite as well. In addition, a new matrix, termed SAP (SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 ), has been synthesised. It is able to form different mineral phases which occlude fission metals. The products from the different processes have been fully characterised. In particular the chemical durability of the final waste forms has been determined using the standard product consistency test. According to the results obtained, SAP seems to be a promising matrix for the incorporation of chloride salt wastes from pyro-processes. Financial support from the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the European Union (projects ACSEPT, contract FP7-CP-2007- 211 267, and SACSESS, Collaborative Project 323282), as well as from Italian Ministry for Economic Development (Accordo di Programma: Piano Annuale di Realizzazione 2008-2009) is gratefully acknowledged. (authors)

  18. In situ synthesis of silver chloride nanoparticles into bacterial cellulose membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Weili; Chen Shiyan; Li Xin; Shi Shuaike; Shen Wei; Zhang Xiang [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology (Ministry of Education), College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai, 201620 (China); Wang Huaping, E-mail: wanghp@dhu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology (Ministry of Education), College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai, 201620 (China)

    2009-05-05

    In situ synthesis of silver chloride (AgCl) nanoparticles was carried out under ambient conditions in nanoporous bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes as nanoreactors. The growth of the nanoparticles was readily obtained by alternating dipping of BC membranes in the solution of silver nitrate or sodium chloride followed by a rinse step. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated the existence of AgCl nanoparticles in the BC and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the AgCl nanoparticles well dispersed on the surface of BC and penetrated into the BC network. The AgCl nanoparticle-impregnated BC membranes exhibited high hydrophilic ability and strong antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive). The preparative procedure is facile and versatile, and provides a simple route to manufacturing of useful antimicrobial membranes, which would be a good alternative for antimicrobial wound dressing.

  19. Degradation of fly ash concrete under the coupled effect of carbonation and chloride aerosol ingress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jun; Qiu, Qiwen; Chen, Xiaochi; Wang, Xiaodong; Xing, Feng; Han, Ningxu; He, Yijian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbonation affects the chloride profile in concrete under chloride aerosol attack. • The chloride binding capacity can be reduced by the presence of carbonation. • Carbonation increases the rate of chloride diffusion for chloride aerosol ingress. • Chloride aerosol ingress reduces the carbonation depth and increases the pH value. • The use of fly ash in concrete enhances the resistance of chloride aerosol ingress. - Abstract: This paper presents an experimental investigation regarding the coupled effect of carbonation and chloride aerosol ingress on the durability performance of fly ash concrete. Test results demonstrate that carbonation significantly affects the chloride ingress profile, reduces the chloride binding capacity, and accelerates the rate of chloride ion diffusion. On the other hand, the carbonation rate of fly ash concrete is reduced by the presence of chlorides aerosol. The interaction nature between concrete carbonation and chloride aerosol ingress is also demonstrated by the microscopic analysis results obtained from scanning electron microscope and mercury intrusion porosimetry.

  20. Rapid, high-efficiency labeling of leukocytes with In-111 after hemolytic removal of erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karesh, S.M.; Henkin, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    During the labeling of leukocytes with Indium-111, conventional methodology involves separation and washing to remove red cells. This technique results in the loss of a significant number of leukocytes. Citrated whole blood of ten normal volunteers was studied for an alternate labeling method following sedimentation for 30 to 45 minutes and low speed centrifugation of the leukocyte-rich plasma. The average labeling for these ten volunteers by Indium-111 was 90% versus 60% by the older technique. Viability as measured by the trypan blue exclusion test was greater than 95%, WBC losses were essentially zero, and no WBC clumping was observed. Eighteen patients referred for leukocyte imaging were studied by this method. In this patient population, there was 91% labeling with viability greater than 95% and no evidence of clumping. Less than 5% RBC's were noted in any lot. Indium-111 WBC activity 20 minutes post injection averaged 79% of whole blood activity. This modification results in decreased losses of white cells, reduces preparation time to less than 2 hours, and significantly improves the labeling efficiency of the final product. Liver/spleen ratios and image quality were unchanged from the original method

  1. Comparision of indium-111 oxinate labelled autologous granulocytes with indium-111 oxinate and indium-111 chloride as abscess scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedemans, W.T.; Hardemann, M.R.; Belfer, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Bacterial abscesses were evoked in goats. Imaging of these abscesses was obtained by means of labelling autologous granulocytes with 111 In oxinate, reinjection of the cells into the animal, and scintigraphy by gamma camera one day later. Comparable imaging results, however, were obtained after intravenous of 111 In oxinate or of 111 In chloride. The gamma camera images were supported by tissue distribution studies. In the case of administration of 111 In oxinate to the goats, the radioactivity accumulated in the cell fraction of the blood to a significant extent. This did not occur in the case of plain 111 In chloride. It remained unexplained why such different accumulation in cells did not result in differences in the scintigraphic studies. Blood clearance studies supplied conclusive evidence that the granulocytes stayed in the circulation for several days following labelling with 111 In oxinate and reinjection of the cells into the animals. (orig.) [de

  2. Electrochemical properties of actinides in molten chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambertin, D.; Lacquement, J.; Sanchez, S.; Picard, G.

    2000-01-01

    The chemical properties of plutonium and cerium chlorides have been studied in the fused CaCl 2 -NaCl equimolar mixture at 550 deg. C using a tungsten working electrode and a pO 2- indicator electrode. The standard potential of Pu(III)/Pu was determined using cyclic voltammetry. The solubility product of Pu 2 O 3 was calculated by potentiometric titration. The standard potential of Ce(III)/Ce have been determined by a potentiometry method. Potentiometric titrations of Ce(III) have been shown the existence of a soluble cerium oxychloride. All these data allowed us to draw the potential-pO 2- diagram which summarises the properties of plutonium and cerium compounds in the melt. (authors)

  3. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect....... Thus, orally administered DDC enhanced cadmium-induced duodenal and ileal tissue damage and inhibition of peristalsis, as indicated by an increased intestinal transit time. At low cadmium doses, the whole-body retention of cadmium was increased by oral DDC administration. Intraperitoneally administered...... DDC increased cadmium-induced acute mortality and testicular necrosis, and it enhanced cadmium-induced reduction of intestinal motility and increased the whole-body retention of cadmium, indicating increased intestinal cadmium absorption. Also, DDC changed the organ distribution of absorbed cadmium...

  4. 46 CFR 151.50-75 - Ferric chloride solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ferric chloride solution. 151.50-75 Section 151.50-75... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-75 Ferric chloride solution... solution must be lined with rubber, corrosion resistant plastic, or a material approved by the Commandant...

  5. Natural formation of vinyl chloride in the terrestrial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler, Frank; Borchers, Reinhard; Pracht, Jens; Rheinberger, Stefan; Scholer, Heinz F

    2002-06-01

    Vinyl chloride is a highly reactive and toxic substance which is widely used in industry. It is the parent compound of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), one of the most important industrial polymers. Until now, it was thought that vinyl chloride found in the environment is exclusively man-made or results from the degradation of other anthropogenic substances, such as trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene. Here, we demonstrate that vinyl chloride also has natural sources. Soil air and ambient air from a rural area in Northern Germany were investigated for volatile chlorinated halocarbons. The concentrations of vinyl chloride in the soil air were significantly enhanced as compared to ambient air, indicating a natural formation of this compound in the soil. A series of laboratory experiments using different soils and model compounds was conducted, which clearly proved that vinyl chloride could be produced during soil processes. We propose that this highly reactive compound can be formed during the oxidative degradation of organic matter in soil, for example, in a reaction between humic substances, chloride ions and an oxidant (ferric ions or hydroxyl radicals). The redox-sensitive aromatic compounds in soil such as catechols and o-quinones can be degraded to CO2, accompanied by the release of vinyl chloride and other volatile chlorinated compounds. This process could have started in the Late Silurian to Early Devonian, 400 million years ago, when the first soils on earth evolved.

  6. Myotonic discharges discriminate chloride from sodium muscle channelopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, Gea; Stunnenberg, Bas C.; Trip, Jeroen; Borm, George; McGill, Kevin C.; Ginjaar, Ieke H. B.; van der Kooi, Arendina W.; Zwarts, Machiel J.; van Engelen, Baziel G. M.; Faber, Catharina G.; Stegeman, Dick F.; Lateva, Zoia

    Non-dystrophic myotonic syndromes represent a heterogeneous group of clinically quite similar diseases sharing the feature of myotonia. These syndromes can be separated into chloride and sodium channelopathies, with gene-defects in chloride or sodium channel proteins of the sarcolemmal membrane.

  7. Lattice dynamical calculations for bcc caesium chloride | Taura ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a lattice dynamical calculation of Caesium Chloride (CsCl) whose atoms form a bcc lattice having one type of atom at the cube centre and the other type on the corners of the cube. Dispersion curves, density of state, and lattice specific heat of bcc Caesium Chloride were computed. The code used in the ...

  8. An insight into the passivation of cupronickel alloys in chloride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cupronickels offer enhanced corrosion protection in marine environments by the formation of passive films on the surface. Cyclic voltammetric studies were carried on cupronickels in chloride solutions at H 6.3 to understand the role of chloride ions in passive film formation. Increase in nickel content of the alloy and of ...

  9. Tomato pomace protects against mercuric chloride-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mercuric chloride is an environmental toxicant that causes health hazards. One of the mechanisms of its toxicity is oxidative stress which antioxidants are expected to ameliorate. Tomato is reported to possess antioxidant activity and this study investigated tomato pomace powder's (TPP) effect on mercuric chloride (HgCl2) ...

  10. Influence of granular strontium chloride as additives on some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Influence of granular strontium chloride as additives on some electrical and mechanical properties for pure polyvinyl alcohol. A B Elaydy M Hafez ... Keywords. Polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA); granular strontium chloride, SrCl2; a.c. electrical conductivity; dielectric constant; dielectric loss; Young's modulus; creep relaxation curve.

  11. Stability constants of the Europium complexes with the chloride ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez R, M.; Solache R, M.; Rojas H, A.

    2000-01-01

    The stability constants of lanthanides complexes with chloride ions which were determined at the same ionic force but in different media, are significantly different. It does not exist a systematic study over these stability constants. The purpose of this work is to determine the stability constants of the europium complexes with chloride ions at 303 K, by the solvents extraction method. (Author)

  12. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165 Section 172.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  13. Lattice dynamical calculations for bcc caesium chloride | Taura ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In general, the obtained results agree reasonably well with the experimental data of the bcc Caesium Chloride. Keywords: Bcc caesium chloride; Lattice dynamics; Phonon dispersion; Density of state; Specific heat. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics, Volume 20 (March, 2012), pp 261 – 266 ...

  14. Buried chloride stereochemistry in the Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carugo, Oliviero

    2014-09-23

    Despite the chloride anion is involved in fundamental biological processes, its interactions with proteins are little known. In particular, we lack a systematic survey of its coordination spheres. The analysis of a non-redundant set (pairwise sequence identity proteins. The results of these analyses are useful in interpreting, describing, and validating new protein crystal structures that contain chloride anions.

  15. Hydrogen and chlorine isotope exchange in n-methylimidazolium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szydlowski, J.; Kimizuka, W.

    1993-01-01

    Isotope exchange of deuterium and 36 Cl between N-methylimidazolium chloride and gaseous hydrogen chloride has been studied over the temperature range of 249-322 K. A mechanism of exchange for both atoms is proposed and the equilibrium isotope effect of deuterium accompanying this reaction is discussed. (author) 10 refs.; 1 tab

  16. Chloride penetration into cementitious mortar at early age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caballero, J.; Polder, R.B.; Leegwater, G.A.; Fraaij, A.L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Modern service life design methods for concrete structures use chloride diffusion data as an input parameter. Abundant data exist for concrete at 28 days and, to a lesser extent, at later ages. This paper presents chloride diffusion data for mortar at ages between 1 day and 28 days age. Rapid

  17. Biological denitrification of fertiliser wastewater at high chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater from the fertiliser industry is characterised by high chloride concentration, normally varying between 60 and 76 g/ℓ. Experiments with biological denitrification were performed in laboratory-scale \\'fill and draw\\' reactors with synthetic fertiliser wastewater, with chloride concentrations up to 96.7 g Cl/ℓ at 37oC; the ...

  18. Experimental and numerical investigation of chloride ingress in cracked concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Šavija, B.

    2014-01-01

    Chloride induced corrosion of reinforcing steel is recognized as the most common deterioration mechanism affecting reinforced concrete structures. As such, it has been in focus of research for more than thirty years. Numerous studies of chloride ingress, corrosion initiation, and corrosion

  19. on crude water and sodium chloride extracts of Moringa stenopetala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-12-04

    Dec 4, 2006 ... effects and health problems associated with aluminum sulphate, polyaluminum chloride, polyaluminum sulphate, iron hydroxide, iron chloride, soda ash and synthetic polymers used in water treatment. Use of natural coagulants for treatment of water and wastewater in developing countries is an area that is.

  20. In-situ measurement of chloride ion concentration in concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar

    2015-01-01

    Chloride ions are one of the major contributors to degradation of reinforcement-concrete. The presence of these ions initiate pitting corrosion in the reinforcement steel and ultimately results in the failure of the construction. Thus, the chloride ion concentration inside concrete is a crucial

  1. Electrochemical Behavior of Copper in Thionyl Chloride Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    cuprous chloride ( CuCI ) by x-ray analysis. Thus, the reduction peak in the cyclic voltammograms at - 2.7 V (Figure 2) may be ascribed due to the...the oxidation of copper metal to cuprous chloride according to the equation: Cu + SOCl + AlCl4 -- CuCi + SOCl +AlCl + e (8) 2 4 4 Cyclic voltammograms

  2. Evaluation of vinyl chloride toxicity based on its metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedrychowski, R.; Chmielnicka, J.

    1985-01-01

    The processes of absorption, distribution and metabolization of vinyl chloride in the living organism are discussed. The latest views on the occurrence and excretion of vinyl chloride metabolites, possible indices of occupational exposure to this compound, have been presented. 100 references.

  3. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Fenfen; Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Kitajima, Yoshinori; Inada, Yasuhiro; Morisawa, Shinsuke; Tsuno, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl 2 , and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl 2 decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al 2 O 3 .CaCl 2 ) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl 2 . Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl 2 .

  4. Microwave Mapping Demonstration Using the Thermochromic Cobalt Chloride Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vu D.; Birdwhistell, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    An update to the thermochromic cobalt(II) chloride equilibrium demonstration is described. Filter paper that has been saturated with aqueous cobalt(II) chloride is heated for seconds in a microwave oven, producing a color change. The resulting pink and blue map is used to colorfully demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle and to illuminate the…

  5. Structure transitions between copper-sulphate and copper-chloride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Structure transitions between copper UPD adlayers on Au(111)–(1 × 1) in sulfuric acid and chloride containing electrolyte were investigated by in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy. We demon- strate that co-adsorbed sulphate ions in the (√3 × √3)R30° UPD adlayer are replaced by chloride ions and,.

  6. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method proved to be useful for exploring cement hydration-induced changes in the diffusion coefficient of cement paste.

    Se ha desarrollado un método para medir el coeficiente de difusión de los iones cloruro en la pasta de cemento, partiendo de una aplicación analítica de la segunda ley de Fick en un sistema de coordinadas cilíndrico. Este método, que es natural, demostró ser capaz de producir resultados de difusividad en tan solo un mes. Se consiguió reducir el tiempo de ensayo mediante el aprovechamiento de la tridimensionalidad del flujo desde el exterior al interior de la probeta. A fin de determinar la concentración de saturación, se sometieron las pastas de cemento Portland a una disolución de cloruros concentrada. Este método resultó ser útil en el estudio de los cambios del coeficiente de difusión de la pasta de cemento provocados por las reacciones de hidratación que tienen lugar en esta.

  7. Cotton response to mepiquat chloride and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro A. Rosolem

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gibberellin inhibitor growth regulators are used for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. canopy manipulation to avoid excess growth and yield losses. However, under temperatures below or over the optimum for cotton production the effect of mepiquat chloride (MC has not always been significant. In this experiment, cotton plants were grown in growth chambers to study the response to MC as affected by temperature and to determine if an increase in dose could overcome the temperature effects. Mepiquat chloride was applied at rates of 0, 15 and 30 g ai ha-1 at the pinhead square stage. Plants were then grown under three temperature regimes: 25/15 °C, 32/22 °C, and 39/29 °C (day/night temperatures for 51 days. Higher temperatures increased plant height, reproductive branches, fruit number, fruit abscission, and photosynthesis per unit area, but decreased leaf area and chlorophyll. The largest effect of MC on plant height was observed when the daily temperature was 32 °C, with nights of 22 °C, which was also best for plant growth. High temperatures not only decreased the effectiveness of MC on plant height control, but also caused lower dry matter and fruit number per plant. Low temperatures (25/15 ºC decreased cotton growth and fruit retention, but a higher concentration of MC was required per unit of growth reduction as compared with 32/22 ºC. At high temperatures, the rate of MC to be applied must be disproportionately increased, because either plant growth is impaired by high temperature lessening the effect of MC, or degradation of MC within the plant is too rapid.

  8. Facile Preparation of Chloride-Conducting Membranes : First Step towards a Room-Temperature Solid-State Chloride-Ion Battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gschwind, Fabienne; Steinle, Dominik; Sandbeck, Daniel; Schmidt, Celine; von Hauff, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Three types of chloride-conducting membranes based on polyvinyl chloride, commercial gelatin, and polyvinyldifluoride-hexafluoropolymer are introduced in this report. The polymers are mixed with chloride-containing salts, such as tetrabutylammonium chloride, and cast to form membranes. We studied

  9. Determination of the heat capacities of Lithium/BCX (bromide chloride in thionyl chloride) batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubow, Stephen A.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    1989-12-01

    Heat capacities of twelve different Lithium/BCX (BrCl in thionyl chloride) batteries in sizes AA, C, D, and DD were determined. Procedures and measurement results are reported. The procedure allowed simple, reproducible, and precise determinations of heat capacities of industrially important Lithium/BCX cells, without interfering with performance of the cells. Use of aluminum standards allowed the accuracy of the measurements to be maintained. The measured heat capacities were within 5 percent of calculated heat capacity values.

  10. Levels of CEA among vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, H.A. (City Univ. of New York, NY); Snyder, J.; Lewinson, T.; Woo, C.; Lilis, R.; Selikoff, I.J

    1978-09-01

    In 1974, vinyl chloride exposed workers were found to have an increased risk of malignant disease (hemangiosarcoma of the liver). We have examined 1,147 workers exposed to vinyl chloride monomer in three VC/PVC polymerization plants, and 269 workers from a PVC extrusion plant manufacturing PVC textile leather, exposed to much lower concentrations of vinyl chloride. Included among the comprehensive clinical and laboratory studies conducted was the CEA titer. We obtained, respectively, 1,115 and 248 CEA titers. Multiple factors were demonstrated which affected the distribution of CEA titers. Cigarette use had the greatest effect, followed by history of specific past illnesses and alcohol intake history. After removing these possible confounding effects, the distribution of CEA titers among the polymerization workers was significantly different from the extrusion plant group and from an unexposed comparison group. Of the six job categories analyzed, only production and maintenance workers had CEA titer distributions significantly different from the comparison group and the extrusion workers. The investigation demonstrates that occupational exposures in VC/PVC polymerization plants can cause elevations in the CEA titers of otherwise healthy individuals. Prospective follow-up is necessary before conclusions can be drawn concerning the usefulness of the CEA titer as a predictive indicator of possible increased risk.

  11. Estimating Anthropogenic Emissions of Hydrogen Chloride and Fine Particulate Chloride in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X.; Wang, T.; Wang, S.; Zhang, L.

    2017-12-01

    Nitryl chloride (ClNO2) can significantly impact the atmospheric photochemistry via photolysis and subsequent reactions of chlorine radical with other gases. The formation of ClNO2 in the atmosphere is sensitive to the emissions of chlorine-containing particulates from oceanic and anthropogenic sources. For China, the only available anthropogenic chlorine emission inventory was compiled for the year 1990 with a coarse resolution of 1 degree. In this study, we developed an up-to-date anthropogenic inventory of hydrogen chloride (HCl) and fine particulate chloride (Cl-) emissions in China for the year 2014, including coal burning, industrial processes, biomass burning and waste burning. Bottom-up and top-down methodologies were combined. Detailed local data (e.g. Cl content in coal, control technologies, etc.) were collected and applied. In order to improve the spatial resolution of emissions, detailed point source information were collected for coal-fired power plants, cement factories, iron & steel factories and waste incineration factories. Uncertainties of this emission inventory and their major causes were analyzed using the Monte Carlo method. This work enables better quantification of the ClNO2 production and impact over China.

  12. Ab initio Investigations of the Equilibria between Trichlorothioacetyl Chloride, Tetrachlorothiirane, and Trichloroethenesulfenyl Chloride, their Reactants and Decomposition Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Vestergaard; Christensen, Henrik; Shim, Irene

    2004-01-01

    Trichlorothioacetyl chloride 1, tetrachlorothiirane 2, and trichloroethenesulfenyl chloride 3 and the equilibria between them have been investigated by ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF), Møller-Plesset second order perturbation (MP2) calculations, and by Gaussian-3 theory, G3(MP2). The transition states...

  13. Modified chloride diffusion model for concrete under the coupling effect of mechanical load and chloride salt environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Mingfeng; Lin, Dayong; Liu, Jianwen; Shi, Chenghua; Ma, Jianjun; Yang, Weichao; Yu, Xiaoniu

    2018-03-01

    For the purpose of investigating lining concrete durability, this study derives a modified chloride diffusion model for concrete based on the odd continuation of boundary conditions and Fourier transform. In order to achieve this, the linear stress distribution on a sectional structure is considered, detailed procedures and methods are presented for model verification and parametric analysis. Simulation results show that the chloride diffusion model can reflect the effects of linear stress distribution of the sectional structure on the chloride diffusivity with reliable accuracy. Along with the natural environmental characteristics of practical engineering structures, reference value ranges of model parameters are provided. Furthermore, a chloride diffusion model is extended for the consideration of multi-factor coupling of linear stress distribution, chloride concentration and diffusion time. Comparison between model simulation and typical current research results shows that the presented model can produce better considerations with a greater universality.

  14. Studies on the mercuric chloride resistance of Staphylococcus aureus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaczi, L.; Fodor, M.; Milch, H.; Rethy, A.

    1962-01-01

    Among 409 pathogenic Staph. aureus strains 34% have been found to be sensitive, and 66% resistant, to mercuric chloride. The incidence of mercuric chloride resistant cultures among antibiotic sensitive staphylococci was 20%; among strains resistant to penicillin or to more than one antibiotic, 70%. Mercuric chloride resistant organisms occurred chiefly among phage group I and untypable strains; they were especially common among the so called epidemic strains of phage group I, and among cultures resistant to 4-6 antibiotics. In mercuric chloride sensitivity a thirtyfold, in merthiolate sensitivity only a two-fold difference has been revealed among the strains. The sulfydryl group content of mercuric chloride resistant organisms was only 1 1/2 times higher than that of sensitive bacteria. As to p-chlor mercuric benzoate binding capacity, a twofold difference was found between mercuric chloride sensitive and resistant staphylococci. The differences in the mercuric chloride resistance of various staphylococcal strains might be due to differences in the chemical structure of the cell surface. 9 references, 1 figure, 6 tables.

  15. Speciation of cobalt-chloride-based ionic liquids and electrodeposition of Co wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Yi-Ting; Lai, Mei-Chun; Huang, Hsin-Liang; Sun, I.-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Template-free electrodeposition of cobalt nanowires arrays can be achieved from Lewis acidic CoCl 2 -EMIC ionic liquids. • SEM and TEM images reveal the diameter of the nanowire is around 200 nm, and the XPS data shows that cobalt oxide is formed at the surface of the nanowire. • MALDI-TOF-MS, XAS, and UV-vis spectroscopy results show that the coordination number and the mean Co-Cl bond length are depending on the molar ratio of CoCl 2 and EMIC. - Abstract: The speciation and coordination of cobalt-chloride-based ionic liquids with various mole percentages of CoCl 2 were investigated using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The coordination number and the mean Co-Cl bond length decreases with increasing CoCl 2 concentration, indicating that various Co(II) chloride compounds such as CoCl 4 2- , Co 2 Cl 5 - , and Co 3 Cl 7 − are formed depending on the molar ratio of CoCl 2 and EMIC in the melt. While the [CoCl 4 ] 2− complex formed in the Lewis basic melts and is electrochemically inactive within the electrochemical window of the melt, the other coordination-unsaturated cobalt chloride compounds formed in Lewis acidic melts can be electrochemically reduced to cobalt metal. The template-free electrodeposition of Co nanowires can be achieved from 40-60 mol% and 50-50 mol% CoCl 2 -EMIC (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride) ionic liquids without any additives. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the surface of the deposits

  16. Lithium-thionyl chloride batteries - past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCartney, J.F.; Lund, T.J.; Sturgeon, W.J.

    1980-02-01

    Lithium based batteries have the highest theoretical energy density of known battery types. Of the lithium batteries, the lithium-thionyl chloride electrochemistry has the highest energy density of those which have been reduced to practice. The characteristics, development status, and performance of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries are treated in this paper. Safety aspects of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries are discussed along with impressive results of hazard/safety tests of these batteries. An orderly development plan of a minimum family of standard cells to avoid a proliferation of battery sizes and discharge rates is presented.

  17. Denitrification of fertilizer wastewater at high chloride concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl; Henze, Mogens

    Wastewater from fertilizer industry is characterized by high contents of chloride concentration, which normally vary between 60 and 76 g/l. Experiments with bilogical denitrification were performed in lab-scale "fill and draw" reactors with synthetic wastewater with chloride concentrations up to 77.......4 g/l. The results of the experiments showed that biological denitrification was feasible at the extreme environmental conditions prevailing in fertilizer wastewater. Stable continuous biological denitrfication of the synthetic high chloride wastewater was performed up to 77.4 g Cl/l at 37 degree C...

  18. System reliability of concrete structures subjected to chloride ingress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leira, B.J.; Thöns, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The parameters relevant for prediction of service lifetime with respect to chloride ingress are associated with large uncertainties. Full-scale measurements are in demand for conditions which are as homogeneous as possible. The present paper first summarizes statistical distributions which...... are obtained based on measurements from the Gimsøystraumen bridge in Norway. These probability distributions are subsequently employed as input to a prediction model for chloride concentration at the steel reinforcement for a single but arbitrary position along the reinforcement. In order to address chloride...

  19. Method for the production of uranium chloride salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Brian R.; Mariani, Robert D.

    2013-07-02

    A method for the production of UCl.sub.3 salt without the use of hazardous chemicals or multiple apparatuses for synthesis and purification is provided. Uranium metal is combined in a reaction vessel with a metal chloride and a eutectic salt- and heated to a first temperature under vacuum conditions to promote reaction of the uranium metal with the metal chloride for the production of a UCl.sub.3 salt. After the reaction has run substantially to completion, the furnace is heated to a second temperature under vacuum conditions. The second temperature is sufficiently high to selectively vaporize the chloride salts and distill them into a condenser region.

  20. It is chloride depletion alkalosis, not contraction alkalosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Robert G; Galla, John H

    2012-02-01

    Maintenance of metabolic alkalosis generated by chloride depletion is often attributed to volume contraction. In balance and clearance studies in rats and humans, we showed that chloride repletion in the face of persisting alkali loading, volume contraction, and potassium and sodium depletion completely corrects alkalosis by a renal mechanism. Nephron segment studies strongly suggest the corrective response is orchestrated in the collecting duct, which has several transporters integral to acid-base regulation, the most important of which is pendrin, a luminal Cl/HCO(3)(-) exchanger. Chloride depletion alkalosis should replace the notion of contraction alkalosis.

  1. Thirty Years of Sweat Chloride Testing at One Referral Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alethéa Guimarães Faria

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo conduct a descriptive analysis of the sweat test (ST, associating ST results with epidemiological data, CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutations and reasons to indicate the ST, as well as correlating sweat sodium and sweat chloride concentrations in subjects.MethodsRetrospective survey and descriptive analysis of 5,721 ST at a university referral center.ResultsThe inclusion of the subjects was based on clinical data related with cystic fibrosis (CF phenotype. The samples were grouped by (i sweat chloride concentrations (mEq/L: <30: 3,249/5,277 (61.6%; ≥30 to <60: 1,326/5,277 (25.1%; ≥60: 702/5,277 (13.3% and (ii age: (Group A––GA 0 to <6 months; (Group B––GB ≥6 months to <18 years; (Group C––GC ≥18 years. Digestive symptoms showed higher prevalence ratio for the CF diagnosis as well as association between younger age and higher values of sweat chloride, sweat sodium, and chloride/sodium ratio. The indication of ST due to respiratory symptoms was higher in GB and associated with greater age, lower values of sweat chloride, sweat sodium, and chloride/sodium ratio. There was higher prevalence of ST with sweat chloride levels <30 mEq/L in GB, ≥60 mEq/L in GC, and with borderline level in GB. There was positive correlation between sweat sodium and sweat chloride. Sweat chloride/sweat sodium and sweat sodium–sweat chloride indexes showed association with sex, reason for ST indication, and CFTR mutations. Sex alters some values presented in the ST. The number of ST/year performed before and after the newborn screening implementation was the same; however, we observed a higher number of borderlines values. A wide spectrum of CFTR mutation was found. Severe CFTR mutations and F508del/F508del genotype were associated with highest probability of ST chloride levels ≥60 mEq/L, and the absence of CFTR mutations identified was associated with borderline ST and respiratory symptoms

  2. Chloride ion erosion experiment research in cracked concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Shu; Yang, Li

    2017-08-01

    For the study of chloride ion erosion in cracked concrete, this essay tries to take advantages of relevant trails to build up concrete chloride ion diffusion model based on the Fick’s second law. The parameter of this model is easy to be set, and many factors such as the effect of cracks are taken into consideration in this experiment. The concept of “chloride ion diffusion coefficient of equivalent apparent” is introduced to simplify the calculation. It can help simplify the calculation process, and get a more accurate test result, as well as facilitating the practical application of this parameter.

  3. Stochastic Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Structures Exposed to Chloride Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Frier, Christian

    2003-01-01

    concentration and reinforcement cover depth are modeled by stochastic fields. The paper contains a description of the parameters to be included in a stochastic model and a proposal for the information needed to obtain values for the parameters in order to be ab le to perform reliability investigations...... the reinforcement exceeds a critical threshold value. In the present paper a stochastic model is described by which the chloride content in a reinforced concrete structure can be estimated. The chloride ingress is modeled by a 2-dimensional diffusion process and the diffusion coefficient, surface chloride...

  4. Molten Triazolium Chloride Systems as New Aluminum Battery Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, B.; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of using molten mixtures of 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium chloride (DMTC) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) as secondary battery electrolytes was studied, in some cases extended by the copresence of sodium chloride. DMTC-AlCl, mixtures demonstrated high specific conductivity in a wide...... of milliamperes per square centimeter) was observed at 0.344 V on the acidic sodium tetrachloroaluminate background, involving a free triazolium radical mechanism. Molten DMTC-AlCl3 electrolytes are acceptable for battery performance and both the aluminum anode and the triazolium electrolyte can be used as active...

  5. A study on chlorination of uranium metal using ammonium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun, H.C.; Kim, T.J.; Jang, J.H.; Kim, G.Y.; Lee, S.J.; Hur, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the chlorination of uranium metal using ammonium chloride (NH 4 Cl) was conducted to derive an easy and simple uranium chloride production method without impurities. In thermodynamic equilibrium calculations, it was predicted that only uranium chlorides can be produced by the reactions between uranium metal and NH 4 Cl. Experimental conditions for the chlorination of uranium metal were determined using a chlorination test of cerium metal using NH 4 Cl. It was confirmed that UCl 3 and UCl 4 in the form of particles as uranium chlorination products can be obtained from the chlorination method using NH 4 Cl. (author)

  6. Chloride Channelopathies of ClC-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Miao Miao; Hong, Sen; Zhou, Hong Yan; Wang, Hong Wei; Wang, Li Na; Zheng, Ya Juan

    2014-01-01

    Chloride channels (ClCs) have gained worldwide interest because of their molecular diversity, widespread distribution in mammalian tissues and organs, and their link to various human diseases. Nine different ClCs have been molecularly identified and functionally characterized in mammals. ClC-2 is one of nine mammalian members of the ClC family. It possesses unique biophysical characteristics, pharmacological properties, and molecular features that distinguish it from other ClC family members. ClC-2 has wide organ/tissue distribution and is ubiquitously expressed. Published studies consistently point to a high degree of conservation of ClC-2 function and regulation across various species from nematodes to humans over vast evolutionary time spans. ClC-2 has been intensively and extensively studied over the past two decades, leading to the accumulation of a plethora of information to advance our understanding of its pathophysiological functions; however, many controversies still exist. It is necessary to analyze the research findings, and integrate different views to have a better understanding of ClC-2. This review focuses on ClC-2 only, providing an analytical overview of the available literature. Nearly every aspect of ClC-2 is discussed in the review: molecular features, biophysical characteristics, pharmacological properties, cellular function, regulation of expression and function, and channelopathies. PMID:24378849

  7. [Effect of pilocarpine chloride on pseudoplastic hydrogel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatloukal, Z

    2003-05-01

    Colloidal aqueous dispersions of 2 to 5% (weight) of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HMPC 4000) yield pseudoplastic mucilages and gels. Rotational viscosimetry in the cone-plate arrangement enables rapid and reproducible evaluation of the transitional region between pseudoplastic and plastic deformation, characterized by Herschel-Bulkley equation. To the traditional Ostwald's two-parameter relationship it adds a third one, revealing a deviation from the beginning of the coordinates of the rheogram caused by the limiting yield stress. The obtained equations make it possible not only to estimate apparent and real viscosity, but also the area under the curve of the pseudoplastic rheogram. The actual precondition of integration, however, is the estimation of the limiting yield stress as the shear rate for the zero shear stress. Experimental estimation of the bottom margin for the integration of the area under the curve makes mutual comparability of rheograms possible. At a temperature of 32 degrees C, analysis of variance demonstrated a significant diminution of this area in the presence of about 2% of pilocarpinium chloride.

  8. Antibiotic bonding to polytetrafluoroethylene with tridodecylmethylammonium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, R.A.; Alcid, D.V.; Greco, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) treated with the cationic surfactant, triodecylmethylammonium chloride (TDMAC), binds 14 C-penicillin (1.5 to 2 mg antibiotic/cm graft), whereas untreated PTFE or PTFE treated with anionic detergents shows little binding of antibiotic. TDMAC-treated PTFE concomitantly binds penicillin and heparin, generating a surface that potentially can resist both infection and thrombosis. The retention of these biologically active molecules is not due to passive entrapment in the PTFE but reflects an ionic interaction between the anionic ligands and surface-bound TDMAC. Penicillin bound to PTFE is not removed by exhaustive washing in aqueous buffers but is slowly released in the presence of plasma or when the PTFE is placed in a muscle pouch in the rat. Muscle tissue adjacent to the treated PTFE shows elevated levels of antibiotic following implantation. PTFE treated with TDMAC and placed in a muscle pouch binds 14 C-penicillin when it is locally irrigated with antibiotic or when penicillin is administered intravenously. Thus, the TDMAC surface treated either in vitro or in vivo with penicillin provides an effective in situ source for the timed release of antibiotic

  9. Redetermination of 1-carboxycyclohexan-1-aminium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa González

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, C7H14NO2+·Cl−, was reported previously [Chacko, Srinivasan & Zand (1975. J. Cryst. Mol. Struct. 5, 353–357] from Weissenberg photographic data with R = 0.113. It has now been redetermined, providing a significant increase in the precision of the derived geometric parameters, viz. mean σ(C—C = 0.003 Å in the present work compared with 0.021 Å for the previous work. The complete cation is generated by crystallographic mirrror symmetry, with three C atoms, two O atoms and the N atom lying on the reflecting plane; the chloride anion also has m site symmetry. The crystal structure is established by a two-dimensional network of O—H...Cl and N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, generating C12(4 and C12(7 chains, and R24(8 and R24(14 rings.

  10. Applicability of boron-doped diamond electrode to the degradation of chloride-mediated and chloride-free wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Meifen; Zhao Guohua; Li Mingfang; Liu Lei; Li Dongming

    2009-01-01

    The electrochemical degradation of chloride-mediated and chloride-free dye wastewaters was investigated on a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode in comparison with that on a dimensionally stable anode (DSA), and the applicability of BDD electrode to the degradation of these two kinds of wastewaters was explored. In chloride-free wastewater, the electrochemical degradation efficiency of dye on BDD electrode was much higher than that on DSA, with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 100% and 26% for BDD and DSA, respectively. In chloride-mediated dye wastewater, COD removal was faster than that in chloride-free wastewater on both BDD and DSA electrodes with COD removal efficiencies higher than 95%, whereas the rate of COD removal on DSA was faster than that on BDD electrode. The investigation indicates that DSA is more suitable than BDD electrode in degradation of originally chloride contained dye wastewaters for the sake of energy and time saving. However, for chloride-free dye wastewaters, with the aim of environmental protection, BDD electrode is more appropriate to realize complete mineralization. At the same time, the secondary pollution can be avoided

  11. Optical, thermal and magnetic studies of pure and cobalt chloride doped L-alanine cadmium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benila, B.S., E-mail: benjane.benila@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Research Centre, Scott Christian College (Autonomous), Nagercoil 629 003 (India); Bright, K.C. [Department of Physics, St. John' s College, Anchal, Kollam 691 306 (India); Delphine, S. Mary [Department of Physics, Holy Cross College (Autonomous), Nagercoil 629 004 (India); Shabu, R. [Department of Physics and Research Centre, Scott Christian College (Autonomous), Nagercoil 629 003 (India)

    2017-03-15

    Single crystals of L-alanine cadmium chloride (LACC) and cobalt chloride (Co{sup 2+}) doped LACC have been grown by the slow evaporation solution growth technique. The grown crystals were subjected to various characterizations such as powder XRD, SXRD, FTIR, UV–vis, EDAX, TG/DTA, VSM, Dielectric and Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) measurements. The lattice parameters of the grown crystals were determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. EDAX analysis confirms the presence of Co{sup 2+} ion in the host material. The functional group and optical behavior of the crystals were identified from FTIR and UV-vis spectrum analysis. Electrical parameters such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss have been studied. The thermal stability of the compound was found out using TGA/DTA analysis. Second Harmonic Generation of the samples was confirmed by Kurtz-Perry powder technique. Magnetic properties of the crystals studied by VSM were also reported. The encouraging results show that the cobalt chloride doped LACC crystals have greater potential applications in optical devices. - Graphical abstract: Fig (a) and (b) shows the transparent, stable single crystals of pure and doped crystals were obtained using slow evaporation technique. The sizes of pure and doped crystals are 20×9×2 mm{sup 3} and 18×15×1 mm{sup 3} respectively. Fig (c) is the Hysteresis loop traced at room temperature for the pure and doped crystals explains the soft ferromagnetic nature of the doped crystal. The provision for changing the value of coercivity can be used for security, switching and sensing applications. - Highlights: • Defect free crystals of pure and Co{sup 2+} ion doped L-alanine cadmium chloride were grown. • The optical, dielectric and magnetic properties of pure crystals were enhanced by adding Co{sup 2+} ion. • High optical transmittance was obtained in the entire visible and IR region. • Addition of dopant to the pure crystal altered the coercivity. • Low dielectric

  12. Electrical, thermal and abusive tests on lithium thionyl chloride cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1980-04-01

    Electrical characterizations, thermal characterizations, and outer limits tests of lithium thionyl chloride cells are discussed. Graphs of energy density vs power density and heat rate vs time are presented along with results of forced reversal and high rate discharge tests.

  13. Active primary lithium thionyl chloride battery for artillery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, A.R.; Delnick, F.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Miller, D.L. (Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc., Joplin, MO (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Eagle Picher Industries have successfully developed an Active Lithium Thionyl Chloride (ALTC) power battery for unique artillery applications. Details of the design and the results of safety and performance will be presented. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  14. Active primary lithium thionyl chloride battery for artillery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Arlen R.; Delnick, Frank M.; Miller, David L.

    1990-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Eagle Picher Industries have successfully developed an Active Lithium Thionyl Chloride (ALTC) power battery for unique artillery applications. Details of the design and the results of safety and performance will be presented.

  15. Cholesterol-lowering drug, in combination with chromium chloride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lovastatin, being an inhibitor of HMG-CoA-Reductase, inhibitsinfection by cholesterol depletion, while chromium chloride complexes, at their higher concentrations, are reported toexhibit cytotoxicity. In intracellular amastigotes, cytotoxicity has been checked by assessing various manifestation of celldeath, viz.

  16. Generation of nitryl chloride from chlorotrimethylsilane-acetyl nitrate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    amyl nitrate does not yield NO2Cl with silicon reagent. However, acetyl nitrate reacts successfully with chlorotrimethylsi- lane to give nitryl chloride, which is characterized by its UV spectrum. If it is generated in presence of ketoximes ...

  17. Diffusion vs. concentration of chloride ions in concrete : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Florida Department of Transportation : (FDOT) maintains hundreds of bridges, and also : builds new ones, in marine environments. These : structures are built with reinforced steel, and : over time, chloride ions from sea salt can migrate : throug...

  18. Diffusion vs. concentration of chloride ions in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This investigation was performed to gain insight and assist in determining the long-term durability of : reinforced concrete structures where the external chloride concentrations are different than those typically : observed at the permanently immers...

  19. Evaluation of an alternative deicing chemical vs. conventional sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    A research project was initiated to evaluate the performance and cost effectiveness of a proprietary, pre-blended, : roadway-deicing chemical on New Hampshire highways. The evaluated material is a patented blend of sodium chloride, liquid : magnesium...

  20. Effect of chloride-based deicers on reinforced concrete structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We conducted an extensive literature review and performed laboratory tests to assess the effect of chloride-based deicers on the rebars and dowel bars in concrete and to determine whether or not deicer corrosion inhibitors help preserve the transport...

  1. Analysis of chloride diffusivity in concrete containing red mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Red mud is a solid waste produced in the alumina production process and, due to its high pH, is classified as hazardous. Its incorporation in concrete mixtures, acting as filler due to the particles fineness, might be an interesting reuse alternative. The focus of this paper is to study the chloride diffusivity of concrete mixtures containing red-mud. The concentration of chlorides was monitored by measuring the conductivity of the anolyte, which was distilled water initially. In addition, the estimation of the chloride ions diffusion coefficients in steady and non-steady conditions, Ds and Dns, was obtained from the ''time-lag'' and ''equivalent time'' between diffusion and migration experiments. Due to superfine particle-size distribution and the "filler" effect, the red mud addition seems to assure lower chloride diffusivity.

  2. Development of chloride-resisting concrete using fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhir, R.K.; Jones, M.R. [University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering, Concrete Technology Unit

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes how low-lime fly ash can be used to develop chloride-resistant concrete by improving both its physical resistance to the ingress of chloride and binding capacity of these ions in the cover zone. This includes optimizing the fly ash content, reducing the water/binder ratio of the concrete, processing fly ash to improve its particulate characteristics and, finally, using ternary blends with silica fume or metakaolin. This last method is shown to provide the highest degree of chloride resistance. A tentative classification of chloride-bearing environments together with recommendations for the specification of concrete for structures exposed to these environments, is proposed. 15 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. The management of Frey's syndrome with aluminium chloride hexahydrate antiperspirant.

    OpenAIRE

    Black, M. J.; Gunn, A.

    1990-01-01

    Nine patients suffering from gustatory sweating (Frey's syndrome) following parotidectomy have been treated by topical applications of aluminium chloride hexahydrate. Treatment has successfully controlled gustatory sweating using application intervals varying from 1 to 50 days.

  4. Chloride Ingress in Concrete Cracks under Cyclic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, André; Geiker, Mette Rica; Olesen, John Forbes

    2005-01-01

    was similar for both sets and the maximum crack width was kept constant throughout the exposure period by means of precracking and an external prestressed reinforcement. Chloride profiles after 40 days revealed a considerable increase in ingress towards the crack tip in contrast to data from the literature....... Preliminary investigations have been undertaken to quantify the effect of dynamic load application on the chloride ingress into concrete cracks. Specimens were designed allowing ingress of a chloride solution into a single crack of a saturated unreinforced mortar beam. One set of specimens was subjected...... to a load frequency of ten applications per minute and a second set to one application per hour simulating static cracks, however limiting the ingress hampering effects of autogenous healing and a possible dense precipitation on the crack faces. The averaged chloride exposure interval of the crack faces...

  5. Inactivation of Biological Agents Using Neutral Oxone-Chloride Solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delcomyn, Carrie A; Bushway, Karen E; Henley, Michael V

    2006-01-01

    ... to contaminated equipment or terrain. A neutral, bicarbonate-buffered aqueous solution of Oxone and sodium chloride that rapidly generates hypochlorite and hypochlorous acid in situ was evaluated as a new alternative to bleach...

  6. Heterogeneous Reaction gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen, Raimo S.; Chu, Liang T.; Leu, Ming-Taun

    1994-01-01

    The heterogeneous reaction of gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride was investigated over a temperature range of 220 - 300 K in a flow-tube reactor interfaced with a differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer.

  7. Prediction of chloride ingress and binding in cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Nielsen, Erik Pram; Herforth, Duncan

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent work on an analytical model for predicting the ingress rate of chlorides in cement-based materials. An integral part of this is a thermodynamic model for predicting the phase equilibria in hydrated Portland cement. The model’s ability to predict chloride binding...... in Portland cement pastes at any content of chloride, alkalis, sulfates and carbonate was verified experimentally and found to be equally valid when applied to other data in the literature. The thermodynamic model for predicting the phase equilibria in hydrated Portland cement was introduced into an existing...... Finite Difference Model for the ingress of chlorides into concrete which takes into account its multi-component nature. The “composite theory” was then used to predict the diffusivity of each ion based on the phase assemblage present in the hydrated Portland cement paste. Agreement was found between...

  8. A study on dehydration of rare earth chloride hydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Zun; Eun, Hee Chul; Son, Sung Mo; Lee, Tae Kyo; Hwang, Taek Sung

    2012-01-01

    The dehydration schemes of rare earth (La, Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm. Eu, Gd, Y) chloride hydrates was investigated by using a dehydration apparatus. To prevent the formation of the rare earth oxychlorides, the operation temperature was changed step by step (80→150→230 degree C) based on the TGA (thermo-gravimetric analysis) results of the rare earth chloride hydrates. A vacuum pump and preheated Ar gas were used to effectively remove the evaporated moisture and maintain an inert condition in the dehydration apparatus. The dehydration temperature of the rare earth chloride hydrate was increased when the atomic number of the rare earth nuclide was increased. The content of the moisture in the rare earth chloride hydrate was decreased below 10% in the dehydration apparatus.

  9. Facile Preparation of Chloride-Conducting Membranes: First Step towards a Room-Temperature Solid-State Chloride-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Fabienne; Steinle, Dominik; Sandbeck, Daniel; Schmidt, Celine; von Hauff, Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    Three types of chloride-conducting membranes based on polyvinyl chloride, commercial gelatin, and polyvinyldifluoride-hexafluoropolymer are introduced in this report. The polymers are mixed with chloride-containing salts, such as tetrabutylammonium chloride, and cast to form membranes. We studied the structural properties, thermal stability, and electrochemical response of the membranes to understand chloride migration and transport. Finally, the membranes are tested in a prototype solid-state chloride-ion battery setup. The feasibility of the membranes for their potential use in anion batteries is discussed.

  10. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fenfen; Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Kitajima, Yoshinori; Inada, Yasuhiro; Morisawa, Shinsuke; Tsuno, Hiroshi

    2010-06-15

    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl(2), and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl(2) decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al(2)O(3).CaCl(2)) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl(2). Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl(2). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Determination of Chloride Salt Solution by NIR Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Chen, Jian-hong; Jiao, Ming-xing

    2015-07-01

    Determination of chloride salt solution by near infrared spectrum plays a very important role in Biomedicine. The near infrared spectrum analysis of Sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride aqueous solution shows that the concentration change of chloride salt can affect hydrogen bond, resulting in the variation of near infrared spectrum of water. The temperature influence on NIR spectrum has been decreased by choosing reasonable wavelength range and the wavelength where the temperature effects are zero (isosbestic point). Chlorine salt prediction model was established based on partial least squares method and used for predicting the concentration of the chlorine ion. The impact on near infrared spectrum of the cation ionic radius, the number of ionic charge, the complex effect of ionic in water has also discussed in this article and the reason of every factor are analysed. Experimental results show that the temperature and concentration will affect the near-infrared spectrum of the solution, It is found that the effect of temperature plays the dominant role at low concentrations of chlorine salt; rather, the ionic dominates at high concentration. Chloride complexes are formed in aqueous solution, It has an effect on hydrogen bond of water combining with the cations in chlorine salt solution, Comparing different chloride solutions at the same concentration, the destruction effects of chloride complexes and catnions on the hydrogen bond of water increases in the sequences: CaCl2 >NaCl>KC. The modeling result shows that the determination coefficients (R2) = 99.97%, the root mean square error of cross validation (RM- SECV) = 4.51, and the residual prediction deviation (RPD) = 62.7, it meets the daily requirements of biochemical detection accuracy.

  12. Moessbauer studies of styrene-acrylonitrile copolymers containing ferric chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brar, A.S.; Sekhar, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Acrylonitrile-styrene (AN-St) copolymers of different compositions were prepared, with and without ferric chloride by free radical polymerization. It was found using Moessbauer spectroscopy that reduction of Fe 3+ to Fe 2+ took place during the polymerization. The addition of ferric chloride and the reduction of Fe 3+ was found to influence the thermal stability of the copolymers. (author) 6 refs.; 3 figs

  13. cis-Dichloridobis(1,10-phenanthrolinechromium(III chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Gao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [CrCl2(C12H8N22]Cl, the CrIII ion is situated on a twofold rotation axis and displays a slightly distorted octahedral CrCl2N4 coordination geometry. The Cr environment is composed of a cis arrangement of two 1,10-phenanthroline and two chloride ligands. The chloride counter-anion exhibits half-occupation and is equally disordered over two positions.

  14. Chloride regulates afferent arteriolar contraction in response to depolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Jensen, B L; Skott, O

    1998-01-01

    -Renal vascular reactivity is influenced by the level of dietary salt intake. Recent in vitro data suggest that afferent arteriolar contractility is modulated by extracellular chloride. In the present study, we assessed the influence of chloride on K+-induced contraction in isolated perfused rabbit...... and for the sympathetic nervous system in renal afferent arterioles. This could be of physiological relevance for the resetting of afferent arteriolar sensitivity during changes in salt intake....

  15. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Kyle Shelton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-28

    These are a set of slides intended for an information session as part of recruiting activities at Brigham Young University. It gives an overview of aqueous chloride operations, specifically on plutonium and americium purification/recovery. This presentation details the steps taken perform these processes, from plutonium size reduction, dissolution, solvent extraction, oxalate precipitation, to calcination. For americium recovery, it details the CLEAR (chloride extraction and actinide recovery) Line, oxalate precipitation and calcination.

  16. Synthesis and structural characterization of polyaniline/cobalt chloride composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asha, E-mail: arana5752@gmail.com [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, Bhagat Phool Singh Mahilla Vishwavidyalaya, Khanpur Kalan, Sonipat-131305 (India); Goyal, Sneh Lata; Kishore, Nawal [Department of Applied Physics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar-125001 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Polyaniline (PANI) and PANI /cobalt chloride composites were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline with CoCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O using ammonium peroxidisulphate as an oxidant. These composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD study reveals that both PANI and composites are amorphous. The XRD and SEM results confirm the presence of cobalt chloride in the composites.

  17. Micellar solubilization in strongly interacting binary surfactant systems. [Binary surfactant systems of: dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride + sodium dodecyl sulfate; benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride + tetradecyltrimethylammonium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treiner, C. (Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)); Nortz, M.; Vaution, C. (Faculte de Pharmacie de Paris-sud, Chatenay-Malabry (France))

    1990-07-01

    The apparent partition coefficient P of barbituric acids between micelles and water has been determined in mixed binary surfactant solutions from solubility measurements in the whole micellar composition range. The binary systems chosen ranged from the strongly interacting system dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride + sodium dodecyl sulfate to weakly interacting systems such as benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride + tetradecyltrimethyammonium chloride. In all cases studied, mixed micelle formation is unfavorable to micellar solubilization. A correlation is found between the unlike surfactants interaction energy, as measured by the regular solution parameter {beta} and the solute partition coefficient change upon surfactant mixing. By use of literature data on micellar solubilization in binary surfactant solutions, it is shown that the change of P for solutes which are solubilized by surface adsorption is generally governed by the sign and amplitude of the interaction parameter {beta}.

  18. [Effects of tributyltin chloride (TBT) and triphenyltin chloride (TPT) on rat testicular Leydig cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao-an; Li, Ming; Mu, Yi-ming; Lu, Zhao-hui; Li, Jiang-yuan

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the effects of tributyltin chloride (TBT) and triphenyltin chloride (TPT) on rat testicular Leydig cells. The rat Leydig cells (LC-540) were incubated with 0 to 80 nmol/L TBT and TPT for 24 to approximately 96 h, and then the cell viability was determined by MTT. DNA fragmentation ladder formation of cell apoptosis was examined by agarose electrophoresis. Effects of chelator of intracellular Ca2+ (BAPTA) and the inhibitors of PKA, PKC and TPK on cell apoptosis induced by TBT were observed. Effects of TBT on testosterone production in primary cultured rat Leydig cells treated with or without hCG were detected. TBT and TPT suppressed Leydig cell survival in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The suppressive effects of TBT and TPT on the cell survival was caused by apoptosis which was determined by DNA ladder formation. The apoptotic effect of TBT was possibly mediated by the rise in intracellular Ca2+ because it could be blocked by BAPTA, the chelator of intracellular Ca2+; PKA, PKC and TPK inhibitors did not prevent the apoptotic effects induced by TBT. TBT markedly suppressed testosterone production of primary cultured rat Leydig cells with or without hCG stimulation. TBT and TPT induced apoptosis in rat testicular Leydig cells possibly through increasing intracellular Ca2+. TBT reduced the testosterone production of rat Leydig cells.

  19. Contribution on creep polygonization study in crystals. Creep of single crystalline silver chloride and sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontikis, Vassilis

    1977-01-01

    Subgrain formation and their influence on plastic behavior of materials has been studied in the case of single crystals of silver chloride and sodium chloride crept at high temperature (T > 0.5 T melting ). It is shown that the creep rate ε is a function of the mean subgrain diameter d. For secondary creep ε ∝ d k with k = 2 for NaCl and AgCl. During secondary creep, the substructure changes continuously: sub-boundaries migrate and sub-grains rotate. We find that sub-boundaries migration accounts for 35 pc of the total strain and that subgrain misorientation θ increases linearly with strain ε: θ ∝ 0.14 ε. The stability of permanent creep seems related to the power that the substructure is able to dissipate. The possible subgrain formation mechanisms are examined. It is shown that subgrain formation is closely related to the geometrical conditions of deformation and to the heterogeneities of this later. (author) [fr

  20. Electric field dependence of the spin relaxation anisotropy in (111) GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balocchi, A; Amand, T; Renucci, P; Duong, Q H; Marie, X; Wang, G; Liu, B L

    2013-01-01

    Time-resolved optical spectroscopy experiments in (111)-oriented GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells (QWs) show a strong electric field dependence of the conduction electron spin relaxation anisotropy. This results from the interplay between the Dresselhaus and Rashba spin splitting in this system with C 3v symmetry. By varying the electric field applied perpendicular to the QW plane from 20 to 50 kV cm −1 the anisotropy of the spin relaxation time parallel (τ s ∥ ) and perpendicular (τ s ⊥ ) to the growth axis can be first canceled and eventually inversed with respect to the one usually observed in III–V zinc-blende QW (τ s ⊥ = 2τ s ∥ ). This dependence stems from the nonlinear contributions of the k-dependent conduction band spin splitting terms which begin to play the dominant spin relaxing role while the linear Dresselhaus terms are compensated by the Rashba ones through the applied bias. A spin density matrix model for the conduction band spin splitting including both linear and cubic terms of the Dresselhaus Hamiltonian is used which allows a quantitative description of the measured electric field dependence of the spin relaxation anisotropy. The existence of an isotropic point where the spin relaxation tensor reduces to a scalar is predicted and confirmed experimentally. The spin splitting compensation electric field and collision processes type in the QW can be likewise directly extracted from the model without complementary measurements. (paper)

  1. Congenital chloride diarrhea: a review of twelve Arabian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elrefae F

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fawaz Elrefae,1 Ahmed Farag Elhassanien,2 Hesham Abdel-Aziz Alghiaty3 1Pediatric Gastroenterology, Al-Adan Hospital, Kuwait; 2Faculty of Medicine, Elmansoura University, El Mansoura, El Dakahleya, Egypt; 3Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt Background: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD, a rare autosomal recessive disorder, is characterized by sustained watery diarrhea (due to defect of active Chloride/HCO3 exchange in the ileum and colon with high fecal chloride. Objective: To spotlight the common presentation of CCD for early management and prevention of complications. Subjects and methods: This is a retrospective case series study of patients diagnosed as CCD who were followed up in the pediatric department of Al-Adan Hospital, Kuwait. Results: Twelve patients diagnosed with CCD were born to consanguineous parents; had antenatal history of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR; polyhydramnios; and distended hypoechoic fetal bowel; and presented with abdominal distension, hypotonia and muscle wasting. 90% of patients had maternal hypertension and 75% of patients had absence of normal meconium at birth. Our patients showed a decrease in serum sodium, potassium, chloride and urine chloride. Conclusion: A high level of suspicion for an early diagnosis of CCD should be considered for any infant presenting with chronic diarrhea, especially in the presence of consanguineous marriage, and the characteristic features in antenatal ultrasound. Thus, allowing for early investigations and appropriate management. Keywords: congenital chloride diarrhea, children, chronic diarrhea, metabolic alkalosis, prenatal diagnosis

  2. Extractive process for preparing high purity magnesium chloride hexahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fezei Radouanne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers a method for the preparation of magnesium chloride hexahydrate (bischofite from Sebkha el Melah of Zarzis Tunisian natural brine. It is a five-stage process essentially based on crystallization by isothermal evaporation and chemical precipitation. The two first steps were dedicated to the crystallization of sodium chloride and potassiummagnesium double salts, respectively. Then, the resulting liquor was desulfated using calcium chloride solution. After that another isothermal evaporation stage was implemented in order to eliminate potassium ions in the form of carnallite, KCl.MgCl2.6H2O. At the end of this step, the recovered solution primarily composed of magnesium and chloride ions was treated by dioxan in order to precipitate magnesium chloride as MgCl2.6H2O.C4H8O2. This compound dried at constant temperature of 100°C gave good quality magnesium chloride hexahydrate. Besides this salt, the various by-products obtained from the different treatment stages are also useful.

  3. Effect of metal chlorides on thermal degradation of (waste) polycarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shwu-Jer; Chen, Shi-Hau; Tsai, Chou-Tso

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how to treat (waste) polycarbonate efficiently to reduce its degraded residue. The study was carried out in an isothermal reactor under continuous nitrogen flow at atmospheric pressure to pyrolyze polycarbonate (PC) alone and in the presence of metal chloride. Some metal chlorides were shown to be catalytic active for the degradation of PC at 400 degrees C, which increased degradation conversion from 8.5% to more than 58.3%. Among those active metal chlorides, ZnCl2 and SnCl2 can produce higher liquid product yields. Effects such as particle size of PC, temperature, the weight ratio of metal chloride/PC, and degradation time on the degradation conversion of PC without and with these two most active metal chlorides were studied. Results of the liquid product analysis by GC/MS demonstrated the product composition of PC degradation over the metal chlorides is much simpler than that of degradation alone. The main liquid product is phenol, p-isopropylphenol, diphenyl carbonate, and bisphenol A for all cases.

  4. The influence of particles of a minor component on the matrix strength of sodium chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Veen, B.; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees; Bolhuis, G.K; Gons, M.; Zuurman, K.; Frijlink, H.W

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the matrix strength of sodium chloride particles in pure sodium chloride tablets and in tablets compressed from binary mixtures of sodium chloride with low concentrations of pregelatinised starch. Because this study concerns the strength of the sodium chloride matrix, the

  5. Image, Image, Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Robert T.

    2004-01-01

    With all the talk today about accountability, budget cuts, and the closing of programs in public education, teachers cannot overlook the importance of image in the field of industrial technology. It is very easy for administrators to cut ITE (industrial technology education) programs to save school money--money they might shift to teaching the…

  6. Effects of Cations on Corrosion of Inconel 625 in Molten Chloride Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Ma, Hongfang; Wang, Mingjing; Wang, Zhihua; Sharif, Adel

    2016-04-01

    Hot corrosion of Inconel 625 in sodium chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride and their mixtures with different compositions is conducted at 900°C to investigate the effects of cations in chloride salts on corrosion behavior of the alloy. XRD, SEM/EDS were used to analyze the compositions, phases, and morphologies of the corrosion products. The results showed that Inconel 625 suffers more severe corrosion in alkaline earth metal chloride molten salts than alkaline metal chloride molten salts. For corrosion in mixture salts, the corrosion rate increased with increasing alkaline earth metal chloride salt content in the mixture. Cations in the chloride molten salts mainly affect the thermal and chemical properties of the salts such as vapor pressure and hydroscopicities, which can affect the basicity of the molten salt. Corrosion of Inconel 625 in alkaline earth metal chloride salts is accelerated with increasing basicity.

  7. IMAGES, IMAGES, IMAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, A.

    1980-07-01

    The role of images of information (charts, diagrams, maps, and symbols) for effective presentation of facts and concepts is expanding dramatically because of advances in computer graphics technology, increasingly hetero-lingual, hetero-cultural world target populations of information providers, the urgent need to convey more efficiently vast amounts of information, the broadening population of (non-expert) computer users, the decrease of available time for reading texts and for decision making, and the general level of literacy. A coalition of visual performance experts, human engineering specialists, computer scientists, and graphic designers/artists is required to resolve human factors aspects of images of information. The need for, nature of, and benefits of interdisciplinary effort are discussed. The results of an interdisciplinary collaboration are demonstrated in a product for visualizing complex information about global energy interdependence. An invited panel will respond to the presentation.

  8. Influence of vinyl chloride monomer and vinyl chloride monomer derivatives on hepatic DNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is used extensively in the chemical industry, mainly in the production of polyvinyl chloride. It has recently been found to cause hepatic angiosarcoma. As VCM has also been shown to be mutagenic after metabolic activation the effect of VCM on DNA synthesis was investigated. [ 3 H]Thymidine incorporation into DNA was used to measure the rate of DNA synthesis in regenerating rat liver. A possible direct toxic effect of VCM or its metabolites on liver cell metabolism was examined by two unrelated techniques, viz. the measurement of adenine nucleotide concentrations in regenerating livers and the influence on transmembrane potentials in hepatocytes. The distribution of radioactivity in subcellular fractions following [ 14 C]VCM administration suggested microsomal conversion of VCM to an active form which was selectively retained in the nuclear fraction. Measurement of the activities of thymidine kinase and DNA polymerase in regenerating liver indicated that the induction of these enzymes which normally occurs after partial hepatectomy was not prevented by VCM treatment. Three techniques were used to test the hypothesis that the retardation in DNA synthesis was due to DNA damage: the prophage lambda induction test for DNA damage, autoradiographic detection of unscheduled thymidine incorporation into DNA, and detection of DNA strand breaks in alkaline sucrose gradients. All three provided evidence of DNA damage and led to the development of a novel technique to confirm these findings. This involved centrifugation in neutral sucrose gradients on intact double-stranded DNA contained in hepatocyte nucleoids and showed conclusively that VCM administration causes DNA strand breaks. Subsequent repair of DNA was also assessed by this technique. The site of the VCM/metabolite: DNA reaction was characterized by DNA thermal denaturation and renaturation studies

  9. RCM: a new model accounting for the non-linear chloride binding isotherm and the non-equilibrium conditions between the free- and bound-chloride concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiesz, Przemek; Ballari, M.M.; Brouwers, Jos

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a new theoretical model for the Rapid Chloride Migration test is presented. This model accounts for the non-linear chloride binding isotherm and the non-equilibrium conditions between the free- and bound-chloride concentrations in concrete. The new system of equations is solved

  10. Myotonic discharges discriminate chloride from sodium muscle channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Gea; Stunnenberg, Bas C; Trip, Jeroen; Borm, George; McGill, Kevin C; Ginjaar, Ieke H B; van der Kooi, Arendina W; Zwarts, Machiel J; van Engelen, Baziel G M; Faber, Catharina G; Stegeman, Dick F; Lateva, Zoia

    2015-01-01

    Non-dystrophic myotonic syndromes represent a heterogeneous group of clinically quite similar diseases sharing the feature of myotonia. These syndromes can be separated into chloride and sodium channelopathies, with gene-defects in chloride or sodium channel proteins of the sarcolemmal membrane. Myotonia has its basis in an electrical instability of the sarcolemmal membrane. In the present study we examine the discriminative power of the resulting myotonic discharges for these disorders. Needle electromyography was performed by an electromyographer blinded for genetic diagnosis in 66 non-dystrophic myotonia patients (32 chloride and 34 sodium channelopathy). Five muscles in each patient were examined. Individual trains of myotonic discharges were extracted and analyzed with respect to firing characteristics. Myotonic discharge characteristics in the rectus femoris muscle almost perfectly discriminated chloride from sodium channelopathy patients. The first interdischarge interval as a single variable was longer than 30 ms in all but one of the chloride channelopathy patients and shorter than 30 ms in all of the sodium channelopathy patients. This resulted in a detection rate of over 95%. Myotonic discharges of a single muscle can be used to better guide toward a molecular diagnosis in non-dystrophic myotonic syndromes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development and critical evaluation of fluorescent chloride nanosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graefe, Anja; Stanca, Sarmiza E; Nietzsche, Sandor; Kubicova, Lenka; Beckert, Rainer; Biskup, Christoph; Mohr, Gerhard J

    2008-09-01

    In this study, we describe the preparation and evaluation of new fluorescent sensor nanoparticles for the ratiometric measurement of chloride concentrations. Both a chloride-sensitive dye (lucigenin) and a reference dye (sulforhodamine derivative) were incorporated into polyacrylamide nanoparticles via inverse microemulsion polymerization and investigated for their response to chloride ions in buffered suspension as well as in living cells. The fluorescence intensity of lucigenin reversibly decreased in the presence of chloride ions due to a collisional quenching process, which can be described with the Stern-Volmer equation. The determined Stern-Volmer constant K SV for the quenching of lucigenin incorporated into particles was found to be 53 M (-1) and is considerably smaller than the Stern-Volmer constant for quenching of free lucigenin ( K SV = 250 M (-1)) under the same conditions. To test the nanosensors in living cells, we incorporated them into Chinese hamster ovary cells and mouse fibroblasts by using the conventional lipofectamin technique and monitored the response to changing chloride concentrations in the cell.

  12. Pitting corrosion of Inconel 600 in chloride and thiosulfate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Geping; Ho, Juiting.

    1990-01-01

    Inconel 600 has been widely used as the steam generator tube material in nuclear pressurized water reactors. Pitting corrosion of the steam generator tube mainly occurs at the secondary water side. It was reported in several papers that pits formed in Inconel 600 in steam generators always contained sulfur, and the main source of that sulfur was thought to be the feedwater. The thiosulfate anion is known to reduce the pitting potential and increase the corrosion rate of AISI Type 304 stainless steel in chloride at low temperatures. It is recognized as a dangerous corrosion promoter and as a reducer of the pitting potential of Inconel 600 in chloride solutions at high temperatures. In other cases, the addition of low-level sulfate to dilute chloride media reduces the pitting potential of alloy 800 at 30 degree C, and increasing the sulfate concentration results in improved chloride pitting resistance. The purpose of the work reported in this paper is mainly to identify the effect of thiosulfate on the chloride pitting of Inconel 600 at low temperatures and the effects of deoxygenation, pH value, and temperature. This study is divided into three parts: (1) potentiodynamic anodic polarization scanning; (2) open-circuit immersion test; and (3) determination of pit density and average pit depth

  13. Congenital chloride diarrhea: a review of twelve Arabian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrefae, Fawaz; Elhassanien, Ahmed Farag; Alghiaty, Hesham Abdel-Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD), a rare autosomal recessive disorder, is characterized by sustained watery diarrhea (due to defect of active Chloride/HCO3 exchange in the ileum and colon) with high fecal chloride. To spotlight the common presentation of CCD for early management and prevention of complications. This is a retrospective case series study of patients diagnosed as CCD who were followed up in the pediatric department of Al-Adan Hospital, Kuwait. Twelve patients diagnosed with CCD were born to consanguineous parents; had antenatal history of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR); polyhydramnios; and distended hypoechoic fetal bowel; and presented with abdominal distension, hypotonia and muscle wasting. 90% of patients had maternal hypertension and 75% of patients had absence of normal meconium at birth. Our patients showed a decrease in serum sodium, potassium, chloride and urine chloride. A high level of suspicion for an early diagnosis of CCD should be considered for any infant presenting with chronic diarrhea, especially in the presence of consanguineous marriage, and the characteristic features in antenatal ultrasound. Thus, allowing for early investigations and appropriate management.

  14. Binding of chloride and alkalis in Portland cement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Erik P.; Herfort, Duncan; Geiker, Mette R.

    2005-01-01

    A thermodynamic model for describing the binding of chloride and alkalis in hydrated Portland cement pastes has been developed. The model is based on the phase rule, which for cement pastes in aggressive marine environment predicts multivariant conditions, even at constant temperature and pressure. The effect of the chloride and alkalis has been quantified by experiments on cement pastes prepared from white Portland cements containing 4% and 12% C 3 A, and a grey Portland cement containing 7% C 3 A. One weight percent calcite was added to all cements. The pastes prepared at w/s ratio of 0.70 were stored in solutions of different Cl (CaCl 2 ) and Na (NaOH) concentrations. When equilibrium was reached, the mineralogy of the pastes was investigated by EDS analysis on the SEM. A well-defined distribution of chloride was found between the pore solution, the C-S-H phase, and an AFm solid solution phase consisting of Friedel's salt and monocarbonate. Partition coefficients varied as a function of iron and alkali contents. The lower content of alkalis in WPC results in higher chloride contents in the C-S-H phase. High alkali contents result in higher chloride concentrations in the pore solution

  15. A spectroscopic study of uranium species formed in chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovich, Vladimir A.; Bhatt, Anand I.; May, Iain; Griffiths, Trevor R.; Thied, Robert C.

    2002-01-01

    The chlorination of uranium metal or uranium oxides in chloride melts offers an acceptable process for the head-end of pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. The reactions of uranium metal and ceramic uranium dioxide with chlorine and with hydrogen chloride were studied in the alkali metal chloride melts, NaCl-KCl at 973K, NaCl-CsCl between 873 and 923K and LiCl-KCl at 873K. The uranium species formed therein were characterized from their electronic absorption spectra measured in situ. The kinetic parameters of the reactions depend on melt composition, temperature and chlorinating agent used. The reaction of uranium dioxide with oxygen in the presence of alkali metal chlorides results in the formation of alkali metal uranates. A spectroscopic study, between 723 and 973K, on their formation and their solutions was undertaken in LiCl, LiCl-KCl eutectic and NaCl-CsCl eutectic melts. The dissolution of uranium dioxide in LiCl-KCl eutectic at 923K containing added aluminium trichloride in the presence of oxygen has also been investigated. In this case, the reaction leads to the formation of uranyl chloride species. (author)

  16. Optimization of the lithium/thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ralph E.

    1989-01-01

    A 1-D math model for the lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell is used in conjunction with a parameter estimation technique in order to estimate the electro-kinetic parameters of this electrochemical system. The electro-kinetic parameters include the anodic transfer coefficient and exchange current density of the lithium oxidation, alpha sub a,1 and i sub o,i,ref, the cathodic transfer coefficient and the effective exchange current density of the thionyl chloride reduction, alpha sub c,2 and a sup o i sub o,2,ref, and a morphology parameter, Xi. The parameter estimation is performed on simulated data first in order to gain confidence in the method. Data, reported in the literature, for a high rate discharge of an experimental lithium/thionyl chloride cell is used for an analysis.

  17. Cystic fibrosis with normal sweat chloride concentration: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Filho Luiz Vicente Ferreira da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease usually diagnosed by abnormal sweat testing. We report a case of an 18-year-old female with bronchiectasis, chronic P. aeruginosa infection, and normal sweat chloride concentrations who experienced rapid decrease of lung function and clinical deterioration despite treatment. Given the high suspicion ofcystic fibrosis, broad genotyping testing was performed, showing a compound heterozygous with deltaF508 and 3849+10kb C->T mutations, therefore confirming cystic fibrosis diagnosis. Although the sweat chloride test remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, alternative diagnostic tests such as genotyping and electrophysiologic measurements must be performed if there is suspicion of cystic fibrosis, despite normal or borderline sweat chloride levels.

  18. Aluminum chloride restoration of in situ leached uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, D.C.; Burgman, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    During in situ uranium mining using ammonium bicarbonate lixiviant, the ammonium exchanges with cations on the ore's clay. After mining is complete, the ammonium may desorb into post-leach ground water. For the particular ore studied, other chemicals (i.e., uranium and selenium) which are mobilized during the leach process, have also been found in the post-leach ground water. Laboratory column tests, used to simulate the leaching process, have shown that aluminum chloride can rapidly remove ammonium from the ore and thus greatly reduce the subsequent ammonium leakage level into ground water. The aluminum chloride has also been found to reduce the leakage levels of uranium and selenium. In addition, the aluminum chloride treatment produces a rapid improvement in permeability

  19. Role of quercetin in modulating chloride transport in the intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial chloride channels provide the pathways for fluid secretion in the intestine. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR and calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs are the main chloride channels in the luminal membrane of enterocytes. These transmembrane proteins play important roles in many physiological processes. In this study, we have identified a flavonoid quercetin as a modulator of CaCC chloride channel activity. Fluorescence quenching assay showed that quercetin activated Clˉ transport in a dose-dependent manner, with EC50 ~37 µM. Short-circuit current analysis confirmed that quercetin activated CaCC-mediated Clˉ currents in HT-29 cells that can be abolished by CaCCinh-A01. Ex-vivo studies indicated that application of quercetin to mouse ileum and colon on serosal side resulted in activation of CFTR and CaCC-mediated Clˉ currents. Notably, we found that quercetin exhibited inhibitory effect against ANO1 chloride channel activity in ANO1-expressing FRT cells and decreased mouse intestinal motility. Quercetin-stimulated short-circuit currents in mouse ileum was multi-component, which included elevation of Ca2+ concentration through L-type calcium channel and activation of basolateral NKCC, Na+/K+-ATPase and K+ channels. In vivo studies further revealed that quercetin promoted fluid secretion in mouse ileum. The modulatory effect of quercetin on CaCC chloirde channels may therefore represent a potential therapeutic strategy for treating CaCC-related diseases like constipation, secretory diarrhea and hypertension. The inverse effects of quercetin on CaCCs provided evidence that ANO1 and intestinal epithelial CaCCs are different calcium-activated chloride channels.

  20. Intrinsic Resistance of Burkholderia cepacia Complex to Benzalkonium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngbeom Ahn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical products that are contaminated with Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC bacteria may pose serious consequences to vulnerable patients. Benzyldimethylalkylammonium chloride (BZK cationic surfactants are extensively used in medical applications and have been implicated in the coselection of antimicrobial resistance. The ability of BCC to degrade BZK, tetradecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C14BDMA-Cl, dodecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C12BDMA-Cl, decyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C10BDMA-Cl, hexyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride, and benzyltrimethylammonium chloride was determined by incubation in 1/10-diluted tryptic soy broth (TSB to determine if BCC bacteria have the ability to survive and inactivate these disinfectants. With BZK, C14BDMA-Cl, and C12BDMA-Cl, inhibition of the growth of 20 BCC strains was observed in disinfectant solutions that ranged from 64 to 256 µg/ml. The efflux pump inhibitor carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone increased the sensitivity of bacteria to 64 µg/ml BZK. The 20 BCC strains grew well in 1/10-diluted TSB medium with BZK, C12BDMA-Cl, and C10BDMA-Cl; they absorbed and degraded the compounds in 7 days. Formation of benzyldimethylamine and benzylmethylamine as the initial metabolites suggested that the cleavage of the C alkyl-N bond occurred as the first step of BZK degradation by BCC bacteria. Proteomic data confirmed the observed efflux activity and metabolic inactivation via biodegradation in terms of BZK resistance of BCC bacteria, which suggests that the two main resistance mechanisms are intrinsic and widespread.

  1. Tablet surface characterisation by various imaging techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitavuopio, Paulus; Rantanen, Jukka; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise tablet surfaces using different imaging and roughness analytical techniques including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser profilometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The test materials compressed were potassium chloride (KCl......) and sodium chloride (NaCl). It was found that all methods used suggested that the KCl tablets were smoother than the NaCl tablets and higher compression pressure made the tablets smoother. Imaging methods like optical microscopy and SEM can give useful information about the roughness of the sample surface...

  2. Studying reaction products in a lithium thionyl chloride cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vol'fkovich, Yu.M.; Sosenkin, V.E.; Nikol'skaya, N.F.; Blinov, I.A.

    1999-01-01

    Change in the mass, volume and chemical composition of reaction insoluble products (RIP) formed in the course of discharge of thionyl chloride lithium cells under different conditions has been studied by the methods of gravimetry, volumetry and element analysis. It has been ascertained that the measured volume and mass of RIP essentially (by a factor of 1.1-1.8) exceed the calculated values, proceeding from the reaction stoichiometry. Besides lithium chloride and sulfur during discharge additional RIP is formed as LiAlCl 4 · SOCl 2 solvate, its share increasing with temperature decrease, increase in current density and electrolyte concentration [ru

  3. Sources of Variation in Sweat Chloride Measurements in Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Scott M.; Raraigh, Karen S.; Corvol, Harriet; Rommens, Johanna M.; Pace, Rhonda G.; Boelle, Pierre-Yves; McGready, John; Sosnay, Patrick R.; Strug, Lisa J.; Knowles, Michael R.; Cutting, Garry R.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Expanding the use of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiators and correctors for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) requires precise and accurate biomarkers. Sweat chloride concentration provides an in vivo assessment of CFTR function, but it is unknown the degree to which CFTR mutations account for sweat chloride variation. Objectives: To estimate potential sources of variation for sweat chloride measurements, including demographic factors, testing variability, recording biases, and CFTR genotype itself. Methods: A total of 2,639 sweat chloride measurements were obtained in 1,761 twins/siblings from the CF Twin-Sibling Study, French CF Modifier Gene Study, and Canadian Consortium for Genetic Studies. Variance component estimation was performed by nested mixed modeling. Measurements and Main Results: Across the tested CF population as a whole, CFTR gene mutations were found to be the primary determinant of sweat chloride variability (56.1% of variation) with contributions from variation over time (e.g., factors related to testing on different days; 13.8%), environmental factors (e.g., climate, family diet; 13.5%), other residual factors (e.g., test variability; 9.9%), and unique individual factors (e.g., modifier genes, unique exposures; 6.8%) (likelihood ratio test, P < 0.001). Twin analysis suggested that modifier genes did not play a significant role because the heritability estimate was negligible (H2 = 0; 95% confidence interval, 0.0–0.35). For an individual with CF, variation in sweat chloride was primarily caused by variation over time (58.1%) with the remainder attributable to residual/random factors (41.9%). Conclusions: Variation in the CFTR gene is the predominant cause of sweat chloride variation; most of the non-CFTR variation is caused by testing variability and unique environmental factors. If test precision and accuracy can be improved, sweat chloride measurement could be a valuable biomarker

  4. Conductivity and thermodynamic characteristic of superionic transition in strontium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronin, B.M.; Prisyazhnyj, V.D.

    1989-01-01

    Electric conductivity of strontium polycrystalline chloride in the wide temperature range including melting point is measured. Reciprocally caused anomalous behaviour of kinetic and thermodynamic properties, which relates to peculiarities of salt transition to a superionic state is established in the region of high temperatures. Thermodynamic functions corresponding to crystal anion sublattice disordering are determined and characterized. Comparative analysis of data on strontium chloride and other structural-like salts testifies about step-by-step washing-out character of superionic transition, and the depth of transition (the degree of disordering) reached at melting points relates regularly to relative sizes of cations and anions in the fluorite lattice

  5. Stochastic Models for Chloride-Initiated Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Svend; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Corrosion of the reinforcement in concrete structures can lead to a substantial decrease of the load-bearing capacity. One mode of corrosion initiation is when the chloride content around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. In the present paper a statistical model is developed by which...... the chloride content in a 1reinforced concrete structure can be predicted. The model parameters are estimated on the basis of measurements. The distribution of the time to initiation of corrosion is estimated by FORMISORM-analysis....

  6. Axillary hyperhidrosis treated with alcoholic solution of aluminium chloride hexahydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, K T; Crow, K D; Ellis, J P; Harman, R R; Saihan, E M

    1978-01-01

    Sixty-five patients with axillary hyperhidrosis took part in a trial of treatment with a solution of 20% aluminium chloride hexahydrate in absolute alcohol, applied topically each night for a week and then whenever the patient thought it necessary. Excellent control of sweating was achieved in 64 patients, and occlusion of the area was found to be unnecessary. No troublesome side effects were reported. The results of this study indicate that 20% aluminium chloride hexahydrate in absolute alcohol is the treatment of first choice for patients with axillary hyperhidrosis. PMID:667571

  7. 201Tl-thallium chloride injections for cardiological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecky, P.; Zdrazil, K.; Svihla, P.

    1985-01-01

    The production is being prepared by the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez of the cardiovascular diagnostic agent, 201 Tl-thallium chloride. The 201 Tl radionuclide will be produced by irradiating a thallium target in the U-120 M cyclotron at Rez. For this purpose, the 201 Tl production rate was measured in the proton energy range of 27 to 31 MeV, and the production conditions were optimized with respect to parasitic production of radionuclide contaminants 200 Tl and 202 Tl. A method was developed of chemically separating 201 Tl from the irradiated target. This will allow the production of 201 Tl-thallium chloride injections in the required quality. (author)

  8. Chloride ingress profiles measured by electron probe micro analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole mejlhede; Coats, Alison M.; Glasser, Fred P.

    1996-01-01

    Traditional techniques for measuring chloride ingress profiles do not apply well to high performance cement paste systems; the geometric resolution of the traditional measuring techniques is too low. In this paper measurements by Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) are presented. EPMA is demonst......Traditional techniques for measuring chloride ingress profiles do not apply well to high performance cement paste systems; the geometric resolution of the traditional measuring techniques is too low. In this paper measurements by Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) are presented. EPMA...

  9. Stochastic Models for Chloride-Initiated Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1996-01-01

    Corrosion of the reinforcement in concrete structures can lead to a substantial decrease of the load-bearing capacity. One mode of corrosion initiation is when the chloride content around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. In the present paper a statistical model is developed by which...... the chloride content in a reinforced concrete structure can be predicted. The model parameters are estimated on the basis of measurements. The distribution of the time to initiation of corrosion is estimated by FORM/SORM-analysis....

  10. SiC epitaxy growth using chloride-based CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Anne; Leone, Stefano; Beyer, Franziska C.; Pedersen, Henrik; Kordina, Olof; Andersson, Sven; Janzén, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The growth of thick epitaxial SiC layers needed for high-voltage, high-power devices is investigated with the chloride-based chemical vapor deposition. High growth rates exceeding 100 μm/h can be obtained, however to obtain device quality epilayers adjustments of the process parameters should be carried out appropriately for the chemistry used. Two different chemistry approaches are compared: addition of hydrogen chloride to the standard precursors or using methyltrichlorosilane, a molecule that contains silicon, carbon and chlorine. Optical and electrical techniques are used to characterize the layers.

  11. Structural basis of alpha-amylase activation by chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Aghajari, N.; Feller, Georges; Gerday, Charles; Haser, R.

    2002-01-01

    To further investigate the mechanism and function of allosteric activation by chloride in some alpha-amylases, the structure of the bacterial alpha-amylase from the psychrophilic micro-organism Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis in complex with nitrate has been solved at 2.1 Angstrom, as well as the structure of the mutants Lys300Gln (2.5 Angstrom) and Lys300Arg (2.25 Angstrom). Nitrate binds strongly to alpha-amylase but is a weak activator. Mutation of the critical chloride ligand Lys300 into G...

  12. Physicochemical changes in dry-cured hams salted with potassium, calcium and magnesium chloride as a partial replacement for sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliño, M; Grau, R; Toldrá, F; Barat, J M

    2010-10-01

    The reduction of added sodium chloride in dry-cured ham has been proposed to reduce dietary sodium intake in Mediterranean countries. The effect of substituting sodium chloride with potassium chloride, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride on some physicochemical characteristics of dry-cured ham during processing was evaluated. The results showed that hams salted with a mixture of sodium and potassium chloride registered higher salt concentrations and lower water contents and thus, needed less time to reach the required weight loss at the end of the process. The opposite effect was observed when calcium and magnesium chloride were added to the salt mixture. The observed differences in the texture and colour parameters were mainly due to differences in water and salt content. Copyright (c) 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Sodium and Calcium Chloride Brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B; Ilevbare, G O; Carranza, R M

    2007-08-11

    A comprehensive matrix of 60 tests was designed to explore the effect of calcium chloride vs. sodium chloride and the ratio R of nitrate concentration over chloride concentration on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22. Tests were conducted using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique at 75 C and at 90 C. Results show that at a ratio R of 0.18 and higher nitrate was able to inhibit the crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 induced by chloride. Current results fail to show in a consistent way a different effect on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22 for calcium chloride solutions than for sodium chloride solutions.

  14. Two-electron oxidation of cobalt phthalocyanines by thionyl chloride: Implications for lithium/thionyl chloride batteries. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, P.A.; Lever, A.B.

    1989-10-20

    Cyclic voltammetry, DPV and electronic spectroscopy are used to study the reaction between thionyl chloride and cobalt phthalocyanine. SOCl2 reacts with (Co(I)Tn Pc(2-)) and Co(II)Tn Pc(2-) to give two-electron oxidized species. Implications for Li/SOCl2 batteries are discussed. Thionyl chloride also forms a mono SOCl2 adduct with Co(II)TnPc(2-). Driving forces (Delta E values) were calculated for CoTnPc comproportionation and CoTnPc + SOCl2 reactions. Rest potential measurements of a Li/SOCl2 cells show that addition of AlCl3 stabilizes the LiCl product as LiAlCl4. A catalytic two-electron mechanism is indicated for the reduction of thionyl chloride in a Li/SOCl2/(CoTnPc,C) battery.

  15. Mortality from liver disease among Italian vinyl chloride monomer/polyvinyl chloride manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirastu, R; Comba, P; Reggiani, A; Foa, V; Masina, A; Maltoni, C

    1990-01-01

    The possible association in humans between nonangiosarcoma primary liver tumors (PLC-non-A), particularly hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and exposure to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is supported by both experimental and human data. This article presents a review of the information regarding 253 deaths that occurred in seven plants manufacturing VCM/PVC and one plant extruding PVC. The retrieval of clinical and pathological data, in addition to the information from death certificate, is referred to as "best evidence" (BE). BE has been carried out for 63 deaths. A total of 14 primary liver cancer (PLC) were detected: seven were angiosarcoma (PLC-A), and two of the remaining seven were hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In our series of 14 PLC cases, there was no significant difference between PLC-A and PLC-non-A as to length of exposure and latency. There was no noticeable difference in terms of job title between ASL and non-ASL cases. The list of longest held jobs shows the presence of various job titles, different from autoclave cleaner, for primary liver cancer, PLC-A and PLC-non-A. In conclusion, our observations show that VCM may have a broader carcinogenicity action on the liver and that exposure lower than that occurring in autoclave cleaning can cause primary liver cancer, both angiosarcoma and nonangiosarcoma.

  16. The Western Noachis Terra Chloride Deposits: An Improved Characterization of the Proposed Human Exploration Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J. R.; Plaut, J. J.; Christensen, P. R.

    2016-12-01

    At the First Landing Site and Exploration Zone Workshop for Human Missions to the Surface of Mars (Oct 27-30, 2015, Houston, TX), planetary scientists, students and members of the public proposed forty-seven sites that meet the engineering requirements for a human mission and would also allow astronauts to investigate important scientific questions while on the surface. The chloride deposits in western Noachis Terra at -37.2°N, 350.5°E were proposed as a potential exploration zone due to their proximity to craters containing glacier-like forms and imperfectly-formed concentric crater fill. The high astrobiological preservation potential of the chloride deposits exposed on the surface would allow astronauts to investigate the past habitability of a well-preserved Noachian fluvial system, while the subsurface ice features suggest astronauts would have relatively easy access to enough water to meet the requirements of NASA's current baseline mission architecture. Since the workshop, the proposed exploration zone has been further characterized using additional datasets, as well as new data collected by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter as part of the exploration zone data acquisition effort organized by NASA's Human Landing Sites Study (HLS2) team. First, SHARAD radar data were used to constrain the subsurface structure of the imperfectly-formed concentric crater fill within the two large craters, which makes a more accurate assessment of the potential subsurface water ice resources possible. Second, newly acquired HiRISE images were used to better assess the traversability of the terrain between the habitation zone and the primary resource and science regions-of-interest (ROIs). And third, the exploration zone was shifted in order to place the central landing site closer to potential subsurface water ice resources. Although this would require crews to travel further to investigate the chloride deposits, it reduces the distance between the subsurface water ice

  17. Stochastic Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Structures Exposed to Chloride Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Frier, Christian

    2003-01-01

    For many reinforced concrete structures corrosion of reinforcement is an important problem since it can result in expensive maintenance and repair actions. Further, a significant reduction of the load-bearing capacity can occur. One mode of corrosion initiation is that the chloride content around...

  18. An insight into the passivation of cupronickel alloys in chloride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    seawater, the film formed on 90/10 cupronickels contains mainly Cu2O with a small amount of Ni2+, Ni3+ ... of chloride ions, where passive layers formed on these materials suffer localised break- down. Various authors ... Different cupronickel alloys were made from pure metals in inert atmosphere, and then mechanically ...

  19. 33 Effects of Sodium Chloride Solutions on Compressive Strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arc. Usman A. Jalam

    Waste materials in construction. Proceedings of the fifth international conference. -accessed 17 June 2010. Available from http://books.google.com/. Azad A. K. Chloride diffusion in concrete and its impact on corrosion of reinforcement. - accessed 14 June 2010. Available from https://eprints.kfupm.edu.sa. Cody, R. D., Cody ...

  20. System reliability of concrete structures subjected to chloride ingress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leira, B.J.; Thöns, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The parameters relevant for prediction of service lifetime with respect to chloride ingress are associated with large uncertainties. Full-scale measurements are in demand for conditions which are as homogeneous as possible. The present paper first summarizes statistical distributions which...

  1. Titanium (III) chloride mediated synthesis of furan derivatives ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Titanocene(III) chloride (Cp2TiCl) mediated one-pot synthesis of furan derivatives has been accomplished. This radical method has been applied for the synthesis of a furanomonoterpene, evodone. Ti(III) species was prepared in situ from commercially available titanocene dichloride (Cp2TiCl2) and zinc dust in THF.

  2. Iron (III) Chloride mediated reduction of Bis (1-isoquinolylcarbonyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A plausible mechanism for the conversion of L1H to L2− has been proposed. Determination of molecular structure of 1 confirmed this conversion. Fe(III) ion is surrounded by three nitrogen atoms of the ligand and two chloride ions, imparting a rare distorted trigonal bipyramidal N3Cl2 coordination environment.

  3. The effects of urea, guanidinium chloride and sorbitol on porphyrin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper compares the inhibition effect of porphyrin aggregation in the presence of urea, guanidinium chloride (Gdn) and sorbitol by molecular dynamics simulation. It demonstrates that porphyrin aggregation increases in sorbitol, but decreases towards addition of urea and Gdn. It shows that urea, Gdn and sorbitol can ...

  4. Antihypertensive effects of the methylene chloride leaf extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Celtis durandii (Ulmaceae), one of the plants used in traditional medicine to cure migraine, epilepsy,and high blood pressure, was administrated as antihypertensive in normotensive rats (NTR) and hypertensive saline rats (HSR). The antihypertensive effects of the methylene chloride extract of the plant were evaluated in ...

  5. Design and performance characteristics of a krypton chloride (λ ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-07

    Jan 7, 2014 ... Development of a discharge-pumped krypton chloride (KrCl) laser operating at 222 nm wavelength is demonstrated. In this paper the design, successful realization and operating characteristics of KrCl excimer laser are reported. The laser is driven by a simple and efficient excitation technique using ...

  6. Effect of sodium chloride concentration on the functional properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sodium Chloride (NaCl) is the common salt used at household and industry levels to improve palatability of processed foods. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of different concentrations of NaCl on the functional properties of selected legume flours. The effect of increasing ...

  7. Late termination of pregnancy by intracardiac potassium chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To report our experience with intracardiac potassium chloride (KCl) injection as a method of feticide for severe congenital abnormalities beyond 24 weeksf gestation. Method. A retrospective chart review. Patient demographics and types of fetal anomalies were analysed according to the groups that accepted

  8. Effects of Sodium Chloride on Some Physiological Traits and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of sodium chloride on two safflower cultivars (LRV 51/11 and LRV. 51/51(padideh), four levels of salinity: 0, 4, 8 and 12 dS/m, were employed as a factorial experiment arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replication in a controlled environment of the greenhouse ...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1170 - Chloride test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chloride test system. 862.1170 Section 862.1170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862...

  10. A Review on Electrochemical Properties of Choline Chloride Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    quaternary ammonium halide and a hydrogen bond donor such as alcohol have advantage for metal extraction and ... organic salts, amino acids, or choline derivatives. (Dai, 2013). It's evident that these DESs fully fulfil ... such as choline chloride, urea, and organic acids, have been reported especially considering their low.

  11. An insight into the passivation of cupronickel alloys in chloride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Cupronickels offer enhanced corrosion protection in marine environments ... environment. 1. Introduction. Cupronickels are widely used in chloride environments due to their marked corrosion resistance. The corrosion resistance of .... At extreme anodic potentials the appearance of peak A2 suggests that Cu2O would be.

  12. Factors other than chloride level influencing rate of reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castel, A.; Arliguie, G. [Paul Sabatier Univ., Toulouse (France); Francois, R. [Institut National Des Sciences Appliques, Toulouse (France)

    2000-07-01

    To evaluate the degree of corrosion a 14 year-old concrete member was completely bared and three meter-long beams were stored in three-point flexion in an aggressive environment by sequences of drying and wetting by a salt fog. Total chloride content was measured at the level of all reinforcements. Despite the small concrete cover of 10 mm at the stirrups and 16 mm for the longitudinal reinforcement, no evidence was found to relate corrosion to chloride content, since a large part of the reinforcement was not affected by corrosion. It was concluded that the steel-concrete interface had a major influence on being able to predict the onset of corrosion in relation to chloride content. Indeed, corrosion damage was only present when the steel-concrete interface was damaged. These results call into question the validity of the chloride threshold as the single determining criterion to forecast corrosion development. It is suggested that the nature of the interface between steel and concrete, which may be randomly distributed along the reinforcements, should also be considered. Experimental evidence shows that steel-concrete interface damage is linked to non-elastic behaviour of bond that occurs at a given level of mechanical loading. Therefore, corrosion damage is best considered as a deterministic phenomenon linked to a bonding damage. 25 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  13. Chloride ingress of carbonated blast furnace slag cement mortars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuizen, P.E.; Çopuroglu, O.; Polder, R.B.

    2017-01-01

    In the Netherlands civil engineering structures, such as overpasses, bridges and tunnels are generally built using blast furnace slag cement (BFSC, CEM III/B) concrete, because of its high resistance against chloride penetration. Although the Dutch experience regarding durability performance of BFSC

  14. Design and performance characteristics of a krypton chloride (λ ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-07

    Jan 7, 2014 ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 82; Issue 1. Design and performance characteristics of a krypton chloride ( = 222 nm) excimer laser. N S Benerji N ... In this paper the design, successful realization and operating characteristics of KrCl excimer laser are reported. The laser is driven ...

  15. The effect of high oral magnesium chloride supplementation on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighty healthy adult albino rats of both sex weighing 200-240 grams were used to assess the effect of high oral Magnesium chloride (100mg/kg body weight) supplementation on the pathogenicity of T. b. brucei (Basa strain) or T, congolense (Gboko strain) infections. Two studies were carried out and the rats were divided ...

  16. Ionic conductivity and diffusion coefficient of barium-chloride-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 40; Issue 4. Ionic conductivity and diffusion coefficient of barium-chloride-based polymer electrolyte with poly(vinyl alcohol)–poly(4-styrenesulphonic acid) polymer complex. MAYANK PANDEY GIRISH M JOSHI NARENDRA NATH GHOSH. Volume 40 Issue 4 August ...

  17. Biological denitrification of fertiliser wastewater at high chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    2004-04-02

    Apr 2, 2004 ... Ahmed S Ucisik* and Mogens Henze. Environment & Resources DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Bygningstorvet, Building 115, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark. Abstract. Wastewater from the fertiliser industry is characterised by high chloride concentration, normally varying between 60 and 76 g/.

  18. Respective effects of sodium and chloride ion on physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Respective effects of sodium and chloride ion on growth, cell morphological changes, membrane disorganization, ion homeostasis, exoenzyme activities and fermentation performance in Zymomonas mobilis232B cultures were presented. In batch cultures containing 0.15 M NaCl, Z. mobilis232B developed filaments, and ...

  19. Photonic crystal fiber based chloride chemical sensors for corrosion monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Heming; Tao, Chuanyi; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion of steel is one of the most important durability issues in reinforced concrete (RC) structures because aggressive ions such as chloride ions permeate concrete and corrode steel, consequently accelerating the destruction of structures, especially in marine environments. There are many practical methods for corrosion monitoring in RC structures, mostly focusing on electrochemical-based sensors for monitoring the chloride ion which is thought as one of the most important factors resulting in steel corrosion. In this work, we report a fiber-optic chloride chemical sensor based on long period gratings inscribed in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a chloride sensitive thin film. Numerical simulation is performed to determine the characteristics and resonance spectral response versus the refractive indices of the analyte solution flowing through into the holes in the PCF. The effective refractive index of the cladding mode of the LPGs changes with variations of the analyte solution concentration, resulting in a shift of the resonance wavelength, hence providing the sensor signal. This fiber-optic chemical sensor has a fast response, is easy to prepare and is not susceptible to electromagnetic environment, and can therefore be of use for structural health monitoring of RC structures subjected to such aggressive environments.

  20. Influence of granular strontium chloride as additives on some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A matrix composed of polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA) mixed with different concentration ratios of the granular strontium chloride (SrCl2.6H2O) were prepared by casting technique method at room temperature (about 30°C). The electric and dielectric properties such as a.c. electrical conductivity by a conventional method, using ...

  1. A Green Alternative to Aluminum Chloride Alkylation of Xylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereda, Grigoriy A.; Rajpara, Vikul B.

    2007-01-01

    An acutely less toxic 2-bromobutane is used to develop a simple graphite-promoted procedure of alkylation of p-xylene. It is further demonstrated that aluminum chloride is not required, the need for aqueous workup is eliminated, waste solutions are not produced and the multiple use of the catalyst is allowed.

  2. Titanocene(III) chloride mediated radical induced addition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reduction of the aldehyde 10 with sodium boro- hydride in the presence of CeCl3.7H2O furnished the alcohol 11 which was finally brominated using PBr3 to yield the dibromo compound 12.13. Thus, a series of bromoepoxides were prepared and subjected to radical cyclization using titanocene(III) chloride and the results ...

  3. Efficiency of Moringa oleifera and Polyaluminium Chloride for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The viability of using Moringa oleifera seed extract as a plant based coagulant in comparison to Polyaluminium Chloride a commonly used chemical coagulant for the thickening of activated sludge was investigated. Moringa oleifera also known as the drumstick tree or horseradish is widely found throughout Mauritius.

  4. Flame generation of sodium chloride aerosol for filter testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.; Kinnear, D.I.

    1975-01-01

    A generator for sodium chloride aerosol is described, which when used in conjunction with a sensitive portable sodium flame detector unit, will permit the in-place testing of large filter installations having air throughputs up to about 80,000 m 3 /h, at penetrations down to at least 0.005 percent. (U.S.)

  5. Comparative effects of Potash Sodium Chloride (PSC) mixture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honey (Mellifica sp) is produced by Apis mellifera africana, widely consumed without prescription or restriction, and has been shown to possess wound healing and antitusive properties. Comparative study of the effects of honey paste and Potash Sodium Chloride (PSC) mixture on the healing of incisional wound on albino ...

  6. A chronopotentiometric approach for measuring chloride ion concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach is reported for the electrochemical measurement of chloride ions in aqueous solution. This sensor is based on the stimulus/response principle of chronopotentiometry. A current pulse is applied at the Ag/AgCl working electrode and the potential change is measured with

  7. Isolation of polyvinyl chloride degrading bacterial strains from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biodegradability of PVC by Micrococcus species with PVC as a sole carbon source was determined by their ability to release chloride from PVC polymer, increase their cell density in test media, carbon dioxide production and growth on the surface of PVC film in plate assay. The Micrococcus species showed 0.36% ...

  8. Effect of polyaluminium chloride water treatment sludge on effluent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of polyaluminium chloride water treatment sludge on effluent quality of domestic wastewater treatment. ... The results obtained showed a decrease in total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total ammonium nitrogen (TAN), and total phosphates (TP) in the supernatant after 30 min of settlement.

  9. Cholesterol-lowering drug, in combination with chromium chloride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amit Kumar Verma

    Cholesterol-lowering drug, in combination with chromium chloride, induces early apoptotic signals in intracellular. L. donovani amastigotes, leading to death. AMIT KUMAR VERMA, BHAKTI LAHA, MONIKA PANDEY, UTTARIYA PAL and. MONIDIPA GHOSH. ,*. Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Technology ...

  10. Deuteration of triborane(7) adducts with anhydrous deuterium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodds, A.R.; Kodama, G.

    1977-01-01

    A hydrogen-deuterium exchange reaction between triborane(7) adducts and deuterium chloride is reported which involves all the hydrogen atoms in the B 3 H 7 moiety and proceeds rapidly even at low temperatures. The exchange reaction is reported to proceed much faster in dichloromethane solution than in tetrahydrofuran

  11. Chlorocholine chloride residue distribution in eggs, breast and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of chlorocholine chloride (CCC) residue or its metabolites in the meat and eggs of laying hens was studied using the 15N delta value (d15N) and 15N atom % derived from 15N-CCC containing diets. In a completely randomised design, 20 laying hens were divided into four groups allocated four different ...

  12. Osmoregulated Chloride Currents in Hemocytes from Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Bregante

    Full Text Available We investigated the biophysical properties of the transport mediated by ion channels in hemocytes from the hemolymph of the bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis. Besides other transporters, mytilus hemocytes possess a specialized channel sensitive to the osmotic pressure with functional properties similar to those of other transport proteins present in vertebrates. As chloride fluxes may play an important role in the regulation of cell volume in case of modifications of the ionic composition of the external medium, we focused our attention on an inwardly-rectifying voltage-dependent, chloride-selective channel activated by negative membrane potentials and potentiated by the low osmolality of the external solution. The chloride channel was slightly inhibited by micromolar concentrations of zinc chloride in the bath solution, while the antifouling agent zinc pyrithione did not affect the channel conductance at all. This is the first direct electrophysiological characterization of a functional ion channel in ancestral immunocytes of mytilus, which may bring a contribution to the understanding of the response of bivalves to salt and contaminant stresses.

  13. Assessing the Efficacy of Dissolved Ferric Chloride Conditioner on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing the Efficacy of Dissolved Ferric Chloride Conditioner on Dewaterability of Sewage Sludge. ... in these values, but seem to be fluctuating. This anomalous behaviour is a limitation in the work of Ademiluyi and Arimieari, and because of that, their model is not so good in the prediction of specific resistance to filtration.

  14. Methyl chloride and other chlorocarbons in polluted air during INDOEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, HA; Lelieveld, J; de Gouw, JA; van der Veen, C; Fischer, H

    2002-01-01

    [1] Methyl chloride (CH3Cl) is the most abundant, natural, chlorine-containing gas in the atmosphere, with oceans and biomass burning as major identified sources. Estimates of global emissions suffer from large uncertainties, mostly for the tropics, partly due to a lack of measurements. We present

  15. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Acqueous Chloride mission is to recover plutonium and americium from pyrochemical residues (undesirable form for utilization and storage) and generate plutonium oxide and americium oxide. Plutonium oxide is recycled into Pu metal production flowsheet. It is suitable for storage. Americium oxide is a valuable product, sold through the DOE-OS isotope sales program.

  16. Influence of granular strontium chloride as additives on some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA); granular strontium chloride, SrCl2; a.c. electrical conductivity; dielec- tric constant; dielectric loss; Young's modulus; creep relaxation curve. 1. Introduction. The purpose of this article is to review the available experimental evidences pertaining to electric, dielectric and mechanical properties on a ...

  17. Evaluating the Potential Use of Polyaluminium Chloride in the Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alum is one of the world's oldest chemical used in water treatment. However, one of its disadvantages is that it operates over a limited range of pH. Recently, polyaluminium chloride (PACI) has come on the market and due to the various advantages, many countries have shifted to the use of PACI. At La Nicolière water ...

  18. Mercury chloride-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mercury can exist in the environment as metal, as monovalent and divalent salts and as organomercurials, one of the most important of which is mercuric chloride (HgCl2). It has been shown to induce oxidative stress in erythrocytes through the generation of free radicals and alteration of the cellular antioxidant defense ...

  19. Mercury chloride-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... Mercury can exist in the environment as metal, as monovalent and divalent salts and as organomercurials, one of the most important of which is mercuric chloride (HgCl2). It has been shown to induce oxidative stress in erythrocytes through the generation of free radicals and alteration of the.

  20. Maintenance Planning for Chloride Initiated Corrosion in Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion of the reinforcement in concrete structures can be initiated when the chloride concentration around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. In order to prevent the corrosion from reaching a stage where the load-bearing capacity of a given structure suffers a substantial decrease...

  1. Quantitative assessment of the effect of anhydrous zinc chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... MgSO4, H3COOH, Mg(ClO4)2 to activate the carbonyl group of benzaldehyde, catalyse the nucleophilic attack by amines, and dehydrate the system, and eliminate water as the final steps. Anhydrous zinc chloride has been extensively used in literature for its affordability and reliability, however there is limited information ...

  2. Influence of granular strontium chloride as additives on some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    granular strontium chloride (SrCl2⋅6H2O) were prepared by casting technique method at room temperature. (about 30°C). The electric and dielectric ... stored properties for these samples were also determined at room temperature. Keywords. ..... decrease in the elasticity of the samples leading to a decrease in average ...

  3. Imaging methods for detection of infectious foci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couret, I.; Rossi, M.; Weinemann, P.; Moretti, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Several tracers can be used for imaging infection. None is a worthwhile agent for all infectious foci, but each one has preferential applications, depending on its uptake mechanism by the infectious and/or inflammatory focus. Autologous leucocytes labeled in vitro with indium-111 (In-111) or with technetium-99-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (Tc-99m HMPAO) were applied with success in the detection of peripheral bone infection, focal vascular graft infection and inflammatory bowel disease. Labeling with In-111 is of interest in chronic bone infection, while labeling with Tc-99m HMPAO gets the advantage of a better dosimetry and imaging. The interest of in vivo labeled leucocytes with a Tc-99m labeled monoclonal antigranulocyte antibody anti-NCA 95 (BW 250/183) was proved in the same principal type of infectious foci than in vitro labeled leucocytes. Sites of chronic infection in the spine and the pelvis, whether active or healed, appear as photopenic defects on both in vitro labeled leucocytes and Tc-99m monoclonal antigranulocyte antibody (BW 250/183) scintigraphies. With gallium-67 results showed a high sensitivity with a low specificity. This tracer demonstrated good performance to delineate foci of infectious spondylitis. In-111 and Tc-99m labeled polyclonal human immunoglobulin (HIG) was applied with success in the assessment of various infectious foci, particularly in chronic sepsis. As labeled leucocytes, labeled HIG showed cold defects in infectious sepsis of the spine. Research in nuclear medicine is very active in the development of more specific tracers of infection, mainly involved in Tc-99m or In-111 labeled chemotactic peptides, antigranulocyte antibody fragments, antibiotic derivatives and interleukins. (authors). 70 refs

  4. Chloride losing diarrhoea and metabolic alkalosis in an infant with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, H I; Feins, N R; Rubin, R; Gould, J

    1976-01-01

    A case of hypochloraemic metabolic alkalosis in an infant with chloride losing ileostomy drainage and cystic fibrosis is described. It is speculated that intestinal loss of chloride played a major role in the development of metabolic alkalosis. PMID:938082

  5. Surface resistivity test evaluation as an indicator of the chloride permeability of concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Many agencies have adopted the standard tests for electrical : indication of concretes ability to resist chloride ion penetration : (AASHTO T 277 and ASTM C1202), commonly known as the rapid : chloride permeability test (RCPT), in their specificat...

  6. Optimisation of chloride quantification in cementitious mortars using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacheco, J.; Çopuroǧlu, O.; Polder, R.B.

    2013-01-01

    Chlorides are responsible for initiating steel corrosion in reinforced concrete, the economically most important deterioration mechanism in concrete infrastructure. The quantification of chlorides is commonly performed by wet chemical analysis, e.g. acid dissolution and Volhard's titration.

  7. Covalent organic polymer functionalization of activated carbon surfaces through acyl chloride for environmental clean-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mines, Paul D.; Thirion, Damien; Uthuppu, Basil

    2017-01-01

    Nanoporous networks of covalent organic polymers (COPs) are successfully grafted on the surfaces of activated carbons, through a series of surface modification techniques, including acyl chloride formation by thionyl chloride. Hybrid composites of activated carbon functionalized with COPs exhibit...

  8. Microstructures and dynamics of tetraalkylphosphonium chloride ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Lei; Li, Bin; Sarman, Sten; Laaksonen, Aatto

    2017-12-01

    Atomistic simulations have been performed to investigate the effect of aliphatic chain length in tetraalkylphosphonium cations on liquid morphologies, microscopic ionic structures, and dynamical quantities of tetraalkylphosphonium chloride ionic liquids. The liquid morphologies are characterized by sponge-like interpenetrating polar and apolar networks in ionic liquids consisting of tetraalkylphosphonium cations with short aliphatic chains. The lengthening aliphatic chains in tetraalkylphosphonium cations lead to polar domains consisting of chloride anions and central polar groups in cations being partially or totally segregated in ionic liquid matrices due to a progressive expansion of apolar domains in between. Prominent polarity alternation peaks and adjacency correlation peaks are observed at low and high q range in total X-ray scattering structural functions, respectively, and their peak positions gradually shift to lower q values with lengthening aliphatic chains in tetraalkylphosphonium cations. The charge alternation peaks registered in the intermediate q range exhibit complicated tendencies due to a cancellation of peaks and anti-peaks in partial structural functions for ionic subcomponents. The particular microstructures and liquid morphologies in tetraalkylphosphonium chloride ionic liquids intrinsically contribute to distinct dynamics characterized by mean square displacements, van Hove correlation functions, and non-Gaussian parameters for ionic species in the heterogeneous ionic environment. Most tetraalkylphosphonium cations have higher translational mobilities than their partner anions due to strong coordination of chloride anions with central polar groups in tetraalkylphosphonium cations through strong Coulombic and hydrogen bonding interactions. The increase of aliphatic chain length in tetraalkylphosphonium cations leads to a concomitant shift of van Hove correlation functions and non-Gaussian parameters to larger radial distances and longer time

  9. Effect of pH and chloride on the micro-mechanism of pitting corrosion for high strength pipeline steel in aerated NaCl solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yafei; Cheng, Guangxu; Wu, Wei; Qiao, Qiao; Li, Yun; Li, Xiufeng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pitting behavior of X80 steel in aerated NaCl solutions is studied systematically. • Unique large pit morphology is observed in neutral/acidic NaCl solutions. • In low pH solutions, pit will propagate in the horizontal direction, leading to the shallow shape of pitting morphology; in high pH solutions, the pit sizes are much smaller. • Film growth, which is dependent on the pH and chloride concentration, has great influence on the cathodic reaction by affecting oxygen diffusion process. - Abstract: The pitting corrosion mechanism of high strength pipeline steel in aerated NaCl solutions with different pH and chloride content was investigated, using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The pitting behavior in alkaline solutions was found to be significantly different from that in neutral and acidic solutions. Electrochemical results and SEM images indicate that the product film formed on the steel surface results in different corrosion behavior in an alkaline solution. SEM images show that pH and chloride concentration in the bulk solution have a great influence on the pitting morphology. Unique large pit morphology due to corrosion in neutral/acidic solutions with 0.05 mol/L NaCl was observed. The relationship between solution pH and the effect of chloride concentration is also discussed

  10. The Limiting Phenomena at the Anode of the Electrowinning of Zinc from Zinc Chloride in a Molten Chloride Electrolyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lans, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the possibilities and technological viability for the electrowinning of zinc from zinc chloride. This research contributes to development of an alternative process, because it provides: ⢠A clear understanding and overview of the present zinc

  11. separation of strontium and cesium from ternary and quaternary lithium chloride-potassium chloride salts via melt crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammon N. Williams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Separation of cesium chloride (CsCl and strontium chloride (SrCl2 from the lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl salt was studied using a melt crystallization process similar to the reverse vertical Bridgeman growth technique. A ternary SrCl2-LiCl-KCl salt was explored at similar growth rates (1.8–5 mm/h and compared with CsCl ternary results to identify similarities. Quaternary experiments were also conducted and compared with the ternary cases to identify trends and possible limitations to the separations process. In the ternary case, as much as 68% of the total salt could be recycled per batch process. In the quaternary experiments, separation of Cs and Sr was nearly identical at the slower rates; however, as the growth rate increased, SrCl2 separated more easily than CsCl. The quaternary results show less separation and rate dependence than in both ternary cases. As an estimated result, only 51% of the total salt could be recycled per batch. Furthermore, two models have been explored to further understand the growth process and separation. A comparison of the experimental and modeling results reveals that the nonmixed model fits reasonably well with the ternary and quaternary data sets. A dimensional analysis was performed and a correlation was identified to semipredict the segregation coefficient.

  12. Nitrate removal from water using alum and ferric chloride: A comparative study of alum and ferric chloride efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmad Aghapour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitrate is an acute and well-known hazardous contaminant, and its contamination of water sources has been a growing concern worldwide in recent years. This study evaluated the feasibility of nitrate removal from water using the traditional coagulants alum and ferric chloride with lower concentrations than those used in the conventional coagulation process. Methods: In this research, two coagulants, alum and ferric chloride, were compared for their efficiency in removing nitrate in a conventional water treatment system. The removal process was done in a batch system (jar test to examine the effects of coagulant dosages and determine the conditions required to achieve optimum results. Results: The results revealed that ferric chloride at an initial dose rate of 4 mg/L reduced nitrate concentration from 70 mg/L to less than the World Health Organization (WHO guideline value (50 mg/L N-NO 3. However, the removal efficiency of alum was not salient to significant nitrate reduction. Conclusion: In conclusion, ferric chloride was more effective than alumin removing NO-3, even in common dosage range, and can be considered a cost-effective and worthy treatment option to remediate nitratepolluted water. Furthermore, the removal of nitrate by coagulation can be simple and more economical than other treatment alternatives.

  13. An ellipsometry study on the effect of aluminium chloride and ferric chloride formulations on mucin layers adsorbed at hydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamit-Eminovski, Jildiz; Eskilsson, Krister; Arnebrant, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Ellipsometry was used to investigate the effect of polyaluminium chloride (PAC) formulations of different degrees of hydrolysation on an adsorbed mucin film. The results were compared to the effect of aluminium chloride (AlCl(3)) and ferric chloride. A compaction of the mucin film took place upon addition of the formulations and this occurred to different extents and at different concentrations for the different formulations. The compaction of PAC of a low degree of hydrolysis behaved similarly to AlCl(3). PAC of a high degree of hydrolysis showed a greater compaction effect than the other aluminium formulations. The initial compaction concentration was found to be 0.001 mM which is less than previously found for aluminium-mucin complex formation in bulk. The reversibility of the compaction was also investigated. The compaction of the mucin film was found to be partly reversible for AlCl(3) and PAC of low degree of hydrolysis. No reversibility was observed for the formulations of PAC of high hydrolysis grade or for ferric chloride. The results are consistent with previously observed effects of PAC of a low degree of hydrolysis on bacterial surfaces where a compaction of surface polymers was indicated by the reduced range of repulsive steric interactions.

  14. Effect of Auger electrons internalized as Indium-111 labelled N-MYC phosphorothionate antisense oligonucleotide (In-111-N-MYC-AS) on human neuroblastoma cells: In vitro and in vivo studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, N.; Tanada, S.; Sasaki, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Auger electrons which enter into cells cause biological effects with high-LET short range radiation on the neighborhood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the internalization of In-111-N-myc-AS and suppression of N-MYC in human neuroblastoma cells. Fifteen-mer AS, which was complementary to the region of the mRNA of N-myc beginning with ATG start codon, was derivatized with SCN-Bn-EDTA and labeled with In-111. In-111-N-myc-AS (1.33MBq/nmol) was prepared as naked form and encapsulated in cationic multilamellar liposome (CML). The internalization of In-111-N-myc-AS with or without CML into human neuroblastoma SK-N-DZ cells was determined both in vitro (cell culture) and in vivo (tumor bearing nude mice) studies by Southern blot analysis. Quantity of N-MYC in the tumor cells was also measured by Western blot analysis. In in vitro system 0.69-02pmol of In-111-N-myc-AS (80pmol) with CML was internalized in the cells (5x106) by 12h at 4 deg. C, which increased to 8.05?0.43pmol at 37 deg. C. The internalized naked In-111-N-myc-AS was 0.58?0.01pmol and 0.92?0.03pmol at 4 and 37 0 C, respectively. In vivo study revealed the internalization of In-111-N-myc-AS (8nmol) with CML in tumor cells (5x106) as 6.44?0.71pmol, while none (0pmol) of naked In-111-N-myc-AS was internalized. The effect of Auger electrons was shown by a decrease of N-MYC of the tumor cells by 20.6?2.49% in vitro and 12.9?1.17% in vivo in the case of In-111-N-myc-AS with CML, whereas unlabeled AS with CML or In-111-phosphorothioate sense oligonucleotide did not decrease the quantity of N-MYC of the tumor cells in vitro or in vivo. In conclusion, In-111-N-myc-AS with CML could be internalized into human neuroblastoma cells and suppress the activity of N-myc gene, which may prove useful for targeted Auger electrons radiotherapy. (author)

  15. Effect of Auger electrons internalized as Indium-111-labeled N-MYC phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide (In-111-N-MYC-AS) on human neuroblastoma cells: In-vitro and in-vivo studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Naoyuki; Tanada, Shuju; Sasaki, Yasuhito

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Auger electrons, which enter into cells, cause biological effects with high-LET short-range radiation on the neighborhood. The purpose of this study is to investigate the internalization of In-111-N-myc-AS and suppression of NMYC in human neuroblastoma cells. Fifteen-mer AS, which was complementary to the region of the mRNA of N-myc beginning with ATG start codon, was derivated with SCN-Bn-EDTA and labeled with In-111. In-111-Nmyc-AS (1.33MBq/nmol) was prepared as naked form and encapsulated in cationic multilamellar liposome (CML). The internalization of In-111-N-myc-AS with or without CML into human neuroblastoma SK-N-DZ cells was determined both in vitro (cell culture) and in vivo (tumor bearing nude mice) studies by Southern blot analysis. Quantity of N-MYC in the tumor cells was also measured by Western blot analysis. In in-vitro system 0.69∫0.02pmol of In-111-N-myc-AS (80pmol) with CML was internalized in the cells (5x106) by 12h at 4 deg. C, which increased to 8.05±0.43pmol at 37 deg. C. The internalized naked In-111-N-myc-AS was 0.58±0.01pmol and 0.92±0.03pmol at 4 and 37 deg. C, respectively. In-vivo study revealed the internalization of In-111-N-myc-AS (8nmol) with CML in tumor cells (5x106) as 6.44±0.71pmol, while none (0pmol) of naked In-111-Nmyc-AS was internalized. The effect of Auger electrons was shown by a decrease of N-MYC of the tumor cells by 20.6±2.49% in- vitro and 12.9±1.17% in vivo in the case of In-111-N-myc-AS with CML, whereas unlabeled AS with CML or In-111-phosphorothioate sense oligonucleotide did not decrease the quantity of N-MYC of the tumor cells in- vitro or in- vivo. In-111-N-myc-AS with CML could be internalized into human neuroblastoma cells and suppress the activity of N-myc gene, which may prove useful for targeted Auger electrons radiotherapy. (author)

  16. Polyvinyl chloride Waste as an Adsorbent for the Sorption of Pb2+ from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donbebe Wankasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sorption of Pb2+ from solution by polyvinyl chloride waste was investigated. The morphological features of the polymer sample were studied using the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD, and the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic batch adsorption experiments were carried out by the concentration, time, and temperature effects, respectively. The morphological image of the polymer showed irregular small size particles which indicated a high surface area and porosity that facilitated sorption. The adsorption studies recorded relatively rapid uptake of Pb2+ by the polymer which was mainly diffusion controlled and followed a second order kinetic process. The thermodynamic studies suggested relatively low temperature (low energy favoured sorption which was exothermic with a physisorption mechanism.

  17. Polymeric flocculant based on cassava starch grafted polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride: Flocculation behavior and mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razali, M.A.A.; Ariffin, A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Flocculation performance of cassava grafted polyDADMAC was studied. • Turbidity and TSS removal increased with increasing grafting percentage. • The grafted polymer showed good removal in acidic and neutral region. • Zeta potential results pointed to the charge neutralization mechanism. • Flocs increased with increasing grafting percentage and molecular weight. - Abstract: In this work, flocculation properties of cassava starch grafted polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (polyDADMAC) with different grafting percentages were investigated. Flocculation performance was evaluated in simulated kaolin suspension. The grafting percentages used were 1.76 %, 14.84 %, and 21.98 %. The effectiveness of the flocculation was measured based on the reduction of the turbidity and total suspended solids (TSSs), zeta potential measurements, particle size, and atomic force microscopy imaging. Grafted polymers improved the removal rate of turbidity and TSS compared with gelatinized starch, and the removal rate increased with increasing grafting percentage and dosage

  18. 75 FR 36629 - Barium Chloride From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... International Trade Administration Barium Chloride From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of... the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') would... of initiation of the third sunset review of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from the...

  19. Potentiometric measurement with a Kelvin probe: Contactless measurement of chloride ions in aqueous electrolyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; Zhu, X.; de Boer, Hans L.; Tanvir, N.B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2016-01-01

    For the first time the chloride ion concentration in electrolyte is measured using a Kelvin probe. A silver-silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode, which is a chloride ion selective electrode, is used as a sample plate in the electrolyte and the Kelvin probe is used as a reference plate that is

  20. Connecting to concrete: wireless monitoring of chloride ions in concrete structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; ten Have, Bas; Hoekstra, Gerrit I.; Douma, Arjan; de Bruijn, Douwe; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, chloride ions are measured wirelessly in concrete. The half-cell potential of a silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode, which corresponds to the concentration of chloride ions, is measured wirelessly. The sensor system (the Ag/AgCl and a reference electrode) is embedded in

  1. 46 CFR 154.1750 - Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. 154... and Operating Requirements § 154.1750 Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. A refrigeration system for butadiene or vinyl chloride must not use vapor compression unless it: (a) Avoids any...

  2. Thermochemical characteristics of lanthanum and praseodymium chlorides and formation enthalpy of their solutions with calcium and potassium chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, V.D.; Mikhajlova, N.P.; Morozova, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    Determined were fusion heats and specific heats enthalpies of lanthanum and praseodymium chlorides in the liquid state and formation heats of their solutions with calcium and potassium chlorides in melts. The thermographic calorimetry method was used in the study. Changes of chloride enthalpies in the liquid state in melting points and fusion heat with the error of +-0.5 kcal/mol comprise: ΔH=H 1135 -H 298 =34.8 kcal/mol LaCl 3 , ΔH=H 1045 -H 298 =29.4 kcal/mol PrCl 3 , ΔHsub(f)=7.4 kcal/mol LaCl 3 , ΔHsub(f)=6.9 kcal/mol PrCl 3 . Average specific heats in the liquid state for LaCl 3 and PrCl 3 are equal, respectively: 83.5 (862-910) deg C; 43.0 cal/molxdeg (770-920) deg C. High values of lanthanum chloride specific heat in the liquid state and formation peculiarities of solutions with calcium chloride are explained from the point of view of ''aftermelting'' phenomena in melts. Comparative study of dependences of heat consumption to heating-up CaCl 2 in the LaCl 3 and PrCl 3 melt on its content in cloride solution and dependences of heat consumption to heating-up KCl in the PrCl 3 melt to 870 and 890 deg C on its content in the solution permitted to conclude that solution formation in the LaCl 3 -CaCl 2 and PrCl 3 -CaCl 2 systems is accompanied by additional energy expenditure and is connected with breaking up into smaller structural units of initial melt, and in the PrCl 3 -KCl system - with energy release and formation of new complexes

  3. Optimization of IGF-1R SPECT/CT Imaging Using In-111-Labeled F(ab ')(2) and Fab Fragments of Article the Monoclonal Antibody R1507

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heskamp, S.; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Molkenboer-Kuenen, J.D.M.; Bouwman, W.H.; van der Graaf, W.T.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Boerman, O.C.

    2012-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a potential new target for the treatment of breast cancer. Patients with breast cancer lesions that express IGF-1R may benefit from treatment with anti-IGF-IR antibodies. IGF-1R expression can be visualized using radiolabeled R1507, a monoclonal

  4. Enthalpic interactions of N-glycylglycine with xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions at T = 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Min, E-mail: panpanliumin@163.co [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Wang Lili [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Zhu Lanying [College of Life Science and Bioengineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Li Hui; Sun Dezhi; Di Youying; Li Linwei [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China)

    2010-07-15

    The mixing enthalpies of N-glycylglycine with xylitol and their respective enthalpies of dilution in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions have been determined by using flow-mix isothermal microcalorimetry at the temperature of 298.15 K. These experimental results have been used to determine the heterotactic enthalpic interaction coefficients (h{sub xy}, h{sub xxy}, and h{sub xyy}) according to the McMillan-Mayer theory. It has been found that the heterotactic enthalpic pairwise interaction coefficients h{sub xy} between N-glycylglycine and xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions are negative and become less negative with an increase in the molality of sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The results are discussed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions.

  5. Activity measurements of the radionuclide {sup 111}In for the LNE-LNHB, France in the ongoing comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.In-111

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S. [Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), Pavillon de Breteuil, 92 - Sevres (France); Verdeau, E.; Amiot, M.N. [Laboratoire national de metrologie et d' essais-Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2010-10-15

    In 2006, the Laboratoire national de metrologie et d'essais - Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB) submitted a sample of known activity of {sup 111}In to the International Reference System (SIR). The value of the activity submitted was about 14 MBq. This provides a new result for France in the matrix of degrees of equivalence in the key comparison database that enables them to maintain their degrees of equivalence for this radionuclide. The key comparison reference value has been re-evaluated and the comparison, identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.In-111, now contains five valid results. (authors)

  6. Resistant mechanism study of benzalkonium chloride selected Salmonella Typhimurium mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Cui, Shenghui; Xu, Xiao; Wang, Haoyan

    2014-02-01

    Benzalkonium chloride is one of the invaluable biocides that is extensively used in healthcare settings as well as in the food processing industry. After exposing wild-type Salmonella Typhimurium 14028s or its AcrAB inactivation mutant to gradually increasing levels of benzalkonium chloride, resistance mutants S-41, S-150, S-AB-23, S-AB-38, and S-AB-73 were selected and these mutants also showed a 2-64-fold stable minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) increase to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline. In S-41 and S-150, the expression of acrB was increased 2.7- and 7.6-fold, and ΔtolC or ΔacrAB mutants of S-41 and S-150 showed the same MICs to all tested antimicrobials as the equivalent Salmonella Typhimurium 14028s mutants. However, in S-AB-23, S-AB-38, and S-AB-73, the expression of acrF was increased 96-, 230-, and 267-fold, respectively, and ΔtolC or ΔacrEF mutants of S-AB-23, S-AB-38, and S-AB-73 showed the similar MICs to all tested antimicrobials as the ΔtolC mutant of Salmonella Typhimurium 14028s. Our data showed that constitutively over-expressed AcrAB working through TolC was the main resistance mechanism in ST14028s benzalkonium chloride resistance mutants. However, after AcrAB had been inactivated, benzalkonium chloride-resistant mutants could still be selected and constitutively over-expressed, AcrEF became the dominant efflux pump working through TolC and being responsible for the increasing antimicrobial resistance. These data indicated that different mechanisms existed for acrB and acrF constitutive over-expression. Since exposure to benzalkonium chloride may lead to Salmonella mutants with a decreased susceptibility to quinolones, which is currently one of the drugs of choice for the treatment of life-threatening salmonelosis, research into the pathogenesis and epidemiology of the benzalkonium chloride resistance mutants will be of increasing importance.

  7. Preparation of Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) Material and its Application to Electrochemical Degradation of Methylene Blue in Sodium Chloride Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto; Prawidha, A. D.

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical degradation of methylene blue using Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) electrode in sodium chloride have been done. The aim of this work was to degradation of methylene blue using Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC). Carbon chitosan composite electrode was preparing by Carbon and Chitosan powder and PVC in 4 mL tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent and swirled flatly to homogeneous followed by drying in an oven at 100 °C for 3 h. The mixture was placed in stainless steel mould and pressed at 10 ton/cm2. Sodium chloride was used electrolyte solution. The effects of the current and electrolysis time were investigated using spectrophotometer UV-Visible. The experimental results showed that the carbon-chitosan composite electrode have higher effect in the electrochemical degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride. Based on UV-visible spectra analysis shows current and electrolysis time has high effect to degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride. Chitosan and polyvinyl chloride can strengthen the bond between the carbons so that the material has the high stability and conductivity. As conclusions is Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) electrode have a high electrochemical activity for degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride.

  8. Imaging from cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.; Posselt, H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most frequent metabolic disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance in the Caucasian population. The gene defect is located on the long arm of chromosome 7. In Germany today, the actual median survival is 37 years. The genetic defect caused by chloride anion disturbances affects multiple body systems but the morbidity and mortality is due to lung disease. The secretion of highly viscous mucus promotes viral and bacterial pulmonary infections leading to airway obstruction and consecutive destruction of the lung parenchyma. This article will review and discuss both the clinical aspects of the disease and the diagnostic methods, referring in particular to new imaging strategies. (orig.)

  9. Antidepressants and seizure-interactions at the GABA-receptor chloride-ionophore complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malatynska, E.; Knapp, R.J.; Ikeda, M.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1988-01-01

    Convulsive seizures are a potential side effect of antidepressant drug treatment and can be produced by all classes of antidepressants. It is also know that some convulsant and anticonvulsant drug actions are mediated by the GABA-receptor chloride-ionophore complex. Drugs acting at this complex appear to induce convulsions by inhibiting chloride conductance through the associated chloride channel. Using the method of GABA-stimulated 36 Cl-uptake by rat cerebral cortical vesicles, we show that some antidepressant drugs can inhibit the GABA-receptor chloride uptake, and that the degree of chloride channel inhibition by these drugs correlates with the frequency of convulsive seizures induced by them

  10. Effect of brief cetylpyridinium chloride treatments during early and mature cariogenic biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, S; Cai, J-N; Jung, J-E; Lee, Y-S; Jeon, J-G

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antibiofilm activity of brief cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) treatments during early and mature Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation. Streptococcus mutans biofilms were formed on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite disks. The biofilms were treated with CPC twice daily (1 min/treatment) from 0 to 50 h or from 48 to 98 h. Acidogenicity, dry weight, viability, and water-insoluble extracellular polysaccharides of the biofilms were analyzed. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images were obtained to confirm the antibiofilm activity during mature biofilm formation and to evaluate the relationship between treatment time and the antibiofilm activity. CPC showed complete antibiofilm activity during early biofilm formation at 0.025% to 0.1%. During mature biofilm formation, CPC inhibited dry weight, viability, and acidogenicity at 0.075% and 0.1%. CLSM images showed an increase in dead cells at 0.075% and 0.1% CPC. The antibiofilm activity during mature biofilm formation increased as the concentration of CPC increased. Images from the CLSM study also showed that antibiofilm activity increased as treatment time increased. Our findings suggest that brief CPC treatments have strong anti-S. mutans biofilm activity. The antibiofilm activity was dependent on the stage of biofilm formation, CPC concentration, and treatment time. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Entering chloride kinetic isotope effects in protic and aprotic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cromartie, T.H.; Swain, C.G.

    1976-01-01

    Chlorine kinetic isotope effects for the reaction of ethylene oxide and chloride ion are normal ( 35 Cl/ 37 Cl greater than unity) in protic solvents and in acetone and dimethylformamide (DMF) in the presence of 1 equiv of 2,6-lutidinium ion. In the presence of 0.1 equiv of this cation (and 0.9 of Li + ) the isotope effect in DMF is inverse (0.9922). This is the first observation of an inverse entering-group heavy-atom isotope effect. The reaction of chloride ion with dimethyl sulfate is normal in water but inverse in DMF. The ''normal'' isotope effects are shown to be due in large measure to the dominance of changes in hydrogen bonding to chlorine over changes in carbon--chlorine bonding

  12. Characterization of lithium-thionyl chloride cells by impedance techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, F.; Pozin, M.; Cherniy, A.; Tikhonov, K.

    The main contributor to voltage drop observed on initial discharge of lithium-thionyl chloride cells is the resistance of the passive layer on the lithium anode, as can be determined from the Nyquist plot of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell. At extremely low discharge currents, initial voltage drop corresponds to the value found from the impedance measurements; at higher current, an empirical correction based on the experimental results is required. The dispersion in the values of the impedance parameters and thus in initial voltage drop of individual cells was analyzed. The condition of the lithium surface after assembly was shown not to be the only reason for high dispersion in impedance parameter values.

  13. Mathematical Model of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.; Jungst, R.G.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Weidner, J.W.

    1998-11-24

    A mathematical model of a spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery has been developed ~d used for parameter estimation and design studies. The model formulation is based on the fimdarnental Consemation laws using porous electrode theory and concentrated solution theory. The model is used to estimate the difision coefficient and the kinetic parameters for the reactions at the anode and the cathode as a function of temperature. These parameters are obtained by fitting the simulated capacity and average cell voltage to experimental data over a wide range of temperatures (-55 to 49"C) and discharge loads (10 to 250 ohms). The experiments were performed on D-sized, cathode-limited, spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride cells. The model is also used to study the effkct of cathode thickness on the cell capacity as a finction of temperature, and it was found that the optimum thickness for the cathode- limited design is temperature and load dependent.

  14. Heat generation in lithium/thionyl chloride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbard, H.F.

    1980-01-01

    The flow of heat from lithium/thionyl chloride batteries has been measured in two conduction calorimeters. Several types of cells have been studied, both at rest and during low- and high-rate discharge. In contrast with other reports in the literature, no conditions were found under which the discharge of lithium/thionyl chloride batteries was endothermic. Results at low currents, which are described in terms of the thermodynamic formalism developed previously, are consistent with measurements of the temperature dependence of the open-circuit potential. Cells discharged at higher currents produced more heat flux than predicted by the simple thermodynamic treatment. The current and time variation of the additional heat is consistent with a current-dependent corrosion of the lithium electrode. 14 refs.

  15. Uranium (III) precipitation in molten chloride by wet argon sparging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigier, Jean-François; Laplace, Annabelle; Renard, Catherine; Miguirditchian, Manuel; Abraham, Francis

    2016-06-01

    In the context of pyrochemical processes for nuclear fuel treatment, the precipitation of uranium (III) in molten salt LiCl-CaCl2 (30-70 mol%) at 705 °C is studied. First, this molten chloride is characterized with the determination of the water dissociation constant. With a value of 10-4.0, the salt has oxoacid properties. Then, the uranium (III) precipitation using wet argon sparging is studied. The salt is prepared using UCl3 precursor. At the end of the precipitation, the salt is totally free of solubilized uranium. The main part is converted into UO2 powder but some uranium is lost during the process due to the volatility of uranium chloride. The main impurity of the resulting powder is calcium. The consequences of oxidative and reductive conditions on precipitation are studied. Finally, coprecipitation of uranium (III) and neodymium (III) is studied, showing a higher sensitivity of uranium (III) than neodymium (III) to precipitation.

  16. Samarium (III) acetate-chloride hydrates: dimers and chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, G.; Lossin, A.; Schleid, T.

    1991-01-01

    Except for samarium chloride and samarium acetate, the system Sm 3+ /Ac - /Cl - /H 2 0 contains two acetate-chloride hydrates, [SmAc(H 2 0) 6 ]Cl 2 . H 2 0 (1) and [SmAc 2 (H 2 0) 3 ]Cl (2). Single crystals of 1 are obtained from an aqueous acetic-acid solution of SmCl 3 .6H 2 0 by slow isothermal evaporation at room temperature, those of 2 analogously but from a solution of SmOCl. 1 crystallizes with the triclinic system and contains centro-symmetric dimers with nine-coordinate Sm 3+ (six aquo ligands and one tridentate bridging acetate anion). 2 crystallizes with the monoclinic system with one-dimensional infinite chains, and Sm 3+ again in a ninefold oxygen coordination (three aquo and two tridentate bridging acetate ligands)

  17. Probabilistic Models and Computational Methods for Chloride Ingress in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, S.

    it is determined whether repair and maintenance are necessary. A decision maker is faced with the question of how to perform the measurements such that most information is obtained at the lowest cost and which repair and maintenance strategy to apply if this turns out to be necessary. The measurements and repairs......Within the last decades it has been recognized that reinforced concrete structures are subject to a number of destructive mechanisms which might affect the structure in such a way that it is not able to fulfil its purpose efficiently. The present report focuses on chloride ingress and chloride......-initiated corrosion of the reinforcement, because experience has shown that in Denmark this is one of the most common destructive mechanisms. In order to ensure that a given reinforced concrete structure is able to fulfil its purpose extensive measurements are performed and on the basis of these measurements...

  18. Increasing of Mechanical Parameters of Clay soil Using Calcium Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshty, Seyyed Amir Hossein; Moosa Aniran, Mir; Firoozfar, Alireza; Kiamehr, Ramin

    2017-04-01

    Research on roads to increase the resistance of weak soils to build structures on it has been increased in recent years. The present article provide the effects of different mixtures containing calcium chloride solution and clay soil on mechanical parameters such as, compressibility, compressive strength, shear strength and durability characteristic. In this study also is investigated evaluation the effect of road subgrade based on proposed material. The used clay soil in this research was obtained from zanjan city where is located in northwestern of Iran. The obtained results show that the calcium chloride solution could play a major role in reducing the cost and required time for building roads and also building foundation on these types of soils.

  19. STABILIZATION OF PERTUSSIS VACCINE IN THE PRESENCE OF BENZETHONIUM CHLORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, B. H.; Eldering, Grace; Graham, Bernice

    1964-01-01

    Olson, B. H. (Division of Laboratories, Michigan Department of Health, Lansing), Grace Eldering, and Bernice Graham. Stabilization of pertussis vaccine in the presence of benzethonium chloride. J. Bacteriol. 87:543–546. 1964.—Data are presented showing that pertussis vaccine preserved with benzethonium chloride (BC; Phemerol) was inactivated during storage. BC-preserved vaccine stored at 37 C showed no measurable mouse-protective potency at 16 weeks. That stored at 0 to 4 C lost approximately 80% of its potency within 1 year. Treatment of pertussis vaccines with aluminum, calcium, magnesium, choline, or dl-lysine before the addition of the BC prevented its uptake by the cells. Pertussis vaccines pretreated with 0.004 m Ca++ or 0.0004 m Al+++ retained 70% of the initial potency after 42 weeks of storage at 37 C. Similar vaccines showed no loss of protective antigens when stored for 1 year at 0 to 4 C. PMID:14127568

  20. Production of 90Y chloride. Pt. 1 - proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budsky, F.; Malek, Z.; Kysela, J.

    2002-06-01

    A proposal is put forth for the introduction of the production of 90 Y chloride, intended for 90 Y-Fe colloid injections. The radionuclide is prepared by irradiation of high-purity yttrium oxide powder for a time no shorter than 120 hr using a thermal neutron flux no smaller than 9.10 13 cm -2 .s -1 . The solution of 90 Y chloride is prepared by dissolving the irradiated target in dilute HCl. Its parameters should be as follows: Radioactive concentration at the moment of transfer to the Pharmaceuticals Dept. 370 MBq/ml; specific radioactivity at the moment of transfer to the Pharmaceuticals Dept. 460 MBq/mg Y; c(YCl 3 ) = 0.027 mol/l, i.e. 2.4 mg/ml Y; c(HCl) = 0.5 mol/l; and other metals: <0.01 mg/ml

  1. Molybdenum chloride catalysts for Z-selective olefin metathesis reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ming Joo; Nguyen, Thach T.; Lam, Jonathan K.; Torker, Sebastian; Hyvl, Jakub; Schrock, Richard R.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2017-01-01

    The development of catalyst-controlled stereoselective olefin metathesis processes has been a pivotal recent advance in chemistry. The incorporation of appropriate ligands within complexes based on molybdenum, tungsten and ruthenium has led to reactivity and selectivity levels that were previously inaccessible. Here we show that molybdenum monoaryloxide chloride complexes furnish higher-energy (Z) isomers of trifluoromethyl-substituted alkenes through cross-metathesis reactions with the commercially available, inexpensive and typically inert Z-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluoro-2-butene. Furthermore, otherwise inefficient and non-stereoselective transformations with Z-1,2-dichloroethene and 1,2-dibromoethene can be effected with substantially improved efficiency and Z selectivity. The use of such molybdenum monoaryloxide chloride complexes enables the synthesis of representative biologically active molecules and trifluoromethyl analogues of medicinally relevant compounds. The origins of the activity and selectivity levels observed, which contradict previously proposed principles, are elucidated with the aid of density functional theory calculations.

  2. Modeling polyvinyl chloride Plasma Modification by Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changquan

    2018-03-01

    Neural networks model were constructed to analyze the connection between dielectric barrier discharge parameters and surface properties of material. The experiment data were generated from polyvinyl chloride plasma modification by using uniform design. Discharge voltage, discharge gas gap and treatment time were as neural network input layer parameters. The measured values of contact angle were as the output layer parameters. A nonlinear mathematical model of the surface modification for polyvinyl chloride was developed based upon the neural networks. The optimum model parameters were obtained by the simulation evaluation and error analysis. The results of the optimal model show that the predicted value is very close to the actual test value. The prediction model obtained here are useful for discharge plasma surface modification analysis.

  3. Surface chloride salt formation on Space Shuttle exhaust alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofer, W. R., III; Pellett, G. L.; Sebacher, D. I.; Wakelyn, N. T.

    1984-01-01

    Aluminum oxide samples from the exhaust of Space Shuttle launches STS-1, STS-4, STS-5, and STS-6 were collected from surfaces on or around the launch pad complex and chemically analyzed. The results indicate that the particulate solid-propellant rocket motor (SRM) alumina was heavily chlorided. Concentrations of water-soluble aluminum (III) ion were large, suggesting that the surface of the SRM alumina particles was rendered soluble by prior reactions with HCl and H2O in the SRM exhaust cloud. These results suggest that Space Shuttle exhaust alumina particles are good sites for nucleation and condensation of atmospheric water. Laboratory experiments conducted at 220 C suggest that partial surface chloriding of alumina may occur in hot Space Shuttle exhaust plumes.

  4. Normal sweat chloride test does not rule out cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başaran, Abdurrahman Erdem; Karataş-Torun, Nimet; Maslak, İbrahim Cemal; Bingöl, Ayşen; Alper, Özgül M

    2017-01-01

    Başaran AE, Karataş-Torun N, Maslak İC, Bingöl A, Alper ÖM. Normal sweat chloride test does not rule out cystic fibrosis. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 68-70. A 5-month-old patient presented with complaints of fever and cough. He was hospitalized with the diagnosis of bronchopneumonia and pseudo-Bartter's syndrome. Patient was further investigated for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. The chloride (Cl) level in sweat was determined within the normal range (25.1 mmol/L, 20.3 mmol/L). CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator gene; NM_000492.2) genotyping results were positive for p.E92K; p.F1052V mutations. The patient was diagnosed with cystic fibrosis. In our patient, with features of CF and normal sweat test, mutation analysis was helpful for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.

  5. Low levels of cadmium chloride damage the corneal endothelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, W.J. [Section of Neurobiology, Physiology and Behavior, Division of Biological Sciences, Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Sillman, A.J. [Section of Neurobiology, Physiology and Behavior, Division of Biological Sciences, Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The effect of cadmium chloride on the integrity of the endothelium of isolated bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) corneas was examined by spectrophotometric analysis of corneal uptake of the vital stain Janus green and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The uptake of Janus green by the endothelium was dose related between 1.0 and 100.0 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}. The effect of cadmium was significantly attenuated by the calcium channel blocker SKF 96365 and was augmented by the calcium ionophore A23187, indicating that cadmium influx through calcium channels is an important determinant of its cellular effect. The effect of cadmium was not altered by changes in the external calcium concentration, indicating that the mechanism does not involve competitive inhibition by calcium. SEM demonstrated significant structural damage to the corneal endothelium exposed to cadmium chloride, including focal disruption and denuding of the apical endothelial membrane. (orig.). With 3 figs.

  6. Stochastic modeling of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Frier, Christian

    2004-01-01

    For many reinforced concrete structures corrosion of reinforcement is an important problem since it can result in expensive maintenance and repair actions. Further, a significant reduction of the load-bearing capacity can occur. One mode of corrosion initiation is that the chloride content around....... The distribution of the time to initiation of corrosion is estimated by simulation. As an example a bridge pier in a marine environment is considered.......For many reinforced concrete structures corrosion of reinforcement is an important problem since it can result in expensive maintenance and repair actions. Further, a significant reduction of the load-bearing capacity can occur. One mode of corrosion initiation is that the chloride content around...

  7. Plastics and carcinogenesis: The example of vinyl chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Wesley Brandt-Rauf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The manufacture, use and disposal of various plastics can pose numerous health risks, including the risk of cancer. A model example of carcinogenic risk from plastics is provided by polyvinyl chloride, since it is composed of the known human carcinogen vinyl chloride (VC. In recent years, much has been learned about the molecular biological pathways of VC carcinogenesis. This has led to molecular epidemiologic studies of VC carcinogenesis in exposed human populations which have identified useful biomarkers of exposure, effect and susceptibility for VC. These studies have in turn provided the basis for new molecular approaches for the prevention and treatment of VC cancers. This model could have much wider applicability for many other carcinogenic exposures and many other human cancers.

  8. Tetragonal Chicken Egg White Lysozyme Solubility in Sodium Chloride Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Judge, Russell A.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1998-01-01

    The solubility of chicken egg white lysozyme, crystallized in the tetragonal form was measured in sodium chloride solutions from 1.6 to 30.7 C, using a miniature column solubility apparatus. Sodium chloride solution concentrations ranged from 1 to 7% (w/v). The solutions were buffered with 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer with the solubility being measured at pH values in 0.2 pH unit increments in the range pH 4.0 to 5.4, with data also included at pH 4.5. Lysozyme solubility was found to increase with increases in temperature and decreasing salt concentration. Solution pH has a varied and unpredictable effect on solubility.

  9. X-ray diffraction study of choline chloride's β form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrouleas, V.; Lemmon, R.M.; Christensen, A.

    1978-01-01

    The organic salt choline chloride exists in two crystalline polymorphs. One (the α form) is extraordinarily sensitive to ionizing radiation, the other (the β form) is not. The present report describes an x-ray diffraction study of the β form. The structure has been found to be highly disordered face centered cubic. A reasonable least-square refinement of the intensity data has been achieved in the centrosymmetric space group Fm3 or Fm3m by use of a molecular model with restrained bond lengths. The results show that in the β form the electronic density due to the choline cation is closely spaced around the N, so that hydrogen bonding to the chloride is unlikely. Comparison with infrared and NMR data indicates that the disordering is dynamic and can be ascribed to rotations of the choline ion around crystallographic symmetry axes. Possible connections of these results with the radiation stability of the β form are discussed

  10. Chloride Migration in Heterogeneous Soil - 1. Experimental Methodology and Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sassner, Mona; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Destouni, Georgia

    1994-01-01

    , the individual monoliths showed large and irregular variability in their soil characteristics and in their flow and transport properties. The distribution of the specific discharge of water could be quantified by a bimodal distribution; the horizontal correlation length for the specific discharge of water......The statistics of chloride transport through 29 undisturbed soil monoliths (20 cm in diameter and 1 m long, sampled from a field plot of 15 x 175 m2) were evaluated in a controlled laboratory experiment. Although the field soil (loamy sand) was relatively homogeneous with regard to texture...... was estimated to about 10 m. The ratio between the arrival time of the peak in chloride concentration and the water residence time given by the measured flow parameters indicated a mobile water content that was smaller than the measured water content. The large variability in hydraulic conductivity in both...

  11. Swell activated chloride channel function in human neutrophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, Michael D. [Leukocyte and Ion Channel Research Laboratory, School of Health and Biosciences, University of East London, Stratford Campus, London E15 4LZ (United Kingdom); Ahluwalia, Jatinder, E-mail: j.ahluwalia@uel.ac.uk [Leukocyte and Ion Channel Research Laboratory, School of Health and Biosciences, University of East London, Stratford Campus, London E15 4LZ (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-17

    Non-excitable cells such as neutrophil granulocytes are the archetypal inflammatory immune cell involved in critical functions of the innate immune system. The electron current generated (I{sub e}) by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase is electrogenic and rapidly depolarises the membrane potential. For continuous function of the NADPH oxidase, I{sub e} has to be balanced to preserve electroneutrality, if not; sufficient depolarisation would prevent electrons from leaving the cell and neutrophil function would be abrogated. Subsequently, the depolarisation generated by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase I{sub e} must be counteracted by ion transport. The finding that depolarisation required counter-ions to compensate electron transport was followed by the observation that chloride channels activated by swell can counteract the NADPH oxidase membrane depolarisation. In this mini review, we discuss the research findings that revealed the essential role of swell activated chloride channels in human neutrophil function.

  12. High rate lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, P. G.; Goebel, F.

    The lithium/thionyl chloride ( {Li}/{SOCl2}) electrochemistry is capable of providing high power and high specific power, especially under pulse discharge conditions, when cells containing thin components are arranged in a bipolar configuration. This paper describes recent work concerned with bipolar cell design, cathode evaluation, component manufacturing methods, and the assembly and testing of bipolar modules containing up to 150 cells for Sonobuoy application.

  13. High rate lithium-thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, P.G.; Goebel, F. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The lithium/thionyl chloride system is capable of providing both high power and high energy density when cells containing thin components are arranged in a bipolar configuration. Electrode current densities in excess of 300mA/cm{sup 2} are achieved during pulse discharge. The present work is concerned with bipolar cell design, cathode evaluation, component manufacturing methods, and the assembly and testing of bipolar modules containing up to 150 cells.

  14. Design of a safe cylindrical lithium/thionyl chloride cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. H.; Ayers, A. D.; Zupancic, R. L.; Alberto, V. S.; Bailey, J. C.

    1984-05-01

    Cell design criteria have been established which can result in a safe lithium/thionyl chloride cell. A cell vent, a low area internal anode design, cell balance and composition of the cathode-electrolyte solution have been found to be important factors in the design of a safe cell. In addition to routine testing, both undischarged and discharged cells have been subjected to electrical abuse, environmental abuse and mechanical abuse without disassembly.

  15. High rate lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, P.G. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States); Goebel, F. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The lithium/thionyl chloride (Li/SOCl{sub 2}) electrochemistry is capable of providing high power and high specific power, especially under pulse discharge conditions, when cells containing thin components are arranged in a bipolar configuration. This paper describes recent work concerned with bipolar cell design, cathode evaluation, component manufacturing methods, and the assembly and testing of bipolar modules containing up to 150 cells for Sonobuoy application. (orig.)

  16. Effects of different concentrations of sodium chloride on plant growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pakchoi shoots exposed to 0, 50 and 100 mM sodium chloride (NaCl) for two weeks. The results showed that salt stress significantly decreased the fresh weight of whole plant and the dry weight of shoots and roots of pakchoi, as compared to the control. Under 50 mM NaCl, the contents of total glucosinolates, aliphatic and ...

  17. Medium effect on cyclohexene hydrocarbomethoxylation catalyzed by ruthenium (III) chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Sevostyanova N.; Batashev S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents influence of some solvents on cyclohexene hydrocarbomethoxylation catalyzed by ruthenium(III) chloride. The objective of the work was contained in the determination of medium influence on the reaction rate and yield of product — methyl cyclohexanecarboxylate. The kinetic method was used as the main method of investigation. The gas–liquid chromatography method was used to analyze the reaction mass. Influence of methanol, toluene, acetone and water on the hydrocarmothoxy...

  18. Ultrastructural immunocytochemistry of particulate fractions using polyvinyl chloride microculture wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, B E; Sealock, R

    1984-10-01

    A method is described for immunoelectron microscopy of particulate subcellular fractions using polyvinyl chloride (soft) microculture wells as mechanical supports and reaction vessels. Appropriate quantities of particles are centrifuged onto the well bottoms, fixed and permeabilized if necessary, then labeled by standard procedures, fixed in glutaraldehyde and tannic acid, and prepared for thin section electron microscopy. The centrifugation, the fixations, and the embedment in Epon are discussed in detail.

  19. Structure transitions between copper-sulphate and copper-chloride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    strate that co-adsorbed sulphate ions in the (√3 × √3)R30° UPD adlayer are replaced by chloride ions and, ..... phase 1 by the (5 × 5)-like chlo- ride phase 2 was mentioned in. 45,46,48,56 but not stud- ied in detail. These authors suggested that the replacement of SO. 2. 4. – .... A nonlinear regression fit of (1) to the experi-.

  20. Testing Metal Chlorides For Use In Sodium-Cell Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Attia, Alan I.; Halpert, Gerald

    1992-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetric curves of transition-metal wires in molten NaAlCl4 electrolyte used to eliminate suitability of transition metals as cathodes in sodium cells. Cyclic voltammetry used in conjunction with measurement of galvanostatic polarization curves determines whether given metal chloride suitable as cathode material in such cell. Cells useful in such high-energy-density and high-power-density applications as leveling loads on electric-power plants, supplying power to electric ground vehicles, and aerospace applications.

  1. Polarization and charge transfer in the hydration of chloride ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhen; Rogers, David M.; Beck, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    A theoretical study of the structural and electronic properties of the chloride ion and water molecules in the first hydration shell is presented. The calculations are performed on an ensemble of configurations obtained from molecular dynamics simulations of a single chloride ion in bulk water. The simulations utilize the polarizable AMOEBA force field for trajectory generation and MP2-level calculations are performed to examine the electronic structure properties of the ions and surrounding waters in the external field of more distant waters. The ChelpG method is employed to explore the effective charges and dipoles on the chloride ions and first-shell waters. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) is further utilized to examine charge transfer from the anion to surrounding water molecules. The clusters extracted from the AMOEBA simulations exhibit high probabilities of anisotropic solvation for chloride ions in bulk water. From the QTAIM analysis, 0.2 elementary charges are transferred from the ion to the first-shell water molecules. The default AMOEBA model overestimates the average dipole moment magnitude of the ion compared to the quantum mechanical value. The average magnitude of the dipole moment of the water molecules in the first shell treated at the MP2-level, with the more distant waters handled with an AMOEBA effective charge model, is 2.67 D. This value is close to the AMOEBA result for first-shell waters (2.72 D) and is slightly reduced from the bulk AMOEBA value (2.78 D). The magnitude of the dipole moment of the water molecules in the first solvation shell is most strongly affected by the local water-water interactions and hydrogen bonds with the second solvation shell, rather than by interactions with the ion.

  2. 2-[(Prop-2-yn-1-ylamino]anilinium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhanine Essaghouani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C9H11N2+·Cl−, is an anilinium chloride salt, in which the Car—N—C—C (ar = aromatic torsion angle is −84.95 (18°. In the crystal, a bilayer of cation–anion sheets runs parallel to (100, primarily through an extensive range of N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds. Weak offset π-stacking interactions between the benzene rings stack molecules along c.

  3. Corrosion behaviour of nickel during anodic polarization in chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, S.A.; Isani, A.A.; Memon, A.N.

    1998-01-01

    This research presents the effect of oxygen and nitrogen on the corrosion behaviour of nickel in the chloride solution, at the steady state polarized and unpolarized potentials. The additives were selected from those, which are used for bright nickel plating. It was observed that the agitation of electrolyte in a particular pH-(Cl)' range increase the potentials in comparison of the potentials to the un-agitated electrolytes. (author)

  4. Impact of sodium chloride on breakfast cereal products

    OpenAIRE

    Moreau, Lydie

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the amount of sodium chloride in breakfast cereals without changing their properties, it is necessary to understand the role of this salt. Hence, a model system was developed. This model, composed of native waxy maize starch, glucose and a mixture of amino-acids generated similar colour and residual volatiles after heating compared to commercial breakfast cereals. Systematically designed experiments used this model to study the influence of NaCl concentration (0 % to 5.44 %) on colo...

  5. Influence of sodium chloride on wine yeast fermentation performance

    OpenAIRE

    Logothetis, Stelios; Walker,Graeme

    2010-01-01

    Stilianos Logothetis1, Elias T Nerantzis2, Anna Gioulioti3, Tasos Kanelis2, Tataridis Panagiotis2, Graeme Walker11University of Abertay Dundee, School of Contemporary Sciences, Dundee, Scotland; 2TEI of Athens Department of Oenology and Spirit Technology, Biotechnology and Industrial Fermentations Lab Agiou Spiridonos, Athens, Greece; 3Ampeloiniki SA Industrial Park Thermi, Thessaloniki, GreeceAbstract: This paper concerns research into the influence of salt (sodium chloride) on growth, viabi...

  6. Influence of Surfactants on Sodium Chloride Crystallization in Confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Mohsin J; Liefferink, Rinse W; Schlegel, Simon J; Backus, Ellen H G; Bonn, Daniel; Shahidzadeh, Noushine

    2017-05-02

    We study the influence of different surfactants on NaCl crystallization during evaporation of aqueous salt solutions. We found that at concentrations of sodium chloride close to saturation, only the cationic surfactant CTAB and the nonionic surfactant Tween 80 remain stable. For the nonionic surfactant, the high concentration of salt does not significantly change either the critical micellar concentration (CMC) or the surface tension at the CMC; for the cationic surfactant, the CMC is reduced by roughly 2 orders of magnitude upon adding the salt. The presence of both types of surfactants in the salt solution delays the crystallization of sodium chloride with evaporation. This, in turn, leads to high supersaturation which induces the rapid precipitation of a hopper crystal in the bulk. The crystallization inhibitor role of these surfactants is shown to be mainly due to the passivation of nucleation sites at both liquid/air and solid/liquid interfaces rather than a change in the evaporation rate which is found not to be affected by the presence of the surfactants. The adsorption of surfactants at the liquid/air interface prevents the crystallization at this location which is generally the place where the precipitation of sodium chloride is observed. Moreover, sum frequency generation spectroscopy measurements show that the surfactants are also present at the solid/liquid interface. The incorporation of the surfactants into the salt crystals is investigated using a novel, but simple, method based on surface tension measurements. Our results show that the nonionic surfactant Tween 80 is incorporated in the NaCl crystals but the cationic surfactant CTAB is not. Taken together, these results therefore allow us to establish the effect of the presence of surfactants on sodium chloride crystallization.

  7. Anodic and cathodic reactions in molten calcium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fray, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Calcium chloride is a very interesting electrolyte in that it is available, virtually free, in high purity form as a waste product from the chemical industry. It has a very large solubility for oxide ions, far greater than many alkali halides and other divalent halides and has the same toxicity as sodium chloride and also a very high solubility in water. Intuitively, on the passage of current, it is expected that calcium would be deposited at the cathode and chlorine would evolve at the anode. However, if calcium oxide is added to the melt, it is possible to deposit calcium and evolve oxygen containing gases at the anode, making the process far less polluting than when chlorine is evolved. This process is discussed in terms of the addition of calcium to molten lead. Furthermore, these reactions can be altered dramatically depending upon the electrode materials and the other ions dissolved in the calcium chloride. As calcium is only deposited at very negative cathodic potentials, there are several interesting cathodic reactions that can occur and these include the decomposition of the carbonate ion and the ionization of oxygen, sulphur, selenium and tellurium. For example, if an oxide is used as the cathode in molten calcium chloride, the favoured reaction is shown to be the ionization of oxygen O + 2e - → O 2- rather than Ca 2+ + 2 e- → Ca. The oxygen ions dissolve in the salt leaving the metal behind, and this leads to the interesting hypothesis that metal oxides can be reduced directly to the metal purely by the use of electrons. Examples are given for the reduction of titanium dioxide, zirconium dioxide, chromium oxide and niobium oxide and by mixing oxide powders together and reducing the mixed compact, alloys and intermetallic compounds are formed. Preliminary calculations indicate that this new process should be much cheaper than conventional metallothermic reduction for these elements. (author)

  8. Health assessment of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) residues in food

    OpenAIRE

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2012-01-01

    On the occasion of quality controls in food business and during official food surveillance, didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) residues in excess of the currently applicable MRL of 0.01 mg/kg were detected in food. DDAC is a quaternary ammonium compound belonging to the group of cationic surfactants. It is used in disinfectants and detergents. DDAC is both a biocide and a pesticide active substance. In addition, DDAC is contained in products used as plant strengtheners. The avai...

  9. Chloride metallurgy for uranium recovery: concept and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, M.C.; Ritcey, G.M.; Joe, E.G.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium, thorium and radium are all effectively solubilized in chloride media. This provides a means to separate and isolate these species for ultimate sale or disposal. The laboratory work on the applications of hydrochloric acid leaching, chlorine assisted leaching and high temperature chlorination is reviewed. An indication of costs and benefits is provided to enable the evaluation of this technology as an option for reducing the environmental impact of tailings

  10. Iron-Catalyzed Activation of Chloride from Saline Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmer, Julian; Bleicher, Sergej; Ofner, Johannes; Zetzsch, Cornelius

    2015-04-01

    Iron (Fe) occurs in highly saline media (e.g. sea salt aerosol, salt brines etc.). High salinity, low pH, and organic constituents promote the dissolution of iron, forming photosensitive complexes that are responsible for a gaseous Cl production when irradiated by sunlight [1]. We studied the production of atomic Cl, Br and OH radicals from modeled salt pans [2] and artificial sea-salt aerosols containing Fe(III) ions or pyrogenic Fe2O3particles (Sicotrans Orange, BASF) at various compositions in a Teflon smog-chamber. The samples were either spread on a Teflon sheet or they were nebulized from dilute brines (most abundant particle diameter: ~0.4 μm, initial surface area: up to 3-10-2 cm2cm-3) and exposed to simulated sunlight at 60-90% relative humidity. The photochemical formation of Cl, OH and Br (if possible) in the gas phase was quantified by the radical clock method [3] resulting in time profiles of the radical-production rates and total productions. Simultaneous monitoring of the aerosol surface area enabled us to determine the initial Cl production rate per cm2 aerosol surface. Whereas no significant Cl production was detected employing a molar Cl-/Fe(III) ratio of 13, it increased to ~2.8-1017 atoms cm-2s-1 (at a ratio of 101), ~4.1-1017 atoms cm-2s-1(at a ratio of 53) and ~1.9-1018 atoms cm-2s-1(at a ratio of 13). The presence of NO2 (~20 ppb) or O3 (630 ppb) in the gas phase additionally increased the Fe(III)-induced chloride activation to ~7-1018 atoms cm-2s-1 and ~9-1018 atoms cm-2s-1(at a Cl-/Fe(III) ratio of 13), respectively. SO2 slightly restrained the Cl formation. Artificial sea salt aerosols doped with Fe2O3 (Cl-/Fetot ~13) did not result in detectable Cl concentrations. However, decreasing the pH below 2 favored the dissolution of Fe and led to Cl production rates comparable to the Fe(III) experiments. These observations are in accord with the speciation of the photolabile, aqueous Fe(III) complexes obtained from an equilibrium model (PHREEQC

  11. [The mortality among the makers of vinyl chloride in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirastu, R; Belli, S; Bruno, C; Comba, P; De Santis, M; Foà, V; Maltoni, C; Masina, A; Reggiani, A

    1991-01-01

    A mortality study was performed on 5,946 vinyl chloride (VC)-polyvinyl chloride (PVC) workers of the nine Italian plants. The aims of the study were to investigate the cause-specific mortality of workers exposed to VC in production and polymerization stages and to ascertain whether exposure is associated with a higher risk of cancers other than liver angiosarcoma. An incident cohort was enumerated in five plants, a mixed cohort in two and a cross sectional one in the remaining two facilities. Cause-specific Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMR) were calculated for the six incidence cohorts with a sufficiently long follow-up period. Both Italian and regional rates were used for the comparison. A pooled analysis of six cohorts was performed. For deceased persons, information from death certificates was used in the mortality analysis. Additional clinical and pathological data were sought for all decreased individuals (Best Evidence = BE). The results of the study confirm the carcinogenic action of vinyl chloride on the liver but not on the other suggested target organs (i.e., lung, lymphopoietic tissues, brain). A deficit for all causes of death and cardiovascular disease was evident in most cohorts and in the pooled cohort. Analysis of BE data showed a broad spectrum of carcinogenic action of VCM on the liver as demonstrated by the occurrence of both angiosarcomas and other histotypes of tumours.

  12. Vasculitic purpura in vinyl chloride disease: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnavita, N.; Bergamaschi, A.; Garcovich, A.; Giuliano, G.

    1986-05-01

    Vinyl chloride (VC), a volatile substance mostly used for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) synthesis, is a systemic toxicant particularly noxious to endothelium. Angiosarcoma of the liver, Raynaud's phenomenon, scleroderma-like lesions, acroosteolysis and neuritis are known to be typical vinyl chloride-associated manifestations (VC disease). A so far unknown feature of the disease is purpura. This was first observed by the authors in a worker of a PVC-producing plant. The skin eruption was characterized by small purpuric maculae with tiny, palpable spots and papulae, mostly concentrated on the lower part of the legs, changing into bullae, pustules and crusts and tending to spontaneous regression after withdrawal from VC exposure. A skin biopsy revealed marked inflammatory reaction with a mostly lymphocytic and histiocytic infiltration around and in the walls of dermal arterioles. The finding of increased circulating immune complexes and anti-smooth muscle autoantibodies strengthens the hypothesis that immunologic changes play a role in the appearance of ''vinylic purpura.''

  13. Prediction of Chloride Diffusion in Concrete Structure Using Meshless Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of RC structures due to chloride penetration followed by reinforcement corrosion is a serious problem in civil engineering. The numerical simulation methods at present mainly involve finite element methods (FEM, which are based on mesh generation. In this study, element-free Galerkin (EFG and meshless weighted least squares (MWLS methods are used to solve the problem of simulation of chloride diffusion in concrete. The range of a scaling parameter is presented using numerical examples based on meshless methods. One- and two-dimensional numerical examples validated the effectiveness and accuracy of the two meshless methods by comparing results obtained by MWLS with results computed by EFG and FEM and results calculated by an analytical method. A good agreement is obtained among MWLS and EFG numerical simulations and the experimental data obtained from an existing marine concrete structure. These results indicate that MWLS and EFG are reliable meshless methods that can be used for the prediction of chloride ingress in concrete structures.

  14. Multi-scale modelling of uranyl chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thanh-Nghi; Duvail, Magali, E-mail: magali.duvail@icsm.fr; Villard, Arnaud; Dufrêche, Jean-François, E-mail: jean-francois.dufreche@univ-montp2.fr [Institut de Chimie Séparative de Marcoule (ICSM), UMR 5257, CEA-CNRS-Université Montpellier 2-ENSCM, Site de Marcoule, Bâtiment 426, BP 17171, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Molina, John Jairo [Fukui Institute for Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, Takano-Nishihiraki-cho 34-4, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8103 (Japan); Guilbaud, Philippe [CEA/DEN/DRCP/SMCS/LILA, Marcoule, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France)

    2015-01-14

    Classical molecular dynamics simulations with explicit polarization have been successfully used to determine the structural and thermodynamic properties of binary aqueous solutions of uranyl chloride (UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}). Concentrated aqueous solutions of uranyl chloride have been studied to determine the hydration properties and the ion-ion interactions. The bond distances and the coordination number of the hydrated uranyl are in good agreement with available experimental data. Two stable positions of chloride in the second hydration shell of uranyl have been identified. The UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}-Cl{sup −} association constants have also been calculated using a multi-scale approach. First, the ion-ion potential averaged over the solvent configurations at infinite dilution (McMillan-Mayer potential) was calculated to establish the dissociation/association processes of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}-Cl{sup −} ion pairs in aqueous solution. Then, the association constant was calculated from this potential. The value we obtained for the association constant is in good agreement with the experimental result (K{sub UO{sub 2Cl{sup +}}} = 1.48 l mol{sup −1}), but the resulting activity coefficient appears to be too low at molar concentration.

  15. Study of magnesium chloride hexahydrate as heat storage material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilar, Radim, E-mail: radim.pilar@student.upce.cz [Department of Inorganic Technology, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Doubravice 41, 532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Svoboda, Ladislav; Honcova, Pavla; Oravova, Lucie [Department of Inorganic Technology, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Doubravice 41, 532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic)

    2012-10-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We measured heat capacity of magnesium chloride hexahydrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal stability of magnesium chloride hexahydrate was tested using DSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some nucleating agents were applied to suppress supercooling in magnesium chloride hexahydrate. - Abstract: Heat capacity of MgCl{sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O was determined in temperature range from 298.15 to 401.15 K. Polynomial function was used to fit temperature dependence of heat capacity up to 371.15 K and corresponding thermodynamic functions (H{sub T} - H{sub 298.15}, S{sub T} - S{sub 298.15}, G{sub T} - G{sub 298.15}) were calculated. Thermal stability test (50 heating/cooling cycles) of pure MgCl{sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O shows supercooling about 37 K, thus some nucleating agents were tested. Addition of SrCO{sub 3} (1 wt%) and Sr(OH){sub 2} (0.5 wt%) almost fully suppresses the supercooling while addition of Mg(OH){sub 2} decreases supercooling by 19 K.

  16. Chloride channels regulate chondrogenesis in chicken mandibular mesenchymal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Meiyu; Duan, Yinzhong; Duan, Xiaohong

    2010-12-01

    Voltage gated chloride channels (ClCs) play an important role in the regulation of intracellular pH and cell volume homeostasis. Mutations of these genes result in genetic diseases with abnormal bone deformation and body size, indicating that ClCs may have a role in chondrogenesis. In the present study, we isolated chicken mandibular mesenchymal cells (CMMC) from Hamburg-Hamilton (HH) stage 26 chick embryos and induced chondrocyte maturation by using ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate (AA-BGP). We also determined the effect of the chloride channel inhibitor NPPB [5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid] on regulation of growth, differentiation, and gene expression in these cells using MTT and real-time PCR assays. We found that CLCN1 and CLCN3-7 mRNA were expressed in CMMC and NPPB reduced expression of CLCN3, CLCN5, and CLCN7 mRNA in these cells. At the same time, NPPB inhibited the growth of the CMMC, but had no effect on the mRNA level of cyclin D1 and cyclin E (P>0.05) with/without AA-BGP treatment. AA-BGP increased markers for early chondrocyte differentiation including type II collagen, aggrecan (Ptype X collagen. NPPB antagonized AA-BGP-induced expression of type II collagen and aggrecan (Ptype X collagen (PType X collagen might function as a target of chloride channel inhibitors during the differentiation process. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of surface treatments on rapid chloride permeability tests

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Seyoon

    2012-08-01

    Surface treatments are commonly applied to improve the chloride resistance of concrete structures exposed to saline environments. Information on chloride ingress to surface-treated concrete is mostly provided by application of the rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT); this test is short in duration and provides rapid results. This study presents a numerical formulation, based on the extended Nernst-Plank/Poisson (NPP) equation, to model the effect of the surface treatment on a sample tested by RCPT. Predictions of the model are compared to experimental measurements. The simulations show that the results from RCPT, in terms of ionic profiles and measurement of the electric field, are dependent on the effectiveness of surface treatments. During RCPT, highly effective surface treatments cause both cations and anions to flocculate at the interface between the surface treatment and the concrete, creating a local electric field. Our numerical model includes these phenomena and presents a methodology to obtain more accurate diffusivities of the surface-treated- concrete from RCPT. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Vinyl Chloride Emulsion Polymerization Reaction: Effect of Various Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehrdad Jalilian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixture  of  sodium  lauryl  sulfate  (SLS  as  ionic  emulsifer  and  stearyl alcohol as non-ionic emulsifer was employed in a vinyl chloride emulsion polymerization  reaction  to  study  the  infuence  of  various  interactive parameters involved in the reaction system. It was found that the particle size was dependent on the amount and type of emulsifer. The average particle size of polyvinyl chloride was dropped by higher amount of emulsifying agents.  At the gel point, more heat was generated by higher amount of vinyl chloride fed into the reaction system. The molecular weight of the polymer was decreased by increases in reaction temperature while,  it  increased by augmenting  the amount of emulsifer. According to the 13C NMR and FTIR spectroscopic data no defect was detected in the chain structure of synthetic polyvinylchloride product. An optimization of polymerization reaction condition was reached based on ultimate particle size desired for its favorable distribution in plastisols.

  19. Investigation of lithium-thionyl chloride battery safety hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, A. I.; Gabriel, K. A.; Burns, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    In the ten years since the feasibility of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell was first recognized (1) remarkable progress has been made in hardware development. Cells as large as 16,000 Ah (2) and batteries of 10.8 MWh (3) have been demonstrated. In a low rate configuration, energy densities of 500 to 600 Wh/kg are easily achieved. Even in the absence of reported explosions, safety would be a concern for such a dense energetic package; the energy density of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell is approaching that of dynamite (924 Wh/kg). In fact explosions have occurred. In general the hazards associated with lithium-thionyl chloride batteries may be divided into four categories: Explosions as a result of an error in battery design. Very large cells were in prototype development prior to a full appreciation of the hazards of the system. It is possible that some of the remaining safety issues are related to cell design; Explosions as a result of external physical abuse such as cell incineration and puncture; Explosions due to short circuiting which could lead to thermal runaway reactions. These problems appear to have been solved by changes in the battery design (4); and Explosions due to abnormal electrical operation (i.e., charging (5) and overdischarging (6) and in partially or fully discharged cells on storage (7 and 8).

  20. Uranium (III) precipitation in molten chloride by wet argon sparging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigier, Jean-François, E-mail: jean-francois.vigier@ec.europa.eu [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Laplace, Annabelle [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Renard, Catherine [Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Miguirditchian, Manuel [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Abraham, Francis [Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2016-06-15

    In the context of pyrochemical processes for nuclear fuel treatment, the precipitation of uranium (III) in molten salt LiCl-CaCl{sub 2} (30–70 mol%) at 705 °C is studied. First, this molten chloride is characterized with the determination of the water dissociation constant. With a value of 10{sup −4.0}, the salt has oxoacid properties. Then, the uranium (III) precipitation using wet argon sparging is studied. The salt is prepared using UCl{sub 3} precursor. At the end of the precipitation, the salt is totally free of solubilized uranium. The main part is converted into UO{sub 2} powder but some uranium is lost during the process due to the volatility of uranium chloride. The main impurity of the resulting powder is calcium. The consequences of oxidative and reductive conditions on precipitation are studied. Finally, coprecipitation of uranium (III) and neodymium (III) is studied, showing a higher sensitivity of uranium (III) than neodymium (III) to precipitation. - Highlights: • Precipitation of Uranium (III) is quantitative in molten salt LiCl-CaCl{sub 2} (30–70 mol%). • The salt is oxoacid with a water dissociation constant of 10{sup −4.0} at 705 °C. • Volatility of uranium chloride is strongly reduced in reductive conditions. • Coprecipitation of U(III) and Nd(III) leads to a consecutive precipitation of the two elements.

  1. Uranium chloride extraction of transuranium elements from LWR fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W.E.; Ackerman, J.P.; Battles, J.E.; Johnson, T.R.; Pierce, R.D.

    1992-08-25

    A process of separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels containing rare earth and noble metal fission products as well as other fission products is disclosed. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of Ca chloride and a U-Fe alloy which is liquid at about 800 C to dissolve uranium metal and the noble metal fission product metals and transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals leaving Ca chloride having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein. The Ca chloride and CaO and the fission products contained therein are separated from the U-Fe alloy and the metal values dissolved therein. The U-Fe alloy having dissolved therein reduced metals from the spent nuclear fuel is contacted with a mixture of one or more alkali metal or alkaline earth metal halides selected from the class consisting of alkali metal or alkaline earth metal and Fe or U halide or a combination thereof to transfer transuranium actinide metals and rare earth metals to the halide salt leaving the uranium and some noble metal fission products in the U-Fe alloy and thereafter separating the halide salt and the transuranium metals dissolved therein from the U-Fe alloy and the metals dissolved therein. 1 figure.

  2. Evaluation of the absorbed dose during studies of the renal function due to I123 / I131 (hippuran) and In111 (DTPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, M.; Castillo, C.; Sarachaga, R.; Rojas, R.; Zelada, L.; Melendez, J.; Gomez, M.; Diaz, E.

    2014-08-01

    Using the methodology MIRD and representation Cristy-Eckerman for kidneys, bladder, and whole body as organs of the bio-kinetics of I 123 / I 131 (hippuran) and the In 111 (D PTA), the absorbed dose for studies of the renal function of adults due to the I 123 is 0,0071 mGy/MBq where 88.16% corresponds to its auto-dose and 11,96% to the organs of their bio-kinetics; while for the I 131 their dose is 0,032 mGy/MBq where 95,03% corresponds to its auto-dose and 4,97% to the organs of their bio-kinetics. For the In 111 their dose is 0,0168 mGy/MBq where 71,68% corresponds to their auto-dose and 28,32% to the organs of their bio-kinetics. In all the cases the dosimetric contributions of the organs of the bio-kinetics (whole body and urinary bladder) are very significant, and this fundamentally is due to the photons of the whole body. (Author)

  3. Transport and fate of chloride from road salt within a mixed urban and agricultural watershed in Illinois (USA): assessing the influence of chloride application rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwikowski, Jessica J.; Peterson, Eric W.

    2018-01-01

    In a typical winter season, approximately 471,000 tons of road salt are deposited along roadways in Illinois, USA. An estimated 45% of the deposited road salt will infiltrate through the soils and into shallow aquifers. Transported through shallow aquifers, chloride associated with the road salts has the potential to reside within groundwater for years based on the pathway, the geologic material, and the recharge rate of the aquifer system. Utilizing MODFLOW and MT3D, simulations employing various road-salt application rates were conducted to assess the net accumulation of chloride and the residence times of chloride in an agriculture-dominated watershed that originates in an urban area. A positive-linear relationship was observed between the application rate of chloride and both the maximum chloride concentration and total mass accumulated within the watershed. Simulated annual recharge rates along impacted surfaces ranged from 1,000 to 10,000 mg/L. After 60 years of application, simulated chloride concentrations in groundwater ranged from 197 to 1,900 mg/L. For all application rates, chloride concentrations within the groundwater rose at an annual rate of >3 mg/L. While concentrations increase throughout the system, the majority of chloride accumulation occurs near the roads and the urban areas. Model simulations reveal a positive relationship between application rate and residence time of chloride (1,123-1,288 days based on application rate). The models indicate that continued accumulation of chloride in shallow aquifers can be expected, and methods that apply less chloride effectively need to be examined.

  4. Preparation and characterization of poly-(methacrylatoethyl trimethylammonium chloride-co-vinylbenzyl chloride-co-ethylene dimethacrylate monolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Malis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A polymer monolithic column, poly-(methacrylatoethyltrimethylammonium chloride-co-vinylbenzyl chloride-co-ethylene dimethacrylate or poly-(MATE-co-VBC-co-EDMA was successfully prepared in the current study by one-step thermally initiated in situ polymerization, confined in a steel tubing of 0.5 mm i.d. and 1/16” o.d. The monoliths were prepared from methacrylatoethyltrimethylammonium chloride (MATE and vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC as monomer and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA as crosslinker using a binary porogen system of 1-propanol and 1,4-butanediol. The inner wall of steel tubing was pretreated with 3-methacryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (MAPS. In order to obtain monolith with adequate column efficiency and low flow resistance, some parameters such as total monomer concentration (%T and crosslinker concentration (%C were optimized. The morphology of this monolith was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The properties of the monolithic column, such as permeability, binding capacity, and pore size distribution were also characterized in detail. From the results of the characterization of all monolith variation, monolith with %T 30 %C 50 and %T 35 %C 50 give the best characteristic. These monoliths have high permeability, adequate molecular recognition sites (represented with binding capacity value of over 20 mg/mL, and have over 80% flow through pores in their pore structure contribute to low flow resistance. The resulted monolithic columns have promising potential for dual mode liquid chromatography. MATE may contribute for anion-exchange while VBC may responsible for reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

  5. Influence of sulfates on chloride diffusion and chloride-induced reinforcement corrosion in limestone cement materials at low temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sotiriadis, Konstantinos; Rakanta, E.; Mitzithra, M. E.; Batis, G.; Tsivilis, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 8 (2017), č. článku 04017060. ISSN 0899-1561 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : limestone cement * chloride diffusion * reinforcement corrosion * sulfate attack * low temperature Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering OBOR OECD: Composites (including laminates, reinforced plastics, cermets, combined natural and synthetic fibre fabrics Impact factor: 1.644, year: 2016 http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/%28ASCE%29MT.1943-5533.0001895

  6. Continuous microcellular foaming of polyvinyl chloride and compatibilization of polyvinyl chloride and polylactide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Bhavesh

    This dissertation focuses on overcoming existing limitations of WPCs which prevent them from realizing their full market potential. These limitations include: (i) lack of a continuous extrusion process for microcellular foaming of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and its composites using supercritical fluids to reduce the high density of the WPCs, (ii) need for an efficient coupling agent for WPCs to overcome the poor compatibility between wood and plastic, and (iii) unproven use of wood as a filler for the biopolymer polylactide (PLA) to make "green" composites. These limitations were addressed through experimentation to develop a continuous extrusion process for microcellular foaming, and through surface modification of wood flour using natural coupling agents. The effects of wood flour, acrylic modifier and plasticizer content on the rheological properties of PVC based WPCs were studied using an extrusion capillary rheometer and a two-level factorial design. Wood flour content and acrylic modifier content were the major factors affecting the die swell ratio. Addition of plasticizer decreased the true viscosity of unfilled and filled PVC, irrespective of the acrylic modifier content. However, the addition of acrylic modifier significantly increased the viscosity of unfilled PVC but decreased the composite viscosity. Results of the rheological study were used to set baseline conditions for the continuous extrusion foaming of PVC WPCs using supercritical CO 2. Effects of material composition and processing conditions on the morphology of foamed samples were investigated. Foamed samples were produced using various material compositions and processing conditions, but steady-state conditions could not be obtained for PVC. Thus the relationships could not be determined. Incompatibility between wood flour and PVC was the focus of another study. The natural polymers chitin and chitosan were used as novel coupling agents to improve interfacial adhesion between the polymer matrix

  7. Potentiometric response of chloride sensors in cementitious materials of varying chemical composition and water-to-cement ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pargar, F.; Koleva, D.A.; van Breugel, K.

    2015-01-01

    Free chloride ions are the main cause of steel corrosion in reinforced concrete structures. Ag/AgCl electrodes, as chloride sensors, are predominantly sensitive to chloride ions and respond electrochemically to the chloride ion activity in the environment. This is reflected by changes of the open

  8. Chloride-inducible transient apoplastic alkalinizations induce stomata closure by controlling abscisic acid distribution between leaf apoplast and guard cells in salt-stressed Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Mithöfer, Axel; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Zörb, Christian; Muehling, Karl H

    2015-11-01

    Chloride stress causes the leaf apoplast transiently to alkalize, an event that is presumed to contribute to the ability of plants to adapt to saline conditions. However, the initiation of coordinated processes downstream of the alkalinization is unknown. We hypothesize that chloride-inducible pH dynamics are a key chemical feature modulating the compartmental distribution of abscisic acid (ABA) and, as a consequence, affecting stomata aperture. Apoplastic pH and stomata aperture dynamics in intact Vicia faba leaves were monitored by microscopy-based ratio imaging and porometric measurements of stomatal conductance. ABA concentrations in leaf apoplast and guard cells were compared with pH dynamics by gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results demonstrate that, upon chloride addition to roots, an alkalizing factor that initiates the pH dynamic propagates from root to leaf in a way similar to xylem-distributed water. In leaves, it induces a systemic transient apoplastic alkalinization that causes apoplastic ABA concentration to increase, followed by an elevation of endogenous guard cell ABA. We conclude that the transient alkalinization, which is a remote effect of chloride stress, modulates the compartmental distribution of ABA between the leaf apoplast and the guard cells and, in this way, is instrumental in inducing stomata closure during the beginning of salinity. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Association between intravenous chloride load during resuscitation and in-hospital mortality among patients with SIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Andrew D; Raghunathan, Karthik; Peyerl, Fred W; Munson, Sibyl H; Paluszkiewicz, Scott M; Schermer, Carol R

    2014-12-01

    Recent data suggest that both elevated serum chloride levels and volume overload may be harmful during fluid resuscitation. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the intravenous chloride load and in-hospital mortality among patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), with and without adjustment for the crystalloid volume administered. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 109,836 patients ≥ 18 years old that met criteria for SIRS and received fluid resuscitation with crystalloids. We examined the association between changes in serum chloride concentration, the administered chloride load and fluid volume, and the 'volume-adjusted chloride load' and in-hospital mortality. In general, increases in the serum chloride concentration were associated with increased mortality. Mortality was lowest (3.7%) among patients with minimal increases in serum chloride concentration (0-10 mmol/L) and when the total administered chloride load was low (3.5% among patients receiving 100-200 mmol; P SIRS, a fluid resuscitation strategy employing lower chloride loads was associated with lower in-hospital mortality. This association was independent of the total fluid volume administered and remained significant after adjustment for severity of illness, supporting the hypothesis that crystalloids with lower chloride content may be preferable for managing patients with SIRS.

  10. Acoustic characterization of polyvinyl chloride and self-healing silicone as phantom materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceh, Dennis; Peters, Terry M.; Chen, Elvis C. S.

    2015-03-01

    Phantoms are physical constructs used in procedure planning, training, medical imaging research, and machine calibration. Depending on the application, the material a phantom is made out of is very important. With ultrasound imaging, phantom materials used need to have similar acoustic properties, specifically speed of sound and attenuation, as a specified tissue. Phantoms used with needle insertion require a material with a similar tensile strength as tissue and, if possible, the ability to self heal increasing its overall lifespan. Soft polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and silicone were tested as possible needle insertion phantom materials. Acoustic characteristics were determined using a time of flight technique, where a pulse was passed through a sample contained in a water bath. The speed of sound and attenuation were both determined manually and through spectral analysis. Soft PVC was determined to have a speed of sound of approximately 1395 m/s and attenuation of 0.441 dB/cm (at 1 MHz). For the silicone mixture, the respective speed of sound values was within a range of 964.7 m/s and 1250.0 m/s with an attenuation of 0.547 dB/cm (at 1 MHz).

  11. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnenthal Eric

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Results Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150°C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. Conclusion The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual

  12. Progress and recent developments in sodium, metal chloride batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratnakumar, B.V.; Attia, A.I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    A new class of rechargeable sodium batteries emerged in the last decade mainly due to the efforts in South Africa and the United Kingdom. These systems include solid transition metal chlorides in sodium tetrachloroaluminates as cathodes. Significant developments have been made on two systems, i.e., Na/NiCl 2 and Na/FeCl 2 ; high energy densities of the order of 130 Wh/Kg have been demonstrated at the cell level both with FeCl 2 and NiCl 2 cathodes. Long cycle life of over 2000 cycles was demonstrated with NiCl 2 , especially with a sulfur additive to the electrolyte to retain the sintered structure of the NiCl 2 electrode. Various environmental and safety tests have been successfully performed on the cells. Scale up efforts resulted in cells of 40 - 100 Ah, which were evaluated in an electric vehicle application. Additionally, it appears from a recent evaluation study carried out by European Space Agency on Na/NiCl 2 for GEO and LEO applications that energy densities of the order of 120 Wh/Kg and 100 Wh/Kg respectively at the cell level are feasible and long cycle lives (beyond 2800 cycles are possible). Several fundamental and developmental studies have been carried out at other laboratories aimed at understanding the reaction mechanisms, determining the kinetics and identifying various rate governing processes, and screening various other metal chlorides. Finally, the specific energies and especially the power densities projected for Na/FeCl 2 and Na/NiCl 2 systems based on alternate designs for beta alumina solid electrolyte, i.e., multiple tubes and flat plates are very attractive for electric vehicle and space applications. In this paper, the authors propose to present a detailed account of the developments made hither to as well as the key research issues being addressed in the sodium - metal chloride battery technology

  13. Complementary role of indium-111 labeled leukocyte imaging, ultrasonography and computed tomography in the evaluation of postoperative infection or abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uno, Kimiichi; Imazeki, Keiko; Arimizu, Noboru; Ryu, Takamasa; Isono, Kaichi; Kitakata, Yusuke; Kohen, Hirobumi; Uematsu, Sadao

    1987-09-01

    We report our experiences with the combined use of indium-111 labeled leukocyte imaging (In-III WBC scan.), computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (US) for evaluation of suspected postoperative infection or abscess, and discuss the complementary roles of these modalities. Postoperative abscesses or infections were diagnosed in 9 of 20 patients. All patients were correctly diagnosed by In-111 WBC imaging and 4 patients could not be diagnosed by US because of bowel gas. One false-positive CT examination and another artifact on CT images due to respiratory movements were obtained. The three modalities were found to be complementary: CT and US were efficient imaging methods for diagnosis and treatment of abscess. In-111 WBC imaging could estimate the activity of inflammation.

  14. Observation of the in-plane spin-dephasing anisotropy in [111]-grown GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Chunbo; Li, Junbin; Yu, Ying; Ni, Haiqiao; Niu, Zhichuan; Zhang, Xinhui

    2014-01-01

    The electron density and temperature dependent in-plane spin-dephasing anisotropy in [111]-grown GaAs quantum well (QW) has been investigated by time-resolved magneto-Kerr rotation technique. Due to the specific symmetry of [111]-grown quantum well, the in-plane Rashba and linear Dresselhaus effective spin-orbit magnetic field is parallel to each other for electron wave vectors in all directions. However, an obvious in-plane spin-dephasing anisotropy comparing [2 ¯ 11] with [01 ¯ 1] crystalline orientations has been observed and discussed in this work. Our results demonstrate the innegligible spin dephasing channel through inhomogeneous broadening induced by the out-of-plane non-linear Dresselhaus field, which arises naturally from the C 3 symmetry of [111]-grown GaAs QW

  15. Thermal energy storage using chloride salts and their eutectics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Philip D.; Goswami, D. Yogi

    2016-01-01

    Achieving the goals of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Sunshot initiative requires (1) higher operating temperatures for concentrating solar power (CSP) plants to increase theoretical efficiency, and (2) effective thermal energy storage (TES) strategies to ensure dispatchability. Current inorganic salt-based TES systems in large-scale CSP plants generally employ molten nitrate salts for energy storage, but nitrate salts are limited in application to lower temperatures—generally, below 600 °C. These materials are sufficient for parabolic trough power plants, but they are inadequate for use at higher temperatures. At the higher operating temperatures achievable in solar power tower-type CSP plants, chloride salts are promising candidates for application as TES materials, owing to their thermal stability and generally lower cost compared to nitrate salts. In light of this, a recent study was conducted, which included a preliminary survey of chloride salts and binary eutectic systems that show promise as high temperature TES media. This study provided some basic information about the salts, including phase equilibria data and estimates of latent heat of fusion for some of the eutectics. Cost estimates were obtained through a review of bulk pricing for the pure salts among various vendors. This review paper updates that prior study, adding data for additional salt eutectic systems obtained from the literature. Where possible, data are obtained from the thermodynamic database software, FactSage. Radiative properties are presented, as well, since at higher temperatures, thermal radiation becomes a significant mode of heat transfer. Material compatibility for inorganic salts is another important consideration (e.g., with regard to piping and/or containment), so a summary of corrosion studies with various materials is also presented. Lastly, cost data for these systems are presented, allowing for meaningful comparison among these systems and other materials for TES

  16. Reserve lithium-thionyl chloride battery for missile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planchat, J. P.; Descroix, J. P.; Sarre, G.

    A comparative performance study has been conducted for silver-zinc, thionyl chloride, and thermal batteries designed for such missile applications as ICBM guidance system power supplies. Attention is given to each of the three candidates' conformity to requirements concerning mechanical configuration, electrochemical design, electrolyte reservoir, external case, and gas generator. The silver-zinc and Li-SOCl2 candidates employ similar cell configurations and yield comparable performance. The thermal battery is found to be incapable of meeting battery case temperature-related requirements.

  17. Abuse resistant high rate lithium/thionyl chloride cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surprenant, J.; Snuggerud, D.

    1982-08-01

    A compact, disc shaped lithium/thionyl chloride cell has been developed by Altus Corporation. The cell has a 6 Amphr capacity and is capable of high rate discharge at high voltage. Discharge data is presented over the range of 0.07 to 1.1 Amperes. The cell is operable over the temperature range of -40/sup 0/C to +70/sup 0/C, and has a 10 year shelf life at 20/sup 0/C. Safety features allow the cells to withstand fire, puncture, shock, spin, forced discharge or forced charge without dangerous reactions.

  18. Prevention of overpressurization of lithium-thionyl chloride battery cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsay, G. R.; Salmon, D. J.

    1984-12-25

    A method of preventing overpressurization of a lithium-thionyl chloride battery cell by formation of excessive SO/sub 2/ during high rate discharge. The method comprises the step of providing PCl/sub 5/ in the cathode. Alternatively, the PCl/sub 5/ may be provided in the electrolyte or in both the cathode and electrolyte as desired. The PCl/sub 5/ may be incorporated in the cathode by introduction thereof into the porous carbon structure of a preformed carbon element. Alternatively, the PCl/sub 5/ may be dry mixed with the carbon and the mixture formed into the desired cathode element.

  19. Optimization of reserve lithium thionyl chloride battery electrochemical design parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddapaneni, N.; Godshall, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    The performance of Reserve Lithium Thionyl Chloride (RLTC) batteries was optimized by conducting a parametric study of seven electrochemical parameters: electrode compression, carbon thickness, presence of catalyst, temperature, electrode limitation, discharge rate, and electrolyte acidity. Increasing electrode compression (from 0 to 15%) improved battery performance significantly (10% greater carbon capacity density). Although thinner carbon cathodes yielded less absolute capacity than did thicker cathodes, they did so with considerably higher volume efficiencies. The effect of these parameters, and their synergistic interactions, on electrochemical cell peformance is illustrated. 5 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Optimization of reserve lithium thionyl chloride battery electrochemical design parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddapaneni, N.; Godshall, N. A.

    The performance of Reserve Lithium Thionyl Chloride (RLTC) batteries was optimized by conducting a parametric study of seven electrochemical parameters: electrode compression, carbon thickness, presence of catalyst, temperature, electrode limitation, discharge rate, and electrolyte acidity. Increasing electrode compression (from 0 to 15 percent) improved battery performance significantly (10 percent greater carbon capacity density). Although thinner carbon cathodes yielded less absolute capacity than did thicker cathodes, they did so with considerably higher volume efficiencies. The effect of these parameters, and their synergistic interactions, on electrochemical cell performance is illustrated.

  1. Abuse resistant high rate lithium/thionyl chloride cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surprenant, J.; Snuggerud, D.

    A compact, disk shaped lithium/thionyl chloride cell has been developed. The cell has a 6 Amphr capacity and is capable of high rate discharge at high voltage. Discharge data are presented over the range of 0.07 to 1.1 amperes. The cell is operable over the temperature range of -40 C to +70 C, and has a 10 year shelf life at 20 C. Safety features allow the cells to withstand fire, puncture, shock, spin, forced discharge or forced charge without dangerous reactions.

  2. Calorimetry of 25 Ah lithium/thionyl chloride cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. J.; Dawson, S.

    1991-01-01

    Heat flow measurements of 25-Ah lithium thionyl chloride cells provided a method to calculate an effective thermal potential, E(TP) of 3.907 V. The calculation is useful to determine specific heat generation of this cell chemistry and design. The E(TP) value includes heat generation by electrochemical cell reactions, competitive chemical reactions, and resistance heating at the tabs, connectors, and leads. Heat flow was measured while applying electrical loads to the cell in an isothermal calorimeter set at 0, 20, and 60 C.

  3. Effect of catalysts on lithium passivation in thionyl chloride electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanevskii, L.S.; Avdalyan, M.B.; Kulova, T.L. [Frumkin Institute of Electrochemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-04-01

    The effect that various catalysts added to the electrolyte or the cathode of lithium-thionyl chloride cells for promoting the cathodic process exert on lithium anodes is studied. It is shown that, in the presence of platinum, the lithium anode is subjected to intense corrosion, and this leads to the appearance of a great voltage delay. Macrocyclic complexes activate lithium electrodes. Impedance measurements showed that the introduction of such complexes in the system is accompanied by changes in the passive film characteristics, and this leads to a decrease in the corrosion rate of lithium and a noticeable reduction of the voltage delay.

  4. Deterioration and conservation of plasticized poly (vinyl chloride) objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    2002-01-01

    Plasticized poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) in museum collections deteriorates by migration, loss and chemical breakdown of the plasticizer, accompanied by dehydrochlorination of the polymer. The extent, rate and mechanisms of deterioration of new and deteriorated plasticized PVC were compared during...... of samples. Optical densitometry was used to quantify darkening of the PVC component of samples. Degradation of new and deteriorated PVC was inhibited by enclosing it in a non-adsorbent material, such as glass containing non-agitated air. Such storage inhibited migration and loss of DEHP....

  5. Electrochemical Migration on Electronic Chip Resistors in Chloride Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minzari, Daniel; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical migration behavior of end terminals on ceramic chip resistors (CCRs) was studied using a novel experimental setup in varying sodium chloride concentrations from 0 to 1000 ppm. The chip resistor used for the investigation was 10-kΩ CCR size 0805 with end terminals made of 97Sn3Pb...... alloy. Anodic polarization behavior of the electrode materials was investigated using a microelectrochemical setup. Material makeup of the chip resistor was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy and focused-ion-beam SEM. Results showed that the dissolution...

  6. Direct infrared observation of hydrogen chloride anions in solid argon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tzu-Ping; Chen, Hui-Fen; Liu, Meng-Chen; Chin, Chih-Hao; Durrant, Marcus C; Lee, Yin-Yu; Wu, Yu-Jong

    2017-09-21

    To facilitate direct spectroscopic observation of hydrogen chloride anions (HCl - ), electron bombardment of CH 3 Cl diluted in excess Ar during matrix deposition was used to generate this anion. Subsequent characterization were performed by IR spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. Moreover the band intensity of HCl - decays slowly when the matrix sample is maintained in the dark for a prolonged time. High-level ab inito calculation suggested that HCl - is only weakly bound. Atom-in-molecule charge analysis indicated that both atoms of HCl - are negatively charged and the Cl atom is hypervalent.

  7. ISOCHORIC HEAT CAPACITY OF 1% AQUEOUS SOLUTION OF MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE

    OpenAIRE

    V. I. Dvoryanchikov; D. K. Djavatov; G. A. Rabadanov; E. G. Iskenderov; D. P. Shikhakhmedova

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The aim is to conduct an experimental study of isochoric heat capacity of 1% aqueous solution of magnesium chloride along the phase boundary curve.Method. In order to determine the isochoric heat capacity at the phase boundary curve we used the adiabatic calorimeter of KH. I. Amirkhanov.Results. Results of the study of the isochoric heat capacity depending on the temperature are given in tables and figures; the findings are compared with those of other researchers. When evaluating a comp...

  8. Potassium Chloride Versus Voltage Clamp Contractures in Ventricular Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morad, M.; Reeck, S.; Rao, M.

    1981-01-01

    In frog ventricle, developed tension was markedly larger in response to depolarization caused by a voltage clamp step than to depolarization induced by high concentrations of potassium chloride. Measurement of extracellular potassium activity at the surface and at the depth of muscle during the development of contractures showed that the diffusion of potassium is much slower than the spread of depolarization through the cross section of muscle. These two observations suggest that competition between the depolarizing and the negative inotropic effects of an increase in the extracellular potassium ion concentration may determine the time course and magnitude of contractile tension in heart muscle.

  9. Corrosion Resistance of Some Stainless Steels in Chloride Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasprzyk D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work compares corrosion behaviour of four types of S30403, S31603, S32615 austenitic and S32404 austenitic-ferritic stainless steels in chloride solutions (1%, 3% NaCl and in Ringer solution, at 37°C temperature. Corrosion resistance was determined by potentiodynamic polarization measurements and a thirty day immersion test conducted in Ringer solution. The immersion test was performed in term of biomedical application. These alloy were spontaneously passivated in all electrolytes, wherein S30403, S31603 and S32404 undergo pitting corrosion. Only S32615 containing 5.5% Si shows resistance to pitting corrosion.

  10. Mechanical properties of N,N,N-trimethylchitosan chloride films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas de Britto

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Films of chitosan and N,N,N-trimethylchitosan were cast from aqueous solutions. Chitosan was dissolved in 1% acetic acid while deionized water was the solvent for N,N,N-trimethylchitosan chloride. The resulting films presented different mechanical behaviors as evaluated by DMTA. The film of chitosan exhibited an elastic-type behavior while that of N,N,N-trimethylchitosan was typically viscous. No glass transition temperatures were observed; however, a discrete thermal transition was detected at 25 °C in the case of the N,N,N-trimethylchitosan.

  11. QUALITY OF YOGHURTS FROM GOAT'S MILK ENRICHED WITH MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Znamirowska; Dorota Kalicka; Małgorzata Pawlos; Katarzyna Szajnar

    2015-01-01

    Goat’s milk can be enriched with magnesium in the form of chloride before pasteurization with a save dose, i.e. 20 mg of magnesium for 100 g of milk. Higher doses of magnesium can lead to coagulation of proteins since together with the increase of the dose of fortification there increases general acidity while pH of milk decreases. Together with the increase of the dose of fortification of yoghurts with magnesium there was shown an essential proportional increase of acidity and hardness of cu...

  12. Compton profile of polycrystalline sodium chloride and sodium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, R.; Shivaramu; Rajasekaran, L.; Ramamurthy, N.; Ford, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    We present here the Compton profile (CP) of polycrystalline sodium chloride and sodium fluoride. Our results consists of spherical average Compton profile based on measurements and calculation of spherical average Compton profile, directional Compton profile and their anisotropic effect using self-consistent Hartree-Fock wave functions employed on the linear combination of atomic orbital (HF-LCAO) approximation. The experimental results are compared with the HF-LCAO spherical average Compton profile and with tabulated Hartree-Fock free atom results. For both compounds the experimental results are found to be in good agreement with the HF-LCAO results and in qualitative agreement with Hartree-Fock free atom values

  13. Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M.A.; Pereira, C.

    1997-03-18

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistant sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1000 K to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

  14. Low temperature safety of lithium-thionyl chloride cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, S.; Deligiannis, F.; Shen, D. H.; Dawson, S.; Halpert, G.

    The use of lithium thionyl chloride cells for low-temperature applications is presently restricted because of their unsafe behavior. An attempt is made in the present investigation to identify the safe/unsafe low temperature operating conditions and to understand the low temperature cell chemistry responsible for the unsafe behavior. Cells subjected to extended reversal at low rate and -40 C were found to explode upon warm-up. Lithium was found to deposit on the carbon cathodes during reversal. Warming up to room temperature may be accelerating the lithium corrosion in the electrolyte. This may be one of the reasons for the cell thermal runaway.

  15. Chlorination of (PheboxIr(mesityl(OAc by Thionyl Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pincer (PheboxIr(mesityl(OAc (2 (Phebox = 3,5-dimethylphenyl-2,6-bis(oxazolinyl complex, formed by benzylic C-H activation of mesitylene (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene using (PheboxIr(OAc2OH2 (1, was treated with thionyl chloride to rapidly form 1-(chloromethyl-3,5-dimethylbenzene in 50% yield at 23 °C. A green species was obtained at the end of reaction, which decomposed during flash column chromatography to form (PheboxIrCl2OH2 in 87% yield.

  16. Sorption and permeation of solutions of chloride salts, water and methanol in a Nafion membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaluenga, J.P.G.; Barragan, V.M.; Seoane, B.; Ruiz-Bauza, C.

    2006-01-01

    The sorption of water-methanol mixtures containing a dissolved chloride salt in a Nafion 117 membrane, and their transport through the membrane under the driving force of a pressure gradient, have been studied. Both type of experiments was performed by using five different salts: lithium chloride, sodium chloride, cesium chloride, magnesium chloride and calcium chloride. It was observed that both the permeation flow through the membrane and the membrane swelling increase significantly with the methanol content of the solutions. These facts are attributed to the increase in wet membrane porosity, which brings about the increase of the mobility of solvents in the membrane, besides the increase of the mobility of the polymer pendant chains. In contrast, the influence of the type of electrolyte on the membrane porosity and permeability is not very important, with the exception of the CsCl solutions, which is probably due to the small hydration ability of the Cs + ion

  17. Chloride analysis in magnesium metal using ion chromatography with conductometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sangita D; Tripathi, V S; Shenoy, Niyoti; Maiti, B

    2004-08-13

    A simple, rapid and accurate method for the determination of chloride in magnesium metal has been developed. The quantitative determination of chloride was accomplished by anion exchange chromatography with conductometric determination. A Metrosep Anion Dual 2 analytical column connected in series with a Metrosep RP guard column was used for chloride separation. A solution containing a mixture of 1.3 mM Na2CO3 and 2 mM NaHCO3 was used as eluent. The method requires a sample dissolution using nitric acid. The limit of detection for the determination of chloride is 50 mg kg(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 5% for the overall method. The recovery of chloride added was 99-102%. No interference was observed from either the closely eluting "system peak" or the nitrate peak in the determination of chloride.

  18. Antiviral effect of lithium chloride on infection of cells by canine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pei; Fu, Xinliang; Yan, Zhongshan; Fang, Bo; Huang, San; Fu, Cheng; Hong, Malin; Li, Shoujun

    2015-11-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 causes significant viral disease in dogs, with high morbidity, high infectivity, and high mortality. Lithium chloride is a potential antiviral drug for viruses. We determined the antiviral effect of Lithium Chloride on canine parvovirus type 2 in feline kidney cells. The viral DNA and proteins of canine parvovirus were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. Further investigation verified that viral entry into cells was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. These results indicated that lithium chloride could be a potential antiviral drug for curing dogs with canine parvovirus infection. The specific steps of canine parvovirus entry into cells that are affected by lithium chloride and its antiviral effect in vivo should be explored in future studies.

  19. Tamoxifen does not inhibit the swell activated chloride channel in human neutrophils during the respiratory burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Jatinder

    2008-10-31

    Effective functioning of neutrophils relies upon electron translocation through the NADPH oxidase (NOX). The electron current generated (I(e)) by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase is electrogenic and rapidly depolarises the membrane potential in activated human neutrophils. Swelling activated chloride channels have been demonstrated in part to counteract the depolarisation generated by the NADPH oxidase I(e). In the present study, the effects of inhibitors of swell activated chloride channels on ROS production and on the swelling activated chloride conductance was investigated in activated human neutrophils. Tamoxifen (10 microM), a specific inhibitor for swell activated chloride channels in neutrophils, completely inhibited both the PMA and FMLP stimulated respiratory burst. This inhibition of the neutrophil respiratory burst was not due to the blocking effect of tamoxifen on the swelling activated chloride conductance in these cells. These results demonstrate that a tamoxifen insensitive swell activated chloride channel has important significance during the neutrophil respiratory burst.

  20. Interactions between chloride and sulfate or silica removals using an advanced lime-aluminum softening process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed; Batchelor, Bill

    2006-12-01

    An advanced softening process called the ultra-high lime with aluminum process (UHLA) was initiated in this research. The UHLA process has the ability to remove sulfate, silica, and chloride from waters such as recycled cooling water and desalination brines. Furthermore, it can remove other scale-forming materials, such as calcium, magnesium, carbonate, and phosphate. The purpose of this paper is to study the interactions among chloride, sulfate, and silica in the UHLA process. Results of equilibrium experiments indicated that sulfate is preferentially removed over chloride. Final chloride concentration increased with increasing initial sulfate concentration. However, initial chloride concentration was found to have negligible effect on final sulfate concentration. Silica was found to have only a small effect on chloride removal.

  1. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar measured by Electron Probe Micro Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    1998-01-01

    is an important basis for designing the durability of concrete structures. As an example the Danish Great Belt link is designed to have 100 years durability based on calculation of chloride ingress.During the last 15 years the types of concrete used in practice have changed substantially. Due to plasticizers......Chloride ingress is a common cause of deterioration of reinforced concrete structures. Concrete may be exposed to chloride by sea water or deicing salts. The chloride initiates corrosion of the reinforcement which through expansion disrupts the concrete. Modelling the chloride ingress...... and mineral additives concretes with higher strengths and reduced permeability are produced. Recently it has become clear that traditional chloride ingress models do not apply to modern concretes. Actually, the life time model used for the Danish Great Belt link has shown up to be based on wrong assumptions...

  2. Tablet surface characterisation by various imaging techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitavuopio, Paulus; Rantanen, Jukka; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise tablet surfaces using different imaging and roughness analytical techniques including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser profilometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The test materials compressed were potassium chloride (KCl......) and sodium chloride (NaCl). It was found that all methods used suggested that the KCl tablets were smoother than the NaCl tablets and higher compression pressure made the tablets smoother. Imaging methods like optical microscopy and SEM can give useful information about the roughness of the sample surface......, but they do not provide quantitative information about surface roughness. Laser profilometry and AFM on the other hand provide quantitative roughness data from two different scales, laser profilometer from 1 mm and atomic force microscope from 90 microm scale. AFM is a powerful technique but other imaging...

  3. THE PERFORMANCE OF Moringa oleifera SEED POWDER SODIUM CHLORIDE EXTRACT ON NATURAL SURFACE WATER

    OpenAIRE

    Nwaiwu N.E; Moses J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the performance of Moringa oleifera sodium chloride extract on high turbidity natural surface water source (pond) water in the arid zone region of North East, Nigeria. Eight samples of collected high turbidity water were subjected to varying doses of a combination of Moringa oleifera seed powder (sodium chloride extract) and the aluminium sulphate (alum). The effluent of the sedimentation tank (into which has been added the raw water and crude sodium chloride ...

  4. On the corrosion of reinforcing steels in concrete in the presence of chlorides

    OpenAIRE

    R. Genin, Jean Marie; Raharinaivo, Andre

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to give a scientific justification to some empirical results, in steel corrosion field, from concrete containing chlorides. First, it appears that corrosion products on the steels, have different structures and natures in function of the chloride content would be inferior or superior to a characteristic value. Second, the penetration of the chlorides in the concrete can be described by a simple Fick's diffusion law in the most frecuent cases. When cement...

  5. Simultaneous optical recording in multiple cells by digital holographic microscopy of chloride current associated to activation of the ligand-gated chloride channel GABA(A) receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdain, Pascal; Boss, Daniel; Rappaz, Benjamin; Moratal, Corinne; Hernandez, Maria-Clemencia; Depeursinge, Christian; Magistretti, Pierre Julius; Marquet, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Chloride channels represent a group of targets for major clinical indications. However, molecular screening for chloride channel modulators has proven to be difficult and time-consuming as approaches essentially rely on the use of fluorescent dyes or invasive patch-clamp techniques which do not lend themselves to the screening of large sets of compounds. To address this problem, we have developed a non-invasive optical method, based on digital holographic microcopy (DHM), allowing monitoring of ion channel activity without using any electrode or fluorescent dye. To illustrate this approach, GABA(A) mediated chloride currents have been monitored with DHM. Practically, we show that DHM can non-invasively provide the quantitative determination of transmembrane chloride fluxes mediated by the activation of chloride channels associated with GABA(A) receptors. Indeed through an original algorithm, chloride currents elicited by application of appropriate agonists of the GABA(A) receptor can be derived from the quantitative phase signal recorded with DHM. Finally, chloride currents can be determined and pharmacologically characterized non-invasively simultaneously on a large cellular sampling by DHM.

  6. Simultaneous optical recording in multiple cells by digital holographic microscopy of chloride current associated to activation of the ligand-gated chloride channel GABA(A receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Jourdain

    Full Text Available Chloride channels represent a group of targets for major clinical indications. However, molecular screening for chloride channel modulators has proven to be difficult and time-consuming as approaches essentially rely on the use of fluorescent dyes or invasive patch-clamp techniques which do not lend themselves to the screening of large sets of compounds. To address this problem, we have developed a non-invasive optical method, based on digital holographic microcopy (DHM, allowing monitoring of ion channel activity without using any electrode or fluorescent dye. To illustrate this approach, GABA(A mediated chloride currents have been monitored with DHM. Practically, we show that DHM can non-invasively provide the quantitative determination of transmembrane chloride fluxes mediated by the activation of chloride channels associated with GABA(A receptors. Indeed through an original algorithm, chloride currents elicited by application of appropriate agonists of the GABA(A receptor can be derived from the quantitative phase signal recorded with DHM. Finally, chloride currents can be determined and pharmacologically characterized non-invasively simultaneously on a large cellular sampling by DHM.

  7. The influence of Group I metal chlorides on water loss and chloride release from magnesium oxychloride cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Cannesson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The water loss and chloride release from four different formulations of magnesium oxychloride cement have been studied. The formulations were all based on 25% m/m aqueous MgCl2 and the solutions employed to prepare cements consisted of either MgCl2:water or MgCl2:aqueous MCl (M = Li, Na or K, all MCl salts at 1 mol dm-3. Solutions were mixed with solid MgO at a ratio of 1:1 (m/v and allowed to harden at room temperature for 1 hour. Five disc-shaped specimens (6 mm diameter × 2 mm thickness of each were prepared, stored in a desiccating atmosphere and weighed at regular intervals. All were found to lose water rapidly, equilibrating within three hours. Water loss was Fickian to values of Mt/M∞ of around 0.7 in all cases. Diffusion coefficients were slightly smaller than for the additive-free cement (1.52 × 10-6 cm2/s and fell in the range 1.27-1.39 × 10-6 cm2/s. Equilibrium water losses varied from 23.1% (with NaCl to 20.0% (with KCl, but only with NaCl did the value differ significantly from that for the additive-free cement (20.7%. Chloride release was increased by the presence of the additives. It followed a consistent pattern, with a maximum generally at about 5 hours, followed by a reduction up to 2 weeks (336 hours. This shows that a proportion of the released chloride was taken back up as the cement matured.

  8. A genetically-encoded YFP sensor with enhanced chloride sensitivity, photostability and reduced ph interference demonstrates augmented transmembrane chloride movement by gerbil prestin (SLC26a5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhong

    Full Text Available Chloride is the major anion in cells, with many diseases arising from disordered Cl- regulation. For the non-invasive investigation of Cl- flux, YFP-H148Q and its derivatives chameleon and Cl-Sensor previously were introduced as genetically encoded chloride indicators. Neither the Cl- sensitivity nor the pH-susceptibility of these modifications to YFP is optimal for precise measurements of Cl- under physiological conditions. Furthermore, the relatively poor photostability of YFP derivatives hinders their application for dynamic and quantitative Cl- measurements. Dynamic and accurate measurement of physiological concentrations of chloride would significantly affect our ability to study effects of chloride on cellular events.In this study, we developed a series of YFP derivatives to remove pH interference, increase photostability and enhance chloride sensitivity. The final product, EYFP-F46L/Q69K/H148Q/I152L/V163S/S175G/S205V/A206K (monomeric Cl-YFP, has a chloride Kd of 14 mM and pKa of 5.9. The bleach time constant of 175 seconds is over 15-fold greater than wild-type EYFP. We have used the sensor fused to the transmembrane protein prestin (gerbil prestin, SLC26a5, and shown for the first time physiological (mM chloride flux in HEK cells expressing this protein. This modified fluorescent protein will facilitate investigations of dynamics of chloride ions and their mediation of cell function.Modifications to YFP (EYFP-F46L/Q69K/H148Q/I152L/V163S/S175G/S205V/A206K (monomeric Cl-YFP results in a photostable fluorescent protein that allows measurement of physiological changes in chloride concentration while remaining minimally affected by changes in pH.

  9. Overexpression of Pendrin in Intercalated Cells Produces Chloride-Sensitive Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Thibaut; Picard, Nicolas; Miller, R. Lance; Riemondy, Kent A.; Houillier, Pascal; Sohet, Fabien; Ramakrishnan, Suresh K.; Büsst, Cara J.; Jayat, Maximilien; Cornière, Nicolas; Hassan, Hatim; Aronson, Peter S.; Hennings, Jean Christopher; Hübner, Christian A.; Nelson, Raoul D.; Chambrey, Régine

    2013-01-01

    Inherited and acquired disorders that enhance the activity of transporters mediating renal tubular Na+ reabsorption are well established causes of hypertension. It is unclear, however, whether primary activation of an Na+-independent chloride transporter in the kidney can also play a pathogenic role in this disease. Here, mice overexpressing the chloride transporter pendrin in intercalated cells of the distal nephron (TgB1-hPDS mice) displayed increased renal absorption of chloride. Compared with normal mice, these transgenic mice exhibited a delayed increase in urinary NaCl and ultimately, developed hypertension when exposed to a high-salt diet. Administering the same sodium intake as NaHCO3 instead of NaCl did not significantly alter BP, indicating that the hypertension in the transgenic mice was chloride-sensitive. Moreover, excessive chloride absorption by pendrin drove parallel absorption of sodium through the epithelial sodium channel ENaC and the sodium-driven chloride/bicarbonate exchanger (Ndcbe), despite an appropriate downregulation of these sodium transporters in response to the expanded vascular volume and hypertension. In summary, chloride transport in the distal nephron can play a primary role in driving NaCl transport in this part of the kidney, and a primary abnormality in renal chloride transport can provoke arterial hypertension. Thus, we conclude that the chloride/bicarbonate exchanger pendrin plays a major role in controlling net NaCl absorption, thereby influencing BP under conditions of high salt intake. PMID:23766534

  10. Effect of chloride and diamide on sheep kidney, lung and serum angiotensin converting enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, N. Mallikarjuna; Udupa, E. G. Padmanabha

    2008-01-01

    The effect of chloride and diamide on angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity from sheep kidney, lung and serum was investigated by using Hip-His-Leu as substrate. Optimum chloride concentrations were 400–1000 mM for kidney, 700 mM for lung and 1000 mM for serum. Optimum chloride concentration increased ACE activity of serum and lung 1.70 folds and 2.73 folds respectively of the activity at physiological chloride concentrations, suggesting that the effect of salt on blood pressure may be...

  11. Overexpression of pendrin in intercalated cells produces chloride-sensitive hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Thibaut; Picard, Nicolas; Miller, R Lance; Riemondy, Kent A; Houillier, Pascal; Sohet, Fabien; Ramakrishnan, Suresh K; Büsst, Cara J; Jayat, Maximilien; Cornière, Nicolas; Hassan, Hatim; Aronson, Peter S; Hennings, Jean Christopher; Hübner, Christian A; Nelson, Raoul D; Chambrey, Régine; Eladari, Dominique

    2013-06-01

    Inherited and acquired disorders that enhance the activity of transporters mediating renal tubular Na(+) reabsorption are well established causes of hypertension. It is unclear, however, whether primary activation of an Na(+)-independent chloride transporter in the kidney can also play a pathogenic role in this disease. Here, mice overexpressing the chloride transporter pendrin in intercalated cells of the distal nephron (Tg(B1-hPDS) mice) displayed increased renal absorption of chloride. Compared with normal mice, these transgenic mice exhibited a delayed increase in urinary NaCl and ultimately, developed hypertension when exposed to a high-salt diet. Administering the same sodium intake as NaHCO3 instead of NaCl did not significantly alter BP, indicating that the hypertension in the transgenic mice was chloride-sensitive. Moreover, excessive chloride absorption by pendrin drove parallel absorption of sodium through the epithelial sodium channel ENaC and the sodium-driven chloride/bicarbonate exchanger (Ndcbe), despite an appropriate downregulation of these sodium transporters in response to the expanded vascular volume and hypertension. In summary, chloride transport in the distal nephron can play a primary role in driving NaCl transport in this part of the kidney, and a primary abnormality in renal chloride transport can provoke arterial hypertension. Thus, we conclude that the chloride/bicarbonate exchanger pendrin plays a major role in controlling net NaCl absorption, thereby influencing BP under conditions of high salt intake.

  12. Influence of chloride on the chronic toxicity of sodium nitrate to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy

    2016-09-01

    While it has been well established that increasing chloride concentration in water reduces the toxicity of nitrite to freshwater species, little work has been done to investigate the effect of chloride on nitrate toxicity. We conducted acute and chronic nitrate (as sodium nitrate) toxicity tests with the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia and the amphipod Hyalella azteca (chronic tests only) over a range of chloride concentrations spanning natural chloride levels found in surface waters representative of watersheds of the Great Lakes Region. Chronic nitrate toxicity test results with both crustaceans were variable, with H. azteca appearing to be one of the more sensitive invertebrate species tested and C. dubia being less sensitive. While the variability in results for H. azteca were to an extent related to chloride concentration in test water that was distinctly not the case for C. dubia. We concluded that the chloride dependent toxicity of nitrate is not universal among freshwater crustaceans. An additional sodium chloride chronic toxicity test with the US Lab strain of H. azteca in the present study suggested that when present as predominantly sodium chloride and with relatively low concentrations of other ions, there is a narrow range of chloride concentrations over which this strain is most fit, and within which toxicity test data are reliable.

  13. Explosion of lithium-thionyl-chloride battery due to presence of lithium nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennesø, E.; Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2015-01-01

    An explosion of a lithium–thionyl-chloride (Li–SOCl2) battery during production (assembly) leads to serious worker injury. The accident cell batch had been in a dry-air intermediate storage room for months before being readied with thionyl chloride electrolyte. Metallic lithium can react with atm......An explosion of a lithium–thionyl-chloride (Li–SOCl2) battery during production (assembly) leads to serious worker injury. The accident cell batch had been in a dry-air intermediate storage room for months before being readied with thionyl chloride electrolyte. Metallic lithium can react...

  14. Chloride-catalyzed corrosion of plutonium in glovebox atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, M.; Haschke, J.M.; Allen, T.H.; Morales, L.A.; Jarboe, D.M.; Puglisi, C.V.

    1998-04-01

    Characterization of glovebox atmospheres and the black reaction product formed on plutonium surfaces shows that the abnormally rapid corrosion of components in the fabrication line is consistent with a complex salt-catalyzed reaction involving gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl) and water. Analytical data verify that chlorocarbon and HCl vapors are presented in stagnant glovebox atmospheres. Hydrogen chloride concentrations approach 7 ppm at some locations in the glovebox line. The black corrosion product is identified as plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH), a product formed by hydrolysis of plutonium in liquid water and salt solutions at room temperature. Plutonium trichloride (PuCl 3 ) produced by reaction of HCl at the metal surface is deliquescent and apparently forms a highly concentrated salt solution by absorbing moisture from the glovebox atmosphere. Rapid corrosion is attributed to the ensuing salt-catalyzed reaction between plutonium and water. Experimental results are discussed, possible involvement of hydrogen fluoride (HF) is examined, and methods of corrective action are presented in this report

  15. A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pinakin M.

    1993-03-01

    A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thionyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Results of testing a complete prototype battery are described.

  16. A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, P.M. (Alliant Techsystems, Inc., Power Sources Center, Horsham, PA (United States))

    1993-03-15

    A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thinoyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings (>40%) over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, (CoPC)[sub n], into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Finally, the results of testing a complete prototype battery are described in detail. (orig.)

  17. Influence of sodium chloride on wine yeast fermentation performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stilianos Logothetis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Stilianos Logothetis1, Elias T Nerantzis2, Anna Gioulioti3, Tasos Kanelis2, Tataridis Panagiotis2, Graeme Walker11University of Abertay Dundee, School of Contemporary Sciences, Dundee, Scotland; 2TEI of Athens Department of Oenology and Spirit Technology, Biotechnology and Industrial Fermentations Lab Agiou Spiridonos, Athens, Greece; 3Ampeloiniki SA Industrial Park Thermi, Thessaloniki, GreeceAbstract: This paper concerns research into the influence of salt (sodium chloride on growth, viability and fermentation performance in a winemaking strain of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Experimental fermentations were conducted in both laboratory-scale and industrial-scale experiments. Preculturing yeasts in elevated levels of sodium chloride, or salt “preconditioning” led to improved fermentation performance. This was manifest by preconditioned yeasts having an improved capability to ferment high-sugar containing media with increased cell viability and with elevated levels of produced ethanol. Salt-preconditioning most likely influenced the stress-tolerance of yeasts by inducing the synthesis of key metabolites such as trehalose and glycerol. These compounds may act to improve cells’ ability to withstand osmostress and ethanol toxicity during fermentations of grape must. Industrial-scale trials using salt-preconditioned yeasts verified the benefit of this novel physiological cell engineering approach to practical winemaking fermentations.Keywords: salt, preconditioning, fermentation performance, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, wine

  18. Multiple myeloma with hypercalcemia and chloride resistant metabolic alkalosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshayeb, Hala; Patel, Vikul; Naseer, Adnan; Mangold, Therese A; Wall, Barry M

    2011-10-01

    This report describes a novel presentation of chloride resistant metabolic alkalosis in a patient with hypercalcemia related to Multiple Myeloma (MM). A 51-year-old male with newly diagnosed MM presented with widespread skeletal involvement, calcium (Ca(+2)) of 18 mg/dL, phosphorous (PO4) of 6 mg/dL, serum bicarbonate (HCO3) of 37 mEq/L, and serum creatinine (Cr) of 2.6 mg/dL Other causes of metabolic alkalosis such as vomiting, diuretics, alkali ingestion, mineralocorticoid excess and hypokalemia were excluded. Hypercalcemia and metabolic alkalosis were only partially corrected after rehydration, calcitonin and steroids. Subsequent treatment with zoledronic acid resulted in resolution of hypercalcemia and correction of metabolic alkalosis.The chloride resistant component of metabolic alkalosis was most likely related to extensive release of Ca(+2), carbonate and phosphate from bone by activated osteoclasts with inhibited osteoblastic activity. The additional reduction in glomerular filtration rate due to MM, contributed to a triad mimicking Calcium-Alkali syndrome.

  19. Structural study of 2,4,6-triisopropylbenzenesulfonyl chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laba, V. I.; Sviridova, A. V.; Nesterov, V. N.

    2009-01-01

    The structure of 2,4,6-triisopropylbenzenesulfonyl chloride (TPSCl) (I) was studied by X-ray diffraction. Compound I is a highly selective condensing agent first suggested by Khorana for the formation of the C3'-C5' interribonucleotide linkage in the oligo- and polyribonucleotide synthesis. I crystals are orthorhombic. At -120 deg. C, the unit-cell parameters are a = 14.184(4) A, b = 11.344(5) A, c = 19.883(6) A, V = 3199(2) A 3 , d calc = 1.257 g/cm 3 , Z = 8, sp. gr. Pbca. Molecule I adopts a strongly flattened boat conformation with the carbon atoms C-SO 2 Cl (C 1 ) and C-i-Pr (C4) of the benzene ring deviating from the bottom of the boat by 0.065(1) and 0.032(1) A, respectively. Molecule I is sterically overcrowded, resulting in an increase in the bond lengths and bond-angle distortions in the fragment containing the SO 2 Cl group and two ortho-i-Pr groups. Nonbonded contacts that are present in the molecule can be considered weak intramolecular hydrogen bonds (for example, the (CH 3 ) 2 C-H-O=S bond). There is no rotation of the SO 2 Cl, ortho-i-Pr, and CH 3 groups. The above-mentioned facts are, apparently, responsible for the specific selectivity of TPSCl. New readily available sterically hindered arenesulfonyl chlorides were designed.

  20. Hydrodynamic simulation of a lithium chloride salt system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberle, C. S.; Herrmann, S. D.; Knighton, G. C.

    1999-01-01

    A fused lithium chloride salt system's constitutive properties were evaluated and compared to a number of fluid properties, and water was shown to be an excellent simulant of lithium chloride salt. With a simple flow model, the principal scaling term was shown to be a function of the kinematic viscosity. A water mock-up of the molten salt was also shown to be within a ±3% error in the scaling analysis. This made it possible to consider developing water scaled tests of the molten salt system. Accurate flow velocity and pressure measurements were acquired by developing a directional velocity probe. The device was constructed and calibrated with a repeatable accuracy of ±15%. This was verified by a detailed evaluation of the probe. Extensive flow measurements of the engineering scale mockup were conducted, and the results were carefully compared to radial flow patterns of a straight blade stirrer. The flow measurements demonstrated an anti-symmetric nature of the stirring, and many additional effects were also identified. The basket design was shown to prevent fluid penetration into the fuel baskets when external stirring was the flow mechanism