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Sample records for imu heading error

  1. Deep Kalman Filter: Simultaneous Multi-Sensor Integration and Modelling; A GNSS/IMU Case Study.

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    Hosseinyalamdary, Siavash

    2018-04-24

    Bayes filters, such as the Kalman and particle filters, have been used in sensor fusion to integrate two sources of information and obtain the best estimate of unknowns. The efficient integration of multiple sensors requires deep knowledge of their error sources. Some sensors, such as Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), have complicated error sources. Therefore, IMU error modelling and the efficient integration of IMU and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations has remained a challenge. In this paper, we developed deep Kalman filter to model and remove IMU errors and, consequently, improve the accuracy of IMU positioning. To achieve this, we added a modelling step to the prediction and update steps of the Kalman filter, so that the IMU error model is learned during integration. The results showed our deep Kalman filter outperformed the conventional Kalman filter and reached a higher level of accuracy.

  2. Star Tracker Performance Estimate with IMU

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    Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot D.; Swank, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    A software tool for estimating cross-boresight error of a star tracker combined with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) was developed to support trade studies for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communication project (iROC) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center. Typical laser communication systems, such as the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) and the Laser Communication Relay Demonstration (LCRD), use a beacon to locate ground stations. iROC is investigating the use of beaconless precision laser pointing to enable laser communication at Mars orbits and beyond. Precision attitude knowledge is essential to the iROC mission to enable high-speed steering of the optical link. The preliminary concept to achieve this precision attitude knowledge is to use star trackers combined with an IMU. The Star Tracker Accuracy (STAcc) software was developed to rapidly assess the capabilities of star tracker and IMU configurations. STAcc determines the overall cross-boresight error of a star tracker with an IMU given the characteristic parameters: quantum efficiency, aperture, apparent star magnitude, exposure time, field of view, photon spread, detector pixels, spacecraft slew rate, maximum stars used for quaternion estimation, and IMU angular random walk. This paper discusses the supporting theory used to construct STAcc, verification of the program and sample results.

  3. Deep Kalman Filter: Simultaneous Multi-Sensor Integration and Modelling; A GNSS/IMU Case Study

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    Siavash Hosseinyalamdary

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bayes filters, such as the Kalman and particle filters, have been used in sensor fusion to integrate two sources of information and obtain the best estimate of unknowns. The efficient integration of multiple sensors requires deep knowledge of their error sources. Some sensors, such as Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU, have complicated error sources. Therefore, IMU error modelling and the efficient integration of IMU and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS observations has remained a challenge. In this paper, we developed deep Kalman filter to model and remove IMU errors and, consequently, improve the accuracy of IMU positioning. To achieve this, we added a modelling step to the prediction and update steps of the Kalman filter, so that the IMU error model is learned during integration. The results showed our deep Kalman filter outperformed the conventional Kalman filter and reached a higher level of accuracy.

  4. Enhanced Pedestrian Navigation Based on Course Angle Error Estimation Using Cascaded Kalman Filters.

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    Song, Jin Woo; Park, Chan Gook

    2018-04-21

    An enhanced pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) based navigation algorithm, which uses two cascaded Kalman filters (TCKF) for the estimation of course angle and navigation errors, is proposed. The proposed algorithm uses a foot-mounted inertial measurement unit (IMU), waist-mounted magnetic sensors, and a zero velocity update (ZUPT) based inertial navigation technique with TCKF. The first stage filter estimates the course angle error of a human, which is closely related to the heading error of the IMU. In order to obtain the course measurements, the filter uses magnetic sensors and a position-trace based course angle. For preventing magnetic disturbance from contaminating the estimation, the magnetic sensors are attached to the waistband. Because the course angle error is mainly due to the heading error of the IMU, and the characteristic error of the heading angle is highly dependent on that of the course angle, the estimated course angle error is used as a measurement for estimating the heading error in the second stage filter. At the second stage, an inertial navigation system-extended Kalman filter-ZUPT (INS-EKF-ZUPT) method is adopted. As the heading error is estimated directly by using course-angle error measurements, the estimation accuracy for the heading and yaw gyro bias can be enhanced, compared with the ZUPT-only case, which eventually enhances the position accuracy more efficiently. The performance enhancements are verified via experiments, and the way-point position error for the proposed method is compared with those for the ZUPT-only case and with other cases that use ZUPT and various types of magnetic heading measurements. The results show that the position errors are reduced by a maximum of 90% compared with the conventional ZUPT based PDR algorithms.

  5. An IMU-Aided Body-Shadowing Error Compensation Method for Indoor Bluetooth Positioning.

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    Deng, Zhongliang; Fu, Xiao; Wang, Hanhua

    2018-01-20

    Research on indoor positioning technologies has recently become a hotspot because of the huge social and economic potential of indoor location-based services (ILBS). Wireless positioning signals have a considerable attenuation in received signal strength (RSS) when transmitting through human bodies, which would cause significant ranging and positioning errors in RSS-based systems. This paper mainly focuses on the body-shadowing impairment of RSS-based ranging and positioning, and derives a mathematical expression of the relation between the body-shadowing effect and the positioning error. In addition, an inertial measurement unit-aided (IMU-aided) body-shadowing detection strategy is designed, and an error compensation model is established to mitigate the effect of body-shadowing. A Bluetooth positioning algorithm with body-shadowing error compensation (BP-BEC) is then proposed to improve both the positioning accuracy and the robustness in indoor body-shadowing environments. Experiments are conducted in two indoor test beds, and the performance of both the BP-BEC algorithm and the algorithms without body-shadowing error compensation (named no-BEC) is evaluated. The results show that the BP-BEC outperforms the no-BEC by about 60.1% and 73.6% in terms of positioning accuracy and robustness, respectively. Moreover, the execution time of the BP-BEC algorithm is also evaluated, and results show that the convergence speed of the proposed algorithm has an insignificant effect on real-time localization.

  6. An IMU-Aided Body-Shadowing Error Compensation Method for Indoor Bluetooth Positioning

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    Zhongliang Deng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on indoor positioning technologies has recently become a hotspot because of the huge social and economic potential of indoor location-based services (ILBS. Wireless positioning signals have a considerable attenuation in received signal strength (RSS when transmitting through human bodies, which would cause significant ranging and positioning errors in RSS-based systems. This paper mainly focuses on the body-shadowing impairment of RSS-based ranging and positioning, and derives a mathematical expression of the relation between the body-shadowing effect and the positioning error. In addition, an inertial measurement unit-aided (IMU-aided body-shadowing detection strategy is designed, and an error compensation model is established to mitigate the effect of body-shadowing. A Bluetooth positioning algorithm with body-shadowing error compensation (BP-BEC is then proposed to improve both the positioning accuracy and the robustness in indoor body-shadowing environments. Experiments are conducted in two indoor test beds, and the performance of both the BP-BEC algorithm and the algorithms without body-shadowing error compensation (named no-BEC is evaluated. The results show that the BP-BEC outperforms the no-BEC by about 60.1% and 73.6% in terms of positioning accuracy and robustness, respectively. Moreover, the execution time of the BP-BEC algorithm is also evaluated, and results show that the convergence speed of the proposed algorithm has an insignificant effect on real-time localization.

  7. A Novel Vehicle Stationary Detection Utilizing Map Matching and IMU Sensors

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    Md. Syedul Amin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise navigation is a vital need for many modern vehicular applications. The global positioning system (GPS cannot provide continuous navigation information in urban areas. The widely used inertial navigation system (INS can provide full vehicle state at high rates. However, the accuracy diverges quickly in low cost microelectromechanical systems (MEMS based INS due to bias, drift, noise, and other errors. These errors can be corrected in a stationary state. But detecting stationary state is a challenging task. A novel stationary state detection technique from the variation of acceleration, heading, and pitch and roll of an attitude heading reference system (AHRS built from the inertial measurement unit (IMU sensors is proposed. Besides, the map matching (MM algorithm detects the intersections where the vehicle is likely to stop. Combining these two results, the stationary state is detected with a smaller timing window of 3 s. A longer timing window of 5 s is used when the stationary state is detected only from the AHRS. The experimental results show that the stationary state is correctly identified and the position error is reduced to 90% and outperforms previously reported work. The proposed algorithm would help to reduce INS errors and enhance the performance of the navigation system.

  8. LiDAR-IMU Time Delay Calibration Based on Iterative Closest Point and Iterated Sigma Point Kalman Filter.

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    Liu, Wanli

    2017-03-08

    The time delay calibration between Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) is an essential prerequisite for its applications. However, the correspondences between LiDAR and IMU measurements are usually unknown, and thus cannot be computed directly for the time delay calibration. In order to solve the problem of LiDAR-IMU time delay calibration, this paper presents a fusion method based on iterative closest point (ICP) and iterated sigma point Kalman filter (ISPKF), which combines the advantages of ICP and ISPKF. The ICP algorithm can precisely determine the unknown transformation between LiDAR-IMU; and the ISPKF algorithm can optimally estimate the time delay calibration parameters. First of all, the coordinate transformation from the LiDAR frame to the IMU frame is realized. Second, the measurement model and time delay error model of LiDAR and IMU are established. Third, the methodology of the ICP and ISPKF procedure is presented for LiDAR-IMU time delay calibration. Experimental results are presented that validate the proposed method and demonstrate the time delay error can be accurately calibrated.

  9. IMU-based online kinematic calibration of robot manipulator.

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    Du, Guanglong; Zhang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Robot calibration is a useful diagnostic method for improving the positioning accuracy in robot production and maintenance. An online robot self-calibration method based on inertial measurement unit (IMU) is presented in this paper. The method requires that the IMU is rigidly attached to the robot manipulator, which makes it possible to obtain the orientation of the manipulator with the orientation of the IMU in real time. This paper proposed an efficient approach which incorporates Factored Quaternion Algorithm (FQA) and Kalman Filter (KF) to estimate the orientation of the IMU. Then, an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is used to estimate kinematic parameter errors. Using this proposed orientation estimation method will result in improved reliability and accuracy in determining the orientation of the manipulator. Compared with the existing vision-based self-calibration methods, the great advantage of this method is that it does not need the complex steps, such as camera calibration, images capture, and corner detection, which make the robot calibration procedure more autonomous in a dynamic manufacturing environment. Experimental studies on a GOOGOL GRB3016 robot show that this method has better accuracy, convenience, and effectiveness than vision-based methods.

  10. IMU-Based Online Kinematic Calibration of Robot Manipulator

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    Guanglong Du

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Robot calibration is a useful diagnostic method for improving the positioning accuracy in robot production and maintenance. An online robot self-calibration method based on inertial measurement unit (IMU is presented in this paper. The method requires that the IMU is rigidly attached to the robot manipulator, which makes it possible to obtain the orientation of the manipulator with the orientation of the IMU in real time. This paper proposed an efficient approach which incorporates Factored Quaternion Algorithm (FQA and Kalman Filter (KF to estimate the orientation of the IMU. Then, an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF is used to estimate kinematic parameter errors. Using this proposed orientation estimation method will result in improved reliability and accuracy in determining the orientation of the manipulator. Compared with the existing vision-based self-calibration methods, the great advantage of this method is that it does not need the complex steps, such as camera calibration, images capture, and corner detection, which make the robot calibration procedure more autonomous in a dynamic manufacturing environment. Experimental studies on a GOOGOL GRB3016 robot show that this method has better accuracy, convenience, and effectiveness than vision-based methods.

  11. Loose Coupling of Wearable-Based INSs with Automatic Heading Evaluation

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    Dina Bousdar Ahmed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Position tracking of pedestrians by means of inertial sensors is a highly explored field of research. In fact, there are already many approaches to implement inertial navigation systems (INSs. However, most of them use a single inertial measurement unit (IMU attached to the pedestrian’s body. Since wearable-devices will be given items in the future, this work explores the implementation of an INS using two wearable-based IMUs. A loosely coupled approach is proposed to combine the outputs of wearable-based INSs. The latter are based on a pocket-mounted IMU and a foot-mounted IMU. The loosely coupled fusion combines the output of the two INSs not only when these outputs are least erroneous, but also automatically favoring the best output. This approach is named smart update. The main challenge is determining the quality of the heading estimation of each INS, which changes every time. In order to address this, a novel concept to determine the quality of the heading estimation is presented. This concept is subject to a patent application. The results show that the position error rate of the loosely coupled fusion is 10 cm/s better than either the foot INS’s or pocket INS’s error rate in 95% of the cases.

  12. Loose Coupling of Wearable-Based INSs with Automatic Heading Evaluation.

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    Bousdar Ahmed, Dina; Munoz Diaz, Estefania

    2017-11-03

    Position tracking of pedestrians by means of inertial sensors is a highly explored field of research. In fact, there are already many approaches to implement inertial navigation systems (INSs). However, most of them use a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) attached to the pedestrian's body. Since wearable-devices will be given items in the future, this work explores the implementation of an INS using two wearable-based IMUs. A loosely coupled approach is proposed to combine the outputs of wearable-based INSs. The latter are based on a pocket-mounted IMU and a foot-mounted IMU. The loosely coupled fusion combines the output of the two INSs not only when these outputs are least erroneous, but also automatically favoring the best output. This approach is named smart update. The main challenge is determining the quality of the heading estimation of each INS, which changes every time. In order to address this, a novel concept to determine the quality of the heading estimation is presented. This concept is subject to a patent application. The results show that the position error rate of the loosely coupled fusion is 10 cm/s better than either the foot INS's or pocket INS's error rate in 95% of the cases.

  13. Performance Analysis of Measurement Inaccuracies of IMU/GPS on Airborne Repeat-pass Interferometric SAR in the Presence of Squint

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    Deng Yuan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the MOtion COmpensation (MOCO approach to airborne repeat-pass interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR based on motion measurement data, the measurement inaccuracies of Inertial Measurement Unit/Global Positioning System (IMU/GPS and the positioning errors of the target, which may contribute to the residual uncompensated motion errors, affect the imaging result and interferometric measurement. Considering the effects of the two types of error, this paper builds a mathematical model of residual motion errors in presence of squint, and analyzes the effects on the residual motion errors induced by the measurement inaccuracies of IMU/GPS and the positioning errors of the target. In particular, the effects of various measurement inaccuracies of IMU/GPS on interferometric SAR image quality, interferometric phase, and digital elevation model precision are disscussed. Moreover, the paper quantitatively researches the effects of residual motion errors on airborne repeat-pass interferometric SAR through theoretical and simulated analyses and provides theoretical bases for system design and signal processing.

  14. Towards an IMU Evaluation Framework for Human Body Tracking.

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    Venek, Verena; Kremser, Wolfgang; Schneider, Cornelia

    2018-01-01

    Existing full-body tracking systems, which use Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) as sensing unit, require expert knowledge for setup and data collection. Thus, the daily application for human body tracking is difficult. In particular, in the field of active and assisted living (AAL), tracking human movements would enable novel insights not only into the quantity but also into the quality of human movement, for example by monitoring functional training. While the current market offers a wide range of products with vastly different properties, literature lacks guidelines for choosing IMUs for body tracking applications. Therefore, this paper introduces developments towards an IMU evaluation framework for human body tracking which compares IMUs against five requirement areas that consider device features and data quality. The data quality is assessed by conducting a static and a dynamic error analysis. In a first application to four IMUs of different component consumption, the IMU evaluation framework convinced as promising tool for IMU selection.

  15. Miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated board

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    Lin, Ching-Fang (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    This invention documents the efforts on the research and development of a miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated navigation system. A miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated navigation system is presented; Laser Dynamic Range Imager (LDRI) based alignment algorithm for space applications is discussed. Two navigation cameras are also included to measure the range and range rate which can be integrated into the GPS/MEMS IMU system to enhance the navigation solution.

  16. Loose fusion based on SLAM and IMU for indoor environment

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    Zhu, Haijiang; Wang, Zhicheng; Zhou, Jinglin; Wang, Xuejing

    2018-04-01

    The simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) method based on the RGB-D sensor is widely researched in recent years. However, the accuracy of the RGB-D SLAM relies heavily on correspondence feature points, and the position would be lost in case of scenes with sparse textures. Therefore, plenty of fusion methods using the RGB-D information and inertial measurement unit (IMU) data have investigated to improve the accuracy of SLAM system. However, these fusion methods usually do not take into account the size of matched feature points. The pose estimation calculated by RGB-D information may not be accurate while the number of correct matches is too few. Thus, considering the impact of matches in SLAM system and the problem of missing position in scenes with few textures, a loose fusion method combining RGB-D with IMU is proposed in this paper. In the proposed method, we design a loose fusion strategy based on the RGB-D camera information and IMU data, which is to utilize the IMU data for position estimation when the corresponding point matches are quite few. While there are a lot of matches, the RGB-D information is still used to estimate position. The final pose would be optimized by General Graph Optimization (g2o) framework to reduce error. The experimental results show that the proposed method is better than the RGB-D camera's method. And this method can continue working stably for indoor environment with sparse textures in the SLAM system.

  17. Monocular Camera/IMU/GNSS Integration for Ground Vehicle Navigation in Challenging GNSS Environments

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    Dennis Akos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost MEMS-based IMUs, video cameras and portable GNSS devices are commercially available for automotive applications and some manufacturers have already integrated such facilities into their vehicle systems. GNSS provides positioning, navigation and timing solutions to users worldwide. However, signal attenuation, reflections or blockages may give rise to positioning difficulties. As opposed to GNSS, a generic IMU, which is independent of electromagnetic wave reception, can calculate a high-bandwidth navigation solution, however the output from a self-contained IMU accumulates errors over time. In addition, video cameras also possess great potential as alternate sensors in the navigation community, particularly in challenging GNSS environments and are becoming more common as options in vehicles. Aiming at taking advantage of these existing onboard technologies for ground vehicle navigation in challenging environments, this paper develops an integrated camera/IMU/GNSS system based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF. Our proposed integration architecture is examined using a live dataset collected in an operational traffic environment. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed integrated system provides accurate estimations and potentially outperforms the tightly coupled GNSS/IMU integration in challenging environments with sparse GNSS observations.

  18. Monocular camera/IMU/GNSS integration for ground vehicle navigation in challenging GNSS environments.

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    Chu, Tianxing; Guo, Ningyan; Backén, Staffan; Akos, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Low-cost MEMS-based IMUs, video cameras and portable GNSS devices are commercially available for automotive applications and some manufacturers have already integrated such facilities into their vehicle systems. GNSS provides positioning, navigation and timing solutions to users worldwide. However, signal attenuation, reflections or blockages may give rise to positioning difficulties. As opposed to GNSS, a generic IMU, which is independent of electromagnetic wave reception, can calculate a high-bandwidth navigation solution, however the output from a self-contained IMU accumulates errors over time. In addition, video cameras also possess great potential as alternate sensors in the navigation community, particularly in challenging GNSS environments and are becoming more common as options in vehicles. Aiming at taking advantage of these existing onboard technologies for ground vehicle navigation in challenging environments, this paper develops an integrated camera/IMU/GNSS system based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF). Our proposed integration architecture is examined using a live dataset collected in an operational traffic environment. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed integrated system provides accurate estimations and potentially outperforms the tightly coupled GNSS/IMU integration in challenging environments with sparse GNSS observations.

  19. Monocular Camera/IMU/GNSS Integration for Ground Vehicle Navigation in Challenging GNSS Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tianxing; Guo, Ningyan; Backén, Staffan; Akos, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Low-cost MEMS-based IMUs, video cameras and portable GNSS devices are commercially available for automotive applications and some manufacturers have already integrated such facilities into their vehicle systems. GNSS provides positioning, navigation and timing solutions to users worldwide. However, signal attenuation, reflections or blockages may give rise to positioning difficulties. As opposed to GNSS, a generic IMU, which is independent of electromagnetic wave reception, can calculate a high-bandwidth navigation solution, however the output from a self-contained IMU accumulates errors over time. In addition, video cameras also possess great potential as alternate sensors in the navigation community, particularly in challenging GNSS environments and are becoming more common as options in vehicles. Aiming at taking advantage of these existing onboard technologies for ground vehicle navigation in challenging environments, this paper develops an integrated camera/IMU/GNSS system based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF). Our proposed integration architecture is examined using a live dataset collected in an operational traffic environment. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed integrated system provides accurate estimations and potentially outperforms the tightly coupled GNSS/IMU integration in challenging environments with sparse GNSS observations. PMID:22736999

  20. [Diagnostic and organizational error in head injuries].

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    Zaba, Czesław; Zaba, Zbigniew; Swiderski, Paweł; Lorkiewicz-Muszyíska, Dorota

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed at presenting a case of a diagnostic and organizational error involving lack of detection of foreign body presence in the soft tissues of the head. Head radiograms in two projections clearly demonstrated foreign bodies that resembled in shape flattened bullets, which could not have been missed upon evaluation of the X-rays. On the other hand, description of the radiograms entered by the attending physicians to the patient's medical record indicated an absence of traumatic injuries or foreign bodies. In the opinion of the authors, the case in question involved a diagnostic error: the doctors failed to detect the presence of foreign bodies in the head. The organizational error involved the failure of radiogram evaluation performed by a radiologist.

  1. Uticaj mesta ugradnje inercijalnog mernog bloka i akcelerometara na grešku u određivanju pozicije aviona / Size effect of the inertial measurement unit and inside IMU accelerometers on aircraft position error

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    Slobodan Janićijević

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available U ovom članku analiziran je uticaj mesta ugradnje inercijalnog mernog bloka (IMB u avionu i mesta ugradnje akcelerometara u IMB na tačnost određivanja pozicije pomoću bes-platformskog inercijalnog navigacijskog sistema (BINS. Pokazano je da se ovi uticaji ne mogu uvek zanemariti. Izračunata je ukupna greška u određivanju pozicije aviona ako se IMB ugrađuje van centra rotacije aviona, a akcelerometri van centra IMB. Predložena je optimalna orijentacija akcelerometara u IMB-u, kako bi se minimizirao uticaj ugradnje akcelerometara van centra IMB na tačnost određivanja pozicije aviona. Predložen je i način kompenzacije greške. / This paper analyzes the mounting offset size effect of the inertial measurement unit (IMU in aircraft and accelerometers mounting offset size effect in the IMU on the accuracy of strap down inertial navigation system (SDINS. It is also shown that these effects cannot be always neglected. The total size effect error for the IMU has been the computed. An accelerometers optimum orientation inside the IMU has been proposed to minimize size effects on the accuracy of navigation parameters. A manner to compensate these size effects has been proposed as well.

  2. Vision and dual IMU integrated attitude measurement system

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    Guo, Xiaoting; Sun, Changku; Wang, Peng; Lu, Huang

    2018-01-01

    To determination relative attitude between two space objects on a rocking base, an integrated system based on vision and dual IMU (inertial determination unit) is built up. The determination system fuses the attitude information of vision with the angular determinations of dual IMU by extended Kalman filter (EKF) to obtain the relative attitude. One IMU (master) is attached to the measured motion object and the other (slave) to the rocking base. As the determination output of inertial sensor is relative to inertial frame, thus angular rate of the master IMU includes not only motion of the measured object relative to inertial frame but also the rocking base relative to inertial frame, where the latter can be seen as redundant harmful movement information for relative attitude determination between the measured object and the rocking base. The slave IMU here assists to remove the motion information of rocking base relative to inertial frame from the master IMU. The proposed integrated attitude determination system is tested on practical experimental platform. And experiment results with superior precision and reliability show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed attitude determination system.

  3. Ka-band InSAR Imaging and Analysis Based on IMU Data

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    Shi Jun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Compared with other bands, the millimeter wave Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR has high accuracy and small size, which is a hot topic in InSAR research. On the other hand, shorter wavelength causes difficulties in 2D imaging and interferometric phase extraction. In this study, the imaging and phase performance of the streaming Back Projection (BP method combined with IMU data are analyzed and discussed on the basis of actual Ka-band InSAR data. It is found that because the wavelength of the Ka-band is short, it is more sensitive to the antenna phase-center history. To ensure the phase-preserving capacity, the IMU data must be used with accurate motion error compensation. Furthermore, during data processing, we verify the flat-earth-removing capacity of the BP algorithm that calculates and compensates the master and slave antenna phase centers individually.

  4. Map matching and heuristic elimination of gyro drift for personal navigation systems in GPS-denied conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Priyanka; Thomas, David; Ojeda, Lauro; Borenstein, Johann

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for the substantial reduction of heading errors in inertial navigation systems used under GPS-denied conditions. Presumably, the method is applicable for both vehicle-based and personal navigation systems, but experiments were performed only with a personal navigation system called 'personal dead reckoning' (PDR). In order to work under GPS-denied conditions, the PDR system uses a foot-mounted inertial measurement unit (IMU). However, gyro drift in this IMU can cause large heading errors after just a few minutes of walking. To reduce these errors, the map-matched heuristic drift elimination (MAPHDE) method was developed, which estimates gyro drift errors by comparing IMU-derived heading to the direction of the nearest street segment in a database of street maps. A heuristic component in this method provides tolerance to short deviations from walking along the street, such as when crossing streets or intersections. MAPHDE keeps heading errors almost at zero, and, as a result, position errors are dramatically reduced. In this paper, MAPHDE was used in a variety of outdoor walks, without any use of GPS. This paper explains the MAPHDE method in detail and presents experimental results

  5. Integrity monitoring of vehicle positioning in urban environment using RTK-GNSS, IMU and speedometer

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    El-Mowafy, Ahmed; Kubo, Nobuaki

    2017-05-01

    Continuous and trustworthy positioning is a critical capability for advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). To achieve continuous positioning, methods such as global navigation satellite systems real-time kinematic (RTK), Doppler-based positioning, and positioning using low-cost inertial measurement unit (IMU) with car speedometer data are combined in this study. To ensure reliable positioning, the system should have integrity monitoring above a certain level, such as 99%. Achieving this level when combining different types of measurements that have different characteristics and different types of errors is a challenge. In this study, a novel integrity monitoring approach is presented for the proposed integrated system. A threat model of the measurements of the system components is discussed, which includes both the nominal performance and possible fault modes. A new protection level is presented to bound the maximum directional position error. The proposed approach was evaluated through a kinematic test in an urban area in Japan with a focus on horizontal positioning. Test results show that by integrating RTK, Doppler with IMU/speedometer, 100% positioning availability was achieved. The integrity monitoring availability was assessed and found to meet the target value where the position errors were bounded by the protection level, which was also less than an alert level, indicating the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  6. Integrity monitoring of vehicle positioning in urban environment using RTK-GNSS, IMU and speedometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mowafy, Ahmed; Kubo, Nobuaki

    2017-01-01

    Continuous and trustworthy positioning is a critical capability for advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). To achieve continuous positioning, methods such as global navigation satellite systems real-time kinematic (RTK), Doppler-based positioning, and positioning using low-cost inertial measurement unit (IMU) with car speedometer data are combined in this study. To ensure reliable positioning, the system should have integrity monitoring above a certain level, such as 99%. Achieving this level when combining different types of measurements that have different characteristics and different types of errors is a challenge. In this study, a novel integrity monitoring approach is presented for the proposed integrated system. A threat model of the measurements of the system components is discussed, which includes both the nominal performance and possible fault modes. A new protection level is presented to bound the maximum directional position error. The proposed approach was evaluated through a kinematic test in an urban area in Japan with a focus on horizontal positioning. Test results show that by integrating RTK, Doppler with IMU/speedometer, 100% positioning availability was achieved. The integrity monitoring availability was assessed and found to meet the target value where the position errors were bounded by the protection level, which was also less than an alert level, indicating the effectiveness of the proposed approach. (paper)

  7. Magnetometer-Augmented IMU Simulator: In-Depth Elaboration

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    Thomas Brunner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The location of objects is a growing research topic due, for instance, to the expansion of civil drones or intelligent vehicles. This expansion was made possible through the development of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS, inexpensive and miniaturized inertial sensors. In this context, this article describes the development of a new simulator which generates sensor measurements, giving a specific input trajectory. This will allow the comparison of pose estimation algorithms. To develop this simulator, the measurement equations of every type of sensor have to be analytically determined. To achieve this objective, classical kinematic equations are used for the more common sensors, i.e., accelerometers and rate gyroscopes. As nowadays, the MEMS inertial measurement units (IMUs are generally magnetometer-augmented, an absolute world magnetic model is implemented. After the determination of the perfect measurement (through the error-free sensor models, realistic error models are developed to simulate real IMU behavior. Finally, the developed simulator is subjected to different validation tests.

  8. 3D-Calibration for IMU of the Strapdown Inertial Navigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avrutov V.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new calibration method for Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU of Strapdown Iner-tial Navigation Systems was presented. IMU has been composed of accelerometers, gyroscopes and a circuit of signal processing. Normally, a rate transfer test and multi-position tests are us-ing for IMU calibration. The new calibration method is based on whole angle rotation or finite rotation. In fact it’s suggested to turn over IMU around three axes simultaneously. In order to solve the equation of calibration, it is necessary to provide an equality of a rank of basic matrix into degree of basic matrix. The results of simulated IMU data presented to demonstrate the performance of the new calibration method.

  9. GPS/MEMS IMU/Microprocessor Board for Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gender, Thomas K.; Chow, James; Ott, William E.

    2009-01-01

    A miniaturized instrumentation package comprising a (1) Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, (2) an inertial measurement unit (IMU) consisting largely of surface-micromachined sensors of the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) type, and (3) a microprocessor, all residing on a single circuit board, is part of the navigation system of a compact robotic spacecraft intended to be released from a larger spacecraft [e.g., the International Space Station (ISS)] for exterior visual inspection of the larger spacecraft. Variants of the package may also be useful in terrestrial collision-detection and -avoidance applications. The navigation solution obtained by integrating the IMU outputs is fed back to a correlator in the GPS receiver to aid in tracking GPS signals. The raw GPS and IMU data are blended in a Kalman filter to obtain an optimal navigation solution, which can be supplemented by range and velocity data obtained by use of (l) a stereoscopic pair of electronic cameras aboard the robotic spacecraft and/or (2) a laser dynamic range imager aboard the ISS. The novelty of the package lies mostly in those aspects of the design of the MEMS IMU that pertain to controlling mechanical resonances and stabilizing scale factors and biases.

  10. a Man-Portable Imu-Free Mobile Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüchter, A.; Borrmann, D.; Koch, P.; Kühn, M.; May, S.

    2015-08-01

    Mobile mapping systems are commonly mounted on cars, ships and robots. The data is directly geo-referenced using GPS data and expensive IMU (inertial measurement systems). Driven by the need for flexible, indoor mapping systems we present an inexpensive mobile mapping solution that can be mounted on a backpack. It combines a horizontally mounted 2D profiler with a constantly spinning 3D laser scanner. The initial system featuring a low-cost MEMS IMU was revealed and demonstrated at MoLaS: Technology Workshop Mobile Laser Scanning at Fraunhofer IPM in Freiburg in November 2014. In this paper, we present an IMU-free solution.

  11. Radiologic head CT interpretation errors in pediatric abusive and non-abusive head trauma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralik, Stephen F.; Finke, Whitney; Wu, Isaac C.; Ho, Chang Y.; Hibbard, Roberta A.; Hicks, Ralph A.

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric head trauma, including abusive head trauma, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this research was to identify and evaluate radiologic interpretation errors of head CTs performed on abusive and non-abusive pediatric head trauma patients from a community setting referred for a secondary interpretation at a tertiary pediatric hospital. A retrospective search identified 184 patients <5 years of age with head CT for known or potential head trauma who had a primary interpretation performed at a referring community hospital by a board-certified radiologist. Two board-certified fellowship-trained neuroradiologists at an academic pediatric hospital independently interpreted the head CTs, compared their interpretations to determine inter-reader discrepancy rates, and resolved discrepancies to establish a consensus second interpretation. The primary interpretation was compared to the consensus second interpretation using the RADPEER trademark scoring system to determine the primary interpretation-second interpretation overall and major discrepancy rates. MRI and/or surgical findings were used to validate the primary interpretation or second interpretation when possible. The diagnosis of abusive head trauma was made using clinical and imaging data by a child abuse specialist to separate patients into abusive head trauma and non-abusive head trauma groups. Discrepancy rates were compared for both groups. Lastly, primary interpretations and second interpretations were evaluated for discussion of imaging findings concerning for abusive head trauma. There were statistically significant differences between primary interpretation-second interpretation versus inter-reader overall and major discrepancy rates (28% vs. 6%, P=0.0001; 16% vs. 1%, P=0.0001). There were significant differences in the primary interpretation-second interpretation overall and major discrepancy rates for abusive head trauma patients compared to non-abusive head trauma

  12. Radiologic head CT interpretation errors in pediatric abusive and non-abusive head trauma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kralik, Stephen F.; Finke, Whitney; Wu, Isaac C.; Ho, Chang Y. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Hibbard, Roberta A.; Hicks, Ralph A. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Child Protection Programs, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Pediatric head trauma, including abusive head trauma, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this research was to identify and evaluate radiologic interpretation errors of head CTs performed on abusive and non-abusive pediatric head trauma patients from a community setting referred for a secondary interpretation at a tertiary pediatric hospital. A retrospective search identified 184 patients <5 years of age with head CT for known or potential head trauma who had a primary interpretation performed at a referring community hospital by a board-certified radiologist. Two board-certified fellowship-trained neuroradiologists at an academic pediatric hospital independently interpreted the head CTs, compared their interpretations to determine inter-reader discrepancy rates, and resolved discrepancies to establish a consensus second interpretation. The primary interpretation was compared to the consensus second interpretation using the RADPEER trademark scoring system to determine the primary interpretation-second interpretation overall and major discrepancy rates. MRI and/or surgical findings were used to validate the primary interpretation or second interpretation when possible. The diagnosis of abusive head trauma was made using clinical and imaging data by a child abuse specialist to separate patients into abusive head trauma and non-abusive head trauma groups. Discrepancy rates were compared for both groups. Lastly, primary interpretations and second interpretations were evaluated for discussion of imaging findings concerning for abusive head trauma. There were statistically significant differences between primary interpretation-second interpretation versus inter-reader overall and major discrepancy rates (28% vs. 6%, P=0.0001; 16% vs. 1%, P=0.0001). There were significant differences in the primary interpretation-second interpretation overall and major discrepancy rates for abusive head trauma patients compared to non-abusive head trauma

  13. IMU: inertial sensing of vertical CoM movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Patrick; Dawes, Helen; Collett, Johnny; Howells, Ken

    2009-07-22

    The purpose of this study was to use a quaternion rotation matrix in combination with an integration approach to transform translatory accelerations of the centre of mass (CoM) from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) during walking, from the object system onto the global frame. Second, this paper utilises double integration to determine the relative change in position of the CoM from the vertical acceleration data. Five participants were tested in which an IMU, consisting of accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetometers was attached on the lower spine estimated centre of mass. Participants were asked to walk three times through a calibrated volume at their self-selected walking speed. Synchronized data were collected by an IMU and an optical motion capture system (OMCS); both measured at 100 Hz. Accelerations of the IMU were transposed onto the global frame using a quaternion rotation matrix. Translatory acceleration, speed and relative change in position from the IMU were compared with the derived data from the OMCS. Peak acceleration in vertical axis showed no significant difference (p> or =0.05). Difference between peak and trough speed showed significant difference (p or =0.05). These results indicate that quaternions, in combination with Simpsons rule integration, can be used in transforming translatory acceleration from the object frame to the global frame and therefore obtain relative change in position, thus offering a solution for using accelerometers in accurate global frame kinematic gait analyses.

  14. IceBridge IMU L0 Raw Inertial Measurement Unit Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA IceBridge IMU L0 Raw Inertial Measurement Unit Data (IPUTI0) data set contains Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) readings, including latitude, longitude,...

  15. Pose estimation of surgical instrument using sensor data fusion with optical tracker and IMU based on Kalman filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Hyunmin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracking system is essential for Image Guided Surgery(IGS. The Optical Tracking Sensor(OTS has been widely used as tracking system for IGS due to its high accuracy and easy usage. However, OTS has a limit that tracking fails when occlusion of marker occurs. In this paper, sensor fusion with OTS and Inertial Measurement Unit(IMU is proposed to solve this problem. The proposed algorithm improves the accuracy of tracking system by eliminating scattering error of the sensor and supplements the disadvantages of OTS and IMU through sensor fusion based on Kalman filter. Also, coordinate axis calibration method that improves the accuracy is introduced. The performed experiment verifies the effectualness of the proposed algorithm.

  16. Parallax error in the monocular head-mounted eye trackers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbeigi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan

    2012-01-01

    each parameter affects the error. The optimum distribution of the error (magnitude and direction) in the field of view varies for different applications. However, the results can be used for finding the optimum parameters that are needed for designing a head-mounted gaze tracker. It has been shown...

  17. Effects of Target Positioning Error on Motion Compensation for Airborne Interferometric SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yin-wei

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The measurement inaccuracies of Inertial Measurement Unit/Global Positioning System (IMU/GPS as well as the positioning error of the target may contribute to the residual uncompensated motion errors in the MOtion COmpensation (MOCO approach based on the measurement of IMU/GPS. Aiming at the effects of target positioning error on MOCO for airborne interferometric SAR, the paper firstly deduces a mathematical model of residual motion error bring out by target positioning error under the condition of squint. And the paper analyzes the effects on the residual motion error caused by system sampling delay error, the Doppler center frequency error and reference DEM error which result in target positioning error based on the model. Then, the paper discusses the effects of the reference DEM error on the interferometric SAR image quality, the interferometric phase and the coherent coefficient. The research provides theoretical bases for the MOCO precision in signal processing of airborne high precision SAR and airborne repeat-pass interferometric SAR.

  18. IMU-to-Segment Assignment and Orientation Alignment for the Lower Body Using Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Tobias; Taetz, Bertram; Bleser, Gabriele

    2018-01-19

    Human body motion analysis based on wearable inertial measurement units (IMUs) receives a lot of attention from both the research community and the and industrial community. This is due to the significant role in, for instance, mobile health systems, sports and human computer interaction. In sensor based activity recognition, one of the major issues for obtaining reliable results is the sensor placement/assignment on the body. For inertial motion capture (joint kinematics estimation) and analysis, the IMU-to-segment (I2S) assignment and alignment are central issues to obtain biomechanical joint angles. Existing approaches for I2S assignment usually rely on hand crafted features and shallow classification approaches (e.g., support vector machines), with no agreement regarding the most suitable features for the assignment task. Moreover, estimating the complete orientation alignment of an IMU relative to the segment it is attached to using a machine learning approach has not been shown in literature so far. This is likely due to the high amount of training data that have to be recorded to suitably represent possible IMU alignment variations. In this work, we propose online approaches for solving the assignment and alignment tasks for an arbitrary amount of IMUs with respect to a biomechanical lower body model using a deep learning architecture and windows of 128 gyroscope and accelerometer data samples. For this, we combine convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for local filter learning with long-short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent networks as well as generalized recurrent units (GRUs) for learning time dynamic features. The assignment task is casted as a classification problem, while the alignment task is casted as a regression problem. In this framework, we demonstrate the feasibility of augmenting a limited amount of real IMU training data with simulated alignment variations and IMU data for improving the recognition/estimation accuracies. With the proposed

  19. IMU-to-Segment Assignment and Orientation Alignment for the Lower Body Using Deep Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Zimmermann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human body motion analysis based on wearable inertial measurement units (IMUs receives a lot of attention from both the research community and the and industrial community. This is due to the significant role in, for instance, mobile health systems, sports and human computer interaction. In sensor based activity recognition, one of the major issues for obtaining reliable results is the sensor placement/assignment on the body. For inertial motion capture (joint kinematics estimation and analysis, the IMU-to-segment (I2S assignment and alignment are central issues to obtain biomechanical joint angles. Existing approaches for I2S assignment usually rely on hand crafted features and shallow classification approaches (e.g., support vector machines, with no agreement regarding the most suitable features for the assignment task. Moreover, estimating the complete orientation alignment of an IMU relative to the segment it is attached to using a machine learning approach has not been shown in literature so far. This is likely due to the high amount of training data that have to be recorded to suitably represent possible IMU alignment variations. In this work, we propose online approaches for solving the assignment and alignment tasks for an arbitrary amount of IMUs with respect to a biomechanical lower body model using a deep learning architecture and windows of 128 gyroscope and accelerometer data samples. For this, we combine convolutional neural networks (CNNs for local filter learning with long-short-term memory (LSTM recurrent networks as well as generalized recurrent units (GRUs for learning time dynamic features. The assignment task is casted as a classification problem, while the alignment task is casted as a regression problem. In this framework, we demonstrate the feasibility of augmenting a limited amount of real IMU training data with simulated alignment variations and IMU data for improving the recognition/estimation accuracies. With the

  20. Estimation of heading gyrocompass error using a GPS 3DF system: Impact on ADCP measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Ruiz

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally the horizontal orientation in a ship (heading has been obtained from a gyrocompass. This instrument is still used on research vessels but has an estimated error of about 2-3 degrees, inducing a systematic error in the cross-track velocity measured by an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP. The three-dimensional positioning system (GPS 3DF provides an independent heading measurement with accuracy better than 0.1 degree. The Spanish research vessel BIO Hespérides has been operating with this new system since 1996. For the first time on this vessel, the data from this new instrument are used to estimate gyrocompass error. The methodology we use follows the scheme developed by Griffiths (1994, which compares data from the gyrocompass and the GPS system in order to obtain an interpolated error function. In the present work we apply this methodology on mesoscale surveys performed during the observational phase of the OMEGA project, in the Alboran Sea. The heading-dependent gyrocompass error dominated. Errors in gyrocompass heading of 1.4-3.4 degrees have been found, which give a maximum error in measured cross-track ADCP velocity of 24 cm s-1.

  1. IMU Calibration and Validation in a Factory, Remote on Land and at Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Juhl; Paccagnan, Dario; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2014-01-01

    relevance for gyro-compassing grade optical gyroscopes and force-rebalanced pendulous accelerometers: Scale factor, bias and sensor axes misalignments. Focus is on low-dynamic marine applications e.g., subsea construction and survey. Two different methods of calibration are investigated: Kalman smoothing...... using an Aided Inertial Navigation System (AINS) framework, augmenting the error state Kalman filter (ESKF) to include the full set of IMU calibration parameters and a least squares approach, where the calibration parameters are determined by minimizing the magnitude of the INS error differential...... equation output. A method of evaluating calibrations is introduced and discussed. The two calibration methods are evaluated for factory use and results compared to a legacy proprietary method as well as in-field calibration/verification on land and at sea. The calibration methods shows similar navigation...

  2. On Inertial Body Tracking in the Presence of Model Calibration Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miezal, Markus; Taetz, Bertram; Bleser, Gabriele

    2016-07-22

    In inertial body tracking, the human body is commonly represented as a biomechanical model consisting of rigid segments with known lengths and connecting joints. The model state is then estimated via sensor fusion methods based on data from attached inertial measurement units (IMUs). This requires the relative poses of the IMUs w.r.t. the segments-the IMU-to-segment calibrations, subsequently called I2S calibrations-to be known. Since calibration methods based on static poses, movements and manual measurements are still the most widely used, potentially large human-induced calibration errors have to be expected. This work compares three newly developed/adapted extended Kalman filter (EKF) and optimization-based sensor fusion methods with an existing EKF-based method w.r.t. their segment orientation estimation accuracy in the presence of model calibration errors with and without using magnetometer information. While the existing EKF-based method uses a segment-centered kinematic chain biomechanical model and a constant angular acceleration motion model, the newly developed/adapted methods are all based on a free segments model, where each segment is represented with six degrees of freedom in the global frame. Moreover, these methods differ in the assumed motion model (constant angular acceleration, constant angular velocity, inertial data as control input), the state representation (segment-centered, IMU-centered) and the estimation method (EKF, sliding window optimization). In addition to the free segments representation, the optimization-based method also represents each IMU with six degrees of freedom in the global frame. In the evaluation on simulated and real data from a three segment model (an arm), the optimization-based method showed the smallest mean errors, standard deviations and maximum errors throughout all tests. It also showed the lowest dependency on magnetometer information and motion agility. Moreover, it was insensitive w.r.t. I2S position and

  3. FDIR for the IMU Component of AOCS Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício N. Pontuschka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is the study of a FDIR for an IMU aiming at space applications with focus on the gyro signal analysis and the tests of the filtering algorithms. The algorithms have been tested by using lab data provided by the DMC LABSIM (Physical’s Simulation Laboratory of the Space Mechanics and Control Division of INPE. The results have demonstrated good agreement with the concepts applied in this study. Automatic detection procedures are very important in the characterization of occurrence, definition of criteria, and device types in the scenario of AOCS FDIR. An IMU comprised of four gyros in a tetrahedral configuration is one of the assumed components for the AOCS (attitude and orbit control subsystem considered in this work. The types of failures considered in this paper are the step abrupt change, ramp/drift/slow, stuck, cyclic, erratic, spike, and finally the stuck for variance alteration noise. An appropriate algorithm for the automatic detection of each type of fault is developed. The approach includes the mapping capability of fault event indicators to the IMU. This mapping is very important in the characterization of the occurrence, definition of criteria, and device types as well as associated fault identification for an AOCS.

  4. Effect of SOS-induced levels of imuABC on spontaneous and damage-induced mutagenesis in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ingrid R; Lima-Noronha, Marco A; Silva, Larissa G; Fernández-Silva, Frank S; Freitas, Aline Luiza D; Marques, Marilis V; Galhardo, Rodrigo S

    2017-11-01

    imuABC (imuAB dnaE2) genes are responsible for SOS-mutagenesis in Caulobacter crescentus and other bacterial species devoid of umuDC. In this work, we have constructed operator-constitutive mutants of the imuABC operon. We used this genetic tool to investigate the effect of SOS-induced levels of these genes upon both spontaneous and damage-induced mutagenesis. We showed that constitutive expression of imuABC does not increase spontaneous or damage-induced mutagenesis, nor increases cellular resistance to DNA-damaging agents. Nevertheless, the presence of the operator-constitutive mutation rescues mutagenesis in a recA background, indicating that imuABC are the only genes required at SOS-induced levels for translesion synthesis (TLS) in C. crescentus. Furthermore, these data also show that TLS mediated by ImuABC does not require RecA, unlike umuDC-dependent mutagenesis in E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An IMU-to-Body Alignment Method Applied to Human Gait Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Susana Vargas-Valencia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel calibration procedure as a simple, yet powerful, method to place and align inertial sensors with body segments. The calibration can be easily replicated without the need of any additional tools. The proposed method is validated in three different applications: a computer mathematical simulation; a simplified joint composed of two semi-spheres interconnected by a universal goniometer; and a real gait test with five able-bodied subjects. Simulation results demonstrate that, after the calibration method is applied, the joint angles are correctly measured independently of previous sensor placement on the joint, thus validating the proposed procedure. In the cases of a simplified joint and a real gait test with human volunteers, the method also performs correctly, although secondary plane errors appear when compared with the simulation results. We believe that such errors are caused by limitations of the current inertial measurement unit (IMU technology and fusion algorithms. In conclusion, the presented calibration procedure is an interesting option to solve the alignment problem when using IMUs for gait analysis.

  6. The Effects of Lever Arm (Instrument Offset) Error on GRAV-D Airborne Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. A.; Youngman, M.; Damiani, T.

    2017-12-01

    High quality airborne gravity collection with a 2-axis, stabilized platform gravity instrument, such as with a Micro-g LaCoste Turnkey Airborne Gravity System (TAGS), is dependent on the aircraft's ability to maintain "straight and level" flight. However, during flight there is constant rotation about the aircraft's center of gravity. Standard practice is to install the scientific equipment close to the aircraft's estimated center of gravity to minimize the relative rotations with aircraft motion. However, there remain small offsets between the instruments. These distance offsets, the lever arm, are used to define the rigid-body, spatial relationship between the IMU, GPS antenna, and airborne gravimeter within the aircraft body frame. The Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D) project, which is collecting airborne gravity data across the U.S., uses a commercial software package for coupled IMU-GNSS aircraft positioning. This software incorporates a lever arm correction to calculate a precise position for the airborne gravimeter. The positioning software must do a coordinate transformation to relate each epoch of the coupled GNSS-IMU derived position to the position of the gravimeter within the constantly-rotating aircraft. This transformation requires three inputs: accurate IMU-measured aircraft rotations, GNSS positions, and lever arm distances between instruments. Previous studies show that correcting for the lever arm distances improves gravity results, but no sensitivity tests have been done to investigate how error in the lever arm distances affects the final airborne gravity products. This research investigates the effects of lever arm measurement error on airborne gravity data. GRAV-D lever arms are nominally measured to the cm-level using surveying equipment. "Truth" data sets will be created by processing GRAV-D flight lines with both relatively small lever arms and large lever arms. Then negative and positive incremental

  7. Gait Dynamics Sensing Using IMU Sensor Array System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavomir Kardos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a progressive approach in gait sensing. It is incorporated by IMU (Inertia Measurement Unit complex sensors whose field of acting is mainly the motion sensing in medicine, automotive and other industry, self-balancing systems, etc. They allow acquiring the position and orientation of an object in 3D space. Using several IMU units the sensing array for gait dynamics was made. Based on human gait analysis the 7-sensor array was designed to build a gait motion dynamics sensing system with the possibility of graphical interpretation of data from the sensing modules in real-time graphical application interface under the LabVIEW platform. The results of analyses can serve as the information for medical diagnostic purposes. The main control part of the system is microcontroller, whose function is to control the data collection and flow, provide the communication and power management.

  8. A study of the positioning errors of head and neck in the process of intensity modulation radiated therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chengguang; Lin Liuwen; Liu Bingti; Liu Xiaomao; Li Guowen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the positioning errors of head and neck during intensity-modulated radiation therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: Nineteen patients with middle-advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (T 2-4 N 1-3 M 0 ), treated by intensity-modulated radiation therapy, underwent repeated CT during their 6-week treatment course. All the patients were immobilized by head-neck-shoulder thermoplastic mask. We evaluated their anatomic landmark coordinated in a total of 66 repeated CT data sets and respective x, y, z shifts relative to their position in the planning CT. Results: The positioning error of the neck was 2.44 mm ± 2.24 mm, 2.05 mm ± 1.42 mm, 1.83 mm ± 1.53 mm in x, y, z respectively. And that of the head was 1.05 mm ± 0.87 mm, 1.23 mm ± 1.05 mm, 1.17 mm ± 1.55 mm respectively. The positioning error between neck and head have respectively statistical difference (t=-6.58, -5.28, -3.42, P=0.000, 0.000, 0.001). The system error of the neck was 2.33, 1.67 and 1.56 higher than that of the head, respectively in left-right, vertical and head-foot directions; and the random error of neck was 2.57, 1.34 and 0.99 higher than that of head respectively. Conclusions: In the process of the intensity-modulated radiation therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, with the immobilization by head-neck-shoulder thermoplastic mask, the positioning error of neck is higher than that of head. (authors)

  9. Effect of patient setup errors on simultaneously integrated boost head and neck IMRT treatment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Keall, Paul J.; Wu Qiuwen; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Schmidt-Ullrich, Rupert K.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine dose delivery errors that could result from random and systematic setup errors for head-and-neck patients treated using the simultaneous integrated boost (SIB)-intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients who participated in an intramural Phase I/II parotid-sparing IMRT dose-escalation protocol using the SIB treatment technique had their dose distributions reevaluated to assess the impact of random and systematic setup errors. The dosimetric effect of random setup error was simulated by convolving the two-dimensional fluence distribution of each beam with the random setup error probability density distribution. Random setup errors of σ = 1, 3, and 5 mm were simulated. Systematic setup errors were simulated by randomly shifting the patient isocenter along each of the three Cartesian axes, with each shift selected from a normal distribution. Systematic setup error distributions with Σ = 1.5 and 3.0 mm along each axis were simulated. Combined systematic and random setup errors were simulated for σ = Σ = 1.5 and 3.0 mm along each axis. For each dose calculation, the gross tumor volume (GTV) received by 98% of the volume (D 98 ), clinical target volume (CTV) D 90 , nodes D 90 , cord D 2 , and parotid D 50 and parotid mean dose were evaluated with respect to the plan used for treatment for the structure dose and for an effective planning target volume (PTV) with a 3-mm margin. Results: Simultaneous integrated boost-IMRT head-and-neck treatment plans were found to be less sensitive to random setup errors than to systematic setup errors. For random-only errors, errors exceeded 3% only when the random setup error σ exceeded 3 mm. Simulated systematic setup errors with Σ = 1.5 mm resulted in approximately 10% of plan having more than a 3% dose error, whereas a Σ = 3.0 mm resulted in half of the plans having more than a 3% dose error and 28% with a 5% dose error

  10. DNA Polymerases ImuC and DinB Are Involved in DNA Alkylation Damage Tolerance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatsenko, Tatjana; Sidorenko, Julia; Saumaa, Signe; Kivisaar, Maia

    2017-01-01

    Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), facilitated by low-fidelity polymerases, is an important DNA damage tolerance mechanism. Here, we investigated the role and biological function of TLS polymerase ImuC (former DnaE2), generally present in bacteria lacking DNA polymerase V, and TLS polymerase DinB in response to DNA alkylation damage in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and P. putida. We found that TLS DNA polymerases ImuC and DinB ensured a protective role against N- and O-methylation induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in both P. aeruginosa and P. putida. DinB also appeared to be important for the survival of P. aeruginosa and rapidly growing P. putida cells in the presence of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). The role of ImuC in protection against MMS-induced damage was uncovered under DinB-deficient conditions. Apart from this, both ImuC and DinB were critical for the survival of bacteria with impaired base excision repair (BER) functions upon alkylation damage, lacking DNA glycosylases AlkA and/or Tag. Here, the increased sensitivity of imuCdinB double deficient strains in comparison to single mutants suggested that the specificity of alkylated DNA lesion bypass of DinB and ImuC might also be different. Moreover, our results demonstrated that mutagenesis induced by MMS in pseudomonads was largely ImuC-dependent. Unexpectedly, we discovered that the growth temperature of bacteria affected the efficiency of DinB and ImuC in ensuring cell survival upon alkylation damage. Taken together, the results of our study disclosed the involvement of ImuC in DNA alkylation damage tolerance, especially at low temperatures, and its possible contribution to the adaptation of pseudomonads upon DNA alkylation damage via increased mutagenesis.

  11. Suppression of the Nonlinear Zeeman Effect and Heading Error in Earth-Field-Range Alkali-Vapor Magnetometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Guzhi; Wickenbrock, Arne; Rochester, Simon; Zhang, Weiping; Budker, Dmitry

    2018-01-19

    The nonlinear Zeeman effect can induce splitting and asymmetries of magnetic-resonance lines in the geophysical magnetic-field range. This is a major source of "heading error" for scalar atomic magnetometers. We demonstrate a method to suppress the nonlinear Zeeman effect and heading error based on spin locking. In an all-optical synchronously pumped magnetometer with separate pump and probe beams, we apply a radio-frequency field which is in phase with the precessing magnetization. This results in the collapse of the multicomponent asymmetric magnetic-resonance line with ∼100  Hz width in the Earth-field range into a single peak with a width of 22 Hz, whose position is largely independent of the orientation of the sensor within a range of orientation angles. The technique is expected to be broadly applicable in practical magnetometry, potentially boosting the sensitivity and accuracy of Earth-surveying magnetometers by increasing the magnetic-resonance amplitude, decreasing its width, and removing the important and limiting heading-error systematic.

  12. Suppression of the Nonlinear Zeeman Effect and Heading Error in Earth-Field-Range Alkali-Vapor Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Guzhi; Wickenbrock, Arne; Rochester, Simon; Zhang, Weiping; Budker, Dmitry

    2018-01-01

    The nonlinear Zeeman effect can induce splitting and asymmetries of magnetic-resonance lines in the geophysical magnetic-field range. This is a major source of "heading error" for scalar atomic magnetometers. We demonstrate a method to suppress the nonlinear Zeeman effect and heading error based on spin locking. In an all-optical synchronously pumped magnetometer with separate pump and probe beams, we apply a radio-frequency field which is in phase with the precessing magnetization. This results in the collapse of the multicomponent asymmetric magnetic-resonance line with ˜100 Hz width in the Earth-field range into a single peak with a width of 22 Hz, whose position is largely independent of the orientation of the sensor within a range of orientation angles. The technique is expected to be broadly applicable in practical magnetometry, potentially boosting the sensitivity and accuracy of Earth-surveying magnetometers by increasing the magnetic-resonance amplitude, decreasing its width, and removing the important and limiting heading-error systematic.

  13. A Robust Vehicle Localization Approach Based on GNSS/IMU/DMI/LiDAR Sensor Fusion for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Meng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Precise and robust localization in a large-scale outdoor environment is essential for an autonomous vehicle. In order to improve the performance of the fusion of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System/IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit/DMI (Distance-Measuring Instruments, a multi-constraint fault detection approach is proposed to smooth the vehicle locations in spite of GNSS jumps. Furthermore, the lateral localization error is compensated by the point cloud-based lateral localization method proposed in this paper. Experiment results have verified the algorithms proposed in this paper, which shows that the algorithms proposed in this paper are capable of providing precise and robust vehicle localization.

  14. A Robust Vehicle Localization Approach Based on GNSS/IMU/DMI/LiDAR Sensor Fusion for Autonomous Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiaoli; Wang, Heng; Liu, Bingbing

    2017-09-18

    Precise and robust localization in a large-scale outdoor environment is essential for an autonomous vehicle. In order to improve the performance of the fusion of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System)/IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit)/DMI (Distance-Measuring Instruments), a multi-constraint fault detection approach is proposed to smooth the vehicle locations in spite of GNSS jumps. Furthermore, the lateral localization error is compensated by the point cloud-based lateral localization method proposed in this paper. Experiment results have verified the algorithms proposed in this paper, which shows that the algorithms proposed in this paper are capable of providing precise and robust vehicle localization.

  15. Correcting electrode modelling errors in EIT on realistic 3D head models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehl, Markus; Avery, James; Malone, Emma; Holder, David; Betcke, Timo

    2015-12-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a promising medical imaging technique which could aid differentiation of haemorrhagic from ischaemic stroke in an ambulance. One challenge in EIT is the ill-posed nature of the image reconstruction, i.e., that small measurement or modelling errors can result in large image artefacts. It is therefore important that reconstruction algorithms are improved with regard to stability to modelling errors. We identify that wrongly modelled electrode positions constitute one of the biggest sources of image artefacts in head EIT. Therefore, the use of the Fréchet derivative on the electrode boundaries in a realistic three-dimensional head model is investigated, in order to reconstruct electrode movements simultaneously to conductivity changes. We show a fast implementation and analyse the performance of electrode position reconstructions in time-difference and absolute imaging for simulated and experimental voltages. Reconstructing the electrode positions and conductivities simultaneously increased the image quality significantly in the presence of electrode movement.

  16. Real-Time Large Scale 3d Reconstruction by Fusing Kinect and Imu Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huai, J.; Zhang, Y.; Yilmaz, A.

    2015-08-01

    Kinect-style RGB-D cameras have been used to build large scale dense 3D maps for indoor environments. These maps can serve many purposes such as robot navigation, and augmented reality. However, to generate dense 3D maps of large scale environments is still very challenging. In this paper, we present a mapping system for 3D reconstruction that fuses measurements from a Kinect and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) to estimate motion. Our major achievements include: (i) Large scale consistent 3D reconstruction is realized by volume shifting and loop closure; (ii) The coarse-to-fine iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm, the SIFT odometry, and IMU odometry are combined to robustly and precisely estimate pose. In particular, ICP runs routinely to track the Kinect motion. If ICP fails in planar areas, the SIFT odometry provides incremental motion estimate. If both ICP and the SIFT odometry fail, e.g., upon abrupt motion or inadequate features, the incremental motion is estimated by the IMU. Additionally, the IMU also observes the roll and pitch angles which can reduce long-term drift of the sensor assembly. In experiments on a consumer laptop, our system estimates motion at 8Hz on average while integrating color images to the local map and saving volumes of meshes concurrently. Moreover, it is immune to tracking failures, and has smaller drift than the state-of-the-art systems in large scale reconstruction.

  17. Omnidirectional vision applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) attitude and heading estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Mondragon, Ivan F.; Campoy, Pascual; Martinez, Carol; Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an aircraft attitude and heading estimator using catadioptric images as a principal sensor for UAV or as a redundant system for IMU (Inertial Measure Unit) and gyro sensors. First, we explain how the unified theory for central catadioptric cameras is used for attitude and heading estimation, explaining how the skyline is projected on the catadioptric image and how it is segmented and used to calculate the UAV's attitude. Then, we use appearance images to obtain a visual co...

  18. A Foot-Mounted Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) Positioning Algorithm Based on Magnetic Constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Li, Xin; Zou, Jiaheng

    2018-03-01

    With the development of related applications, indoor positioning techniques have been more and more widely developed. Based on Wi-Fi, Bluetooth low energy (BLE) and geomagnetism, indoor positioning techniques often rely on the physical location of fingerprint information. The focus and difficulty of establishing the fingerprint database are in obtaining a relatively accurate physical location with as little given information as possible. This paper presents a foot-mounted inertial measurement unit (IMU) positioning algorithm under the loop closure constraint based on magnetic information. It can provide relatively reliable position information without maps and geomagnetic information and provides a relatively accurate coordinate for the collection of a fingerprint database. In the experiment, the features extracted by the multi-level Fourier transform method proposed in this paper are validated and the validity of loop closure matching is tested with a RANSAC-based method. Moreover, the loop closure detection results show that the cumulative error of the trajectory processed by the graph optimization algorithm is significantly suppressed, presenting a good accuracy. The average error of the trajectory under loop closure constraint is controlled below 2.15 m.

  19. A Foot-Mounted Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU Positioning Algorithm Based on Magnetic Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of related applications, indoor positioning techniques have been more and more widely developed. Based on Wi-Fi, Bluetooth low energy (BLE and geomagnetism, indoor positioning techniques often rely on the physical location of fingerprint information. The focus and difficulty of establishing the fingerprint database are in obtaining a relatively accurate physical location with as little given information as possible. This paper presents a foot-mounted inertial measurement unit (IMU positioning algorithm under the loop closure constraint based on magnetic information. It can provide relatively reliable position information without maps and geomagnetic information and provides a relatively accurate coordinate for the collection of a fingerprint database. In the experiment, the features extracted by the multi-level Fourier transform method proposed in this paper are validated and the validity of loop closure matching is tested with a RANSAC-based method. Moreover, the loop closure detection results show that the cumulative error of the trajectory processed by the graph optimization algorithm is significantly suppressed, presenting a good accuracy. The average error of the trajectory under loop closure constraint is controlled below 2.15 m.

  20. Dipole estimation errors due to not incorporating anisotropic conductivities in realistic head models for EEG source analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallez, Hans; Staelens, Steven; Lemahieu, Ignace

    2009-10-01

    EEG source analysis is a valuable tool for brain functionality research and for diagnosing neurological disorders, such as epilepsy. It requires a geometrical representation of the human head or a head model, which is often modeled as an isotropic conductor. However, it is known that some brain tissues, such as the skull or white matter, have an anisotropic conductivity. Many studies reported that the anisotropic conductivities have an influence on the calculated electrode potentials. However, few studies have assessed the influence of anisotropic conductivities on the dipole estimations. In this study, we want to determine the dipole estimation errors due to not taking into account the anisotropic conductivities of the skull and/or brain tissues. Therefore, head models are constructed with the same geometry, but with an anisotropically conducting skull and/or brain tissue compartment. These head models are used in simulation studies where the dipole location and orientation error is calculated due to neglecting anisotropic conductivities of the skull and brain tissue. Results show that not taking into account the anisotropic conductivities of the skull yields a dipole location error between 2 and 25 mm, with an average of 10 mm. When the anisotropic conductivities of the brain tissues are neglected, the dipole location error ranges between 0 and 5 mm. In this case, the average dipole location error was 2.3 mm. In all simulations, the dipole orientation error was smaller than 10°. We can conclude that the anisotropic conductivities of the skull have to be incorporated to improve the accuracy of EEG source analysis. The results of the simulation, as presented here, also suggest that incorporation of the anisotropic conductivities of brain tissues is not necessary. However, more studies are needed to confirm these suggestions.

  1. Dipole estimation errors due to not incorporating anisotropic conductivities in realistic head models for EEG source analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallez, Hans; Staelens, Steven; Lemahieu, Ignace

    2009-01-01

    EEG source analysis is a valuable tool for brain functionality research and for diagnosing neurological disorders, such as epilepsy. It requires a geometrical representation of the human head or a head model, which is often modeled as an isotropic conductor. However, it is known that some brain tissues, such as the skull or white matter, have an anisotropic conductivity. Many studies reported that the anisotropic conductivities have an influence on the calculated electrode potentials. However, few studies have assessed the influence of anisotropic conductivities on the dipole estimations. In this study, we want to determine the dipole estimation errors due to not taking into account the anisotropic conductivities of the skull and/or brain tissues. Therefore, head models are constructed with the same geometry, but with an anisotropically conducting skull and/or brain tissue compartment. These head models are used in simulation studies where the dipole location and orientation error is calculated due to neglecting anisotropic conductivities of the skull and brain tissue. Results show that not taking into account the anisotropic conductivities of the skull yields a dipole location error between 2 and 25 mm, with an average of 10 mm. When the anisotropic conductivities of the brain tissues are neglected, the dipole location error ranges between 0 and 5 mm. In this case, the average dipole location error was 2.3 mm. In all simulations, the dipole orientation error was smaller than 10 deg. We can conclude that the anisotropic conductivities of the skull have to be incorporated to improve the accuracy of EEG source analysis. The results of the simulation, as presented here, also suggest that incorporation of the anisotropic conductivities of brain tissues is not necessary. However, more studies are needed to confirm these suggestions.

  2. IMU-Based Joint Angle Measurement for Gait Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Seel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is concerned with joint angle calculation based on inertial measurement data in the context of human motion analysis. Unlike most robotic devices, the human body lacks even surfaces and right angles. Therefore, we focus on methods that avoid assuming certain orientations in which the sensors are mounted with respect to the body segments. After a review of available methods that may cope with this challenge, we present a set of new methods for: (1 joint axis and position identification; and (2 flexion/extension joint angle measurement. In particular, we propose methods that use only gyroscopes and accelerometers and, therefore, do not rely on a homogeneous magnetic field. We provide results from gait trials of a transfemoral amputee in which we compare the inertial measurement unit (IMU-based methods to an optical 3D motion capture system. Unlike most authors, we place the optical markers on anatomical landmarks instead of attaching them to the IMUs. Root mean square errors of the knee flexion/extension angles are found to be less than 1° on the prosthesis and about 3° on the human leg. For the plantar/dorsiflexion of the ankle, both deviations are about 1°.

  3. Detection of treatment setup errors between two CT scans for patients with head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezzell, Leah C.; Hansen, Eric K.; Quivey, Jeanne M.; Xia Ping

    2007-01-01

    Accuracy of treatment setup for head and neck patients undergoing intensity-modulated radiation therapy is of paramount importance. The conventional method using orthogonal portal images can only detect translational setup errors while the most frequent setup errors for head and neck patients could be rotational errors. With the rapid development of image-guided radiotherapy, three-dimensional images are readily acquired and can be used to detect both translational and rotational setup errors. The purpose of this study is to determine the significance of rotational variations between two planning CT scans acquired for each of eight head and neck patients, who experienced substantial weight loss or tumor shrinkage. To this end, using a rigid body assumption, we developed an in-house computer program that utilizes matrix transformations to align point bony landmarks with an incremental best-fit routine. The program returns the quantified translational and rotational shifts needed to align the scans of each patient. The program was tested using a phantom for a set of known translational and rotational shifts. For comparison, a commercial treatment planning system was used to register the two CT scans and estimate the translational errors for these patients. For the eight patients, we found that the average magnitudes and standard deviations of the rotational shifts about the transverse, anterior-posterior, and longitudinal axes were 1.7±2.3 deg., 0.8±0.7 deg., and 1.8±1.1 deg., respectively. The average magnitudes and standard deviations of the translational shifts were 2.5±2.6 mm, 2.9±2.8 mm, 2.7±1.7 mm while the differences detected between our program and the CT-CT fusion method were 1.8±1.3 mm, 3.3±5.4 mm, and 3.0±3.4 mm in the left-right, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions, respectively. A trend of larger rotational errors resulting in larger translational differences between the two methods was observed. In conclusion, conventional

  4. Rigorous Performance Evaluation of Smartphone GNSS/IMU Sensors for ITS Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilis Gikas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth in smartphone technologies and improvement in their navigation sensors, an increasing amount of location information is now available, opening the road to the provision of new Intelligent Transportation System (ITS services. Current smartphone devices embody miniaturized Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU and other sensors capable of providing user position, velocity and attitude. However, it is hard to characterize their actual positioning and navigation performance capabilities due to the disparate sensor and software technologies adopted among manufacturers and the high influence of environmental conditions, and therefore, a unified certification process is missing. This paper presents the analysis results obtained from the assessment of two modern smartphones regarding their positioning accuracy (i.e., precision and trueness capabilities (i.e., potential and limitations based on a practical but rigorous methodological approach. Our investigation relies on the results of several vehicle tracking (i.e., cruising and maneuvering tests realized through comparing smartphone obtained trajectories and kinematic parameters to those derived using a high-end GNSS/IMU system and advanced filtering techniques. Performance testing is undertaken for the HTC One S (Android and iPhone 5s (iOS. Our findings indicate that the deviation of the smartphone locations from ground truth (trueness deteriorates by a factor of two in obscured environments compared to those derived in open sky conditions. Moreover, it appears that iPhone 5s produces relatively smaller and less dispersed error values compared to those computed for HTC One S. Also, the navigation solution of the HTC One S appears to adapt faster to changes in environmental conditions, suggesting a somewhat different data filtering approach for the iPhone 5s. Testing the accuracy of the accelerometer and gyroscope sensors for a number of

  5. Impact of MLC leaf position errors on simple and complex IMRT plans for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, G; Ludlum, E; Xia, P

    2008-01-01

    The dosimetric impact of random and systematic multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaf position errors is relatively unknown for head and neck intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) patients. In this report we studied 17 head and neck IMRT patients, including 12 treated with simple plans ( 100 segments). Random errors (-2 to +2 mm) and systematic errors (±0.5 mm and ±1 mm) in MLC leaf positions were introduced into the clinical plans and the resultant dose distributions were analyzed based on defined endpoint doses. The dosimetric effect was insignificant for random MLC leaf position errors up to 2 mm for both simple and complex plans. However, for systematic MLC leaf position errors, we found significant dosimetric differences between the simple and complex IMRT plans. For 1 mm systematic error, the average changes in D 95% were 4% in simple plans versus 8% in complex plans. The average changes in D 0.1cc of the spinal cord and brain stem were 4% in simple plans versus 12% in complex plans. The average changes in parotid glands were 9% in simple plans versus 13% for the complex plans. Overall, simple IMRT plans are less sensitive to leaf position errors than complex IMRT plans

  6. Correlation of Head Impacts to Change in Balance Error Scoring System Scores in Division I Men's Lacrosse Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Theresa L; Diakogeorgiou, Eleni; Marrie, Kaitlyn

    Investigation into the effect of cumulative subconcussive head impacts has yielded various results in the literature, with many supporting a link to neurological deficits. Little research has been conducted on men's lacrosse and associated balance deficits from head impacts. (1) Athletes will commit more errors on the postseason Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) test. (2) There will be a positive correlation to change in BESS scores and head impact exposure data. Prospective longitudinal study. Level 3. Thirty-four Division I men's lacrosse players (age, 19.59 ± 1.42 years) wore helmets instrumented with a sensor to collect head impact exposure data over the course of a competitive season. Players completed a BESS test at the start and end of the competitive season. The number of errors from pre- to postseason increased during the double-leg stance on foam ( P impacts sustained over the course of 1 lacrosse season, as measured by average linear acceleration, head injury criteria, and Gadd Severity Index scores. If there is microtrauma to the vestibular system due to repetitive subconcussive impacts, only an assessment that highly stresses the vestibular system may be able to detect these changes. Cumulative subconcussive impacts may result in neurocognitive dysfunction, including balance deficits, which are associated with an increased risk for injury. The development of a strategy to reduce total number of head impacts may curb the associated sequelae. Incorporation of a modified BESS test, firm surface only, may not be recommended as it may not detect changes due to repetitive impacts over the course of a competitive season.

  7. Electronic portal image assisted reduction of systematic set-up errors in head and neck irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, Hans C.J. de; Soernsen de Koste, John R. van; Creutzberg, Carien L.; Visser, Andries G.; Levendag, Peter C.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify systematic and random patient set-up errors in head and neck irradiation and to investigate the impact of an off-line correction protocol on the systematic errors. Material and methods: Electronic portal images were obtained for 31 patients treated for primary supra-glottic larynx carcinoma who were immobilised using a polyvinyl chloride cast. The observed patient set-up errors were input to the shrinking action level (SAL) off-line decision protocol and appropriate set-up corrections were applied. To assess the impact of the protocol, the positioning accuracy without application of set-up corrections was reconstructed. Results: The set-up errors obtained without set-up corrections (1 standard deviation (SD)=1.5-2 mm for random and systematic errors) were comparable to those reported in other studies on similar fixation devices. On an average, six fractions per patient were imaged and the set-up of half the patients was changed due to the decision protocol. Most changes were detected during weekly check measurements, not during the first days of treatment. The application of the SAL protocol reduced the width of the distribution of systematic errors to 1 mm (1 SD), as expected from simulations. A retrospective analysis showed that this accuracy should be attainable with only two measurements per patient using a different off-line correction protocol, which does not apply action levels. Conclusions: Off-line verification protocols can be particularly effective in head and neck patients due to the smallness of the random set-up errors. The excellent set-up reproducibility that can be achieved with such protocols enables accurate dose delivery in conformal treatments

  8. Error Modelling for Multi-Sensor Measurements in Infrastructure-Free Indoor Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ruotsalainen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The long-term objective of our research is to develop a method for infrastructure-free simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM and context recognition for tactical situational awareness. Localization will be realized by propagating motion measurements obtained using a monocular camera, a foot-mounted Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU, sonar, and a barometer. Due to the size and weight requirements set by tactical applications, Micro-Electro-Mechanical (MEMS sensors will be used. However, MEMS sensors suffer from biases and drift errors that may substantially decrease the position accuracy. Therefore, sophisticated error modelling and implementation of integration algorithms are key for providing a viable result. Algorithms used for multi-sensor fusion have traditionally been different versions of Kalman filters. However, Kalman filters are based on the assumptions that the state propagation and measurement models are linear with additive Gaussian noise. Neither of the assumptions is correct for tactical applications, especially for dismounted soldiers, or rescue personnel. Therefore, error modelling and implementation of advanced fusion algorithms are essential for providing a viable result. Our approach is to use particle filtering (PF, which is a sophisticated option for integrating measurements emerging from pedestrian motion having non-Gaussian error characteristics. This paper discusses the statistical modelling of the measurement errors from inertial sensors and vision based heading and translation measurements to include the correct error probability density functions (pdf in the particle filter implementation. Then, model fitting is used to verify the pdfs of the measurement errors. Based on the deduced error models of the measurements, particle filtering method is developed to fuse all this information, where the weights of each particle are computed based on the specific models derived. The performance of the developed method is

  9. Error analysis for determination of accuracy of an ultrasound navigation system for head and neck surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, J; Krysztoforski, K; Kroll, T; Helbig, S; Helbig, M

    2009-01-01

    The use of conventional CT- or MRI-based navigation systems for head and neck surgery is unsatisfactory due to tissue shift. Moreover, changes occurring during surgical procedures cannot be visualized. To overcome these drawbacks, we developed a novel ultrasound-guided navigation system for head and neck surgery. A comprehensive error analysis was undertaken to determine the accuracy of this new system. The evaluation of the system accuracy was essentially based on the method of error definition for well-established fiducial marker registration methods (point-pair matching) as used in, for example, CT- or MRI-based navigation. This method was modified in accordance with the specific requirements of ultrasound-guided navigation. The Fiducial Localization Error (FLE), Fiducial Registration Error (FRE) and Target Registration Error (TRE) were determined. In our navigation system, the real error (the TRE actually measured) did not exceed a volume of 1.58 mm(3) with a probability of 0.9. A mean value of 0.8 mm (standard deviation: 0.25 mm) was found for the FRE. The quality of the coordinate tracking system (Polaris localizer) could be defined with an FLE of 0.4 +/- 0.11 mm (mean +/- standard deviation). The quality of the coordinates of the crosshairs of the phantom was determined with a deviation of 0.5 mm (standard deviation: 0.07 mm). The results demonstrate that our newly developed ultrasound-guided navigation system shows only very small system deviations and therefore provides very accurate data for practical applications.

  10. MONITORING HIGH-FREQUENCY OCEAN SIGNALS USING LOW-COST GNSS/IMU BUOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-L. Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In oceans there are different ocean signals covering the multi-frequencies including tsunami, meteotsunami, storm surge, as sea level change, and currents. These signals have the direct and significant impact on the economy and life of human-beings. Therefore, measuring ocean signals accurately becomes more and more important and necessary. Nowadays, there are many techniques and methods commonly used for monitoring oceans, but each has its limitation. For example, tide gauges only measure sea level relative to benchmarks and are disturbed unevenly, and satellite altimeter measurements are not continuous and inaccurate near coastal oceans. In addition, high-frequency ocean signals such as tsunami and meteotsunami cannot be sufficiently detected by 6-minutes tide gauge measurements or 10-day sampled altimetry data. Moreover, traditional accelerometer buoy is heavy, expensive and the low-frequency noise caused by the instrument is unavoidable. In this study, a small, low-cost and self-assembly autonomous Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU that independently collects continuous acceleration and angular velocity data is mounted on a GNSS buoy to provide the positions and tilts of the moving buoy. The main idea is to integrate the Differential GNSS (DGNSS or Precise Point Positioning (PPP solutions with IMU data, and then evaluate the performance by comparing with in situ tide gauges. The validation experiments conducted in the NCKU Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory showed that GNSS and IMU both can detect the simulated regular wave frequency and height, and the field experiments in the Anping Harbor, Tainan, Taiwan showed that the low-cost GNSS buoy has an excellent ability to observe significant wave heights in amplitude and frequency.

  11. Head repositioning errors in normal student volunteers: a possible tool to assess the neck's neuromuscular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudavalli M Ram

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A challenge for practitioners using spinal manipulation is identifying when an intervention is required. It has been recognized that joint pain can interfere with the ability to position body parts accurately and that the recent history of muscle contraction can play a part in that interference. In this study, we tested whether repositioning errors could be induced in a normal population by contraction or shortening of the neck muscles. Methods In the experimental protocol, volunteers free of neck problems first found a comfortable neutral head posture with eyes closed. They deconditioned their cervical muscles by moving their heads 5 times in either flexion/extension or lateral flexion and then attempted to return to the same starting position. Two conditioning sequences were interspersed within the task: hold the head in an extended or laterally flexed position for 10 seconds; or hold a 70% maximum voluntary contraction in the same position for 10 seconds. A computer-interfaced electrogoniometer was used to measure head position while a force transducer coupled to an auditory alarm signaled the force of isometric contraction. The difference between the initial and final head orientation was calculated in 3 orthogonal planes. Analysis of variance (1-way ANOVA with a blocking factor (participants was used to detect differences in proprioceptive error among the conditioning sequences while controlling for variation between participants. Results Forty-eight chiropractic students participated: 36 males and 12 females, aged 28.2 ± 4.8 yrs. During the neck extension test, actively contracting the posterior neck muscles evoked an undershoot of the target position by 2.1° (p Conclusion The results suggest that the recent history of cervical paraspinal muscle contraction can influence head repositioning in flexion/extension. To our knowledge this is the first time that muscle mechanical history has been shown to influence

  12. Sensing Passive Eye Response to Impact Induced Head Acceleration Using MEMS IMUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yuan; Bottenfield, Brent; Bolding, Mark; Liu, Lei; Adams, Mark L

    2018-02-01

    The eye may act as a surrogate for the brain in response to head acceleration during an impact. Passive eye movements in a dynamic system are sensed by microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) inertial measurement units (IMU) in this paper. The technique is validated using a three-dimensional printed scaled human skull model and on human volunteers by performing drop-and-impact experiments with ribbon-style flexible printed circuit board IMUs inserted in the eyes and reference IMUs on the heads. Data are captured by a microcontroller unit and processed using data fusion. Displacements are thus estimated and match the measured parameters. Relative accelerations and displacements of the eye to the head are computed indicating the influence of the concussion causing impacts.

  13. Coherent triplet excitation suppresses the heading error of the avian compass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsoprinakis, G E; Dellis, A T; Kominis, I K, E-mail: ikominis@iesl.forth.g [Department of Physics, University of Crete, Heraklion 71103 (Greece); Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology, Heraklion 71110 (Greece)

    2010-08-15

    Radical-ion pair reactions are currently understood to underlie the biochemical magnetic compass of migratory birds. It was recently shown that radical-ion pair reactions form a rich playground for the application of quantum-information-science concepts and effects. We will show here that the intricate interplay between the quantum Zeno effect and the coherent excitation of radical-ion pairs leads to an exquisite angular sensitivity of the reaction yields. This results in a significant and previously unanticipated suppression of the avian compass heading error, opening the way to quantum engineering precision biological sensors.

  14. Tightly-Coupled Integration of Multi-GNSS Single-Frequency RTK and MEMS-IMU for Enhanced Positioning Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tuan; Zhang, Hongping; Niu, Xiaoji; Gao, Zhouzheng

    2017-10-27

    Dual-frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) Real-time Kinematics (RTK) has been proven in the past few years to be a reliable and efficient technique to obtain high accuracy positioning. However, there are still challenges for GPS single-frequency RTK, such as low reliability and ambiguity resolution (AR) success rate, especially in kinematic environments. Recently, multi-Global Navigation Satellite System (multi-GNSS) has been applied to enhance the RTK performance in terms of availability and reliability of AR. In order to further enhance the multi-GNSS single-frequency RTK performance in terms of reliability, continuity and accuracy, a low-cost micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) inertial measurement unit (IMU) is adopted in this contribution. We tightly integrate the single-frequency GPS/BeiDou/GLONASS and MEMS-IMU through the extended Kalman filter (EKF), which directly fuses the ambiguity-fixed double-differenced (DD) carrier phase observables and IMU data. A field vehicular test was carried out to evaluate the impacts of the multi-GNSS and IMU on the AR and positioning performance in different system configurations. Test results indicate that the empirical success rate of single-epoch AR for the tightly-coupled single-frequency multi-GNSS RTK/INS integration is over 99% even at an elevation cut-off angle of 40°, and the corresponding position time series is much more stable in comparison with the GPS solution. Besides, GNSS outage simulations show that continuous positioning with certain accuracy is possible due to the INS bridging capability when GNSS positioning is not available.

  15. IMU and Multiple RGB-D Camera Fusion for Assisting Indoor Stop-and-Go 3D Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky C.K. Chow

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM is an important topic in many engineering fields. Since stop-and-go systems are typically slow and full-kinematic systems may lack accuracy and integrity, this paper presents a novel hybrid “continuous stop-and-go” mobile mapping system called Scannect. A 3D terrestrial LiDAR system is integrated with a MEMS IMU and two Microsoft Kinect sensors to map indoor urban environments. The Kinects’ depth maps were processed using a new point-to-plane ICP that minimizes the reprojection error of the infrared camera and projector pair in an implicit iterative extended Kalman filter (IEKF. A new formulation of the 5-point visual odometry method is tightly coupled in the implicit IEKF without increasing the dimensions of the state space. The Scannect can map and navigate in areas with textureless walls and provides an effective means for mapping large areas with lots of occlusions. Mapping long corridors (total travel distance of 120 m took approximately 30 minutes and achieved a Mean Radial Spherical Error of 17 cm before smoothing or global optimization.

  16. Influence of Head Motion on the Accuracy of 3D Reconstruction with Cone-Beam CT: Landmark Identification Errors in Maxillofacial Surface Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Min Lee

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of head motion on the accuracy of three-dimensional (3D reconstruction with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT scan.Fifteen dry skulls were incorporated into a motion controller which simulated four types of head motion during CBCT scan: 2 horizontal rotations (to the right/to the left and 2 vertical rotations (upward/downward. Each movement was triggered to occur at the start of the scan for 1 second by remote control. Four maxillofacial surface models with head motion and one control surface model without motion were obtained for each skull. Nine landmarks were identified on the five maxillofacial surface models for each skull, and landmark identification errors were compared between the control model and each of the models with head motion.Rendered surface models with head motion were similar to the control model in appearance; however, the landmark identification errors showed larger values in models with head motion than in the control. In particular, the Porion in the horizontal rotation models presented statistically significant differences (P < .05. Statistically significant difference in the errors between the right and left side landmark was present in the left side rotation which was opposite direction to the scanner rotation (P < .05.Patient movement during CBCT scan might cause landmark identification errors on the 3D surface model in relation to the direction of the scanner rotation. Clinicians should take this into consideration to prevent patient movement during CBCT scan, particularly horizontal movement.

  17. GEOREFERENCING IN GNSS-CHALLENGED ENVIRONMENT: INTEGRATING UWB AND IMU TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Toth

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring geospatial data in GNSS compromised environments remains a problem in mapping and positioning in general. Urban canyons, heavily vegetated areas, indoor environments represent different levels of GNSS signal availability from weak to no signal reception. Even outdoors, with multiple GNSS systems, with an ever-increasing number of satellites, there are many situations with limited or no access to GNSS signals. Independent navigation sensors, such as IMU can provide high-data rate information but their initial accuracy degrades quickly, as the measurement data drift over time unless positioning fixes are provided from another source. At The Ohio State University’s Satellite Positioning and Inertial Navigation (SPIN Laboratory, as one feasible solution, Ultra- Wideband (UWB radio units are used to aid positioning and navigating in GNSS compromised environments, including indoor and outdoor scenarios. Here we report about experiences obtained with georeferencing a pushcart based sensor system under canopied areas. The positioning system is based on UWB and IMU sensor integration, and provides sensor platform orientation for an electromagnetic inference (EMI sensor. Performance evaluation results are provided for various test scenarios, confirming acceptable results for applications where high accuracy is not required.

  18. Performance analysis of an IMU-augmented GNSS tracking system on board the MAIUS-1 sounding rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Benjamin; Grillenberger, Andreas; Markgraf, Markus

    2018-05-01

    Satellite navigation receivers are adequate tracking sensors for range safety of both orbital launch vehicles and suborbital sounding rockets. Due to high accuracy and its low system complexity, satellite navigation is seen as well-suited supplement or replacement of conventional tracking systems like radar. Having the well-known shortcomings of satellite navigation like deliberate or unintentional interferences in mind, it is proposed to augment the satellite navigation receiver by an inertial measurement unit (IMU) to enhance continuity and availability of localization. The augmented receiver is thus enabled to output at least an inertial position solution in case of signal outages. In a previous study, it was shown by means of simulation using the example of Ariane 5 that the performance of a low-grade microelectromechanical IMU is sufficient to bridge expected outages of some ten seconds, and still meeting the range safety requirements in effect. In this publication, these theoretical findings shall be substantiated by real flight data that were recorded on MAIUS-1, a sounding rocket launched from Esrange, Sweden, in early 2017. The analysis reveals that the chosen representative of a microelectromechanical IMU is suitable to bridge outages of up to thirty seconds.

  19. Functional Data Analysis of Spaceflight-Induced Changes in Coordination and Phase in Head Pitch Acceleration During Treadmill Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher; Peters, Brian; Feiveson, Alan; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Astronauts returning from spaceflight experience neurovestibular disturbances during head movements and attempt to mitigate them by limiting head motion. Analyses to date of the head movements made during walking have concentrated on amplitude and variability measures extracted from ensemble averages of individual gait cycles. Phase shifts within each gait cycle can be determined by functional data analysis through the computation of time-warping functions. Large, localized variations in the timing of peaks in head kinematics may indicate changes in coordination. The purpose of this study was to determine timing changes in head pitch acceleration of astronauts during treadmill walking before and after flight. Six astronauts (5M/1F; age = 43.5+/-6.4yr) participated in the study. Subjects walked at 1.8 m/sec (4 mph) on a motorized treadmill while reading optotypes displayed on a computer screen 4 m in front of their eyes. Three-dimensional motion of the subject s head was recorded with an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) device. Data were recorded twice before flight and four times after landing. The head pitch acceleration was calculated by taking the time derivative of the pitch velocity data from the IMU. Data for each session with each subject were time-normalized into gait cycles, then registered to align significant features and create a mean curve. The mean curves of each postflight session for each subject were re-registered based on their preflight mean curve to create time-warping functions. The root mean squares (RMS) of these warping functions were calculated to assess the deviation of head pitch acceleration mean curves in each postflight session from the preflight mean curve. After landing, most crewmembers exhibited localized shifts within their head pitch acceleration regimes, with the greatest deviations in RMS occurring on landing day or 1 day after landing. These results show that the alteration of head pitch coordination due to spaceflight may be

  20. Attitude and gyro bias estimation by the rotation of an inertial measurement unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zheming; Sun, Zhenguo; Zhang, Wenzeng; Chen, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    In navigation applications, the presence of an unknown bias in the measurement of rate gyros is a key performance-limiting factor. In order to estimate the gyro bias and improve the accuracy of attitude measurement, we proposed a new method which uses the rotation of an inertial measurement unit, which is independent from rigid body motion. By actively changing the orientation of the inertial measurement unit (IMU), the proposed method generates sufficient relations between the gyro bias and tilt angle (roll and pitch) error via ridge body dynamics, and the gyro bias, including the bias that causes the heading error, can be estimated and compensated. The rotation inertial measurement unit method makes the gravity vector measured from the IMU continuously change in a body-fixed frame. By theoretically analyzing the mathematic model, the convergence of the attitude and gyro bias to the true values is proven. The proposed method provides a good attitude estimation using only measurements from an IMU, when other sensors such as magnetometers and GPS are unreliable. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated under realistic robotic motions and the results demonstrate an improvement in the accuracy of the attitude estimation. (paper)

  1. A cascaded two-step Kalman filter for estimation of human body segment orientation using MEMS-IMU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihajehzadeh, S; Loh, D; Lee, M; Hoskinson, R; Park, E J

    2014-01-01

    Orientation of human body segments is an important quantity in many biomechanical analyses. To get robust and drift-free 3-D orientation, raw data from miniature body worn MEMS-based inertial measurement units (IMU) should be blended in a Kalman filter. Aiming at less computational cost, this work presents a novel cascaded two-step Kalman filter orientation estimation algorithm. Tilt angles are estimated in the first step of the proposed cascaded Kalman filter. The estimated tilt angles are passed to the second step of the filter for yaw angle calculation. The orientation results are benchmarked against the ones from a highly accurate tactical grade IMU. Experimental results reveal that the proposed algorithm provides robust orientation estimation in both kinematically and magnetically disturbed conditions.

  2. Assessment of three-dimensional set-up errors in conventional head and neck radiotherapy using electronic portal imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Tejpal; Chopra, Supriya; Kadam, Avinash; Agarwal, Jai Prakash; Devi, P Reena; Ghosh-Laskar, Sarbani; Dinshaw, Ketayun Ardeshir

    2007-01-01

    Set-up errors are an inherent part of radiation treatment process. Coverage of target volume is a direct function of set-up margins, which should be optimized to prevent inadvertent irradiation of adjacent normal tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate three-dimensional (3D) set-up errors and propose optimum margins for target volume coverage in head and neck radiotherapy. The dataset consisted of 93 pairs of orthogonal simulator and corresponding portal images on which 558 point positions were measured to calculate translational displacement in 25 patients undergoing conventional head and neck radiotherapy with antero-lateral wedge pair technique. Mean displacements, population systematic (Σ) and random (σ) errors and 3D vector of displacement was calculated. Set-up margins were calculated using published margin recipes. The mean displacement in antero-posterior (AP), medio-lateral (ML) and supero-inferior (SI) direction was -0.25 mm (-6.50 to +7.70 mm), -0.48 mm (-5.50 to +7.80 mm) and +0.45 mm (-7.30 to +7.40 mm) respectively. Ninety three percent of the displacements were within 5 mm in all three cardinal directions. Population systematic (Σ) and random errors (σ) were 0.96, 0.98 and 1.20 mm and 1.94, 1.97 and 2.48 mm in AP, ML and SI direction respectively. The mean 3D vector of displacement was 3.84 cm. Using van Herk's formula, the clinical target volume to planning target volume margins were 3.76, 3.83 and 4.74 mm in AP, ML and SI direction respectively. The present study report compares well with published set-up error data relevant to head and neck radiotherapy practice. The set-up margins were <5 mm in all directions. Caution is warranted against adopting generic margin recipes as different margin generating recipes lead to a different probability of target volume coverage

  3. Cone-Beam CT Assessment of Interfraction and Intrafraction Setup Error of Two Head-and-Neck Cancer Thermoplastic Masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velec, Michael; Waldron, John N.; O'Sullivan, Brian; Bayley, Andrew; Cummings, Bernard; Kim, John J.; Ringash, Jolie; Breen, Stephen L.; Lockwood, Gina A.; Dawson, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively compare setup error in standard thermoplastic masks and skin-sparing masks (SSMs) modified with low neck cutouts for head-and-neck intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) patients. Methods and Materials: Twenty head-and-neck IMRT patients were randomized to be treated in a standard mask (SM) or SSM. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans, acquired daily after both initial setup and any repositioning, were used for initial and residual interfraction evaluation, respectively. Weekly, post-IMRT CBCT scans were acquired for intrafraction setup evaluation. The population random (σ) and systematic (Σ) errors were compared for SMs and SSMs. Skin toxicity was recorded weekly by use of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: We evaluated 762 CBCT scans in 11 patients randomized to the SM and 9 to the SSM. Initial interfraction σ was 1.6 mm or less or 1.1 deg. or less for SM and 2.0 mm or less and 0.8 deg. for SSM. Initial interfraction Σ was 1.0 mm or less or 1.4 deg. or less for SM and 1.1 mm or less or 0.9 deg. or less for SSM. These errors were reduced before IMRT with CBCT image guidance with no significant differences in residual interfraction or intrafraction uncertainties between SMs and SSMs. Intrafraction σ and Σ were less than 1 mm and less than 1 deg. for both masks. Less severe skin reactions were observed in the cutout regions of the SSM compared with non-cutout regions. Conclusions: Interfraction and intrafraction setup error is not significantly different for SSMs and conventional masks in head-and-neck radiation therapy. Mask cutouts should be considered for these patients in an effort to reduce skin toxicity.

  4. A Multi-Sensor Fusion MAV State Estimation from Long-Range Stereo, IMU, GPS and Barometric Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu; Nuske, Stephen; Scherer, Sebastian

    2016-12-22

    State estimation is the most critical capability for MAV (Micro-Aerial Vehicle) localization, autonomous obstacle avoidance, robust flight control and 3D environmental mapping. There are three main challenges for MAV state estimation: (1) it can deal with aggressive 6 DOF (Degree Of Freedom) motion; (2) it should be robust to intermittent GPS (Global Positioning System) (even GPS-denied) situations; (3) it should work well both for low- and high-altitude flight. In this paper, we present a state estimation technique by fusing long-range stereo visual odometry, GPS, barometric and IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) measurements. The new estimation system has two main parts, a stochastic cloning EKF (Extended Kalman Filter) estimator that loosely fuses both absolute state measurements (GPS, barometer) and the relative state measurements (IMU, visual odometry), and is derived and discussed in detail. A long-range stereo visual odometry is proposed for high-altitude MAV odometry calculation by using both multi-view stereo triangulation and a multi-view stereo inverse depth filter. The odometry takes the EKF information (IMU integral) for robust camera pose tracking and image feature matching, and the stereo odometry output serves as the relative measurements for the update of the state estimation. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset and our real flight dataset show the effectiveness of the proposed state estimation system, especially for the aggressive, intermittent GPS and high-altitude MAV flight.

  5. SU-F-T-310: Does a Head-Mounted Ionization Chamber Detect IMRT Errors?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegener, S; Herzog, B; Sauer, O

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The conventional plan verification strategy is delivering a plan to a QA-phantom before the first treatment. Monitoring each fraction of the patient treatment in real-time would improve patient safety. We evaluated how well a new detector, the IQM (iRT Systems, Germany), is capable of detecting errors we induced into IMRT plans of three different treatment regions. Results were compared to an established phantom. Methods: Clinical plans of a brain, prostate and head-and-neck patient were modified in the Pinnacle planning system, such that they resulted in either several percent lower prescribed doses to the target volume or several percent higher doses to relevant organs at risk. Unaltered plans were measured on three days, modified plans once, each with the IQM at an Elekta Synergy with an Agility MLC. All plans were also measured with the ArcCHECK with the cavity plug and a PTW semiflex 31010 ionization chamber inserted. Measurements were evaluated with SNC patient software. Results: Repeated IQM measurements of the original plans were reproducible, such that a 1% deviation from the mean as warning and 3% as action level as suggested by the manufacturer seemed reasonable. The IQM detected most of the simulated errors including wrong energy, a faulty leaf, wrong trial exported and a 2 mm shift of one leaf bank. Detection limits were reached for two plans - a 2 mm field position error and a leaf bank offset combined with an MU change. ArcCHECK evaluation according to our current standards also left undetected errors. Ionization chamber evaluation alone would leave most errors undetected. Conclusion: The IQM detected most errors and performed as well as currently established phantoms with the advantage that it can be used throughout the whole treatment. Drawback is that it does not indicate the source of the error.

  6. SU-F-T-310: Does a Head-Mounted Ionization Chamber Detect IMRT Errors?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, S; Herzog, B; Sauer, O [University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The conventional plan verification strategy is delivering a plan to a QA-phantom before the first treatment. Monitoring each fraction of the patient treatment in real-time would improve patient safety. We evaluated how well a new detector, the IQM (iRT Systems, Germany), is capable of detecting errors we induced into IMRT plans of three different treatment regions. Results were compared to an established phantom. Methods: Clinical plans of a brain, prostate and head-and-neck patient were modified in the Pinnacle planning system, such that they resulted in either several percent lower prescribed doses to the target volume or several percent higher doses to relevant organs at risk. Unaltered plans were measured on three days, modified plans once, each with the IQM at an Elekta Synergy with an Agility MLC. All plans were also measured with the ArcCHECK with the cavity plug and a PTW semiflex 31010 ionization chamber inserted. Measurements were evaluated with SNC patient software. Results: Repeated IQM measurements of the original plans were reproducible, such that a 1% deviation from the mean as warning and 3% as action level as suggested by the manufacturer seemed reasonable. The IQM detected most of the simulated errors including wrong energy, a faulty leaf, wrong trial exported and a 2 mm shift of one leaf bank. Detection limits were reached for two plans - a 2 mm field position error and a leaf bank offset combined with an MU change. ArcCHECK evaluation according to our current standards also left undetected errors. Ionization chamber evaluation alone would leave most errors undetected. Conclusion: The IQM detected most errors and performed as well as currently established phantoms with the advantage that it can be used throughout the whole treatment. Drawback is that it does not indicate the source of the error.

  7. Modern Breakthrough Technologies Enable New Applications Based on IMU Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzio Abbate

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit platforms and their main target applications with a special focus on the 10-degree-of-freedom (10-DOF inertial platform iNEMO and its technical features and performances. The iNEMO module is equipped with a 3-axis MEMS accelerometer, a 3-axis MEMS gyroscope, a 3-axis MEMS magnetometer, a pressure sensor, and a temperature sensor. Furthermore, the Microcontroller Unit (MCU collects measurements by the sensors and computes the orientation through a customized Extended Kalman Filter (EKF for sensor fusion.

  8. IMU-based Real-time Pose Measurement system for Anterior Pelvic Plane in Total Hip Replacement Surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhe Cao; Shaojie Su; Hao Tang; Yixin Zhou; Zhihua Wang; Hong Chen

    2017-07-01

    With the aging of population, the number of Total Hip Replacement Surgeries (THR) increased year by year. In THR, inaccurate position of the implanted prosthesis may lead to the failure of the operation. In order to reduce the failure rate and acquire the real-time pose of Anterior Pelvic Plane (APP), we propose a measurement system in this paper. The measurement system includes two parts: Initial Pose Measurement Instrument (IPMI) and Real-time Pose Measurement Instrument (RPMI). IPMI is used to acquire the initial pose of the APP, and RPMI is used to estimate the real-time pose of the APP. Both are composed of an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and magnetometer sensors. To estimate the attitude of the measurement system, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is adopted in this paper. The real-time pose of the APP could be acquired together with the algorithm designed in the paper. The experiment results show that the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) is within 1.6 degrees, which meets the requirement of THR operations.

  9. Radio/FADS/IMU integrated navigation for Mars entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiuqiang; Li, Shuang; Huang, Xiangyu

    2018-03-01

    Supposing future orbiting and landing collaborative exploration mission as the potential project background, this paper addresses the issue of Mars entry integrated navigation using radio beacon, flush air data sensing system (FADS), and inertial measurement unit (IMU). The range and Doppler information sensed from an orbiting radio beacon, the dynamic pressure and heating data sensed from flush air data sensing system, and acceleration and attitude angular rate outputs from an inertial measurement unit are integrated in an unscented Kalman filter to perform state estimation and suppress the system and measurement noise. Computer simulations show that the proposed integrated navigation scheme can enhance the navigation accuracy, which enables precise entry guidance for the given Mars orbiting and landing collaborative exploration mission.

  10. Study of the Navigation Method for a Snake Robot Based on the Kinematics Model with MEMS IMU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Lihua; Su, Zhong; Liu, Ning

    2018-01-01

    A snake robot is a type of highly redundant mobile robot that significantly differs from a tracked robot, wheeled robot and legged robot. To address the issue of a snake robot performing self-localization in the application environment without assistant orientation, an autonomous navigation method is proposed based on the snake robot’s motion characteristic constraints. The method realized the autonomous navigation of the snake robot with non-nodes and an external assistant using its own Micro-Electromechanical-Systems (MEMS) Inertial-Measurement-Unit (IMU). First, it studies the snake robot’s motion characteristics, builds the kinematics model, and then analyses the motion constraint characteristics and motion error propagation properties. Second, it explores the snake robot’s navigation layout, proposes a constraint criterion and the fixed relationship, and makes zero-state constraints based on the motion features and control modes of a snake robot. Finally, it realizes autonomous navigation positioning based on the Extended-Kalman-Filter (EKF) position estimation method under the constraints of its motion characteristics. With the self-developed snake robot, the test verifies the proposed method, and the position error is less than 5% of Total-Traveled-Distance (TDD). In a short-distance environment, this method is able to meet the requirements of a snake robot in order to perform autonomous navigation and positioning in traditional applications and can be extended to other familiar multi-link robots. PMID:29547515

  11. Study of the Navigation Method for a Snake Robot Based on the Kinematics Model with MEMS IMU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Dou, Lihua; Su, Zhong; Liu, Ning

    2018-03-16

    A snake robot is a type of highly redundant mobile robot that significantly differs from a tracked robot, wheeled robot and legged robot. To address the issue of a snake robot performing self-localization in the application environment without assistant orientation, an autonomous navigation method is proposed based on the snake robot's motion characteristic constraints. The method realized the autonomous navigation of the snake robot with non-nodes and an external assistant using its own Micro-Electromechanical-Systems (MEMS) Inertial-Measurement-Unit (IMU). First, it studies the snake robot's motion characteristics, builds the kinematics model, and then analyses the motion constraint characteristics and motion error propagation properties. Second, it explores the snake robot's navigation layout, proposes a constraint criterion and the fixed relationship, and makes zero-state constraints based on the motion features and control modes of a snake robot. Finally, it realizes autonomous navigation positioning based on the Extended-Kalman-Filter (EKF) position estimation method under the constraints of its motion characteristics. With the self-developed snake robot, the test verifies the proposed method, and the position error is less than 5% of Total-Traveled-Distance (TDD). In a short-distance environment, this method is able to meet the requirements of a snake robot in order to perform autonomous navigation and positioning in traditional applications and can be extended to other familiar multi-link robots.

  12. IMU-Based Gait Recognition Using Convolutional Neural Networks and Multi-Sensor Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Dehzangi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The wide spread usage of wearable sensors such as in smart watches has provided continuous access to valuable user generated data such as human motion that could be used to identify an individual based on his/her motion patterns such as, gait. Several methods have been suggested to extract various heuristic and high-level features from gait motion data to identify discriminative gait signatures and distinguish the target individual from others. However, the manual and hand crafted feature extraction is error prone and subjective. Furthermore, the motion data collected from inertial sensors have complex structure and the detachment between manual feature extraction module and the predictive learning models might limit the generalization capabilities. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for human gait identification using time-frequency (TF expansion of human gait cycles in order to capture joint 2 dimensional (2D spectral and temporal patterns of gait cycles. Then, we design a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN learning to extract discriminative features from the 2D expanded gait cycles and jointly optimize the identification model and the spectro-temporal features in a discriminative fashion. We collect raw motion data from five inertial sensors placed at the chest, lower-back, right hand wrist, right knee, and right ankle of each human subject synchronously in order to investigate the impact of sensor location on the gait identification performance. We then present two methods for early (input level and late (decision score level multi-sensor fusion to improve the gait identification generalization performance. We specifically propose the minimum error score fusion (MESF method that discriminatively learns the linear fusion weights of individual DCNN scores at the decision level by minimizing the error rate on the training data in an iterative manner. 10 subjects participated in this study and hence, the problem is a 10-class

  13. Local setup errors in image-guided radiotherapy for head and neck cancer patients immobilized with a custom-made device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giske, Kristina; Stoiber, Eva M; Schwarz, Michael; Stoll, Armin; Muenter, Marc W; Timke, Carmen; Roeder, Falk; Debus, Juergen; Huber, Peter E; Thieke, Christian; Bendl, Rolf

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the local positioning uncertainties during fractionated radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer patients immobilized using a custom-made fixation device and discuss the effect of possible patient correction strategies for these uncertainties. A total of 45 head-and-neck patients underwent regular control computed tomography scanning using an in-room computed tomography scanner. The local and global positioning variations of all patients were evaluated by applying a rigid registration algorithm. One bounding box around the complete target volume and nine local registration boxes containing relevant anatomic structures were introduced. The resulting uncertainties for a stereotactic setup and the deformations referenced to one anatomic local registration box were determined. Local deformations of the patients immobilized using our custom-made device were compared with previously published results. Several patient positioning correction strategies were simulated, and the residual local uncertainties were calculated. The patient anatomy in the stereotactic setup showed local systematic positioning deviations of 1-4 mm. The deformations referenced to a particular anatomic local registration box were similar to the reported deformations assessed from patients immobilized with commercially available Aquaplast masks. A global correction, including the rotational error compensation, decreased the remaining local translational errors. Depending on the chosen patient positioning strategy, the remaining local uncertainties varied considerably. Local deformations in head-and-neck patients occur even if an elaborate, custom-made patient fixation method is used. A rotational error correction decreased the required margins considerably. None of the considered correction strategies achieved perfect alignment. Therefore, weighting of anatomic subregions to obtain the optimal correction vector should be investigated in the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  14. Study of the Navigation Method for a Snake Robot Based on the Kinematics Model with MEMS IMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A snake robot is a type of highly redundant mobile robot that significantly differs from a tracked robot, wheeled robot and legged robot. To address the issue of a snake robot performing self-localization in the application environment without assistant orientation, an autonomous navigation method is proposed based on the snake robot’s motion characteristic constraints. The method realized the autonomous navigation of the snake robot with non-nodes and an external assistant using its own Micro-Electromechanical-Systems (MEMS Inertial-Measurement-Unit (IMU. First, it studies the snake robot’s motion characteristics, builds the kinematics model, and then analyses the motion constraint characteristics and motion error propagation properties. Second, it explores the snake robot’s navigation layout, proposes a constraint criterion and the fixed relationship, and makes zero-state constraints based on the motion features and control modes of a snake robot. Finally, it realizes autonomous navigation positioning based on the Extended-Kalman-Filter (EKF position estimation method under the constraints of its motion characteristics. With the self-developed snake robot, the test verifies the proposed method, and the position error is less than 5% of Total-Traveled-Distance (TDD. In a short-distance environment, this method is able to meet the requirements of a snake robot in order to perform autonomous navigation and positioning in traditional applications and can be extended to other familiar multi-link robots.

  15. Underground mine navigation using an integrated IMU/TOF system with unscented Kalman filter

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hlophe, K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available & Factories of the Future Conference, 26-28 July 2011, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia improve mine safety?, in 25th International Conference of CAD/CAM, Robotics & Factories of the Future, Pretoria, 2010. [2] J. J. Green and D. Vogt, Robot miner for low... Page 1 of 11 26th International Conference of CAD/CAM, Robotics & Factories of the Future Conference, 26-28 July 2011, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia UNDERGROUND MINE NAVIGATION USING AN INTERGRATED IMU/TOF SYSTEM WITH UNSCENTED KALMAN FILTER...

  16. Effect of different head-neck-jaw postures on cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, H; Alghadir, A H; Iqbal, Z A

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effect of different induced head-neck-jaw postures on head-neck relocation error among healthy subjects. 30 healthy adult male subjects participated in this study. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense was measured while standing, habitual sitting, habitual sitting with clenched jaw and habitual sitting with forward head posture during right rotation, left rotation, flexion and extension using kinesthetic sensibility test. Head-neck relocation error was least while standing, followed by habitual sitting, habitual sitting with forward head posture and habitual sitting with jaw clenched. However, there was no significant difference in error between different tested postures during all the movements. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to see the effect of different induced head-neck-jaw postures on head-neck position sense among healthy subjects. Assuming a posture for a short duration of time doesn't affect head-neck relocation error in normal healthy subjects.

  17. Extended Kalman filter-based methods for pose estimation using visual, inertial and magnetic sensors: comparative analysis and performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligorio, Gabriele; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2013-02-04

    In this paper measurements from a monocular vision system are fused with inertial/magnetic measurements from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) rigidly connected to the camera. Two Extended Kalman filters (EKFs) were developed to estimate the pose of the IMU/camera sensor moving relative to a rigid scene (ego-motion), based on a set of fiducials. The two filters were identical as for the state equation and the measurement equations of the inertial/magnetic sensors. The DLT-based EKF exploited visual estimates of the ego-motion using a variant of the Direct Linear Transformation (DLT) method; the error-driven EKF exploited pseudo-measurements based on the projection errors from measured two-dimensional point features to the corresponding three-dimensional fiducials. The two filters were off-line analyzed in different experimental conditions and compared to a purely IMU-based EKF used for estimating the orientation of the IMU/camera sensor. The DLT-based EKF was more accurate than the error-driven EKF, less robust against loss of visual features, and equivalent in terms of computational complexity. Orientation root mean square errors (RMSEs) of 1° (1.5°), and position RMSEs of 3.5 mm (10 mm) were achieved in our experiments by the DLT-based EKF (error-driven EKF); by contrast, orientation RMSEs of 1.6° were achieved by the purely IMU-based EKF.

  18. An Accurate GPS-IMU/DR Data Fusion Method for Driverless Car Based on a Set of Predictive Models and Grid Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiyao; Deng, Zhidong; Yin, Gang

    2016-02-24

    A high-performance differential global positioning system (GPS)  receiver with real time kinematics provides absolute localization for driverless cars. However, it is not only susceptible to multipath effect but also unable to effectively fulfill precise error correction in a wide range of driving areas. This paper proposes an accurate GPS-inertial measurement unit (IMU)/dead reckoning (DR) data fusion method based on a set of predictive models and occupancy grid constraints. First, we employ a set of autoregressive and moving average (ARMA) equations that have different structural parameters to build maximum likelihood models of raw navigation. Second, both grid constraints and spatial consensus checks on all predictive results and current measurements are required to have removal of outliers. Navigation data that satisfy stationary stochastic process are further fused to achieve accurate localization results. Third, the standard deviation of multimodal data fusion can be pre-specified by grid size. Finally, we perform a lot of field tests on a diversity of real urban scenarios. The experimental results demonstrate that the method can significantly smooth small jumps in bias and considerably reduce accumulated position errors due to DR. With low computational complexity, the position accuracy of our method surpasses existing state-of-the-arts on the same dataset and the new data fusion method is practically applied in our driverless car.

  19. An Accurate GPS-IMU/DR Data Fusion Method for Driverless Car Based on a Set of Predictive Models and Grid Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyao Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A high-performance differential global positioning system (GPS  receiver with real time kinematics provides absolute localization for driverless cars. However, it is not only susceptible to multipath effect but also unable to effectively fulfill precise error correction in a wide range of driving areas. This paper proposes an accurate GPS–inertial measurement unit (IMU/dead reckoning (DR data fusion method based on a set of predictive models and occupancy grid constraints. First, we employ a set of autoregressive and moving average (ARMA equations that have different structural parameters to build maximum likelihood models of raw navigation. Second, both grid constraints and spatial consensus checks on all predictive results and current measurements are required to have removal of outliers. Navigation data that satisfy stationary stochastic process are further fused to achieve accurate localization results. Third, the standard deviation of multimodal data fusion can be pre-specified by grid size. Finally, we perform a lot of field tests on a diversity of real urban scenarios. The experimental results demonstrate that the method can significantly smooth small jumps in bias and considerably reduce accumulated position errors due to DR. With low computational complexity, the position accuracy of our method surpasses existing state-of-the-arts on the same dataset and the new data fusion method is practically applied in our driverless car.

  20. Implementation of an IMU Aided Image Stacking Algorithm in a Digital Camera for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Audi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Images acquired with a long exposure time using a camera embedded on UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles exhibit motion blur due to the erratic movements of the UAV. The aim of the present work is to be able to acquire several images with a short exposure time and use an image processing algorithm to produce a stacked image with an equivalent long exposure time. Our method is based on the feature point image registration technique. The algorithm is implemented on the light-weight IGN (Institut national de l’information géographique camera, which has an IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit sensor and an SoC (System on Chip/FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array. To obtain the correct parameters for the resampling of the images, the proposed method accurately estimates the geometrical transformation between the first and the N-th images. Feature points are detected in the first image using the FAST (Features from Accelerated Segment Test detector, then homologous points on other images are obtained by template matching using an initial position benefiting greatly from the presence of the IMU sensor. The SoC/FPGA in the camera is used to speed up some parts of the algorithm in order to achieve real-time performance as our ultimate objective is to exclusively write the resulting image to save bandwidth on the storage device. The paper includes a detailed description of the implemented algorithm, resource usage summary, resulting processing time, resulting images and block diagrams of the described architecture. The resulting stacked image obtained for real surveys does not seem visually impaired. An interesting by-product of this algorithm is the 3D rotation estimated by a photogrammetric method between poses, which can be used to recalibrate in real time the gyrometers of the IMU. Timing results demonstrate that the image resampling part of this algorithm is the most demanding processing task and should also be accelerated in the FPGA in future work.

  1. Implementation of an IMU Aided Image Stacking Algorithm in a Digital Camera for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audi, Ahmad; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Marc; Meynard, Christophe; Thom, Christian

    2017-07-18

    Images acquired with a long exposure time using a camera embedded on UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) exhibit motion blur due to the erratic movements of the UAV. The aim of the present work is to be able to acquire several images with a short exposure time and use an image processing algorithm to produce a stacked image with an equivalent long exposure time. Our method is based on the feature point image registration technique. The algorithm is implemented on the light-weight IGN (Institut national de l'information géographique) camera, which has an IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) sensor and an SoC (System on Chip)/FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array). To obtain the correct parameters for the resampling of the images, the proposed method accurately estimates the geometrical transformation between the first and the N -th images. Feature points are detected in the first image using the FAST (Features from Accelerated Segment Test) detector, then homologous points on other images are obtained by template matching using an initial position benefiting greatly from the presence of the IMU sensor. The SoC/FPGA in the camera is used to speed up some parts of the algorithm in order to achieve real-time performance as our ultimate objective is to exclusively write the resulting image to save bandwidth on the storage device. The paper includes a detailed description of the implemented algorithm, resource usage summary, resulting processing time, resulting images and block diagrams of the described architecture. The resulting stacked image obtained for real surveys does not seem visually impaired. An interesting by-product of this algorithm is the 3D rotation estimated by a photogrammetric method between poses, which can be used to recalibrate in real time the gyrometers of the IMU. Timing results demonstrate that the image resampling part of this algorithm is the most demanding processing task and should also be accelerated in the FPGA in future work.

  2. Automated Error Detection in Physiotherapy Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Marko; Seiffarth, Johannes; Kutafina, Ekaterina; Jonas, Stephan M

    2018-01-01

    Manual skills teaching, such as physiotherapy education, requires immediate teacher feedback for the students during the learning process, which to date can only be performed by expert trainers. A machine-learning system trained only on correct performances to classify and score performed movements, to identify sources of errors in the movement and give feedback to the learner. We acquire IMU and sEMG sensor data from a commercial-grade wearable device and construct an HMM-based model for gesture classification, scoring and feedback giving. We evaluate the model on publicly available and self-generated data of an exemplary movement pattern executions. The model achieves an overall accuracy of 90.71% on the public dataset and 98.9% on our dataset. An AUC of 0.99 for the ROC of the scoring method could be achieved to discriminate between correct and untrained incorrect executions. The proposed system demonstrated its suitability for scoring and feedback in manual skills training.

  3. An analysis of stabilisation for head and neck image guided IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, Mark; Nguyen, Huong; Plank, Ashley; Jones, Mark; Shannon, Debbie; Sisson, Toni

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Daily IGRT using kV imaging has allowed an enhanced field of view for head and neck IMRT patients. This has allowed the treating radiation therapists to note set-up error beyond traditional spatial or translational and include angular error. This study compares two stabilisation methods for head and neck IGRT and compares spatial and angular error between them. Methods and materials: 9 patients were assessed using a CIVCO S-board and generic Silverman head rest and another 9 patients were assessed using a CIVCO S-board with a CIVCO S-type vac-fix bag. Daily IGRT was undertaken and pre-intervention set-up error collected. This was inclusive of error in the lateral, longitudinal and vertical plans and angular discrepancy between cervical spine 1 and cervical spine 7. Results: The vac-fix solution provided a significant reduction in the systematic yaw position (anterior–posterior) (p = 0.04). It also reduced the mean resultant systematic angular error significantly (p = 0.01). The lateral systematic spatial error was decreased significantly by the vac-fix (p = 0.03) whilst the longitudinal and vertical systematic errors were not. The differences in random error between the two stabilisation solutions were not significant. Conclusion: kV IGRT has allowed treating radiation therapists to note angular error in the head and neck region. This can be difficult to deal with using only IGRT. Stabilisation solutions in the head and neck region must be able to manage both spatial and angular set-up error. The vac-fix solution has improved the management of angular error for head and neck IMRT patients

  4. The Residual Setup Errors of Different IGRT Alignment Procedures for Head and Neck IMRT and the Resulting Dosimetric Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graff, Pierre; Kirby, Neil; Weinberg, Vivian; Chen, Josephine; Yom, Sue S.; Lambert, Louise; Pouliot, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess residual setup errors during head and neck radiation therapy and the resulting consequences for the delivered dose for various patient alignment procedures. Methods and Materials: Megavoltage cone beam computed tomography (MVCBCT) scans from 11 head and neck patients who underwent intensity modulated radiation therapy were used to assess setup errors. Each MVCBCT scan was registered to its reference planning kVCT, with seven different alignment procedures: automatic alignment and manual registration to 6 separate bony landmarks (sphenoid, left/right maxillary sinuses, mandible, cervical 1 [C1]-C2, and C7-thoracic 1 [T1] vertebrae). Shifts in the different alignments were compared with each other to determine whether there were any statistically significant differences. Then, the dose distribution was recalculated on 3 MVCBCT images per patient for every alignment procedure. The resulting dose-volume histograms for targets and organs at risk (OARs) were compared to those from the planning kVCTs. Results: The registration procedures produced statistically significant global differences in patient alignment and actual dose distribution, calling for a need for standardization of patient positioning. Vertically, the automatic, sphenoid, and maxillary sinuses alignments mainly generated posterior shifts and resulted in mean increases in maximal dose to OARs of >3% of the planned dose. The suggested choice of C1-C2 as a reference landmark appears valid, combining both OAR sparing and target coverage. Assuming this choice, relevant margins to apply around volumes of interest at the time of planning to take into account for the relative mobility of other regions are discussed. Conclusions: Use of different alignment procedures for treating head and neck patients produced variations in patient setup and dose distribution. With concern for standardizing practice, C1-C2 reference alignment with relevant margins around planning volumes seems to be a valid

  5. Tracking 3D Moving Objects Based on GPS/IMU Navigation Solution, Laser Scanner Point Cloud and GIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Hosseinyalamdary

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring vehicular road traffic is a key component of any autonomous driving platform. Detecting moving objects, and tracking them, is crucial to navigating around objects and predicting their locations and trajectories. Laser sensors provide an excellent observation of the area around vehicles, but the point cloud of objects may be noisy, occluded, and prone to different errors. Consequently, object tracking is an open problem, especially for low-quality point clouds. This paper describes a pipeline to integrate various sensor data and prior information, such as a Geospatial Information System (GIS map, to segment and track moving objects in a scene. We show that even a low-quality GIS map, such as OpenStreetMap (OSM, can improve the tracking accuracy, as well as decrease processing time. A bank of Kalman filters is used to track moving objects in a scene. In addition, we apply non-holonomic constraint to provide a better orientation estimation of moving objects. The results show that moving objects can be correctly detected, and accurately tracked, over time, based on modest quality Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR data, a coarse GIS map, and a fairly accurate Global Positioning System (GPS and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU navigation solution.

  6. Comparative performance analysis of M-IMU/EMG and voice user interfaces for assistive robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureiti, Clemente; Cordella, Francesca; di Luzio, Francesco Scotto; Saccucci, Stefano; Davalli, Angelo; Sacchetti, Rinaldo; Zollo, Loredana

    2017-07-01

    People with a high level of disability experience great difficulties to perform activities of daily living and resort to their residual motor functions in order to operate assistive devices. The commercially available interfaces used to control assistive manipulators are typically based on joysticks and can be used only by subjects with upper-limb residual mobilities. Many other solutions can be found in the literature, based on the use of multiple sensory systems for detecting the human motion intention and state. Some of them require a high cognitive workload for the user. Some others are more intuitive and easy to use but have not been widely investigated in terms of usability and user acceptance. The objective of this work is to propose an intuitive and robust user interface for assistive robots, not obtrusive for the user and easily adaptable for subjects with different levels of disability. The proposed user interface is based on the combination of M-IMU and EMG for the continuous control of an arm-hand robotic system by means of M-IMUs. The system has been experimentally validated and compared to a standard voice interface. Sixteen healthy subjects volunteered to participate in the study: 8 subjects used the combined M-IMU/EMG robot control, and 8 subjects used the voice control. The arm-hand robotic system made of the KUKA LWR 4+ and the IH2 Azzurra hand was controlled to accomplish the daily living task of drinking. Performance indices and evaluation scales were adopted to assess performance of the two interfaces.

  7. Covariance Analysis Tool (G-CAT) for Computing Ascent, Descent, and Landing Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussalis, Dhemetrios; Bayard, David S.

    2013-01-01

    G-CAT is a covariance analysis tool that enables fast and accurate computation of error ellipses for descent, landing, ascent, and rendezvous scenarios, and quantifies knowledge error contributions needed for error budgeting purposes. Because GCAT supports hardware/system trade studies in spacecraft and mission design, it is useful in both early and late mission/ proposal phases where Monte Carlo simulation capability is not mature, Monte Carlo simulation takes too long to run, and/or there is a need to perform multiple parametric system design trades that would require an unwieldy number of Monte Carlo runs. G-CAT is formulated as a variable-order square-root linearized Kalman filter (LKF), typically using over 120 filter states. An important property of G-CAT is that it is based on a 6-DOF (degrees of freedom) formulation that completely captures the combined effects of both attitude and translation errors on the propagated trajectories. This ensures its accuracy for guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) analysis. G-CAT provides the desired fast turnaround analysis needed for error budgeting in support of mission concept formulations, design trade studies, and proposal development efforts. The main usefulness of a covariance analysis tool such as G-CAT is its ability to calculate the performance envelope directly from a single run. This is in sharp contrast to running thousands of simulations to obtain similar information using Monte Carlo methods. It does this by propagating the "statistics" of the overall design, rather than simulating individual trajectories. G-CAT supports applications to lunar, planetary, and small body missions. It characterizes onboard knowledge propagation errors associated with inertial measurement unit (IMU) errors (gyro and accelerometer), gravity errors/dispersions (spherical harmonics, masscons), and radar errors (multiple altimeter beams, multiple Doppler velocimeter beams). G-CAT is a standalone MATLAB- based tool intended to

  8. Stereo and IMU-Assisted Visual Odometry for Small Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This software performs two functions: (1) taking stereo image pairs as input, it computes stereo disparity maps from them by cross-correlation to achieve 3D (three-dimensional) perception; (2) taking a sequence of stereo image pairs as input, it tracks features in the image sequence to estimate the motion of the cameras between successive image pairs. A real-time stereo vision system with IMU (inertial measurement unit)-assisted visual odometry was implemented on a single 750 MHz/520 MHz OMAP3530 SoC (system on chip) from TI (Texas Instruments). Frame rates of 46 fps (frames per second) were achieved at QVGA (Quarter Video Graphics Array i.e. 320 240), or 8 fps at VGA (Video Graphics Array 640 480) resolutions, while simultaneously tracking up to 200 features, taking full advantage of the OMAP3530's integer DSP (digital signal processor) and floating point ARM processors. This is a substantial advancement over previous work as the stereo implementation produces 146 Mde/s (millions of disparities evaluated per second) in 2.5W, yielding a stereo energy efficiency of 58.8 Mde/J, which is 3.75 better than prior DSP stereo while providing more functionality.

  9. Learning mechanisms to limit medication administration errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drach-Zahavy, Anat; Pud, Dorit

    2010-04-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to identify and test the effectiveness of learning mechanisms applied by the nursing staff of hospital wards as a means of limiting medication administration errors. Since the influential report ;To Err Is Human', research has emphasized the role of team learning in reducing medication administration errors. Nevertheless, little is known about the mechanisms underlying team learning. Thirty-two hospital wards were randomly recruited. Data were collected during 2006 in Israel by a multi-method (observations, interviews and administrative data), multi-source (head nurses, bedside nurses) approach. Medication administration error was defined as any deviation from procedures, policies and/or best practices for medication administration, and was identified using semi-structured observations of nurses administering medication. Organizational learning was measured using semi-structured interviews with head nurses, and the previous year's reported medication administration errors were assessed using administrative data. The interview data revealed four learning mechanism patterns employed in an attempt to learn from medication administration errors: integrated, non-integrated, supervisory and patchy learning. Regression analysis results demonstrated that whereas the integrated pattern of learning mechanisms was associated with decreased errors, the non-integrated pattern was associated with increased errors. Supervisory and patchy learning mechanisms were not associated with errors. Superior learning mechanisms are those that represent the whole cycle of team learning, are enacted by nurses who administer medications to patients, and emphasize a system approach to data analysis instead of analysis of individual cases.

  10. An Enhanced Intelligent Handheld Instrument with Visual Servo Control for 2-DOF Hand Motion Error Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Naing Aye

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The intelligent handheld instrument, ITrem2, enhances manual positioning accuracy by cancelling erroneous hand movements and, at the same time, provides automatic micromanipulation functions. Visual data is acquired from a high speed monovision camera attached to the optical surgical microscope and acceleration measurements are acquired from the inertial measurement unit (IMU on board ITrem2. Tremor estimation and canceling is implemented via Band-limited Multiple Fourier Linear Combiner (BMFLC filter. The piezoelectric actuated micromanipulator in ITrem2 generates the 3D motion to compensate erroneous hand motion. Preliminary bench-top 2-DOF experiments have been conducted. The error motions simulated by a motion stage is reduced by 67% for multiple frequency oscillatory motions and 56.16% for pre-conditioned recorded physiological tremor.

  11. Target definition in prostate, head, and neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasch, Coen; Steenbakkers, Roel; van Herk, Marcel

    2005-01-01

    Target definition is a major source of errors in both prostate and head and neck external-beam radiation treatment. Delineation errors remain constant during the course of radiation and therefore have a large impact on the dose to the tumor. Major sources of delineation variation are visibility of

  12. The preliminary study of setup errors' impact on dose distribution of image guide radiation therapy for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Luying; Pan Jianji; Wang Xiaoliang; Bai Penggang; Li Qixin; Fei Zhaodong; Chen Chuanben; Ma Liqin; Tang Tianlan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To measure the set-up errors of patients with head and neck (H and N) cancer during the image guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment and analyze the impact of setup errors on dose distribution; then to further investigate the necessity of adjustment online for H and N cancer during IMRT treatment. Methods: Cone-beam CT (CBCT) scanning of thirty patients with H and N cancer were acquired by once weekly with a total of 6 times during IMRT treatment. The CBCT images and the original planning CT images were matched by the bony structure and worked out the translational errors of the x, y, z axis, as well as rotational errors. The dose distributions were recalculated based on the data of each setup error. The dose of planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk were calculated in the re-planning, and than compared with the original plan by paired t-test. Results: The mean value of x, y, z axis translational set-up errors were (1.06 ± 0.95)mm, (0.95 ± 0.77)mm and (1.31 ± 1.07)mm, respectively. The rotational error of x, y, z axis were (1.04 ±0.791), (1.06 ±0.89) and (0.81 ±0.61 ), respectively. PTV 95% volume dose (D 95 ) and PTV minimal dose of re-planning for 6 times set-up were lower than original plan (6526.6 cGy : 6630.3 cGy, t =3.98, P =0.000 and 5632.6 cGy : 5792.5 cGy, t =- 2.89, P =0.007). Brain stem received 45 Gydose volume (V 45 ) and 1% brain stem volume dose (D 01 )were higher than original plan (3.54% : 2.75%, t =3.84, P =0.001 and 5129.7 cGy : 4919.3 cGy, t =4.36, P =0.000). Conclusions: The set-up errors led to the dose of PTV D 95 obviously insufficient and significantly increased V 45 , D 01 of the brainstem. So, adjustment online is necessary for H and N cancer during IMRT treatment. (authors)

  13. A correction on coastal heads for groundwater flow models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunhui; Werner, Adrian D; Simmons, Craig T; Luo, Jian

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a simple correction to coastal heads for constant-density groundwater flow models that contain a coastal boundary, based on previous analytical solutions for interface flow. The results demonstrate that accurate discharge to the sea in confined aquifers can be obtained by direct application of Darcy's law (for constant-density flow) if the coastal heads are corrected to ((α + 1)/α)hs  - B/2α, in which hs is the mean sea level above the aquifer base, B is the aquifer thickness, and α is the density factor. For unconfined aquifers, the coastal head should be assigned the value hs1+α/α. The accuracy of using these corrections is demonstrated by consistency between constant-density Darcy's solution and variable-density flow numerical simulations. The errors introduced by adopting two previous approaches (i.e., no correction and using the equivalent fresh water head at the middle position of the aquifer to represent the hydraulic head at the coastal boundary) are evaluated. Sensitivity analysis shows that errors in discharge to the sea could be larger than 100% for typical coastal aquifer parameter ranges. The location of observation wells relative to the toe is a key factor controlling the estimation error, as it determines the relative aquifer length of constant-density flow relative to variable-density flow. The coastal head correction method introduced in this study facilitates the rapid and accurate estimation of the fresh water flux from a given hydraulic head measurement and allows for an improved representation of the coastal boundary condition in regional constant-density groundwater flow models. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  14. An in-situ measuring method for planar straightness error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Fu, Luhua; Yang, Tongyu; Sun, Changku; Wang, Zhong; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Changjie

    2018-01-01

    According to some current problems in the course of measuring the plane shape error of workpiece, an in-situ measuring method based on laser triangulation is presented in this paper. The method avoids the inefficiency of traditional methods like knife straightedge as well as the time and cost requirements of coordinate measuring machine(CMM). A laser-based measuring head is designed and installed on the spindle of a numerical control(NC) machine. The measuring head moves in the path planning to measure measuring points. The spatial coordinates of the measuring points are obtained by the combination of the laser triangulation displacement sensor and the coordinate system of the NC machine, which could make the indicators of measurement come true. The method to evaluate planar straightness error adopts particle swarm optimization(PSO). To verify the feasibility and accuracy of the measuring method, simulation experiments were implemented with a CMM. Comparing the measurement results of measuring head with the corresponding measured values obtained by composite measuring machine, it is verified that the method can realize high-precise and automatic measurement of the planar straightness error of the workpiece.

  15. Determination of head conductivity frequency response in vivo with optimized EIT-EEG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dabek, Juhani; Kalogianni, Konstantina; Rotgans, Edwin; van der Helm, Frans C.T.; Kwakkel, Gert; van Wegen, Erwin E.H.; Daffertshofer, Andreas; de Munck, Jan C.

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) benefits from accurate head models. Dipole source modelling errors can be reduced from over 1 cm to a few millimetres by replacing generic head geometry and conductivity with tailored ones. When adequate head geometry is available, electrical impedance tomography (EIT)

  16. Head Start, 4 years After Completing the Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Joo

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of the Head Start program on children's achievements in reading and math tests during their first 4 years of schooling after completing the program. Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, I found large measurement error in the parental reports of Head Start attendance, which…

  17. Analysis of translational errors in frame-based and frameless cranial radiosurgery using an anthropomorphic phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Taynna Vernalha Rocha [Faculdades Pequeno Principe (FPP), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Cordova Junior, Arno Lotar; Almeida, Cristiane Maria; Piedade, Pedro Argolo; Silva, Cintia Mara da, E-mail: taynnavra@gmail.com [Centro de Radioterapia Sao Sebastiao, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Brincas, Gabriela R. Baseggio [Centro de Diagnostico Medico Imagem, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Marins, Priscila; Soboll, Danyel Scheidegger [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Objective: To evaluate three-dimensional translational setup errors and residual errors in image-guided radiosurgery, comparing frameless and frame-based techniques, using an anthropomorphic phantom. Materials and Methods: We initially used specific phantoms for the calibration and quality control of the image-guided system. For the hidden target test, we used an Alderson Radiation Therapy (ART)-210 anthropomorphic head phantom, into which we inserted four 5- mm metal balls to simulate target treatment volumes. Computed tomography images were the taken with the head phantom properly positioned for frameless and frame-based radiosurgery. Results: For the frameless technique, the mean error magnitude was 0.22 ± 0.04 mm for setup errors and 0.14 ± 0.02 mm for residual errors, the combined uncertainty being 0.28 mm and 0.16 mm, respectively. For the frame-based technique, the mean error magnitude was 0.73 ± 0.14 mm for setup errors and 0.31 ± 0.04 mm for residual errors, the combined uncertainty being 1.15 mm and 0.63 mm, respectively. Conclusion: The mean values, standard deviations, and combined uncertainties showed no evidence of a significant differences between the two techniques when the head phantom ART-210 was used. (author)

  18. Error in the delivery of radiation therapy: Results of a quality assurance review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Grace; Medlam, Gaylene; Lee, Justin; Billingsley, Susan; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre; Ringash, Jolie; Kane, Gabrielle; Hodgson, David C.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To examine error rates in the delivery of radiation therapy (RT), technical factors associated with RT errors, and the influence of a quality improvement intervention on the RT error rate. Methods and materials: We undertook a review of all RT errors that occurred at the Princess Margaret Hospital (Toronto) from January 1, 1997, to December 31, 2002. Errors were identified according to incident report forms that were completed at the time the error occurred. Error rates were calculated per patient, per treated volume (≥1 volume per patient), and per fraction delivered. The association between tumor site and error was analyzed. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between technical factors and the risk of error. Results: Over the study interval, there were 555 errors among 28,136 patient treatments delivered (error rate per patient = 1.97%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.81-2.14%) and among 43,302 treated volumes (error rate per volume = 1.28%, 95% CI, 1.18-1.39%). The proportion of fractions with errors from July 1, 2000, to December 31, 2002, was 0.29% (95% CI, 0.27-0.32%). Patients with sarcoma or head-and-neck tumors experienced error rates significantly higher than average (5.54% and 4.58%, respectively); however, when the number of treated volumes was taken into account, the head-and-neck error rate was no longer higher than average (1.43%). The use of accessories was associated with an increased risk of error, and internal wedges were more likely to be associated with an error than external wedges (relative risk = 2.04; 95% CI, 1.11-3.77%). Eighty-seven errors (15.6%) were directly attributed to incorrect programming of the 'record and verify' system. Changes to planning and treatment processes aimed at reducing errors within the head-and-neck site group produced a substantial reduction in the error rate. Conclusions: Errors in the delivery of RT are uncommon and usually of little clinical significance. Patient subgroups and

  19. VOLUMETRIC ERROR COMPENSATION IN FIVE-AXIS CNC MACHINING CENTER THROUGH KINEMATICS MODELING OF GEOMETRIC ERROR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooyan Vahidi Pashsaki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Accuracy of a five-axis CNC machine tool is affected by a vast number of error sources. This paper investigates volumetric error modeling and its compensation to the basis for creation of new tool path for improvement of work pieces accuracy. The volumetric error model of a five-axis machine tool with the configuration RTTTR (tilting head B-axis and rotary table in work piece side A΄ was set up taking into consideration rigid body kinematics and homogeneous transformation matrix, in which 43 error components are included. Volumetric error comprises 43 error components that can separately reduce geometrical and dimensional accuracy of work pieces. The machining accuracy of work piece is guaranteed due to the position of the cutting tool center point (TCP relative to the work piece. The cutting tool is deviated from its ideal position relative to the work piece and machining error is experienced. For compensation process detection of the present tool path and analysis of the RTTTR five-axis CNC machine tools geometrical error, translating current position of component to compensated positions using the Kinematics error model, converting newly created component to new tool paths using the compensation algorithms and finally editing old G-codes using G-code generator algorithm have been employed.

  20. Measuring uncertainty in dose delivered to the cochlea due to setup error during external beam treatment of patients with cancer of the head and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, M.; Lovelock, D.; Hunt, M.; Mechalakos, J.; Hu, Y.; Pham, H.; Jackson, A., E-mail: jacksona@mskcc.org [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To use Cone Beam CT scans obtained just prior to treatments of head and neck cancer patients to measure the setup error and cumulative dose uncertainty of the cochlea. Methods: Data from 10 head and neck patients with 10 planning CTs and 52 Cone Beam CTs taken at time of treatment were used in this study. Patients were treated with conventional fractionation using an IMRT dose painting technique, most with 33 fractions. Weekly radiographic imaging was used to correct the patient setup. The authors used rigid registration of the planning CT and Cone Beam CT scans to find the translational and rotational setup errors, and the spatial setup errors of the cochlea. The planning CT was rotated and translated such that the cochlea positions match those seen in the cone beam scans, cochlea doses were recalculated and fractional doses accumulated. Uncertainties in the positions and cumulative doses of the cochlea were calculated with and without setup adjustments from radiographic imaging. Results: The mean setup error of the cochlea was 0.04 ± 0.33 or 0.06 ± 0.43 cm for RL, 0.09 ± 0.27 or 0.07 ± 0.48 cm for AP, and 0.00 ± 0.21 or −0.24 ± 0.45 cm for SI with and without radiographic imaging, respectively. Setup with radiographic imaging reduced the standard deviation of the setup error by roughly 1–2 mm. The uncertainty of the cochlea dose depends on the treatment plan and the relative positions of the cochlea and target volumes. Combining results for the left and right cochlea, the authors found the accumulated uncertainty of the cochlea dose per fraction was 4.82 (0.39–16.8) cGy, or 10.1 (0.8–32.4) cGy, with and without radiographic imaging, respectively; the percentage uncertainties relative to the planned doses were 4.32% (0.28%–9.06%) and 10.2% (0.7%–63.6%), respectively. Conclusions: Patient setup error introduces uncertainty in the position of the cochlea during radiation treatment. With the assistance of radiographic imaging during setup

  1. Characterizing occipital condyle loads under high-speed head rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintar, Frank A; Yoganandan, Narayan; Baisden, Jamie

    2005-11-01

    Because of the need to evaluate anthropomorphic test device (ATD) biofidelity under high-head angular accelerations, the purpose of the present investigation was to develop appropriate instrumentation for intact post mortem human subject (PMHS) testing, validate the instrumentation, and obtain information to characterize the response of the head-neck complex under this loading scenario. A series of rigid-arm pendulum, inertially loaded ATD tests was conducted. Head and neck ATD hydraulic piston chin pull tests were conducted. Subsequently, a series of PMHS tests was conducted to derive the response of the human head-neck under high-rate chin loading. Finally, Hybrid III and THOR-NT ATD head-neck systems were evaluated under the same scenario as the PMHS. A parametric analysis for center of gravity (CG) location and accelerometer orientation determined that even small errors (+/- 3 mm or 2 degrees), produced errors in the force and moment calculations by as much as 17 %. If the moment of inertia (MOI) term was varied by 5 %, resulting moment calculations were affected by as much as 8 %. If the 5 % error in MOI was used to compute occipital condyle moments, and results compared to upper load cell derived moments, peaks differed by as much as 24 %. The head CG and mass MOI should be directly measured for each preparation to obtain accurate results. The injury run on each specimen resulted in predominantly C1-C2 separations or partial separations. The 50(th) percentile probability of AIS=2+ neck injury using tensile force was about 2400 N; for AIS=3+ neck injury the 50(th) percentile risk was about 3180 N. When inserting extension moment as the criteria, the 50(th) percentile probability of an AIS=2+ injury was 51 Nm. The AIS=3+ extension moment at the 50(th) percentile probability was 75 Nm. The new THOR-NT ATD head-neck produced more biofidelic responses with an alternate head-neck junction design compared to the Hybrid III ATD.

  2. Giving Inertial Sensor Data Context for Communication in Applied Settings: An Example of Visual Exploration in Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas B. McGuckian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available For an athlete to make an appropriate decision and successfully perform a skill, they need to perceive opportunities for action by visually exploring their environment. The head movements that support visual exploration can easily and accurately be recorded using Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS Inertial Measurement Units (IMU in research and applied settings. However, for IMU technology to be effective in applied settings, practitioners need to be able to communicate data to coaches and players. This paper presents methods of visualising and communicating exploratory head movement data, with the aim of giving a better understanding of (a individual differences in exploratory action, and (b how IMUs can be used in applied settings to assess and monitor visual exploratory action.

  3. External Aiding Methods for IMU-Based Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-26

    Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.2.1 Startup Bias...Figure Page 1 Three Distributions Implemented for Error Parameters in SAIMUN . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2 Accelerometer Output Corrupted by Startup ...external aiding, simulate the error sources encountered in the acquisition of measurement data, emulate the navigation software, and perform a range of

  4. A Map/INS/Wi-Fi Integrated System for Indoor Location-Based Service Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunyang; Lan, Haiyu; Gu, Fuqiang; Yu, Fei; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2017-06-02

    In this research, a new Map/INS/Wi-Fi integrated system for indoor location-based service (LBS) applications based on a cascaded Particle/Kalman filter framework structure is proposed. Two-dimension indoor map information, together with measurements from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) value, are integrated for estimating positioning information. The main challenge of this research is how to make effective use of various measurements that complement each other in order to obtain an accurate, continuous, and low-cost position solution without increasing the computational burden of the system. Therefore, to eliminate the cumulative drift caused by low-cost IMU sensor errors, the ubiquitous Wi-Fi signal and non-holonomic constraints are rationally used to correct the IMU-derived navigation solution through the extended Kalman Filter (EKF). Moreover, the map-aiding method and map-matching method are innovatively combined to constrain the primary Wi-Fi/IMU-derived position through an Auxiliary Value Particle Filter (AVPF). Different sources of information are incorporated through a cascaded structure EKF/AVPF filter algorithm. Indoor tests show that the proposed method can effectively reduce the accumulation of positioning errors of a stand-alone Inertial Navigation System (INS), and provide a stable, continuous and reliable indoor location service.

  5. Mechanical analysis of ceramic head for modular hip prosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravagli, E.

    1995-03-01

    A study, performed with the department of orthopaedics of the Rome Catholic University, has found out the two possible parameters mainly responsible for head breaking, i. e. errors in conical mating between head and stem, and cracks in the heads. This study has been continued in the frame of the STRIDE-CETMA project, aimed at founding and developing a centre for technologically advanced materials in Brindisi Technology Park (Italy). This report starts a systematic mechanical analysis of the above mentioned head, with the purpose of characterizing it exhaustively. The evaluations made lead to the conclusion that in nomimal conditions, the head is largely overdimensioned, taking into account the maximum load applied to the prosthesis

  6. Are patient specific meshes required for EIT head imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehl, Markus; Aristovich, Kirill; Faulkner, Mayo; Holder, David

    2016-06-01

    Head imaging with electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is usually done with time-differential measurements, to reduce time-invariant modelling errors. Previous research suggested that more accurate head models improved image quality, but no thorough analysis has been done on the required accuracy. We propose a novel pipeline for creation of precise head meshes from magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans, which was applied to four different heads. Voltages were simulated on all four heads for perturbations of different magnitude, haemorrhage and ischaemia, in five different positions and for three levels of instrumentation noise. Statistical analysis showed that reconstructions on the correct mesh were on average 25% better than on the other meshes. However, the stroke detection rates were not improved. We conclude that a generic head mesh is sufficient for monitoring patients for secondary strokes following head trauma.

  7. Error Detection, Factorization and Correction for Multi-View Scene Reconstruction from Aerial Imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess-Flores, Mauricio [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2011-11-10

    Scene reconstruction from video sequences has become a prominent computer vision research area in recent years, due to its large number of applications in fields such as security, robotics and virtual reality. Despite recent progress in this field, there are still a number of issues that manifest as incomplete, incorrect or computationally-expensive reconstructions. The engine behind achieving reconstruction is the matching of features between images, where common conditions such as occlusions, lighting changes and texture-less regions can all affect matching accuracy. Subsequent processes that rely on matching accuracy, such as camera parameter estimation, structure computation and non-linear parameter optimization, are also vulnerable to additional sources of error, such as degeneracies and mathematical instability. Detection and correction of errors, along with robustness in parameter solvers, are a must in order to achieve a very accurate final scene reconstruction. However, error detection is in general difficult due to the lack of ground-truth information about the given scene, such as the absolute position of scene points or GPS/IMU coordinates for the camera(s) viewing the scene. In this dissertation, methods are presented for the detection, factorization and correction of error sources present in all stages of a scene reconstruction pipeline from video, in the absence of ground-truth knowledge. Two main applications are discussed. The first set of algorithms derive total structural error measurements after an initial scene structure computation and factorize errors into those related to the underlying feature matching process and those related to camera parameter estimation. A brute-force local correction of inaccurate feature matches is presented, as well as an improved conditioning scheme for non-linear parameter optimization which applies weights on input parameters in proportion to estimated camera parameter errors. Another application is in

  8. Determination of head conductivity frequency response in vivo with optimized EIT-EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabek, Juhani; Kalogianni, Konstantina; Rotgans, Edwin; van der Helm, Frans C T; Kwakkel, Gert; van Wegen, Erwin E H; Daffertshofer, Andreas; de Munck, Jan C

    2016-02-15

    Electroencephalography (EEG) benefits from accurate head models. Dipole source modelling errors can be reduced from over 1cm to a few millimetres by replacing generic head geometry and conductivity with tailored ones. When adequate head geometry is available, electrical impedance tomography (EIT) can be used to infer the conductivities of head tissues. In this study, the boundary element method (BEM) is applied with three-compartment (scalp, skull and brain) subject-specific head models. The optimal injection of small currents to the head with a modular EIT current injector, and voltage measurement by an EEG amplifier is first sought by simulations. The measurement with a 64-electrode EEG layout is studied with respect to three noise sources affecting EIT: background EEG, deviations from the fitting assumption of equal scalp and brain conductivities, and smooth model geometry deviations from the true head geometry. The noise source effects were investigated depending on the positioning of the injection and extraction electrode and the number of their combinations used sequentially. The deviation from equal scalp and brain conductivities produces rather deterministic errors in the three conductivities irrespective of the current injection locations. With a realistic measurement of around 2 min and around 8 distant distinct current injection pairs, the error from the other noise sources is reduced to around 10% or less in the skull conductivity. The analysis of subsequent real measurements, however, suggests that there could be subject-specific local thinnings in the skull, which could amplify the conductivity fitting errors. With proper analysis of multiplexed sinusoidal EIT current injections, the measurements on average yielded conductivities of 340 mS/m (scalp and brain) and 6.6 mS/m (skull) at 2 Hz. From 11 to 127 Hz, the conductivities increased by 1.6% (scalp and brain) and 6.7% (skull) on the average. The proper analysis was ensured by using recombination of

  9. Mechanical analysis of a ceramic head being part of a modular hip prosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravagli, Ermenegildo

    1998-04-01

    This report still pursues the aim of carrying out a systematic mechanical analysis of a ceramic head being part of a modular hip prosthesis, in order to characterize it exhaustively, i.e. to assess its performances and some of its main specifications. Here in particular the aim is to locate the stress of the head when it undergoes the load transferred by the stem, presuming that the stem-head mating is not perfect, but there is a conical error called of the 2. type, to which corresponds a stem summit angle smaller than the one in the head hole. This conical error changes considerably the head stress and therefore this study is considered decisive for a later correct assessment of its resistance to breaking. This study is performed in the frame of the STRIDE-CETMA Project, which is aimed at founding and developing a Centre for technologically advanced materials in Brindisi (Italy) Technology Park [it

  10. Evaluation of dose prediction errors and optimization convergence errors of deliverable-based head-and-neck IMRT plans computed with a superposition/convolution dose algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihaylov, I. B.; Siebers, J. V.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dose prediction errors (DPEs) and optimization convergence errors (OCEs) resulting from use of a superposition/convolution dose calculation algorithm in deliverable intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) optimization for head-and-neck (HN) patients. Thirteen HN IMRT patient plans were retrospectively reoptimized. The IMRT optimization was performed in three sequential steps: (1) fast optimization in which an initial nondeliverable IMRT solution was achieved and then converted to multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf sequences; (2) mixed deliverable optimization that used a Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm to account for the incident photon fluence modulation by the MLC, whereas a superposition/convolution (SC) dose calculation algorithm was utilized for the patient dose calculations; and (3) MC deliverable-based optimization in which both fluence and patient dose calculations were performed with a MC algorithm. DPEs of the mixed method were quantified by evaluating the differences between the mixed optimization SC dose result and a MC dose recalculation of the mixed optimization solution. OCEs of the mixed method were quantified by evaluating the differences between the MC recalculation of the mixed optimization solution and the final MC optimization solution. The results were analyzed through dose volume indices derived from the cumulative dose-volume histograms for selected anatomic structures. Statistical equivalence tests were used to determine the significance of the DPEs and the OCEs. Furthermore, a correlation analysis between DPEs and OCEs was performed. The evaluated DPEs were within ±2.8% while the OCEs were within 5.5%, indicating that OCEs can be clinically significant even when DPEs are clinically insignificant. The full MC-dose-based optimization reduced normal tissue dose by as much as 8.5% compared with the mixed-method optimization results. The DPEs and the OCEs in the targets had correlation coefficients greater

  11. Analysis of constant-head well tests in nonporous fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doe, T.; Remer, J.

    1981-01-01

    If one compares the results of steady analyses and transient flowrate analyses, the error in assuming steady flow is less than an order of magnitude for reasonable values of storativity, and this error can be minimized through proper choice of radius of influence. Although the steady flow assumptions do not result in large errors in the calculation of permeability, careful design of constant-head well tests can yield not only storativity, but also qualitative information on the areal extent of permeable zones or fractures tested. Constant-head well tests have several major advantages over other well test techniques in low permeability rock. Unlike pump tests, wellbore storage effects are virtually nonexistant. Provided low-flow measurement apparatus is available, constant-level tests are far more rapid than slug tests and, unlike pulse tests, compliance of equipment is not a factor, since the system is maintained at constant pressure throughout the test

  12. Heading Estimation of Robot Combine Harvesters during Turning Maneuveres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mostafizar; Ishii, Kazunobu

    2018-05-01

    Absolute heading is an important parameter for a robot combine harvester or a robot tracked combine harvester, especially while it is turning, but due to the rapid turning of robot combine harvesters, its inertial measurement unit gives a gyro measurement bias that causes heading drift. Our research goal is to estimate the absolute heading of robot combine harvesters by compensating this gyro measurement bias during non-linear turning maneuvers. A sensor fusion method like the extended Kalman filter combined with the tracked combine harvester dynamic model and sensor measurements was used to estimate the absolute heading of a robot combine harvester. Circular, sinusoidal and concave shapes were used to evaluate the estimated heading produced by the sensor fusion method. The results indicate that the estimated heading is better than measured heading which was calculated from the integration of yaw rate gyro measurements, and the root mean square errors (RMSEs) for estimated headings are smaller than the measured headings. In practics, the target of this paper is thus the estimation of a heading or absolute heading that is bias compensated, and can be further used to calculate the exact crop periphery for automatic path planning of robot combine harvesters.

  13. Practical method for estimating road curvatures using onboard GPS and IMU equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamfir, S.; Drosescu, R.; Gaiginschi, R.

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes an experimental method to determine with high accuracy the curvature of a road segment, the turning radius of a car, and the discomfort level perceived by the passengers in the vehicle cabin when passing through a curve. For these experiments we used professional equipment provided with two GPS active antennas with 13 dB gain featuring non-contact 100 Hz speed and distance measurement, and a ten degree Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) with dynamic orientation outputs. The same experimental measurements also usedthe low cost GPS equipment available on smartphones, domestic vehicle GPS devices, as well as an Arduino GPS shield in order to compare the results generated by professional equipment. The purpose of these experiments was also to establish if certain road curve sections were correctly executed in order to ensure the safety and comfort of passengers. Another use of the proposed method relates to the road accident reconstruction field, providing experts and forensics with an accurate method of measuring the roadway curvature at accident scenes or traffic events. The research and equipment described in this paper have been acquired and developed under a PhD studyand a European funded project won and elaborated by the authors.

  14. Sound localization with head movement: implications for 3-d audio displays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Ian McAnally

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the accuracy of sound localization is improved if listeners are allowed to move their heads during signal presentation. This study describes the function relating localization accuracy to the extent of head movement in azimuth. Sounds that are difficult to localize were presented in the free field from sources at a wide range of azimuths and elevations. Sounds remained active until the participants’ heads had rotated through windows ranging in width of 2°, 4°, 8°, 16°, 32°, or 64° of azimuth. Error in determining sound-source elevation and the rate of front/back confusion were found to decrease with increases in azimuth window width. Error in determining sound-source lateral angle was not found to vary with azimuth window width. Implications for 3-d audio displays: The utility of a 3-d audio display for imparting spatial information is likely to be improved if operators are able to move their heads during signal presentation. Head movement may compensate in part for a paucity of spectral cues to sound-source location resulting from limitations in either the audio signals presented or the directional filters (i.e., head-related transfer functions used to generate a display. However, head movements of a moderate size (i.e., through around 32° of azimuth may be required to ensure that spatial information is conveyed with high accuracy.

  15. A randomized controlled trial comparing customized versus standard headrests for head and neck radiotherapy immobilization in terms of set-up errors, patient comfort and staff satisfaction (ICORG 08-09)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howlin, C.; O'Shea, E.; Dunne, M.; Mullaney, L.; McGarry, M.; Clayton-Lea, A.; Finn, M.; Carter, P.; Garret, B.; Thirion, P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To recommend a specific headrest, customized or standard, for head and neck radiotherapy patients in our institution based primarily on an evaluation of set-up accuracy, taking into account a comparison of patient comfort, staff and patient satisfaction, and resource implications. Methods and materials: Between 2008 and 2009, 40 head and neck patients were randomized to either a standard (Arm A, n = 21) or customized (Arm B, n = 19) headrest, and immobilized with a customized thermoplastic mask. Set-up accuracy was assessed using electronic portal images (EPI). Random and systematic set-up errors for each arm were determined from 668 EPIs, which were analyzed by one Radiation Therapist. Patient comfort was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and staff satisfaction was measured using an in-house questionnaire. Resource implications were also evaluated. Results: The difference in set-up errors between arms was not significant in any direction. However, in this study the standard headrest (SH) arm performed well, with set-up errors comparative to customized headrests (CHs) in previous studies. CHs require regular monitoring and 47% were re-vacuumed making them more resource intensive. Patient comfort and staff satisfaction were comparable in both arms. Conclusion: The SH provided similar treatment accuracy and patient comfort compared with the CH. The large number of CHs that needed to be re-vacuumed undermines their reliability for radiotherapy schedules that extend beyond 34 days from the initial CT scan. Accordingly the CH was more resource intensive without improving the accuracy of positioning, thus the standard headrest is recommended for continued use at our institution

  16. Clinical significance of multi-leaf collimator calibration errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norvill, Craig; Jenetsky, Guy

    2016-01-01

    This planning study investigates the clinical impact of multi-leaf collimator (MLC) calibration errors on three common treatment sites; head and neck (H&N), prostate and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung. All plans used using either volumetric modulated adaptive therapy or dynamic MLC techniques. Five patient plans were retrospectively selected from each treatment site, and MLC errors intentionally introduced. MLC errors of 0.7, 0.4 and 0.2 mm were sufficient to cause major violations in the PTV planning criteria for the H&N, prostate and SBRT lung plans. Mean PTV dose followed a linear trend with MLC error, increasing at rates of 3.2–5.9 % per millimeter depending on treatment site. The results indicate that an MLC quality assurance program that provides sub-millimeter accuracy is an important component of intensity modulated radiotherapy delivery techniques.

  17. Skull Defects in Finite Element Head Models for Source Reconstruction from Magnetoencephalography Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Stephan; Güllmar, Daniel; Flemming, Lars; Grayden, David B.; Cook, Mark J.; Wolters, Carsten H.; Haueisen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals are influenced by skull defects. However, there is a lack of evidence of this influence during source reconstruction. Our objectives are to characterize errors in source reconstruction from MEG signals due to ignoring skull defects and to assess the ability of an exact finite element head model to eliminate such errors. A detailed finite element model of the head of a rabbit used in a physical experiment was constructed from magnetic resonance and co-registered computer tomography imaging that differentiated nine tissue types. Sources of the MEG measurements above intact skull and above skull defects respectively were reconstructed using a finite element model with the intact skull and one incorporating the skull defects. The forward simulation of the MEG signals reproduced the experimentally observed characteristic magnitude and topography changes due to skull defects. Sources reconstructed from measured MEG signals above intact skull matched the known physical locations and orientations. Ignoring skull defects in the head model during reconstruction displaced sources under a skull defect away from that defect. Sources next to a defect were reoriented. When skull defects, with their physical conductivity, were incorporated in the head model, the location and orientation errors were mostly eliminated. The conductivity of the skull defect material non-uniformly modulated the influence on MEG signals. We propose concrete guidelines for taking into account conducting skull defects during MEG coil placement and modeling. Exact finite element head models can improve localization of brain function, specifically after surgery. PMID:27092044

  18. Heading Estimation of Robot Combine Harvesters during Turning Maneuveres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mostafizar Rahman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Absolute heading is an important parameter for a robot combine harvester or a robot tracked combine harvester, especially while it is turning, but due to the rapid turning of robot combine harvesters, its inertial measurement unit gives a gyro measurement bias that causes heading drift. Our research goal is to estimate the absolute heading of robot combine harvesters by compensating this gyro measurement bias during non-linear turning maneuvers. A sensor fusion method like the extended Kalman filter combined with the tracked combine harvester dynamic model and sensor measurements was used to estimate the absolute heading of a robot combine harvester. Circular, sinusoidal and concave shapes were used to evaluate the estimated heading produced by the sensor fusion method. The results indicate that the estimated heading is better than measured heading which was calculated from the integration of yaw rate gyro measurements, and the root mean square errors (RMSEs for estimated headings are smaller than the measured headings. In practics, the target of this paper is thus the estimation of a heading or absolute heading that is bias compensated, and can be further used to calculate the exact crop periphery for automatic path planning of robot combine harvesters.

  19. Comparative study of anatomical normalization errors in SPM and 3D-SSP using digital brain phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Hideo; Matsutake, Yuki; Kawashima, Hiroki; Matsutomo, Norikazu; Amijima, Hizuru

    2011-01-01

    In single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cerebral blood flow studies, two major algorithms are widely used statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP). The aim of this study is to compare an SPM algorithm-based easy Z score imaging system (eZIS) and a 3D-SSP system in the errors of anatomical standardization using 3D-digital brain phantom images. We developed a 3D-brain digital phantom based on MR images to simulate the effects of head tilt, perfusion defective region size, and count value reduction rate on the SPECT images. This digital phantom was used to compare the errors of anatomical standardization by the eZIS and the 3D-SSP algorithms. While the eZIS allowed accurate standardization of the images of the phantom simulating a head in rotation, lateroflexion, anteflexion, or retroflexion without angle dependency, the standardization by 3D-SSP was not accurate enough at approximately 25° or more head tilt. When the simulated head contained perfusion defective regions, one of the 3D-SSP images showed an error of 6.9% from the true value. Meanwhile, one of the eZIS images showed an error as large as 63.4%, revealing a significant underestimation. When required to evaluate regions with decreased perfusion due to such causes as hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, the 3D-SSP is desirable. In a statistical image analysis, we must reconfirm the image after anatomical standardization by all means.

  20. Influence of random setup error on dose distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Zhenyu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of random setup error on dose distribution in radiotherapy and determine the margin from ITV to PTV. Methods: A random sample approach was used to simulate the fields position in target coordinate system. Cumulative effect of random setup error was the sum of dose distributions of all individual treatment fractions. Study of 100 cumulative effects might get shift sizes of 90% dose point position. Margins from ITV to PTV caused by random setup error were chosen by 95% probability. Spearman's correlation was used to analyze the influence of each factor. Results: The average shift sizes of 90% dose point position was 0.62, 1.84, 3.13, 4.78, 6.34 and 8.03 mm if random setup error was 1,2,3,4,5 and 6 mm,respectively. Univariate analysis showed the size of margin was associated only by the size of random setup error. Conclusions: Margin of ITV to PTV is 1.2 times random setup error for head-and-neck cancer and 1.5 times for thoracic and abdominal cancer. Field size, energy and target depth, unlike random setup error, have no relation with the size of the margin. (authors)

  1. Head and neck position sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Bridget; McNair, Peter; Taylor, Denise

    2008-01-01

    fails to be appropriately integrated in the CNS, errors in head position may occur, resulting in an inaccurate reference for HNPS, and conversely if neck proprioceptive information is inaccurate, then control of head position may be affected. The cerebellum and cortex also play a role in control of head position, providing feed-forward and modulatory influences depending on the task requirements. Position-matching tasks have been the most popular means of testing position sense in the cervical spine. These allow the appreciation of absolute, constant and variable errors in positioning and have been shown to be reliable. The results of such tests indicate that errors are relatively low (2-5 degrees). It is apparent that error is not consistently affected by age, a finding similar to studies undertaken in peripheral joints. Furthermore, the range of motion in which subjects are tested does not consistently affect accuracy in a predictable manner. However, it is evident that impairments in position sense are observed in individuals who have experienced whiplash-type injuries and individuals with chronic head and neck pain of non-traumatic origin (e.g. cervical spondylosis). While researchers advocate comprehensive retraining protocols, which include eye and neck motion targeting tasks and coordination exercises, as well as co-contraction exercises to reduce such impairments, some studies show that more general exercises and manipulation may be of benefit. Overall, there is limited information concerning the efficacy of treatment programmes.

  2. Head and Helmet Biodynamics and Tracking Performance in Vibration Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Suzanne D; Smith, Jeanne A

    2006-01-01

    ...) and Up (40" elevation, 0" azimuth)], and three helmet CCs were tested. The overall head, helmet, and helmet slippage displacement rotations, and rms tracking error and percent time-on-target were evaluated...

  3. Head and bit patterned media optimization at areal densities of 2.5 Tbit/in2 and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, M.A.; Schrefl, T.; Dean, J.; Goncharov, A.; Hrkac, G.; Allwood, D.A.; Suess, D.

    2012-01-01

    Global optimization of writing head is performed using micromagnetics and surrogate optimization. The shape of the pole tip is optimized for bit patterned, exchange spring recording media. The media characteristics define the effective write field and the threshold values for the head field that acts at islands in the adjacent track. Once the required head field characteristics are defined, the pole tip geometry is optimized in order to achieve a high gradient of the effective write field while keeping the write field at the adjacent track below a given value. We computed the write error rate and the adjacent track erasure for different maximum anisotropy in the multilayer, graded media. The results show a linear trade off between the error rate and the number of passes before erasure. For optimal head media combinations we found a bit error rate of 10 -6 with 10 8 pass lines before erasure at 2.5 Tbit/in 2 . - Research Highlights: → Global optimization of writing head is performed using micromagnetics and surrogate optimization. → A method is provided to optimize the pole tip shape while maintaining the head field that acts in the adjacent tracks. → Patterned media structures providing an area density of 2.5 Tbit/in 2 are discussed as a case study. → Media reliability is studied, while taking into account, the magnetostatic field interactions from neighbouring islands and adjacent track erasure under the influence of head field.

  4. Sources of variability and systematic error in mouse timing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R; King, Adam; McDonald, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In the peak procedure, starts and stops in responding bracket the target time at which food is expected. The variability in start and stop times is proportional to the target time (scalar variability), as is the systematic error in the mean center (scalar error). The authors investigated the source of the error and the variability, using head poking in the mouse, with target intervals of 5 s, 15 s, and 45 s, in the standard procedure, and in a variant with 3 different target intervals at 3 different locations in a single trial. The authors conclude that the systematic error is due to the asymmetric location of start and stop decision criteria, and the scalar variability derives primarily from sources other than memory.

  5. Hydraulic head interpolation using ANFIS—model selection and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtulus, Bedri; Flipo, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the efficiency of ANFIS (adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system) for interpolating hydraulic head in a 40-km 2 agricultural watershed of the Seine basin (France). Inputs of ANFIS are Cartesian coordinates and the elevation of the ground. Hydraulic head was measured at 73 locations during a snapshot campaign on September 2009, which characterizes low-water-flow regime in the aquifer unit. The dataset was then split into three subsets using a square-based selection method: a calibration one (55%), a training one (27%), and a test one (18%). First, a method is proposed to select the best ANFIS model, which corresponds to a sensitivity analysis of ANFIS to the type and number of membership functions (MF). Triangular, Gaussian, general bell, and spline-based MF are used with 2, 3, 4, and 5 MF per input node. Performance criteria on the test subset are used to select the 5 best ANFIS models among 16. Then each is used to interpolate the hydraulic head distribution on a (50×50)-m grid, which is compared to the soil elevation. The cells where the hydraulic head is higher than the soil elevation are counted as "error cells." The ANFIS model that exhibits the less "error cells" is selected as the best ANFIS model. The best model selection reveals that ANFIS models are very sensitive to the type and number of MF. Finally, a sensibility analysis of the best ANFIS model with four triangular MF is performed on the interpolation grid, which shows that ANFIS remains stable to error propagation with a higher sensitivity to soil elevation.

  6. Consequences of leaf calibration errors on IMRT delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastre-Padro, M; Welleweerd, J; Malinen, E; Eilertsen, K; Olsen, D R; Heide, U A van der

    2007-01-01

    IMRT treatments using multi-leaf collimators may involve a large number of segments in order to spare the organs at risk. When a large proportion of these segments are small, leaf positioning errors may become relevant and have therapeutic consequences. The performance of four head and neck IMRT treatments under eight different cases of leaf positioning errors has been studied. Systematic leaf pair offset errors in the range of ±2.0 mm were introduced, thus modifying the segment sizes of the original IMRT plans. Thirty-six films were irradiated with the original and modified segments. The dose difference and the gamma index (with 2%/2 mm criteria) were used for evaluating the discrepancies between the irradiated films. The median dose differences were linearly related to the simulated leaf pair errors. In the worst case, a 2.0 mm error generated a median dose difference of 1.5%. Following the gamma analysis, two out of the 32 modified plans were not acceptable. In conclusion, small systematic leaf bank positioning errors have a measurable impact on the delivered dose and may have consequences for the therapeutic outcome of IMRT

  7. Comparative study of anatomical normalization errors in SPM and 3D-SSP using digital brain phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Hideo; Matsutomo, Norikazu; Matsutake, Yuki; Kawashima, Hiroki; Amijima, Hizuru

    2011-01-01

    In single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cerebral blood flow studies, two major algorithms are widely used statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP). The aim of this study is to compare an SPM algorithm-based easy Z score imaging system (eZIS) and a 3D-SSP system in the errors of anatomical standardization using 3D-digital brain phantom images. We developed a 3D-brain digital phantom based on MR images to simulate the effects of head tilt, perfusion defective region size, and count value reduction rate on the SPECT images. This digital phantom was used to compare the errors of anatomical standardization by the eZIS and the 3D-SSP algorithms. While the eZIS allowed accurate standardization of the images of the phantom simulating a head in rotation, lateroflexion, anteflexion, or retroflexion without angle dependency, the standardization by 3D-SSP was not accurate enough at approximately 25 deg or more head tilt. When the simulated head contained perfusion defective regions, one of the 3D-SSP images showed an error of 6.9% from the true value. Meanwhile, one of the eZIS images showed an error as large as 63.4%, revealing a significant underestimation. When required to evaluate regions with decreased perfusion due to such causes as hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, the 3D-SSP is desirable. In a statistical image analysis, we must reconfirm the image after anatomical standardization by all means. (author)

  8. Errors in MR-based attenuation correction for brain imaging with PET/MR scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rota Kops, Elena; Herzog, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Attenuation correction of PET data acquired by hybrid MR/PET scanners remains a challenge, even if several methods for brain and whole-body measurements have been developed recently. A template-based attenuation correction for brain imaging proposed by our group is easy to handle and delivers reliable attenuation maps in a short time. However, some potential error sources are analyzed in this study. We investigated the choice of template reference head among all the available data (error A), and possible skull anomalies of the specific patient, such as discontinuities due to surgery (error B). Materials and methods: An anatomical MR measurement and a 2-bed-position transmission scan covering the whole head and neck region were performed in eight normal subjects (4 females, 4 males). Error A: Taking alternatively one of the eight heads as reference, eight different templates were created by nonlinearly registering the images to the reference and calculating the average. Eight patients (4 females, 4 males; 4 with brain lesions, 4 w/o brain lesions) were measured in the Siemens BrainPET/MR scanner. The eight templates were used to generate the patients' attenuation maps required for reconstruction. ROI and VOI atlas-based comparisons were performed employing all the reconstructed images. Error B: CT-based attenuation maps of two volunteers were manipulated by manually inserting several skull lesions and filling a nasal cavity. The corresponding attenuation coefficients were substituted with the water's coefficient (0.096/cm). Results: Error A: The mean SUVs over the eight templates pairs for all eight patients and all VOIs did not differ significantly one from each other. Standard deviations up to 1.24% were found. Error B: After reconstruction of the volunteers' BrainPET data with the CT-based attenuation maps without and with skull anomalies, a VOI-atlas analysis was performed revealing very little influence of the skull lesions (less than 3%), while the filled

  9. Errors in MR-based attenuation correction for brain imaging with PET/MR scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota Kops, Elena; Herzog, Hans

    2013-02-01

    AimAttenuation correction of PET data acquired by hybrid MR/PET scanners remains a challenge, even if several methods for brain and whole-body measurements have been developed recently. A template-based attenuation correction for brain imaging proposed by our group is easy to handle and delivers reliable attenuation maps in a short time. However, some potential error sources are analyzed in this study. We investigated the choice of template reference head among all the available data (error A), and possible skull anomalies of the specific patient, such as discontinuities due to surgery (error B). Materials and methodsAn anatomical MR measurement and a 2-bed-position transmission scan covering the whole head and neck region were performed in eight normal subjects (4 females, 4 males). Error A: Taking alternatively one of the eight heads as reference, eight different templates were created by nonlinearly registering the images to the reference and calculating the average. Eight patients (4 females, 4 males; 4 with brain lesions, 4 w/o brain lesions) were measured in the Siemens BrainPET/MR scanner. The eight templates were used to generate the patients' attenuation maps required for reconstruction. ROI and VOI atlas-based comparisons were performed employing all the reconstructed images. Error B: CT-based attenuation maps of two volunteers were manipulated by manually inserting several skull lesions and filling a nasal cavity. The corresponding attenuation coefficients were substituted with the water's coefficient (0.096/cm). ResultsError A: The mean SUVs over the eight templates pairs for all eight patients and all VOIs did not differ significantly one from each other. Standard deviations up to 1.24% were found. Error B: After reconstruction of the volunteers' BrainPET data with the CT-based attenuation maps without and with skull anomalies, a VOI-atlas analysis was performed revealing very little influence of the skull lesions (less than 3%), while the filled nasal

  10. Validation of head scatter factor for an Elekta synergy platform linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannes, N.B.

    2013-07-01

    A semi-empirical method has been proposed and developed to model and compute head or collimator scatter factors for 6 and 15 MV photon beams from Elekta Synergy platform linear accelerator at the radiation oncology centre of 'Sweden-Ghana Medical Centre Limited', East Legon Hills in Accra. The proposed model was based on two dimensional Gaussian distribution, whose output was compared to measured head scatter factor data for the linear accelerator obtained during commissioning of the teletherapy machine. The two dimensions Gaussian distribution model used physical specifications and configuration of the head unit (collimator system) of the linear accelerator, which were obtained from the user manual provided by the manufacturer of the linear accelerator. The algorithm for the model was implemented using Matlab software in the Microsoft windows environment. The model was done for both square and rectangular fields, and the output compared with corresponding measured data. The comparisons for the square fields were used to establish an error term in the Gaussian distribution function. The error term was determined by plotting the difference between the output factors from MatLab and the corresponding measured data as function of one side of a square field (equivalent square field). The correlation equation of the curve obtained was chosen as the error term, which was incorporated into the Gaussian distribution function. This was repeated for two photon beam energies (6 and 15 MV). The refined Gaussian distributions were then used to determine head scatter factors for square and rectangular fields. For the rectangular fields, Sterling's proposed formula was used to find equivalent square used to obtain the equivalent square fields found in the error terms of the proposed formula was sed to find equivalent square used to obtain the equivalent square fields found in the error terms of the proposed and developed model. The output of the 2D Gaussian distribution without

  11. Development of a detection system for head movement robust to illumination change at radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Takuya; Ogawa, Koichi; Iyatomi, Hitoshi; Kunieda, Etsuo

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the development of a detection system for head movement at stereotactic radio-therapy of head tumors. In the system, the pattern matching algorithm is applied as follows. Regions of interest like the nose and right/ left ears, the objects of movement to be traced, are selected by GUI (graphical user interface) from pictures taken by 3 USB cameras (DC-NCR20U, Hanwha, Japan) set around the head on the supportive arms to make the template of standard position; the frame pictures (5 fps) inputted as the real-time monitor are matched to the template so that the actual movement can be detected by the distance between the template and collation points; and precision is improved by calculating mean square errors. Alarming is set when the movement exceeds the permissible range. At the actual clinical site, as the wrong detection of the movement occurs by illumination change caused by the gantry migration, infrared pictures are taken in place of the ordinary room light condition. This results in reduction of position errors from 16.7, 9.5 and 8.1 mm (the latter light condition) to 0.6, 0.3 and 0.2 mm (infrared), of the nose, right and left ears, respectively. Thus a detection system for head movement robust (error <1 mm) to illumination change at radio-therapy is established. (T.T.)

  12. Design considerations for a suboptimal Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difilippo, D. J.

    1995-06-01

    In designing a suboptimal Kalman filter, the designer must decide how to simplify the system error model without causing the filter estimation errors to increase to unacceptable levels. Deletion of certain error states and decoupling of error state dynamics are the two principal model simplifications that are commonly used in suboptimal filter design. For the most part, the decisions as to which error states can be deleted or decoupled are based on the designer's understanding of the physics of the particular system. Consequently, the details of a suboptimal design are usually unique to the specific application. In this paper, the process of designing a suboptimal Kalman filter is illustrated for the case of an airborne transfer-of-alignment (TOA) system used for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) motion compensation. In this application, the filter must continuously transfer the alignment of an onboard Doppler-damped master inertial navigation system (INS) to a strapdown navigator that processes information from a less accurate inertial measurement unit (IMU) mounted on the radar antenna. The IMU is used to measure spurious antenna motion during the SAR imaging interval, so that compensating phase corrections can be computed and applied to the radar returns, thereby presenting image degradation that would otherwise result from such motions. The principles of SAR are described in many references, for instance. The primary function of the TOA Kalman filter in a SAR motion compensation system is to control strapdown navigator attitude errors, and to a less degree, velocity and heading errors. Unlike a classical navigation application, absolute positional accuracy is not important. The motion compensation requirements for SAR imaging are discussed in some detail. This TOA application is particularly appropriate as a vehicle for discussing suboptimal filter design, because the system contains features that can be exploited to allow both deletion and decoupling of error

  13. Symmetric and Asymmetric Patterns of Attraction Errors in Producing Subject-Predicate Agreement in Hebrew: An Issue of Morphological Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Avital; Dank, Maya

    2011-01-01

    A common characteristic of subject-predicate agreement errors (usually termed attraction errors) in complex noun phrases is an asymmetrical pattern of error distribution, depending on the inflectional state of the nouns comprising the complex noun phrase. That is, attraction is most likely to occur when the head noun is the morphologically…

  14. Evaluation of linear measurements of implant sites based o head orientation during acquisition: An ex vivo study using cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabban, Hanadi; Mahdian, Mina; Dhingra, Ajay; Lurie, Alan G.; Tadinada, Aditya [University of Connecticut School of Dental Medicine, Farmington (United States)

    2015-06-15

    This study evaluated the effect of various head orientations during cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) image acquisition on linear measurements of potential implant sites. Six dry human skulls with a total of 28 implant sites were evaluated for seven different head orientations. The scans were acquired using a Hitachi CB-MercuRay CBCT machine. The scanned volumes were reconstructed. Horizontal and vertical measurements were made and were compared to measurements made after simulating the head position to corrected head angulations. Data was analyzed using a two-way ANOVA test. Statistical analysis revealed a significant interaction between the mean errors in vertical measurements with a marked difference observed at the extension head position (P<0.05). Statistical analysis failed to yield any significant interaction between the mean errors in horizontal measurements at various head positions. Head orientation could significantly affect the vertical measurements in CBCT scans. The main head position influencing the measurements is extension.

  15. Evaluation of image-guidance protocols in the treatment of head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeidan, Omar A.; Langen, Katja M.; Meeks, Sanford L.; Manon, Rafael R.; Wagner, Thomas H.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Jenkins, D. Wayne; Kupelian, Patrick A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the residual setup error of different image-guidance (IG) protocols in the alignment of patients with head and neck cancer. The protocols differ in the percentage of treatment fractions that are associated with image guidance. Using data from patients who were treated with daily IG, the residual setup errors for several different protocols are retrospectively calculated. Methods and Materials: Alignment data from 24 patients (802 fractions) treated with daily IG on a helical tomotherapy unit were analyzed. The difference between the daily setup correction and the setup correction that would have been made according to a specific protocol was used to calculate the residual setup errors for each protocol. Results: The different protocols are generally effective in reducing systematic setup errors. Random setup errors are generally not reduced for fractions that are not image guided. As a consequence, if every other treatment is image guided, still about 11% of all treatments (IG and not IG) are subject to three-dimensional setup errors of at least 5 mm. This frequency increases to about 29% if setup errors >3 mm are scored. For various protocols that require 15% to 31% of the treatments to be image guided, from 50% to 60% and from 26% to 31% of all fractions are subject to setup errors >3 mm and >5 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Residual setup errors reduce with increasing frequency of IG during the course of external-beam radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer patients. The inability to reduce random setup errors for fractions that are not image guided results in notable residual setup errors

  16. Development and optimization design of pit turbine with super low-head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C X; Li, X X; Huang, F J; Zheng, Y; QZhou, D

    2012-01-01

    Tubular turbines have many advantages such as large flow, high-speed, high efficiency, wide and high efficiency area, compact structure, simple layout, etc. With those advantages, tubular turbine is becoming one of the most economic and suitable types of turbines to develop low head hydraulic resources. According to the general situation of the hydropower station in the north of Jiangsu, a super low head pit turbine which head is set as about 2m is developed by the research to utilize the low head hydraulic resource.The CFD technology was used to calculate the flow field. The computing zone was meshed with unstructured gird. The whole flow passage of shaft type tubular turbine was calculated by 3-d steady turbulent numerical simulation. The detail of flowthrough the whole flowpassage was attained and the influence to the turbine's performance was analyzed by the low head runner blade's various diameters, airfoils and setting angles. The best turbine runner was obtained by considering all the methods. Meeting the station's requirements, the results show that the runner exhibits the highest performance in the efficiency, hydraulic loss and static pressure sides with 1.75m diameter, optimized airfoil and 23 degree setting angle. The developed super low head pit turbine shows highest efficiency under the design condition of 2.1m water head and 10m 3 /s flow rate. GD-WS-35 turbine model test was carried out tostudy the performance of the turbine. On the basis ofmodel transformation principle,the numerical simulationresultof GD-WS-175turbine was compared with the model results. It's showed that the model test result is basically consistent with numerical simulationresult. The producing error in the numerical computation is not easy to control. The efficiency's error range is ±3%.

  17. A self-calibration method in single-axis rotational inertial navigation system with rotating mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanpei; Wang, Lingcao; Li, Kui

    2017-10-01

    Rotary inertial navigation modulation mechanism can greatly improve the inertial navigation system (INS) accuracy through the rotation. Based on the single-axis rotational inertial navigation system (RINS), a self-calibration method is put forward. The whole system is applied with the rotation modulation technique so that whole inertial measurement unit (IMU) of system can rotate around the motor shaft without any external input. In the process of modulation, some important errors can be decoupled. Coupled with the initial position information and attitude information of the system as the reference, the velocity errors and attitude errors in the rotation are used as measurement to perform Kalman filtering to estimate part of important errors of the system after which the errors can be compensated into the system. The simulation results show that the method can complete the self-calibration of the single-axis RINS in 15 minutes and estimate gyro drifts of three-axis, the installation error angle of the IMU and the scale factor error of the gyro on z-axis. The calibration accuracy of optic gyro drifts could be about 0.003°/h (1σ) as well as the scale factor error could be about 1 parts per million (1σ). The errors estimate reaches the system requirements which can effectively improve the longtime navigation accuracy of the vehicle or the boat.

  18. A miniature shoe-mounted orientation determination system for accurate indoor heading and trajectory tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengzhi; Yu, Shuai; Liu, Chaojun; Liu, Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Tracking the position of pedestrian is urgently demanded when the most commonly used GPS (Global Position System) is unavailable. Benefited from the small size, low-power consumption, and relatively high reliability, micro-electro-mechanical system sensors are well suited for GPS-denied indoor pedestrian heading estimation. In this paper, a real-time miniature orientation determination system (MODS) was developed for indoor heading and trajectory tracking based on a novel dual-linear Kalman filter. The proposed filter precludes the impact of geomagnetic distortions on pitch and roll that the heading is subjected to. A robust calibration approach was designed to improve the accuracy of sensors measurements based on a unified sensor model. Online tests were performed on the MODS with an improved turntable. The results demonstrate that the average RMSE (root-mean-square error) of heading estimation is less than 1°. Indoor heading experiments were carried out with the MODS mounted on the shoe of pedestrian. Besides, we integrated the existing MODS into an indoor pedestrian dead reckoning application as an example of its utility in realistic actions. A human attitude-based walking model was developed to calculate the walking distance. Test results indicate that mean percentage error of indoor trajectory tracking achieves 2% of the total walking distance. This paper provides a feasible alternative for accurate indoor heading and trajectory tracking.

  19. Addressee Errors in ATC Communications: The Call Sign Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monan, W. P.

    1983-01-01

    Communication errors involving aircraft call signs were portrayed in reports of 462 hazardous incidents voluntarily submitted to the ASRS during an approximate four-year period. These errors resulted in confusion, disorder, and uncoordinated traffic conditions and produced the following types of operational anomalies: altitude deviations, wrong-way headings, aborted takeoffs, go arounds, runway incursions, missed crossing altitude restrictions, descents toward high terrain, and traffic conflicts in flight and on the ground. Analysis of the report set resulted in identification of five categories of errors involving call signs: (1) faulty radio usage techniques, (2) call sign loss or smearing due to frequency congestion, (3) confusion resulting from similar sounding call signs, (4) airmen misses of call signs leading to failures to acknowledge or readback, and (5) controller failures regarding confirmation of acknowledgements or readbacks. These error categories are described in detail and several associated hazard mitigating measures that might be aken are considered.

  20. (How) do we learn from errors? A prospective study of the link between the ward's learning practices and medication administration errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drach-Zahavy, A; Somech, A; Admi, H; Peterfreund, I; Peker, H; Priente, O

    2014-03-01

    Attention in the ward should shift from preventing medication administration errors to managing them. Nevertheless, little is known in regard with the practices nursing wards apply to learn from medication administration errors as a means of limiting them. To test the effectiveness of four types of learning practices, namely, non-integrated, integrated, supervisory and patchy learning practices in limiting medication administration errors. Data were collected from a convenient sample of 4 hospitals in Israel by multiple methods (observations and self-report questionnaires) at two time points. The sample included 76 wards (360 nurses). Medication administration error was defined as any deviation from prescribed medication processes and measured by a validated structured observation sheet. Wards' use of medication administration technologies, location of the medication station, and workload were observed; learning practices and demographics were measured by validated questionnaires. Results of the mixed linear model analysis indicated that the use of technology and quiet location of the medication cabinet were significantly associated with reduced medication administration errors (estimate=.03, perrors (estimate=.04, plearning practices, supervisory learning was the only practice significantly linked to reduced medication administration errors (estimate=-.04, plearning were significantly linked to higher levels of medication administration errors (estimate=-.03, plearning was not associated with it (p>.05). How wards manage errors might have implications for medication administration errors beyond the effects of typical individual, organizational and technology risk factors. Head nurse can facilitate learning from errors by "management by walking around" and monitoring nurses' medication administration behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Modeling transient streaming potentials in falling-head permeameter tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malama, Bwalya; Revil, André

    2014-01-01

    We present transient streaming potential data collected during falling-head permeameter tests performed on samples of two sands with different physical and chemical properties. The objective of the work is to estimate hydraulic conductivity (K) and the electrokinetic coupling coefficient (Cl ) of the sand samples. A semi-empirical model based on the falling-head permeameter flow model and electrokinetic coupling is used to analyze the streaming potential data and to estimate K and Cl . The values of K estimated from head data are used to validate the streaming potential method. Estimates of K from streaming potential data closely match those obtained from the associated head data, with less than 10% deviation. The electrokinetic coupling coefficient was estimated from streaming potential vs. (1) time and (2) head data for both sands. The results indicate that, within limits of experimental error, the values of Cl estimated by the two methods are essentially the same. The results of this work demonstrate that a temporal record of the streaming potential response in falling-head permeameter tests can be used to estimate both K and Cl . They further indicate the potential for using transient streaming potential data as a proxy for hydraulic head in hydrogeology applications. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  2. Opportunities for measuring wheelchair kinematics in match settings; reliability of a three inertial sensor configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Slikke, R M A; Berger, M A M; Bregman, D J J; Lagerberg, A H; Veeger, H E J

    2015-09-18

    Knowledge of wheelchair kinematics during a match is prerequisite for performance improvement in wheelchair basketball. Unfortunately, no measurement system providing key kinematic outcomes proved to be reliable in competition. In this study, the reliability of estimated wheelchair kinematics based on a three inertial measurement unit (IMU) configuration was assessed in wheelchair basketball match-like conditions. Twenty participants performed a series of tests reflecting different motion aspects of wheelchair basketball. During the tests wheelchair kinematics were simultaneously measured using IMUs on wheels and frame, and a 24-camera optical motion analysis system serving as gold standard. Results showed only small deviations of the IMU method compared to the gold standard, once a newly developed skid correction algorithm was applied. Calculated Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) showed good estimates for frame displacement (RMSE≤0.05 m) and speed (RMSE≤0.1m/s), except for three truly vigorous tests. Estimates of frame rotation in the horizontal plane (RMSE0.90), rotational speed (ICC>0.99) and IRC (ICC> 0.90) showed high correlations between IMU data and gold standard. IMU based estimation of wheelchair kinematics provided reliable results, except for brief moments of wheel skidding in truly vigorous tests. The IMU method is believed to enable prospective research in wheelchair basketball match conditions and contribute to individual support of athletes in everyday sports practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Head first C#

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    You want to learn C# programming, but you're not sure you want to suffer through another tedious technical book. You're in luck: Head First C# introduces this language in a fun, visual way. You'll quickly learn everything from creating your first program to learning sophisticated coding skills with C# 4.0, Visual Studio 2010 and .NET 4, while avoiding common errors that frustrate many students. The second edition offers several hands-on labs along the way to help you build and test programs using skills you've learned up to that point. In the final lab, you'll put everything together. From o

  4. NA-241_Quarterly Report_SBLibby - 12.31.2017_v2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libby, Stephen B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Physics Dept.

    2018-01-22

    This is an evaluation of candidate navigation solutions for GPS free inspection tools that can be used in tours of large building interiors. In principle, COTS portable inertial motion unit (IMU) sensors with satisfactory accuracy, SWAP (size, weight, power), low error, and bias drift can provide sufficiently accurate dead reckoning navigation in a large building in the absence of GPS. To explore this assumption, the capabilities of representative IMU navigation sensors to meet these requirements will be evaluated, starting with a market survey, and then carrying out a basic analysis of these sensors using LLNL’s navigation codes.

  5. INS/EKF-based stride length, height and direction intent detection for walking assistance robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brescianini, Dario; Jung, Jun-Young; Jang, In-Hun; Park, Hyun Sub; Riener, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We propose an algorithm used to obtain the information on stride length, height difference, and direction based on user's intent during walking. For exoskeleton robots used to assist paraplegic patients' walking, this information is used to generate gait patterns by themselves in on-line. To obtain this information, we attach an inertial measurement unit(IMU) on crutches and apply an extended kalman filter-based error correction method to reduce the phenomena of drift due to bias of the IMU. The proposed method is verifed in real walking scenarios including walking, climbing up-stairs, and changing direction of walking with normal. © 2011 IEEE

  6. Evaluation of Setup Error Correction for Patients Using On Board Imager in Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Soo Man

    2008-01-01

    To reduce side effects in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) and to improve the quality of life of patients, also to meet accurate SETUP condition for patients, the various SETUP correction conditions were compared and evaluated by using on board imager (OBI) during the SETUP. Each 30 cases of the head, the neck, the chest, the belly, and the pelvis in 150 cases of IGRT patients was corrected after confirmation by using OBI at every 2-3 day. Also, the difference of the SETUP through the skin-marker and the anatomic SETUP through the OBI was evaluated. General SETUP errors (Transverse, Coronal, Sagittal) through the OBI at original SETUP position were Head and Neck: 1.3 mm, Brain: 2 mm, Chest: 3 mm, Abdoman: 3.7 mm, Pelvis: 4 mm. The patients with more that 3 mm in the error range were observed in the correction devices and the patient motions by confirming in treatment room. Moreover, in the case of female patients, the result came from the position of hairs during the Head and Neck, Brain tumor. Therefore, after another SETUP in each cases of over 3 mm in the error range, the treatment was carried out. Mean error values of each parts estimated after the correction were 1 mm for the head, 1.2 mm for the neck, 2.5 mm for the chest, 2.5 mm for the belly, and 2.6 mm for the pelvis. The result showed the correction of SETUP for each treatment through OBI is extremely difficult because of the importance of SETUP in radiation treatment. However, by establishing the average standard of the patients from this research result, the better patient satisfaction and treatment results could be obtained.

  7. Evaluation of Setup Error Correction for Patients Using On Board Imager in Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Soo Man [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kosin University Gospel Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    To reduce side effects in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) and to improve the quality of life of patients, also to meet accurate SETUP condition for patients, the various SETUP correction conditions were compared and evaluated by using on board imager (OBI) during the SETUP. Each 30 cases of the head, the neck, the chest, the belly, and the pelvis in 150 cases of IGRT patients was corrected after confirmation by using OBI at every 2-3 day. Also, the difference of the SETUP through the skin-marker and the anatomic SETUP through the OBI was evaluated. General SETUP errors (Transverse, Coronal, Sagittal) through the OBI at original SETUP position were Head and Neck: 1.3 mm, Brain: 2 mm, Chest: 3 mm, Abdoman: 3.7 mm, Pelvis: 4 mm. The patients with more that 3 mm in the error range were observed in the correction devices and the patient motions by confirming in treatment room. Moreover, in the case of female patients, the result came from the position of hairs during the Head and Neck, Brain tumor. Therefore, after another SETUP in each cases of over 3 mm in the error range, the treatment was carried out. Mean error values of each parts estimated after the correction were 1 mm for the head, 1.2 mm for the neck, 2.5 mm for the chest, 2.5 mm for the belly, and 2.6 mm for the pelvis. The result showed the correction of SETUP for each treatment through OBI is extremely difficult because of the importance of SETUP in radiation treatment. However, by establishing the average standard of the patients from this research result, the better patient satisfaction and treatment results could be obtained.

  8. Towards Multimodal Error Management:Experimental Evaluation of User Strategies in Event of Faulty Application Behavior in Automotive Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor McGlaun

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the results of a study analyzing the reactions of subjects on simulated errors of a dedicated in-car interface for controlling infotainment and communication services. The test persons could operate the system, using different input modalities, such as natural or command speech as well as head and hand gestures, or classical tactile paradigms. In various situational contexts, we scrutinized the interaction patterns the test participants applied to overcome different operation tasks. Moreover, we evaluated individual user behavior concerning modality transitions and individual fallback strategies in case of system errors. Two different error types (Hidden System Errors and Apparent System Errors were provoked. As a result, we found out that initially, i.e. with the system working properly, most users prefer tactile or speech interaction. In case of Hidden System Errors, mostly changes from speech to tactile interaction and vice versa occurred. Concerning Apparent System Errors, 87% of the subjects automatically interrupted or cancelled their input procedure. 73% of all test persons who continued interaction, when the reason for the faulty system behavior was gone, strictly kept the selected modality. Regarding the given input vocabulary, none of the subjects selected head or hand gesture input as the leading fallback modality.

  9. Neural network analysis of head-flow curves in deep well pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goelcue, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    In impellers with splitter blades, the difficulty in calculation of the flow area of the impeller is because of the unknown flow rate occurring in the two separate areas when the splitter blades are added. Experimental studies were made to investigate the effects of splitter blade length on deep well pump performance for different numbers of blades. Head-flow curves of deep well pump impellers with splitter blades were investigated using artificial neural networks (ANNs). Gradient descent (GD), Gradient descent with momentum (GDM) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms were used in the networks. Experimental studies were completed to obtain training and test data. Blade number (z), non-dimensional splitter blade length (L-bar ) and flow rate (Q) were used as the input layer, while the output is head (H m ). For the testing data, the root mean squared error (RMSE), fraction of variance (R 2 ) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) were found to be 0.1285, 0.9999 and 1.6821%, respectively. With these results, we believe that the ANN can be used for prediction of head-flow curves as an appropriate method in deep well pump impellers with splitter blades.

  10. Flight envelope protection system for unmanned aerial vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.

    2016-04-28

    Systems and methods to protect the flight envelope in both manual flight and flight by a commercial autopilot are provided. A system can comprise: an inertial measurement unit (IMU); a computing device in data communication with the IMU; an application executable by the computing device comprising: logic that estimates an angle of attack; a slip angle; and a speed of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based at least in part on data received from the UAV. A method can comprise estimating, via a computing device, flight data of a UAV based at least in part on data received from an IMU; comparing the estimated flight data with measured flight data; and triggering an error indication in response to a determination that the measured flight data exceeds a predefined deviation of the estimated flight data. The estimated speed can comprise an estimated airspeed, vertical speed and/or ground velocity.

  11. Nonlinear control of ships minimizing the position tracking errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein P. Berge

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a nonlinear tracking controller with integral action for ships is presented. The controller is based on state feedback linearization. Exponential convergence of the vessel-fixed position and velocity errors are proven by using Lyapunov stability theory. Since we only have two control devices, a rudder and a propeller, we choose to control the longship and the sideship position errors to zero while the heading is stabilized indirectly. A Virtual Reference Point (VRP is defined at the bow or ahead of the ship. The VRP is used for tracking control. It is shown that the distance from the center of rotation to the VRP will influence on the stability of the zero dynamics. By selecting the VRP at the bow or even ahead of the bow, the damping in yaw can be increased and the zero dynamics is stabilized. Hence, the heading angle will be less sensitive to wind, currents and waves. The control law is simulated by using a nonlinear model of the Japanese training ship Shiojimaru with excellent results. Wind forces are added to demonstrate the robustness and performance of the integral controller.

  12. The role of errors in the measurements performed at the reprocessing plant head-end for material accountancy purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foggi, C.; Liebetrau, A.M.; Petraglia, E.

    1999-01-01

    One of the most common procedures used in determining the amount of nuclear material contained in solutions consists of first measuring the volume and the density of the solution, and then determining the concentrations of this material. This presentation will focus on errors generated at the process lime in the measurement of volume and density. These errors and their associated uncertainties can be grouped into distinct categories depending on their origin: those attributable to measuring instruments; those attributable to operational procedures; variability in measurement conditions; errors in the analysis and interpretation of results. Possible errors sources, their relative magnitudes, and an error propagation rationale are discussed, with emphasis placed on bases and errors of the last three types called systematic errors [ru

  13. Intent of Study on the Use of a Dual Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS) in Conjunction with a Tactical Grade Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Navigation and Mapping in Unknown, Non-Global Positioning System (GPS), Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-05

    ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) AF Office of Scientific h Researc 875 N. Randolph St. Room 3112 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT...the process is often time-consuming and expensive. As the IMU market is experiencing a migration trend towards Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS

  14. Evaluation of Robustness to Setup and Range Uncertainties for Head and Neck Patients Treated With Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyapa, Robert [Centre for Proton Radiotherapy, PSI (Switzerland); Lowe, Matthew [Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Christie Medical Physics and Engineering, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Bolsi, Alessandra; Lomax, Antony J. [Centre for Proton Radiotherapy, PSI (Switzerland); Weber, Damien C. [University of Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Albertini, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.albertini@psi.ch [Centre for Proton Radiotherapy, PSI (Switzerland)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the robustness of head and neck plans for treatment with intensity modulated proton therapy to range and setup errors, and to establish robustness parameters for the planning of future head and neck treatments. Methods and Materials: Ten patients previously treated were evaluated in terms of robustness to range and setup errors. Error bar dose distributions were generated for each plan, from which several metrics were extracted and used to define a robustness database of acceptable parameters over all analyzed plans. The patients were treated in sequentially delivered series, and plans were evaluated for both the first series and for the combined error over the whole treatment. To demonstrate the application of such a database in the head and neck, for 1 patient, an alternative treatment plan was generated using a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) approach and plans of differing numbers of fields. Results: The robustness database for the treatment of head and neck patients is presented. In an example case, comparison of single and multiple field plans against the database show clear improvements in robustness by using multiple fields. A comparison of sequentially delivered series and an SIB approach for this patient show both to be of comparable robustness, although the SIB approach shows a slightly greater sensitivity to uncertainties. Conclusions: A robustness database was created for the treatment of head and neck patients with intensity modulated proton therapy based on previous clinical experience. This will allow the identification of future plans that may benefit from alternative planning approaches to improve robustness.

  15. Evaluation of Robustness to Setup and Range Uncertainties for Head and Neck Patients Treated With Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyapa, Robert; Lowe, Matthew; Bolsi, Alessandra; Lomax, Antony J.; Weber, Damien C.; Albertini, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the robustness of head and neck plans for treatment with intensity modulated proton therapy to range and setup errors, and to establish robustness parameters for the planning of future head and neck treatments. Methods and Materials: Ten patients previously treated were evaluated in terms of robustness to range and setup errors. Error bar dose distributions were generated for each plan, from which several metrics were extracted and used to define a robustness database of acceptable parameters over all analyzed plans. The patients were treated in sequentially delivered series, and plans were evaluated for both the first series and for the combined error over the whole treatment. To demonstrate the application of such a database in the head and neck, for 1 patient, an alternative treatment plan was generated using a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) approach and plans of differing numbers of fields. Results: The robustness database for the treatment of head and neck patients is presented. In an example case, comparison of single and multiple field plans against the database show clear improvements in robustness by using multiple fields. A comparison of sequentially delivered series and an SIB approach for this patient show both to be of comparable robustness, although the SIB approach shows a slightly greater sensitivity to uncertainties. Conclusions: A robustness database was created for the treatment of head and neck patients with intensity modulated proton therapy based on previous clinical experience. This will allow the identification of future plans that may benefit from alternative planning approaches to improve robustness.

  16. Head-Impact–Measurement Devices: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kathryn L.; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M.; Broglio, Steven P.

    2017-01-01

    working on the sidelines to monitor athletes. However, head-impact–monitoring systems have limited clinical utility due to error rates, designs, and low specificity in predicting concussive injury. PMID:28387553

  17. Design of a single-borehole hydraulic test programme allowing for interpretation-based errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.H.

    1987-07-01

    Hydraulic testing using packers in single boreholes is one of the most important sources of data to safety assessment modelling in connection with the disposal of radioactive waste. It is also one of the most time-consuming and expensive. It is important that the results are as reliable as possible and as accurate as necessary for the use that is made of them. There are many causes of possible error and inaccuracy ranging from poor field practice to inappropriate interpretation procedure. The report examines and attempts to quantify the size of error arising from the accidental use of an inappropriate or inadequate interpretation procedure. In doing so, it can be seen which interpretation procedure or combination of procedures results in least error. Lastly, the report attempts to use the previous conclusions from interpretation to propose forms of field test procedure where interpretation-based errors will be minimised. Hydraulic tests (sometimes known as packer tests) come in three basic forms: slug/pulse, constant flow and constant head. They have different characteristics, some measuring a variable volume of rock (dependent on hydraulic conductivity) and some having a variable duration (dependent on hydraulic conductivity). A combination of different tests in the same interval is seen as desirable. For the purposes of assessing interpretation-based errors, slug and pulse tests are considered together as are constant flow and constant head tests. The same method is used in each case to assess errors. The method assumes that the simplest analysis procedure (cylindrical flow in homogeneous isotropic porous rock) will be used on each set of field data. The error is assessed by calculating synthetic data for alternative configurations (e.g. fissured rock, anisotropic rock, inhomogeneous rock - i.e. skin - etc.) and then analyzing this data using the simplest analysis procedure. 28 refs., 26 figs

  18. Skew redundant MEMS IMU calibration using a Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafari, M; Sahebjameyan, M; Moshiri, B; Najafabadi, T A

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel calibration procedure for skew redundant inertial measurement units (SRIMUs) based on micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) is proposed. A general model of the SRIMU measurements is derived which contains the effects of bias, scale factor error and misalignments. For more accuracy, the effect of lever arms of the accelerometers to the center of the table are modeled and compensated in the calibration procedure. Two separate Kalman filters (KFs) are proposed to perform the estimation of error parameters for gyroscopes and accelerometers. The predictive error minimization (PEM) stochastic modeling method is used to simultaneously model the effect of bias instability and random walk noise on the calibration Kalman filters to diminish the biased estimations. The proposed procedure is simulated numerically and has expected experimental results. The calibration maneuvers are applied using a two-axis angle turntable in a way that the persistency of excitation (PE) condition for parameter estimation is met. For this purpose, a trapezoidal calibration profile is utilized to excite different deterministic error parameters of the accelerometers and a pulse profile is used for the gyroscopes. Furthermore, to evaluate the performance of the proposed KF calibration method, a conventional least squares (LS) calibration procedure is derived for the SRIMUs and the simulation and experimental results compare the functionality of the two proposed methods with each other. (paper)

  19. Development of a unique phantom to assess dose error of metal artifact in head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Young; Kang, Sang Won; Suh, Tae Suk [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Woo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Yeon [Dept. of Pediatrics and Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University, Stanford (United States)

    2016-04-15

    The artifacts not only blur the CT images and lead to inaccuracies in diagnosis, but also make the delineation of anatomical structures intractable, which is important in image-guided intervention procedures. These artifacts obscure the underlying anatomy, leading to uncertainty in the delineation of the target volumes and compromising the integrity of the density representation that is crucial for accurate dose calculation. Because head and neck cancer patients tend to be over the age of 50 years, they constitute a group likely to have dental prostheses. This kind of side effects considerably disturbs the therapeutic procedure. Radiation scatter from high atomic number (Z) materials is established to cause both soft tissue and bony complications in the oral cavity, making scattered radiation an important factor in head and neck region radiotherapy planning. In this study, we carried out theoretical analysis of the metal artifact, that is, streak artifact and dark artifact, and also critical analysis of dosimetric effect which cause by dental implants in CT images of head and neck cancer patients with the genuine teeth and implants inserted humanoid phantom. The phantom provides a unique and useful tool in head and neck dosimetry research. It can be used in the development of new imaging instrumentation, image acquisition strategies, and image processing and reconstruction methods.

  20. An Orientation Sensor-Based Head Tracking System for Driver Behaviour Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Zhao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although at present legislation does not allow drivers in a Level 3 autonomous vehicle to engage in a secondary task, there may become a time when it does. Monitoring the behaviour of drivers engaging in various non-driving activities (NDAs is crucial to decide how well the driver will be able to take over control of the vehicle. One limitation of the commonly used face-based head tracking system, using cameras, is that sufficient features of the face must be visible, which limits the detectable angle of head movement and thereby measurable NDAs, unless multiple cameras are used. This paper proposes a novel orientation sensor based head tracking system that includes twin devices, one of which measures the movement of the vehicle while the other measures the absolute movement of the head. Measurement error in the shaking and nodding axes were less than 0.4°, while error in the rolling axis was less than 2°. Comparison with a camera-based system, through in-house tests and on-road tests, showed that the main advantage of the proposed system is the ability to detect angles larger than 20° in the shaking and nodding axes. Finally, a case study demonstrated that the measurement of the shaking and nodding angles, produced from the proposed system, can effectively characterise the drivers’ behaviour while engaged in the NDAs of chatting to a passenger and playing on a smartphone.

  1. Control of Pan-tilt Mechanism Angle using Position Matrix Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendri Maja Saputra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Control of a Pan-Tilt Mechanism (PTM angle for the bomb disposal robot Morolipi-V2 using inertial sensor measurement unit, x-IMU, has been done. The PTM has to be able to be actively controlled both manually and automatically in order to correct the orientation of the moving Morolipi-V2 platform. The x-IMU detects the platform orientation and sends the result in order to automatically control the PTM. The orientation is calculated using the quaternion combined with Madwick and Mahony filter methods. The orientation data that consists of angles of roll (α, pitch (β, and yaw (γ from the x-IMU are then being sent to the camera for controlling the PTM motion (pan & tilt angles after calculating the reverse angle using position matrix method. Experiment results using Madwick and Mahony methods show that the x-IMU can be used to find the robot platform orientation. Acceleration data from accelerometer and flux from magnetometer produce noise with standard deviation of 0.015 g and 0.006 G, respectively. Maximum absolute errors caused by Madgwick and Mahony method with respect to Xaxis are 48.45º and 33.91º, respectively. The x-IMU implementation as inertia sensor to control the Pan-Tilt Mechanism shows a good result, which the probability of pan angle tends to be the same with yaw and tilt angle equal to the pitch angle, except a very small angle shift due to the influence of roll angle..

  2. Heading and head injuries in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkendall, D T; Jordan, S E; Garrett, W E

    2001-01-01

    In the world of sports, soccer is unique because of the purposeful use of the unprotected head for controlling and advancing the ball. This skill obviously places the player at risk of head injury and the game does carry some risk. Head injury can be a result of contact of the head with another head (or other body parts), ground, goal post, other unknown objects or even the ball. Such impacts can lead to contusions, fractures, eye injuries, concussions or even, in rare cases, death. Coaches, players, parents and physicians are rightly concerned about the risk of head injury in soccer. Current research shows that selected soccer players have some degree of cognitive dysfunction. It is important to determine the reasons behind such deficits. Purposeful heading has been blamed, but a closer look at the studies that focus on heading has revealed methodological concerns that question the validity of blaming purposeful heading of the ball. The player's history and age (did they play when the ball was leather and could absorb significant amounts of water), alcohol intake, drug intake, learning disabilities, concussion definition and control group use/composition are all factors that cloud the ability to blame purposeful heading. What does seem clear is that a player's history of concussive episodes is a more likely explanation for cognitive deficits. While it is likely that the subconcussive impact of purposeful heading is a doubtful factor in the noted deficits, it is unknown whether multiple subconcussive impacts might have some lingering effects. In addition, it is unknown whether the noted deficits have any affect on daily life. Proper instruction in the technique is critical because if the ball contacts an unprepared head (as in accidental head-ball contacts), the potential for serious injury is possible. To further our understanding of the relationship of heading, head injury and cognitive deficits, we need to: learn more about the actual impact of a ball on the

  3. Errors of isotope conveyor weigher caused by profile variations and shift of material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaj, B.

    1977-01-01

    Results of investigations of isotope conveyor weigher in transmission geometry and with long plastic scintillator as a detector are presented in the paper. The results indicate that errors caused by material shift across the conveyor belt can be decreased by forming probe sensitivity to incident radiation along its axis by means of additional radiation absorbents. The errors caused by material profile variations can effectively be diminished by increase of photon energy. Application of 60 Co instead of 137 Cs ensured more than three times lower errors caused by profile variation. Errors caused by vertical movements of the belt with material, decrease considerably, when single point source situated in the center of the measuring head is replaced at least by two point sources situated out of the center, above the edges of the belt. (author)

  4. Reduction of low frequency error for SED36 and APS based HYDRA star trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouaknine, Julien; Blarre, Ludovic; Oddos-Marcel, Lionel; Montel, Johan; Julio, Jean-Marc

    2017-11-01

    In the frame of the CNES Pleiades satellite, a reduction of the star tracker low frequency error, which is the most penalizing error for the satellite attitude control, was performed. For that purpose, the SED36 star tracker was developed, with a design based on the flight qualified SED16/26. In this paper, the SED36 main features will be first presented. Then, the reduction process of the low frequency error will be developed, particularly the optimization of the optical distortion calibration. The result is an attitude low frequency error of 1.1" at 3 sigma along transverse axes. The implementation of these improvements to HYDRA, the new multi-head APS star tracker developed by SODERN, will finally be presented.

  5. A Six Sigma Trial For Reduction of Error Rates in Pathology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosuner, Zeynep; Gücin, Zühal; Kiran, Tuğçe; Büyükpinarbaşili, Nur; Turna, Seval; Taşkiran, Olcay; Arici, Dilek Sema

    2016-01-01

    A major target of quality assurance is the minimization of error rates in order to enhance patient safety. Six Sigma is a method targeting zero error (3.4 errors per million events) used in industry. The five main principles of Six Sigma are defining, measuring, analysis, improvement and control. Using this methodology, the causes of errors can be examined and process improvement strategies can be identified. The aim of our study was to evaluate the utility of Six Sigma methodology in error reduction in our pathology laboratory. The errors encountered between April 2014 and April 2015 were recorded by the pathology personnel. Error follow-up forms were examined by the quality control supervisor, administrative supervisor and the head of the department. Using Six Sigma methodology, the rate of errors was measured monthly and the distribution of errors at the preanalytic, analytic and postanalytical phases was analysed. Improvement strategies were reclaimed in the monthly intradepartmental meetings and the control of the units with high error rates was provided. Fifty-six (52.4%) of 107 recorded errors in total were at the pre-analytic phase. Forty-five errors (42%) were recorded as analytical and 6 errors (5.6%) as post-analytical. Two of the 45 errors were major irrevocable errors. The error rate was 6.8 per million in the first half of the year and 1.3 per million in the second half, decreasing by 79.77%. The Six Sigma trial in our pathology laboratory provided the reduction of the error rates mainly in the pre-analytic and analytic phases.

  6. Autonomous mobile robot localization using Kalman filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nasir Nabil Zhafri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous mobile robot field has gain interest among researchers in recent years. The ability of a mobile robot to locate its current position and surrounding environment is the fundamental in order for it to operate autonomously, which commonly known as localization. Localization of mobile robot are commonly affected by the inaccuracy of the sensors. These inaccuracies are caused by various factors which includes internal interferences of the sensor and external environment noises. In order to overcome these noises, a filtering method is required in order to improve the mobile robot’s localization. In this research, a 2- wheeled-drive (2WD mobile robot will be used as platform. The odometers, inertial measurement unit (IMU, and ultrasonic sensors are used for data collection. Data collected is processed using Kalman filter to predict and correct the error from these sensors reading. The differential drive model and measurement model which estimates the environmental noises and predict a correction are used in this research. Based on the simulation and experimental results, the x, y and heading was corrected by converging the error to10 mm, 10 mm and 0.06 rad respectively.

  7. Systematic analysis of video data from different human–robot interaction studies: a categorization of social signals during error situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Manuel; Mirnig, Nicole; Stollnberger, Gerald; Stadler, Susanne; Buchner, Roland; Tscheligi, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Human–robot interactions are often affected by error situations that are caused by either the robot or the human. Therefore, robots would profit from the ability to recognize when error situations occur. We investigated the verbal and non-verbal social signals that humans show when error situations occur in human–robot interaction experiments. For that, we analyzed 201 videos of five human–robot interaction user studies with varying tasks from four independent projects. The analysis shows that there are two types of error situations: social norm violations and technical failures. Social norm violations are situations in which the robot does not adhere to the underlying social script of the interaction. Technical failures are caused by technical shortcomings of the robot. The results of the video analysis show that the study participants use many head movements and very few gestures, but they often smile, when in an error situation with the robot. Another result is that the participants sometimes stop moving at the beginning of error situations. We also found that the participants talked more in the case of social norm violations and less during technical failures. Finally, the participants use fewer non-verbal social signals (for example smiling, nodding, and head shaking), when they are interacting with the robot alone and no experimenter or other human is present. The results suggest that participants do not see the robot as a social interaction partner with comparable communication skills. Our findings have implications for builders and evaluators of human–robot interaction systems. The builders need to consider including modules for recognition and classification of head movements to the robot input channels. The evaluators need to make sure that the presence of an experimenter does not skew the results of their user studies. PMID:26217266

  8. Systematic analysis of video data from different human-robot interaction studies: a categorization of social signals during error situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Manuel; Mirnig, Nicole; Stollnberger, Gerald; Stadler, Susanne; Buchner, Roland; Tscheligi, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Human-robot interactions are often affected by error situations that are caused by either the robot or the human. Therefore, robots would profit from the ability to recognize when error situations occur. We investigated the verbal and non-verbal social signals that humans show when error situations occur in human-robot interaction experiments. For that, we analyzed 201 videos of five human-robot interaction user studies with varying tasks from four independent projects. The analysis shows that there are two types of error situations: social norm violations and technical failures. Social norm violations are situations in which the robot does not adhere to the underlying social script of the interaction. Technical failures are caused by technical shortcomings of the robot. The results of the video analysis show that the study participants use many head movements and very few gestures, but they often smile, when in an error situation with the robot. Another result is that the participants sometimes stop moving at the beginning of error situations. We also found that the participants talked more in the case of social norm violations and less during technical failures. Finally, the participants use fewer non-verbal social signals (for example smiling, nodding, and head shaking), when they are interacting with the robot alone and no experimenter or other human is present. The results suggest that participants do not see the robot as a social interaction partner with comparable communication skills. Our findings have implications for builders and evaluators of human-robot interaction systems. The builders need to consider including modules for recognition and classification of head movements to the robot input channels. The evaluators need to make sure that the presence of an experimenter does not skew the results of their user studies.

  9. Analysis of positioning errors in radiotherapy; Analyse des erreurs de positionnement en radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josset-Gaudaire, S.; Lisbona, A.; Llagostera, C.; Delpon, G.; Chiavassa, S.; Brunet, G. [Service de physique medicale, ICO Rene-Gauducheau, Saint Herblain (France); Rousset, S.; Nerriere, E.; Leblanc, M. [Service de radiotherapie, ICO Rene-Gauducheau, Saint Herblain (France)

    2011-10-15

    Within the frame of a study of control imagery management in radiotherapy, the authors report the study of positioning errors associated with control imagery in order to give an overview of practice and to help the adjustment or definition of action levels for clinical practice. Twenty groups of patients have been defined by considering tumour locations (head, ENT, thorax, breast, abdomen, and pelvis), treatment positions, immobilization systems and imagery systems. Positioning errors have thus been analyzed for 340 patients. Aspects and practice to be improved are identified. Short communication

  10. COMPARISON OF A HEAD MOUNTED IMPACT MEASUREMENT DEVICE TO THE HYBRID III ANTHROPOMORPHIC TESTING DEVICE IN A CONTROLLED LABORATORY SETTING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schussler, Eric; Stark, David; Bolte, John H; Kang, Yun Seok; Onate, James A

    2017-08-01

    Reports estimate that 1.6 to 3.8 million cases of concussion occur in sports and recreation each year in the United States. Despite continued efforts to reduce the occurrence of concussion, the rate of diagnosis continues to increase. The mechanisms of concussion are thought to involve linear and rotational head accelerations and velocities. One method of quantifying the kinematics experienced during sport participation is to place measurement devices into the athlete's helmet or directly on the athlete's head. The purpose of this research to determine the accuracy of a head mounted device for measuring the head accelerations experienced by the wearer. This will be accomplished by identifying the error in Peak Linear Acceleration (PLA), Peak Rotational Acceleration (PRA) and Peak Rotational Velocity (PRV) of the device. Laboratory study. A helmeted Hybrid III 50th percentile male headform was impacted via a pneumatic ram from the front, side, rear, front oblique and rear oblique at speeds from 1.5 to 5 m/s. The X2 Biosystems xPatch® (Seattle, WA) sensor was placed on the headform's right side at the approximate location of the mastoid process. Measures of PLA, PRA, PRV from the xPatch ® and Hybrid III were analyzed for Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), and Absolute and Relative Error (AE, RE). Seventy-six impacts were analyzed. All measures of correlation, fixed through the origin, were found to be strong: PLA R 2 =0.967 pstandard yet above the average error of testing devices in both PLA and PRA, but a low error in PRV. PLA measures from the xPatch® system demonstrated a high level of correlation with the PLA data from the Hybrid III mounted data collection system. 3.

  11. Influence of Velocity Curves Unevenness on the Centrifugal Pump Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Cheryomushkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A formula of the theoretical head, which gives the value of the impeller in terms of its geometrical parameters, is used to calculate the pump head at the stage of theoretical design. One of the main assumptions in this case is a strip theory, which does not take into consideration the unevenness of curves of the meridional and circumferential velocity components at the impeller outlet of a centrifugal pump. The article studies this influence. Describes a mathematical model for theoretical and numerical calculations. Shows the figures of the flow part under study and of the computational grid. For complete formalization of the problem the meshing models and boundary conditions are shown. As the boundary conditions, full pump-inlet head into the flow part and velocity at the outlet were used. Then, there are the graphs to compare the results of theoretical and numerical calculation and the error is shown. For comparison, a value of the theoretical head was multiplied by the efficiency, which was defined by computer simulation. A designing process of the flow part was iterative, so the comparison was carried out for all iterations. It should be noted that correction for the finite number of blades is also assumption. To determine a degree of the errors impact because of this correction, an average value of the circumferential component of the fluid velocity at the impeller outlet was calculated by two above methods followed by their comparison. It was shown that this impact is negligible, i.e. correction provides a sufficiently accurate value. In conclusion, the paper explains the possible reasons for inaccuracies in theoretical determination of the head, as well as the option to eliminate this inaccuracy, thereby reducing the time required for defining the basic parameters of the flow part. To illustrate the nature of fluid flow, for the last iteration are given the fields of the pressure distribution and the velocity vector in the equatorial

  12. Position Tracking During Human Walking Using an Integrated Wearable Sensing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Zizzo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Progress has been made enabling expensive, high-end inertial measurement units (IMUs to be used as tracking sensors. However, the cost of these IMUs is prohibitive to their widespread use, and hence the potential of low-cost IMUs is investigated in this study. A wearable low-cost sensing system consisting of IMUs and ultrasound sensors was developed. Core to this system is an extended Kalman filter (EKF, which provides both zero-velocity updates (ZUPTs and Heuristic Drift Reduction (HDR. The IMU data was combined with ultrasound range measurements to improve accuracy. When a map of the environment was available, a particle filter was used to impose constraints on the possible user motions. The system was therefore composed of three subsystems: IMUs, ultrasound sensors, and a particle filter. A Vicon motion capture system was used to provide ground truth information, enabling validation of the sensing system. Using only the IMU, the system showed loop misclosure errors of 1% with a maximum error of 4–5% during walking. The addition of the ultrasound sensors resulted in a 15% reduction in the total accumulated error. Lastly, the particle filter was capable of providing noticeable corrections, which could keep the tracking error below 2% after the first few steps.

  13. Error-related brain activity and error awareness in an error classification paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gregorio, Francesco; Steinhauser, Marco; Maier, Martin E

    2016-10-01

    Error-related brain activity has been linked to error detection enabling adaptive behavioral adjustments. However, it is still unclear which role error awareness plays in this process. Here, we show that the error-related negativity (Ne/ERN), an event-related potential reflecting early error monitoring, is dissociable from the degree of error awareness. Participants responded to a target while ignoring two different incongruent distractors. After responding, they indicated whether they had committed an error, and if so, whether they had responded to one or to the other distractor. This error classification paradigm allowed distinguishing partially aware errors, (i.e., errors that were noticed but misclassified) and fully aware errors (i.e., errors that were correctly classified). The Ne/ERN was larger for partially aware errors than for fully aware errors. Whereas this speaks against the idea that the Ne/ERN foreshadows the degree of error awareness, it confirms the prediction of a computational model, which relates the Ne/ERN to post-response conflict. This model predicts that stronger distractor processing - a prerequisite of error classification in our paradigm - leads to lower post-response conflict and thus a smaller Ne/ERN. This implies that the relationship between Ne/ERN and error awareness depends on how error awareness is related to response conflict in a specific task. Our results further indicate that the Ne/ERN but not the degree of error awareness determines adaptive performance adjustments. Taken together, we conclude that the Ne/ERN is dissociable from error awareness and foreshadows adaptive performance adjustments. Our results suggest that the relationship between the Ne/ERN and error awareness is correlative and mediated by response conflict. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Loose Coupling of Wearable-Based INSs with Automatic Heading Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Bousdar Ahmed, Dina; Munoz Diaz, Estefania

    2017-01-01

    Position tracking of pedestrians by means of inertial sensors is a highly explored field of research. In fact, there are already many approaches to implement inertial navigation systems (INSs). However, most of them use a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) attached to the pedestrian’s body. Since wearable-devices will be given items in the future, this work explores the implementation of an INS using two wearable-based IMUs. A loosely coupled approach is proposed to combine the outputs of...

  15. Thermal assessment of sunlight impinging on OSIRIS-REx OCAMS PolyCam, OTES, and IMU-sunshade MLI blankets in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2017-09-01

    The NASA Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) spacecraft was successfully launched into orbit on September 8, 2016. It is traveling to a near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu, study it in detail, and bring back a pristine sample to Earth for scientific analyses. At the Outbound Cruise nominal spacecraft attitude, with Sun on +X, sunlight impinges on the OSIRIS-REx camera suite (OCAMS) PolyCam sunshade multilayer insulation (MLI) with microporous black polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), a portion of the PolyCam optics support tube (MLI with germanium black Kapton (GBK)), a portion of the OSIRIS-REx Thermal Emission Spectrometer (OTES) sunshade (MLI with GBK), the Inertia Measurement Unit (IMU) sunshade (MLI with GBK), and the OSIRIS-REx Laser Altimeter (OLA) sunshade (MLI with GBK). Sunlight is reflected or scattered by the above MLIs to the other components on the forward (+Z) deck. It illuminates the forward deck. A detailed thermal assessment on the solar impingement has been performed for the Proximity Ops at the asteroid, Touch-and-Go sample acquisition, and Return Cruise mission phases.

  16. Structured Head and Neck CT Angiography Reporting Reduces Resident Revision Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tucker F; Brinjikji, Waleed; Doolittle, Derrick A; Nagelschneider, Alex A; Welch, Brian T; Kotsenas, Amy L

    2018-04-12

    This resident-driven quality improvement project was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of structured reporting to reduce revision rates for afterhours reports dictated by residents. The first part of the study assessed baseline revision rates for head and neck CT angiography (CTA) examinations dictated by residents during afterhours call. A structured report was subsequently created based on templates on the RSNA informatics reporting website and critical findings that should be assessed for on all CTA examinations. The template was made available to residents through the speech recognition software for all head and neck CTA examinations for a duration of 2 months. Report revision rates were then compared with and without use of the structured template. The structured template was found to reduce revision rates by approximately 50% with 10/41 unstructured reports revised and 2/17 structured reports revised. We believe that structured reporting can help reduce reporting errors, particularly in term of typographical errors, train residents to evaluate complex examinations in a systematic fashion, and assist them in recalling critical findings on these examinations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. SU-F-T-381: Fast Calculation of Three-Dimensional Dose Considering MLC Leaf Positional Errors for VMAT Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuta, Y [Takeda General Hospital, Aizuwakamatsu City, Fukushima (Japan); Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendal, Miyagi (Japan); Kadoya, N; Jingu, K [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendal, Miyagi (Japan); Shimizu, E; Majima, K [Takeda General Hospital, Aizuwakamatsu City, Fukushima (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In this study, we developed a system to calculate three dimensional (3D) dose that reflects dosimetric error caused by leaf miscalibration for head and neck and prostate volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) without additional treatment planning system calculation on real time. Methods: An original system called clarkson dose calculation based dosimetric error calculation to calculate dosimetric error caused by leaf miscalibration was developed by MATLAB (Math Works, Natick, MA). Our program, first, calculates point doses at isocenter for baseline and modified VMAT plan, which generated by inducing MLC errors that enlarged aperture size of 1.0 mm with clarkson dose calculation. Second, error incuced 3D dose was generated with transforming TPS baseline 3D dose using calculated point doses. Results: Mean computing time was less than 5 seconds. For seven head and neck and prostate plans, between our method and TPS calculated error incuced 3D dose, the 3D gamma passing rates (0.5%/2 mm, global) are 97.6±0.6% and 98.0±0.4%. The dose percentage change with dose volume histogram parameter of mean dose on target volume were 0.1±0.5% and 0.4±0.3%, and with generalized equivalent uniform dose on target volume were −0.2±0.5% and 0.2±0.3%. Conclusion: The erroneous 3D dose calculated by our method is useful to check dosimetric error caused by leaf miscalibration before pre treatment patient QA dosimetry checks.

  18. Comparison of inverse modeling results with measured and interpolated hydraulic head data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, E.A.

    1986-12-01

    Inverse modeling of aquifers involves identification of effective parameters, such as transmissivities, based on hydraulic head data. The result of inverse modeling is a calibrated ground water flow model that reproduces the measured hydraulic head data as closely as is statistically possible. An inverse method that includes prior information about the parameters (i.e., kriged log transmissivity) was applied to the Avra Valley aquifer of southern Arizona using hydraulic heads obtained in three ways: measured at well locations, estimated at nodes by hand contouring, and estimated at nodes by kriging. Hand contouring yields only estimates of hydraulic head at node points, whereas kriging yields hydraulic head estimates at node points and their corresponding estimation errors. A comparison of the three inverse applications indicates the variations in the ground water flow model caused by the different treatments of the hydraulic head data. Estimates of hydraulic head computed by all three inverse models were more representative of the measured or interpolated hydraulic heads than those computed using the kriged estimates of log transmissivity. The large-scale trends in the estimates of log transmissivity determined by the three inverse models were generally similar except in the southern portion of the study area. The hydraulic head values and gradients produced by the three inverse models were similar in the interior of the study area, while the major differences between the inverse models occurred along the boundaries. 17 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab

  19. CALIBRATION PROCEDURES ON OBLIQUE CAMERA SETUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kemper

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Beside the creation of virtual animated 3D City models, analysis for homeland security and city planning, the accurately determination of geometric features out of oblique imagery is an important task today. Due to the huge number of single images the reduction of control points force to make use of direct referencing devices. This causes a precise camera-calibration and additional adjustment procedures. This paper aims to show the workflow of the various calibration steps and will present examples of the calibration flight with the final 3D City model. In difference to most other software, the oblique cameras are used not as co-registered sensors in relation to the nadir one, all camera images enter the AT process as single pre-oriented data. This enables a better post calibration in order to detect variations in the single camera calibration and other mechanical effects. The shown sensor (Oblique Imager is based o 5 Phase One cameras were the nadir one has 80 MPIX equipped with a 50 mm lens while the oblique ones capture images with 50 MPix using 80 mm lenses. The cameras are mounted robust inside a housing to protect this against physical and thermal deformations. The sensor head hosts also an IMU which is connected to a POS AV GNSS Receiver. The sensor is stabilized by a gyro-mount which creates floating Antenna –IMU lever arms. They had to be registered together with the Raw GNSS-IMU Data. The camera calibration procedure was performed based on a special calibration flight with 351 shoots of all 5 cameras and registered the GPS/IMU data. This specific mission was designed in two different altitudes with additional cross lines on each flying heights. The five images from each exposure positions have no overlaps but in the block there are many overlaps resulting in up to 200 measurements per points. On each photo there were in average 110 well distributed measured points which is a satisfying number for the camera calibration. In a first

  20. A dictionary learning approach for human sperm heads classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Fariba; Monadjemi, S Amirhassan; Alirezaie, Javad; Naghsh-Nilchi, Ahmad Reza

    2017-12-01

    To diagnose infertility in men, semen analysis is conducted in which sperm morphology is one of the factors that are evaluated. Since manual assessment of sperm morphology is time-consuming and subjective, automatic classification methods are being developed. Automatic classification of sperm heads is a complicated task due to the intra-class differences and inter-class similarities of class objects. In this research, a Dictionary Learning (DL) technique is utilized to construct a dictionary of sperm head shapes. This dictionary is used to classify the sperm heads into four different classes. Square patches are extracted from the sperm head images. Columnized patches from each class of sperm are used to learn class-specific dictionaries. The patches from a test image are reconstructed using each class-specific dictionary and the overall reconstruction error for each class is used to select the best matching class. Average accuracy, precision, recall, and F-score are used to evaluate the classification method. The method is evaluated using two publicly available datasets of human sperm head shapes. The proposed DL based method achieved an average accuracy of 92.2% on the HuSHeM dataset, and an average recall of 62% on the SCIAN-MorphoSpermGS dataset. The results show a significant improvement compared to a previously published shape-feature-based method. We have achieved high-performance results. In addition, our proposed approach offers a more balanced classifier in which all four classes are recognized with high precision and recall. In this paper, we use a Dictionary Learning approach in classifying human sperm heads. It is shown that the Dictionary Learning method is far more effective in classifying human sperm heads than classifiers using shape-based features. Also, a dataset of human sperm head shapes is introduced to facilitate future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Lower limb immobilization device induced small setup errors in the radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuting; Ni, Xinye; Yu, Jingping; Ni, Xinchu; Sun, Zhiqiang; Wang, Jianlin; Sun, Suping; Wang, Jian

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to design a lower limb immobilization device and investigate its clinical application in the radiotherapy of the lower limbs.Around 38 patients who underwent lower limb radiotherapy using the designed immobilization device were included in this study. The setup errors were calculated by comparison of the portal images and the simulator films or digital reconstructed radiographs (DRRs).From all 38 patients accomplished the radiotherapy using this device, 178 anteroposterior portal images and 178 lateral portal images were used for the analysis of the positional accuracy. Significant differences were observed in the setup error of the head-foot direction compared with the left-right direction (t = 3.404, P = .002) and the anterior-posterior directions (t = 3.188, P = .003). No statistical differences were identified in the setup error in the left-right direction and anterior-posterior direction (t = 0.497, P = .622).The use of the in-house designed lower limb immobilization device allowed for relatively small setup errors. Furthermore, it showed satisfactory accuracy and repeatability.

  2. Laboratory Evaluation of Low-Cost Wearable Sensors for Measuring Head Impacts in Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Abigail M; Duma, Stefan M; Rowson, Steven

    2018-04-03

    Advances in low-cost wearable head impact sensor technology provide potential benefits regarding sports safety for both consumers and researchers. However, previous laboratory evaluations are not directly comparable and don't incorporate test conditions representative of unhelmeted impacts. This study addresses those limitations. The xPatch by X2 Biosystems and the SIM-G by Triax Technologies were placed on a NOCSAE headform with a Hybrid III neck which underwent impacts tests using a pendulum. Impact conditions included helmeted, padded impactor to bare head, and rigid impactor to bare head to represent long and short-duration impacts seen in helmeted and unhelmeted sports. The wearable sensors were evaluated on their kinematic accuracy by comparing results to reference sensors located at the headform center of gravity. Statistical tests for equivalence were performed on the slope of the linear regression between wearable sensors and reference. The xPatch gave equivalent measurements to the reference in select longer-duration impacts whereas the SIM-G had large variance leading to no equivalence. For the short-duration impacts, both wearable sensors underpredicted the reference. This error can be improved with increases in sampling rate from 1 to 1.5 kHz. Follow-up evaluations should be performed on the field to identify error in vivo. (197/200).

  3. SU-E-J-12: An Image-Guided Soft Robotic Patient Positioning System for Maskless Head-And-Neck Cancer Radiotherapy: A Proof-Of-Concept Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunmolu, O; Gans, N; Jiang, S; Gu, X

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We propose a surface-image-guided soft robotic patient positioning system for maskless head-and-neck radiotherapy. The ultimate goal of this project is to utilize a soft robot to realize non-rigid patient positioning and real-time motion compensation. In this proof-of-concept study, we design a position-based visual servoing control system for an air-bladder-based soft robot and investigate its performance in controlling the flexion/extension cranial motion on a mannequin head phantom. Methods: The current system consists of Microsoft Kinect depth camera, an inflatable air bladder (IAB), pressured air source, pneumatic valve actuators, custom-built current regulators, and a National Instruments myRIO microcontroller. The performance of the designed system was evaluated on a mannequin head, with a ball joint fixed below its neck to simulate torso-induced head motion along flexion/extension direction. The IAB is placed beneath the mannequin head. The Kinect camera captures images of the mannequin head, extracts the face, and measures the position of the head relative to the camera. This distance is sent to the myRIO, which runs control algorithms and sends actuation commands to the valves, inflating and deflating the IAB to induce head motion. Results: For a step input, i.e. regulation of the head to a constant displacement, the maximum error was a 6% overshoot, which the system then reduces to 0% steady-state error. In this initial investigation, the settling time to reach the regulated position was approximately 8 seconds, with 2 seconds of delay between the command start of motion due to capacitance of the pneumatics, for a total of 10 seconds to regulate the error. Conclusion: The surface image-guided soft robotic patient positioning system can achieve accurate mannequin head flexion/extension motion. Given this promising initial Result, the extension of the current one-dimensional soft robot control to multiple IABs for non-rigid positioning control

  4. SU-E-J-12: An Image-Guided Soft Robotic Patient Positioning System for Maskless Head-And-Neck Cancer Radiotherapy: A Proof-Of-Concept Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogunmolu, O; Gans, N [The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States); Jiang, S; Gu, X [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We propose a surface-image-guided soft robotic patient positioning system for maskless head-and-neck radiotherapy. The ultimate goal of this project is to utilize a soft robot to realize non-rigid patient positioning and real-time motion compensation. In this proof-of-concept study, we design a position-based visual servoing control system for an air-bladder-based soft robot and investigate its performance in controlling the flexion/extension cranial motion on a mannequin head phantom. Methods: The current system consists of Microsoft Kinect depth camera, an inflatable air bladder (IAB), pressured air source, pneumatic valve actuators, custom-built current regulators, and a National Instruments myRIO microcontroller. The performance of the designed system was evaluated on a mannequin head, with a ball joint fixed below its neck to simulate torso-induced head motion along flexion/extension direction. The IAB is placed beneath the mannequin head. The Kinect camera captures images of the mannequin head, extracts the face, and measures the position of the head relative to the camera. This distance is sent to the myRIO, which runs control algorithms and sends actuation commands to the valves, inflating and deflating the IAB to induce head motion. Results: For a step input, i.e. regulation of the head to a constant displacement, the maximum error was a 6% overshoot, which the system then reduces to 0% steady-state error. In this initial investigation, the settling time to reach the regulated position was approximately 8 seconds, with 2 seconds of delay between the command start of motion due to capacitance of the pneumatics, for a total of 10 seconds to regulate the error. Conclusion: The surface image-guided soft robotic patient positioning system can achieve accurate mannequin head flexion/extension motion. Given this promising initial Result, the extension of the current one-dimensional soft robot control to multiple IABs for non-rigid positioning control

  5. Artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging of the head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwama, Toru; Andoh, Takashi; Sakai, Noboru; Yamada, Hiromu [Gifu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Funakoshi, Takashi; Akiyama, Shigeru; Yoshida, Kakuro

    1989-08-01

    The results of 505 magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examinations of the head disclosed several different types of artifact. Various artifacts observed with two-dimentional Fourier transformation are described and illustrated. All images were obtained with a 0.5 Tesla superconducting MR imager. About 70% of all images contained artifacts. Phase encoding artifacts due to motion or flow were most frequently observed. Center, 'zipper,' truncation, radiofrequency, and ferromagnetic artifacts and contrast error on inversion recovery (IR) images were noted less frequently. Phase encoding artifacts and contrast errors on IR images totally degraded the images, and 'zipper' artifacts were regional. Center artifacts resembled small infarctions, and ferromagnetic artifacts sometimes mimicked hematmas. It is important to recognize these artifacts and to devise methods to avoid their influence on the region of interest. (author).

  6. Clinical diagnosis versus autopsy diagnosis in head trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velnic Andreea-Alexandra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The correct and complete diagnosis is essential for the adequate care and the favourable clinical evolution of the patients with head trauma. Purpose: To identify the error rate in the clinical diagnosis of head injuries as shown in comparison with the autopsy diagnosis and to identify the most common sources of error. Material and method: We performed a retrospective study based on data from the medical files and the autopsy reports of patients with head trauma who died in the hospital and underwent forensic autopsy. We collected: demographic data, clinical and laboratory data and autopsy findings. To quantify the concordance rate between the clinical diagnosis of death and the autopsy diagnosis we used a 4 classes classification, which ranged from 100% concordance (C1 to total discordance (C4 and two classes of partial discordance: C2 (partial discordance in favour of the clinical diagnosis- missing injuries in the autopsy reports and C3 (partial discordance in favor of the necroptic diagnosis- missing injuries in the medical files. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 20.0. Results: We analyzed 194 cases of death due to head injuries. We found a total concordance between the clinical death diagnosis and autopsy diagnosis in 30.4% of cases and at least one discrepancy in 69.6% of cases. Increasing the duration of hospitalization directly correlates with the amount of the imaging investigations and these in turn correlates with an increased rate of diagnosis concordance. Among the patients with stage 3 coma who associated a spinal cord injury, we found a partial diagnosis discordance in 50% of cases and a total discordance in 50% of cases, possibly due to the need for conducting emergency imaging investigation and the need for surgical treatment. In cases with partial and total discordant diagnosis, at least one lesion was omitted in 45.1% of the cases. The most commonly omitted injuries in C2 cases were subdural hematoma, intracerebral

  7. Development of adjustable head holder couch in H and H cancer radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Jae Goo; Song, Ki Won; Kim, Jin Man; Park, Myoung Hwan

    2014-01-01

    In case of all patients who receive radiation therapy, a treatment plan is established and all steps of treatment are planned in the same geometrical condition. In case of head and neck cancer patients who undergo simulated treatment through computed tomography (CT), patients are fixed onto a table for planning, but laid on the top of the treatment table in the radiation therapy room. This study excogitated and fabricated an adjustable holder for head and neck cancer patients to fix patient's position and geometrical discrepancies when performing radiation therapy on head and neck cancer patients, and compared the error before and after adjusting the position of patients due to difference in weight to evaluate the correlation between patients' weight and range of error. Computed tomography system(High Advantage, GE, USA) is used for phantom to maintain the supine position to acquire the images of the therapy site for IMRT. IMRT 4MV X-rays was used by applying the LINAC(21EX, Varian, U.S.A). Treatment planning system (Pinnacle, ver. 9.1h, Philips, Madison, USA) was used. The setup accuracy was compared with each measurement was repeated five times for each weight (0, 15, and 30Kg) and CBCT was performed 30 times to find the mean and standard deviation of errors before and after the adjustment of each weight. SPSS ver.19.0(SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL,USA) statistics program was used to perform the Wilcoxon Rank test for significance evaluation and the Spearman analysis was used as the tool to analyze the significance evaluation of the correlation of weight. As a result of measuring the error values from CBCT before and after adjusting the position due to the weight difference, X,Y,Z axis was 0.4±0.8 mm, 0.8±0.4 mm, 0 for 0Kg before the adjustment. In 15Kg CBCT before and after adjusting the position due to the weight difference, X,Y,Z axis was 0.2±0.8 mm, 1.2±0.4 mm, 2.0±0.4 mm. After adjusting position was X,Y,Z axis was 0.2±0.4, 0.4±0.5 mm, 0.4±0.5 mm

  8. Development of adjustable head holder couch in H and H cancer radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Jae Goo; Song, Ki Won; Kim, Jin Man; Park, Myoung Hwan [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    In case of all patients who receive radiation therapy, a treatment plan is established and all steps of treatment are planned in the same geometrical condition. In case of head and neck cancer patients who undergo simulated treatment through computed tomography (CT), patients are fixed onto a table for planning, but laid on the top of the treatment table in the radiation therapy room. This study excogitated and fabricated an adjustable holder for head and neck cancer patients to fix patient's position and geometrical discrepancies when performing radiation therapy on head and neck cancer patients, and compared the error before and after adjusting the position of patients due to difference in weight to evaluate the correlation between patients' weight and range of error. Computed tomography system(High Advantage, GE, USA) is used for phantom to maintain the supine position to acquire the images of the therapy site for IMRT. IMRT 4MV X-rays was used by applying the LINAC(21EX, Varian, U.S.A). Treatment planning system (Pinnacle, ver. 9.1h, Philips, Madison, USA) was used. The setup accuracy was compared with each measurement was repeated five times for each weight (0, 15, and 30Kg) and CBCT was performed 30 times to find the mean and standard deviation of errors before and after the adjustment of each weight. SPSS ver.19.0(SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL,USA) statistics program was used to perform the Wilcoxon Rank test for significance evaluation and the Spearman analysis was used as the tool to analyze the significance evaluation of the correlation of weight. As a result of measuring the error values from CBCT before and after adjusting the position due to the weight difference, X,Y,Z axis was 0.4±0.8 mm, 0.8±0.4 mm, 0 for 0Kg before the adjustment. In 15Kg CBCT before and after adjusting the position due to the weight difference, X,Y,Z axis was 0.2±0.8 mm, 1.2±0.4 mm, 2.0±0.4 mm. After adjusting position was X,Y,Z axis was 0.2±0.4, 0.4±0.5 mm, 0.4±0.5 mm

  9. Evaluation of a video-based head motion tracking system for dedicated brain PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anishchenko, S.; Beylin, D.; Stepanov, P.; Stepanov, A.; Weinberg, I. N.; Schaeffer, S.; Zavarzin, V.; Shaposhnikov, D.; Smith, M. F.

    2015-03-01

    Unintentional head motion during Positron Emission Tomography (PET) data acquisition can degrade PET image quality and lead to artifacts. Poor patient compliance, head tremor, and coughing are examples of movement sources. Head motion due to patient non-compliance can be an issue with the rise of amyloid brain PET in dementia patients. To preserve PET image resolution and quantitative accuracy, head motion can be tracked and corrected in the image reconstruction algorithm. While fiducial markers can be used, a contactless approach is preferable. A video-based head motion tracking system for a dedicated portable brain PET scanner was developed. Four wide-angle cameras organized in two stereo pairs are used for capturing video of the patient's head during the PET data acquisition. Facial points are automatically tracked and used to determine the six degree of freedom head pose as a function of time. The presented work evaluated the newly designed tracking system using a head phantom and a moving American College of Radiology (ACR) phantom. The mean video-tracking error was 0.99±0.90 mm relative to the magnetic tracking device used as ground truth. Qualitative evaluation with the ACR phantom shows the advantage of the motion tracking application. The developed system is able to perform tracking with accuracy close to millimeter and can help to preserve resolution of brain PET images in presence of movements.

  10. Heads Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Connect with Us HEADS UP Apps Reshaping the Culture Around Concussion in Sports Get HEADS UP on Your Web Site Concussion ... HEADS UP on your web site! Create a culture of safety for young athletes Officials, learn how you can ... UP to Providers HEADS UP to Youth Sports HEADS UP to School Sports HEADS UP to ...

  11. Recognition of medical errors' reporting system dimensions in educational hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H; Mohammadinia, Leila; Tavakoli, Nahid; Ghalriz, Parvin; Haghshenas, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays medical errors are one of the serious issues in the health-care system and carry to account of the patient's safety threat. The most important step for achieving safety promotion is identifying errors and their causes in order to recognize, correct and omit them. Concerning about repeating medical errors and harms, which were received via theses errors concluded to designing and establishing medical error reporting systems for hospitals and centers that are presenting therapeutic services. The aim of this study is the recognition of medical errors' reporting system dimensions in educational hospitals. This research is a descriptive-analytical and qualities' study, which has been carried out in Shahid Beheshti educational therapeutic center in Isfahan during 2012. In this study, relevant information was collected through 15 face to face interviews. That each of interviews take place in about 1hr and creation of five focused discussion groups through 45 min for each section, they were composed of Metron, educational supervisor, health officer, health education, and all of the head nurses. Concluded data interviews and discussion sessions were coded, then achieved results were extracted in the presence of clear-sighted persons and after their feedback perception, they were categorized. In order to make sure of information correctness, tables were presented to the research's interviewers and final the corrections were confirmed based on their view. The extracted information from interviews and discussion groups have been divided into nine main categories after content analyzing and subject coding and their subsets have been completely expressed. Achieved dimensions are composed of nine domains of medical error concept, error cases according to nurses' prospection, medical error reporting barriers, employees' motivational factors for error reporting, purposes of medical error reporting system, error reporting's challenges and opportunities, a desired system

  12. SYSTEMATIC ERROR REDUCTION: NON-TILTED REFERENCE BEAM METHOD FOR LONG TRACE PROFILER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    QIAN, S.; QIAN, K.; HONG, Y.; SENG, L.; HO, T.; TAKACS, P.

    2007-01-01

    Systematic error in the Long Trace Profiler (LTP) has become the major error source as measurement accuracy enters the nanoradian and nanometer regime. Great efforts have been made to reduce the systematic error at a number of synchrotron radiation laboratories around the world. Generally, the LTP reference beam has to be tilted away from the optical axis in order to avoid fringe overlap between the sample and reference beams. However, a tilted reference beam will result in considerable systematic error due to optical system imperfections, which is difficult to correct. Six methods of implementing a non-tilted reference beam in the LTP are introduced: (1) application of an external precision angle device to measure and remove slide pitch error without a reference beam, (2) independent slide pitch test by use of not tilted reference beam, (3) non-tilted reference test combined with tilted sample, (4) penta-prism scanning mode without a reference beam correction, (5) non-tilted reference using a second optical head, and (6) alternate switching of data acquisition between the sample and reference beams. With a non-tilted reference method, the measurement accuracy can be improved significantly. Some measurement results are presented. Systematic error in the sample beam arm is not addressed in this paper and should be treated separately

  13. Common positioning errors in panoramic radiography: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randon, Rafael Henrique Nunes; Pereira, Yamba Carla Lara; Nascimento, Glauce Crivelaro do

    2014-01-01

    Professionals performing radiographic examinations are responsible for maintaining optimal image quality for accurate diagnoses. These professionals must competently execute techniques such as film manipulation and processing to minimize patient exposure to radiation. Improper performance by the professional and/or patient may result in a radiographic image of unsatisfactory quality that can also lead to a misdiagnosis and the development of an inadequate treatment plan. Currently, the most commonly performed extraoral examination is panoramic radiography. The invention of panoramic radiography has resulted in improvements in image quality with decreased exposure to radiation and at a low cost. However, this technique requires careful, accurate positioning of the patient's teeth and surrounding maxillofacial bone structure within the focal trough. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for the most common types of positioning errors in panoramic radiography to suggest the correct techniques. We would also discuss how to determine if the most common positioning errors occurred in panoramic radiography, such as in the positioning of the patient's head, tongue, chin, or body.

  14. Treatment Planning System Calculation Errors Are Present in Most Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core-Houston Phantom Failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, James R; Stingo, Francesco; Followill, David S; Howell, Rebecca M; Melancon, Adam; Kry, Stephen F

    2017-08-01

    The anthropomorphic phantom program at the Houston branch of the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core (IROC-Houston) is an end-to-end test that can be used to determine whether an institution can accurately model, calculate, and deliver an intensity modulated radiation therapy dose distribution. Currently, institutions that do not meet IROC-Houston's criteria have no specific information with which to identify and correct problems. In the present study, an independent recalculation system was developed to identify treatment planning system (TPS) calculation errors. A recalculation system was commissioned and customized using IROC-Houston measurement reference dosimetry data for common linear accelerator classes. Using this system, 259 head and neck phantom irradiations were recalculated. Both the recalculation and the institution's TPS calculation were compared with the delivered dose that was measured. In cases in which the recalculation was statistically more accurate by 2% on average or 3% at a single measurement location than was the institution's TPS, the irradiation was flagged as having a "considerable" institutional calculation error. The error rates were also examined according to the linear accelerator vendor and delivery technique. Surprisingly, on average, the reference recalculation system had better accuracy than the institution's TPS. Considerable TPS errors were found in 17% (n=45) of the head and neck irradiations. Also, 68% (n=13) of the irradiations that failed to meet the IROC-Houston criteria were found to have calculation errors. Nearly 1 in 5 institutions were found to have TPS errors in their intensity modulated radiation therapy calculations, highlighting the need for careful beam modeling and calculation in the TPS. An independent recalculation system can help identify the presence of TPS errors and pass on the knowledge to the institution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Action errors, error management, and learning in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Michael; Keith, Nina

    2015-01-03

    Every organization is confronted with errors. Most errors are corrected easily, but some may lead to negative consequences. Organizations often focus on error prevention as a single strategy for dealing with errors. Our review suggests that error prevention needs to be supplemented by error management--an approach directed at effectively dealing with errors after they have occurred, with the goal of minimizing negative and maximizing positive error consequences (examples of the latter are learning and innovations). After defining errors and related concepts, we review research on error-related processes affected by error management (error detection, damage control). Empirical evidence on positive effects of error management in individuals and organizations is then discussed, along with emotional, motivational, cognitive, and behavioral pathways of these effects. Learning from errors is central, but like other positive consequences, learning occurs under certain circumstances--one being the development of a mind-set of acceptance of human error.

  16. Modeling coherent errors in quantum error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Dutton, Zachary

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of quantum error correcting codes is typically done using a stochastic, Pauli channel error model for describing the noise on physical qubits. However, it was recently found that coherent errors (systematic rotations) on physical data qubits result in both physical and logical error rates that differ significantly from those predicted by a Pauli model. Here we examine the accuracy of the Pauli approximation for noise containing coherent errors (characterized by a rotation angle ɛ) under the repetition code. We derive an analytic expression for the logical error channel as a function of arbitrary code distance d and concatenation level n, in the small error limit. We find that coherent physical errors result in logical errors that are partially coherent and therefore non-Pauli. However, the coherent part of the logical error is negligible at fewer than {ε }-({dn-1)} error correction cycles when the decoder is optimized for independent Pauli errors, thus providing a regime of validity for the Pauli approximation. Above this number of correction cycles, the persistent coherent logical error will cause logical failure more quickly than the Pauli model would predict, and this may need to be combated with coherent suppression methods at the physical level or larger codes.

  17. The reliability of head film measurements. 3. Tracing superimposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Miller, D; Molthen, R

    1976-12-01

    The superimposition of tracings from lateral skull x-ray films taken at different timepoints is an important method for assessing developmental and treatment changes through time. The usefulness of the data derived is, however, limited by the fact that the physical act of superimposing tracings is performed with some error. The magnitudes of error for superimpositions on different "planes" have not been amenable to quantitation by previously available methods. Using newly developed computer-aided techniques, we have been able to quantitate both the primary errors of tracing superimposition and the associated secondary landmark displacements for four conventionally employed anatomic reference "planes". For each reference "plane," twenty-five independent film pairs were examined independently by each of four judges. Therefore, 100 acts of tracing superimposition were available for each reference "plane." Output data are presented which appear to support the conclusion that measurement errors in tracing superimposition are a consequential factor affecting the confidence which should be placed in head film comparisons, particularly with regard to individual cases. Some consequences of this conclusion with respect to growth prediction and to the evaluation of treatment effects are considered.

  18. Errors in causal inference: an organizational schema for systematic error and random error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Etsuji; Tsuda, Toshihide; Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Yamamoto, Eiji

    2016-11-01

    To provide an organizational schema for systematic error and random error in estimating causal measures, aimed at clarifying the concept of errors from the perspective of causal inference. We propose to divide systematic error into structural error and analytic error. With regard to random error, our schema shows its four major sources: nondeterministic counterfactuals, sampling variability, a mechanism that generates exposure events and measurement variability. Structural error is defined from the perspective of counterfactual reasoning and divided into nonexchangeability bias (which comprises confounding bias and selection bias) and measurement bias. Directed acyclic graphs are useful to illustrate this kind of error. Nonexchangeability bias implies a lack of "exchangeability" between the selected exposed and unexposed groups. A lack of exchangeability is not a primary concern of measurement bias, justifying its separation from confounding bias and selection bias. Many forms of analytic errors result from the small-sample properties of the estimator used and vanish asymptotically. Analytic error also results from wrong (misspecified) statistical models and inappropriate statistical methods. Our organizational schema is helpful for understanding the relationship between systematic error and random error from a previously less investigated aspect, enabling us to better understand the relationship between accuracy, validity, and precision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of kidney function with 99mTc-DTPA renography using a dual-head camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus J; Møller, Michael L; Zerahn, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Single-head gamma camera renography has been used for decades to estimate kidney function. An estimate of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) can be obtained using Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Tc-DTPA). However, because of differing attenuation, an error is introduced when the kidney...

  20. Design of a head phantom produced on a 3D rapid prototyping printer and comparison with a RANDO and 3M lucite head phantom in eye dosimetry applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homolka, Peter; Figl, Michael; Wartak, Andreas; Glanzer, Mathias; Dünkelmeyer, Martina; Hojreh, Azadeh; Hummel, Johann

    2017-04-21

    An anthropomorphic head phantom including eye inserts allowing placement of TLDs 3 mm below the cornea has been produced on a 3D printer using a photo-cured acrylic resin to best allow tissue equivalence. Thus H p (3) can be determined in radiological and interventional photon radiation fields. Eye doses and doses to the forehead have been compared to an Alderson RANDO head and a 3M Lucite skull phantom in terms of surface dose per incident air kerma for frontal irradiation since the commercial phantoms do not allow placement of TLDs 3 mm below the corneal surface. A comparison of dose reduction factors (DRFs) of a common lead glasses model has also been performed. Eye dose per incident air kerma were comparable between all three phantoms (printed phantom: 1.40, standard error (SE) 0.04; RANDO: 1.36, SE 0.03; 3M: 1.37, SE 0.03). Doses to the forehead were identical to eye surface doses for the printed phantom and the RANDO head (ratio 1.00 SE 0.04, and 0.99 SE 0.03, respectively). In the 3M Lucite skull phantom dose on the forehead was 15% lower than dose to the eyes attributable to phantom properties. DRF of a sport frame style leaded glasses model with 0.75 mm lead equivalence measured were 6.8 SE 0.5, 9.3 SE 0.4 and 10.5 SE 0.5 for the RANDO head, the printed phantom, and the 3M Lucite head phantom, respectively, for frontal irradiation. A comparison of doses measured in 3 mm depth and on the surface of the eyes in the printed phantom revealed no difference larger than standard errors from TLD dosimetry. 3D printing offers an interesting opportunity for phantom design with increasing potential as printers allowing combinations of tissue substitutes will become available. Variations between phantoms may provide a useful indication of uncertainty budgets when using phantom measurements to estimate individual personnel doses.

  1. Blind links, a big challenge in the linked data idea: Analysis of Persian Subject Headings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Sharif

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this survey, Linked data concept as exposing, sharing, and connecting pieces of data, information, and knowledge on the Semantic Web and some potential problems in converting Persian subject headings (PSHs Records into linked data were discussed. A data set (11233 records of PSHs was searched in three information retrieval systems including National Library of Iran (NLI online catalog, Library of Congress (LC online catalog and NOSA books. Correct links between Persian and English subject headings in the 9519 common records of two catalogs were recorded. The results indicate that the links between Persian and English subjects in 20% of records were failed. The maximum error was associated with the anonymous databases (6/7 % in NLI online catalog. It is recommended to preprocess the PSHs records before any conversion projects. It seems that, during the preprocessing, the potential errors could be identified and corrected.

  2. Cleveland Clinic intelligent mouthguard: a new technology to accurately measure head impact in athletes and soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Adam; Samorezov, Sergey

    2013-05-01

    Nearly 2 million Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) occur in the U.S. each year, with societal costs approaching $60 billion. Including mild TBI and concussion, TBI's are prevalent in soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan as well as in domestic athletes. Long-term risks of single and cumulative head impact dosage may present in the form of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, suicide, Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE), dementia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Quantifying head impact dosage and understanding associated risk factors for the development of long-term sequelae is critical toward developing guidelines for TBI exposure and post-exposure management. The current knowledge gap between head impact exposure and clinical outcomes limits the understanding of underlying TBI mechanisms, including effective treatment protocols and prevention methods for soldiers and athletes. In order to begin addressing this knowledge gap, Cleveland Clinic is developing the "Intelligent Mouthguard" head impact dosimeter. Current testing indicates the Intelligent Mouthguard can quantify linear acceleration with 3% error and angular acceleration with 17% error during impacts ranging from 10g to 174g and 850rad/s2 to 10000rad/s2, respectively. Correlation was high (R2 > 0.99, R2 = 0.98, respectively). Near-term development will be geared towards quantifying head impact dosages in vitro, longitudinally in athletes and to test new sensors for possible improved accuracy and reduced bias. Long-term, the IMG may be useful to soldiers to be paired with neurocognitive clinical data quantifying resultant TBI functional deficits.

  3. Verification of setup errors in external beam radiation therapy using electronic portal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna Murthy, K.; Al-Rahbi, Zakiya; Sivakumar, S.S.; Davis, C.A.; Ravichandran, R.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct an audit on QA aspects of treatment delivery by the verification of the treatment fields position on different days to document the efficiency of immobilization methods and reproducibility of treatment. A retrospective study was carried out on 60 patients, each 20 treated for head and neck, breast, and pelvic sites; and a total of 506 images obtained by electronic portal imaging device (EPID) were analyzed. The portal images acquired using the EPID systems attached to the Varian linear accelerators were superimposed on the reference images. The anatomy matching software (Varian portal Vision. 6.0) was used, and the displacements in two dimensions and rotation were noted for each treated field to study the patient setup errors. The percentages of mean deviations more than 3 mm in lateral (X) and longitudinal (Y) directions were 17.5%, 11.25%, and 7.5% for breast, pelvis, and head and neck cases respectively. In all cases, the percentage of mean deviation with more than 5 mm error was 0.83%. The maximum average mean deviation in all the cases was 1.87. The average mean SD along X and Y directions in all the cases was less than 2.65. The results revealed that the ranges of setup errors are site specific and immobilization methods improve reproducibility. The observed variations were well within the limits. The study confirmed the accuracy and quality of treatments delivered to the patients. (author)

  4. Cardiac and Respiratory Parameter Estimation Using Head-mounted Motion-sensitive Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hernandez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work explores the feasibility of using motion-sensitive sensors embedded in Google Glass, a head-mounted wearable device, to robustly measure physiological signals of the wearer. In particular, we develop new methods to use Glass’s accelerometer, gyroscope, and camera to extract pulse and respiratory waves of 12 participants during a controlled experiment. We show it is possible to achieve a mean absolute error of 0.82 beats per minute (STD: 1.98 for heart rate and 0.6 breaths per minute (STD: 1.19 for respiration rate when considering different observation windows and combinations of sensors. Moreover, we show that a head-mounted gyroscope sensor shows improved performance versus more commonly explored sensors such as accelerometers and demonstrate that a head-mounted camera is a novel and promising method to capture the physiological responses of the wearer. These findings included testing across sitting, supine, and standing postures before and after physical exercise.

  5. A Note on NCOM Temperature Forecast Error Calibration Using the Ensemble Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Division Head Ruth H. Preller, 7300 Security, Code 1226 Office of Counsel,Code 1008.3 ADOR/Director NCST E. R. Franchi , 7000 Public Affairs...problem, local unbiased (correlation) and persistent errors (bias) of the Navy Coastal Ocean Modeling (NCOM) System nested in global ocean domains, are...system were made available in real-time without performing local data assimilation, though remote sensing and global data was assimilated on the

  6. Hybrid Kalman and unscented Kalman filters for INS/GPS integrated system considering constant lever arm effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常国宾; 柳明

    2015-01-01

    In inertial navigation system (INS) and global positioning system (GPS) integrated system, GPS antennas are usually not located at the same location as the inertial measurement unit (IMU) of the INS, so the lever arm effect exists, which makes the observation equation highly nonlinear. The INS/GPS integration with constant lever arm effect is studied. The position relation of IMU and GPS’s antenna is represented in the earth centered earth fixed frame, while the velocity relation of these two systems is represented in local horizontal frame. Due to the small integration time interval of INS, i.e. 0.1 s in this work, the nonlinearity in the INS error equation is trivial, so the linear INS error model is constructed and addressed by Kalman filter’s prediction step. On the other hand, the high nonlinearity in the observation equation due to lever arm effect is addressed by unscented Kalman filter’s update step to attain higher accuracy and better applicability. Simulation is designed and the performance of the hybrid filter is validated.

  7. AFROC analysis of reporting radiographer's performance in CT head interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, P.; Piper, K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: A preliminary small scale study to assess the diagnostic performance of a limited group of reporting radiographers and consultant radiologists in clinical practice undertaking computed tomography (CT) head interpretation. Method: A multiple reader multiple case (MRMC) alternative free response receiver operating characteristic (AFROC) methodology was applied. Utilising an image bank of 30 CT head examinations, with a 1:1 ratio of normal to abnormal cases. A reference standard was established by double reporting the original reports using two additional independent consultant radiologists with arbitration of discordance by the researcher. Twelve observers from six southern National Health Service (NHS) trusts were invited to participate. The results were compared for accuracy, agreement, sensitivity, specificity. Data analysis used AFROC and area under the curve (AUC) with standard error. Results: The reporting radiographers results demonstrated a mean sensitivity rate of 88.7% (95% CI 82.3–95.1%), specificity 95.6% (96% CI 90.1–100%) and accuracy of 92.2% (95% CI 89.3–95%). The consultant radiologists mean sensitivity rate was 83.35% (95% CI 80–86.7%), specificity 90% (95% CI 86.7–93.3%) and accuracy of 86.65% (95% CI 83.3–90%). Observer performance between the two groups was compared with AFROC, AUC, and standard error analysis (p = 0.94, SE 0.202). Conclusion: The findings of this research indicate that within a limited study, a small group of reporting radiographers demonstrated high levels of diagnostic accuracy in the interpretation of CT head examinations that was equivalent to a small selection of consultant radiologists. - Highlights: • We assessed reporting radiographers and consultant radiologists in a clinical setting. • This was a small scale retrospective multi-reader multi-case multi-site study. • AFROC used lesion-based decisions rather than case-based decisions. • Within a limited study the observed performance was high in

  8. Two heads are better than one: the association between condom decision-making and condom use errors and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, R; Milhausen, R; Sanders, S A; Graham, C A; Yarber, W L

    2008-06-01

    This exploratory study compared the frequency of condom use errors and problems between men reporting that condom use for penile-vaginal sex was a mutual decision compared with men making the decision unilaterally. Nearly 2000 people completed a web-based questionnaire. A sub-sample of 660 men reporting that they last used a condom for penile-vaginal sex (within the past three months) was analysed. Nine condom use errors/problems were assessed. Multivariate analyses controlled for men's age, marital status, and level of experience using condoms. Men's unilateral decision-making was associated with increased odds of removing condoms before sex ended (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.51, p = 0.002), breakage (AOR 3.90, p = 0.037), and slippage during withdrawal (AOR 2.04, p = 0.019). Men's self-reported level of experience using condoms was significantly associated with seven out of nine errors/problems, with those indicating less experience consistently reporting more errors/problems. Findings suggest that female involvement in the decision to use condoms for penile-vaginal sex may be partly protective against some condom errors/problems. Men's self-reported level of experience using condoms may be a useful indicator of the need for education designed to promote the correct use of condoms. Education programmes may benefit men by urging them to involve their female partner in condom use decisions.

  9. On the sub-model errors of a generalized one-way coupling scheme for linking models at different scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jicai; Zha, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yonggen; Shi, Liangsheng; Zhu, Yan; Yang, Jinzhong

    2017-11-01

    Multi-scale modeling of the localized groundwater flow problems in a large-scale aquifer has been extensively investigated under the context of cost-benefit controversy. An alternative is to couple the parent and child models with different spatial and temporal scales, which may result in non-trivial sub-model errors in the local areas of interest. Basically, such errors in the child models originate from the deficiency in the coupling methods, as well as from the inadequacy in the spatial and temporal discretizations of the parent and child models. In this study, we investigate the sub-model errors within a generalized one-way coupling scheme given its numerical stability and efficiency, which enables more flexibility in choosing sub-models. To couple the models at different scales, the head solution at parent scale is delivered downward onto the child boundary nodes by means of the spatial and temporal head interpolation approaches. The efficiency of the coupling model is improved either by refining the grid or time step size in the parent and child models, or by carefully locating the sub-model boundary nodes. The temporal truncation errors in the sub-models can be significantly reduced by the adaptive local time-stepping scheme. The generalized one-way coupling scheme is promising to handle the multi-scale groundwater flow problems with complex stresses and heterogeneity.

  10. Person-Independent Head Pose Estimation Using Biased Manifold Embedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethuraman Panchanathan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Head pose estimation has been an integral problem in the study of face recognition systems and human-computer interfaces, as part of biometric applications. A fine estimate of the head pose angle is necessary and useful for several face analysis applications. To determine the head pose, face images with varying pose angles can be considered to be lying on a smooth low-dimensional manifold in high-dimensional image feature space. However, when there are face images of multiple individuals with varying pose angles, manifold learning techniques often do not give accurate results. In this work, we propose a framework for a supervised form of manifold learning called Biased Manifold Embedding to obtain improved performance in head pose angle estimation. This framework goes beyond pose estimation, and can be applied to all regression applications. This framework, although formulated for a regression scenario, unifies other supervised approaches to manifold learning that have been proposed so far. Detailed studies of the proposed method are carried out on the FacePix database, which contains 181 face images each of 30 individuals with pose angle variations at a granularity of 1∘. Since biometric applications in the real world may not contain this level of granularity in training data, an analysis of the methodology is performed on sparsely sampled data to validate its effectiveness. We obtained up to 2∘ average pose angle estimation error in the results from our experiments, which matched the best results obtained for head pose estimation using related approaches.

  11. Error begat error: design error analysis and prevention in social infrastructure projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Peter E D; Lopez, Robert; Edwards, David J; Goh, Yang M

    2012-09-01

    Design errors contribute significantly to cost and schedule growth in social infrastructure projects and to engineering failures, which can result in accidents and loss of life. Despite considerable research that has addressed their error causation in construction projects they still remain prevalent. This paper identifies the underlying conditions that contribute to design errors in social infrastructure projects (e.g. hospitals, education, law and order type buildings). A systemic model of error causation is propagated and subsequently used to develop a learning framework for design error prevention. The research suggests that a multitude of strategies should be adopted in congruence to prevent design errors from occurring and so ensure that safety and project performance are ameliorated. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Geometric calibration method for multiple-head cone-beam SPECT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizo, P.; Grangeat, P.; Guillemaud, R.

    1994-01-01

    A method is presented for estimating the geometrical parameters of cone beam systems with multiple heads, each head having its own orientation. In tomography, for each head, the relative position of the rotation axis and f the collimator do not change during the data acquisition. The authors thus can separate the parameters into intrinsic parameters and extrinsic parameters. The intrinsic parameters describe the detection system geometry and the extrinsic parameters the position of the detection system with respect to the rotation axis. Intrinsic parameters must be estimated each time the acquisition geometry is modified. Extrinsic parameters are estimated by minimizing the distances between the measured position of a point source projection and the computed position obtained using the estimated extrinsic parameters. The main advantage of this method is that the extrinsic parameters are only weakly correlated when the intrinsic parameters are known. Thus the authors can use any simple least square error minimization method to perform the estimation of the extrinsic parameters. Giving a fixed value to the distance between the point source and the rotation axis in the estimation process, ensures the coherence of the extrinsic parameters between each head. They show that with this calibration method, the full width at half maximum measured with point sources is very close to the theoretical one, and remains almost unchanged when more than one head is used. Simulation results and reconstructions on a Jaszczak phantom are presented that show the capabilities of this method

  13. Vision Aided Inertial Navigation System Augmented with a Coded Aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    GPS IMU INS LlDAR MAV MITE OTF PDF PSD PSF PVA SIFT SLAM List of Abbreviations Description Two Dimensional Three Dimensional Four...mapping ( SLAM ) [31]. A single image from a traditional camera provides heading information from the camera to a landmark, constraining the possible...through use of light detection and ranging ( LIDAR ) [3]. Laser range scanners emit light in a given direction and measure properties of the light

  14. Quality Control Methodologies for Advanced EMI Sensor Data Acquisition and Anomaly Classification - Former Southwestern Proving Ground, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    30 LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix A Points of Contact vii 10/2/2015 LIST OF ACRONYMS % percent µT micro Tesla cm...three orthogonal 1-square meter (m²) transmit coils and seven 10-centimeter (cm), three-component, orthogonal receiver coils (Figure 2-1). The system...navigation. The rover head was mounted directly over the center of the MetalMapper transmit coil . An inertial measurement unit (IMU) was installed

  15. Comparison study of different head model structures with homogeneous/inhomogeneous conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, P.; Li, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Most of the human head models used in dipole localisation research, which have been reported in the literature to date, assume a simplified cranial structure wherein the head is modelled as a set of distinct homogenous tissue compartments. The inherent inhomogeneity of the tissues has so far been ignored in these models due to the difficulties involved in obtaining the conductivity characteristics with sufficiently high enough spatial resolution throughout the head. A technique for developing an inhomogeneous head model based on the generation of pseudo-conductivity values from the existing but sparse conductivity values is proposed in this paper. Comparative studies are conducted on different model structures and different mechanisms for generating the pseudo conductivities. An evaluation of the results of these studies as reported in this paper, shows that contrary to current simplifying assumptions, tissue inhomogeneity has a major influence on the computation of electrical potential distributions in the head. Brain electrical activity is spatially distributed in three dimensions in the head and evolves with time. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a widely used noninvasive technique which measures the potential distribution on the scalp caused by the brain electrical activity. A number of interesting correlations between features of the recorded EEG waveforms and various aspects of attention memory and linguistic tAS/Ks have been discovered. These correlations are estimated by comparing, for a given brain function, the recorded EEGs against the scalp potentials obtained from the computation of an electric field model of the head. The accuracy of these estimates depends not only on such factors as EEG measured errors but also, more importantly, on how closely the head model approximates the physiological head. This has spurred interest in the use of a more realistic head geometry with more accurate conductivity values which would use the detailed anatomical

  16. A unified model of heading and path perception in primate MSTd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver W Layton

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-motion, steering, and obstacle avoidance during navigation in the real world require humans to travel along curved paths. Many perceptual models have been proposed that focus on heading, which specifies the direction of travel along straight paths, but not on path curvature, which humans accurately perceive and is critical to everyday locomotion. In primates, including humans, dorsal medial superior temporal area (MSTd has been implicated in heading perception. However, the majority of MSTd neurons respond optimally to spiral patterns, rather than to the radial expansion patterns associated with heading. No existing theory of curved path perception explains the neural mechanisms by which humans accurately assess path and no functional role for spiral-tuned cells has yet been proposed. Here we present a computational model that demonstrates how the continuum of observed cells (radial to circular in MSTd can simultaneously code curvature and heading across the neural population. Curvature is encoded through the spirality of the most active cell, and heading is encoded through the visuotopic location of the center of the most active cell's receptive field. Model curvature and heading errors fit those made by humans. Our model challenges the view that the function of MSTd is heading estimation, based on our analysis we claim that it is primarily concerned with trajectory estimation and the simultaneous representation of both curvature and heading. In our model, temporal dynamics afford time-history in the neural representation of optic flow, which may modulate its structure. This has far-reaching implications for the interpretation of studies that assume that optic flow is, and should be, represented as an instantaneous vector field. Our results suggest that spiral motion patterns that emerge in spatio-temporal optic flow are essential for guiding self-motion along complex trajectories, and that cells in MSTd are specifically tuned to extract

  17. A Unified Model of Heading and Path Perception in Primate MSTd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Oliver W.; Browning, N. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Self-motion, steering, and obstacle avoidance during navigation in the real world require humans to travel along curved paths. Many perceptual models have been proposed that focus on heading, which specifies the direction of travel along straight paths, but not on path curvature, which humans accurately perceive and is critical to everyday locomotion. In primates, including humans, dorsal medial superior temporal area (MSTd) has been implicated in heading perception. However, the majority of MSTd neurons respond optimally to spiral patterns, rather than to the radial expansion patterns associated with heading. No existing theory of curved path perception explains the neural mechanisms by which humans accurately assess path and no functional role for spiral-tuned cells has yet been proposed. Here we present a computational model that demonstrates how the continuum of observed cells (radial to circular) in MSTd can simultaneously code curvature and heading across the neural population. Curvature is encoded through the spirality of the most active cell, and heading is encoded through the visuotopic location of the center of the most active cell's receptive field. Model curvature and heading errors fit those made by humans. Our model challenges the view that the function of MSTd is heading estimation, based on our analysis we claim that it is primarily concerned with trajectory estimation and the simultaneous representation of both curvature and heading. In our model, temporal dynamics afford time-history in the neural representation of optic flow, which may modulate its structure. This has far-reaching implications for the interpretation of studies that assume that optic flow is, and should be, represented as an instantaneous vector field. Our results suggest that spiral motion patterns that emerge in spatio-temporal optic flow are essential for guiding self-motion along complex trajectories, and that cells in MSTd are specifically tuned to extract complex trajectory

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A PEDESTRIAN INDOOR NAVIGATION SYSTEM BASED ON MULTI-SENSOR FUSION AND FUZZY LOGIC ESTIMATION ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Lai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a pedestrian indoor navigation system based on the multi-sensor fusion and fuzzy logic estimation algorithms. The proposed navigation system is a self-contained dead reckoning navigation that means no other outside signal is demanded. In order to achieve the self-contained capability, a portable and wearable inertial measure unit (IMU has been developed. Its adopted sensors are the low-cost inertial sensors, accelerometer and gyroscope, based on the micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS. There are two types of the IMU modules, handheld and waist-mounted. The low-cost MEMS sensors suffer from various errors due to the results of manufacturing imperfections and other effects. Therefore, a sensor calibration procedure based on the scalar calibration and the least squares methods has been induced in this study to improve the accuracy of the inertial sensors. With the calibrated data acquired from the inertial sensors, the step length and strength of the pedestrian are estimated by multi-sensor fusion and fuzzy logic estimation algorithms. The developed multi-sensor fusion algorithm provides the amount of the walking steps and the strength of each steps in real-time. Consequently, the estimated walking amount and strength per step are taken into the proposed fuzzy logic estimation algorithm to estimates the step lengths of the user. Since the walking length and direction are both the required information of the dead reckoning navigation, the walking direction is calculated by integrating the angular rate acquired by the gyroscope of the developed IMU module. Both the walking length and direction are calculated on the IMU module and transmit to a smartphone with Bluetooth to perform the dead reckoning navigation which is run on a self-developed APP. Due to the error accumulating of dead reckoning navigation, a particle filter and a pre-loaded map of indoor environment have been applied to the APP of the proposed navigation system

  19. Development of a Pedestrian Indoor Navigation System Based on Multi-Sensor Fusion and Fuzzy Logic Estimation Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Y. C.; Chang, C. C.; Tsai, C. M.; Lin, S. Y.; Huang, S. C.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a pedestrian indoor navigation system based on the multi-sensor fusion and fuzzy logic estimation algorithms. The proposed navigation system is a self-contained dead reckoning navigation that means no other outside signal is demanded. In order to achieve the self-contained capability, a portable and wearable inertial measure unit (IMU) has been developed. Its adopted sensors are the low-cost inertial sensors, accelerometer and gyroscope, based on the micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS). There are two types of the IMU modules, handheld and waist-mounted. The low-cost MEMS sensors suffer from various errors due to the results of manufacturing imperfections and other effects. Therefore, a sensor calibration procedure based on the scalar calibration and the least squares methods has been induced in this study to improve the accuracy of the inertial sensors. With the calibrated data acquired from the inertial sensors, the step length and strength of the pedestrian are estimated by multi-sensor fusion and fuzzy logic estimation algorithms. The developed multi-sensor fusion algorithm provides the amount of the walking steps and the strength of each steps in real-time. Consequently, the estimated walking amount and strength per step are taken into the proposed fuzzy logic estimation algorithm to estimates the step lengths of the user. Since the walking length and direction are both the required information of the dead reckoning navigation, the walking direction is calculated by integrating the angular rate acquired by the gyroscope of the developed IMU module. Both the walking length and direction are calculated on the IMU module and transmit to a smartphone with Bluetooth to perform the dead reckoning navigation which is run on a self-developed APP. Due to the error accumulating of dead reckoning navigation, a particle filter and a pre-loaded map of indoor environment have been applied to the APP of the proposed navigation system to extend its

  20. A Quantitative Analysis of Dressing Dynamics for Robotic Dressing Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Chance

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Assistive robots have a great potential to address issues related to an aging population and an increased demand for caregiving. Successful deployment of robots working in close proximity with people requires consideration of both safety and human–robot interaction (HRI. One of the established activities of daily living where robots could play an assistive role is dressing. Using the correct force profile for robot control will be essential in this application of HRI requiring careful exploration of factors related to the user’s pose and the type of garments involved. In this paper, a Baxter robot was used to dress a jacket onto a mannequin and human participants considering several combinations of user pose and clothing type (base layers, while recording dynamic data from the robot, a load cell, and an IMU. We also report on suitability of these sensors for identifying dressing errors, e.g., fabric snagging. Data were analyzed by comparing the overlap of confidence intervals to determine sensitivity to dressing. We expand the analysis to include classification techniques such as decision tree and support vector machines using k-fold cross-validation. The 6-axis load cell successfully discriminated between clothing types with predictive model accuracies between 72 and 97%. Used independently, the IMU and Baxter sensors were insufficient to discriminate garment types with the IMU showing 40–72% accuracy, but when used in combination this pair of sensors achieved an accuracy similar to the more expensive load cell (98%. When observing dressing errors (snagging, Baxter’s sensors and the IMU data demonstrated poor sensitivity but applying machine learning methods resulted in model with high predicative accuracy and low false negative rates (≤5%. The results show that the load cell could be used independently for this application with good accuracy but a combination of the lower cost sensors could also be used without a significant loss in

  1. Monitoring and reporting of preanalytical errors in laboratory medicine: the UK situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornes, Michael P; Atherton, Jennifer; Pourmahram, Ghazaleh; Borthwick, Hazel; Kyle, Betty; West, Jamie; Costelloe, Seán J

    2016-03-01

    Most errors in the clinical laboratory occur in the preanalytical phase. This study aimed to comprehensively describe the prevalence and nature of preanalytical quality monitoring practices in UK clinical laboratories. A survey was sent on behalf of the Association for Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine Preanalytical Working Group (ACB-WG-PA) to all heads of department of clinical laboratories in the UK. The survey captured data on the analytical platform and Laboratory Information Management System in use; which preanalytical errors were recorded and how they were classified and gauged interest in an external quality assurance scheme for preanalytical errors. Of the 157 laboratories asked to participate, responses were received from 104 (66.2%). Laboratory error rates were recorded per number of specimens, rather than per number of requests in 51% of respondents. Aside from serum indices for haemolysis, icterus and lipaemia, which were measured in 80% of laboratories, the most common errors recorded were booking-in errors (70.1%) and sample mislabelling (56.9%) in laboratories who record preanalytical errors. Of the laboratories surveyed, 95.9% expressed an interest in guidance on recording preanalytical error and 91.8% expressed interest in an external quality assurance scheme. This survey observes a wide variation in the definition, repertoire and collection methods for preanalytical errors in the UK. Data indicate there is a lot of interest in improving preanalytical data collection. The ACB-WG-PA aims to produce guidance and support for laboratories to standardize preanalytical data collection and to help establish and validate an external quality assurance scheme for interlaboratory comparison. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Atomoxetine could improve intra-individual variability in drug-naïve adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder comparably with methylphenidate: A head-to-head randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Hsing-Chang; Hwang Gu, Shoou-Lian; Lin, Hsiang-Yuan; Lin, Yu-Ju; Yang, Li-Kuang; Huang, Hui-Chun; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2016-05-01

    Intra-individual variability in reaction time (IIV-RT) is common in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It can be improved by stimulants. However, the effects of atomoxetine on IIV-RT are inconclusive. We aimed to investigate the effects of atomoxetine on IIV-RT, and directly compared its efficacy with methylphenidate in adults with ADHD. An 8-10 week, open-label, head-to-head, randomized clinical trial was conducted in 52 drug-naïve adults with ADHD, who were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: immediate-release methylphenidate (n=26) thrice daily (10-20 mg per dose) and atomoxetine once daily (n=26) (0.5-1.2 mg/kg/day). IIV-RT, derived from the Conners' continuous performance test (CCPT), was represented by the Gaussian (reaction time standard error, RTSE) and ex-Gaussian models (sigma and tau). Other neuropsychological functions, including response errors and mean of reaction time, were also measured. Participants received CCPT assessments at baseline and week 8-10 (60.4±6.3 days). We found comparable improvements in performances of CCPT between the immediate-release methylphenidate- and atomoxetine-treated groups. Both medications significantly improved IIV-RT in terms of reducing tau values with comparable efficacy. In addition, both medications significantly improved inhibitory control by reducing commission errors. Our results provide evidence to support that atomoxetine could improve IIV-RT and inhibitory control, of comparable efficacy with immediate-release methylphenidate, in drug-naïve adults with ADHD. Shared and unique mechanisms underpinning these medication effects on IIV-RT awaits further investigation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. APPLYING 3D AFFINE TRANSFORMATION AND LEAST SQUARES MATCHING FOR AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING STRIPS ADJUSTMENT WITHOUT GNSS/IMU TRAJECTORY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ressl

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article we extend our previous work on the topic of ALS strip adjustment without GNSS/IMU trajectory data. Between overlap- ping strip pairs the relative orientation as a 3D affine transformation is estimated by a 3D LSM approach, which uses interpolated 2.5D grid surface models of the strips and the entire strip overlap as one big LSM window. The LSM derived relative orientations of all strip pairs in the block together with their covariance matrices are then used simultaneously as observations in an adjustment following the Gauss-Helmert model. This way the exterior orientation of each strip is computed, which refers to a relative block system. If proper ground control data is given, then an absolute orientation of the block of strips can be computed by a final LSM run. In a small example consisting of 4 strips with ca. 70% overlap the improvement in the relative geometric accuracy is demonstrated by the decreasing óMAD of the height differences from 8.4cm (before to 1.6cm (after the strip adjustment.

  4. Common positioning errors in panoramic radiography: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randon, Rafael Henrique Nunes [Stomathology and Oral Diagnostic Program, School of Dentistry of Sao Paulo, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Pereira, Yamba Carla Lara [Biology Dental Buco Graduate Program, School of Dentistry of Piracicaba, University of Campinas, Piracicaba (Brazil); Nascimento, Glauce Crivelaro do [Psychobiology Graduate Program, School of Philosophy, Science and Literature of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    Professionals performing radiographic examinations are responsible for maintaining optimal image quality for accurate diagnoses. These professionals must competently execute techniques such as film manipulation and processing to minimize patient exposure to radiation. Improper performance by the professional and/or patient may result in a radiographic image of unsatisfactory quality that can also lead to a misdiagnosis and the development of an inadequate treatment plan. Currently, the most commonly performed extraoral examination is panoramic radiography. The invention of panoramic radiography has resulted in improvements in image quality with decreased exposure to radiation and at a low cost. However, this technique requires careful, accurate positioning of the patient's teeth and surrounding maxillofacial bone structure within the focal trough. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for the most common types of positioning errors in panoramic radiography to suggest the correct techniques. We would also discuss how to determine if the most common positioning errors occurred in panoramic radiography, such as in the positioning of the patient's head, tongue, chin, or body.

  5. Design of roundness measurement model with multi-systematic error for cylindrical components with large radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chuanzhi; Wang, Lei; Tan, Jiubin; Zhao, Bo; Tang, Yangchao

    2016-02-01

    The paper designs a roundness measurement model with multi-systematic error, which takes eccentricity, probe offset, radius of tip head of probe, and tilt error into account for roundness measurement of cylindrical components. The effects of the systematic errors and radius of components are analysed in the roundness measurement. The proposed method is built on the instrument with a high precision rotating spindle. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by experiment with the standard cylindrical component, which is measured on a roundness measuring machine. Compared to the traditional limacon measurement model, the accuracy of roundness measurement can be increased by about 2.2 μm using the proposed roundness measurement model for the object with a large radius of around 37 mm. The proposed method can improve the accuracy of roundness measurement and can be used for error separation, calibration, and comparison, especially for cylindrical components with a large radius.

  6. Errors, error detection, error correction and hippocampal-region damage: data and theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Donald G; Johnson, Laura W

    2013-11-01

    This review and perspective article outlines 15 observational constraints on theories of errors, error detection, and error correction, and their relation to hippocampal-region (HR) damage. The core observations come from 10 studies with H.M., an amnesic with cerebellar and HR damage but virtually no neocortical damage. Three studies examined the detection of errors planted in visual scenes (e.g., a bird flying in a fish bowl in a school classroom) and sentences (e.g., I helped themselves to the birthday cake). In all three experiments, H.M. detected reliably fewer errors than carefully matched memory-normal controls. Other studies examined the detection and correction of self-produced errors, with controls for comprehension of the instructions, impaired visual acuity, temporal factors, motoric slowing, forgetting, excessive memory load, lack of motivation, and deficits in visual scanning or attention. In these studies, H.M. corrected reliably fewer errors than memory-normal and cerebellar controls, and his uncorrected errors in speech, object naming, and reading aloud exhibited two consistent features: omission and anomaly. For example, in sentence production tasks, H.M. omitted one or more words in uncorrected encoding errors that rendered his sentences anomalous (incoherent, incomplete, or ungrammatical) reliably more often than controls. Besides explaining these core findings, the theoretical principles discussed here explain H.M.'s retrograde amnesia for once familiar episodic and semantic information; his anterograde amnesia for novel information; his deficits in visual cognition, sentence comprehension, sentence production, sentence reading, and object naming; and effects of aging on his ability to read isolated low frequency words aloud. These theoretical principles also explain a wide range of other data on error detection and correction and generate new predictions for future test. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Facial motion parameter estimation and error criteria in model-based image coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunhai; Yu, Lu; Yao, Qingdong

    2000-04-01

    Model-based image coding has been given extensive attention due to its high subject image quality and low bit-rates. But the estimation of object motion parameter is still a difficult problem, and there is not a proper error criteria for the quality assessment that are consistent with visual properties. This paper presents an algorithm of the facial motion parameter estimation based on feature point correspondence and gives the motion parameter error criteria. The facial motion model comprises of three parts. The first part is the global 3-D rigid motion of the head, the second part is non-rigid translation motion in jaw area, and the third part consists of local non-rigid expression motion in eyes and mouth areas. The feature points are automatically selected by a function of edges, brightness and end-node outside the blocks of eyes and mouth. The numbers of feature point are adjusted adaptively. The jaw translation motion is tracked by the changes of the feature point position of jaw. The areas of non-rigid expression motion can be rebuilt by using block-pasting method. The estimation approach of motion parameter error based on the quality of reconstructed image is suggested, and area error function and the error function of contour transition-turn rate are used to be quality criteria. The criteria reflect the image geometric distortion caused by the error of estimated motion parameters properly.

  8. Head pose estimation from a 2D face image using 3D face morphing with depth parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Seong G; Mbouna, Ralph Oyini

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents estimation of head pose angles from a single 2D face image using a 3D face model morphed from a reference face model. A reference model refers to a 3D face of a person of the same ethnicity and gender as the query subject. The proposed scheme minimizes the disparity between the two sets of prominent facial features on the query face image and the corresponding points on the 3D face model to estimate the head pose angles. The 3D face model used is morphed from a reference model to be more specific to the query face in terms of the depth error at the feature points. The morphing process produces a 3D face model more specific to the query image when multiple 2D face images of the query subject are available for training. The proposed morphing process is computationally efficient since the depth of a 3D face model is adjusted by a scalar depth parameter at feature points. Optimal depth parameters are found by minimizing the disparity between the 2D features of the query face image and the corresponding features on the morphed 3D model projected onto 2D space. The proposed head pose estimation technique was evaluated on two benchmarking databases: 1) the USF Human-ID database for depth estimation and 2) the Pointing'04 database for head pose estimation. Experiment results demonstrate that head pose estimation errors in nodding and shaking angles are as low as 7.93° and 4.65° on average for a single 2D input face image.

  9. Kinematics of the AM-50 heading machine cutting head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W; Bak, K; Klich, R [Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland). Instytut Mechanizacji Gornictwa

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes motion of the cutter head of the AM-50 heading machine. Two types of head motion are comparatively evaluated: planar motion and spatial motion. The spatial motion consists of the head rotational motion and horizontal or vertical feed motion, while planar motion consists of rotational motion and vertical feed motion. Equations that describe head motion under conditions of cutter vertical or horizontal feed motion are derived. The angle between the cutting speed direction and working speed direction is defined. On the basis of these formulae variations of cutting speed depending on the cutting tool position on a cutter head are calculated. Calculations made for 2 extreme cutting tools show that the cutting speed ranges from 1,205 m/s to 3,512 m/s. 4 refs.

  10. Learning time-dependent noise to reduce logical errors: real time error rate estimation in quantum error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Ming-Xia; Li, Ying

    2017-12-01

    Quantum error correction is important to quantum information processing, which allows us to reliably process information encoded in quantum error correction codes. Efficient quantum error correction benefits from the knowledge of error rates. We propose a protocol for monitoring error rates in real time without interrupting the quantum error correction. Any adaptation of the quantum error correction code or its implementation circuit is not required. The protocol can be directly applied to the most advanced quantum error correction techniques, e.g. surface code. A Gaussian processes algorithm is used to estimate and predict error rates based on error correction data in the past. We find that using these estimated error rates, the probability of error correction failures can be significantly reduced by a factor increasing with the code distance.

  11. Image guidance during head-and-neck cancer radiation therapy: analysis of alignment trends with in-room cone-beam computed tomography scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumsteg, Zachary; DeMarco, John; Lee, Steve P; Steinberg, Michael L; Lin, Chun Shu; McBride, William; Lin, Kevin; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Kupelian, Patrick; Lee, Percy

    2012-06-01

    On-board cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is currently available for alignment of patients with head-and-neck cancer before radiotherapy. However, daily CBCT is time intensive and increases the overall radiation dose. We assessed the feasibility of using the average couch shifts from the first several CBCTs to estimate and correct for the presumed systematic setup error. 56 patients with head-and-neck cancer who received daily CBCT before intensity-modulated radiation therapy had recorded shift values in the medial-lateral, superior-inferior, and anterior-posterior dimensions. The average displacements in each direction were calculated for each patient based on the first five or 10 CBCT shifts and were presumed to represent the systematic setup error. The residual error after this correction was determined by subtracting the calculated shifts from the shifts obtained using daily CBCT. The magnitude of the average daily residual three-dimensional (3D) error was 4.8 ± 1.4 mm, 3.9 ± 1.3 mm, and 3.7 ± 1.1 mm for uncorrected, five CBCT corrected, and 10 CBCT corrected protocols, respectively. With no image guidance, 40.8% of fractions would have been >5 mm off target. Using the first five CBCT shifts to correct subsequent fractions, this percentage decreased to 19.0% of all fractions delivered and decreased the percentage of patients with average daily 3D errors >5 mm from 35.7% to 14.3% vs. no image guidance. Using an average of the first 10 CBCT shifts did not significantly improve this outcome. Using the first five CBCT shift measurements as an estimation of the systematic setup error improves daily setup accuracy for a subset of patients with head-and-neck cancer receiving intensity-modulated radiation therapy and primarily benefited those with large 3D correction vectors (>5 mm). Daily CBCT is still necessary until methods are developed that more accurately determine which patients may benefit from alternative imaging strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier

  12. MRTouch: Adding Touch Input to Head-Mounted Mixed Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Robert; Schwarz, Julia; Throm, Nick; Wilson, Andrew D; Benko, Hrvoje

    2018-04-01

    We present MRTouch, a novel multitouch input solution for head-mounted mixed reality systems. Our system enables users to reach out and directly manipulate virtual interfaces affixed to surfaces in their environment, as though they were touchscreens. Touch input offers precise, tactile and comfortable user input, and naturally complements existing popular modalities, such as voice and hand gesture. Our research prototype combines both depth and infrared camera streams together with real-time detection and tracking of surface planes to enable robust finger-tracking even when both the hand and head are in motion. Our technique is implemented on a commercial Microsoft HoloLens without requiring any additional hardware nor any user or environmental calibration. Through our performance evaluation, we demonstrate high input accuracy with an average positional error of 5.4 mm and 95% button size of 16 mm, across 17 participants, 2 surface orientations and 4 surface materials. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of our technique to enable on-world touch interactions through 5 example applications.

  13. Measurement errors for thermocouples attached to thin plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolik, K.B.; Keltner, N.R.; Beck, J.V.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses Unsteady Surface Element (USE) methods which are applied to a model of a thermocouple wire attached to a thin disk. Green's functions are used to develop the integral equations for the wire and the disk. The model can be used to evaluate transient and steady state responses for many types of heat flux measurement devices including thin skin calorimeters and circular foil (Gardon) head flux gauges. The model can accommodate either surface or volumetric heating of the disk. The boundary condition at the outer radius of the disk can be either insulated or constant temperature. Effect on the errors of geometrical and thermal factors can be assessed. Examples are given

  14. Correction of electrode modelling errors in multi-frequency EIT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehl, Markus; Holder, David

    2016-06-01

    The differentiation of haemorrhagic from ischaemic stroke using electrical impedance tomography (EIT) requires measurements at multiple frequencies, since the general lack of healthy measurements on the same patient excludes time-difference imaging methods. It has previously been shown that the inaccurate modelling of electrodes constitutes one of the largest sources of image artefacts in non-linear multi-frequency EIT applications. To address this issue, we augmented the conductivity Jacobian matrix with a Jacobian matrix with respect to electrode movement. Using this new algorithm, simulated ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes in a realistic head model were reconstructed for varying degrees of electrode position errors. The simultaneous recovery of conductivity spectra and electrode positions removed most artefacts caused by inaccurately modelled electrodes. Reconstructions were stable for electrode position errors of up to 1.5 mm standard deviation along both surface dimensions. We conclude that this method can be used for electrode model correction in multi-frequency EIT.

  15. Medication errors: prescribing faults and prescription errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velo, Giampaolo P; Minuz, Pietro

    2009-06-01

    1. Medication errors are common in general practice and in hospitals. Both errors in the act of writing (prescription errors) and prescribing faults due to erroneous medical decisions can result in harm to patients. 2. Any step in the prescribing process can generate errors. Slips, lapses, or mistakes are sources of errors, as in unintended omissions in the transcription of drugs. Faults in dose selection, omitted transcription, and poor handwriting are common. 3. Inadequate knowledge or competence and incomplete information about clinical characteristics and previous treatment of individual patients can result in prescribing faults, including the use of potentially inappropriate medications. 4. An unsafe working environment, complex or undefined procedures, and inadequate communication among health-care personnel, particularly between doctors and nurses, have been identified as important underlying factors that contribute to prescription errors and prescribing faults. 5. Active interventions aimed at reducing prescription errors and prescribing faults are strongly recommended. These should be focused on the education and training of prescribers and the use of on-line aids. The complexity of the prescribing procedure should be reduced by introducing automated systems or uniform prescribing charts, in order to avoid transcription and omission errors. Feedback control systems and immediate review of prescriptions, which can be performed with the assistance of a hospital pharmacist, are also helpful. Audits should be performed periodically.

  16. Assessment of a customised immobilisation system for head and neck IMRT using electronic portal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, Mandy; Guerrero Urbano, M.Teressa; Mubata, Cefas; Miles, Elizabeth; Harrington, Kevin J.; Bidmead, Margaret; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate set-up reproducibility of a cabulite shell and determine CTV-PTV margins for head and neck intensity-modulated-radiotherapy. Materials and methods: Twenty patients were entered into the study. A total of 354 anterior and lateral isocentric electronic portal images (EPIs) were compared to simulator reference images. Results: About 94% of all translational displacements were ≤3 mm, and 99% ≤5 mm. The overall systematic error was 0.9 mm (±1.0SD) in the Right-Left, 0.7 mm (±0.9SD) in the Superior-Inferior and -0.02 mm (±1.1SD) in the Anterior-Posterior directions. The corresponding SDs of the random errors were ±0.4, ±0.6 and ±0.7 mm. The estimated margins required from CTV-PTV were calculated according to the Van Herk formula was 2.9, 2.6 and 3.3 mm, respectively. Conclusions: This head and neck immobilisation system is of sufficient accuracy for its use with IMRT treatments and a 3 mm CTV-PTV margin has been adopted

  17. Sensors and Algorithms for an Unmanned Surf-Zone Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    AXV TESIS - COMPLEMENTARY FILTER TEST % File writen by Oscar Garcia 24/08/15 clear all clc clf imu = fopen(’imucomp2.txt’,’r’); 178...IMU data fusion and filtering using a first order Kalman filter. % AXV TESIS - IMU KALMAN FILTER TEST % File writen by Oscar Garcia 30/08/15...AXV_IMU_EKF.m It performs IMU data fusion and filtering using an extended Kalman filter. % AXV TESIS - IMU EKF TEST % File writen by Oscar Garcia 30/08

  18. Optimization Design and Performance Analysis of a Pit Turbine with Ultralow Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxia Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A developed pit turbine with ultralow head was optimization designed under the design head of about 2 meters to achieve the goal of improving the turbine unit's efficiency. At the same time, the turbine's synthetic characteristic curve was drawn to predict the turbine's overall performance. Navier-Stokes equations and SIMPLEC algorithm were used for pit turbine's whole flow passage numerical simulation of the 3D, steady, incompressible, turbulent flow field. Through the CFD numerical simulation, the influence to ultralow head turbine's performance was analyzed by runner blade's different setting angles and guide vane's different axes. Considering the hydraulic performance of various methods, the best blade's setting angle and guide vane's axis were chosen. The results show that, the turbine unit has the best performance on efficiency, hydraulic loss, and so forth, with the blade's setting angle 23° and the angle 72° between the guide vane and the centerline of unit, meeting the power station's design requirements. The development pit turbine with ultralow head shows the highest efficiency of 87.6% under condition of design head of 2.1 meters and design discharge of 10 m3/s. The energy performance of pit turbine with ultralow head was researched by the model test of GD-WS-35 turbine. The model turbine's characteristic curve was drawn. The model turbine's high efficiency area is wide and the efficiency changes mildly. The numerical simulation results are essentially consistent with the model test results, while the former one is slightly higher than the latter one. The error range is ±3%.

  19. Low-cost inertial measurement unit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deyle, Travis Jay

    2005-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

  20. Evaluation of Low or High Permeability of Fractured Rock using Well Head Losses from Step-Drawdown Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Woo; Kim, Geon Young; Koh, Yong Kwon; Kim, Hyoung Soo

    2012-01-01

    The equation of the step-drawdown test 's w = BQ+CQ p ' written by Rorabaugh (1953) is suitable for drawdown increased non-linearly in the fractured rocks. It was found that value of root mean square error (RMSE) between observed and calculated drawdowns was very low. The calculated C (well head loss coefficient) and P (well head loss exponent) value of well head losses (CQ p ) ranged 3.689 x 10 -19 - 5.825 x 10 -7 and 3.459 - 8.290, respectively. It appeared that the deeper depth in pumping well the larger drawdowns due to pumping rate increase. The well head loss in the fractured rocks, unlike that in porous media, is affected by properties of fractures (fractures of aperture, spacing, and connection) around pumping well. The C and P value in the well head loss is very important to interpret turbulence interval and properties of high or low permeability of fractured rock. As a result, regression analysis of C and P value in the well head losses identified the relationship of turbulence interval and hydraulic properties. The relationship between C and P value turned out very useful to interpret hydraulic properties of the fractured rocks.

  1. Nonrigid Image Registration for Head and Neck Cancer Radiotherapy Treatment Planning With PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ireland, Rob H.; Dyker, Karen E.; Barber, David C.; Wood, Steven M.; Hanney, Michael B.; Tindale, Wendy B.; Woodhouse, Neil; Hoggard, Nigel; Conway, John; Robinson, Martin H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Head and neck radiotherapy planning with positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) requires the images to be reliably registered with treatment planning CT. Acquiring PET/CT in treatment position is problematic, and in practice for some patients it may be beneficial to use diagnostic PET/CT for radiotherapy planning. Therefore, the aim of this study was first to quantify the image registration accuracy of PET/CT to radiotherapy CT and, second, to assess whether PET/CT acquired in diagnostic position can be registered to planning CT. Methods and Materials: Positron emission tomography/CT acquired in diagnostic and treatment position for five patients with head and neck cancer was registered to radiotherapy planning CT using both rigid and nonrigid image registration. The root mean squared error for each method was calculated from a set of anatomic landmarks marked by four independent observers. Results: Nonrigid and rigid registration errors for treatment position PET/CT to planning CT were 2.77 ± 0.80 mm and 4.96 ± 2.38 mm, respectively, p = 0.001. Applying the nonrigid registration to diagnostic position PET/CT produced a more accurate match to the planning CT than rigid registration of treatment position PET/CT (3.20 ± 1.22 mm and 4.96 ± 2.38 mm, respectively, p = 0.012). Conclusions: Nonrigid registration provides a more accurate registration of head and neck PET/CT to treatment planning CT than rigid registration. In addition, nonrigid registration of PET/CT acquired with patients in a standardized, diagnostic position can provide images registered to planning CT with greater accuracy than a rigid registration of PET/CT images acquired in treatment position. This may allow greater flexibility in the timing of PET/CT for head and neck cancer patients due to undergo radiotherapy

  2. A Vision/Inertia Integrated Positioning Method Using Position and Orientation Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyue Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A vision/inertia integrated positioning method using position and orientation matching which can be adopted on intelligent vehicle such as automated guided vehicle (AGV and mobile robot is proposed in this work. The method is introduced firstly. Landmarks are placed into the navigation field and camera and inertial measurement unit (IMU are installed on the vehicle. Vision processor calculates the azimuth and position information from the pictures which include artificial landmarks with the known direction and position. Inertial navigation system (INS calculates the azimuth and position of vehicle in real time and the calculated pixel position of landmark can be computed from the INS output position. Then the needed mathematical models are established and integrated navigation is implemented by Kalman filter with the observation of azimuth and the calculated pixel position of landmark. Navigation errors and IMU errors are estimated and compensated in real time so that high precision navigation results can be got. Finally, simulation and test are performed, respectively. Both simulation and test results prove that this vision/inertia integrated positioning method using position and orientation matching has feasibility and it can achieve centimeter-level autonomic continuous navigation.

  3. Mobile phones and head tumours. The discrepancies in cause-effect relationships in the epidemiological studies - how do they arise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, Angelo G; Minicuci, Nadia; Ricci, Paolo; Gennaro, Valerio; Garbisa, Spiridione

    2011-06-17

    Whether or not there is a relationship between use of mobile phones (analogue and digital cellulars, and cordless) and head tumour risk (brain tumours, acoustic neuromas, and salivary gland tumours) is still a matter of debate; progress requires a critical analysis of the methodological elements necessary for an impartial evaluation of contradictory studies. A close examination of the protocols and results from all case-control and cohort studies, pooled- and meta-analyses on head tumour risk for mobile phone users was carried out, and for each study the elements necessary for evaluating its reliability were identified. In addition, new meta-analyses of the literature data were undertaken. These were limited to subjects with mobile phone latency time compatible with the progression of the examined tumours, and with analysis of the laterality of head tumour localisation corresponding to the habitual laterality of mobile phone use. Blind protocols, free from errors, bias, and financial conditioning factors, give positive results that reveal a cause-effect relationship between long-term mobile phone use or latency and statistically significant increase of ipsilateral head tumour risk, with biological plausibility. Non-blind protocols, which instead are affected by errors, bias, and financial conditioning factors, give negative results with systematic underestimate of such risk. However, also in these studies a statistically significant increase in risk of ipsilateral head tumours is quite common after more than 10 years of mobile phone use or latency. The meta-analyses, our included, examining only data on ipsilateral tumours in subjects using mobile phones since or for at least 10 years, show large and statistically significant increases in risk of ipsilateral brain gliomas and acoustic neuromas. Our analysis of the literature studies and of the results from meta-analyses of the significant data alone shows an almost doubling of the risk of head tumours induced by

  4. Gender differences in head-neck segment dynamic stabilization during head acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Ryan T; Sitler, Michael R; Swanik, C Buz; Swanik, Kathleen A; Higgins, Michael; Torg, Joseph

    2005-02-01

    Recent epidemiological research has revealed that gender differences exist in concussion incidence but no study has investigated why females may be at greater risk of concussion. Our purpose was to determine whether gender differences existed in head-neck segment kinematic and neuromuscular control variables responses to an external force application with and without neck muscle preactivation. Forty (20 females and 20 males) physically active volunteers participated in the study. The independent variables were gender, force application (known vs unknown), and force direction (forced flexion vs forced extension). The dependent variables were kinematic and EMG variables, head-neck segment stiffness, and head-neck segment flexor and extensor isometric strength. Statistical analyses consisted of multiple multivariate and univariate analyses of variance, follow-up univariate analyses of variance, and t-tests (P Gender differences existed in head-neck segment dynamic stabilization during head angular acceleration. Females exhibited significantly greater head-neck segment peak angular acceleration (50%) and displacement (39%) than males despite initiating muscle activity significantly earlier (SCM only) and using a greater percentage of their maximum head-neck segment muscle activity (79% peak activity and 117% muscle activity area). The head-neck segment angular acceleration differences may be because females exhibited significantly less isometric strength (49%), neck girth (30%), and head mass (43%), resulting in lower levels of head-neck segment stiffness (29%). For our subject demographic, the results revealed gender differences in head-neck segment dynamic stabilization during head acceleration in response to an external force application. Females exhibited significantly greater head-neck segment peak angular acceleration and displacement than males despite initiating muscle activity earlier (SCM only) and using a greater percentage of their maximum head-neck segment

  5. Cluster-based spectrum sensing for cognitive radios with imperfect channel to cluster-head

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Ghorbel, Mahdi

    2012-04-01

    Spectrum sensing is considered as the first and main step for cognitive radio systems to achieve an efficient use of spectrum. Cooperation and clustering among cognitive radio users are two techniques that can be employed with spectrum sensing in order to improve the sensing performance by reducing miss-detection and false alarm. In this paper, within the framework of a clustering-based cooperative spectrum sensing scheme, we study the effect of errors in transmitting the local decisions from the secondary users to the cluster heads (or the fusion center), while considering non-identical channel conditions between the secondary users. Closed-form expressions for the global probabilities of detection and false alarm at the cluster head are derived. © 2012 IEEE.

  6. Cluster-based spectrum sensing for cognitive radios with imperfect channel to cluster-head

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Ghorbel, Mahdi; Nam, Haewoon; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    Spectrum sensing is considered as the first and main step for cognitive radio systems to achieve an efficient use of spectrum. Cooperation and clustering among cognitive radio users are two techniques that can be employed with spectrum sensing in order to improve the sensing performance by reducing miss-detection and false alarm. In this paper, within the framework of a clustering-based cooperative spectrum sensing scheme, we study the effect of errors in transmitting the local decisions from the secondary users to the cluster heads (or the fusion center), while considering non-identical channel conditions between the secondary users. Closed-form expressions for the global probabilities of detection and false alarm at the cluster head are derived. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. Dose variations caused by setup errors in intracranial stereotactic radiotherapy: A PRESAGE study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Kieyin; Gagliardi, Frank; Alqathami, Mamdooh; Ackerly, Trevor; Geso, Moshi

    2014-01-01

    Stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) requires tight margins around the tumor, thus producing a steep dose gradient between the tumor and the surrounding healthy tissue. Any setup errors might become clinically significant. To date, no study has been performed to evaluate the dosimetric variations caused by setup errors with a 3-dimensional dosimeter, the PRESAGE. This research aimed to evaluate the potential effect that setup errors have on the dose distribution of intracranial SRT. Computed tomography (CT) simulation of a CIRS radiosurgery head phantom was performed with 1.25-mm slice thickness. An ideal treatment plan was generated using Brainlab iPlan. A PRESAGE was made for every treatment with and without errors. A prescan using the optical CT scanner was carried out. Before treatment, the phantom was imaged using Brainlab ExacTrac. Actual radiotherapy treatments with and without errors were carried out with the Novalis treatment machine. Postscan was performed with an optical CT scanner to analyze the dose irradiation. The dose variation between treatments with and without errors was determined using a 3-dimensional gamma analysis. Errors are clinically insignificant when the passing ratio of the gamma analysis is 95% and above. Errors were clinically significant when the setup errors exceeded a 0.7-mm translation and a 0.5° rotation. The results showed that a 3-mm translation shift in the superior-inferior (SI), right-left (RL), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions and 2° couch rotation produced a passing ratio of 53.1%. Translational and rotational errors of 1.5 mm and 1°, respectively, generated a passing ratio of 62.2%. Translation shift of 0.7 mm in the directions of SI, RL, and AP and a 0.5° couch rotation produced a passing ratio of 96.2%. Preventing the occurrences of setup errors in intracranial SRT treatment is extremely important as errors greater than 0.7 mm and 0.5° alter the dose distribution. The geometrical displacements affect dose delivery

  8. Measured adiposity in relation to head and neck cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ward, Heather A.; Wark, Petra A.; Muller, David C.; Steffen, Annika; Johansson, Mattias; Norat, Teresa; Gunter, Marc J.; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C.; Halkjær, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Mesrine, Sylvie; Brennan, Paul; Freisling, Heinz; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Panico, Salavatore; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Palli, Domenico; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. Bas; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Agudo, Antonio; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Larranaga, Nerea; Ardanaz, Eva; Huerta, Jose María; Sanchez, María Jose; Laurell, Goran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Westin, Ulla; Wallstrom, Peter; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Pearson, Clare; Boeing, Heiner; Riboli, Elio

    2017-01-01

    Background: Emerging evidence from cohort studies indicates that adiposity is associated with greater incidence of head and neck cancer. However, most studies have used self-reported anthropometry which is prone to error. Methods: Among 363,094 participants in the European Prospective Investigation

  9. Measured Adiposity in Relation to Head and Neck Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ward, Heather A; Wark, Petra A; Muller, David C; Steffen, Annika; Johansson, Mattias; Norat, Teresa; Gunter, Marc J; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C; Halkjær, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Mesrine, Sylvie; Brennan, Paul; Freisling, Heinz; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Panico, Salavatore; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Palli, Domenico; Peeters, Petra H M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Agudo, Antonio; Quirós, Jose Ramón; Larrañaga, Nerea; Ardanaz, Eva; Huerta, José María; Sánchez, María-José; Laurell, Göran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Westin, Ulla; Wallström, Peter; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Pearson, Clare; Boeing, Heiner; Riboli, Elio

    Background: Emerging evidence from cohort studies indicates that adiposity is associated with greater incidence of head and neck cancer. However, most studies have used self-reported anthropometry which is prone to error.Methods: Among 363,094 participants in the European Prospective Investigation

  10. Challenge and Error: Critical Events and Attention-Related Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, James Allan; Carriere, Jonathan S. A.; Solman, Grayden J. F.; Smilek, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Attention lapses resulting from reactivity to task challenges and their consequences constitute a pervasive factor affecting everyday performance errors and accidents. A bidirectional model of attention lapses (error [image omitted] attention-lapse: Cheyne, Solman, Carriere, & Smilek, 2009) argues that errors beget errors by generating attention…

  11. Error forecasting schemes of error correction at receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.

    2007-08-01

    To combat error in computer communication networks, ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request) techniques are used. Recently Chakraborty has proposed a simple technique called the packet combining scheme in which error is corrected at the receiver from the erroneous copies. Packet Combining (PC) scheme fails: (i) when bit error locations in erroneous copies are the same and (ii) when multiple bit errors occur. Both these have been addressed recently by two schemes known as Packet Reversed Packet Combining (PRPC) Scheme, and Modified Packet Combining (MPC) Scheme respectively. In the letter, two error forecasting correction schemes are reported, which in combination with PRPC offer higher throughput. (author)

  12. An Online Solution of LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System for Indoor Mobile Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoji Niu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multisensors (LiDAR/IMU/CAMERA integrated Simultaneous Location and Mapping (SLAM technology for navigation and mobile mapping in a GNSS-denied environment, such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons, becomes a promising solution. An online (real-time version of such system can extremely extend its applications, especially for indoor mobile mapping. However, the real-time response issue of multisensors is a big challenge for an online SLAM system, due to the different sampling frequencies and processing time of different algorithms. In this paper, an online Extended Kalman Filter (EKF integrated algorithm of LiDAR scan matching and IMU mechanization for Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV indoor navigation system is introduced. Since LiDAR scan matching is considerably more time consuming than the IMU mechanism, the real-time synchronous issue is solved via a one-step-error-state-transition method in EKF. Stationary and dynamic field tests had been performed using a UGV platform along typical corridor of office building. Compared to the traditional sequential postprocessed EKF algorithm, the proposed method can significantly mitigate the time delay of navigation outputs under the premise of guaranteeing the positioning accuracy, which can be used as an online navigation solution for indoor mobile mapping.

  13. Operator errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuefer; Lindauer

    1980-01-01

    Besides that at spectacular events a combination of component failure and human error is often found. Especially the Rasmussen-Report and the German Risk Assessment Study show for pressurised water reactors that human error must not be underestimated. Although operator errors as a form of human error can never be eliminated entirely, they can be minimized and their effects kept within acceptable limits if a thorough training of personnel is combined with an adequate design of the plant against accidents. Contrary to the investigation of engineering errors, the investigation of human errors has so far been carried out with relatively small budgets. Intensified investigations in this field appear to be a worthwhile effort. (orig.)

  14. Flued head replacement alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetters, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses flued head replacement options. Section 2 discusses complete flued head replacement with a design that eliminates the inaccessible welds. Section 3 discusses alternate flued head support designs that can drastically reduce flued head installation costs. Section 4 describes partial flued head replacement designs. Finally, Section 5 discusses flued head analysis methods. (orig./GL)

  15. Evaluation of Retro recon for SRS planning correction according to the error of recognize to coordinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Hyeon Seok; Jeong, Deok Yang; Do, Gyeong Min; Lee, Yeong Cheol; KIm, Sun Myung; Kim, Young Bun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Retro recon in SRS planning using BranLAB when stereotactic location error occurs by metal artifact. By CT simulator, image were acquired from head phantom(CIRS, PTW, USA). To observe stereotactic location recognizing and beam hardening, CT image were approved by SRS planning system(BrainLAB, Feldkirchen, Germany). In addition, we compared acquisition image(1.25mm slice thickness) and Retro recon image(using for 2.5 mm, 5mm slice thickness). To evaluate these three images quality, the test were performed by AAPM phantom study. In patient, it was verified stereotactic location error. All the location recognizing error did not occur in scanned image of phantom. AAPM phantom scan images all showed the same trend. Contrast resolution and Spatial resolution are under 6.4 mm, 1.0 mm. In case of noise and uniformity, under 11, 5 of HU were measured. In patient, the stereotactic location error was not occurred at reconstructive image. For BrainLAB planning, using Retro recon were corrected stereotactic error at beam hardening. Retro recon may be the preferred modality for radiation treatment planning and approving image quality.

  16. Bottom head assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs

  17. How Do Simulated Error Experiences Impact Attitudes Related to Error Prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkreuz, Karen R; Dougal, Renae L; Wright, Melanie C

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this project was to determine whether simulated exposure to error situations changes attitudes in a way that may have a positive impact on error prevention behaviors. Using a stratified quasi-randomized experiment design, we compared risk perception attitudes of a control group of nursing students who received standard error education (reviewed medication error content and watched movies about error experiences) to an experimental group of students who reviewed medication error content and participated in simulated error experiences. Dependent measures included perceived memorability of the educational experience, perceived frequency of errors, and perceived caution with respect to preventing errors. Experienced nursing students perceived the simulated error experiences to be more memorable than movies. Less experienced students perceived both simulated error experiences and movies to be highly memorable. After the intervention, compared with movie participants, simulation participants believed errors occurred more frequently. Both types of education increased the participants' intentions to be more cautious and reported caution remained higher than baseline for medication errors 6 months after the intervention. This study provides limited evidence of an advantage of simulation over watching movies describing actual errors with respect to manipulating attitudes related to error prevention. Both interventions resulted in long-term impacts on perceived caution in medication administration. Simulated error experiences made participants more aware of how easily errors can occur, and the movie education made participants more aware of the devastating consequences of errors.

  18. Registration of an on-axis see-through head-mounted display and camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang; Rensing, Noa M.; Weststrate, Evan; Peli, Eli

    2005-02-01

    An optical see-through head-mounted display (HMD) system integrating a miniature camera that is aligned with the user's pupil is developed and tested. Such an HMD system has a potential value in many augmented reality applications, in which registration of the virtual display to the real scene is one of the critical aspects. The camera alignment to the user's pupil results in a simple yet accurate calibration and a low registration error across a wide range of depth. In reality, a small camera-eye misalignment may still occur in such a system due to the inevitable variations of HMD wearing position with respect to the eye. The effects of such errors are measured. Calculation further shows that the registration error as a function of viewing distance behaves nearly the same for different virtual image distances, except for a shift. The impact of prismatic effect of the display lens on registration is also discussed.

  19. A systematic study of head tissue inhomogeneity and anisotropy on EEG forward problem computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashar, M.R.; Li, Y.; Wen, P.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: In this study, we propose a stochastic method to analyze the effects of inhomogeneous anisotropic tissue conductivity on electroencephalogram (EEG) in forward computation. We apply this method to an inhomogeneous and anisotropic spherical human head model. We apply stochastic finite element method based on Legendre polynomials, Karhunen-Loeve expansion and stochastic Galerkin methods. We apply Volume and Wang's constraints to restrict the anisotropic conductivities for both the white matter (WM) and the skull tissue compartments. The EEGs resulting from deterministic and stochastic FEMs are compared using statistical measurement techniques. Based on these comparisons, we find that EEGs generated by incorporating WM and skull inhomogeneous anisotropic tissue properties individually result in an average of 56.5 and 57.5% relative errors, respectively. Incorporating these tissue properties for both layers together generate 43.5% average relative error. Inhomogeneous scalp tissue causes 27% average relative error and a full inhomogeneous anisotropic model brings in an average of 45.5% relative error. The study results demonstrate that the effects of inhomogeneous anisotropic tissue conductivity are significant on EEG.

  20. [Errors in medicine. Causes, impact and improvement measures to improve patient safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waeschle, R M; Bauer, M; Schmidt, C E

    2015-09-01

    information on dosage, pharmacological interactions, side effects and contraindications of medications.The major challenges for quality and risk management, for the heads of departments and the executive board is the implementation and support of the described actions and a sustained guidance of the staff involved in the modification management process. The global trigger tool is suitable for improving transparency and objectifying the frequency of medical errors.

  1. Statistical errors in Monte Carlo estimates of systematic errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, Byron P. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)]. E-mail: byronroe@umich.edu

    2007-01-01

    For estimating the effects of a number of systematic errors on a data sample, one can generate Monte Carlo (MC) runs with systematic parameters varied and examine the change in the desired observed result. Two methods are often used. In the unisim method, the systematic parameters are varied one at a time by one standard deviation, each parameter corresponding to a MC run. In the multisim method (see ), each MC run has all of the parameters varied; the amount of variation is chosen from the expected distribution of each systematic parameter, usually assumed to be a normal distribution. The variance of the overall systematic error determination is derived for each of the two methods and comparisons are made between them. If one focuses not on the error in the prediction of an individual systematic error, but on the overall error due to all systematic errors in the error matrix element in data bin m, the number of events needed is strongly reduced because of the averaging effect over all of the errors. For simple models presented here the multisim model was far better if the statistical error in the MC samples was larger than an individual systematic error, while for the reverse case, the unisim model was better. Exact formulas and formulas for the simple toy models are presented so that realistic calculations can be made. The calculations in the present note are valid if the errors are in a linear region. If that region extends sufficiently far, one can have the unisims or multisims correspond to k standard deviations instead of one. This reduces the number of events required by a factor of k{sup 2}.

  2. Statistical errors in Monte Carlo estimates of systematic errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, Byron P.

    2007-01-01

    For estimating the effects of a number of systematic errors on a data sample, one can generate Monte Carlo (MC) runs with systematic parameters varied and examine the change in the desired observed result. Two methods are often used. In the unisim method, the systematic parameters are varied one at a time by one standard deviation, each parameter corresponding to a MC run. In the multisim method (see ), each MC run has all of the parameters varied; the amount of variation is chosen from the expected distribution of each systematic parameter, usually assumed to be a normal distribution. The variance of the overall systematic error determination is derived for each of the two methods and comparisons are made between them. If one focuses not on the error in the prediction of an individual systematic error, but on the overall error due to all systematic errors in the error matrix element in data bin m, the number of events needed is strongly reduced because of the averaging effect over all of the errors. For simple models presented here the multisim model was far better if the statistical error in the MC samples was larger than an individual systematic error, while for the reverse case, the unisim model was better. Exact formulas and formulas for the simple toy models are presented so that realistic calculations can be made. The calculations in the present note are valid if the errors are in a linear region. If that region extends sufficiently far, one can have the unisims or multisims correspond to k standard deviations instead of one. This reduces the number of events required by a factor of k 2

  3. Player Monitoring in Indoor Team Sports: Concurrent Validity of Inertial Measurement Units to Quantify Average and Peak Acceleration Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Roell

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interest in assessing physical demands in team sports has led to the development of multiple sports related monitoring systems. Due to technical limitations, these systems primarily could be applied to outdoor sports, whereas an equivalent indoor locomotion analysis is not established yet. Technological development of inertial measurement units (IMU broadens the possibilities for player monitoring and enables the quantification of locomotor movements in indoor environments. The aim of the current study was to validate an IMU measuring by determining average and peak human acceleration under indoor conditions in team sport specific movements. Data of a single wearable tracking device including an IMU (Optimeye S5, Catapult Sports, Melbourne, Australia were compared to the results of a 3D motion analysis (MA system (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK during selected standardized movement simulations in an indoor laboratory (n = 56. A low-pass filtering method for gravity correction (LF and two sensor fusion algorithms for orientation estimation [Complementary Filter (CF, Kalman-Filter (KF] were implemented and compared with MA system data. Significant differences (p < 0.05 were found between LF and MA data but not between sensor fusion algorithms and MA. Higher precision and lower relative errors were found for CF (RMSE = 0.05; CV = 2.6% and KF (RMSE = 0.15; CV = 3.8% both compared to the LF method (RMSE = 1.14; CV = 47.6% regarding the magnitude of the resulting vector and strongly emphasize the implementation of orientation estimation to accurately describe human acceleration. Comparing both sensor fusion algorithms, CF revealed slightly lower errors than KF and additionally provided valuable information about positive and negative acceleration values in all three movement planes with moderate to good validity (CV = 3.9 – 17.8%. Compared to x- and y-axis superior results were found for the z-axis. These findings demonstrate that

  4. Superimposition, symbology, visual attention, and the head-up display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Emerson, R.; Wickens, C. D.

    1997-01-01

    In two experiments we examined a number of related factors postulated to influence head-up display (HUD) performance. We addressed the benefit of reduced scanning and the cost of increasing the number of elements in the visual field by comparing a superimposed HUD with an identical display in a head-down position in varying visibility conditions. We explored the extent to which the characteristics of HUD symbology support a division of attention by contrasting conformal symbology (which links elements of the display image to elements of the far domain) with traditional instrument landing system (ILS) symbology. Together the two experiments provide strong evidence that minimizing scanning between flight instruments and the far domain contributes substantially to the observed HUD performance advantage. Experiment 1 provides little evidence for a performance cost attributable to visual clutter. In Experiment 2 the pattern of differences in lateral tracking error between conformal and traditional ILS symbology supports the hypothesis that, to the extent that the symbology forms an object with the far domain, attention may be divided between the superimposed image and its counterpart in the far domain.

  5. What are Head Cavities? - A History of Studies on Vertebrate Head Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Adachi, Noritaka

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by the discovery of segmental epithelial coeloms, or "head cavities," in elasmobranch embryos toward the end of the 19th century, the debate over the presence of mesodermal segments in the vertebrate head became a central problem in comparative embryology. The classical segmental view assumed only one type of metamerism in the vertebrate head, in which each metamere was thought to contain one head somite and one pharyngeal arch, innervated by a set of cranial nerves serially homologous to dorsal and ventral roots of spinal nerves. The non-segmental view, on the other hand, rejected the somite-like properties of head cavities. A series of small mesodermal cysts in early Torpedo embryos, which were thought to represent true somite homologs, provided a third possible view on the nature of the vertebrate head. Recent molecular developmental data have shed new light on the vertebrate head problem, explaining that head mesoderm evolved, not by the modification of rostral somites of an amphioxus-like ancestor, but through the polarization of unspecified paraxial mesoderm into head mesoderm anteriorly and trunk somites posteriorly.

  6. Simultaneous head tissue conductivity and EEG source location estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akalin Acar, Zeynep; Acar, Can E; Makeig, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Accurate electroencephalographic (EEG) source localization requires an electrical head model incorporating accurate geometries and conductivity values for the major head tissues. While consistent conductivity values have been reported for scalp, brain, and cerebrospinal fluid, measured brain-to-skull conductivity ratio (BSCR) estimates have varied between 8 and 80, likely reflecting both inter-subject and measurement method differences. In simulations, mis-estimation of skull conductivity can produce source localization errors as large as 3cm. Here, we describe an iterative gradient-based approach to Simultaneous tissue Conductivity And source Location Estimation (SCALE). The scalp projection maps used by SCALE are obtained from near-dipolar effective EEG sources found by adequate independent component analysis (ICA) decomposition of sufficient high-density EEG data. We applied SCALE to simulated scalp projections of 15cm(2)-scale cortical patch sources in an MR image-based electrical head model with simulated BSCR of 30. Initialized either with a BSCR of 80 or 20, SCALE estimated BSCR as 32.6. In Adaptive Mixture ICA (AMICA) decompositions of (45-min, 128-channel) EEG data from two young adults we identified sets of 13 independent components having near-dipolar scalp maps compatible with a single cortical source patch. Again initialized with either BSCR 80 or 25, SCALE gave BSCR estimates of 34 and 54 for the two subjects respectively. The ability to accurately estimate skull conductivity non-invasively from any well-recorded EEG data in combination with a stable and non-invasively acquired MR imaging-derived electrical head model could remove a critical barrier to using EEG as a sub-cm(2)-scale accurate 3-D functional cortical imaging modality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Field error lottery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, C.J.; McVey, B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Quimby, D.C. (Spectra Technology, Inc., Bellevue, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The level of field errors in an FEL is an important determinant of its performance. We have computed 3D performance of a large laser subsystem subjected to field errors of various types. These calculations have been guided by simple models such as SWOOP. The technique of choice is utilization of the FELEX free electron laser code that now possesses extensive engineering capabilities. Modeling includes the ability to establish tolerances of various types: fast and slow scale field bowing, field error level, beam position monitor error level, gap errors, defocusing errors, energy slew, displacement and pointing errors. Many effects of these errors on relative gain and relative power extraction are displayed and are the essential elements of determining an error budget. The random errors also depend on the particular random number seed used in the calculation. The simultaneous display of the performance versus error level of cases with multiple seeds illustrates the variations attributable to stochasticity of this model. All these errors are evaluated numerically for comprehensive engineering of the system. In particular, gap errors are found to place requirements beyond mechanical tolerances of {plus minus}25{mu}m, and amelioration of these may occur by a procedure utilizing direct measurement of the magnetic fields at assembly time. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  8. Errors in clinical laboratories or errors in laboratory medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plebani, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory testing is a highly complex process and, although laboratory services are relatively safe, they are not as safe as they could or should be. Clinical laboratories have long focused their attention on quality control methods and quality assessment programs dealing with analytical aspects of testing. However, a growing body of evidence accumulated in recent decades demonstrates that quality in clinical laboratories cannot be assured by merely focusing on purely analytical aspects. The more recent surveys on errors in laboratory medicine conclude that in the delivery of laboratory testing, mistakes occur more frequently before (pre-analytical) and after (post-analytical) the test has been performed. Most errors are due to pre-analytical factors (46-68.2% of total errors), while a high error rate (18.5-47% of total errors) has also been found in the post-analytical phase. Errors due to analytical problems have been significantly reduced over time, but there is evidence that, particularly for immunoassays, interference may have a serious impact on patients. A description of the most frequent and risky pre-, intra- and post-analytical errors and advice on practical steps for measuring and reducing the risk of errors is therefore given in the present paper. Many mistakes in the Total Testing Process are called "laboratory errors", although these may be due to poor communication, action taken by others involved in the testing process (e.g., physicians, nurses and phlebotomists), or poorly designed processes, all of which are beyond the laboratory's control. Likewise, there is evidence that laboratory information is only partially utilized. A recent document from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) recommends a new, broader definition of the term "laboratory error" and a classification of errors according to different criteria. In a modern approach to total quality, centered on patients' needs and satisfaction, the risk of errors and mistakes

  9. Head Pose Estimation on Top of Haar-Like Face Detection: A Study Using the Kinect Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Saeed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Head pose estimation is a crucial initial task for human face analysis, which is employed in several computer vision systems, such as: facial expression recognition, head gesture recognition, yawn detection, etc. In this work, we propose a frame-based approach to estimate the head pose on top of the Viola and Jones (VJ Haar-like face detector. Several appearance and depth-based feature types are employed for the pose estimation, where comparisons between them in terms of accuracy and speed are presented. It is clearly shown through this work that using the depth data, we improve the accuracy of the head pose estimation. Additionally, we can spot positive detections, faces in profile views detected by the frontal model, that are wrongly cropped due to background disturbances. We introduce a new depth-based feature descriptor that provides competitive estimation results with a lower computation time. Evaluation on a benchmark Kinect database shows that the histogram of oriented gradients and the developed depth-based features are more distinctive for the head pose estimation, where they compare favorably to the current state-of-the-art approaches. Using a concatenation of the aforementioned feature types, we achieved a head pose estimation with average errors not exceeding 5:1; 4:6; 4:2 for pitch, yaw and roll angles, respectively.

  10. Study on the clinical application of pulsed DC magnetic technology for tracking of intraoperative head motion during frameless stereotaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stendel Rüdiger

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracking of post-registration head motion is one of the major problems in frameless stereotaxy. Various attempts in detecting and compensating for this phenomenon rely on a fixed reference device rigidly attached to the patient's head. However, most of such reference tools are either based on an invasive fixation technique or have physical limitations which allow mobility of the head only in a restricted range of motion after completion of the registration procedure. Methods A new sensor-based reference tool, the so-called Dynamic Reference Frame (DRF which is designed to allow an unrestricted, 360° range of motion for the intraoperative use in pulsed DC magnetic navigation was tested in 40 patients. Different methods of non-invasive attachment dependent on the clinical need and type of procedure, as well as the resulting accuracies in the clinical application have been analyzed. Results Apart from conventional, completely rigid immobilization of the head (type A, four additional modes of head fixation and attachment of the DRF were distinguished on clinical grounds: type B1 = pin fixation plus oral DRF attachment; type B2 = pin fixation plus retroauricular DRF attachment; type C1 = free head positioning with oral DRF; and type C2 = free head positioning with retroauricular DRF. Mean fiducial registration errors (FRE were as follows: type A interventions = 1.51 mm, B1 = 1.56 mm, B2 = 1.54 mm, C1 = 1.73 mm, and C2 = 1.75 mm. The mean position errors determined at the end of the intervention as a measure of application accuracy were: 1.45 mm in type A interventions, 1.26 mm in type B1, 1.44 mm in type B2, 1.86 mm in type C1, and 1.68 mm in type C2. Conclusion Rigid head immobilization guarantees most reliable accuracy in various types of frameless stereotaxy. The use of an additional DRF, however, increases the application scope of frameless stereotaxy to include e.g. procedures in which rigid pin fixation of the cranium is

  11. Correction of head motion artifacts in SPECT with fully 3-D OS-EM reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, R.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: A method which relies on continuous monitoring of head position has been developed to correct for head motion in SPECT studies of the brain. Head position and orientation are monitored during data acquisition by an inexpensive head tracking system (ADL-1, Shooting Star Technology, Rosedale, British Colombia). Motion correction involves changing the projection geometry to compensate for motion (using data from the head tracker), and reconstructing with a fully 3-D OS-EM algorithm. The reconstruction algorithm can accommodate any number of movements and any projection geometry. A single iteration of 3-D OS-EM using all available projections provides a satisfactory 3-D reconstruction, essentially free of motion artifacts. The method has been validated in studies of the 3-D Hoffman brain phantom. Multiple 36- degree acquisitions, each with the phantom in a different position, were performed on a Trionix triple head camera. Movements were simulated by combining projections from the different acquisitions. Accuracy was assessed by comparison with a motion-free reconstruction, visually and by calculating mean squared error (MSE). Motion correction reduced distortion perceptibly and, depending on the motions applied, improved MSE by up to an order of magnitude. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the 128 x 128 x 128 data set took 2- minutes on a SUN Ultra 1 workstation. This motion correction technique can be retro-fitted to existing SPECT systems and could be incorporated in future SPECT camera designs. It appears to be applicable in PET as well as SPECT, to be able to correct for any head movements, and to have the potential to improve the accuracy of tomographic brain studies under clinical imaging conditions

  12. Radial head button holing: a cause of irreducible anterior radial head dislocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Su-Mi; Chai, Jee Won; You, Ja Yeon; Park, Jina [Seoul National University Seoul Metropolitan Government Boramae Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Kee Jeong [Seoul National University Seoul Metropolitan Government Boramae Medical Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    ''Buttonholing'' of the radial head through the anterior joint capsule is a known cause of irreducible anterior radial head dislocation associated with Monteggia injuries in pediatric patients. To the best of our knowledge, no report has described an injury consisting of buttonholing of the radial head through the annular ligament and a simultaneous radial head fracture in an adolescent. In the present case, the radiographic findings were a radial head fracture with anterior dislocation and lack of the anterior fat pad sign. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) clearly demonstrated anterior dislocation of the fractured radial head through the torn annular ligament. The anterior joint capsule and proximal portion of the annular ligament were interposed between the radial head and capitellum, preventing closed reduction of the radial head. Familiarity with this condition and imaging findings will aid clinicians to make a proper diagnosis and fast decision to perform an open reduction. (orig.)

  13. Determination of rice panicle numbers during heading by multi-angle imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Duan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenomics has the potential to accelerate progress in understanding gene functions and environmental responses. Progress has been made in automating high-throughput plant phenotyping. However, few studies have investigated automated rice panicle counting. This paper describes a novel method for automatically and nonintrusively determining rice panicle numbers during the full heading stage by analyzing color images of rice plants taken from multiple angles. Pot-grown rice plants were transferred via an industrial conveyer to an imaging chamber. Color images from different angles were automatically acquired as a turntable rotated the plant. The images were then analyzed and the panicle number of each plant was determined. The image analysis pipeline consisted of extracting the i2 plane from the original color image, segmenting the image, discriminating the panicles from the rest of the plant using an artificial neural network, and calculating the panicle number in the current image. The panicle number of the plant was taken as the maximum of the panicle numbers extracted from all 12 multi-angle images. A total of 105 rice plants during the full heading stage were examined to test the performance of the method. The mean absolute error of the manual and automatic count was 0.5, with 95.3% of the plants yielding absolute errors within ± 1. The method will be useful for evaluating rice panicles and will serve as an important supplementary method for high-throughput rice phenotyping.

  14. ERF/ERFC, Calculation of Error Function, Complementary Error Function, Probability Integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: ERF and ERFC are used to compute values of the error function and complementary error function for any real number. They may be used to compute other related functions such as the normal probability integrals. 4. Method of solution: The error function and complementary error function are approximated by rational functions. Three such rational approximations are used depending on whether - x .GE.4.0. In the first region the error function is computed directly and the complementary error function is computed via the identity erfc(x)=1.0-erf(x). In the other two regions the complementary error function is computed directly and the error function is computed from the identity erf(x)=1.0-erfc(x). The error function and complementary error function are real-valued functions of any real argument. The range of the error function is (-1,1). The range of the complementary error function is (0,2). 5. Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The user is cautioned against using ERF to compute the complementary error function by using the identity erfc(x)=1.0-erf(x). This subtraction may cause partial or total loss of significance for certain values of x

  15. Increasing safety of a robotic system for inner ear surgery using probabilistic error modeling near vital anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Neal P.; Siebold, Michael A.; Mitchell, Jason E.; Blachon, Gregoire S.; Balachandran, Ramya; Fitzpatrick, J. Michael; Webster, Robert J.

    2016-03-01

    Safe and effective planning for robotic surgery that involves cutting or ablation of tissue must consider all potential sources of error when determining how close the tool may come to vital anatomy. A pre-operative plan that does not adequately consider potential deviations from ideal system behavior may lead to patient injury. Conversely, a plan that is overly conservative may result in ineffective or incomplete performance of the task. Thus, enforcing simple, uniform-thickness safety margins around vital anatomy is insufficient in the presence of spatially varying, anisotropic error. Prior work has used registration error to determine a variable-thickness safety margin around vital structures that must be approached during mastoidectomy but ultimately preserved. In this paper, these methods are extended to incorporate image distortion and physical robot errors, including kinematic errors and deflections of the robot. These additional sources of error are discussed and stochastic models for a bone-attached robot for otologic surgery are developed. An algorithm for generating appropriate safety margins based on a desired probability of preserving the underlying anatomical structure is presented. Simulations are performed on a CT scan of a cadaver head and safety margins are calculated around several critical structures for planning of a robotic mastoidectomy.

  16. Simulation of 3D-treatment plans in head and neck tumors aided by matching of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) and on-line distortion corrected simulator images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, Frank; Schramm, Oliver; Schraube, Peter; Sroka-Perez, Gabriele; Seeber, Steffen; Schlepple, Gerd; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Wannenmacher, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: Simulation of 3D-treatment plans for head and neck malignancy is difficult due to complex anatomy. Therefore, CT-simulation and stereotactic techniques are becoming more common in the treatment preparation, overcoming the need for simulation. However, if simulation is still performed, it is an important step in the treatment preparation/execution chain, since simulation errors, if not detected immediately, can compromise the success of treatment. A recently developed PC-based system for on-line image matching and comparison of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) and distortion corrected simulator monitor images that enables instant correction of field placement errors during the simulation process was evaluated. The range of field placement errors with noncomputer aided simulation is reported. Materials and methods: For 14 patients either a primary 3D-treatment plan or a 3D-boost plan after initial treatment with opposing laterals for head and neck malignancy with a coplanar or non-coplanar two- or three-field technique was simulated. After determining the robustness of the matching process and the accuracy of field placement error detection with phantom measurements, DRRs were generated from the treatment planning CT-dataset of each patient and were interactively matched with on-line simulator images that had undergone correction for geometrical distortion, using a landmark algorithm. Translational field placement errors in all three planes as well as in-plane rotational errors were studied and were corrected immediately. Results: The interactive matching process is very robust with a tolerance of <2 mm when suitable anatomical landmarks are chosen. The accuracy for detection of translational errors in phantom measurements was <1 mm and for in-plane rotational errors the accuracy had a maximum of only 1.5 deg.. For patient simulation, the mean absolute distance of the planned versus simulated isocenter was 6.4 ± 3.9 mm. The in

  17. Behavioural evidence for a visual and proprioceptive control of head roll in hoverflies (Episyrphus balteatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulard, Roman; Julien-Laferriere, Alice; Fleuriet, Jérome; Vercher, Jean-Louis; Viollet, Stéphane

    2015-12-01

    The ability of hoverflies to control their head orientation with respect to their body contributes importantly to their agility and their autonomous navigation abilities. Many tasks performed by this insect during flight, especially while hovering, involve a head stabilization reflex. This reflex, which is mediated by multisensory channels, prevents the visual processing from being disturbed by motion blur and maintains a consistent perception of the visual environment. The so-called dorsal light response (DLR) is another head control reflex, which makes insects sensitive to the brightest part of the visual field. In this study, we experimentally validate and quantify the control loop driving the head roll with respect to the horizon in hoverflies. The new approach developed here consisted of using an upside-down horizon in a body roll paradigm. In this unusual configuration, tethered flying hoverflies surprisingly no longer use purely vision-based control for head stabilization. These results shed new light on the role of neck proprioceptor organs in head and body stabilization with respect to the horizon. Based on the responses obtained with male and female hoverflies, an improved model was then developed in which the output signals delivered by the neck proprioceptor organs are combined with the visual error in the estimated position of the body roll. An internal estimation of the body roll angle with respect to the horizon might explain the extremely accurate flight performances achieved by some hovering insects. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. A methodology for translating positional error into measures of attribute error, and combining the two error sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohay Carmel; Curtis Flather; Denis Dean

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes our efforts to investigate the nature, behavior, and implications of positional error and attribute error in spatiotemporal datasets. Estimating the combined influence of these errors on map analysis has been hindered by the fact that these two error types are traditionally expressed in different units (distance units, and categorical units,...

  19. Mobile phones and head tumours. The discrepancies in cause-effect relationships in the epidemiological studies - how do they arise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro Valerio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether or not there is a relationship between use of mobile phones (analogue and digital cellulars, and cordless and head tumour risk (brain tumours, acoustic neuromas, and salivary gland tumours is still a matter of debate; progress requires a critical analysis of the methodological elements necessary for an impartial evaluation of contradictory studies. Methods A close examination of the protocols and results from all case-control and cohort studies, pooled- and meta-analyses on head tumour risk for mobile phone users was carried out, and for each study the elements necessary for evaluating its reliability were identified. In addition, new meta-analyses of the literature data were undertaken. These were limited to subjects with mobile phone latency time compatible with the progression of the examined tumours, and with analysis of the laterality of head tumour localisation corresponding to the habitual laterality of mobile phone use. Results Blind protocols, free from errors, bias, and financial conditioning factors, give positive results that reveal a cause-effect relationship between long-term mobile phone use or latency and statistically significant increase of ipsilateral head tumour risk, with biological plausibility. Non-blind protocols, which instead are affected by errors, bias, and financial conditioning factors, give negative results with systematic underestimate of such risk. However, also in these studies a statistically significant increase in risk of ipsilateral head tumours is quite common after more than 10 years of mobile phone use or latency. The meta-analyses, our included, examining only data on ipsilateral tumours in subjects using mobile phones since or for at least 10 years, show large and statistically significant increases in risk of ipsilateral brain gliomas and acoustic neuromas. Conclusions Our analysis of the literature studies and of the results from meta-analyses of the significant data alone

  20. A Practical Method for Implementing an Attitude and Heading Reference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Munguía

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a practical and reliable algorithm for implementing an Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS. This kind of system is essential for real time vehicle navigation, guidance and control applications. When low cost sensors are used, efficient and robust algorithms are required for performance to be acceptable. The proposed method is based on an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF in a direct configuration. In this case, the filter is explicitly derived from both the kinematic and error models. The selection of this kind of EKF configuration can help in ensuring a tight integration of the method for its use in filter-based localization and mapping systems in autonomous vehicles. Experiments with real data show that the proposed method is able to maintain an accurate and drift-free attitude and heading estimation. An additional result is to show that there is no ostensible reason for preferring that the filter have an indirect configuration over a direct configuration for implementing an AHRS system.

  1. Statistical errors in Monte Carlo estimates of systematic errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Byron P.

    2007-01-01

    For estimating the effects of a number of systematic errors on a data sample, one can generate Monte Carlo (MC) runs with systematic parameters varied and examine the change in the desired observed result. Two methods are often used. In the unisim method, the systematic parameters are varied one at a time by one standard deviation, each parameter corresponding to a MC run. In the multisim method (see ), each MC run has all of the parameters varied; the amount of variation is chosen from the expected distribution of each systematic parameter, usually assumed to be a normal distribution. The variance of the overall systematic error determination is derived for each of the two methods and comparisons are made between them. If one focuses not on the error in the prediction of an individual systematic error, but on the overall error due to all systematic errors in the error matrix element in data bin m, the number of events needed is strongly reduced because of the averaging effect over all of the errors. For simple models presented here the multisim model was far better if the statistical error in the MC samples was larger than an individual systematic error, while for the reverse case, the unisim model was better. Exact formulas and formulas for the simple toy models are presented so that realistic calculations can be made. The calculations in the present note are valid if the errors are in a linear region. If that region extends sufficiently far, one can have the unisims or multisims correspond to k standard deviations instead of one. This reduces the number of events required by a factor of k2. The specific terms unisim and multisim were coined by Peter Meyers and Steve Brice, respectively, for the MiniBooNE experiment. However, the concepts have been developed over time and have been in general use for some time.

  2. A non-invasive method based on head morphology to sex mature three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) in rearing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kermoysan, Goulwen; Péry, Alexandre R R; Porcher, Jean-Marc; Beaudouin, Rémy

    2013-08-01

    A mathematical model to distinguish mature female and male three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus L. 1758 is proposed. This method is based on sexual dimorphism in the head morphology. The discrimination was established on five distances of interest on the head, adjusted by the standard length of fish. The parameters were estimated based on a training set composed of 102 fish with an equilibrium sex ratio and validated on a test set composed of 69 fish. The model estimates the relationship between the percentage of fish that can be sexed with our model and the percentage of fish correctly sexed. For instance, to reach 1% of error in the sex determination, only 53% of the fish should be considered, whereas to reach 5% of error, 90% of the fish can be used. Compared to other available methods to sex G. aculeatus, the model is non invasive, not expensive, rapid, replicable, and can be calibrated outside of the breeding period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Heading-vector navigation based on head-direction cells and path integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubie, John L; Fenton, André A

    2009-05-01

    Insect navigation is guided by heading vectors that are computed by path integration. Mammalian navigation models, on the other hand, are typically based on map-like place representations provided by hippocampal place cells. Such models compute optimal routes as a continuous series of locations that connect the current location to a goal. We propose a "heading-vector" model in which head-direction cells or their derivatives serve both as key elements in constructing the optimal route and as the straight-line guidance during route execution. The model is based on a memory structure termed the "shortcut matrix," which is constructed during the initial exploration of an environment when a set of shortcut vectors between sequential pairs of visited waypoint locations is stored. A mechanism is proposed for calculating and storing these vectors that relies on a hypothesized cell type termed an "accumulating head-direction cell." Following exploration, shortcut vectors connecting all pairs of waypoint locations are computed by vector arithmetic and stored in the shortcut matrix. On re-entry, when local view or place representations query the shortcut matrix with a current waypoint and goal, a shortcut trajectory is retrieved. Since the trajectory direction is in head-direction compass coordinates, navigation is accomplished by tracking the firing of head-direction cells that are tuned to the heading angle. Section 1 of the manuscript describes the properties of accumulating head-direction cells. It then shows how accumulating head-direction cells can store local vectors and perform vector arithmetic to perform path-integration-based homing. Section 2 describes the construction and use of the shortcut matrix for computing direct paths between any pair of locations that have been registered in the shortcut matrix. In the discussion, we analyze the advantages of heading-based navigation over map-based navigation. Finally, we survey behavioral evidence that nonhippocampal

  4. Validation of a noninvasive system for measuring head acceleration for use during boxing competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, Jonathan G; Chu, Jeffrey J; Greenwald, Richard M

    2007-08-01

    Although the epidemiology and mechanics of concussion in sports have been investigated for many years, the biomechanical factors that contribute to mild traumatic brain injury remain unclear because of the difficulties in measuring impact events in the field. The purpose of this study was to validate an instrumented boxing headgear (IBH) that can be used to measure impact severity and location during play. The instrumented boxing headgear data were processed to determine linear and rotational acceleration at the head center of gravity, impact location, and impact severity metrics, such as the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) and Gadd Severity Index (GSI). The instrumented boxing headgear was fitted to a Hybrid III (HIII) head form and impacted with a weighted pendulum to characterize accuracy and repeatability. Fifty-six impacts over 3 speeds and 5 locations were used to simulate blows most commonly observed in boxing. A high correlation between the HIII and instrumented boxing headgear was established for peak linear and rotational acceleration (r2= 0.91), HIC (r2 = 0.88), and GSI (r2 = 0.89). Mean location error was 9.7 +/- 5.2 masculine. Based on this study, the IBH is a valid system for measuring head acceleration and impact location that can be integrated into training and competition.

  5. Head injury: audit of a clinical guideline to justify head CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydon, Nicholas B.

    2013-01-01

    Head injury causes significant morbidity and mortality, and there is contention about which patients to scan. The UK National Health Service Clinical Guideline (CG) 56 provides criteria for selecting patients with clinically important brain injury who may benefit from a head CT scan, while minimising the radiation and economic burden of scanning patients without significant injury. This study aims to audit the documentation of the use of these guidelines in a busy UK trauma hospital and discusses the comparison with an Australian (New South Wales (NSW) ) head injury guideline. A retrospective cohort study of 480 patients presenting with head injury to the emergency department over 2 months was performed. The patient notes were assessed for documentation of each aspect of the clinical guidelines. Criteria were established to assess the utilisation of the CG 56. A database of clinical data was amalgamated with the head CT scan results for each patient. For the UK CG 56, 73% of the criteria were documented, with the least documented being 'signs of basal skull fracture' and 'amnesia of events'. Thirty-two per cent of patients received head CT and of these, 24% (37 patients) were reported to have pathology. Twenty-four patients underwent head CT without clinical justification being documented, none of which had reported pathology on CT. The study shows that the head injury guidelines are not being fully utilised at a major UK trauma hospital, resulting in 5% of patients being exposed to ionising radiation without apparent documented clinical justification. The NSW guideline has distinct differences to the CG 56, with a more complex algorithm and an absence of specific time frames for head CT completion. The results suggest a need for further education and awareness of head injury clinical guidelines.

  6. MO-FG-202-05: Identifying Treatment Planning System Errors in IROC-H Phantom Irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, J; Followill, D; Howell, R; Melancon, A; Stingo, F; Kry, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment Planning System (TPS) errors can affect large numbers of cancer patients receiving radiation therapy. Using an independent recalculation system, the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core-Houston (IROC-H) can identify institutions that have not sufficiently modelled their linear accelerators in their TPS model. Methods: Linear accelerator point measurement data from IROC-H’s site visits was aggregated and analyzed from over 30 linear accelerator models. Dosimetrically similar models were combined to create “classes”. The class data was used to construct customized beam models in an independent treatment dose verification system (TVS). Approximately 200 head and neck phantom plans from 2012 to 2015 were recalculated using this TVS. Comparison of plan accuracy was evaluated by comparing the measured dose to the institution’s TPS dose as well as the TVS dose. In cases where the TVS was more accurate than the institution by an average of >2%, the institution was identified as having a non-negligible TPS error. Results: Of the ∼200 recalculated plans, the average improvement using the TVS was ∼0.1%; i.e. the recalculation, on average, slightly outperformed the institution’s TPS. Of all the recalculated phantoms, 20% were identified as having a non-negligible TPS error. Fourteen plans failed current IROC-H criteria; the average TVS improvement of the failing plans was ∼3% and 57% were found to have non-negligible TPS errors. Conclusion: IROC-H has developed an independent recalculation system to identify institutions that have considerable TPS errors. A large number of institutions were found to have non-negligible TPS errors. Even institutions that passed IROC-H criteria could be identified as having a TPS error. Resolution of such errors would improve dose delivery for a large number of IROC-H phantoms and ultimately, patients.

  7. SU-F-T-303: Quantification of MLC Positioning Accuracy in VMAT Delivery of Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X; Yang, F [University Of Miami, Miami, FL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Knowing MLC leaf positioning error over the course of treatment would be valuable for treatment planning, QA design, and patient safety. The objective of the current study was to quantify the MLC positioning accuracy for VMAT delivery of head and neck treatment plans. Methods: A total of 837 MLC log files were collected from 14 head and neck cancer patients undergoing full arc VMAT treatment on one Varian Trilogy machine. The actual and planned leaf gaps were extracted from the retrieved MLC log files. For a given patient, the leaf gap error percentage (LGEP), defined as the ratio of the actual leaf gap over the planned, was evaluated for each leaf pair at all the gantry angles recorded over the course of the treatment. Statistics describing the distribution of the largest LGEP (LLGEP) of the 60 leaf pairs including the maximum, minimum, mean, Kurtosis, and skewness were evaluated. Results: For the 14 studied patients, their PTV located at tonsil, base of tongue, larynx, supraglottis, nasal cavity, and thyroid gland with volume ranging from 72.0 cm{sup 3} to 602.0 cm{sup 3}. The identified LLGEP differed between patients. It ranged from 183.9% to 457.7% with a mean of 368.6%. For the majority of the patients, the LLGEP distributions peaked at non-zero positions and showed no obvious dependence on gantry rotations. Kurtosis and skewness, with minimum/maximum of 66.6/217.9 and 6.5/12.6, respectively, suggested relatively more peaked while right-skewed leaf error distribution pattern. Conclusion: The results indicate pattern of MLC leaf gap error differs between patients of lesion located at similar anatomic site. Understanding the systemic mechanisms underlying these observed error patterns necessitates examining more patient-specific plan parameters in a large patient cohort setting.

  8. Medication Errors - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay BC; Nikhitha MK; Patel Sunil B

    2015-01-01

    In this present review article, regarding medication errors its definition, medication error problem, types of medication errors, common causes of medication errors, monitoring medication errors, consequences of medication errors, prevention of medication error and managing medication errors have been explained neatly and legibly with proper tables which is easy to understand.

  9. Arquitectura de acoplamiento entre INS/GPS para navegación precisa en trayectorias establecidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Zabala

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Se implementa un prototipo basado en tarjetas de desarrollo para el acoplamiento del sistema de navegación inercial con GPS para mejorar la precisión en la navegación sobre una trayectoria. Inicialmente es necesario la calibración de la unidad de medición inercial (IMU mediante un filtro de MADGWICK para que los datos brutos extraídos sean fiables, el acoplamiento de las señales del sistema de posicionamiento global (GPS e IMU se realiza a través de la arquitectura Tight Coupling por medio del Filtro de Kalman con el fin de eliminar errores correlacionados entre sistemas y alcanzar mejor precisión en la solución de navegación generalmente utilizada para aplicaciones en vehículos aéreos no tripulados (UAV. Se desarrolla la aplicación final denominada LJLAB en Matlab, cuya función es procesar y visualizar los datos medidos de ambos sistemas en forma independiente y acopladas al mostrar gráficamente el error en la precisión de posicionamiento que existe entre tecnologías, lo cual es comprobado estadísticamente a través del método experimental ANOVA que calcula el error absoluto entre los puntos reales y los medidos a través del análisis de la media y varianza de los datos observados.

  10. Head Trauma: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Head trauma: First aid Head trauma: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Most head trauma involves injuries that are minor and don't require ... 21, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-head-trauma/basics/ART-20056626 . Mayo ...

  11. Three-dimensional patient setup errors at different treatment sites measured by the Tomotherapy megavoltage CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, S.K.; Lusczek, E.; Dusenbery, K. [Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Therapeutic Radiology - Radiation Oncology; DeFor, T. [Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Biostatistics and Informatics Core; Levitt, S. [Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Therapeutic Radiology - Radiation Oncology; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Onkol-Patol

    2012-04-15

    Reduction of interfraction setup uncertainty is vital for assuring the accuracy of conformal radiotherapy. We report a systematic study of setup error to assess patients' three-dimensional (3D) localization at various treatment sites. Tomotherapy megavoltage CT (MVCT) images were scanned daily in 259 patients from 2005-2008. We analyzed 6,465 MVCT images to measure setup error for head and neck (H and N), chest/thorax, abdomen, prostate, legs, and total marrow irradiation (TMI). Statistical comparisons of the absolute displacements across sites and time were performed in rotation (R), lateral (x), craniocaudal (y), and vertical (z) directions. The global systematic errors were measured to be less than 3 mm in each direction with increasing order of errors for different sites: H and N, prostate, chest, pelvis, spine, legs, and TMI. The differences in displacements in the x, y, and z directions, and 3D average displacement between treatment sites were significant (p < 0.01). Overall improvement in patient localization with time (after 3-4 treatment fractions) was observed. Large displacement (> 5 mm) was observed in the 75{sup th} percentile of the patient groups for chest, pelvis, legs, and spine in the x and y direction in the second week of the treatment. MVCT imaging is essential for determining 3D setup error and to reduce uncertainty in localization at all anatomical locations. Setup error evaluation should be performed daily for all treatment regions, preferably for all treatment fractions. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of the precision of portal-image-guided head-and-neck localization: An intra- and interobserver study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court, Laurence E.; Allen, Aaron; Tishler, Roy

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that, for some patients, image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for head-and-neck cancer patients may maintain target dose coverage and critical organ (e.g., parotids) dose closer to the planned doses than setup using lasers alone. We investigated inter- and intraobserver uncertainties in patient setup in head-and-neck cancer patients. Twenty-two sets of orthogonal digital portal images (from five patients) were selected from images used for daily localization of head-and-neck patients treated with IMRT. To evaluate interobserver variations, five radiation therapists compared the portal images with the plan digitally reconstructed radiographs and reported shifts for the isocenter (∼C2) and for a supraclavicular reference point. One therapist repeated the procedure a month later to evaluate intraobserver variations. The procedure was then repeated with teams of two therapists. The frequencies for which agreement between the shift reported by the observer and the daily mean shift (average of all observers for a given image set) were less than 1.5 and 2.5 mm were calculated. Standard errors of measurement for the intra- and interobserver uncertainty (SEM intra and SEM inter ) for the individual and teams were calculated. The data showed that there was very little difference between individual therapists and teams. At isocenter, 80%-90% of all reported shifts agreed with the daily average within 1.5 mm, showing consistency in the ways both individuals and teams interpret the images (SEM inter ∼1 mm). This dropped to 65% for the supraclavicular point (SEM inter ∼1.5 mm). Uncertainties increased for larger setup errors. In conclusion, image-guided patient positioning allows head-and-neck patients to be controlled within 3-4 mm. This is similar to the setup uncertainties found for most head-and-neck patients, but may provide some improvement for the subset of patients with larger setup uncertainties

  13. Multi-dimensional grating interferometer based on fibre-fed measurement heads arranged in Littrow configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiaudinytė, Lauryna; Molnar, Gabor; Köning, Rainer; Flügge, Jens

    2018-05-01

    Industrial application versatility of interferometric encoders increases the urge to measure several degrees of freedom. A novel grating interferometer containing a commercially available, minimized Michelson interferometer and three fibre-fed measurement heads is presented in this paper. Moreover, the arrangement is designed for simultaneous displacement measurements in two perpendicular planes. In the proposed setup, beam splitters are located in the fibre heads, therefore the grating is separated from the light source and the photo detector, which influence measurement results by generated heat. The operating principle of the proposed system as well as error sources influencing measurement results are discussed in this paper. Further, the benefits and shortcomings of the setup are presented. A simple Littrow-configuration-based design leads to a compact-size interferometric encoder suitable for multidimensional measurements.

  14. Error Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.; Li, Z.

    2001-01-01

    In coding theory the problem of decoding focuses on error vectors. In the simplest situation code words are $(0,1)$-vectors, as are the received messages and the error vectors. Comparison of a received word with the code words yields a set of error vectors. In deciding on the original code word,

  15. Head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the titles are: Combined Surgical Resection and Irradiation for Head and Neck Cancers; Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Head and Neck Database: Identification of Prognostic Factors and the Re-evaluation of American Joint Committee Stages; Combined Modality Approach to Head and Neck Cancer; Induction Combination Chemotherapy of Regionally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer; and Outcome after Complete Remission to Induction Chemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer

  16. Effect of head restraint backset on head-neck kinematics in whiplash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A

    2006-03-01

    Although head restraints were introduced in the 1960s as a countermeasure for whiplash, their limited effectiveness has been attributed to incorrect positioning. The effect of backset on cervical segmental angulations, which were previously correlated with spinal injury, has not been delineated. Therefore, the practical restraint position to minimize injury remains unclear. A parametric study of increasing head restraint backset between 0 and 140mm was conducted using a comprehensively validated computational model. Head retraction values increased with increasing backset, reaching a maximum value of 53.5mm for backsets greater than 60mm. Segmental angulation magnitudes, greatest at levels C5-C6 and C6-C7, reached maximum values during the retraction phase and increased with increasing backset. Results were compared to a previously published head restraint rating system, wherein lower cervical extension magnitudes from this study exceeded mean physiologic limits for restraint positions rated good, acceptable, marginal, and poor. As head restraint contact was the limiting factor in head retraction and segmental angulations, the present study indicates that minimizing whiplash injury may be accomplished by limiting head restraint backset to less than 60mm either passively or actively after impact.

  17. Comparison of computer workstation with light box for detecting setup errors from portal images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boxwala, Aziz A.; Chaney, Edward L.; Fritsch, Daniel S.; Raghavan, Suraj; Coffey, Christopher S.; Major, Stacey A.; Muller, Keith E.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Observer studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that radiation oncologists using a computer workstation for portal image analysis can detect setup errors at least as accurately as when following standard clinical practice of inspecting portal films on a light box. Methods and Materials: In a controlled observer study, nine radiation oncologists used a computer workstation, called PortFolio, to detect setup errors in 40 realistic digitally reconstructed portal radiograph (DRPR) images. PortFolio is a prototype workstation for radiation oncologists to display and inspect digital portal images for setup errors. PortFolio includes tools for image enhancement; alignment of crosshairs, field edges, and anatomic structures on reference and acquired images; measurement of distances and angles; and viewing registered images superimposed on one another. The test DRPRs contained known in-plane translation or rotation errors in the placement of the fields over target regions in the pelvis and head. Test images used in the study were also printed on film for observers to view on a light box and interpret using standard clinical practice. The mean accuracy for error detection for each approach was measured and the results were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Geisser-Greenhouse test statistic. Results: The results indicate that radiation oncologists participating in this study could detect and quantify in-plane rotation and translation errors more accurately with PortFolio compared to standard clinical practice. Conclusions: Based on the results of this limited study, it is reasonable to conclude that workstations similar to PortFolio can be used efficaciously in clinical practice

  18. The error in total error reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witnauer, James E; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Miller, Ralph R

    2014-02-01

    Most models of human and animal learning assume that learning is proportional to the discrepancy between a delivered outcome and the outcome predicted by all cues present during that trial (i.e., total error across a stimulus compound). This total error reduction (TER) view has been implemented in connectionist and artificial neural network models to describe the conditions under which weights between units change. Electrophysiological work has revealed that the activity of dopamine neurons is correlated with the total error signal in models of reward learning. Similar neural mechanisms presumably support fear conditioning, human contingency learning, and other types of learning. Using a computational modeling approach, we compared several TER models of associative learning to an alternative model that rejects the TER assumption in favor of local error reduction (LER), which assumes that learning about each cue is proportional to the discrepancy between the delivered outcome and the outcome predicted by that specific cue on that trial. The LER model provided a better fit to the reviewed data than the TER models. Given the superiority of the LER model with the present data sets, acceptance of TER should be tempered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Characteristics of pediatric chemotherapy medication errors in a national error reporting database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinke, Michael L; Shore, Andrew D; Morlock, Laura; Hicks, Rodney W; Miller, Marlene R

    2007-07-01

    Little is known regarding chemotherapy medication errors in pediatrics despite studies suggesting high rates of overall pediatric medication errors. In this study, the authors examined patterns in pediatric chemotherapy errors. The authors queried the United States Pharmacopeia MEDMARX database, a national, voluntary, Internet-accessible error reporting system, for all error reports from 1999 through 2004 that involved chemotherapy medications and patients aged error reports, 85% reached the patient, and 15.6% required additional patient monitoring or therapeutic intervention. Forty-eight percent of errors originated in the administering phase of medication delivery, and 30% originated in the drug-dispensing phase. Of the 387 medications cited, 39.5% were antimetabolites, 14.0% were alkylating agents, 9.3% were anthracyclines, and 9.3% were topoisomerase inhibitors. The most commonly involved chemotherapeutic agents were methotrexate (15.3%), cytarabine (12.1%), and etoposide (8.3%). The most common error types were improper dose/quantity (22.9% of 327 cited error types), wrong time (22.6%), omission error (14.1%), and wrong administration technique/wrong route (12.2%). The most common error causes were performance deficit (41.3% of 547 cited error causes), equipment and medication delivery devices (12.4%), communication (8.8%), knowledge deficit (6.8%), and written order errors (5.5%). Four of the 5 most serious errors occurred at community hospitals. Pediatric chemotherapy errors often reached the patient, potentially were harmful, and differed in quality between outpatient and inpatient areas. This study indicated which chemotherapeutic agents most often were involved in errors and that administering errors were common. Investigation is needed regarding targeted medication administration safeguards for these high-risk medications. Copyright (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.

  20. Photogrammetry-Based Head Digitization for Rapid and Accurate Localization of EEG Electrodes and MEG Fiducial Markers Using a Single Digital SLR Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausner, Tommy; Dalal, Sarang S; Crespo-García, Maité

    2017-01-01

    The performance of EEG source reconstruction has benefited from the increasing use of advanced head modeling techniques that take advantage of MRI together with the precise positions of the recording electrodes. The prevailing technique for registering EEG electrode coordinates involves electromagnetic digitization. However, the procedure adds several minutes to experiment preparation and typical digitizers may not be accurate enough for optimal source reconstruction performance (Dalal et al., 2014). Here, we present a rapid, accurate, and cost-effective alternative method to register EEG electrode positions, using a single digital SLR camera, photogrammetry software, and computer vision techniques implemented in our open-source toolbox, janus3D . Our approach uses photogrammetry to construct 3D models from multiple photographs of the participant's head wearing the EEG electrode cap. Electrodes are detected automatically or semi-automatically using a template. The rigid facial features from these photo-based models are then surface-matched to MRI-based head reconstructions to facilitate coregistration to MRI space. This method yields a final electrode coregistration error of 0.8 mm, while a standard technique using an electromagnetic digitizer yielded an error of 6.1 mm. The technique furthermore reduces preparation time, and could be extended to a multi-camera array, which would make the procedure virtually instantaneous. In addition to EEG, the technique could likewise capture the position of the fiducial markers used in magnetoencephalography systems to register head position.

  1. Linking computer-aided design (CAD) to Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulations for precise implementation of complex treatment head geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, Magdalena; Constantin, Dragos E; Keall, Paul J; Narula, Anisha; Svatos, Michelle; Perl, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Most of the treatment head components of medical linear accelerators used in radiation therapy have complex geometrical shapes. They are typically designed using computer-aided design (CAD) applications. In Monte Carlo simulations of radiotherapy beam transport through the treatment head components, the relevant beam-generating and beam-modifying devices are inserted in the simulation toolkit using geometrical approximations of these components. Depending on their complexity, such approximations may introduce errors that can be propagated throughout the simulation. This drawback can be minimized by exporting a more precise geometry of the linac components from CAD and importing it into the Monte Carlo simulation environment. We present a technique that links three-dimensional CAD drawings of the treatment head components to Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations of dose deposition. (note)

  2. Error studies for SNS Linac. Part 1: Transverse errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, K.R.

    1998-01-01

    The SNS linac consist of a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), a drift-tube linac (DTL), a coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) and a coupled-cavity linac (CCL). The RFQ and DTL are operated at 402.5 MHz; the CCDTL and CCL are operated at 805 MHz. Between the RFQ and DTL is a medium-energy beam-transport system (MEBT). This error study is concerned with the DTL, CCDTL and CCL, and each will be analyzed separately. In fact, the CCL is divided into two sections, and each of these will be analyzed separately. The types of errors considered here are those that affect the transverse characteristics of the beam. The errors that cause the beam center to be displaced from the linac axis are quad displacements and quad tilts. The errors that cause mismatches are quad gradient errors and quad rotations (roll)

  3. Stroke type differentiation using spectrally constrained multifrequency EIT: evaluation of feasibility in a realistic head model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, Emma; Jehl, Markus; Arridge, Simon; Betcke, Timo; Holder, David

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the application of multifrequency electrical impedance tomography (MFEIT) to imaging the brain in stroke patients. The use of MFEIT could enable early diagnosis and thrombolysis of ischaemic stroke, and therefore improve the outcome of treatment. Recent advances in the imaging methodology suggest that the use of spectral constraints could allow for the reconstruction of a one-shot image. We performed a simulation study to investigate the feasibility of imaging stroke in a head model with realistic conductivities. We introduced increasing levels of modelling errors to test the robustness of the method to the most common sources of artefact. We considered the case of errors in the electrode placement, spectral constraints, and contact impedance. The results indicate that errors in the position and shape of the electrodes can affect image quality, although our imaging method was successful in identifying tissues with sufficiently distinct spectra. (paper)

  4. Two-dimensional errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter addresses the extension of previous work in one-dimensional (linear) error theory to two-dimensional error analysis. The topics of the chapter include the definition of two-dimensional error, the probability ellipse, the probability circle, elliptical (circular) error evaluation, the application to position accuracy, and the use of control systems (points) in measurements

  5. Dynamic variability of the heading-flowering stages of single rice in China based on field observations and NDVI estimations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao; Song, Xiao; Chen, Yi; Wang, Pin; Wei, Xing; Tao, Fulu

    2015-05-01

    Although many studies have indicated the consistent impact of warming on the natural ecosystem (e.g., an early flowering and prolonged growing period), our knowledge of the impacts on agricultural systems is still poorly understood. In this study, spatiotemporal variability of the heading-flowering stages of single rice was detected and compared at three different scales using field-based methods (FBMs) and satellite-based methods (SBMs). The heading-flowering stages from 2000 to 2009 with a spatial resolution of 1 km were extracted from the SPOT/VGT NDVI time series data using the Savizky-Golay filtering method in the areas in China dominated by single rice of Northeast China (NE), the middle-lower Yangtze River Valley (YZ), the Sichuan Basin (SC), and the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau (YG). We found that approximately 52.6 and 76.3 % of the estimated heading-flowering stages by a SBM were within ±5 and ±10 days estimation error (a root mean square error (RMSE) of 8.76 days) when compared with those determined by a FBM. Both the FBM data and the SBM data had indicated a similar spatial pattern, with the earliest annual average heading-flowering stages in SC, followed by YG, NE, and YZ, which were inconsistent with the patterns reported in natural ecosystems. Moreover, diverse temporal trends were also detected in the four regions due to different climate conditions and agronomic factors such as cultivar shifts. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the FBM and the SBM in both the regional average value of the phenological stages and the trends, implying the consistency and rationality of the SBM at three scales.

  6. Radiation dose evaluation of dental cone beam computed tomography using an anthropomorphic adult head phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jay; Shih, Cheng-Ting; Ho, Chang-hung; Liu, Yan-Lin; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Min Chao, Max; Hsu, Jui-Ting

    2014-11-01

    Dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) provides high-resolution tomographic images and has been gradually used in clinical practice. Thus, it is important to examine the amount of radiation dose resulting from dental CBCT examinations. In this study, we developed an in-house anthropomorphic adult head phantom to evaluate the level of effective dose. The anthropomorphic phantom was made of acrylic and filled with plaster to replace the bony tissue. The contour of the head was extracted from a set of adult computed tomography (CT) images. Different combinations of the scanning parameters of CBCT were applied. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used to measure the absorbed doses at 19 locations in the head and neck regions. The effective doses measured using the proposed phantom at 65, 75, and 85 kVp in the D-mode were 72.23, 100.31, and 134.29 μSv, respectively. In the I-mode, the effective doses were 108.24, 190.99, and 246.48 μSv, respectively. The maximum percent error between the doses measured by the proposed phantom and the Rando phantom was l4.90%. Therefore, the proposed anthropomorphic adult head phantom is applicable for assessing the radiation dose resulting from clinical dental CBCT.

  7. Error-related anterior cingulate cortex activity and the prediction of conscious error awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eOrr

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research examining the neural mechanisms associated with error awareness has consistently identified dorsal anterior cingulate activity (ACC as necessary but not predictive of conscious error detection. Two recent studies (Steinhauser and Yeung, 2010; Wessel et al. 2011 have found a contrary pattern of greater dorsal ACC activity (in the form of the error-related negativity during detected errors, but suggested that the greater activity may instead reflect task influences (e.g., response conflict, error probability and or individual variability (e.g., statistical power. We re-analyzed fMRI BOLD data from 56 healthy participants who had previously been administered the Error Awareness Task, a motor Go/No-go response inhibition task in which subjects make errors of commission of which they are aware (Aware errors, or unaware (Unaware errors. Consistent with previous data, the activity in a number of cortical regions was predictive of error awareness, including bilateral inferior parietal and insula cortices, however in contrast to previous studies, including our own smaller sample studies using the same task, error-related dorsal ACC activity was significantly greater during aware errors when compared to unaware errors. While the significantly faster RT for aware errors (compared to unaware was consistent with the hypothesis of higher response conflict increasing ACC activity, we could find no relationship between dorsal ACC activity and the error RT difference. The data suggests that individual variability in error awareness is associated with error-related dorsal ACC activity, and therefore this region may be important to conscious error detection, but it remains unclear what task and individual factors influence error awareness.

  8. Errors in otology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartush, J M

    1996-11-01

    Practicing medicine successfully requires that errors in diagnosis and treatment be minimized. Malpractice laws encourage litigators to ascribe all medical errors to incompetence and negligence. There are, however, many other causes of unintended outcomes. This article describes common causes of errors and suggests ways to minimize mistakes in otologic practice. Widespread dissemination of knowledge about common errors and their precursors can reduce the incidence of their occurrence. Consequently, laws should be passed to allow for a system of non-punitive, confidential reporting of errors and "near misses" that can be shared by physicians nationwide.

  9. Fabrication of robot head module using contact resistance force sensor for human robot interaction and its evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Ki; Kim, Jong Ho [Korea Reserch Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hyun Joon [Univ. of Maryland, Maryland (United States); Kwon, Young Ha [Kyung Hee Univ., Gyunggi Do (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    This paper presents a design of a robot head module with touch sensing algorithms that can simultaneously detect contact force and location. The module is constructed with a hemisphere and three sensor units that are fabricated using contact resistance force sensors. The surface part is designed with the hemisphere that measures 300 mm in diameter and 150 mm in height. Placed at the bottom of the robot head module are three sensor units fabricated using a simple screen printing technique. The contact force and the location of the model are evaluated through the calibration setup. The experiment showed that the calculated contact positions almost coincided with the applied load points as the contact location changed with a location error of about {+-}8.67 mm. The force responses of the module were evaluated at two points under loading and unloading conditions from 0 N to 5 N. The robot head module showed almost the same force responses at the two points.

  10. Automatic Calculation of Hydrostatic Pressure Gradient in Patients with Head Injury: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Laura; Shaw, Martin; Piper, Ian; Arvind, D K; Hawthorne, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The non-surgical management of patients with traumatic brain injury is the treatment and prevention of secondary insults, such as low cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). Most clinical pressure monitoring systems measure pressure relative to atmospheric pressure. If a patient is managed with their head tilted up, relative to their arterial pressure transducer, then a hydrostatic pressure gradient (HPG) can act against arterial pressure and cause significant errors in calculated CPP.To correct for HPG, the arterial pressure transducer should be placed level with the intracranial pressure transducer. However, this is not always achieved. In this chapter, we describe a pilot study investigating the application of speckled computing (or "specks") for the automatic monitoring of the patient's head tilt and subsequent automatic calculation of HPG. In future applications this will allow us to automatically correct CPP to take into account any HPG.

  11. The Impact of Error-Management Climate, Error Type and Error Originator on Auditors’ Reporting Errors Discovered on Audit Work Papers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H. Gold-Nöteberg (Anna); U. Gronewold (Ulfert); S. Salterio (Steve)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe examine factors affecting the auditor’s willingness to report their own or their peers’ self-discovered errors in working papers subsequent to detailed working paper review. Prior research has shown that errors in working papers are detected in the review process; however, such

  12. Learning from Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Legaz, Juan Enrique; Soubeyran, Antoine

    2003-01-01

    We present a model of learning in which agents learn from errors. If an action turns out to be an error, the agent rejects not only that action but also neighboring actions. We find that, keeping memory of his errors, under mild assumptions an acceptable solution is asymptotically reached. Moreover, one can take advantage of big errors for a faster learning.

  13. Head Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nits. You should also use hot water to wash any bed linens, towels, and clothing recently worn by the person who had head lice. Vacuum anything that can’t be washed, such as the couch, carpets, your child’s car seat, and any stuffed animals. Because head lice ...

  14. Anti-drift and auto-alignment mechanism for an astigmatic atomic force microscope system based on a digital versatile disk optical head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, E-T; Illers, H; Wang, W-M; Hwang, I-S; Jusko, L; Danzebrink, H-U

    2012-01-01

    In this work, an anti-drift and auto-alignment mechanism is applied to an astigmatic detection system (ADS)-based atomic force microscope (AFM) for drift compensation and cantilever alignment. The optical path of the ADS adopts a commercial digital versatile disc (DVD) optical head using the astigmatic focus error signal. The ADS-based astigmatic AFM is lightweight, compact size, low priced, and easy to use. Furthermore, the optical head is capable of measuring sub-atomic displacements of high-frequency AFM probes with a sub-micron laser spot (~570 nm, FWHM) and a high-working bandwidth (80 MHz). Nevertheless, conventional DVD optical heads suffer from signal drift problems. In a previous setup, signal drifts of even thousands of nanometers had been measured. With the anti-drift and auto-alignment mechanism, the signal drift is compensated by actuating a voice coil motor of the DVD optical head. A nearly zero signal drift was achieved. Additional benefits of this mechanism are automatic cantilever alignment and simplified design.

  15. Novel Smart Glove Technology as a Biomechanical Monitoring Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan O’FLYNN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Developments in Virtual Reality (VR technology and its overall market have been occurring since the 1960s when Ivan Sutherland created the world’s first tracked head-mounted display (HMD – a goggle type head gear. In society today, consumers are expecting a more immersive experience and associated tools to bridge the cyber-physical divide. This paper presents the development of a next generation smart glove microsystem to facilitate Human Computer Interaction through the integration of sensors, processors and wireless technology. The objective of the glove is to measure the range of hand joint movements, in real time and empirically in a quantitative manner. This includes accurate measurement of flexion, extension, adduction and abduction of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP, Proximal interphalangeal (PIP and Distal interphalangeal (DIP joints of the fingers and thumb in degrees, together with thumb-index web space movement. This system enables full real-time monitoring of complex hand movements. Commercially available gloves are not fitted with sufficient sensors for full data capture, and require calibration for each glove wearer. Unlike these current state-of-the-art data gloves, the UU / Tyndall Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU glove uses a combination of novel stretchable substrate material and 9 degree of freedom (DOF inertial sensors in conjunction with complex data analytics to detect joint movement. Our novel IMU data glove requires minimal calibration and is therefore particularly suited to multiple application domains such as Human Computer interfacing, Virtual reality, the healthcare environment..

  16. Error Detection and Error Classification: Failure Awareness in Data Transfer Scheduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louisiana State University; Balman, Mehmet; Kosar, Tevfik

    2010-10-27

    Data transfer in distributed environment is prone to frequent failures resulting from back-end system level problems, like connectivity failure which is technically untraceable by users. Error messages are not logged efficiently, and sometimes are not relevant/useful from users point-of-view. Our study explores the possibility of an efficient error detection and reporting system for such environments. Prior knowledge about the environment and awareness of the actual reason behind a failure would enable higher level planners to make better and accurate decisions. It is necessary to have well defined error detection and error reporting methods to increase the usability and serviceability of existing data transfer protocols and data management systems. We investigate the applicability of early error detection and error classification techniques and propose an error reporting framework and a failure-aware data transfer life cycle to improve arrangement of data transfer operations and to enhance decision making of data transfer schedulers.

  17. Non-invasive head fixation for external irradiation of tumors of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bale, R.J.; Sweeney, R.; Nevinny, M.; Auer, T.; Bluhm, A.; Lukas, P.; Vogele, M.; Thumfart, W.F.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To fully utilize the technical capabilities of radiation diagnostics and planning, a precise and reproducible method of head fixation is a prerequisite. Method: We have adapted the Vogele-Bale-Hohner (VBH) head holder (Wellhoefer Dosimetrie, Schwarzenbruck, Germany), originally designed for frameless stereotactic operations, to the requirements of external beam radiotherapy. A precise and reproducible head fixation is attained by an individualized vacuum upper-dental cast which is connected over 2 hydraulic arms to an adjustable head- and rigid base-plate. Radiation field and patient alignment lasers are marked on a relocatable clear PVC localization box. Results: The possibility of craniocaudal adjustment of the head plate on the base plate allows the system to adapt to the actucal position of the patient on the raditherapy couch granting tensionless repositioning. The VBH head holder has proven itself to be a precise yet practicable method of head fixation. Duration of mouthpiece production and daily repositioning is comparable to that of the thermoplastic mask. Conclusion: The new head holder is in routine use at our hospital and quite suitable for external beam radiation of patients with tumors of the head and neck. (orig.) [de

  18. Finite Element Models Development of Car Seats With Passive Head Restraints to Study Their Meeting Requirements for EURO NCAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Solopov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In performing calculations to evaluate passive safety of car seats by computer modelling methods it is desirable to use the final element models (FEM thereby providing the greatest accuracy of calculation results. Besides, it is expedient to use FEM, which can be calculated by computer for a small period of time to give preliminary results for short terms.The paper describes the features to evaluate a passive safety, which is ensured by the developed KEM of seats with passive head restraints according to requirements of the EURO NCAP.Besides, accuracy of calculated results that is provided by the developed KEM was evaluated. Accuracy evaluation was accomplished in relation to the results obtained the by specialists of the organization conducting similar researches (LSTC.This work was performed within the framework of a technique, which allows us to develop effectively the car seat designs both with passive, and active head restraints, meeting requirements for passive safety.By results of made calculations and experiments it was found that when evaluating by the EURO NCAP technique the "rough" KEM (the 1st and 2nd levels can be considered as rational ones (in terms of labour costs for its creation and problem solving as well as by result errors and it is expedient to use them for preliminary and multivariate calculations. Detailed models (the 3rd level provide the greatest accuracy (the greatest accuracy is reached with the evaluated impact of 16km/h speed under the loading conditions "moderate impact". A relative error of full head acceleration is of 12%.In evaluation by EURO NCAP using NIC criterion a conclusion can be drawn that the seat models of the 2nd level (467 936 KE and the 3rd level (1 255 358 KE meet the passive safety requirements according to EURO NCAP requirements under "light", "moderate", and "heavy" impacts.In evaluation by EURO NCAP for preliminary and multivariate calculations a model of the middle level (consisting of 467

  19. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray ... What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  1. Generalized Gaussian Error Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Grabe, Michael

    2010-01-01

    For the first time in 200 years Generalized Gaussian Error Calculus addresses a rigorous, complete and self-consistent revision of the Gaussian error calculus. Since experimentalists realized that measurements in general are burdened by unknown systematic errors, the classical, widespread used evaluation procedures scrutinizing the consequences of random errors alone turned out to be obsolete. As a matter of course, the error calculus to-be, treating random and unknown systematic errors side by side, should ensure the consistency and traceability of physical units, physical constants and physical quantities at large. The generalized Gaussian error calculus considers unknown systematic errors to spawn biased estimators. Beyond, random errors are asked to conform to the idea of what the author calls well-defined measuring conditions. The approach features the properties of a building kit: any overall uncertainty turns out to be the sum of a contribution due to random errors, to be taken from a confidence inter...

  2. Comparison of planar scanning and single photon emission computed tomography in the diagnosis of avascular necrosis of the femoral head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feiglin, D.H.I.; Levine, M.; Stulberg, B.; Pflanze, W.; O'Donnell, J.K.; Belhobek, G.H.; Go, R.T.; MacIntyre, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-nine patients were investigated for avascular necrosis of the femoral head. All hips were studied by plain x-ray and MR imaging, 70 hips studied by radionuclide bone scanning, and 38 were studied by single photon emission CT (SPECT). Core biopsies of the femoral heads from 32 hips were examined. No one reference standard for noninvasive diagnosis of this disease is available. The sensitivity and specificity of the radionuclide studies with respect to SPECT were 77% and 100%; of SPECT with respect to pathologic confirmation, 100% and 57%; of MR imaging with respect to pathologic studies, 100% and 66%. Pathologic sampling is subject to error and may give false negative results with spuriously low specificities for imaging modalities. SPECT is recommended as the radionuclide imaging procedure of choice for detecting avascular necrosis of the femoral head

  3. DVL Velocity Aiding in the HUGIN 1000 Integrated Inertial Navigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Jalving

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The RDI WHN-600 Doppler Velocity Log (DVL is a key navigation sensor for the HUG1N 1000 Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV. HUGIN 1000 is designed for autonomous submerged operation for long periods of time. This is facilitated by a low drift velocity aided Inertial Navigation System (INS. Major factors determining the position error growth are the IMU and DVL error characteristics and the mission plan pattern_ For instance, low frequency DVL errors cause an approximately linear drift in a straight-line trajectory, while these errors tend to be cancelled out by a lawn mower pattern_ The paper focuses on the accuracy offered by the DVL. HUGIN 1000 is a permanent organic mine countermeasure (MCM capacity on the Royal Norwegian Navy MCM vessel KNM Karmoy. HUGIN 1000 will be part of the NATO force MCMFORNORTH in fall 2004.

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  5. Is ExacTrac x-ray system an alternative to CBCT for positioning patients with head and neck cancers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, Stefania; Chiumento, Costanza; Fiorentino, Alba; Cozzolino, Mariella; Oliviero, Caterina; Califano, Giorgia; Caivano, Rocchina; Fusco, Vincenzo; Simeon, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of a six-degrees-of freedom (6D) correction using ExacTrac robotics system in patients with head-and-neck (HN) cancer receiving radiation therapy.Methods: Local setup accuracy was analyzed for 12 patients undergoing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Patient position was imaged daily upon two different protocols, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and ExacTrac (ET) images correction. Setup data from either approach were compared in terms of both residual errors after correction and punctual displacement of selected regions of interest (Mandible, C2, and C6 vertebral bodies).Results: On average, both protocols achieved reasonably low residual errors after initial correction. The observed differences in shift vectors between the two protocols showed that CBCT tends to weight more C2 and C6 at the expense of the mandible, while ET tends to average more differences among the different ROIs.Conclusions: CBCT, even without 6D correction capabilities, seems preferable to ET for better consistent alignment and the capability to see soft tissues. Therefore, in our experience, CBCT represents a benchmark for positioning head and neck cancer patients

  6. A Hybrid Unequal Error Protection / Unequal Error Resilience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality layers are then assigned an Unequal Error Resilience to synchronization loss by unequally allocating the number of headers available for synchronization to them. Following that Unequal Error Protection against channel noise is provided to the layers by the use of Rate Compatible Punctured Convolutional ...

  7. Reactor head shielding apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schukei, G.E.; Roebelen, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor head shielding apparatus for mounting on spaced reactor head lifting members radially inwardly of the head bolts. It comprises a frame of sections for mounting on the lifting members and extending around the top central area of the head, mounting means for so mounting the frame sections, including downwardly projecting members on the frame sections and complementary upwardly open recessed members for fastening to the lifting members for receiving the downwardly projecting members when the frame sections are lowered thereto with lead shielding supported thereby on means for hanging lead shielding on the frame to minimize radiation exposure or personnel working with the head bolts or in the vicinity thereof

  8. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  9. The head-mounted microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth H; Naze, Sawyer A; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-04-01

    Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results. This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM500 head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The head-mounted microscope has an optical zoom from 2× to 9× and provides a working distance from 300 mm to 700 mm. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled. We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery. Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision. Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Heading Frequency Is More Strongly Related to Cognitive Performance Than Unintentional Head Impacts in Amateur Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Walter F; Kim, Namhee; Ifrah, Chloe; Sliwinski, Martin; Zimmerman, Molly E; Kim, Mimi; Lipton, Richard B; Lipton, Michael L

    2018-01-01

    Compared to heading, unintentional head impacts (e.g., elbow to head, head to head, head to goalpost) in soccer are more strongly related to risk of moderate to very severe Central Nervous System (CNS) symptoms. But, most head impacts associated with CNS symptoms that occur in soccer are mild and are more strongly related to heading. We tested for a differential relation of heading and unintentional head impacts with neuropsychological (NP) test performance. Active adult amateur soccer players were recruited in New York City and the surrounding areas for this repeated measures longitudinal study of individuals who were enrolled if they had 5+ years of soccer play and were active playing soccer 6+ months/year. All participants completed a baseline validated questionnaire ("HeadCount-2w"), reporting 2-week recall of soccer activity, heading and unintentional head impacts. In addition, participants also completed NP tests of verbal learning, verbal memory, psychomotor speed, attention, and working memory. Most participants also completed one or more identical follow-up protocols (i.e., HeadCount-2w and NP tests) at 3- to 6-month intervals over a 2-year period. Repeated measures General Estimating Equations (GEE) linear models were used to determine if variation in NP tests at each visit was related to variation in either heading or unintentional head impacts in the 2-week period before testing. 308 players (78% male) completed 741 HeadCount-2w. Mean (median) heading/2-weeks was 50 (17) for men and 26 (7) for women. Heading was significantly associated with poorer performance on psychomotor speed ( p  impacts were not significantly associated with any NP test. Results did not differ after excluding 22 HeadCount-2w with reported concussive or borderline concussive symptoms. Poorer NP test performance was consistently related to frequent heading during soccer practice and competition in the 2 weeks before testing. In contrast, unintentional head impacts incurred

  11. Learning from prescribing errors

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, B

    2002-01-01

    

 The importance of learning from medical error has recently received increasing emphasis. This paper focuses on prescribing errors and argues that, while learning from prescribing errors is a laudable goal, there are currently barriers that can prevent this occurring. Learning from errors can take place on an individual level, at a team level, and across an organisation. Barriers to learning from prescribing errors include the non-discovery of many prescribing errors, lack of feedback to th...

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  13. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  14. Head-positioning scintillation camera and head holder therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, T.D.

    1976-01-01

    A holder for immobilizing the head of a patient undergoing a vertex brain scan by a Gamma Scintillation Camera is described. The holder has a uniquely designed shape capable of comfortably supporting the head. In addition, this holder can be both adjustably and removably utilized in combination with the scintillation camera so as to enable the brain scan operation to take place while the patient is in the seated position

  15. Heading Frequency Is More Strongly Related to Cognitive Performance Than Unintentional Head Impacts in Amateur Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter F. Stewart

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveCompared to heading, unintentional head impacts (e.g., elbow to head, head to head, head to goalpost in soccer are more strongly related to risk of moderate to very severe Central Nervous System (CNS symptoms. But, most head impacts associated with CNS symptoms that occur in soccer are mild and are more strongly related to heading. We tested for a differential relation of heading and unintentional head impacts with neuropsychological (NP test performance.MethodActive adult amateur soccer players were recruited in New York City and the surrounding areas for this repeated measures longitudinal study of individuals who were enrolled if they had 5+ years of soccer play and were active playing soccer 6+ months/year. All participants completed a baseline validated questionnaire (“HeadCount-2w”, reporting 2-week recall of soccer activity, heading and unintentional head impacts. In addition, participants also completed NP tests of verbal learning, verbal memory, psychomotor speed, attention, and working memory. Most participants also completed one or more identical follow-up protocols (i.e., HeadCount-2w and NP tests at 3- to 6-month intervals over a 2-year period. Repeated measures General Estimating Equations (GEE linear models were used to determine if variation in NP tests at each visit was related to variation in either heading or unintentional head impacts in the 2-week period before testing.Results308 players (78% male completed 741 HeadCount-2w. Mean (median heading/2-weeks was 50 (17 for men and 26 (7 for women. Heading was significantly associated with poorer performance on psychomotor speed (p < 0.001 and attention (p = 0.02 tasks and was borderline significant with poorer performance on the working memory (p = 0.06 task. Unintentional head impacts were not significantly associated with any NP test. Results did not differ after excluding 22 HeadCount-2w with reported concussive or borderline concussive symptoms

  16. SU-E-T-642: Safety Procedures for Error Elimination in Cyberknife Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A; Alkafi, A; Al-Najjar, W; Moftah, B

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Cyberknife system is used for providing stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) hypofractionation scheme. The whole treatment delivery is based on live imaging of the patient. The minor error made at any stage may bring severe radiation injury to the patient or damage to the system itself. Several safety measures were taken to make the system safer. Methods: The radiation treatment provided thru a 6MV linac attached to Kuka robot (Cyberknife G4, Accuray Inc. Sunnyvale, CA, USA). Several possible errors were identified related to patient alignment, treatment planning, dose delivery and physics quality assurance. During dose delivery, manual and visual checks were introduced to confirm pre and intra-treatment imaging to reduce possible errors. One additional step was introduced to confirm that software tracking-tools had worked correctly with highest possible confidence level. Robotic head move in different orientations over and around the patient body, the rigidity of linac-head cover and other accessories was checked periodically. The vender was alerted when a tiny or bigger piece of equipment needed additional interlocked support. Results: As of our experience treating 525 patients on Cyberknife during the last four years, we saw on and off technical issues. During image acquisition, it was made essential to follow the site-specific imaging protocols. Adequate anatomy was contoured to document the respective doses. Followed by auto-segmentation, manual tweaking was performed on every structure. The calculation box was enclosing the whole image during the final calculation. Every plan was evaluated on slice-by slice basis. To review the whole process, a check list was maintained during the physics 2nd-check. Conclusion: The implementation of manual and visual additional checks introduced along with automated checks for confirmation was found promising in terms of reduction in systematic errors and making the system

  17. Random and Systematic Errors Share in Total Error of Probes for CNC Machine Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Wozniak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Probes for CNC machine tools, as every measurement device, have accuracy limited by random errors and by systematic errors. Random errors of these probes are described by a parameter called unidirectional repeatability. Manufacturers of probes for CNC machine tools usually specify only this parameter, while parameters describing systematic errors of the probes, such as pre-travel variation or triggering radius variation, are used rarely. Systematic errors of the probes, linked to the differences in pre-travel values for different measurement directions, can be corrected or compensated, but it is not a widely used procedure. In this paper, the share of systematic errors and random errors in total error of exemplary probes are determined. In the case of simple, kinematic probes, systematic errors are much greater than random errors, so compensation would significantly reduce the probing error. Moreover, it shows that in the case of kinematic probes commonly specified unidirectional repeatability is significantly better than 2D performance. However, in the case of more precise strain-gauge probe systematic errors are of the same order as random errors, which means that errors correction or compensation, in this case, would not yield any significant benefits.

  18. Errors in the calculation of new salary positions and performance premiums – 2017 MERIT exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Following the receipt of the letters dated May 12th announcing the qualification of their performance (MERIT 2017), and the notification of their salary slips for the month of May, several colleagues have come to us to enquire about the calculation of salary increases and performance premiums. After verification, the Staff Association has informed the Management, in a meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on June 1st, about errors owing to rounding in the applied formulas. James Purvis, Head of HR department, has published in the CERN Bulletin dated July 18th an article, under the heading “Better precision (rounding)”, that gives a short explanation of these rounding effects. But we want to further bring you more precise explanations. Advancement On the salary slips for the month of May, the calculations of the advancement and new salary positions were done, by the services of administrative computing in the FAP department, on the basis of the salary, rounded to the nearest franc...

  19. System and method for three-dimensional image reconstruction using an absolute orientation sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Giancola, Silvio

    2018-01-18

    A three-dimensional image reconstruction system includes an image capture device, an inertial measurement unit (IMU), and an image processor. The image capture device captures image data. The inertial measurement unit (IMU) is affixed to the image capture device and records IMU data associated with the image data. The image processor includes one or more processing units and memory for storing instructions that are executed by the one or more processing units, wherein the image processor receives the image data and the IMU data as inputs and utilizes the IMU data to pre-align the first image and the second image, and wherein the image processor utilizes a registration algorithm to register the pre-aligned first and second images.

  20. Comparison of computer workstation with film for detecting setup errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, D.S.; Boxwala, A.A.; Raghavan, S.; Coffee, C.; Major, S.A.; Muller, K.E.; Chaney, E.L.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Workstations designed for portal image interpretation by radiation oncologists provide image displays and image processing and analysis tools that differ significantly compared with the standard clinical practice of inspecting portal films on a light box. An implied but unproved assumption associated with the clinical implementation of workstation technology is that patient care is improved, or at least not adversely affected. The purpose of this investigation was to conduct observer studies to test the hypothesis that radiation oncologists can detect setup errors using a workstation at least as accurately as when following standard clinical practice. Materials and Methods: A workstation, PortFolio, was designed for radiation oncologists to display and inspect digital portal images for setup errors. PortFolio includes tools to enhance images; align cross-hairs, field edges, and anatomic structures on reference and acquired images; measure distances and angles; and view registered images superimposed on one another. In a well designed and carefully controlled observer study, nine radiation oncologists, including attendings and residents, used PortFolio to detect setup errors in realistic digitally reconstructed portal (DRPR) images computed from the NLM visible human data using a previously described approach † . Compared with actual portal images where absolute truth is ill defined or unknown, the DRPRs contained known translation or rotation errors in the placement of the fields over target regions in the pelvis and head. Twenty DRPRs with randomly induced errors were computed for each site. The induced errors were constrained to a plane at the isocenter of the target volume and perpendicular to the central axis of the treatment beam. Images used in the study were also printed on film. Observers interpreted the film-based images using standard clinical practice. The images were reviewed in eight sessions. During each session five images were

  1. Uncorrected refractive errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kovin S; Jaggernath, Jyoti

    2012-01-01

    Global estimates indicate that more than 2.3 billion people in the world suffer from poor vision due to refractive error; of which 670 million people are considered visually impaired because they do not have access to corrective treatment. Refractive errors, if uncorrected, results in an impaired quality of life for millions of people worldwide, irrespective of their age, sex and ethnicity. Over the past decade, a series of studies using a survey methodology, referred to as Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC), were performed in populations with different ethnic origins and cultural settings. These studies confirmed that the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors is considerably high for children in low-and-middle-income countries. Furthermore, uncorrected refractive error has been noted to have extensive social and economic impacts, such as limiting educational and employment opportunities of economically active persons, healthy individuals and communities. The key public health challenges presented by uncorrected refractive errors, the leading cause of vision impairment across the world, require urgent attention. To address these issues, it is critical to focus on the development of human resources and sustainable methods of service delivery. This paper discusses three core pillars to addressing the challenges posed by uncorrected refractive errors: Human Resource (HR) Development, Service Development and Social Entrepreneurship.

  2. Uncorrected refractive errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovin S Naidoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Global estimates indicate that more than 2.3 billion people in the world suffer from poor vision due to refractive error; of which 670 million people are considered visually impaired because they do not have access to corrective treatment. Refractive errors, if uncorrected, results in an impaired quality of life for millions of people worldwide, irrespective of their age, sex and ethnicity. Over the past decade, a series of studies using a survey methodology, referred to as Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC, were performed in populations with different ethnic origins and cultural settings. These studies confirmed that the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors is considerably high for children in low-and-middle-income countries. Furthermore, uncorrected refractive error has been noted to have extensive social and economic impacts, such as limiting educational and employment opportunities of economically active persons, healthy individuals and communities. The key public health challenges presented by uncorrected refractive errors, the leading cause of vision impairment across the world, require urgent attention. To address these issues, it is critical to focus on the development of human resources and sustainable methods of service delivery. This paper discusses three core pillars to addressing the challenges posed by uncorrected refractive errors: Human Resource (HR Development, Service Development and Social Entrepreneurship.

  3. GPK heading machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krmasek, J.; Novosad, K.

    1981-01-01

    This article evaluates performance tests of the Soviet made GPK heading machine carried out in 4 coal mines in Czechoslovakia (Ostrava-Karvina region and Kladno mines). GPK works in coal seams and rocks with compression strength of 40 to 50 MPa. Dimensions of the tunnel are height 1.8 to 3.8 m and width 2.6 to 4.7 m, tunnel gradient plus to minus 10 degrees. GPK weighs 16 t, its conical shaped cutting head equipped with RKS-1 cutting tools is driven by an electric motor with 55 kW capacity. Undercarriage of the GPK, gathering-arm loader, hydraulic system, electric system and dust supression system (water spraying or pneumatic section) are characterized. Specifications of GPK heading machines are compared with PK-3r and F8 heading machines. Reliability, number of failures, dust level, noise, productivity depending on compression strength of rocks, heading rate in coal and in rocks, energy consumption, performance in inclined tunnels, and cutting tool wear are evaluated. Tests show that GPK can be used to drive tunnels in coal with rock constituting up to 50% of the tunnel crosscut, as long as rock compression strength does not exceed 50 MPa. In rocks characterized by higher compression strength cutting tool wear sharply increases. GPK is characterized by higher productivity than that of the PK-3r heading machine. Among the weak points of the GPK are: unsatisfactory reliability and excessive wear of its elements. (4 refs.) (In Czech)

  4. Detected-jump-error-correcting quantum codes, quantum error designs, and quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alber, G.; Mussinger, M.; Beth, Th.; Charnes, Ch.; Delgado, A.; Grassl, M.

    2003-01-01

    The recently introduced detected-jump-correcting quantum codes are capable of stabilizing qubit systems against spontaneous decay processes arising from couplings to statistically independent reservoirs. These embedded quantum codes exploit classical information about which qubit has emitted spontaneously and correspond to an active error-correcting code embedded in a passive error-correcting code. The construction of a family of one-detected-jump-error-correcting quantum codes is shown and the optimal redundancy, encoding, and recovery as well as general properties of detected-jump-error-correcting quantum codes are discussed. By the use of design theory, multiple-jump-error-correcting quantum codes can be constructed. The performance of one-jump-error-correcting quantum codes under nonideal conditions is studied numerically by simulating a quantum memory and Grover's algorithm

  5. Representation of heading direction in far and near head space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poljac, E.; Berg, A.V. van den

    2003-01-01

    Manipulation of objects around the head requires an accurate and stable internal representation of their locations in space, also during movements such as that of the eye or head. For far space, the representation of visual stimuli for goal-directed arm movements relies on retinal updating, if eye

  6. Medication Errors: New EU Good Practice Guide on Risk Minimisation and Error Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedecke, Thomas; Ord, Kathryn; Newbould, Victoria; Brosch, Sabine; Arlett, Peter

    2016-06-01

    A medication error is an unintended failure in the drug treatment process that leads to, or has the potential to lead to, harm to the patient. Reducing the risk of medication errors is a shared responsibility between patients, healthcare professionals, regulators and the pharmaceutical industry at all levels of healthcare delivery. In 2015, the EU regulatory network released a two-part good practice guide on medication errors to support both the pharmaceutical industry and regulators in the implementation of the changes introduced with the EU pharmacovigilance legislation. These changes included a modification of the 'adverse reaction' definition to include events associated with medication errors, and the requirement for national competent authorities responsible for pharmacovigilance in EU Member States to collaborate and exchange information on medication errors resulting in harm with national patient safety organisations. To facilitate reporting and learning from medication errors, a clear distinction has been made in the guidance between medication errors resulting in adverse reactions, medication errors without harm, intercepted medication errors and potential errors. This distinction is supported by an enhanced MedDRA(®) terminology that allows for coding all stages of the medication use process where the error occurred in addition to any clinical consequences. To better understand the causes and contributing factors, individual case safety reports involving an error should be followed-up with the primary reporter to gather information relevant for the conduct of root cause analysis where this may be appropriate. Such reports should also be summarised in periodic safety update reports and addressed in risk management plans. Any risk minimisation and prevention strategy for medication errors should consider all stages of a medicinal product's life-cycle, particularly the main sources and types of medication errors during product development. This article

  7. Reactor vessel head permanent shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankinson, M.F.; Leduc, R.J.; Richard, J.W.; Malandra, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described comprising: a nuclear reactor pressure vessel closure head; control rod drive mechanisms (CRDMs) disposed within the closure head so as to project vertically above the closure head; cooling air baffle means surrounding the control rod drive mechanisms for defining cooling air paths relative to the control rod drive mechanisms; means defined within the periphery of the closure head for accommodating fastening means for securing the closure head to its associated pressure vessel; lifting lugs fixedly secured to the closure head for facilitating lifting and lowering movements of the closure head relative to the pressure vessel; lift rods respectively operatively associated with the plurality of lifting lugs for transmitting load forces, developed during the lifting and lowering movements of the closure head, to the lifting lugs; upstanding radiation shield means interposed between the cooling air baffle means and the periphery of the enclosure head of shielding maintenance personnel operatively working upon the closure head fastening means from the effects of radiation which may emanate from the control rod drive mechanisms and the cooling air baffle means; and connecting systems respectively associated with each one of the lifting lugs and each one of the lifting rods for connecting each one of the lifting rods to a respective one of each one of the lifting lugs, and for simultaneously connecting a lower end portion of the upstanding radiation shield means to each one of the respective lifting lugs

  8. Graph SLAM correction for single scanner MLS forest data under boreal forest canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukko, Antero; Kaijaluoto, Risto; Kaartinen, Harri; Lehtola, Ville V.; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Hyyppä, Juha

    2017-10-01

    -processed GNSS-IMU trajectory for positional drift under mature boreal forest canopy conditions. The result shows that we can improve the internal conformity of the data significantly from 0.7 m to 1 cm based on tree stem feature location data. When the optimization result is compared to reference at plot level we reach down to 6 cm mean error in absolute tree stem locations. The approach can be generalized to any MLS point cloud data, and provides as such a remarkable contribution to harness MLS for practical forestry and high precision terrain and structural modeling in GNSS obstructed environments.

  9. Perceptual learning eases crowding by reducing recognition errors but not position errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ying-Zi; Yu, Cong; Zhang, Jun-Yun

    2015-08-01

    When an observer reports a letter flanked by additional letters in the visual periphery, the response errors (the crowding effect) may result from failure to recognize the target letter (recognition errors), from mislocating a correctly recognized target letter at a flanker location (target misplacement errors), or from reporting a flanker as the target letter (flanker substitution errors). Crowding can be reduced through perceptual learning. However, it is not known how perceptual learning operates to reduce crowding. In this study we trained observers with a partial-report task (Experiment 1), in which they reported the central target letter of a three-letter string presented in the visual periphery, or a whole-report task (Experiment 2), in which they reported all three letters in order. We then assessed the impact of training on recognition of both unflanked and flanked targets, with particular attention to how perceptual learning affected the types of errors. Our results show that training improved target recognition but not single-letter recognition, indicating that training indeed affected crowding. However, training did not reduce target misplacement errors or flanker substitution errors. This dissociation between target recognition and flanker substitution errors supports the view that flanker substitution may be more likely a by-product (due to response bias), rather than a cause, of crowding. Moreover, the dissociation is not consistent with hypothesized mechanisms of crowding that would predict reduced positional errors.

  10. Effect of low-frequency ambient magnetic fields on the control unit and RF head of a commercial SQUID magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    The control unit and RF head of the SHE model 330XRFSQUID system are shown to be sensitive to ambient ac magnetic fields below 1 HZ, which cause the appearance of false signals corresponding to a magnetometer signal of 0.000001 phi(0) per gauss of field applied. The control unit shows a sensitivity that is linear with frequency, suggesting that the signal is generated by Faraday induction. In contrast, the RF head response is independent of frequency and shows a strong second-harmonic coversion. This response may be due to the magnetic field sensitivity of the ferrite core inductor in the tuned amplifier of the RF head. These signals induced by ambient fields are a potential source of error in Stanford's Relativity Gyroscope experiment, which uses SQUID's on board a rolling satellite as part of the gyroscope readout system. The extent of the magnetic field sensitivity in these components necessitates the use of additional magnetic shielding aboard the satellite.

  11. Error suppression and error correction in adiabatic quantum computation: non-equilibrium dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarovar, Mohan; Young, Kevin C

    2013-01-01

    While adiabatic quantum computing (AQC) has some robustness to noise and decoherence, it is widely believed that encoding, error suppression and error correction will be required to scale AQC to large problem sizes. Previous works have established at least two different techniques for error suppression in AQC. In this paper we derive a model for describing the dynamics of encoded AQC and show that previous constructions for error suppression can be unified with this dynamical model. In addition, the model clarifies the mechanisms of error suppression and allows the identification of its weaknesses. In the second half of the paper, we utilize our description of non-equilibrium dynamics in encoded AQC to construct methods for error correction in AQC by cooling local degrees of freedom (qubits). While this is shown to be possible in principle, we also identify the key challenge to this approach: the requirement of high-weight Hamiltonians. Finally, we use our dynamical model to perform a simplified thermal stability analysis of concatenated-stabilizer-code encoded many-body systems for AQC or quantum memories. This work is a companion paper to ‘Error suppression and error correction in adiabatic quantum computation: techniques and challenges (2013 Phys. Rev. X 3 041013)’, which provides a quantum information perspective on the techniques and limitations of error suppression and correction in AQC. In this paper we couch the same results within a dynamical framework, which allows for a detailed analysis of the non-equilibrium dynamics of error suppression and correction in encoded AQC. (paper)

  12. Axis of eye rotation changes with head-pitch orientation during head impulses about earth-vertical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Americo A; Schubert, Michael C; Clendaniel, Richard A; Carey, John P; Della Santina, Charles C; Minor, Lloyd B; Zee, David S

    2006-06-01

    The goal of this study was to assess how the axis of head rotation, Listing's law, and eye position influence the axis of eye rotation during brief, rapid head rotations. We specifically asked how the axis of eye rotation during the initial angular vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) changed when the pitch orientation of the head relative to Earth-vertical was varied, but the initial position of the eye in the orbit and the orientation of Listing's plane with respect to the head were fixed. We measured three-dimensional eye and head rotation axes in eight normal humans using the search coil technique during head-and-trunk (whole-body) and head-on-trunk (head-only) "impulses" about an Earth-vertical axis. The head was initially oriented at one of five pitch angles (30 degrees nose down, 15 degrees nose down, 0 degrees, 15 degrees nose up, 30 degrees nose up). The fixation target was always aligned with the nasooccipital axis. Whole-body impulses were passive, unpredictable, manual, rotations with peak-amplitude of approximately 20 degrees , peak-velocity of approximately 80 degrees /s, and peak-acceleration of approximately 1000 degrees /s2. Head-only impulses were also passive, unpredictable, manual, rotations with peak-amplitude of approximately 20 degrees , peak-velocity of approximately 150 degrees /s, and peak-acceleration of approximately 3000 degrees /s2. During whole-body impulses, the axis of eye rotation tilted in the same direction, and by an amount proportional (0.51 +/- 0.09), to the starting pitch head orientation (P rotation could be predicted from vectorial summation of the gains (eye velocity/head velocity) obtained for rotations about the pure yaw and roll head axes. Thus, even when the orientation of Listing's plane and eye position in the orbit are fixed, the axis of eye rotation during the VOR reflects a compromise between the requirements of Listing's law and a perfectly compensatory VOR.

  13. Tumor-Volume Simulation During Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer Using a Four-Level Cell Population Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chvetsov, Alexei V.; Dong Lei; Palta, Jantinder R.; Amdur, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a fast computational radiobiologic model for quantitative analysis of tumor volume during fractionated radiotherapy. The tumor-volume model can be useful for optimizing image-guidance protocols and four-dimensional treatment simulations in proton therapy that is highly sensitive to physiologic changes. Methods: The analysis is performed using two approximations: (1) tumor volume is a linear function of total cell number and (2) tumor-cell population is separated into four subpopulations: oxygenated viable cells, oxygenated lethally damaged cells, hypoxic viable cells, and hypoxic lethally damaged cells. An exponential decay model is used for disintegration and removal of oxygenated lethally damaged cells from the tumor. Results: We tested our model on daily volumetric imaging data available for 14 head-and-neck cancer patients treated with an integrated computed tomography/linear accelerator system. A simulation based on the averaged values of radiobiologic parameters was able to describe eight cases during the entire treatment and four cases partially (50% of treatment time) with a maximum 20% error. The largest discrepancies between the model and clinical data were obtained for small tumors, which may be explained by larger errors in the manual tumor volume delineation procedure. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the change in gross tumor volume for head-and-neck cancer can be adequately described by a relatively simple radiobiologic model. In future research, we propose to study the variation of model parameters by fitting to clinical data for a cohort of patients with head-and-neck cancer and other tumors. The potential impact of other processes, like concurrent chemotherapy, on tumor volume should be evaluated.

  14. Modeling the Isentropic Head Value of Centrifugal Gas Compressor using Genetic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safiyullah Ferozkhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas compressor performance is vital in oil and gas industry because of the equipment criticality which requires continuous operations. Plant operators often face difficulties in predicting appropriate time for maintenance and would usually rely on time based predictive maintenance intervals as recommended by original equipment manufacturer (OEM. The objective of this work is to develop the computational model to find the isentropic head value using genetic programming. The isentropic head value is calculated from the OEM performance chart. Inlet mass flow rate and speed of the compressor are taken as the input value. The obtained results from the GP computational models show good agreement with experimental and target data with the average prediction error of 1.318%. The genetic programming computational model will assist machinery engineers to quantify performance deterioration of gas compressor and the results from this study will be then utilized to estimate future maintenance requirements based on the historical data. In general, this genetic programming modelling provides a powerful solution for gas compressor operators to realize predictive maintenance approach in their operations.

  15. Team errors: definition and taxonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasou, Kunihide; Reason, James

    1999-01-01

    In error analysis or error management, the focus is usually upon individuals who have made errors. In large complex systems, however, most people work in teams or groups. Considering this working environment, insufficient emphasis has been given to 'team errors'. This paper discusses the definition of team errors and its taxonomy. These notions are also applied to events that have occurred in the nuclear power industry, aviation industry and shipping industry. The paper also discusses the relations between team errors and Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs). As a result, the proposed definition and taxonomy are found to be useful in categorizing team errors. The analysis also reveals that deficiencies in communication, resource/task management, excessive authority gradient, excessive professional courtesy will cause team errors. Handling human errors as team errors provides an opportunity to reduce human errors

  16. The Errors of Our Ways: Understanding Error Representations in Cerebellar-Dependent Motor Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Laurentiu S; Streng, Martha L; Hewitt, Angela L; Ebner, Timothy J

    2016-04-01

    The cerebellum is essential for error-driven motor learning and is strongly implicated in detecting and correcting for motor errors. Therefore, elucidating how motor errors are represented in the cerebellum is essential in understanding cerebellar function, in general, and its role in motor learning, in particular. This review examines how motor errors are encoded in the cerebellar cortex in the context of a forward internal model that generates predictions about the upcoming movement and drives learning and adaptation. In this framework, sensory prediction errors, defined as the discrepancy between the predicted consequences of motor commands and the sensory feedback, are crucial for both on-line movement control and motor learning. While many studies support the dominant view that motor errors are encoded in the complex spike discharge of Purkinje cells, others have failed to relate complex spike activity with errors. Given these limitations, we review recent findings in the monkey showing that complex spike modulation is not necessarily required for motor learning or for simple spike adaptation. Also, new results demonstrate that the simple spike discharge provides continuous error signals that both lead and lag the actual movements in time, suggesting errors are encoded as both an internal prediction of motor commands and the actual sensory feedback. These dual error representations have opposing effects on simple spike discharge, consistent with the signals needed to generate sensory prediction errors used to update a forward internal model.

  17. Video Error Correction Using Steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, David L.; Mersereau, Russell M.

    2002-12-01

    The transmission of any data is always subject to corruption due to errors, but video transmission, because of its real time nature must deal with these errors without retransmission of the corrupted data. The error can be handled using forward error correction in the encoder or error concealment techniques in the decoder. This MPEG-2 compliant codec uses data hiding to transmit error correction information and several error concealment techniques in the decoder. The decoder resynchronizes more quickly with fewer errors than traditional resynchronization techniques. It also allows for perfect recovery of differentially encoded DCT-DC components and motion vectors. This provides for a much higher quality picture in an error-prone environment while creating an almost imperceptible degradation of the picture in an error-free environment.

  18. A Nonlinear Attitude Estimator for Attitude and Heading Reference Systems Based on MEMS Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yunlong; Soltani, Mohsen; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear attitude estimator is designed for an Attitude Heading and Reference System (AHRS) based on Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) sensors. The design process of the attitude estimator is stated with detail, and the equilibrium point of the estimator error model...... the problems in previous research works. Moreover, the estimation of MEMS gyroscope bias is also inclueded in this estimator. The designed nonlinear attitude estimator is firstly tested in simulation environment and then implemented in an AHRS hardware for further experiments. Finally, the attitude estimation...

  19. Rotational error in path integration: encoding and execution errors in angle reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrastil, Elizabeth R; Warren, William H

    2017-06-01

    Path integration is fundamental to human navigation. When a navigator leaves home on a complex outbound path, they are able to keep track of their approximate position and orientation and return to their starting location on a direct homebound path. However, there are several sources of error during path integration. Previous research has focused almost exclusively on encoding error-the error in registering the outbound path in memory. Here, we also consider execution error-the error in the response, such as turning and walking a homebound trajectory. In two experiments conducted in ambulatory virtual environments, we examined the contribution of execution error to the rotational component of path integration using angle reproduction tasks. In the reproduction tasks, participants rotated once and then rotated again to face the original direction, either reproducing the initial turn or turning through the supplementary angle. One outstanding difficulty in disentangling encoding and execution error during a typical angle reproduction task is that as the encoding angle increases, so does the required response angle. In Experiment 1, we dissociated these two variables by asking participants to report each encoding angle using two different responses: by turning to walk on a path parallel to the initial facing direction in the same (reproduction) or opposite (supplementary angle) direction. In Experiment 2, participants reported the encoding angle by turning both rightward and leftward onto a path parallel to the initial facing direction, over a larger range of angles. The results suggest that execution error, not encoding error, is the predominant source of error in angular path integration. These findings also imply that the path integrator uses an intrinsic (action-scaled) rather than an extrinsic (objective) metric.

  20. Video Error Correction Using Steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robie David L

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of any data is always subject to corruption due to errors, but video transmission, because of its real time nature must deal with these errors without retransmission of the corrupted data. The error can be handled using forward error correction in the encoder or error concealment techniques in the decoder. This MPEG-2 compliant codec uses data hiding to transmit error correction information and several error concealment techniques in the decoder. The decoder resynchronizes more quickly with fewer errors than traditional resynchronization techniques. It also allows for perfect recovery of differentially encoded DCT-DC components and motion vectors. This provides for a much higher quality picture in an error-prone environment while creating an almost imperceptible degradation of the picture in an error-free environment.

  1. Part two: Error propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Topics covered in this chapter include a discussion of exact results as related to nuclear materials management and accounting in nuclear facilities; propagation of error for a single measured value; propagation of error for several measured values; error propagation for materials balances; and an application of error propagation to an example of uranium hexafluoride conversion process

  2. Low Cost Integrated Navigation System for Unmanned Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Changsong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Large errors of low-cost MEMS inertial measurement unit (MIMU lead to huge navigation errors, even wrong navigation information. An integrated navigation system for unmanned vessel is proposed. It consists of a low-cost MIMU and Doppler velocity sonar (DVS. This paper presents an integrated navigation method, to improve the performance of navigation system. The integrated navigation system is tested using simulation and semi-physical simulation experiments, whose results show that attitude, velocity and position accuracy has improved awfully, giving exactly accurate navigation results. By means of the combination of low-cost MIMU and DVS, the proposed system is able to overcome fast drift problems of the low cost IMU.

  3. Error Detection-Based Model to Assess Educational Outcomes in Crisis Resource Management Training: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhabel, Sarah; Kay-Rivest, Emily; Nhan, Carol; Bank, Ilana; Nugus, Peter; Fisher, Rachel; Nguyen, Lily Hp

    2017-06-01

    Otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OTL-HNS) residents face a variety of difficult, high-stress situations, which may occur early in their training. Since these events occur infrequently, simulation-based learning has become an important part of residents' training and is already well established in fields such as anesthesia and emergency medicine. In the domain of OTL-HNS, it is gradually gaining in popularity. Crisis Resource Management (CRM), a program adapted from the aviation industry, aims to improve outcomes of crisis situations by attempting to mitigate human errors. Some examples of CRM principles include cultivating situational awareness; promoting proper use of available resources; and improving rapid decision making, particularly in high-acuity, low-frequency clinical situations. Our pilot project sought to integrate CRM principles into an airway simulation course for OTL-HNS residents, but most important, it evaluated whether learning objectives were met, through use of a novel error identification model.

  4. Head trauma and CT with special reference to diagnosis of complications of head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samejima, Kanji; Yoshii, Nobuo; Tobari, Chitose

    1979-01-01

    Cases in which CT was useful for the diagnosis of complications of head trauma were reported. First, complications of head trauma were given an outline, and then, cases of protrusion of the brain, traumatic pneumocephalus, and cerebro-vascular disorders caused by head trauma were mentioned. (Tsunoda, M.)

  5. Prediction-error of Prediction Error (PPE)-based Reversible Data Hiding

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Han-Zhou; Wang, Hong-Xia; Shi, Yun-Qing

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel reversible data hiding (RDH) algorithm for gray-scaled images, in which the prediction-error of prediction error (PPE) of a pixel is used to carry the secret data. In the proposed method, the pixels to be embedded are firstly predicted with their neighboring pixels to obtain the corresponding prediction errors (PEs). Then, by exploiting the PEs of the neighboring pixels, the prediction of the PEs of the pixels can be determined. And, a sorting technique based on th...

  6. Exploding head syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, Brian A

    2014-12-01

    Exploding head syndrome is characterized by the perception of abrupt, loud noises when going to sleep or waking up. They are usually painless, but associated with fear and distress. In spite of the fact that its characteristic symptomatology was first described approximately 150 y ago, exploding head syndrome has received relatively little empirical and clinical attention. Therefore, a comprehensive review of the scientific literature using Medline, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and PubMed was undertaken. After first discussing the history, prevalence, and associated features, the available polysomnography data and five main etiological theories for exploding head syndrome are summarized. None of these theories has yet reached dominance in the field. Next, the various methods used to assess and treat exploding head syndrome are discussed, as well as the limited outcome data. Finally, recommendations for future measure construction, treatment options, and differential diagnosis are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Diagnostic errors in pediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, George A.; Voss, Stephan D.; Melvin, Patrice R.; Graham, Dionne A.

    2011-01-01

    Little information is known about the frequency, types and causes of diagnostic errors in imaging children. Our goals were to describe the patterns and potential etiologies of diagnostic error in our subspecialty. We reviewed 265 cases with clinically significant diagnostic errors identified during a 10-year period. Errors were defined as a diagnosis that was delayed, wrong or missed; they were classified as perceptual, cognitive, system-related or unavoidable; and they were evaluated by imaging modality and level of training of the physician involved. We identified 484 specific errors in the 265 cases reviewed (mean:1.8 errors/case). Most discrepancies involved staff (45.5%). Two hundred fifty-eight individual cognitive errors were identified in 151 cases (mean = 1.7 errors/case). Of these, 83 cases (55%) had additional perceptual or system-related errors. One hundred sixty-five perceptual errors were identified in 165 cases. Of these, 68 cases (41%) also had cognitive or system-related errors. Fifty-four system-related errors were identified in 46 cases (mean = 1.2 errors/case) of which all were multi-factorial. Seven cases were unavoidable. Our study defines a taxonomy of diagnostic errors in a large academic pediatric radiology practice and suggests that most are multi-factorial in etiology. Further study is needed to define effective strategies for improvement. (orig.)

  8. Computation of Surface Laplacian for tri-polar ring electrodes on high-density realistic geometry head model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junwei Ma; Han Yuan; Sunderam, Sridhar; Besio, Walter; Lei Ding

    2017-07-01

    Neural activity inside the human brain generate electrical signals that can be detected on the scalp. Electroencephalograph (EEG) is one of the most widely utilized techniques helping physicians and researchers to diagnose and understand various brain diseases. Due to its nature, EEG signals have very high temporal resolution but poor spatial resolution. To achieve higher spatial resolution, a novel tri-polar concentric ring electrode (TCRE) has been developed to directly measure Surface Laplacian (SL). The objective of the present study is to accurately calculate SL for TCRE based on a realistic geometry head model. A locally dense mesh was proposed to represent the head surface, where the local dense parts were to match the small structural components in TCRE. Other areas without dense mesh were used for the purpose of reducing computational load. We conducted computer simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed mesh and evaluated possible numerical errors as compared with a low-density model. Finally, with achieved accuracy, we presented the computed forward lead field of SL for TCRE for the first time in a realistic geometry head model and demonstrated that it has better spatial resolution than computed SL from classic EEG recordings.

  9. Uncertainties in effective dose estimates of adult CT head scans: The effect of head size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Kent J.; Bibbo, Giovanni; Pattison, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study is an extension of a previous study where the uncertainties in effective dose estimates from adult CT head scans were calculated using four CT effective dose estimation methods, three of which were computer programs (CT-EXPO, CTDOSIMETRY, and IMPACTDOSE) and one that involved the dose length product (DLP). However, that study did not include the uncertainty contribution due to variations in head sizes. Methods: The uncertainties due to head size variations were estimated by first using the computer program data to calculate doses to small and large heads. These doses were then compared with doses calculated for the phantom heads used by the computer programs. An uncertainty was then assigned based on the difference between the small and large head doses and the doses of the phantom heads. Results: The uncertainties due to head size variations alone were found to be between 4% and 26% depending on the method used and the patient gender. When these uncertainties were included with the results of the previous study, the overall uncertainties in effective dose estimates (stated at the 95% confidence interval) were 20%-31% (CT-EXPO), 15%-30% (CTDOSIMETRY), 20%-36% (IMPACTDOSE), and 31%-40% (DLP). Conclusions: For the computer programs, the lower overall uncertainties were still achieved when measured values of CT dose index were used rather than tabulated values. For DLP dose estimates, head size variations made the largest (for males) and second largest (for females) contributions to effective dose uncertainty. An improvement in the uncertainty of the DLP method dose estimates will be achieved if head size variation can be taken into account.

  10. Uncertainties in effective dose estimates of adult CT head scans: The effect of head size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Kent J.; Bibbo, Giovanni; Pattison, John E. [Department of Medical Physics, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia 5000 (Australia) and School of Electrical and Information Engineering (Applied Physics), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, South Australia 5095 (Australia); Division of Medical Imaging, Women' s and Children' s Hospital, North Adelaide, South Australia 5006 (Australia) and School of Electrical and Information Engineering (Applied Physics), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, South Australia 5095 (Australia); School of Electrical and Information Engineering (Applied Physics), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, South Australia 5095 (Australia)

    2009-09-15

    Purpose: This study is an extension of a previous study where the uncertainties in effective dose estimates from adult CT head scans were calculated using four CT effective dose estimation methods, three of which were computer programs (CT-EXPO, CTDOSIMETRY, and IMPACTDOSE) and one that involved the dose length product (DLP). However, that study did not include the uncertainty contribution due to variations in head sizes. Methods: The uncertainties due to head size variations were estimated by first using the computer program data to calculate doses to small and large heads. These doses were then compared with doses calculated for the phantom heads used by the computer programs. An uncertainty was then assigned based on the difference between the small and large head doses and the doses of the phantom heads. Results: The uncertainties due to head size variations alone were found to be between 4% and 26% depending on the method used and the patient gender. When these uncertainties were included with the results of the previous study, the overall uncertainties in effective dose estimates (stated at the 95% confidence interval) were 20%-31% (CT-EXPO), 15%-30% (CTDOSIMETRY), 20%-36% (IMPACTDOSE), and 31%-40% (DLP). Conclusions: For the computer programs, the lower overall uncertainties were still achieved when measured values of CT dose index were used rather than tabulated values. For DLP dose estimates, head size variations made the largest (for males) and second largest (for females) contributions to effective dose uncertainty. An improvement in the uncertainty of the DLP method dose estimates will be achieved if head size variation can be taken into account.

  11. Head Impact Laboratory (HIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HIL uses testing devices to evaluate vehicle interior energy attenuating (EA) technologies for mitigating head injuries resulting from head impacts during mine/...

  12. Fault Diagnosis of a Reconfigurable Crawling–Rolling Robot Based on Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Elangovan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As robots begin to perform jobs autonomously, with minimal or no human intervention, a new challenge arises: robots also need to autonomously detect errors and recover from faults. In this paper, we present a Support Vector Machine (SVM-based fault diagnosis system for a bio-inspired reconfigurable robot named Scorpio. The diagnosis system needs to detect and classify faults while Scorpio uses its crawling and rolling locomotion modes. Specifically, we classify between faulty and non-faulty conditions by analyzing onboard Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU sensor data. The data capture nine different locomotion gaits, which include rolling and crawling modes, at three different speeds. Statistical methods are applied to extract features and to reduce the dimensionality of original IMU sensor data features. These statistical features were given as inputs for training and testing. Additionally, the c-Support Vector Classification (c-SVC and nu-SVC models of SVM, and their fault classification accuracies, were compared. The results show that the proposed SVM approach can be used to autonomously diagnose locomotion gait faults while the reconfigurable robot is in operation.

  13. A NOVEL SUPPORT DEVICE FOR HEAD IMMOBILIZATION DURING RADIATION THERAPY THAT IS APPLICABLE TO BOTH CATS AND DOGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Yuki; Maruo, Takuya; Fukuyama, Yasuhiro; Kawarai, Shinpei; Shida, Takuo; Nakayama, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    Repeatable head immobilization is important for minimizing positioning error during radiation therapy for veterinary patients with head neoplasms. The purpose of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to describe a novel technique for head immobilization (Device II) and compare this technique with a previously described technique (Device I). Device II provided additional support by incorporating three teeth (vs. two teeth with Device I). Between 2011 and 2013, both devices were applied in clinically affected cats (Device I, n = 17; Device II, n = 11) and dogs (Device I, n = 85; Device II, n = 22) of various breeds and sizes. The following data were recorded for each included patient: variability in the angle of the skull (roll, yaw, and pitch), coordinates of the isocenter, and distance from the reference mark to the tumor. Devices I and II differed for skull angle variability during the treatment of dogs (roll, P = 0.0007; yaw, P = 0.0018; pitch, P = 0.0384) and for yaw of during the treatment of cats (P patients. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  14. Multi-head Watson-Crick automata

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Kingshuk; Ray, Kumar Sankar

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by multi-head finite automata and Watson-Crick automata in this paper, we introduce new structure namely multi-head Watson-Crick automata where we replace the single tape of multi-head finite automaton by a DNA double strand. The content of the second tape is determined using a complementarity relation similar to Watson-Crick complementarity relation. We establish the superiority of our model over multi-head finite automata and also show that both the deterministic and non-determinis...

  15. Initial clinical experience with an interactive, video-based patient-positioning system for head and neck treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.; Hadley, Scott W.; Milliken, Barrett D.; Pelizzari, Charles A.; Haraf, Daniel J.; Nguyen, Ai; Chen, George T.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate an interactive, video-based system for positioning head and neck patients. Materials and Methods: System hardware includes two B and W CCD cameras (mounted to provide left-lateral and AP-inferior views), zoom lenses, and a PC equipped with a frame grabber. Custom software is used to acquire and archive video images, as well as to display real-time subtraction images revealing patient misalignment in multiple views. Live subtraction images are obtained by subtracting a reference image (i.e., an image of the patient in the correct position) from real-time video. As seen in the figure, darker regions of the subtraction image indicate where the patient is currently, while lighter regions indicate where the patient should be. Adjustments in the patient's position are updated and displayed in less than 0.07s, allowing the therapist to interactively detect and correct setup discrepancies. Patients selected for study are treated BID and immobilized with conventional litecast straps attached to a baseframe which is registered to the treatment couch. Morning setups are performed by aligning litecast marks and patient anatomy to treatment room lasers. Afternoon setups begin with the same procedure, and then live subtraction images are used to fine-tune the setup. At morning and afternoon setups, video images and verification films are taken after positioning is complete. These are visually registered offline to determine the distribution of setup errors per patient, with and without video assistance. Results: Without video assistance, the standard deviation of setup errors typically ranged from 5 to 7mm and was patient-dependent. With video assistance, standard deviations are reduced to 1 to 4mm, with the result depending on patient coopertiveness and the length of time spent fine-tuning the setups. At current levels of experience, 3 to 4mm accuracy is easily achieved in about 30s, while 1 to 3mm accuracy is achieved in about 1 to 2 minutes. Studies

  16. Laboratory errors and patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miligy, Dawlat A

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory data are extensively used in medical practice; consequently, laboratory errors have a tremendous impact on patient safety. Therefore, programs designed to identify and reduce laboratory errors, as well as, setting specific strategies are required to minimize these errors and improve patient safety. The purpose of this paper is to identify part of the commonly encountered laboratory errors throughout our practice in laboratory work, their hazards on patient health care and some measures and recommendations to minimize or to eliminate these errors. Recording the encountered laboratory errors during May 2008 and their statistical evaluation (using simple percent distribution) have been done in the department of laboratory of one of the private hospitals in Egypt. Errors have been classified according to the laboratory phases and according to their implication on patient health. Data obtained out of 1,600 testing procedure revealed that the total number of encountered errors is 14 tests (0.87 percent of total testing procedures). Most of the encountered errors lay in the pre- and post-analytic phases of testing cycle (representing 35.7 and 50 percent, respectively, of total errors). While the number of test errors encountered in the analytic phase represented only 14.3 percent of total errors. About 85.7 percent of total errors were of non-significant implication on patients health being detected before test reports have been submitted to the patients. On the other hand, the number of test errors that have been already submitted to patients and reach the physician represented 14.3 percent of total errors. Only 7.1 percent of the errors could have an impact on patient diagnosis. The findings of this study were concomitant with those published from the USA and other countries. This proves that laboratory problems are universal and need general standardization and bench marking measures. Original being the first data published from Arabic countries that

  17. 45 CFR 1308.21 - Parent participation and transition of children into Head Start and from Head Start to public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... into Head Start and from Head Start to public school. 1308.21 Section 1308.21 Public Welfare... AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM HEAD START... Standards § 1308.21 Parent participation and transition of children into Head Start and from Head Start to...

  18. Anatomical Reproducibility of a Head Model Molded by a Three-dimensional Printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Kosuke; Nemoto, Masaaki; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Okonogi, Shinichi; Nomoto, Jun; Harada, Naoyuki; Sugo, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Chikao

    2015-01-01

    We prepared rapid prototyping models of heads with unruptured cerebral aneurysm based on image data of computed tomography angiography (CTA) using a three-dimensional (3D) printer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical reproducibility and accuracy of these models by comparison with the CTA images on a monitor. The subjects were 22 patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysm who underwent preoperative CTA. Reproducibility of the microsurgical anatomy of skull bone and arteries, the length and thickness of the main arteries, and the size of cerebral aneurysm were compared between the CTA image and rapid prototyping model. The microsurgical anatomy and arteries were favorably reproduced, apart from a few minute regions, in the rapid prototyping models. No significant difference was noted in the measured lengths of the main arteries between the CTA image and rapid prototyping model, but errors were noted in their thickness (p printer. It was concluded that these models are useful tools for neurosurgical simulation. The thickness of the main arteries and size of cerebral aneurysm should be comprehensively judged including other neuroimaging in consideration of errors.

  19. Errors in Neonatology

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Boldrini; Rosa T. Scaramuzzo; Armando Cuttano

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Danger and errors are inherent in human activities. In medical practice errors can lean to adverse events for patients. Mass media echo the whole scenario. Methods: We reviewed recent published papers in PubMed database to focus on the evidence and management of errors in medical practice in general and in Neonatology in particular. We compared the results of the literature with our specific experience in Nina Simulation Centre (Pisa, Italy). Results: In Neonatology the main err...

  20. Eye-based head gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbegi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan; Pederson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze...... mobile phone screens. The user study shows that the method detects a set of defined gestures reliably.......A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze...

  1. Implementation of random set-up errors in Monte Carlo calculated dynamic IMRT treatment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapleton, S; Zavgorodni, S; Popescu, I A; Beckham, W A

    2005-01-01

    The fluence-convolution method for incorporating random set-up errors (RSE) into the Monte Carlo treatment planning dose calculations was previously proposed by Beckham et al, and it was validated for open field radiotherapy treatments. This study confirms the applicability of the fluence-convolution method for dynamic intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) dose calculations and evaluates the impact of set-up uncertainties on a clinical IMRT dose distribution. BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc codes were used for Monte Carlo calculations. A sliding window IMRT delivery was simulated using a dynamic multi-leaf collimator (DMLC) transport model developed by Keall et al. The dose distributions were benchmarked for dynamic IMRT fields using extended dose range (EDR) film, accumulating the dose from 16 subsequent fractions shifted randomly. Agreement of calculated and measured relative dose values was well within statistical uncertainty. A clinical seven field sliding window IMRT head and neck treatment was then simulated and the effects of random set-up errors (standard deviation of 2 mm) were evaluated. The dose-volume histograms calculated in the PTV with and without corrections for RSE showed only small differences indicating a reduction of the volume of high dose region due to set-up errors. As well, it showed that adequate coverage of the PTV was maintained when RSE was incorporated. Slice-by-slice comparison of the dose distributions revealed differences of up to 5.6%. The incorporation of set-up errors altered the position of the hot spot in the plan. This work demonstrated validity of implementation of the fluence-convolution method to dynamic IMRT Monte Carlo dose calculations. It also showed that accounting for the set-up errors could be essential for correct identification of the value and position of the hot spot

  2. Implementation of random set-up errors in Monte Carlo calculated dynamic IMRT treatment plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, S.; Zavgorodni, S.; Popescu, I. A.; Beckham, W. A.

    2005-02-01

    The fluence-convolution method for incorporating random set-up errors (RSE) into the Monte Carlo treatment planning dose calculations was previously proposed by Beckham et al, and it was validated for open field radiotherapy treatments. This study confirms the applicability of the fluence-convolution method for dynamic intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) dose calculations and evaluates the impact of set-up uncertainties on a clinical IMRT dose distribution. BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc codes were used for Monte Carlo calculations. A sliding window IMRT delivery was simulated using a dynamic multi-leaf collimator (DMLC) transport model developed by Keall et al. The dose distributions were benchmarked for dynamic IMRT fields using extended dose range (EDR) film, accumulating the dose from 16 subsequent fractions shifted randomly. Agreement of calculated and measured relative dose values was well within statistical uncertainty. A clinical seven field sliding window IMRT head and neck treatment was then simulated and the effects of random set-up errors (standard deviation of 2 mm) were evaluated. The dose-volume histograms calculated in the PTV with and without corrections for RSE showed only small differences indicating a reduction of the volume of high dose region due to set-up errors. As well, it showed that adequate coverage of the PTV was maintained when RSE was incorporated. Slice-by-slice comparison of the dose distributions revealed differences of up to 5.6%. The incorporation of set-up errors altered the position of the hot spot in the plan. This work demonstrated validity of implementation of the fluence-convolution method to dynamic IMRT Monte Carlo dose calculations. It also showed that accounting for the set-up errors could be essential for correct identification of the value and position of the hot spot.

  3. Errors in abdominal computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, S.; Marting, I.; Dixon, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    Sixty-nine patients are presented in whom a substantial error was made on the initial abdominal computed tomography report. Certain features of these errors have been analysed. In 30 (43.5%) a lesion was simply not recognised (error of observation); in 39 (56.5%) the wrong conclusions were drawn about the nature of normal or abnormal structures (error of interpretation). The 39 errors of interpretation were more complex; in 7 patients an abnormal structure was noted but interpreted as normal, whereas in four a normal structure was thought to represent a lesion. Other interpretive errors included those where the wrong cause for a lesion had been ascribed (24 patients), and those where the abnormality was substantially under-reported (4 patients). Various features of these errors are presented and discussed. Errors were made just as often in relation to small and large lesions. Consultants made as many errors as senior registrar radiologists. It is like that dual reporting is the best method of avoiding such errors and, indeed, this is widely practised in our unit. (Author). 9 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  4. Corrected Four-Sphere Head Model for EEG Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Næss, Solveig; Chintaluri, Chaitanya; Ness, Torbjørn V; Dale, Anders M; Einevoll, Gaute T; Wójcik, Daniel K

    2017-01-01

    The EEG signal is generated by electrical brain cell activity, often described in terms of current dipoles. By applying EEG forward models we can compute the contribution from such dipoles to the electrical potential recorded by EEG electrodes. Forward models are key both for generating understanding and intuition about the neural origin of EEG signals as well as inverse modeling, i.e., the estimation of the underlying dipole sources from recorded EEG signals. Different models of varying complexity and biological detail are used in the field. One such analytical model is the four-sphere model which assumes a four-layered spherical head where the layers represent brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), skull, and scalp, respectively. While conceptually clear, the mathematical expression for the electric potentials in the four-sphere model is cumbersome, and we observed that the formulas presented in the literature contain errors. Here, we derive and present the correct analytical formulas with a detailed derivation. A useful application of the analytical four-sphere model is that it can serve as ground truth to test the accuracy of numerical schemes such as the Finite Element Method (FEM). We performed FEM simulations of the four-sphere head model and showed that they were consistent with the corrected analytical formulas. For future reference we provide scripts for computing EEG potentials with the four-sphere model, both by means of the correct analytical formulas and numerical FEM simulations.

  5. Corrected Four-Sphere Head Model for EEG Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solveig Næss

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The EEG signal is generated by electrical brain cell activity, often described in terms of current dipoles. By applying EEG forward models we can compute the contribution from such dipoles to the electrical potential recorded by EEG electrodes. Forward models are key both for generating understanding and intuition about the neural origin of EEG signals as well as inverse modeling, i.e., the estimation of the underlying dipole sources from recorded EEG signals. Different models of varying complexity and biological detail are used in the field. One such analytical model is the four-sphere model which assumes a four-layered spherical head where the layers represent brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, skull, and scalp, respectively. While conceptually clear, the mathematical expression for the electric potentials in the four-sphere model is cumbersome, and we observed that the formulas presented in the literature contain errors. Here, we derive and present the correct analytical formulas with a detailed derivation. A useful application of the analytical four-sphere model is that it can serve as ground truth to test the accuracy of numerical schemes such as the Finite Element Method (FEM. We performed FEM simulations of the four-sphere head model and showed that they were consistent with the corrected analytical formulas. For future reference we provide scripts for computing EEG potentials with the four-sphere model, both by means of the correct analytical formulas and numerical FEM simulations.

  6. Scaling prediction errors to reward variability benefits error-driven learning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederen, Kelly M J; Schultz, Wolfram

    2015-09-01

    Effective error-driven learning requires individuals to adapt learning to environmental reward variability. The adaptive mechanism may involve decays in learning rate across subsequent trials, as shown previously, and rescaling of reward prediction errors. The present study investigated the influence of prediction error scaling and, in particular, the consequences for learning performance. Participants explicitly predicted reward magnitudes that were drawn from different probability distributions with specific standard deviations. By fitting the data with reinforcement learning models, we found scaling of prediction errors, in addition to the learning rate decay shown previously. Importantly, the prediction error scaling was closely related to learning performance, defined as accuracy in predicting the mean of reward distributions, across individual participants. In addition, participants who scaled prediction errors relative to standard deviation also presented with more similar performance for different standard deviations, indicating that increases in standard deviation did not substantially decrease "adapters'" accuracy in predicting the means of reward distributions. However, exaggerated scaling beyond the standard deviation resulted in impaired performance. Thus efficient adaptation makes learning more robust to changing variability. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Comparing Absolute Error with Squared Error for Evaluating Empirical Models of Continuous Variables: Compositions, Implications, and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J.

    2014-12-01

    Reducing modeling error is often a major concern of empirical geophysical models. However, modeling errors can be defined in different ways: When the response variable is continuous, the most commonly used metrics are squared (SQ) and absolute (ABS) errors. For most applications, ABS error is the more natural, but SQ error is mathematically more tractable, so is often used as a substitute with little scientific justification. Existing literature has not thoroughly investigated the implications of using SQ error in place of ABS error, especially not geospatially. This study compares the two metrics through the lens of bias-variance decomposition (BVD). BVD breaks down the expected modeling error of each model evaluation point into bias (systematic error), variance (model sensitivity), and noise (observation instability). It offers a way to probe the composition of various error metrics. I analytically derived the BVD of ABS error and compared it with the well-known SQ error BVD, and found that not only the two metrics measure the characteristics of the probability distributions of modeling errors differently, but also the effects of these characteristics on the overall expected error are different. Most notably, under SQ error all bias, variance, and noise increase expected error, while under ABS error certain parts of the error components reduce expected error. Since manipulating these subtractive terms is a legitimate way to reduce expected modeling error, SQ error can never capture the complete story embedded in ABS error. I then empirically compared the two metrics with a supervised remote sensing model for mapping surface imperviousness. Pair-wise spatially-explicit comparison for each error component showed that SQ error overstates all error components in comparison to ABS error, especially variance-related terms. Hence, substituting ABS error with SQ error makes model performance appear worse than it actually is, and the analyst would more likely accept a

  8. Heading for a fall? Management of head injury in infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Williamson, M

    2010-09-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest reasons for infants (< 1 year) to attend the Emergency Department (ED). Clinical management varies considerably and concern about non accidental injury results in a high admission rate in some hospitals. Information was obtained on 103 children under one year of age presenting to the ED with head injury in a prospective study. The average age was 6.7 months and 57% of patients were male. Twenty eight babies had skull x rays with 1 skull fracture diagnosed. None required CT brain scan. Ninety eight (94%) were discharged home from the ED. There were no unplanned returns, readmissions or adverse events. The incidence of traumatic brain injury in children under one year of age presenting with head injury is low and the majority can be safely discharged home.

  9. Abnormal error monitoring in math-anxious individuals: evidence from error-related brain potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Suárez-Pellicioni

    Full Text Available This study used event-related brain potentials to investigate whether math anxiety is related to abnormal error monitoring processing. Seventeen high math-anxious (HMA and seventeen low math-anxious (LMA individuals were presented with a numerical and a classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of trait or state anxiety. We found enhanced error-related negativity (ERN in the HMA group when subjects committed an error on the numerical Stroop task, but not on the classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of the correct-related negativity component (CRN, the error positivity component (Pe, classical behavioral measures or post-error measures. The amplitude of the ERN was negatively related to participants' math anxiety scores, showing a more negative amplitude as the score increased. Moreover, using standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA we found greater activation of the insula in errors on a numerical task as compared to errors in a non-numerical task only for the HMA group. The results were interpreted according to the motivational significance theory of the ERN.

  10. Heuristic errors in clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylander, Melanie; Guerrasio, Jeannette

    2016-08-01

    Errors in clinical reasoning contribute to patient morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine the types of heuristic errors made by third-year medical students and first-year residents. This study surveyed approximately 150 clinical educators inquiring about the types of heuristic errors they observed in third-year medical students and first-year residents. Anchoring and premature closure were the two most common errors observed amongst third-year medical students and first-year residents. There was no difference in the types of errors observed in the two groups. Errors in clinical reasoning contribute to patient morbidity and mortality Clinical educators perceived that both third-year medical students and first-year residents committed similar heuristic errors, implying that additional medical knowledge and clinical experience do not affect the types of heuristic errors made. Further work is needed to help identify methods that can be used to reduce heuristic errors early in a clinician's education. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Attitudes of Mashhad Public Hospital's Nurses and Midwives toward the Causes and Rates of Medical Errors Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarakabadi, Sedigheh Sedigh; Ebrahimipour, Hosein; Najar, Ali Vafaie; Janghorban, Roksana; Azarkish, Fatemeh

    2017-03-01

    Patient's safety is one of the main objective in healthcare services; however medical errors are a prevalent potential occurrence for the patients in treatment systems. Medical errors lead to an increase in mortality rate of the patients and challenges such as prolonging of the inpatient period in the hospitals and increased cost. Controlling the medical errors is very important, because these errors besides being costly, threaten the patient's safety. To evaluate the attitudes of nurses and midwives toward the causes and rates of medical errors reporting. It was a cross-sectional observational study. The study population was 140 midwives and nurses employed in Mashhad Public Hospitals. The data collection was done through Goldstone 2001 revised questionnaire. SPSS 11.5 software was used for data analysis. To analyze data, descriptive and inferential analytic statistics were used. Standard deviation and relative frequency distribution, descriptive statistics were used for calculation of the mean and the results were adjusted as tables and charts. Chi-square test was used for the inferential analysis of the data. Most of midwives and nurses (39.4%) were in age range of 25 to 34 years and the lowest percentage (2.2%) were in age range of 55-59 years. The highest average of medical errors was related to employees with three-four years of work experience, while the lowest average was related to those with one-two years of work experience. The highest average of medical errors was during the evening shift, while the lowest were during the night shift. Three main causes of medical errors were considered: illegibile physician prescription orders, similarity of names in different drugs and nurse fatigueness. The most important causes for medical errors from the viewpoints of nurses and midwives are illegible physician's order, drug name similarity with other drugs, nurse's fatigueness and damaged label or packaging of the drug, respectively. Head nurse feedback, peer

  12. Awareness of technology-induced errors and processes for identifying and preventing such errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellwood, Paule; Borycki, Elizabeth M; Kushniruk, Andre W

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to determine if organizations working with health information technology are aware of technology-induced errors and how they are addressing and preventing them. The purpose of this study was to: a) determine the degree of technology-induced error awareness in various Canadian healthcare organizations, and b) identify those processes and procedures that are currently in place to help address, manage, and prevent technology-induced errors. We identified a lack of technology-induced error awareness among participants. Participants identified there was a lack of well-defined procedures in place for reporting technology-induced errors, addressing them when they arise, and preventing them.

  13. Brush head composition, wear profile, and cleaning efficacy: an assessment of three electric brush heads using in vitro methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Eva; Meyners, Michael; Markgraf, Dirk; Stoerkel, Ulrich; von Koppenfels, Roxana; Adam, Ralf; Soukup, Martin; Wehrbein, Heinrich; Erbe, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate a current store brand (SB) brush head for composition/physical characteristics, Wear Index (WI), and cleaning efficacy versus the previous SB brush head refill design (SB control) and the Oral-B Precision Clean brush head (positive control, PC). This research consisted of three parts: 1) Analytical analysis using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry to evaluate the chemical composition of the current SB brush head bristles relative to the SB control. In addition, physical parameters such as bristle count and diameter were determined. 2) Wear Index (WI) investigation to determine the Wear Index scores of in vitro-aged brush heads at four weeks (one month) and 13 weeks (three months) by a trained investigator. To "age" the brush heads, a robot system was used as a new alternative in vitro method to simulate aging by consumer use. 3) Robot testing to determine the cleaning performance of in vitro-aged brush heads, comparing one month-aged current SB brush heads with the SB control (one and three months-aged) and the PC brush heads (three months-aged) in a standardized fashion. 1) FT-IR analysis revealed that the chemical composition of the current and control SB refill brush heads is identical. In terms of physical parameters, the current SB brush head has 12% more bristles and a slightly oval brush head compared to the round brush head of the SB control. 2) Wear Index analysis showed there was no difference in the one month-aged current SB brush head versus the one month-aged SB control (1.67 vs. 1.50, p = 0.65) or versus the three months-aged PC brush head (1.67 vs. 1.50, p = 0.65). The one month-aged current SB brush head demonstrated statistically significantly less wear than the three months-aged SB control (1.67 vs. 2.67, p = 0.01). 3) Analysis of cleaning efficacy shows that the one month-aged current SB brush head had improved cleaning performance over the one month-aged SB control brush head (p < 0

  14. An Inertial and Optical Sensor Fusion Approach for Six Degree-of-Freedom Pose Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Changyu; Kazanzides, Peter; Sen, Hasan Tutkun; Kim, Sungmin; Liu, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Optical tracking provides relatively high accuracy over a large workspace but requires line-of-sight between the camera and the markers, which may be difficult to maintain in actual applications. In contrast, inertial sensing does not require line-of-sight but is subject to drift, which may cause large cumulative errors, especially during the measurement of position. To handle cases where some or all of the markers are occluded, this paper proposes an inertial and optical sensor fusion approach in which the bias of the inertial sensors is estimated when the optical tracker provides full six degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) pose information. As long as the position of at least one marker can be tracked by the optical system, the 3-DOF position can be combined with the orientation estimated from the inertial measurements to recover the full 6-DOF pose information. When all the markers are occluded, the position tracking relies on the inertial sensors that are bias-corrected by the optical tracking system. Experiments are performed with an augmented reality head-mounted display (ARHMD) that integrates an optical tracking system (OTS) and inertial measurement unit (IMU). Experimental results show that under partial occlusion conditions, the root mean square errors (RMSE) of orientation and position are 0.04° and 0.134 mm, and under total occlusion conditions for 1 s, the orientation and position RMSE are 0.022° and 0.22 mm, respectively. Thus, the proposed sensor fusion approach can provide reliable 6-DOF pose under long-term partial occlusion and short-term total occlusion conditions. PMID:26184191

  15. Einstein's error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterflood, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    In discussing Einstein's Special Relativity theory it is claimed that it violates the principle of relativity itself and that an anomalous sign in the mathematics is found in the factor which transforms one inertial observer's measurements into those of another inertial observer. The apparent source of this error is discussed. Having corrected the error a new theory, called Observational Kinematics, is introduced to replace Einstein's Special Relativity. (U.K.)

  16. Adult head CT scans: the uncertainties of effective dose estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Kent J.; Bibbo, Giovanni; Pattison, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text: CT scanning is a high dose imaging modality. Effective dose estimates from CT scans can provide important information to patients and medical professionals. For example, medical practitioners can use the dose to estimate the risk to the patient, and judge whether this risk is outweighed by the benefits of the CT examination, while radiographers can gauge the effect of different scanning protocols on the patient effective dose, and take this into consideration when establishing routine scan settings. Dose estimates also form an important part of epidemiological studies examining the health effects of medical radiation exposures on the wider population. Medical physicists have been devoting significant effort towards estimating patient radiation doses from diagnostic CT scans for some years. The question arises: How accurate are these effective dose estimates? The need for a greater understanding and improvement of the uncertainties in CT dose estimates is now gaining recognition as an important issue (BEIR VII 2006). This study is an attempt to analyse and quantify the uncertainty components relating to effective dose estimates from adult head CT examinations that are calculated with four commonly used methods. The dose estimation methods analysed are the Nagel method, the ImpaCT method, the Wellhoefer method and the Dose-Length Product (DLP) method. The analysis of the uncertainties was performed in accordance with the International Standards Organisation's Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement as discussed in Gregory et al (Australas. Phys. Eng. Sci. Med., 28: 131-139, 2005). The uncertainty components vary, depending on the method used to derive the effective dose estimate. Uncertainty components in this study include the statistical and other errors from Monte Carlo simulations, uncertainties in the CT settings and positions of patients in the CT gantry, calibration errors from pencil ionization chambers, the variations in the organ

  17. Is Heading in Youth Soccer Dangerous Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, John W

    2016-01-01

    Soccer is among the most popular youth sports with over 3 million youth players registered in the U.S. Soccer is unique in that players intentionally use their head to strike the ball, leading to concerns that heading could cause acute or chronic brain injury, especially in the immature brains of children. Pub Med search without date restriction was conducted in November 2014 and August 2015 using the terms soccer and concussion, heading and concussion, and youth soccer and concussion. 310 articles were identified and reviewed for applicable content specifically relating to youth athletes, heading, and/or acute or chronic brain injury from soccer. Soccer is a low-risk sport for catastrophic head injury, but concussions are relatively common and heading often plays a role. At all levels of play, concussions are more likely to occur in the act of heading than with other facets of the game. While concussion from heading the ball without other contact to the head appears rare in adult players, some data suggests children are more susceptible to concussion from heading primarily in game situations. Contributing factors include biomechanical forces, less developed technique, and the immature brain's susceptibility to injury. There is no evidence that heading in youth soccer causes any permanent brain injury and there is limited evidence that heading in youth soccer can cause concussion. A reasonable approach based on U.S. Youth Soccer recommendations is to teach heading after age 10 in controlled settings, and heading in games should be delayed until skill acquisition and physical maturity allow the youth player to head correctly with confidence.

  18. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  19. Controlling errors in unidosis carts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Díaz Fernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify errors in the unidosis system carts. Method: For two months, the Pharmacy Service controlled medication either returned or missing from the unidosis carts both in the pharmacy and in the wards. Results: Uncorrected unidosis carts show a 0.9% of medication errors (264 versus 0.6% (154 which appeared in unidosis carts previously revised. In carts not revised, the error is 70.83% and mainly caused when setting up unidosis carts. The rest are due to a lack of stock or unavailability (21.6%, errors in the transcription of medical orders (6.81% or that the boxes had not been emptied previously (0.76%. The errors found in the units correspond to errors in the transcription of the treatment (3.46%, non-receipt of the unidosis copy (23.14%, the patient did not take the medication (14.36%or was discharged without medication (12.77%, was not provided by nurses (14.09%, was withdrawn from the stocks of the unit (14.62%, and errors of the pharmacy service (17.56% . Conclusions: It is concluded the need to redress unidosis carts and a computerized prescription system to avoid errors in transcription.Discussion: A high percentage of medication errors is caused by human error. If unidosis carts are overlooked before sent to hospitalization units, the error diminishes to 0.3%.

  20. Detection of patient setup errors with a portal image - DRR registration software application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kenneth; Ishikawa, Masayori; Bengua, Gerard; Ito, Yoichi M; Miyamoto, Yoshiko; Shirato, Hiroki

    2011-02-18

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a custom portal image - digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) registration software application. The software works by transforming the portal image into the coordinate space of the DRR image using three control points placed on each image by the user, and displaying the fused image. In order to test statistically that the software actually improves setup error estimation, an intra- and interobserver phantom study was performed. Portal images of anthropomorphic thoracic and pelvis phantoms with virtually placed irradiation fields at known setup errors were prepared. A group of five doctors was first asked to estimate the setup errors by examining the portal and DRR image side-by-side, not using the software. A second group of four technicians then estimated the same set of images using the registration software. These two groups of human subjects were then compared with an auto-registration feature of the software, which is based on the mutual information between the portal and DRR images. For the thoracic case, the average distance between the actual setup error and the estimated error was 4.3 ± 3.0 mm for doctors using the side-by-side method, 2.1 ± 2.4 mm for technicians using the registration method, and 0.8 ± 0.4mm for the automatic algorithm. For the pelvis case, the average distance between the actual setup error and estimated error was 2.0 ± 0.5 mm for the doctors using the side-by-side method, 2.5 ± 0.4 mm for technicians using the registration method, and 2.0 ± 1.0 mm for the automatic algorithm. The ability of humans to estimate offset values improved statistically using our software for the chest phantom that we tested. Setup error estimation was further improved using our automatic error estimation algorithm. Estimations were not statistically different for the pelvis case. Consistency improved using the software for both the chest and pelvis phantoms. We also tested the automatic algorithm with a

  1. Is it necessary to repeat quality control procedures for head and neck patients?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitine, C.; Leunens, G.; Verstraete, J.; Blanckaert, N.; Van Dam, J.; Dutreix, A.; Van der Schueren, E.

    1991-01-01

    Using serial verification films for detection of localization errors and in vivo measurements of the delivered dose, a comparison was made of information obtained from a single check on the 1st treatment session or from repeated checks in subsequent irradiations, leading to an assess-ment of the predictive value of a single check. A total number of 215 films and 261 entrance dose measurements have been performed on 34 fields for 10 head and neck patients. The patients are immobilized with individual plastic masks fixed on the couch and treated on a 6 MV linac, supplied with an automatic verification system excluding the couch para-meters. The global results show Gaussian frequency distributions with standard deviations of 4 mm for port film measurements and 3.4 percent for the dose measurements. Late errors (>5 mm displacement and >4 per-cent deviation from the expected dose) have been detected in 16 percent in the cranio-caudal direction and 24 percent in the antero-posterior direction with port films and in 15 percent of the in vivo measurements. In order to identify the nature of errors, which can be random or syste-matic, the 1st measurement is taken as the reference value and shows that the consecutive measurements on the same field were reproducible with standard deviations of respectively 2.5 mm and 1.8 percent. This means that a large part of the spread of the global results can be ex-plained by systematic errors in the treatment preparation chain. With the 1st check, 6 out of 10 systematic localization errors and 7 out of 7 systematic errors leading to erroneous dose delivery have been detected. Therefore, most of the systematic errors, which affect the overall quality of the treatment, can be identified with the 1st check. The 4 systematic localization errors, missed with the 1st film, were of rather limited size: only 1 of them showed a mean displacement larger than 7 mm. Because the 1st measurement is an acceptable indication of the over-all quality of

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, ... than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other ... aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor to evaluate your face, sinuses, and ...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Videos related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Sponsored by ...

  6. Errors and violations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reason, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is in three parts. The first part summarizes the human failures responsible for the Chernobyl disaster and argues that, in considering the human contribution to power plant emergencies, it is necessary to distinguish between: errors and violations; and active and latent failures. The second part presents empirical evidence, drawn from driver behavior, which suggest that errors and violations have different psychological origins. The concluding part outlines a resident pathogen view of accident causation, and seeks to identify the various system pathways along which errors and violations may be propagated

  7. Shivering heat production and core cooling during head-in and head-out immersion in 17 degrees C water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Thea; Cahill, Farrell; Kocay, Sheila; Giesbrecht, Gordon G

    2008-05-01

    Many cold-water scenarios cause the head to be partially or fully immersed (e.g., ship wreck survival, scuba diving, cold-water adventure swim racing, cold-water drowning, etc.). However, the specific effects of head cold exposure are minimally understood. This study isolated the effect of whole-head submersion in cold water on surface heat loss and body core cooling when the protective shivering mechanism was intact. Eight healthy men were studied in 17 degrees C water under four conditions: the body was either insulated or exposed, with the head either out of the water or completely submersed under the water within each insulated/exposed subcondition. Submersion of the head (7% of the body surface area) in the body-exposed condition increased total heat loss by 11% (P < 0.05). After 45 min, head-submersion increased core cooling by 343% in the body-insulated subcondition (head-out: 0.13 +/- 0.2 degree C, head-in: 0.47 +/- 0.3 degree C; P < 0.05) and by 56% in the body-exposed subcondition (head-out: 0.40 +/- 0.3 degree C and head-in: 0.73 +/- 0.6 degree C; P < 0.05). In both body-exposed and body-insulated subconditions, head submersion increased the rate of core cooling disproportionally more than the relative increase in total heat loss. This exaggerated core-cooling effect is consistent with a head cooling induced reduction of the thermal core, which could be stimulated by cooling of thermosensitive and/or trigeminal receptors in the scalp, neck, and face. These cooling effects of head submersion are not prevented by shivering heat production.

  8. Per-beam, planar IMRT QA passing rates do not predict clinically relevant patient dose errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelms, Benjamin E.; Zhen Heming; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to determine the statistical correlation between per-beam, planar IMRT QA passing rates and several clinically relevant, anatomy-based dose errors for per-patient IMRT QA. The intent is to assess the predictive power of a common conventional IMRT QA performance metric, the Gamma passing rate per beam. Methods: Ninety-six unique data sets were created by inducing four types of dose errors in 24 clinical head and neck IMRT plans, each planned with 6 MV Varian 120-leaf MLC linear accelerators using a commercial treatment planning system and step-and-shoot delivery. The error-free beams/plans were used as ''simulated measurements'' (for generating the IMRT QA dose planes and the anatomy dose metrics) to compare to the corresponding data calculated by the error-induced plans. The degree of the induced errors was tuned to mimic IMRT QA passing rates that are commonly achieved using conventional methods. Results: Analysis of clinical metrics (parotid mean doses, spinal cord max and D1cc, CTV D95, and larynx mean) vs IMRT QA Gamma analysis (3%/3 mm, 2/2, 1/1) showed that in all cases, there were only weak to moderate correlations (range of Pearson's r-values: -0.295 to 0.653). Moreover, the moderate correlations actually had positive Pearson's r-values (i.e., clinically relevant metric differences increased with increasing IMRT QA passing rate), indicating that some of the largest anatomy-based dose differences occurred in the cases of high IMRT QA passing rates, which may be called ''false negatives.'' The results also show numerous instances of false positives or cases where low IMRT QA passing rates do not imply large errors in anatomy dose metrics. In none of the cases was there correlation consistent with high predictive power of planar IMRT passing rates, i.e., in none of the cases did high IMRT QA Gamma passing rates predict low errors in anatomy dose metrics or vice versa. Conclusions: There is a lack of correlation between

  9. Pigeons (C. livia Follow Their Head during Turning Flight: Head Stabilization Underlies the Visual Control of Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo G. Ros

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Similar flight control principles operate across insect and vertebrate fliers. These principles indicate that robust solutions have evolved to meet complex behavioral challenges. Following from studies of visual and cervical feedback control of flight in insects, we investigate the role of head stabilization in providing feedback cues for controlling turning flight in pigeons. Based on previous observations that the eyes of pigeons remain at relatively fixed orientations within the head during flight, we test potential sensory control inputs derived from head and body movements during 90° aerial turns. We observe that periods of angular head stabilization alternate with rapid head repositioning movements (head saccades, and confirm that control of head motion is decoupled from aerodynamic and inertial forces acting on the bird's continuously rotating body during turning flapping flight. Visual cues inferred from head saccades correlate with changes in flight trajectory; whereas the magnitude of neck bending predicts angular changes in body position. The control of head motion to stabilize a pigeon's gaze may therefore facilitate extraction of important motion cues, in addition to offering mechanisms for controlling body and wing movements. Strong similarities between the sensory flight control of birds and insects may also inspire novel designs of robust controllers for human-engineered autonomous aerial vehicles.

  10. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-18

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Cancer; Head and Neck Sarcoma; Paraganglioma of Head and Neck; Chordoma of Head and Neck; Chondrosarcoma of Head and Neck; Angiofibroma of Head and Neck

  11. Imagery of Errors in Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Martina; Martinez, Fanny; Wenke, Dorit

    2011-01-01

    Using a typing task we investigated whether insufficient imagination of errors and error corrections is related to duration differences between execution and imagination. In Experiment 1 spontaneous error imagination was investigated, whereas in Experiment 2 participants were specifically instructed to imagine errors. Further, in Experiment 2 we…

  12. Protective head of sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liska, K.; Anton, P.

    1987-01-01

    The discovery concerns the protective heads of diagnostic assemblies of nuclear power plants for conductors of the sensors from the fuel and control parts of the said assemblies. A detailed description is presented of the design of the protective head which, as compared with the previous design, allows quick and simple assembly with reduced risk of damaging the sensors. The protective head may be used for diagnostic assemblies both in power and in research reactors and it will be used for WWER reactor assemblies. (A.K.). 3 figs

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  14. Modular reactor head shielding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, E. B.

    1985-01-01

    An improved modular reactor head shielding system is provided that includes a frame which is removably assembled on a reactor head such that no structural or mechanical alteration of the head is required. The shielding system also includes hanging assemblies to mount flexible shielding pads on trolleys which can be moved along the frame. The assemblies allow individual pivoting movement of the pads. The pivoting movement along with the movement allowed by the trolleys provides ease of access to any point on the reactor head. The assemblies also facilitate safe and efficient mounting of the pads directly to and from storage containers such that workers have additional shielding throughout virtually the entire installation and removal process. The flexible shielding pads are designed to interleave with one another when assembled around the reactor head for substantially improved containment of radiation leakage

  15. Magnetic Nanoparticle Thermometer: An Investigation of Minimum Error Transmission Path and AC Bias Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongzhou Du

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The signal transmission module of a magnetic nanoparticle thermometer (MNPT was established in this study to analyze the error sources introduced during the signal flow in the hardware system. The underlying error sources that significantly affected the precision of the MNPT were determined through mathematical modeling and simulation. A transfer module path with the minimum error in the hardware system was then proposed through the analysis of the variations of the system error caused by the significant error sources when the signal flew through the signal transmission module. In addition, a system parameter, named the signal-to-AC bias ratio (i.e., the ratio between the signal and AC bias, was identified as a direct determinant of the precision of the measured temperature. The temperature error was below 0.1 K when the signal-to-AC bias ratio was higher than 80 dB, and other system errors were not considered. The temperature error was below 0.1 K in the experiments with a commercial magnetic fluid (Sample SOR-10, Ocean Nanotechnology, Springdale, AR, USA when the hardware system of the MNPT was designed with the aforementioned method.

  16. Multi-headed comparatives in Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Marques

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at offering a global picture of the subtype of comparative constructions known as ‘multi-headed comparatives’ (from the fact that they exhibit more than one comparative operator in semantic interdependence. As a prerequisite to the fulfilment of his goal, an attempt will be made to clarify the scope of the notion ‘comparative construction’ and to draw a general typology of such constructions. The boundaries of the notion ‘comparative construction’ are defined by contrasting a “genuine” class of comparative constructions with others that hold some syntactic or semantic resemblance to them. Different typologies will be taken into consideration. As for multi-headed comparatives, even though different examples of these constructions have been identified in the scarce literature on the matter, the discussion on their syntactic patterns and meaning is still embryonic. This paper suggests that the expressive power of these comparatives, which seem to provide a particular strategy of information compression, is higher than has been assumed. Four sub-kinds of multi-headed comparatives are identified, based on meaning differences, namely: multi-headed comparatives with a distributive reading, multi-headed comparatives with a cumulative reading, multi-headed comparatives with a comparison of ‘ratios’ reading, and multi-headed comparatives with a comparison of differences reading. While resorting to some classic English examples, the object language will predominantly be Portuguese.

  17. Prioritising interventions against medication errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisby, Marianne; Pape-Larsen, Louise; Sørensen, Ann Lykkegaard

    errors are therefore needed. Development of definition: A definition of medication errors including an index of error types for each stage in the medication process was developed from existing terminology and through a modified Delphi-process in 2008. The Delphi panel consisted of 25 interdisciplinary......Abstract Authors: Lisby M, Larsen LP, Soerensen AL, Nielsen LP, Mainz J Title: Prioritising interventions against medication errors – the importance of a definition Objective: To develop and test a restricted definition of medication errors across health care settings in Denmark Methods: Medication...... errors constitute a major quality and safety problem in modern healthcare. However, far from all are clinically important. The prevalence of medication errors ranges from 2-75% indicating a global problem in defining and measuring these [1]. New cut-of levels focusing the clinical impact of medication...

  18. [Duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection and pancreatic head resection with segmental duodenostomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Tadahiro; Yasuda, Hideki; Nagashima, Ikuo; Amano, Hodaka; Yoshiada, Masahiro; Toyota, Naoyuki

    2003-06-01

    A duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) was first reported by Beger et al. in 1980. However, its application has been limited to chronic pancreatitis because of it is a subtotal pancreatic head resection. In 1990, we reported duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection (DPTPHR) in 26 cases. This opened the way for total pancreatic head resection, expanding the application of this approach to tumorigenic morbidities such as intraductal papillary mucinous tumor (IMPT), other benign tumors, and small pancreatic cancers. On the other hand, Nakao et al. reported pancreatic head resection with segmental duodenectomy (PHRSD) as an alternative pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy technique in 24 cases. Hirata et al. also reported this technique as a new pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenostomy with increased vessel preservation. When performing DPTPHR, the surgeon should ensure adequate duodenal blood supply. Avoidance of duodenal ischemia is very important in this operation, and thus it is necessary to maintain blood flow in the posterior pancreatoduodenal artery and to preserve the mesoduodenal vessels. Postoperative pancreatic functional tests reveal that DPTPHR is superior to PPPD, including PHSRD, because the entire duodenum and duodenal integrity is very important for postoperative pancreatic function.

  19. Validation and calibration of HeadCount, a self-report measure for quantifying heading exposure in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenaccio, E; Caccese, J; Wakschlag, N; Fleysher, R; Kim, N; Kim, M; Buckley, T A; Stewart, W F; Lipton, R B; Kaminski, T; Lipton, M L

    2016-01-01

    The long-term effects of repetitive head impacts due to heading are an area of increasing concern, and exposure must be accurately measured; however, the validity of self-report of cumulative soccer heading is not known. In order to validate HeadCount, a 2-week recall questionnaire, the number of player-reported headers was compared to the number of headers observed by trained raters for a men's and a women's collegiate soccer teams during an entire season of competitive play using Spearman's correlations and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and calibrated using a generalized estimating equation. The average Spearman's rho was 0.85 for men and 0.79 for women. The average ICC was 0.75 in men and 0.38 in women. The calibration analysis demonstrated that men tend to report heading accurately while women tend to overestimate. HeadCount is a valid instrument for tracking heading behaviour, but may have to be calibrated in women.

  20. Learning from Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Janet

    2017-01-01

    Although error avoidance during learning appears to be the rule in American classrooms, laboratory studies suggest that it may be a counterproductive strategy, at least for neurologically typical students. Experimental investigations indicate that errorful learning followed by corrective feedback is beneficial to learning. Interestingly, the…

  1. Error-information in tutorial documentation: Supporting users' errors to facilitate initial skill learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazonder, Adrianus W.; van der Meij, Hans

    1995-01-01

    Novice users make many errors when they first try to learn how to work with a computer program like a spreadsheet or wordprocessor. No matter how user-friendly the software or the training manual, errors can and will occur. The current view on errors is that they can be helpful or disruptive,

  2. Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck: poorer prognosis than non-head and neck sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, G B; Madana, J; Da Silva, S D; Hier, M P; Mlynarek, A M; Black, M J

    2016-04-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare, aggressive neurocutaneous malignancy. This study investigated whether patients with Merkel cell carcinoma in the head and neck had poorer outcomes than patients with Merkel cell carcinoma located elsewhere. A retrospective study was performed of patients with Merkel cell carcinoma treated at the Jewish General Hospital in Montréal, Canada, from 1993 to 2013. Associations between clinicopathological characteristics and disease-free and disease-specific survival rates were examined according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Twenty-seven patients were identified. Although basic clinicopathological characteristics and treatments were similar between head and neck and non-head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma groups, disease-free and disease-specific survival rates were significantly lower in the head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma group (log-rank test; p = 0.043 and p = 0.001, respectively). Mortality was mainly due to distant metastasis. Patients with head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma had poorer survival rates than patients with non-head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma in our study. The tendency to obtain close margins, a less predictable metastatic pattern, and/or intrinsic tumour factors related to the head and neck may explain this discrepancy.

  3. AHP 47: YELLOW-HEAD HORSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangs rgyas bkra shis སངས་རྒྱས་བཀྲ་ཤིས།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available My family had a stallion we called Rta mgo ser 'Yellow-Head Horse'. Father and two of his brothers occasionally rode it. Father said that Yellow-Head was very wild when it was taken to join local horseraces. I didn't believe that because Yellow-Head was very gentle when Mother rode it to the local monastery and also when I rode it.

  4. Medication error detection in two major teaching hospitals: What are the types of errors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Saghafi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing number of reports on medication errors and relevant subsequent damages, especially in medical centers has become a growing concern for patient safety in recent decades. Patient safety and in particular, medication safety is a major concern and challenge for health care professionals around the world. Our prospective study was designed to detect prescribing, transcribing, dispensing, and administering medication errors in two major university hospitals. Materials and Methods: After choosing 20 similar hospital wards in two large teaching hospitals in the city of Isfahan, Iran, the sequence was randomly selected. Diagrams for drug distribution were drawn by the help of pharmacy directors. Direct observation technique was chosen as the method for detecting the errors. A total of 50 doses were studied in each ward to detect prescribing, transcribing and administering errors in each ward. The dispensing error was studied on 1000 doses dispensed in each hospital pharmacy. Results: A total of 8162 number of doses of medications were studied during the four stages, of which 8000 were complete data to be analyzed. 73% of prescribing orders were incomplete and did not have all six parameters (name, dosage form, dose and measuring unit, administration route, and intervals of administration. We found 15% transcribing errors. One-third of administration of medications on average was erroneous in both hospitals. Dispensing errors ranged between 1.4% and 2.2%. Conclusion: Although prescribing and administrating compromise most of the medication errors, improvements are needed in all four stages with regard to medication errors. Clear guidelines must be written and executed in both hospitals to reduce the incidence of medication errors.

  5. A practical head tracking system for motion correction in neurological SPECT and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, R.R.; Eberl, S.; Meikle, S.; Hutton, B.F.; Braun, M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Patient motion during data acquisition can degrade the quality of SPECT and PET images. Techniques for motion correction in neurological studies in both modalities based on continuous monitoring of head position have been proposed. However difficulties in developing suitable head tracking systems have so far impeded clinical implementations. We have developed a head tracking system based on the mechanical ADL-1 tracker (Shooting Star Technology, Rosedale, Canada) on a Trionix triple-head SPECT camera A software driver running on a SUN Sparc host computer communicates with the tracker over a serial line providing up to 300 updates per second with angular and positional resolutions of 0.05 degrees and 0.2 mm respectively. The SUN Sparc workstation which acquires the SPECT study also communicates with the tracker, eliminating synchronisation problems. For motion correction, the motion parameters provided by the tracker within its own coordinate system must be converted to the camera's coordinate system. The conversion requires knowledge of the rotational relationships between the two coordinate systems and the displacement of their origins, both of which are determined from a calibration procedure. The tracker has been tested under clinical SPECT imaging conditions with a 3D Hoffman brain phantom. Multiple SPECT acquisitions were performed. After each acquisition the phantom was moved to a new position and orientation. Motion parameters reported by the tracker for each applied movement were compared with those obtained by applying an automated image registration program to the sequential reconstructed studies. Maximum differences were < 0.5 degrees and < 2mm, within the expected errors of the registration procedure. We conclude that this tracking system will be suitable for clinical evaluation of motion correction in SPECT and PET

  6. Systematic biases in human heading estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi F Cuturi

    Full Text Available Heading estimation is vital to everyday navigation and locomotion. Despite extensive behavioral and physiological research on both visual and vestibular heading estimation over more than two decades, the accuracy of heading estimation has not yet been systematically evaluated. Therefore human visual and vestibular heading estimation was assessed in the horizontal plane using a motion platform and stereo visual display. Heading angle was overestimated during forward movements and underestimated during backward movements in response to both visual and vestibular stimuli, indicating an overall multimodal bias toward lateral directions. Lateral biases are consistent with the overrepresentation of lateral preferred directions observed in neural populations that carry visual and vestibular heading information, including MSTd and otolith afferent populations. Due to this overrepresentation, population vector decoding yields patterns of bias remarkably similar to those observed behaviorally. Lateral biases are inconsistent with standard bayesian accounts which predict that estimates should be biased toward the most common straight forward heading direction. Nevertheless, lateral biases may be functionally relevant. They effectively constitute a perceptual scale expansion around straight ahead which could allow for more precise estimation and provide a high gain feedback signal to facilitate maintenance of straight-forward heading during everyday navigation and locomotion.

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment ... story here Images × Image Gallery Patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content ...

  8. Social aspects of clinical errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Joel; Mason, Tom; Mason-Whitehead, Elizabeth; McIntosh, Annette; Mercer, Dave

    2009-08-01

    Clinical errors, whether committed by doctors, nurses or other professions allied to healthcare, remain a sensitive issue requiring open debate and policy formulation in order to reduce them. The literature suggests that the issues underpinning errors made by healthcare professionals involve concerns about patient safety, professional disclosure, apology, litigation, compensation, processes of recording and policy development to enhance quality service. Anecdotally, we are aware of narratives of minor errors, which may well have been covered up and remain officially undisclosed whilst the major errors resulting in damage and death to patients alarm both professionals and public with resultant litigation and compensation. This paper attempts to unravel some of these issues by highlighting the historical nature of clinical errors and drawing parallels to contemporary times by outlining the 'compensation culture'. We then provide an overview of what constitutes a clinical error and review the healthcare professional strategies for managing such errors.

  9. Passive quantum error correction of linear optics networks through error averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshman, Ryan J.; Lund, Austin P.; Rohde, Peter P.; Ralph, Timothy C.

    2018-02-01

    We propose and investigate a method of error detection and noise correction for bosonic linear networks using a method of unitary averaging. The proposed error averaging does not rely on ancillary photons or control and feedforward correction circuits, remaining entirely passive in its operation. We construct a general mathematical framework for this technique and then give a series of proof of principle examples including numerical analysis. Two methods for the construction of averaging are then compared to determine the most effective manner of implementation and probe the related error thresholds. Finally we discuss some of the potential uses of this scheme.

  10. Apologies and Medical Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    One way in which physicians can respond to a medical error is to apologize. Apologies—statements that acknowledge an error and its consequences, take responsibility, and communicate regret for having caused harm—can decrease blame, decrease anger, increase trust, and improve relationships. Importantly, apologies also have the potential to decrease the risk of a medical malpractice lawsuit and can help settle claims by patients. Patients indicate they want and expect explanations and apologies after medical errors and physicians indicate they want to apologize. However, in practice, physicians tend to provide minimal information to patients after medical errors and infrequently offer complete apologies. Although fears about potential litigation are the most commonly cited barrier to apologizing after medical error, the link between litigation risk and the practice of disclosure and apology is tenuous. Other barriers might include the culture of medicine and the inherent psychological difficulties in facing one’s mistakes and apologizing for them. Despite these barriers, incorporating apology into conversations between physicians and patients can address the needs of both parties and can play a role in the effective resolution of disputes related to medical error. PMID:18972177

  11. Errors in Neonatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Boldrini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Danger and errors are inherent in human activities. In medical practice errors can lean to adverse events for patients. Mass media echo the whole scenario. Methods: We reviewed recent published papers in PubMed database to focus on the evidence and management of errors in medical practice in general and in Neonatology in particular. We compared the results of the literature with our specific experience in Nina Simulation Centre (Pisa, Italy. Results: In Neonatology the main error domains are: medication and total parenteral nutrition, resuscitation and respiratory care, invasive procedures, nosocomial infections, patient identification, diagnostics. Risk factors include patients’ size, prematurity, vulnerability and underlying disease conditions but also multidisciplinary teams, working conditions providing fatigue, a large variety of treatment and investigative modalities needed. Discussion and Conclusions: In our opinion, it is hardly possible to change the human beings but it is likely possible to change the conditions under they work. Voluntary errors report systems can help in preventing adverse events. Education and re-training by means of simulation can be an effective strategy too. In Pisa (Italy Nina (ceNtro di FormazIone e SimulazioNe NeonAtale is a simulation center that offers the possibility of a continuous retraining for technical and non-technical skills to optimize neonatological care strategies. Furthermore, we have been working on a novel skill trainer for mechanical ventilation (MEchatronic REspiratory System SImulator for Neonatal Applications, MERESSINA. Finally, in our opinion national health policy indirectly influences risk for errors. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  12. Head-up and head-down displays integration in automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur, J. Alejandro; Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Agudelo, J. David

    2014-06-01

    In automotive industry, the dashboard has been ergonomically developed in order to keep the driver focused on the horizon while driving, but the possibility to access external electronic devices constraints the driver to turn away his face, generating dangerous situations in spite of the short periods of time. Therefore, this work explores the integration of Head-Up Displays and Head-Down Displays in automobiles, proposing configurations that give to drivers the facility to driving focused. In this way, some of the main ergonomic comments about those configurations are proposed; and also, some technical comments regarding the implemented arrangements are given.

  13. Human errors and mistakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.

    1993-01-01

    Human errors have a major contribution to the risks for industrial accidents. Accidents have provided important lesson making it possible to build safer systems. In avoiding human errors it is necessary to adapt the systems to their operators. The complexity of modern industrial systems is however increasing the danger of system accidents. Models of the human operator have been proposed, but the models are not able to give accurate predictions of human performance. Human errors can never be eliminated, but their frequency can be decreased by systematic efforts. The paper gives a brief summary of research in human error and it concludes with suggestions for further work. (orig.)

  14. Error-related potentials during continuous feedback: using EEG to detect errors of different type and severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spüler, Martin; Niethammer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    When a person recognizes an error during a task, an error-related potential (ErrP) can be measured as response. It has been shown that ErrPs can be automatically detected in tasks with time-discrete feedback, which is widely applied in the field of Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) for error correction or adaptation. However, there are only a few studies that concentrate on ErrPs during continuous feedback. With this study, we wanted to answer three different questions: (i) Can ErrPs be measured in electroencephalography (EEG) recordings during a task with continuous cursor control? (ii) Can ErrPs be classified using machine learning methods and is it possible to discriminate errors of different origins? (iii) Can we use EEG to detect the severity of an error? To answer these questions, we recorded EEG data from 10 subjects during a video game task and investigated two different types of error (execution error, due to inaccurate feedback; outcome error, due to not achieving the goal of an action). We analyzed the recorded data to show that during the same task, different kinds of error produce different ErrP waveforms and have a different spectral response. This allows us to detect and discriminate errors of different origin in an event-locked manner. By utilizing the error-related spectral response, we show that also a continuous, asynchronous detection of errors is possible. Although the detection of error severity based on EEG was one goal of this study, we did not find any significant influence of the severity on the EEG. PMID:25859204

  15. Error-related potentials during continuous feedback: using EEG to detect errors of different type and severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eSpüler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available When a person recognizes an error during a task, an error-related potential (ErrP can be measured as response. It has been shown that ErrPs can be automatically detected in tasks with time-discrete feedback, which is widely applied in the field of Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs for error correction or adaptation. However, there are only a few studies that concentrate on ErrPs during continuous feedback.With this study, we wanted to answer three different questions: (i Can ErrPs be measured in electroencephalography (EEG recordings during a task with continuous cursor control? (ii Can ErrPs be classified using machine learning methods and is it possible to discriminate errors of different origins? (iii Can we use EEG to detect the severity of an error? To answer these questions, we recorded EEG data from 10 subjects during a video game task and investigated two different types of error (execution error, due to inaccurate feedback; outcome error, due to not achieving the goal of an action. We analyzed the recorded data to show that during the same task, different kinds of error produce different ErrP waveforms and have a different spectral response. This allows us to detect and discriminate errors of different origin in an event-locked manner. By utilizing the error-related spectral response, we show that also a continuous, asynchronous detection of errors is possible.Although the detection of error severity based on EEG was one goal of this study, we did not find any significant influence of the severity on the EEG.

  16. Defining and Verifying Research Grade Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM) Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W. E.; Shrestha, R. L.; Slatton, C. C.

    2004-12-01

    The first and primary goal of the National Science Foundation (NSF) supported Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM), operated jointly by the University of Florida and the University of California, Berkeley, is to make "research grade" ALSM data widely available at affordable cost to the national scientific community. Cost aside, researchers need to know what NCALM considers research grade data and how the quality of the data is verified, to be able to determine the likelihood that the data they receive will meet their project specific requirements. Given the current state of the technology it is reasonable to expect a well planned and executed survey to produce surface elevations with uncertainties less than 10 centimeters and horizontal uncertainties of a few decimeters. Various components of the total error are generally associated with the aircraft trajectory, aircraft orientation, or laser vectors. Aircraft trajectory error is dependent largely on the Global Positioning System (GPS) observations, aircraft orientation on Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) observations, and laser vectors on the scanning and ranging instrumentation. In addition to the issue of the precision or accuracy of the coordinates of the surface points, consideration must also be given to the point-to-point spacing and voids in the coverage. The major sources of error produce distinct artifacts in the data set. For example, aircraft trajectory errors tend to change slowly as the satellite constellation geometry varies, producing slopes within swaths and offsets between swaths. Roll, pitch and yaw biases in the IMU observations tend to persist through whole flights, and created distinctive artifacts in the swath overlap areas. Errors in the zero-point and scale of the laser scanner cause the edges of swaths to turn up or down. Range walk errors cause offsets between bright and dark surfaces, causing paint stripes to float above the dark surfaces of roads. The three keys to producing

  17. Deductive Error Diagnosis and Inductive Error Generalization for Intelligent Tutoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, H. Ulrich

    1994-01-01

    Examines the deductive approach to error diagnosis for intelligent tutoring systems. Topics covered include the principles of the deductive approach to diagnosis; domain-specific heuristics to solve the problem of generalizing error patterns; and deductive diagnosis and the hypertext-based learning environment. (Contains 26 references.) (JLB)

  18. HEAD MOVEMENT DURING WALKING IN THE CAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZUBAIR, HUMZA N.; BELOOZEROVA, IRINA N.; SUN, HAI; MARLINSKI, VLADIMIR

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of how the head moves during locomotion is essential for understanding how locomotion is controlled by sensory systems of the head. We have analyzed head movements of the cat walking along a straight flat pathway in the darkness and light. We found that cats' head left-right translations, and roll and yaw rotations oscillated once per stride, while fore-aft and vertical translations, and pitch rotations oscillated twice. The head reached its highest vertical positions during second half of each forelimb swing, following maxima of the shoulder/trunk by 20–90°. Nose-up rotation followed head upward translation by another 40–90° delay. The peak-to-peak amplitude of vertical translation was ~1.5 cm and amplitude of pitch rotation was ~3°. Amplitudes of lateral translation and roll rotation were ~1 cm and 1.5–3°, respectively. Overall, cats' heads were neutral in roll and 10–30° nose-down, maintaining horizontal semicircular canals and utriculi within 10° of the earth horizontal. The head longitudinal velocity was 0.5–1 m/s, maximal upward and downward linear velocities were ~0.05 and ~0.1 m/s, respectively, and maximal lateral velocity was ~0.05 m/s. Maximal velocities of head pitch rotation were 20–50 °/s. During walking in light, cats stood 0.3–0.5 cm taller and held their head 0.5–2 cm higher than in darkness. Forward acceleration was 25–100% higher and peak-to-peak amplitude of head pitch oscillations was ~20 °/s larger. We concluded that, during walking, the head of the cat is held actively. Reflexes appear to play only a partial role in determining head movement, and vision might further diminish their role. PMID:27339731

  19. Errorful and errorless learning: The impact of cue-target constraint in learning from errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, Emma K; Mecklinger, Axel

    2014-08-01

    The benefits of testing on learning are well described, and attention has recently turned to what happens when errors are elicited during learning: Is testing nonetheless beneficial, or can errors hinder learning? Whilst recent findings have indicated that tests boost learning even if errors are made on every trial, other reports, emphasizing the benefits of errorless learning, have indicated that errors lead to poorer later memory performance. The possibility that this discrepancy is a function of the materials that must be learned-in particular, the relationship between the cues and targets-was addressed here. Cued recall after either a study-only errorless condition or an errorful learning condition was contrasted across cue-target associations, for which the extent to which the target was constrained by the cue was either high or low. Experiment 1 showed that whereas errorful learning led to greater recall for low-constraint stimuli, it led to a significant decrease in recall for high-constraint stimuli. This interaction is thought to reflect the extent to which retrieval is constrained by the cue-target association, as well as by the presence of preexisting semantic associations. The advantage of errorful retrieval for low-constraint stimuli was replicated in Experiment 2, and the interaction with stimulus type was replicated in Experiment 3, even when guesses were randomly designated as being either correct or incorrect. This pattern provides support for inferences derived from reports in which participants made errors on all learning trials, whilst highlighting the impact of material characteristics on the benefits and disadvantages that accrue from errorful learning in episodic memory.

  20. Decoding of DBEC-TBED Reed-Solomon codes. [Double-Byte-Error-Correcting, Triple-Byte-Error-Detecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Robert H.; Costello, Daniel J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A problem in designing semiconductor memories is to provide some measure of error control without requiring excessive coding overhead or decoding time. In LSI and VLSI technology, memories are often organized on a multiple bit (or byte) per chip basis. For example, some 256 K bit DRAM's are organized in 32 K x 8 bit-bytes. Byte-oriented codes such as Reed-Solomon (RS) codes can provide efficient low overhead error control for such memories. However, the standard iterative algorithm for decoding RS codes is too slow for these applications. The paper presents a special decoding technique for double-byte-error-correcting, triple-byte-error-detecting RS codes which is capable of high-speed operation. This technique is designed to find the error locations and the error values directly from the syndrome without having to use the iterative algorithm to find the error locator polynomial.

  1. High cortisol awakening response is associated with impaired error monitoring and decreased post-error adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Duan, Hongxia; Qin, Shaozheng; Yuan, Yiran; Buchanan, Tony W; Zhang, Kan; Wu, Jianhui

    2015-01-01

    The cortisol awakening response (CAR), a rapid increase in cortisol levels following morning awakening, is an important aspect of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity. Alterations in the CAR have been linked to a variety of mental disorders and cognitive function. However, little is known regarding the relationship between the CAR and error processing, a phenomenon that is vital for cognitive control and behavioral adaptation. Using high-temporal resolution measures of event-related potentials (ERPs) combined with behavioral assessment of error processing, we investigated whether and how the CAR is associated with two key components of error processing: error detection and subsequent behavioral adjustment. Sixty university students performed a Go/No-go task while their ERPs were recorded. Saliva samples were collected at 0, 15, 30 and 60 min after awakening on the two consecutive days following ERP data collection. The results showed that a higher CAR was associated with slowed latency of the error-related negativity (ERN) and a higher post-error miss rate. The CAR was not associated with other behavioral measures such as the false alarm rate and the post-correct miss rate. These findings suggest that high CAR is a biological factor linked to impairments of multiple steps of error processing in healthy populations, specifically, the automatic detection of error and post-error behavioral adjustment. A common underlying neural mechanism of physiological and cognitive control may be crucial for engaging in both CAR and error processing.

  2. Learning from Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Lendita Kryeziu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available “Errare humanum est”, a well known and widespread Latin proverb which states that: to err is human, and that people make mistakes all the time. However, what counts is that people must learn from mistakes. On these grounds Steve Jobs stated: “Sometimes when you innovate, you make mistakes. It is best to admit them quickly, and get on with improving your other innovations.” Similarly, in learning new language, learners make mistakes, thus it is important to accept them, learn from them, discover the reason why they make them, improve and move on. The significance of studying errors is described by Corder as: “There have always been two justifications proposed for the study of learners' errors: the pedagogical justification, namely that a good understanding of the nature of error is necessary before a systematic means of eradicating them could be found, and the theoretical justification, which claims that a study of learners' errors is part of the systematic study of the learners' language which is itself necessary to an understanding of the process of second language acquisition” (Corder, 1982; 1. Thus the importance and the aim of this paper is analyzing errors in the process of second language acquisition and the way we teachers can benefit from mistakes to help students improve themselves while giving the proper feedback.

  3. In vitro cytotoxicity of chemical preservatives on human fibroblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gonsales Spindola

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Preservatives are widely used substances that are commonly added to various cosmetic and pharmaceutical products to prevent or inhibit microbial growth. In this study, we compared the in vitro cytotoxicity of different types of currently used preservatives, including methylparaben, imidazolidinyl urea (IMU, and sodium benzoate, using the human newborn fibroblast cell line CCD1072Sk. Of the tested preservatives, only IMU induced a reduction in cell viability, as shown using the MTT assay and propidium iodide staining (IMU>methylparaben>sodium benzoate. IMU was shown to promote homeostatic alterations potentially related to the initiation of programed cell death, such as decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase-3 activation, in the treated cells. Methylparaben and sodium benzoate were shown to have a very low cytotoxic activity. Taken together, our results suggest that IMU induces programed cell death in human fibroblasts by a canonical intrinsic pathway via mitochondrial perturbation and subsequent release of proapoptotic factors.

  4. Clinical study of the image fusion between CT and FDG-PET in the head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shozushima, Masanori; Moriguchi, Hitoshi; Shoji, Satoru; Sakamaki, Kimio; Ishikawa, Yoshihito; Kudo, Keigo; Satoh, Masanobu

    1999-01-01

    Image fusion using PET and CT from the head and neck region was performed with the use of external markers on 7 patients with squamous cell carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to examine a resultant error and the clinical usefulness of image fusion. Patients had primary lesions of the tongue, the maxillary gingiva or the maxillary sinus. All patients underwent PET with FDG and CT to detect tumor sites. Of these 7 patients, diagnostic images and the clinical observation found 6 cases of regional lymph node metastasis of the neck. To ensure the anatomical detail of the PET images, small radioactive markers were placed on the philtrum and below both earlobes. The PET image and CT image were then overlapped on a computer. The image fusion of PET and CT was successfully performed on all patients. The superposition error of this method was examined between the PET and CT images. The accuracy of fit measured as the mean distance between the PET and CT image was in the range of 2-5 mm. PET-CT superimposed images produced an increase in the localization of tumor FDG uptake and localized FDG uptake on the palatine tonsils. The marker system described here for the alignment of PET and CT images can be used on a routine basis without the invasive fixation of external markers, and also improve the management and follow up on patients with head and neck carcinoma. (author)

  5. Visual perception of axes of head rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldussen, D. M.; Goossens, J.; van den Berg, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Registration of ego-motion is important to accurately navigate through space. Movements of the head and eye relative to space are registered through the vestibular system and optical flow, respectively. Here, we address three questions concerning the visual registration of self-rotation. (1) Eye-in-head movements provide a link between the motion signals received by sensors in the moving eye and sensors in the moving head. How are these signals combined into an ego-rotation percept? We combined optic flow of simulated forward and rotational motion of the eye with different levels of eye-in-head rotation for a stationary head. We dissociated simulated gaze rotation and head rotation by different levels of eye-in-head pursuit. We found that perceived rotation matches simulated head- not gaze-rotation. This rejects a model for perceived self-rotation that relies on the rotation of the gaze line. Rather, eye-in-head signals serve to transform the optic flow's rotation information, that specifies rotation of the scene relative to the eye, into a rotation relative to the head. This suggests that transformed visual self-rotation signals may combine with vestibular signals. (2) Do transformed visual self-rotation signals reflect the arrangement of the semi-circular canals (SCC)? Previously, we found sub-regions within MST and V6+ that respond to the speed of the simulated head rotation. Here, we re-analyzed those Blood oxygenated level-dependent (BOLD) signals for the presence of a spatial dissociation related to the axes of visually simulated head rotation, such as have been found in sub-cortical regions of various animals. Contrary, we found a rather uniform BOLD response to simulated rotation along the three SCC axes. (3) We investigated if subject's sensitivity to the direction of the head rotation axis shows SCC axes specifcity. We found that sensitivity to head rotation is rather uniformly distributed, suggesting that in human cortex, visuo-vestibular integration is

  6. Visual perception of axes of head rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mattijs Arnoldussen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Registration of ego-motion is important to accurately navigate through space. Movements of the head and eye relative to space are registered through the vestibular system and optical flow, respectively. Here, we address three questions concerning the visual registration of self-rotation. 1. Eye-in-head movements provide a link between the motion signals received by sensors in the moving eye and sensors in the moving head. How are these signals combined into an ego-rotation percept? We combined optic flow of simulated forward and rotational motion of the eye with different levels of eye-in-head rotation for a stationary head. We dissociated simulated gaze rotation and head rotation by different levels of eye-in-head pursuit.We found that perceived rotation matches simulated head- not gaze-rotation. This rejects a model for perceived self-rotation that relies on the rotation of the gaze line. Rather, eye-in-head signals serve to transform the optic flow’s rotation information, that specifies rotation of the scene relative to the eye, into a rotation relative to the head. This suggests that transformed visual self-rotation signals may combine with vestibular signals.2. Do transformed visual self-rotation signals reflect the arrangement of the semicircular canals (SCC? Previously, we found sub-regions within MST and V6+ that respond to the speed of the simulated head rotation. Here, we re-analyzed those BOLD signals for the presence of a spatial dissociation related to the axes of visually simulated head rotation, such as have been found in sub-cortical regions of various animals. Contrary, we found a rather uniform BOLD response to simulated rotation along the three SCC axes.3. We investigated if subject’s sensitivity to the direction of the head rotation axis shows SCC axes specifcity. We found that sensitivity to head rotation is rather uniformly distributed, suggesting that in human cortex, visuo-vestibular integration is not arranged into

  7. Automated recognition of rear seat occupants' head position using Kinect™ 3D point cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Helen; Kim, Jinyong; Arbogast, Kristy; Kuo, Jonny; Koppel, Sjaan; Cross, Suzanne; Charlton, Judith

    2017-12-01

    Child occupant safety in motor-vehicle crashes is evaluated using Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) seated in optimal positions. However, child occupants often assume suboptimal positions during real-world driving trips. Head impact to the seat back has been identified as one important injury causation scenario for seat belt restrained, head-injured children (Bohman et al., 2011). There is therefore a need to understand the interaction of children with the Child Restraint System to optimize protection. Naturalistic driving studies (NDS) will improve understanding of out-of-position (OOP) trends. To quantify OOP positions, an NDS was conducted. Families used a study vehicle for two weeks during their everyday driving trips. The positions of rear-seated child occupants, representing 22 families, were evaluated. The study vehicle - instrumented with data acquisition systems, including Microsoft Kinect™ V1 - recorded rear seat occupants in 1120 driving 26 trips. Three novel analytical methods were used to analyze data. To assess skeletal tracking accuracy, analysts recorded occurrences where Kinect™ exhibited invalid head recognition among a randomly-selected subset (81 trips). Errors included incorrect target detection (e.g., vehicle headrest) or environmental interference (e.g., sunlight). When head data was present, Kinect™ was correct 41% of the time; two other algorithms - filtering for extreme motion, and background subtraction/head-based depth detection are described in this paper and preliminary results are presented. Accuracy estimates were not possible because of their experimental nature and the difficulty to use a ground truth for this large database. This NDS tested methods to quantify the frequency and magnitude of head positions for rear-seated child occupants utilizing Kinect™ motion-tracking. This study's results informed recent ATD sled tests that replicated observed positions (most common and most extreme), and assessed the validity of child

  8. Boxing-related head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarao, Mayur; Chin, Lawrence S; Cantu, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    Fatalities in boxing are most often due to traumatic brain injury that occurs in the ring. In the past 30 years, significant improvements in ringside and medical equipment, safety, and regulations have resulted in a dramatic reduction in the fatality rate. Nonetheless, the rate of boxing-related head injuries, particularly concussions, remains unknown, due in large part to its variability in clinical presentation. Furthermore, the significance of repeat concussions sustained when boxing is just now being understood. In this article, we identify the clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and management of boxing-related head injuries, and discuss preventive strategies to reduce head injuries sustained by boxers.

  9. Putting into practice error management theory: Unlearning and learning to manage action errors in construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Peter E D; Smith, Jim; Teo, Pauline

    2018-05-01

    Error management theory is drawn upon to examine how a project-based organization, which took the form of a program alliance, was able to change its established error prevention mindset to one that enacted a learning mindfulness that provided an avenue to curtail its action errors. The program alliance was required to unlearn its existing routines and beliefs to accommodate the practices required to embrace error management. As a result of establishing an error management culture the program alliance was able to create a collective mindfulness that nurtured learning and supported innovation. The findings provide a much-needed context to demonstrate the relevance of error management theory to effectively address rework and safety problems in construction projects. The robust theoretical underpinning that is grounded in practice and presented in this paper provides a mechanism to engender learning from errors, which can be utilized by construction organizations to improve the productivity and performance of their projects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.